The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
An intracellular signaling adaptor protein that plays a role in TOLL-LIKE RECEPTOR and INTERLEUKIN 1 RECEPTORS signal transduction. It forms a signaling complex with the activated cell surface receptors and members of the IRAK KINASES.
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.
A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.
Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Signal transduction mechanisms whereby calcium mobilization (from outside the cell or from intracellular storage pools) to the cytoplasm is triggered by external stimuli. Calcium signals are often seen to propagate as waves, oscillations, spikes, sparks, or puffs. The calcium acts as an intracellular messenger by activating calcium-responsive proteins.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.
A cell line generated from human embryonic kidney cells that were transformed with human adenovirus type 5.
Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
Proteins to which calcium ions are bound. They can act as transport proteins, regulator proteins, or activator proteins. They typically contain EF HAND MOTIFS.
Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
A broad category of carrier proteins that play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They generally contain several modular domains, each of which having its own binding activity, and act by forming complexes with other intracellular-signaling molecules. Signal-transducing adaptor proteins lack enzyme activity, however their activity can be modulated by other signal-transducing enzymes
A superfamily of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that are activated by diverse stimuli via protein kinase cascades. They are the final components of the cascades, activated by phosphorylation by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES, which in turn are activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES).
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.
A chelating agent relatively more specific for calcium and less toxic than EDETIC ACID.
The aggregation of soluble ANTIGENS with ANTIBODIES, alone or with antibody binding factors such as ANTI-ANTIBODIES or STAPHYLOCOCCAL PROTEIN A, into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.
Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.
A heat-stable, low-molecular-weight activator protein found mainly in the brain and heart. The binding of calcium ions to this protein allows this protein to bind to cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases and to adenyl cyclase with subsequent activation. Thereby this protein modulates cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP levels.
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.
A pattern recognition receptor that interacts with LYMPHOCYTE ANTIGEN 96 and LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES. It mediates cellular responses to GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA.
Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
An intracellular signaling system involving the MAP kinase cascades (three-membered protein kinase cascades). Various upstream activators, which act in response to extracellular stimuli, trigger the cascades by activating the first member of a cascade, MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKKs). Activated MAPKKKs phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES which in turn phosphorylate the MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs). The MAPKs then act on various downstream targets to affect gene expression. In mammals, there are several distinct MAP kinase pathways including the ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) pathway, the SAPK/JNK (stress-activated protein kinase/c-jun kinase) pathway, and the p38 kinase pathway. There is some sharing of components among the pathways depending on which stimulus originates activation of the cascade.
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
Molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. These reactive oxygen intermediates include SINGLET OXYGEN; SUPEROXIDES; PEROXIDES; HYDROXYL RADICAL; and HYPOCHLOROUS ACID. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of PHAGOCYTES, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
A strong oxidizing agent used in aqueous solution as a ripening agent, bleach, and topical anti-infective. It is relatively unstable and solutions deteriorate over time unless stabilized by the addition of acetanilide or similar organic materials.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
Gated transport mechanisms by which proteins or RNA are moved across the NUCLEAR MEMBRANE.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
Voltage-dependent cell membrane glycoproteins selectively permeable to calcium ions. They are categorized as L-, T-, N-, P-, Q-, and R-types based on the activation and inactivation kinetics, ion specificity, and sensitivity to drugs and toxins. The L- and T-types are present throughout the cardiovascular and central nervous systems and the N-, P-, Q-, & R-types are located in neuronal tissue.
A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.
Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.
The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.
A pattern recognition receptor that forms heterodimers with other TOLL-LIKE RECEPTORS. It interacts with multiple ligands including PEPTIDOGLYCAN, bacterial LIPOPROTEINS, lipoarabinomannan, and a variety of PORINS.
CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
The termination of the cell's ability to carry out vital functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, responsiveness, and adaptability.
Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.
A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that regulates a variety of cellular processes including CELL GROWTH PROCESSES; CELL DIFFERENTIATION; APOPTOSIS; and cellular responses to INFLAMMATION. The P38 MAP kinases are regulated by CYTOKINE RECEPTORS and can be activated in response to bacterial pathogens.
Cellular uptake of extracellular materials within membrane-limited vacuoles or microvesicles. ENDOSOMES play a central role in endocytosis.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.
A group of enzymes that are dependent on CYCLIC AMP and catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues on proteins. Included under this category are two cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase subtypes, each of which is defined by its subunit composition.
Proteins that are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. Deficiencies or abnormalities in these proteins may lead to unregulated cell growth and tumor development.
Cellular release of material within membrane-limited vesicles by fusion of the vesicles with the CELL MEMBRANE.
Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.
A diverse class of enzymes that interact with UBIQUITIN-CONJUGATING ENZYMES and ubiquitination-specific protein substrates. Each member of this enzyme group has its own distinct specificity for a substrate and ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme. Ubiquitin-protein ligases exist as both monomeric proteins multiprotein complexes.
A cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor that mediates TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P53-dependent CELL CYCLE arrest. p21 interacts with a range of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES and associates with PROLIFERATING CELL NUCLEAR ANTIGEN and CASPASE 3.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Eukaryotic cell line obtained in a quiescent or stationary phase which undergoes conversion to a state of unregulated growth in culture, resembling an in vitro tumor. It occurs spontaneously or through interaction with viruses, oncogenes, radiation, or drugs/chemicals.
A continuous cell line of high contact-inhibition established from NIH Swiss mouse embryo cultures. The cells are useful for DNA transfection and transformation studies. (From ATCC [Internet]. Virginia: American Type Culture Collection; c2002 [cited 2002 Sept 26]. Available from
The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.
A family of intracellular CYSTEINE ENDOPEPTIDASES that play a role in regulating INFLAMMATION and APOPTOSIS. They specifically cleave peptides at a CYSTEINE amino acid that follows an ASPARTIC ACID residue. Caspases are activated by proteolytic cleavage of a precursor form to yield large and small subunits that form the enzyme. Since the cleavage site within precursors matches the specificity of caspases, sequential activation of precursors by activated caspases can occur.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in fungi.
The artificial induction of GENE SILENCING by the use of RNA INTERFERENCE to reduce the expression of a specific gene. It includes the use of DOUBLE-STRANDED RNA, such as SMALL INTERFERING RNA and RNA containing HAIRPIN LOOP SEQUENCE, and ANTI-SENSE OLIGONUCLEOTIDES.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
Mice bearing mutant genes which are phenotypically expressed in the animals.
cell nucleus. Biological process. • autophagy. • positive regulation of transcription, DNA-templated. • embryonic placenta ... 21] TFEB nuclear export is mediated by CRM1 and is dependent on phosphorylation.[22][23] TFEB is also a target of the protein ... "Developmental Cell. 21 (3): 421-30. doi:10.1016/j.devcel.2011.07.016. PMC 3173716. PMID 21889421.. ... "Nature Cell Biology. 15 (6): 647-58. doi:10.1038/ncb2718. PMC 3699877. PMID 23604321.. ...
For example, silencing signals get spread between cells by a group of enzymes called RdRPs (RNA-dependent RNA polymerases) or ... neuronal cell fate, cell death, proliferation, fat storage, haematopoietic cell fate, insulin secretion.[17] ... RNA silencing is the mechanism that our cells (and cells from all kingdoms) use to fight RNA viruses and transposons (which ... "Both natural and designed micro RNAs can inhibit the expression of cognate mRNAs when expressed in human cells". Molecular Cell ...
Activation loop Autophosphorylation Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase Cell signaling Cyclin-dependent kinase G protein- ... Cyclin dependent kinases (CDKs) are a group of several different kinases involved in regulation of the cell cycle. They ... SK1 is expressed in lung, spleen, and leukocyte cells, whereas SK2 is expressed in kidney and liver cells. The involvement of ... Because of their key role in the controlling cell division, mutations in CDKs are often found in cancerous cells. These ...
Cell Biol. Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology. 14: 29-55. doi:10.1016/S1569-2558(08)60339-2. ISBN 9780762301133. Ziegler GA ... The number of flavin-dependent protein encoded genes in the genome (the flavoproteome) is species dependent and can range from ... 2.2-17.0 amol/cell) and FMN (0.46-3.4 amol/cell). FAD has a more positive reduction potential than NAD+ and is a very strong ... The cell utilizes this in many energetically difficult oxidation reactions such as dehydrogenation of a C-C bond to an alkene. ...
1] Hirst Augustinian cell. Founded before 1135, dissolved 1539. Dependent on Nostell. The priory or cell of St Mary was built ... "Hirst or Hyrst Priory, site of Augustinian Priory cell dependant on Nostell, founded by Nigel d'Albini early 12th cent. Not ... 2] 'The little cell of Hyrst in Axholme was built on lands granted by Nigel d'Albini to the prior and convent of St. Oswald's, ... The house stands in a partly moated enclosure, on or near the site of an Augustinian cell of Nostell Priory, founded in the ...
"The importance of structured noise in the generation of self-organizing tissue patterns through contact-mediated cell-cell ... Muñoz, J. J.; Conte, V.; Miodownik, M. (2010). "Stress-dependent morphogenesis: Continuum mechanics and truss systems". ... Developmental Cell. 19 (1): 78-89. doi:10.1016/j.devcel.2010.06.006. PMID 20643352.. ...
Greaves J, Chamberlain LH (Jan 2007). "Palmitoylation-dependent protein sorting". The Journal of Cell Biology. 176 (3): 249-254 ... Cell. 125 (5): 1003-1013. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.03.042. PMC 2246083. PMID 16751107. "Molecular Interaction Database". ... It is likely that it localizes in the cytoplasm but is anchored in the cell membrane by the second amino acid. C22orf25 is also ... C22orf25 localizes to the cytoplasm and is anchored to the cell membrane by the second amino acid. As mentioned previously, the ...
Priming is dose dependent. Beta-D-xylosides prime GAGs in most cells. Most of the material created from Beta-D-xylosides ...
"P54nrb forms a heterodimer with PSP1 that localizes to paraspeckles in an RNA-dependent manner". Molecular Biology of the Cell ... Prominent Paraspeckles are only found in a subpopulation of cells in murine tissues, e.g. luteal cells or cells at the tip of ... In cell biology, a paraspeckle is an irregularly shaped compartment of the cell, approximately 0.2-1 μm in size, found in the ... This phenomenon is demonstrated during the cell cycle. In the cell cycle, Paraspeckles are present during interphase and during ...
Karamooz E, Harriff MJ, Lewinsohn DM (December 2018). "MR1-dependent antigen presentation". Seminars in Cell & Developmental ... MR1 interacts with mucosal associated invariant T cells (MAIT). MR1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MR1 gene and ... MR1B is expressed on the cell surface. This isoform binds antigen via α1 and α2 interaction. Some bacteria are able to target ... Ac-6-FP (acetyl-6-formylpterin) and 6-FP (6-formylpterin) also bind MR1, but they do not activate MAIT cells. There is an ...
This complex regulates the relocation of this kinase from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, and it is essential for G1 cell cycle ... Alessi DR, Sakamoto K, Bayascas JR (2007). "LKB1-dependent signaling pathways". Annual Review of Biochemistry. 75: 137-63. doi: ... Boudeau J, Miranda-Saavedra D, Barton GJ, Alessi DR (September 2006). "Emerging roles of pseudokinases". Trends in Cell Biology ... a master kinase that regulates cell polarity and energy-generating metabolism. ...
The buildup the Na+ concentration inside the cell will cause the gradient from inside the cell to the outside of the cell to ... 6. An increase in heart rate also stimulates inotropy (Bowditch effect; treppe; frequency-dependent inotropy). This is probably ... This action will make it more difficult for calcium to leave the cell via the Na+/Ca++ antiporter. 8. Increase the amount of ... The degree of binding depends upon the concentration of calcium ions in the cell. Within an in vivo intact heart, the action/ ...
cell junction. • dendrite. • sarcolemma. • cell projection. • perikaryon. • synapse. • postsynaptic membrane. Biological ... Calcium channel, voltage-dependent, L type, alpha 1C subunit (also known as Cav1.2) is a protein that in humans is encoded by ... membrane depolarization during atrial cardiac muscle cell action potential. • cardiac muscle cell action potential involved in ... "Entrez Gene: voltage-dependent, L type, alpha 1C subunit".. *^ Narayanan D, Xi Q, Pfeffer LM, Jaggar JH (Sep 2010). " ...
cell nucleus. • membrane. • microtubule. • cytoplasm. • cytosol. • multi-eIF complex. • eukaryotic translation initiation ... IRES-dependent viral translational initiation. • negative regulation of ERK1 and ERK2 cascade. • translation reinitiation. • ... Cell. Biol. 20 (2): 496-506. doi:10.1128/mcb.20.2.496-506.2000. PMC 85113. PMID 10611228.. ... Cell. Biol. 16 (10): 5328-34. doi:10.1128/MCB.16.10.5328. PMC 231531. PMID 8816444.. ...
Frank RA, Leeper FJ, Luisi BF (2007). "Structure, mechanism and catalytic duality of thiamine-dependent enzymes". Cell. Mol. ... Clapham DE (2007). "Calcium signaling". Cell. 131 (6): 1047-58. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2007.11.028. PMID 18083096.. ... Sauke DJ, Metzler DE, Metzler CM (2001). Biochemistry: the chemical reactions of living cells (2nd ed.). San Diego: Harcourt/ ... Banerjee R, Ragsdale SW (2003). "The many faces of vitamin B12: catalysis by cobalamin-dependent enzymes". Annu. Rev. Biochem. ...
... a cell will have to synthesize stress protectants). Tertiary protein folding is dependent on hydrophobic forces from amino ... Macromolecular structure and function is dependent on the net effect of these forces (see protein folding), therefore it ... reduce enzymatic activity and induce stress on a cell (i.e., ... "Charge density-dependent strength of hydration and biological ... "Hydrophobic substances induce water stress in microbial cells". Microbial Biotechnology. 3 (6): 701-716. doi:10.1111/j.1751- ...
IPSPs can take place at all chemical synapses, which use the secretion of neurotransmitters to create cell to cell signalling. ... They are dependent on IPSPs and started in either CA3 by muscarinic acetylcholine receptors and within C1 by the activation of ... in CA1 pyramidal cells and cerebellar Purkinje cells.[10][11] In a laboratory setting step depolarizations the soma have been ... They can also block calcium ion channels to hyperpolarize postsynaptic cells. Significance[edit]. There are many applications ...
Ihrie RA, Attardi LD (2004). "Perp-etrating p53-dependent apoptosis". Cell Cycle. 3 (3): 267-269. doi:10.4161/cc.3.3.722. PMID ...
Transcription is dependent on virally encoded RNA-dependent-RNA-polymerase, which binds the genome at the 3' leader region and ... Translation of viral proteins is carried out by host cell ribosomes. Once sufficient P, N, L, and M2 proteins are available to ... L - RNA dependent RNA polymerase. Required for replication. Adds a methylated guanosine cap and poly(A) tail to nascent mRNA. ... Special Issue: Cell response to viral infection. 209: 128-135. doi:10.1016/j.virusres.2015.02.024. PMID 25738581. Graaf, ...
... competitively antagonizes the cardiac actions of adenosine at the cell surface receptors. Thus, it increases ... Adenosine's effects are concentration-dependent. Adenosine's receptors are competitively antagonized by methylxanthines such as ... and induces release of epinephrine from adrenal medulla cells. †Note that diuresis is caused by an increase in cAMP which acts ... "Insights into the regulation of TNF-alpha production in human mononuclear cells: the effects of non-specific phosphodiesterase ...
Tanikawa C, Matsuda K, Fukuda S, Nakamura Y, Arakawa H (March 2003). "p53RDL1 regulates p53-dependent apoptosis". Nature Cell ... April 2003). "The netrin-1 receptors UNC5H are putative tumor suppressors controlling cell death commitment". Proceedings of ...
doi:10.1016/j.cell.2008.01.018. PMC 2323438. PMID 18358809. Lupien M, Brown M (June 2009). "Cistromics of hormone-dependent ...
There are many ways to directly introduce DNA into animal cells in vitro. Often these cells are stem cells that are used for ... Kaufman RI, Nixon BT (July 1996). "Use of PCR to isolate genes encoding sigma54-dependent activators from diverse bacteria". ... which forces the DNA to enter the cells through either cell pores or the damaged cell wall. Electroporation is another method ... By growing the cells in the presence of an antibiotic or chemical that selects or marks the cells expressing that gene, it is ...
These activities are G2A-dependent. It is suggested that 9-HODE acts in human skin to block the proliferation of damaged cells ... movement from the cell interior to the cell surface and/or by preventing its movement away from the cell surface to the cell ... "Visualization of the pH-dependent dynamic distribution of G2A in living cells". FASEB Journal. 28 (9): 3965-74. doi:10.1096/fj. ... by transfecting the cells with the human oncogene (i.e., cancer causing) BCR-ABL or by treating the cells with DNA damaging ...
When the sub-unit binds to the voltage-dependent calcium channel, it produces a voltage-dependant block, which inhibits the ... Embedded in the cell membrane is also the G protein-coupled inwardly-rectifying potassium channel. When a Gβγ or Gα(GTP) ... Voltage-gated dependent calcium channel, (VDCCs), are key in the depolarisation of neurons, and play a major role in promoting ... "Introduction to Essentials of Cell Biology , Learn Science at Scitable". Retrieved 2017-11-08.. ...
To do this the cells undergoes a process called resolution, where during bacterial cell division one new cell receives the ... Mandel, Morton; Higa, Akiko (1970). "Calcium-dependent bacteriophage DNA infection". Journal of Molecular Biology. 53 (1): 159- ... The researchers added the new genome to bacterial cells and selected for cells that contained the new genome. ... In the 1980s techniques were developed to introduce isolated chloroplasts back into a plant cell that had its cell wall removed ...
He J, Xu J, Xu XX, Hall RA (Jul 2003). "Cell cycle-dependent phosphorylation of Disabled-2 by cdc2". Oncogene. 22 (29): 4524-30 ... Expression levels fluctuate in normal, but not in cancerous cells. Expression is often associated with cell proliferation. ... "Phosphorylation-dependent proline isomerization catalyzed by Pin1 is essential for tumor cell survival and entry into mitosis ... signalling and consequently regulates cell proliferation (in part through control of cyclin D1 levels and stability) and cell ...
... has a species dependent and specific attraction to the enzyme RNA polymerase II. Upon ingestion, it binds to the RNA ... polymerase II enzyme, effectively causing cytolysis of hepatocytes (liver cells). Mushroom poisoning Cochet-Meilhac M, Chambon ... P (June 1974). "Animal DNA-dependent RNA polymerases. 11. Mechanism of the inhibition of RNA polymerases B by amatoxins". ...
Upon ingestion, it binds to the RNA polymerase II enzyme, effectively causing cytolysis of hepatocytes (liver cells). Mushroom ... poisoning Cochet-Meilhac M, Chambon P (June 1974). "Animal DNA-dependent RNA polymerases. 11. Mechanism of the inhibition of ...
ATP-dependent reorganization of human sperm nuclear chromatin. . In: J. Cell. Sci.. . 108 (Pt 2), 1995, S. 755-65. PMID 7769017 ... J. Cell Biol.. . 146, Nr. 5, 1999, S. 905-16. doi:10.1083/jcb.146.5.905. PMID 10477747. PMC 2169482 (freier Volltext). ... Histone H2AX is phosphorylated in an ATR-dependent manner in response to replicational stress. . In: J. Biol. Chem.. . 276, Nr ... Cell. Biol.. . 18, Nr. 5, 1998, S. 2535-44. PMID 9566873. PMC 110633 (freier Volltext). ...
... fully differentiated plasma cell.[4] Differentiation of mature B cells into plasma cells is dependent upon the transcription ... Plasma cells, also called plasma B cells, plasmocytes, plasmacytes, or effector B cells, are white blood cells that secrete ... In humans, CD27 is a good marker for plasma cells, naive B cells are CD27-, memory B-cells are CD27+ and plasma cells are ... Germinal center B cells may differentiate into memory B cells or plasma cells. Most of these B cells will become plasmablasts ( ...
Cell. Biochem. 204 (1-2): 135-55. doi:10.1023/A:1007012622030. PMID 10718634. Geyer M, Fackler OT, Peterlin BM (2001). " ... Kobayashi M, Takamatsu K, Saitoh S, Noguchi T (1993). "Myristoylation of hippocalcin is linked to its calcium-dependent ... Wice BM, Gordon JI (1992). "A strategy for isolation of cDNAs encoding proteins affecting human intestinal epithelial cell ... Bryant M, Ratner L (1990). "Myristoylation-dependent replication and assembly of human immunodeficiency virus 1". Proc. Natl. ...
... a type 2 diabetic will have lost about half of their beta cells.[52] Fatty acids in the beta cells activate FOXO1, resulting in ... noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). Universal blue circle symbol for diabetes[2]. ... Type 2 diabetes is due to insufficient insulin production from beta cells in the setting of insulin resistance.[13] Insulin ... In the early stages of insulin resistance, the mass of beta cells expands, increasing the output of insulin to compensate for ...
Hamming codes are only suitable for more reliable single-level cell (SLC) NAND. Denser multi-level cell (MLC) NAND requires ... Observations on Errors, Corrections, & Trust of Dependent Systems, by James Hamilton, 26 February 2012 ... "Error Correction Code in Single Level Cell NAND Flash memories" 16 February 2007 ...
Cells are homogenised in a blender and filtered to remove debris. *The homogenised sample is placed in an ultracentrifuge and ... This is a somewhat arbitrary approach as the RCF applied is dependent upon the radius in a linear fashion - so a 10% larger ... General method of fractionation: Cell sample is stored in a suspension which is: *Buffered - neutral pH, preventing damage to ... This method is commonly used to separate organelles and membranes found in cells. Organelles generally differ from each other ...
... "satellite cells" which help to regenerate skeletal muscle fibers, and a decrease in sensitivity to or the availability of ... pathway which seems to be responsible for much of the muscle loss seen in a muscle undergoing atrophy is the ATP-dependent ... accompanied by a smaller number and size of the muscle cells as well as lower protein content. In humans, prolonged periods of ... critical secreted growth factors which are necessary to maintain muscle mass and satellite cell survival. In addition to the ...
Invasins, such as pneumolysin, an antiphagocytic capsule, various adhesins, and immunogenic cell wall components are all major ... Transformation is a complex developmental process requiring energy and is dependent on expression of numerous genes. In S. ... and white blood cells to fill the alveoli. This condition is called pneumonia.[20] It is susceptible to clindamycin.[21] ...
"Blood Cells Mol. Dis. 39 (3): 336-9. doi:10.1016/j.bcmd.2007.06.009. PMC 2387274. PMID 17698380.. ... Cell. Proteomics. 7 (3): 499-508. doi:10.1074/mcp.M700325-MCP200. PMID 18029348.. ... 2009). "Meningioma 1 gene is differentially expressed in CD34 positive cells from bone marrow of patients with myelodysplastic ... 2D3-regulated transcription factor MN1 stimulates vitamin D receptor-mediated transcription and inhibits osteoblastic cell ...
This tracer is a glucose analog that is taken up by glucose-using cells and phosphorylated by hexokinase (whose mitochondrial ... The emitted positron travels in tissue for a short distance (typically less than 1 mm, but dependent on the isotope[34]), ... This means that FDG is trapped in any cell that takes it up until it decays, since phosphorylated sugars, due to their ionic ... PET in the management of patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research ...
The TH2 lymphocytes interact with B cells and together they produce IgE. IgE circulates around and binds to receptors of cells ... Antelman SM (1988). "Time-dependent sensitization as the cornerstone for a new approach to pharmacotherapy: drugs as foreign/ ... the Antigen-Presenting Cell causes a response in a TH2 lymphocyte which produce the cytokine interleukin-4 (IL-4). ...
... excess secretion from the acidophil cells) caused acromegaly, then an excess of basophil cells must be involved in another ... If corticotropin-dependent Cushing's syndrome is determined then the next step is to distinguish between Cushing's disease and ... Given this conviction, and his knowledge of the three anterior pituitary cell types, Cushing hypothesized that if acidophil ... In a patient with Cushing's disease, the tumor cells will be stimulated to release corticotropin and elevated plasma ...
It also contains pacemaker cells and nonpacemaker cells that initiate spontaneous breathing. Research is being conducted on the ... Other potassium channels like large conductance calcium-dependent potassium channels and sodium chloride dependent potassium ... It is one of the four cell groups of the Ventral Respiratory Group (VRG). It is hypothesized that the pre-Bötzinger complex is ... Moreover, ATP-dependent potassium channels help neurons detect changes in energy or oxygen levels to modify breathing patterns ...
In general, a person's Medicaid eligibility is linked to their eligibility for Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC), ... T-cell count drops below 200).[76] The Medicaid eligibility policy contrasts with the Journal of the American Medical ... sickle cell anemia; sepsis; congestive heart failure; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; and complications of devices, ... including adults without dependent children, would qualify for coverage in any state that participated in the Medicaid program ...
Because the cell acquiring a chloroplast already had mitochondria (and peroxisomes, and a cell membrane for secretion), the new ... and therefore topologically outside of the cell, because to reach the chloroplast from the cytosol, you have to cross the cell ... "The Plant Cell. 12 (1): 53-64. doi:10.1105/tpc.12.1.53. PMC 140214. PMID 10634907.. ... "The Plant Cell. 24 (1): 202-14. doi:10.1105/tpc.111.090597. PMC 3289569. PMID 22274627.. ...
... and Th1 cells.[45] IL-1α stimulates increased skin cell activity and reproduction, which, in turn, fuels comedo development.[45 ... is a potential alternative to flutamide in the treatment of androgen-dependent skin and hair conditions in women.[117][129][130 ... and accumulation of skin cells in the hair follicle.[1] In healthy skin, the skin cells that have died come up to the surface ... the increased production of oily sebum causes the dead skin cells to stick together.[10] The accumulation of dead skin cell ...
"Rituximab causes a polarization of B cells that augments its therapeutic function in NK-cell-mediated antibody-dependent ... cells in destroying these B cells. When an NK cell latched onto the cap, it had an 80% success rate at killing the cell. In ... The antibody binds to the cell surface protein CD20. CD20 is widely expressed on B cells, from early pre-B cells to later in ... It induces apoptosis of CD20+ cells.. The combined effect results in the elimination of B cells (including the cancerous ones) ...
Basu et al (2014) Intestinal cell proliferation and senescence is regulated by receptor guanylyl cyclase C and p21 J. Biol. ... Samanta et al (2017) Mycobacterial phenolic glycolipid synthesis is regulated by cAMP-dependent lysine acylation of FadD22 ... the Alliance for Cell Signalling[20] (1997-present), the TB Structural Genomics Consortium, the American Society for ... Indian Society of Cell Biology[19] (1995-present) and the Society of Research in Reproduction, India (1994-present). ...
Outer hair cells serve as acoustic amplifiers for stimulation of the inner hair cells. Outer hair cells respond primarily to ... Threshold shifts that result in long-term fatigue are dependent on level of sound and length of exposure.[7] ... "J. Cell Biol. 164 (6): 887-97. doi:10.1083/jcb.200310055. PMC 2172292. PMID 15024034.. ... The stereocilia (hair cells) of the inner ear can become subjected to bending from loud noises. Because they are not ...
The German Type 214 submarine employs advanced polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells that assist in delivering it comparable ... rendering it dependent on American technical support, and public opposition to nuclear technology.[33] ... ...
Polymorphonuclear cells also infiltrate the epithelium, and chronic inflammatory cells infiltrate the lamina propria. Atrophic ... Signs and symptoms are dependent upon the type of oral candidiasis. Often, apart from the appearance of the lesions, there are ... Candidiasis can be a marker for underlying disease, so the overall prognosis may also be dependent upon this. For example, a ... Apart from true hyphae, Candida can also form pseudohyphae - elongated filamentous cells, lined end to end. As a general rule, ...
"Substance P induces rapid and transient membrane blebbing in U373MG cells in a p21-activated kinase-dependent manner". PLOS ONE ... Substance P has been known to stimulate cell growth in normal and cancer cell line cultures,[37] and it was shown that ... on cells (including cancer cells) bestowing upon them mobility.[40] and metastasis.[41] It has been suggested that cancer ... stem cells, white blood cells) in many tissues and organs. SP amplifies or excites most cellular processes.[15][16] ...
Prognosis in HSCT varies widely dependent upon disease type, stage, stem cell source, HLA-matched status (for allogeneic HSCT) ... who have lost their stem cells after birth. Other conditions[13] treated with stem cell transplants include sickle-cell disease ... Peripheral blood stem cells[26] are now the most common source of stem cells for HSCT. They are collected from the blood ... Sources and storage of cells[edit]. To limit the risks of transplanted stem cell rejection or of severe graft-versus-host ...
This is dependent upon a few factors, mainly temperature (which is not at all uniform in the troposphere). At 25 °C, water has ... doi:10.1016/j.cell.2021.06.02: Convalescent serum (i.e. antibodies in blood from people previously infected) of people who had ... Since the vapor pressure of water is temperature dependent, and temperature is also a variable in the ideal gas law, we can ... expect a fair amount of temperature dependent variation in this number. For example, at 55 °C, among the hottest ever recorded ...
... induces a calcium-dependent current in cultured dorsal root ganglion cells". J. Neurophysiol. 85 (3): 1340-5. doi:10.1152/jn. ... This seems to occur via immune cells interacting with the peripheral nervous system and releasing pain-producing chemicals ( ...
"Reprogramming following somatic cell nuclear transfer in primates is dependent upon nuclear remodeling". Hum Reprod 22 (8): ... Lindvall O (2003). "Stem cells for cell therapy in Parkinson's disease". Pharmacol Res 47 (4): 279-87. PMID 12644384. ... "Researchers find new method for turning adult cells into stem cells". Amherst Daily News. Canadian Press. 2009-01-03. Vaadatud ... California Institute for Regenerative Medicine, Tumor Cells Become Drug Resistant by Reverting to a Stem Cell-Like State, New ...
... and 6 million cone cells. The number and ratio of rods to cones varies among species, dependent on whether an animal is ... Further complexity arises from the various interconnections among bipolar cells, horizontal cells, and amacrine cells in the ... ON bipolar cells or inhibit (hyperpolarize) OFF bipolar cells. Thus, it is at the photoreceptor-bipolar cell synapse where ... which releases a neurotransmitter called glutamate to bipolar cells. Farther back is the cell body, which contains the cell's ...
... occurrence is highly dependent on the time of day, because of solar heating.[80] Worldwide, most tornadoes occur in the ... Multiple tornadoes produced by the same storm cell are referred to as a "tornado family".[21] Several tornadoes are sometimes ... Tornadic storms do not contain more lightning than other storms and some tornadic cells never produce lightning at all. More ...
"Thyroid hormone receptor beta-dependent expression of a potassium conductance in inner hair cells at the onset of hearing". ... regulation of metanephric nephron tubule epithelial cell differentiation. • cell differentiation. • mesonephric tubule ... positive regulation of metanephric DCT cell differentiation. • negative regulation of mesenchymal cell apoptotic process ... pancreatic islet cells and lymphoid cells.[8] PAX8 and other transcription factors play a role in binding to DNA and regulating ...
The generative cell in the pollen grain divides into two haploid sperm cells by mitosis leading to the development of the ... An important adaptation of these gymnosperms was allowing plants to live without being so dependent on water. Other adaptations ... Then, the first tracheids of the transition zone are formed, where the radial size of cells and thickness of their cell walls ... At fertilization, one of the sperm cells unites its haploid nucleus with the haploid nucleus of an egg cell. The female cone ...
HWLA was one of the few sources of coordinated health care for disadvantaged adults without dependents in LA County. ... USC Medical Center provides care for half of HIV/AIDS and sickle cell anemia patients in Southern California.[26] ...
Join Dennis Taylor for an in-depth discussion in this video Select all dependent or precedent cells, part of Excel: Tips and ... Join Dennis Taylor for an in-depth discussion in this video Select all dependent or precedent cells, part of Excel: Tips and ... Lets go back to cell B3, if it is not already selected,…and then, on the formulas tab…in the ribbon trace dependents.… ... and that highlights all cells in this worksheet…that have any kind of dependency on cell B3.… ...
Recombination-dependent mutation in non-dividing cells.. Rosenberg SM1, Harris RS, Longerich S, Galloway AM. ... The molecular details of this process are altering our understanding of how mutations form in non-dividing cells. ...
These findings indicate that vascular niches for haematopoietic stem cells are part of complex, age-dependent microenvironments ... They find that Notch signalling in bone endothelial cells induces change in the capillaries and mesenchymal stem cells of the ... Here we show that Notch signalling in endothelial cells leads to the expansion of haematopoietic stem cell niches in bone, ... positive perivascular cells, arteriole formation and elevated levels of cellular stem cell factor. Although endothelial hypoxia ...
Voltage commands to the cell were delivered in a tight-seal whole-cell configuration. Cell stiffness was decreased by ... Somatic stiffness of cochlear outer hair cells is voltage-dependent Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message from ... Somatic stiffness of cochlear outer hair cells is voltage-dependent. David Z. Z. He and Peter Dallos ... It is of interest to see whether mechanical reactance changes of the cells might accompany their changes in cell shape. We now ...
Cell cycle-dependent modulation of telomerase activity in tumor cells. X Zhu, R Kumar, M Mandal, N Sharma, H W Sharma, U ... Cell cycle-dependent modulation of telomerase activity in tumor cells. X Zhu, R Kumar, M Mandal, N Sharma, H W Sharma, U ... Cell cycle-dependent modulation of telomerase activity in tumor cells. X Zhu, R Kumar, M Mandal, N Sharma, H W Sharma, U ... Cell cycle-dependent modulation of telomerase activity in tumor cells Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message from ...
We conclude that this resident Pax3/Pax7-dependent progenitor cell population constitutes a source of myogenic cells of prime ... Late in fetal development, these cells adopt a satellite cell position characteristic of progenitor cells in postnatal muscle. ... A Pax3/Pax7-dependent population of skeletal muscle progenitor cells.. Relaix F1, Rocancourt D, Mansouri A, Buckingham M. ... These cells are maintained as a proliferating population in embryonic and fetal muscles of the trunk and limbs throughout ...
State-Dependent Function of Neocortical Chandelier Cells. Alan R. Woodruff, Laura M. McGarry, Tim P. Vogels, Melis Inan, ... State-Dependent Function of Neocortical Chandelier Cells. Alan R. Woodruff, Laura M. McGarry, Tim P. Vogels, Melis Inan, ... State-Dependent Function of Neocortical Chandelier Cells. Alan R. Woodruff, Laura M. McGarry, Tim P. Vogels, Melis Inan, ... State-Dependent Function of Neocortical Chandelier Cells Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from Journal ...
Compounds in this class (exemplified by GNF-2) show exclusive antiproliferative activity toward Bcr-abl-transformed cells, with ... Adrián, F., Ding, Q., Sim, T. et al. Allosteric inhibitors of Bcr-abl-dependent cell proliferation. Nat Chem Biol 2, 95-102 ( ... Allosteric inhibitors of Bcr-abl-dependent cell proliferation. *Francisco J Adrián1. , ... Figure 2: GNF-2 blocks proliferation and induces apoptosis of Ba/F3 cells expressing wild-type Bcr-abl and the E255V mutant.. ...
In highly respiring cells, the resulting NAD,sup ,+,/sup, accumulation then induces sirtuin-3-mediated activating IDH2 ... may follow glutaminolysis of glutamine to 2-oxoglutarate in cancer cells. When the reverse aconitase reaction and citrate ... Recently, it has been demonstrated that hypoxia elevates RCG in SF188 cells in a HIF-dependent manner [41]. SF188 cells were ... "Deficiency in glutamine but not glucose induces MYC-dependent apoptosis in human cells," Journal of Cell Biology, vol. 178, no ...
A burgeoning number of antigenic targets of the islet cell autoimmunity in IDD have been identified, and more can be ... Given the complex and multiple physiological functions of islet cells and the continuous variation in their activity, it is ... One interesting observation that may have potential pathogenic implications is the observation that of all islet cell ... immunologic event that is followed by a series of secondary immunizations to a variety of normally sequestered islet cell ...
Perturbance of Ca(2+) signaling may induce deregulation of cell proliferation and suppression of cell death providing the basis ... homeostasis within cells controls a diversity of cellular processes including gene transcription, proliferation and apoptosis. ... signals nor cell proliferation of HEK-293 cells. Our data demonstrate that TRPV6 increases the rate of Ca(2+) dependent cell ... TRPV6 potentiates calcium-dependent cell proliferation Cell Calcium. 2006 Feb;39(2):163-73. doi: 10.1016/j.ceca.2005.10.006. ...
Enhanced permeability has been implicated in compromised immunity due to reduced flow of lymph and immune cells to LNs, which ... with one of the key players being IRF4-dependent DCs. ... CCR7 and IRF4-dependent dendritic cells regulate lymphatic ... are the primary site of antigen presentation to T cells. Presently, very little is known about the molecular signals that ...
A. Rabinovitch and W. L. Suarez-Pinzon, "Cytokines and their roles in pancreatic islet β-cell destruction and insulin-dependent ... Insulin Deprivation Decreases Caspase-Dependent Apoptotic Signaling in Cultured Rat Sertoli Cells. T. R. Dias, L. Rato, A. D. ... J. C. Reed, "Bcl-2 and the regulation of programmed cell death," Journal of Cell Biology, vol. 124, no. 1, pp. 1-6, 1994. View ... Sertoli cells (SCs) are highly polarized epithelial cells [1] that play a central role in the functional development of the ...
Together, these results suggest that Schwann cells prevent neurodegeneration by inhibiting the effect of activity-induced, ... in the muscle of control mice with Schwann cells and erbB3 mutant mice without them. We found evidence that a negative signal ... in erbB3 mutant mice lacking Schwann cells, which normally exhibit profound neurodegeneration. We searched for the molecular ... expressed by muscle was regulated by neural activity and normally blocked by factors produced in Schwann cells. When we ...
... play crucial roles in osteogenesis and provide niches for haematopoietic stem cells. The properties of niche-forming vessels ... Age-dependent modulation of vascular niches for haematopoietic stem cells Nature. 2016 Apr 21;532(7599):380-4. doi: 10.1038/ ... These findings indicate that vascular niches for haematopoietic stem cells are part of complex, age-dependent microenvironments ... Here we show that Notch signalling in endothelial cells leads to the expansion of haematopoietic stem cell niches in bone, ...
Kruman II (2004) Why do neurons enters cell cycle. Cell Cycle 3(6):769-773CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar ... Kawauchi S, Shikanai M, Kosodo Y (2013) Extra-cell cycle regulatory functions of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK) and CDK ... Modi PK, Jaiswal S, Sharma P (2016) Regulation of neuronal cell cycle and apoptosis by MicroRNA 34a. Mol Cell Biol 36:84-94 ... Activation of caspase-3 and cleavage of Rb are associated with p16-mediated apoptosis in human non-small cell lung cancer cells ...
Activity is also dependent on localization to the parasite plasma membrane, which appears to be conferred by a consensus motif ... Here, we describe a plant-like Ca2+-dependent kinase of T. gondii, TgCDPK3, which is involved in the rapid activation of egress ... from host cells during Ca2+ signaling. T. gondiis requirement for TgCDPK3 seems to rely specifically on the local ionic ... Correction: TgCDPK3 Regulates Calcium-Dependent Egress of Toxoplasma gondii from Host Cells ...
Duct cells express the two forms of TF mRNA. A: mRNA extracted from CAPAN-2 cells, cultured primary duct cells, or resting or ... Human Pancreatic Duct Cells Exert Tissue Factor-Dependent Procoagulant Activity. Claire Beuneu, Olivier Vosters, Babak Movahedi ... Human Pancreatic Duct Cells Exert Tissue Factor-Dependent Procoagulant Activity. Claire Beuneu, Olivier Vosters, Babak Movahedi ... β-cells and duct cells were directly isolated using fluorescence-activated cell sorting, as previously described (9). As ...
... dependent K(+) conductance is activated after cell swelling was investigated in the present studies. Reducing the extracellular ... Previous studies in the human neuroblastoma cell line CHP-100 have demonstrated that exposure to hypoosmotic solutions ... Hypoosmotic stress also increased cytosolic Ca(2+) in fura-2 loaded cells. ... In most mammalian cells, regulatory volume decrease (RVD) is mediated by swelling-activated Cl(-) and K(+) channels. ...
Cytokinesis defect of acentrosomal cells. (A) Cells from the Drosophila melanogaster 1182-4 cell line were video-recorded in ... might operate in vertebrate cells, which are much larger than yeast cells. We made time-lapse recordings of cell division in ... Mitotic cells were shaken off and seeded on coverslips. The coverslips were either uncoated (for HeLa cells) or coated with low ... L929 cells, when seeded on a low concentration of fibronectin (1 μg/ml solution; 10 cells), were poorly adherent, and their ...
... with VV NK cells and NK cells homozygous for FcγRIIIa-158F (FF). VV and FF NK cells killed Daudi cells similarly after FcγRIIIa ... although Daudi cells are not representative of NHL cells. First, Daudi cells are resistant to lysis by effector cells in the ... Lysis of Daudi cells by NK cells from VV and FF donors after optimal FcγRIIIa stimulation. 51Cr-labeled Daudi cells were ... Preparation of Target Cells.. Daudi cells were washed and resuspended in RPMI 1640. Cells (10 × 106) were labeled for 90 min ...
Embryo Cell Polycyclic Hydrocarbon Mouse Embryo Cell Brown Bullhead Normal Human Mammary Epithelial Cell These keywords were ... Species-Dependent Differences in the Metabolic Activation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Cells in Culture. ... Species-Dependent Differences in the Metabolic Activation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Cells in Culture. In: Feo F., ... DNA adduct formation in normal human mammary epithelial cell cultures and the human mammary carcinoma T47D cell line, Cancer ...
KV1.3 channel-dependent signaling stimulates glutamate release from Th17 cells upon direct cell-cell contact between Th17 cells ... This pathway is glutamine dependent and triggered by binding of β1-integrin to vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) on ... β1-Integrin- and KV1.3 channel-dependent signaling stimulates glutamate release from Th17 cells. ... β1-Integrin- and KV1.3 channel-dependent signaling stimulates glutamate release from Th17 cells. ...
With non-pancreatic cells, we genetically engineer hepatic and intestinal endocrine L cells for insulin secretion. These cells ... The critical technologies needed for such a substitute depend strongly on the type of cells used. With cells from another ... Stem and progenitor cells constitute another promising cell source, however, their reproducible differentiation into pancreatic ... In our laboratory, we focus on encapsulated allo- and xenogeneic pancreatic cells and on non-pancreatic cells genetically ...
Cell cycle-dependent regulation of mitochondrial preprotein translocase Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded a page to ... Cell cycle-dependent regulation of mitochondrial preprotein translocase. By Angelika B. Harbauer, Magdalena Opalińska, Carolin ... Cell cycle-dependent regulation of mitochondrial preprotein translocase. By Angelika B. Harbauer, Magdalena Opalińska, Carolin ... It is unknown if the mitochondrial protein import machinery is connected to the cell division cycle. We found that the cyclin- ...
Although the apoptotic cell death program is executed in hours, the removal of dying cells is normally so rapid that few cells ... CR3 is responsible for recognition of opsonized apoptotic cells. CHO cells or CHO cells stably transfected with human CR3 (CHO- ... Complement-dependent Clearance of Apoptotic Cells by Human Macrophages. Dror Mevorach, John O. Mascarenhas, Debra Gershov, ... Complement-dependent Clearance of Apoptotic Cells by Human Macrophages. Dror Mevorach, John O. Mascarenhas, Debra Gershov, ...
Excel provides auditing tools that allow you to easily determine whether any other cells are dependent on whatever cell you ... Cells that use the information in a particular cell are called dependent cells. ... If there are any other cells that refer to the selected cell in a formula, Excel draws arrows between the cells. This allows ... you might want to determine which cells refer to a value in a particular cell. All you need to do is select the cell in ...
Only 48.6% of old cells and 40.7% of young cells had single place fields. The remaining cells had two or more "place fields" as ... The Effect of Aging on Experience-Dependent Plasticity of Hippocampal Place Cells. Jiemin Shen, Carol A. Barnes, Bruce L. ... One hundred ninety cells from young rats (18.1%) and 84 from old rats (12.4%) were identified as theta cells, and all of them ... 1989) Place cells and silent cells in the hippocampus of freely-behaving rats. J Neurosci 9:2382-2390. ...
... is a mechanism of cell-mediated immunity whereby an effector ... Antibody-Dependent Cell-Mediated Cytotoxicity (ADCC) is a ... Antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity Antibody-Dependent Cell-Mediated Cytotoxicity (ADCC) ... ADCC by NK cells. The typical ADCC involves activation of NK cells and is dependent on the recognition of antibody-coated ... It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Antibody-dependent_cell-mediated_cytotoxicity". A list of authors is available in ...
Putrescine-dependent Invasive Capacity of Rat Ascites Hepatoma Cells. Yoshiyuki Ashida, Jun-ichi Kido, Fumiyo Kinoshita, Mizuho ... Putrescine-dependent Invasive Capacity of Rat Ascites Hepatoma Cells. Yoshiyuki Ashida, Jun-ichi Kido, Fumiyo Kinoshita, Mizuho ... Putrescine-dependent Invasive Capacity of Rat Ascites Hepatoma Cells. Yoshiyuki Ashida, Jun-ichi Kido, Fumiyo Kinoshita, Mizuho ... Putrescine-dependent Invasive Capacity of Rat Ascites Hepatoma Cells Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you ...
  • Figure 1: Cell proliferation. (
  • Figure 2: GNF-2 blocks proliferation and induces apoptosis of Ba/F3 cells expressing wild-type Bcr-abl and the E255V mutant. (
  • The sustained high rate of cell proliferation, however, results in aglycemia, initiating the revival of OXPHOS in conjunction with the promotion of glutaminolysis [ 1 , 2 , 9 , 10 ]. (
  • The Ca(2+) homeostasis within cells controls a diversity of cellular processes including gene transcription, proliferation and apoptosis. (
  • Perturbance of Ca(2+) signaling may induce deregulation of cell proliferation and suppression of cell death providing the basis for cancer development. (
  • We have analyzed the influence of TRPV6 on cell proliferation within HEK-293 cells. (
  • We show that TRPV6 increases cell proliferation of HEK-293 cells in a Ca(2+) dependent manner. (
  • The increased proliferation correlates with slightly increased intracellular Ca(2+) levels without interfering with the intrinsic Ca(2+) dependence of HEK-293 cell proliferation. (
  • Low doses of econazole inhibit both, TRPV6 dependent Ca(2+) signals and cell proliferation while BTP2, a potent inhibitor of Ca(2+) signals and cell proliferation in T-cells, neither influences TRPV6 dependent Ca(2+) signals nor cell proliferation of HEK-293 cells. (
  • Our data demonstrate that TRPV6 increases the rate of Ca(2+) dependent cell proliferation which is a prerequisite for its potential role in tumor progression. (
  • Since migration is a major factor in determining proliferation rates of anchorage-dependent cells, this type of surface modification can be used to accelerate the endothelization of synthetic vascular grafts and increase their implantation success rates. (
  • Furthermore, Rathke's pouch is mainly composed of progenitor cells expressing Sox2 and Sox3 , which are essential for progenitor proliferation and development of all major anterior pituitary cell types downstream of Lhx3 / Lhx4 ( 5 - 7 ). (
  • Mechanistically, Hcy increased both the protein expression and glycolytic enzyme activity of the pyruvate kinase muscle isozyme 2 (PKM2) in B cells, whereas the PKM2 inhibitor shikonin restored Hcy-induced metabolic changes, as well as B cell proliferation and Ab secretion both in vivo and in vitro, indicating that PKM2 plays a critical role in metabolic reprogramming in Hcy-activated B cells. (
  • Our previous studies have shown that HHcy accelerates early atherosclerotic lesion formation in apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE −/− ) mice and that Hcy stimulation in vitro and ex vivo can induce B cell proliferation and IgG Ab secretion ( 3 - 5 ). (
  • Targeting AXL, a gene highly expressed by dormant cells, using small molecule inhibitors, released cells from dormancy and promoted their proliferation. (
  • Silver and fullerene nanoparticles' effect on interleukin-2-dependent proliferation of CD4 (+) T cells. (
  • Immunotoxicity studies of nanoparticles on T cells addressed their effects on activation by T antigen receptor, but have neglected the regulation of proliferation by IL-2. (
  • In this study, the IL-2-dependent T lymphoblastoid WE17/10 cell line was used to compare silver (Ag-NPs) and fullerene (C60-NPs) nanoparticles' toxicity and evaluate whether these NPs could interfere with IL-2-dependent proliferation. (
  • Proliferation measurements by CFSE following 72h incubation have shown that Ag-NPs decrease cell proliferation and C60-NPs slightly increase proliferation. (
  • Our results show that C60-NPs have good biocompatibility and don't interfere with IL-2-dependent proliferation. (
  • These agents effectively retarded production of the proteins that promote the growth and proliferation of ER-positive breast cancer cells. (
  • Transient activation of Cl - channels is required to initiate cell proliferation, but sustained Cl - channel activation and cell-shrinkage as seen in CHF c-Kit + eCSCs is associated with programmed cell death. (
  • Methods: RH4 and RH30 alveolar RMS (ARMS) cell lines were treated with crizotinib and then assessed by using proliferation, viability, migration and colony formation assays. (
  • Results: In vitro treatment with crizotinib inhibited ALK and MET proteins, as well as Insulin-like Growth Factor 1 Receptor (IGF1R), with a concomitant robust dephosphorylation of AKT and ERK, two downstream kinases involved in RMS cell proliferation and survival. (
  • Tregs are a specific cellular subset, known to dampen autoreactive T cells proliferation occurring during autoimmune disorders. (
  • We found that hyperactivation of the mTOR pathway in Treg cells of MS subjects led to altered expression of specific variants of FoxP3 (which is the master regulator of Treg cell function) and impairment in Treg cell proliferation both in vitro and in vivo, which correlated with the clinical state of the subjects. (
  • Also at transcriptional level, we found that metabolic signals of 'starvation' are able to elicit transcriptional modulation of crucial cellular processes including proliferation, epigenetic control of transcription and metabolic asset, specifically in Treg cells, thus impinging on transcriptional fitness and plasticity of human pTreg cells linking micro-environmental cues with Treg cell homestasis. (
  • The high proportion of long-term non-progressors among chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) patients suggests the existence of a regulatory network which restrains the proliferation of tumor B cells. (
  • Restoration of CDK2 activity partially restored proliferation and induced erlotinib resistance in erlotinib-sensitive cell lines, indicating that sensitivity to erlotinib in these breast cancer cells depends, at least in part, on CDK2 activity. (
  • Because activation of EGFR signaling in tumor cells has been linked with decreased apoptosis and increased proliferation, angiogenesis, and metastasis, EGFR is being explored as a potential target for anticancer therapy. (
  • The results demonstrated that EVO inhibited cell proliferation and induced cell cycle arrest at the G2/M stage in human melanoma A‑375 cells. (
  • Numerous studies have revealed that EVO exhibited antitumor activity by inhibiting the proliferation, inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, and decreasing the invasion and migration of a variety of tumor cells ( 12 - 18 ). (
  • Reactive oxygen species (ROS), which have been aptly described as a heterogeneous group of diatomic oxygen from free and non-free radical species, have been implicated as mediators of various biological processes, such cell proliferation, inflammation and aging ( 19 ). (
  • Regulation of cell proliferation is dependent on nucleocytoplasmic t. (
  • The nucleocytoplasmic passage of OGF-OGFr is critical to cell proliferation and suggests that there are hierarchical levels of nuclear import. (
  • The OGF-OGFr axis is known to regulate cell proliferation by modulating cyclin dependent kinase inhibitors, resulting in a retardation of cells at the G1-S interface of the cell cycle. (
  • This nucleocytoplasmic trafficking is critical for cell proliferation. (
  • Enhancement of these elements could prove extremely effective in reducing abnormal responses associated with cell proliferation as in inflammation, autoimmune diseases, and cancer. (
  • The nuclear transport of OGF-OGFr is critical for the regulation of cell proliferation. (
  • If a deregulation in SCs apoptosis occurs, it will affect germ cells, compromising spermatogenesis. (
  • As SCs can only accommodate the differentiation of a finite number of germ cells [ 7 ], a deregulation in SCs apoptosis could affect spermatogenesis, resulting in a lower fertility or even in infertility. (
  • Apoptosis is a result of a complex network of signaling pathways, which allows the organism to tightly control cell numbers and tissue size and to protect itself from rogue cells that threaten homeostasis [ 10 , 11 ]. (
  • However, we speculate that the neuronal damage might be due to apoptosis resulting from unusual cell cycle entry. (
  • Thus, in the current study, mice were orally (po) treated with the Fe 2 O 3 -NPs to investigate cell cycle-associated events/components and occurrence of apoptosis. (
  • The accumulated β-amyloid and reduced level of cdk5 seem to aid in the cell cycle entry and forcing progression towards apoptosis. (
  • An important stage of apoptosis involves the acquisition of surface changes on the apoptotic cell leading to rapid recognition and phagocytosis by surrounding cells followed by degradation in lysosomes. (
  • Once bound to the Fc receptor of IgG the Natural Killer cell releases cytokines such as IFN-γ, and cytotoxic granules containing perforin and granzymes that enter the target cell and promote cell death by triggering apoptosis . (
  • Protease induction did not correlate with apoptosis, necrotic cell death or with signs of general proteolysis or cytotoxicity. (
  • An enhanced DNA damage response could be demonstrated, with respect to DNA-PK phosphorylation of a p53 peptide, flow cytometry analysis of cell cycle phases and apoptosis. (
  • Akt promotes cell survival by inhibiting apoptosis through phosphorylation and inactivation of several targets, including Bad (7), forkhead transcription factors (8), c-Raf (9), and caspase-9. (
  • Moreover, the antioxidant Trolox blocked ROS production, changes in MMP and decreased K1 cytotoxicity, which confirmed the important role of ROS in cell apoptosis. (
  • Taken together, our data demonstrate that K1 induces ROS-dependent apoptosis in Caco2 cells and provide the rationale for further in vivo anticancer investigation. (
  • This study determines whether NF-кB dependent proinflammatory state found in type 2 diabetes yield to a higher RAGE activation in the mesenchymal stem cell , as well as the effects of the proinflammation on osteoblast differentiation impairment and cellular apoptosis in type 2 diabetic patients. (
  • This study will compare non-diabetic control subjects and type 2 diabetic patients with metformin monotherapy failure in the aspect of 1) serum markers for NF-кB dependent proinflammatory state and its intracellular signals, 2) osteogenic differentiation and apoptosis of the mesenchymal stem cells , and 3) serum AGE, RAGE and cellular RAGE activation. (
  • Crizotinib was able to induce apoptosis and autophagy in a dose-dependent manner, as shown by caspase-3 activation/PARP proteolytic cleavage down-regulation and by LC3 activation/p62 down-regulation, respectively. (
  • These data suggest that cell death induced by PDI-knockdown is caspase-dependent apoptosis in MCF-7 cells. (
  • Additionally, MELK silencing-mediated GSC apoptosis is partially rescued by both pharmacological p53 inhibition and p53 gene silencing, indicating that MELK action in GSCs is p53 dependent. (
  • The results also revealed that EVO exposure induced the activation of caspase‑3, caspase‑9 and poly (ADP‑ribose) polymerase 1, as well as mitochondrial membrane potential dissipation in a time‑dependent manner, indicating that EVO induced intrinsic apoptosis in A‑375 cells. (
  • The addition of NaF induced cell death mainly by apoptosis rather than necrosis. (
  • These findings suggest that NaF affects viability of mESCs in a concentration-dependent manner, where more than 1mM NaF causes apoptosis through hydroxyl radical-dependent and caspase- and JNK-mediated pathways. (
  • Here we show that Notch signalling in endothelial cells leads to the expansion of haematopoietic stem cell niches in bone, which involves increases in CD31-positive capillaries and platelet-derived growth factor receptor-β (PDGFRβ)-positive perivascular cells, arteriole formation and elevated levels of cellular stem cell factor. (
  • Engraftment and reconstitution of hematopoiesis is dependent on VEGFR2-mediated regeneration of sinusoidal endothelial cells. (
  • The effect of receptor/ligand interactions on the migration of endothelial cells was studied first. (
  • Locomotion analysis showed that endothelial cells migrated on the bioactive surfaces with significantly increased persistence and random motility coefficients. (
  • To test the ability of soluble factors to protect the endothelium and improve its wound healing response, we studied the morphology and migration of endothelial cells exposed to ionizing irradiation. (
  • Soluble growth factors had no effect on the migration speed of endothelial cells and did not reverse the hyperplasia observed after exposing these cells to radiation. (
  • C, G, T, S, and L are located in the anterior lobe, which also contains folliculostellate cells (FSC) and proliferative cells as well as endothelial cells (EC), pericytes, erythrocytes (E), and leukocytes (Le) from the pituitary sinusoidal capillary network. (
  • We obtained invasive breast ductal carcinoma cells of various subtypes by fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsies from patients and found that, in an in vitro transendothelial migration assay, cells that migrated through a layer of human endothelial cells were enriched for the transcript encoding Mena INV , an invasive isoform of Mena. (
  • Continuing work reveals that responses of vascular endothelial cells (ECs) to mechanical stimuli are central to disease initiation and progression. (
  • There is no known receptor, however, for calcium antagonists in endothelial cells (ECs). (
  • We explored the steady-state stromal composition of lymph nodes isolated from mice and humans, and found that marginal reticular cells and lymphatic endothelial cells required lymphocytes for their normal maturation in mice. (
  • phdthesis{a483c18d-fc55-4a79-8ba3-2d62ebfce101, abstract = {DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) is a holoenzyme consisting of a regulatory subunit, the heterodimeric Ku70/86, and a catalytic subunit known as DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs). (
  • In highly respiring cells, the resulting NAD + accumulation then induces sirtuin-3-mediated activating IDH2 deacetylation, thus increasing its protective function. (
  • We discovered soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment receptor (SNARE) complex proteins in Th17 cells that enable a vesicular glutamate release pathway that induces local intracytoplasmic calcium release and subsequent damage in neurons. (
  • Thus, engagement of myeloma cells with the osteoblastic niche induces expression of a suite of myeloid genes that predicts disease progression and that are potential drug targets to eradicate dormant myeloma cells. (
  • Recent studies indicated that maturation of FDCs depends on a positive feedback loop between CXCL13 and the cytokine lymphotoxin (LT)α1β2, where CXCL13 mediates recruitment of CXCR5-expressing B cells and induces them to express LTα1β2 ( 7 ). (
  • Complement factor C5a slightly increases the expression of IL-17 and induces activation of Akt in anti-CD3-activated lupus effector T cells. (
  • We recently showed that Ire1 activation independently induces the rapid turnover of mRNAs encoding membrane and secreted proteins in Drosophila melanogaster cells through a pathway we call regulated Ire1-dependent decay (RIDD). (
  • Together with recent results in yeasts, our data point to a conserved centrosome-dependent pathway that integrates spatial controls into the decision of completing cell division, which requires the repositioning of the centrosome organelle. (
  • This pathway is glutamine dependent and triggered by binding of β1-integrin to vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) on neurons in the inflammatory context. (
  • Conditioned media helped these cells adapt to inhibition of glycolysis or mitochondrial respiration by increasing activity of the uninhibited pathway. (
  • We show that the C-terminal mutations mainly affect the actin-dependent pathway. (
  • Suppression of the Fus2p localization defect by Kel1p is dependent upon Fus1p , showing that suppression does not bypass the normal pathway. (
  • Kel1p and a homolog, Kel2p , are required for efficient Fus2p localization, acting through the actin-dependent pathway. (
  • In this study, we showed that Hcy-activated B cells displayed an increase in both oxidative phosphorylation and glycolysis, with a tendency to shift toward the latter, as well as an accumulation of intermediates in the pentose phosphate pathway, to provide energy and biosynthetic substrates for cell growth and function. (
  • Further investigation revealed that the Akt-mechanistic target of rapamycin signaling pathway was involved in this process, as the mechanistic target of rapamycin inhibitor rapamycin inhibited Hcy-induced changes in PKM2 enzyme activity and B cell activation. (
  • Inhibition of the Akt signaling pathway significantly decreases Th17 cell migration. (
  • These findings indicate that the Akt signaling pathway plays a significant role in the migratory activity of Th17 cells from children with LN and suggest that therapeutic modulation of the Akt activity may inhibit Th17 cell trafficking to sites of inflammation and thus suppress chronic inflammatory processes in children with LN. (
  • We have recently shown that Ire1 in Drosophila melanogaster cells independently mediates the cleavage and degradation of mRNAs encoding proteins that traverse the secretory pathway ( Hollien and Weissman, 2006 ). (
  • GSK-3 is a critical downstream element of the PI3K/Akt cell survival pathway whose activity can be inhibited by Akt-mediated phosphorylation at Ser21 of GSK-3α and Ser9 of GSK-3β (2,3). (
  • GSK-3 has been implicated in the regulation of cell fate in Dictyostelium and is a component of the Wnt signaling pathway required for Drosophila, Xenopus, and mammalian development (4). (
  • Collectively, the rapid and reversible effects of p38 activity on keratin phosphorylation and organization in diverse physiological, stress, and pathological situations identify p38-dependent signalling as a major intermediate filament-regulating pathway. (
  • Our previous report demonstrated that ethambutol (EMB) might induce cytoplasmic vacuolization and reduce the uptake of photoreceptor rod outer segments (ROS) in retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells, which are mediated via a protein kinase C (PKC)-dependent pathway. (
  • In this work, we show that the virus exits cells by a nonlytic, actin-dependent mechanism, and most importantly, we describe that VP4, the spike protein of the virus, is present on the cell surface and is incorporated into mature, infectious virus, indicating a novel pathway for the assembly of this protein. (
  • In this grant application we dissected at cellular and molecular level how the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway controls expansion, homeostasis and function of T regulatory (Treg) cells in human normal individuals and in multiple sclerosis (MS)-subjects. (
  • Mechanistically, we found that engagement of glycolysis during Tconv cell activation was necessary for inducible Treg (iTreg) cell generation and we found that Tconv cells from MS subjects had reduced glycolysis, which together with reduced mTOR-pathway led to altered expression of specific splicing variant of Foxp3 containing Exon2 (FoxP3E2) and impaired suppressive function of iTreg cells. (
  • We confirmed the relevance of mTOR pathway in the control of Treg cell responsiveness also in vivo, in experimental autoimmune encephalomyielitis (EAE)-affected mice, in which we showed that acute rapamycin treatment strongly expanded Treg cells and improved EAE, while chronic rapamycin treatment reduced both Treg cells and Tconv cells. (
  • To address this apparent paradox, we examined possible predictors of the sensitivity of 10 breast cancer cell lines to erlotinib in light of cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2), considered the farthest downstream kinase that controls cell cycling in the EGFR signaling pathway. (
  • These results document that the pathway for regulating the cell cycle by the OGF-OGFr axis involves the timely and faithful translocation of this peptide-receptor complex across the nuclear envelope. (
  • Activation of gamma delta T cells by Borrelia burgdorferi is indirect via a TLR- and caspase-dependent pathway. (
  • SLAM family receptors distinguish hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells and reveal endothelial niches for stem cells. (
  • A Pax3/Pax7-dependent population of skeletal muscle progenitor cells. (
  • Using a stable green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter targeted to Pax3, we demonstrate that they constitute resident muscle progenitor cells that subsequently become myogenic and form skeletal muscle. (
  • Late in fetal development, these cells adopt a satellite cell position characteristic of progenitor cells in postnatal muscle. (
  • Stem and progenitor cells constitute another promising cell source, however, their reproducible differentiation into pancreatic cells presents significant challenges. (
  • Functional studies in human primary erythroid progenitor cells support a role for FOXO3 in γ-globin regulation. (
  • Metformin treatment of human primary erythroid progenitor cells increases fetal hemoglobin in a partially FOXO3-dependent manner. (
  • We validated these genomic findings through loss- and gain-of-function studies in normal human CD34 + hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells induced to undergo erythroid differentiation. (
  • SIGNALLING molecules are thought to play a significant role in determining the fate of neural crest progenitor cells. (
  • In the presence of epidermal growth factor (EGF), floating spheres of proliferating progenitor cells were developed in vitro. (
  • In the absence of EGF progenitor cells differentiated into tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-immunoreactive neuronal and TH-negative flat cells. (
  • Antigen-presenting dendritic cells (DCs) * are prevalent in marginal zones, T cell zones, and in the bridging channels between these two compartments ( 3 ). (
  • These regions also contain increased numbers of immune cells, especially monocytes and macrophages, although dendritic cells, T and B cells are also present ( Galkina and Ley, 2009 ). (
  • This will include infusion of dendritic cells, T-regulatory lymphocytes, umbilical cord cells, embryonic or adult stem cells, and allogenic bone marrow transplantation in addition to further studies with AHST, he added. (
  • We now observe that murine gammadelta T cells are also activated by B. burgdorferi and that in both cases the activation is indirect via TLR stimulation on dendritic cells or monocytes. (
  • This suggests that cortical chandelier cells may provide GABAergic excitation, in addition to the expected inhibition. (
  • FcγRIIIa/CD16a, one of the low-affinity receptors for IgG Fc, is involved in antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC). (
  • Apoptotic cells are rapidly engulfed by phagocytes, but the receptors and ligands responsible for this phenomenon are incompletely characterized. (
  • Previously described receptors on blood- derived macrophages have been characterized in the absence of serum and show a relatively low uptake of apoptotic cells. (
  • In the presence of serum, the macrophage receptors for C3bi, CR3 (CD11b/CD18) and CR4 (CD11c/CD18), were significantly more efficient in the uptake of apoptotic cells compared with previously described receptors implicated in clearance. (
  • Several ligands and receptors have been reported to play a role in the initial engulfment of apoptotic cells in vitro. (
  • The typical ADCC involves activation of NK cells and is dependent on the recognition of antibody-coated infected cells by Fc receptors on the surface of the NK cell. (
  • The Fc receptors recognize the Fc (crystalline) portion of antibodies such as IgG , which bind to the surface of a pathogen -infected target cell. (
  • Researchers suggest that this drug inhibits tumor growth by blocking the estrogen receptors of the tumor cells. (
  • One argument is that once the estrogen receptors of the tumor cells are inhibited by the drug, the sex hormone can no longer promote tumor growth. (
  • A subset of follicular stromal cells, known as follicular DCs (FDCs), express complement and Fc receptors and are able to trap immune complexes for presentation to B cells. (
  • This effect was achieved through the dynamic coalescence of ILT3, B cell receptors and phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate 5-phosphatase 1 into inhibitory clusters at the cell surface. (
  • Let's go back to cell B3, if it is not already selected,…and then, on the formulas tab…in the ribbon trace dependents. (
  • All you need to do is select the cell in question and then click on the Trace Dependents tool on the Auditing toolbar. (
  • If you click on the Trace Dependents tool again, Excel displays not just the direct dependents, but the first level of indirect dependents as well. (
  • Antibody-Dependent Cell-Mediated Cytotoxicity (ADCC) is a mechanism of cell-mediated immunity whereby an effector cell of the immune system actively lyses a target cell that has been bound by specific antibodies. (
  • It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Antibody-dependent_cell-mediated_cytotoxicity" . (
  • Although the origin and molecular regulation of the earliest embryonic muscle cells is well understood, less is known about later stages of myogenesis. (
  • Bregman DB, Pestell RG, Kidd VJ (2000) Cell cycle regulation and RNA polymerase II. (
  • A living biological substitute for treatment of insulin-dependent diabetes has significant potential in providing a less invasive, more physiologic regulation of blood glucose levels than insulin injections. (
  • Results from experiments involving transplantation of murine, insulin-secreting L cells in diabetic mice demonstrated that the graft had a significant positive effect on the glycemic regulation of the animals, however, it did not cure diabetes. (
  • Activity-dependent regulation of prestin expression in mouse outer hair cells. (
  • The sex hormone estrogen plays a critical role in the regulation of growth and the development of cells. (
  • The regulation of cellular dimension is important for the function and survival of cells. (
  • Cytoskeletal regulation of cell shape and cell wall biosynthesis and/or deposition occurs in a range of organisms. (
  • Photosynthetic organisms, such as cyanobacteria, particularly exhibit light-dependent regulation of morphogenes and generation of reactive oxygen species and other signals that can impact cellular dimensions. (
  • Although the involvement of cytoskeletal components in the regulation of cell shape is widely accepted, the signaling factors that regulate cytoskeletal and other distinct components involved in cell shape control, particularly in response to changes in external light cues, remain to be fully elucidated. (
  • In this review, factors impacting the inter-coordination of growth and division, the relationship between the regulation of cellular dimensions and central carbon metabolism, and consideration of the effects of specific environment signals, primarily light, on cell dimensions in cyanobacteria will be discussed. (
  • Current knowledge about the molecular bases of the light-dependent regulation of cellular dimensions and cell shape in cyanobacteria will be highlighted. (
  • In addition to its role in survival and glycogen synthesis, Akt is involved in cell cycle regulation by preventing GSK-3β-mediated phosphorylation and degradation of cyclin D1 (14) and by negatively regulating the cyclin dependent kinase inhibitors p27 Kip1 (15) and p21 Waf1/Cip1 (16). (
  • To demonstrate that p38-dependent keratin phosphorylation determines keratin organization, p38 activity was pharmacologically and genetically modulated: up-regulation induced keratin granule formation, whereas down-regulation prevented keratin filament network disassembly. (
  • Furthermore, I will 3) explore whether Actin regulation mediates auxin action in controlling oriented cell division. (
  • We also determined the molecular basis of metabolic regulation of Tconv and Treg cell homestasis. (
  • We studied the regulation of mdr-1 and P-glycoprotein in sparse and confluent cultures of murine CT-26 colon carcinoma cells. (
  • In mES 1 cells, the epigenetic regulation of gene expression has been shown to take place at the levels of DNA methylation, histone modification, nucleosome packaging and rearrangement, and higher order chromatin organization ( 4 ). (
  • The effect of the stringent response is not limited to the quick arrest of stable RNA synthesis but also includes inhibition of other processes related to growth ( 46 ), as well as the positive regulation of amino acid biosynthetic and transport system operons ( 5 ), cell division ( 21 ), and antibiotic production pathways ( 6 ). (
  • Chen MJ, Ng JM, Peng ZF, Manikandan J, Yap YW, Llanos RM, Beart PM, Cheung NS (2013) Gene profiling identifies commonalities in neuronal pathways in excitotoxicity: evidence favouring cell cycle re-activation in concert with oxidative stress. (
  • D. Pruess-Schwartz and W. M. Baird, Benzo(a)pyrene: DNA adduct formation in early-passage Wistar rat embryo cell cultures: Evidence of multiple pathways of activation of benzo(a)pyrene, Cancer Res. (
  • Thus, our ability to modulate these processes depends on understanding how cell migration is controlled by soluble factors, cell-substrate interactions and metabolic pathways. (
  • Previous work showed that Fus2p localization is mediated by both Fus1p - and actin-dependent pathways. (
  • After a brief introduction to disease etiology and some basic features of mechanotransduction, we focus on mechanisms by which flow-dependent pathways synergize with conventional risk factors. (
  • Immunity to Chlamydia trachomatis is mediated by T helper 1 cells through IFN-gamma-dependent and -independent pathways. (
  • Mucosal immunity to Chlamydia trachomatis in a mouse model of female genital tract infection is mediated predominantly by Th1-type cells, as shown by in vivo neutralization of cytokines involved in the Th1 vs Th2 pathways. (
  • The effects of inhibitors of polyamine synthesis on the invasive capacity of rat ascites hepatoma (LC-AH) cells were examined by in vitro assay of penetration of the LC-AH cells through a monolayer of calf pulmonary arterial endothelial (CPAE) cells. (
  • Finally, inhibition of PLK1 triggered degradation of MYC and of the antiapoptotic protein MCL-1, and PLK1 inhibitors showed synergy with BCL-2 antagonists in blocking DHL cell growth, survival, and tumorigenicity, supporting clinical targeting of PLK1 in DHL. (
  • Human RPE cell line RPE50 and ARPE19 cells were pretreated with specific inhibitors or transfected with shRNAs of various PKC isozymes, including PKCα, β, ε, γ, and δ, to examine whether EMB-induced toxic effects were prevented. (
  • In contrast, pretreatment of the cells with specific inhibitors of PKCα, β, ε, or γ, or depletion of PKCα or β didn't influence the aforementioned EMB-triggered toxic effects. (
  • The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors (CDKI) play a major role in this G1/S transition. (
  • Inhibitors of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinases, such as erlotinib and gefitinib, have not been very effective in the treatment of breast cancer although many breast cancer cells express EGFR. (
  • American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology, 2020. (
  • Tobacco BY2 cell line as the HELA-cell in the cell biology of higher plants. (
  • This cell-based study is exciting because it suggests these compounds are likely to be effective in tumors that remain dependent on estrogen for growth but are resistant to current therapies," said principal investigator David J. Shapiro, a professor of biochemistry in the School of Molecular and Cellular Biology at the University of Illinois. (
  • Major: Stem Cell Biology. (
  • Finally, we also demonstrated the role of autophagy and oscillation of clock genes in mTOR-mediated control of Treg cell function and biology in physiological and pthological conditions. (
  • In the fields of biochemistry and cell biology, the cation-dependent mannose-6-phosphate receptor (CD-MPR) also known as the 46 kDa mannose 6-phosphate receptor is a protein that in humans is encoded by the M6PR gene. (
  • During development, establishment of the mature pattern of neuronal connectivity is achieved by the formation, differentiation, refinement and maintenance of specialized synaptic contacts between pre-, peri- and post-synaptic cells. (
  • Our analyses show that dormant myeloma cells express a distinct transcriptome signature enriched for immune genes and, unexpectedly, genes associated with myeloid cell differentiation. (
  • Correlation between NF-кB dependent-proinflammation markers and osteoblast-specific gene expression in the MSC to measure the effects of NF-кB dependent-proinflammation on differentiation potential toward osteoblast in type 2 diabetes. (
  • We previously showed that IAPs inhibition induced a loss of stemness and glioblastoma stem cells differentiation by activating nuclear factor-κB under normoxic conditions. (
  • For any cell, this transition occurs at the G1 phase, from where the cell can undergo cell cycle arrest, thereby moving towards differentiation, or it can proceed to S-phase and proliferate. (
  • In this study, we aim to investigate the roles of CDKIs such as p21, p27, and p57 in the differentiation process of satellite cells. (
  • We also show that the overexpression of p21, p27, and p57 increases the population of Myosin heavy chain (MHC)(+) differentiated cells, thus promoting the cells towards myogenic differentiation. (
  • Furthermore, we show that the overexpression of the N-terminal CDK inhibitory domain of p21 shows a higher number of MHC(+) differentiated cells compared with the control cells or C-terminal domain of p21, suggesting that the N-terminal domain of p21 is necessary in pushing the myoblasts towards differentiation. (
  • These data help in elucidating the molecular mechanisms involved in the differentiation of satellite cells, which could be used to better understand the muscle regeneration process. (
  • Sertoli cells (SCs) are highly polarized epithelial cells [ 1 ] that play a central role in the functional development of the testis and hence in the expression of the male phenotype [ 2 , 3 ]. (
  • D. Pruess-Schwartz, W. M. Baird, A. Nikbakht, B. A. Merrick and J. K. Selkirk, Benzo(a)pyrene: DNA adduct formation in normal human mammary epithelial cell cultures and the human mammary carcinoma T47D cell line, Cancer Res. (
  • Mammals express two isoforms of Ire1: Ire1-α is expressed ubiquitously, and Ire1-β is expressed in intestinal epithelial cells. (
  • They are organized in different ways in the various epithelial cell types, generating thick bundles in epidermal keratinocytes, apically restricted and densely woven mats in enterocytes, subplasmalemmal enrichments in hepatocytes, or finely dispersed three-dimensional networks in several cultured epithelial cell types. (
  • The activities of these promoters are androgen dependent with the possibility of targeting transgene expression to the AR + tissues, including normal prostate epithelial cells and AR + prostate cancer cells. (
  • Methods Human alveolar (A549), bronchial (BEAS2-B), and primary bronchial epithelial cells (HBEpC) were exposed to CS extract (CSE), and adhesion of Streptococcus pneumoniae determined. (
  • Conclusion CSE stimulates PAFR-dependent pneumococcal adhesion to lower airway epithelial cells. (
  • We have identified a new cell population that expresses the transcription factors Pax3 and Pax7 (paired box proteins 3 and 7) but no skeletal-muscle-specific markers. (
  • One essential nutrient for cells are amino acids, the building blocks of proteins (one of the three major nutrients). (
  • Although little is known about the molecular mechanism, several proteins required for cell fusion in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been identified. (
  • As such, the shmoo tip constitutes a localization hub for many proteins necessary for cell fusion ( Ydenberg and Rose 2008 ). (
  • This new branch of the UPR, which we call regulated Ire1-dependent decay (RIDD), has the potential to selectively relieve the burden on the ER while clearing the translation and translocation machinery for the subsequent influx of new proteins induced by the UPR. (
  • In this project, I will use a combined genetic, cell biological, molecular and computational approach to address 1) how Actin patterns change during embryo development, and do they correlate with oriented cell division, and 2) which proteins regulate Actin dynamics in the early embryo. (
  • When estrogen binds to the receptor, this "estrogen-receptor complex" latches on to DNA and prompts it to transcribe the RNA blueprints for new proteins that promote cell growth, migration and division. (
  • The outer layer is constituted by two proteins: VP7, which forms the smooth surface of the virus, and VP4, which makes the spikes of the virus particle and mediates virus attachment and penetration of the virus particle into the cell ( 1 ). (
  • Biochemical and cellular effects of roscovitine, a potent and selective inhibitor of the cyclin-dependent kinases cdc2, cdk2 and cdk5. (
  • Pretreatment of LC-AH cells with α-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO), an inhibitor of ornithine decarboxylase, before seeding them onto a CPAE cell monolayer and culturing them for 24 h in the absence of DFMO decreased the number of penetrating tumor cells time and dose dependently (about 35% of the maximal inhibition) without affecting their viability or proliferative activity. (
  • No change in the invasive capacity was observed when the CPAE cells were treated with DFMO and the LC-AH cells with methylglyoxal-bis(guanylhydrazone), an inhibitor of S -adenosylmethionine decarboxylase, which depressed the spermidine and spermine levels but increased the putrescine level in the LC-AH cells. (
  • with ionomycin on the channel activity was diminished by the pretreatment with a specific PKC inhibitor, GF 109203X (5 μM), in cell-attached patches. (
  • In MCF-7 cells, PDI-knockdown activated apoptotic signaling, causing cytochrome c release from mitochondria and activation of caspase-9, caspase-6, caspase-7 and poly[ADP-ribose]polymerase-1, and the cytotoxicity induced by PDI-knockdown was suppressed by a pan-caspase inhibitor, z-VAD-fmk. (
  • Cyanide, a strong inhibitor of agglutination, did not cause cells to dissociate from the aggregate even when shear forces were applied. (
  • EMB-induced cytoplasmic vacuolization in both RPE50 and ARPE19 cells was prevented by pretreating the cells with a specific inhibitor of PKCδ, Rottlerin, or depletion of PKCδ by shRNA. (
  • In this work, we found that the actin inhibitor jasplakinolide blocks the cell egress of rotavirus from nonpolarized MA104 cells at early times of infection, when there is still no evidence of cell lysis. (
  • p27, an inhibitor of CDK2, was not translocated into the nucleus in erlotinib-resistant cell lines. (
  • That is to say, all the mice developed metastasis in a CD36-dependent manner. (
  • In mice inoculated with human tumour cells, there appears to be a direct link between fat intake and an increase in metastatic potential through CD36. (
  • Here, using a genetic approach, we show that neural activity-regulated negative factors produced by muscle drive neurodegeneration in Schwann cell-deficient mice. (
  • Trancriptomic analysis shows that expression of the antithrombins serpin C1 and D1 is significantly reduced in Schwann cell-deficient mice. (
  • Blocking peripheral, neuromuscular activity completely rescued MNs and neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) in erbB3 mutant mice lacking Schwann cells, which normally exhibit profound neurodegeneration. (
  • We searched for the molecular basis of this effect by examining the transcriptomes (all of the expressed genes) in the muscle of control mice with Schwann cells and erbB3 mutant mice without them. (
  • S. M. Sebti, D. Pruess-Schwartz and W. M. Baird, Species-and length of exposure-dependent differences in the benzo(a)pyrene: DNA adducts formed in embryo cell cultures from mice, rats and hamsters, Cancer Res. (
  • Injection of diphtheria toxin (DT) into adult CBA mice produced significant loss of inner hair cells without affecting OHCs. (
  • Here, we developed a method to sequence the transcriptome of individual dormant myeloma cells from the bones of tumor-bearing mice. (
  • We demonstrate here that spleens from B cell-deficient mice have 10-fold reduced expression of the T zone chemokine, CCL21, a threefold reduction in T cell and dendritic cell (DC) numbers, and reduced expression of the T zone stromal marker, gp38. (
  • Defects in these parameters may contribute to the immune defects associated with B cell deficiency in mice and humans. (
  • In mice lacking lymphoid CCL21 and CCL19 ( 11 , 12 ), or in animals deficient in the common CCL21 and CCL19 receptor, CCR7 ( 13 ), there is a severe paucity of T cells and DCs within splenic T zones, while follicles continue to develop. (
  • Ag-induced pulmonary inflammation, characterized by eosinophil infiltration, goblet cell hyperplasia with mucus hypersecretion, and accumulation and activation of intraepithelial mast cells was markedly reduced in LTC 4 S null mice. (
  • Furthermore, Ag-specific IgE and IgG1 in serum, Th2 cell cytokine mRNA expression in the lung, and airway hyperresponsiveness to methacholine were significantly reduced in LTC 4 S null mice compared with wild-type controls. (
  • Finally, the number of parabronchial lymph node cells from sensitized LTC 4 S null mice and their capacity to generate Th2 cell cytokines ex vivo after restimulation with Ag were also significantly reduced. (
  • In contrast, delayed-type cutaneous hypersensitivity, a prototypic Th1 cell-dependent response, was intact in LTC 4 S null mice. (
  • The effector function of cys-LTs for the smooth muscle in the microvasculature was shown by the marked attenuation of plasma leakage in the LTC 4 S null mice subjected to FcεRI activation of ear skin mast cells or zymosan activation of peritoneal macrophages ( 13 ). (
  • An example that highlights this potential problem is found in a recent report demonstrating a pathogenic role for natural killer T (NKT) and natural killer (NK) cells in acetaminophen-induced liver injury (AILI) in C57Bl/6 mice in which DMSO was used to facilitate acetaminophen (APAP) dissolution. (
  • We report that NKT and NK cells do not play a pathologic role in AILI in C57Bl/6 mice in the absence of DMSO. (
  • Although AILI was significantly attenuated in mice depleted of NKT and NK cells prior to APAP treatment in the presence of DMSO, no such effect was observed when APAP was dissolved in saline. (
  • Our objective was to determine whether this genetic association relates to rituximab-dependent cytotoxicity mediated by FcγRIIIa/CD16a+ cells. (
  • PDI-knockdown induced different levels of cytotoxicity among these cell lines. (
  • PVSRIPO exhibits profound cytotoxicity in infected neoplastic cells expressing the poliovirus receptor CD155. (
  • In this report, we outline how an unusual recalcitrance of polioviruses toward innate antiviral responses permits viral cytotoxicity and propagation in neoplastic cells, combined with engaging active innate antiviral IFN responses. (
  • In addition, the cytotoxicity of EVO is tumor-specific, as demonstrated by EVO inducing limited toxicity in normal human peripheral blood cells ( 14 ). (
  • However, fluoride is known to cause cytotoxicity in a concentration-dependent manner. (
  • During malignant transformation, cells undergo stages of gene expression reprogramming and mutagenesis that alter their metabolic phenotype(s) [ 1 - 5 ]. (
  • Non-pancreatic cells from the same patient (autologous), targeted by gene transfer vectors or retrieved surgically and genetically engineered ex vivo before being returned to the patient, may relax the immune acceptance problems but pose challenges regarding the amount and kinetics of insulin secretion in response to physiologic stimuli. (
  • It is also crucial for cell-type-specific gene expression in various tissues. (
  • After knocking out the gene for EBAG9, they found that in the absence of EBAG9 the "brake" of the immune cells is loosened. (
  • Cytokine dependent hematopoietic cell linker is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CLNK gene. (
  • We have evidence to suggest that one cell line, COH-BR-5 (ER-negative), lacked hgpx1 gene expression prior to culture. (
  • This is based on the finding of stable hgpx1 gene expression during serial culture of ER-negative breast cancer cell lines newly isolated from malignant effusion and absence of hgpx1 mRNA expression in COH-BR-5. (
  • In RPE50 cells, gene expression of PKCδ on both mRNA and protein levels was induced by EMB within 30 min to 3 h. (
  • The modulation of mdr gene expression in sparse and confluent cells was not related to cell division, nutrient depletion, inhibition of protein synthesis, gap junction status, extracellular ATP, or the presence of various extracellular matrixes, but may be related to cell-density and cell-contact mediated changes in phosphatase activity. (
  • Blocking mTORC 1 permitted autophagy and metaplastic gene induction but blocked cell cycle re‐entry at S‐phase. (
  • Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is characterized by the autoimmune destruction of insulin-producing pancreatic islet beta cells [ 27 , 28 ] in genetically susceptible individuals, resulting in the total lack of insulin. (
  • Human pancreatic duct cells were isolated from pancreata obtained from adult heart-beating organ donors as previously described ( 9 ). (
  • Human adenocarcinoma pancreatic duct cell line (CAPAN-2) was cultured as previously described ( 11 ). (
  • In our laboratory, we focus on encapsulated allo- and xenogeneic pancreatic cells and on non-pancreatic cells genetically engineered to secrete insulin in response to physiologic stimuli. (
  • With non-pancreatic cells, we genetically engineer hepatic and intestinal endocrine L cells for insulin secretion. (
  • The disease results from an autoimmune attack against pancreatic beta cells and at the time of clinical diagnosis, approximately 60- 80% of the beta-cell mass has been destroyed, the study notes, adding that beta-cell preservation has been shown to be an important target in the management of type 1 diabetes and in the prevention of its related complications, such as blindness, kidney failure and heart disease. (
  • Moreover impaired mTOR activation (secondary to LepR mutation), altered the metabolic profile of both Treg cells, which displayed increased proliferative potential at systemic and pancreatic level, by engaging glycolysis at higher level than the WT counterpart. (
  • OGF has proven successful in Phase I and Phase II clinical trials for pancreatic cancer, and safety and efficacy studies for squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck, and hepatocellular carcinoma are in progress. (
  • In most mammalian cells, regulatory volume decrease (RVD) is mediated by swelling-activated Cl(-) and K(+) channels. (
  • The mechanisms whereby apoptotic cells are efficiently identified, removed, and degraded by phagocytes in mammalian cells are not well understood. (
  • Cell migration affects many physiologic and pathologic processes in mammalian organisms. (
  • Characterization of ID-PRIME in living mammalian cells shows that multiple protein-protein interactions can be imaged (FRB-FKBP, Fos-Jun, and neuroligin-PSD-95), with as little as 10 min of coumarin treatment. (
  • Mammalian target of rapamycin inhibition by rapamycin reduces both Stat3 activation in effector T cells and the frequency of IL-17-producing T cells in lupus patients. (
  • In this study, we take advantage of mouse fibroblasts lacking Ire1 activity, both to confirm that RIDD is conserved in mammalian cells and to investigate the functional requirements of RIDD. (
  • The molecular details of this process are altering our understanding of how mutations form in non-dividing cells. (
  • His working hypothesis is that EBAG9 acts as a molecular switch which regulates the immune cells. (
  • Despite the importance of these events, little is known about the molecular mechanisms that control cell fusion. (
  • 6 German Cancer Consortium (DKTK) partner site Freiburg, German Cancer Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Institute of Molecular Medicine and Cell Research, 79104 Freiburg, Germany. (
  • Conclusions: These results provide a further insight into the molecular mechanisms affected by crizotinib in ARMS cells inferring that it could be a useful therapeutic tool in ARMS cancer treatment. (
  • Compounds in this class (exemplified by GNF-2) show exclusive antiproliferative activity toward Bcr-abl-transformed cells, with potencies similar to imatinib, while showing no inhibition of the kinase activity of full-length or catalytic domain of c-abl. (
  • Czapski GA, Gąssowska M, Songin M, Radecka UD, Strosznajder JB (2011) Alterations of cyclin dependent kinase 5 expression and phosphorylation in amyloid precursor protein (APP) transfected PC12 cells. (
  • By integrating activity-based proteomic profiling and drug screens, polo-like kinase-1 (PLK1) was identified as an essential regulator of the MYC-dependent kinome in DHL. (
  • DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) is a holoenzyme consisting of a regulatory subunit, the heterodimeric Ku70/86, and a catalytic subunit known as DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs). (
  • In the present work we demonstrate that B lymphocytes show apparently full length Ku86 and display DNA-dependent kinase activity. (
  • Triggering of ILT3 inhibited the activation of Akt kinase upon B cell receptor stimulation. (
  • Furthermore, the results revealed that receptor‑interacting serine/threonine kinase (RIP) and RIP3 were sequentially activated, suggesting that necroptosis may also be involved in EVO‑induced cell death in A‑375 cells. (
  • Catalase (CAT) treatment significantly inhibited the NaF-mediated cell death and also suppressed the NaF-mediated increase in phospho-c-Jun N-terminal kinase (p-JNK) levels. (
  • These findings indicate that vascular niches for haematopoietic stem cells are part of complex, age-dependent microenvironments involving multiple cell populations and vessel subtypes. (
  • This approach enabled us to monitor large cell populations and characterize the migration behavior of individual cells. (
  • Finally, a computer model was developed to describe the dynamics of large populations of migrating, interacting and proliferating cells. (
  • Understanding the physiology and pathology of an organ composed of a variety of cell populations depends critically on genome-wide information on each cell type. (
  • In this study, we show that enhanced activity of Stat3 in CD4(+)CD45RA(-)Foxp3(-) and Foxp3(low) effector T cells from children with LN correlates with increased frequencies of IL-17-producing cells within these T cell populations. (
  • In this article, we first review how T cells recognize influenza A virus and examine differences in the resting T cell populations between juveniles and adults. (
  • The regional restructuring of the central acinus in rats following long term exposure to ozone (10028156) was examined, and factors, including Clara cell 10 kilodalton protein (CC10), that may make some target cell populations more resistant to injury, were identified. (
  • It has been known for quite some time that certain cellular mechanisms such as rates of endocytosis might be affected by this change in cell density, as cell populations go from being subconfluent to being confluent. (
  • The low density cell populations bind and internalize 3-4 times more toxin per cell than high density cells. (
  • With recent advances in defining tumour-associated antigens, it should now be possible to devise therapeutic vaccines that expand specific populations of anti-tumour T cells. (
  • These results suggest that intracellular putrescine modulates the in vitro invasive capacity of LC-AH cells. (
  • When given alone, DMSO activated hepatic NKT and NK cells in vivo as evidenced by increased NKT cell numbers and higher intracellular levels of the cytotoxic effector molecules interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and granzyme B in both cell types. (
  • Elevation of intracellular Clara cell 10-kDa protein in central acini of rats exposed for 20 months. (
  • Furthermore, the intracellular localization of VP4, its interaction with lipid rafts, and its targeting to the cell surface were shown to be prevented by jasplakinolide, implying a role for actin in these processes. (
  • The confluence-mediated downmodulation of mdr-1 increased the chemosensitivity of the cells to several anticancer drugs commonly associated with an in vitro MDR phenotype by increasing the intracellular accumulation of the drugs. (
  • In contrast, intracellular free calcium chelator, but not of sodium or calcium ion channel blockers, facilitated NaF-induced toxicity in the cells. (
  • During amino acid starvation, the ppGpp synthetase activity of RelA is triggered by the ribosome binding of uncharged tRNA, so that the ppGpp level acts as an intracellular signal that allows cells to perceive their own inability to produce aminoacyl-tRNA. (
  • It links IgG-sensitized target cells to FcγRIIIa/CD16a-bearing cytotoxic cells, i.e . (
  • With cells from another individual (allogeneic) or another species (xenogeneic), encapsulation in semipermeable barriers improves immune acceptance, as it inhibits passage of antibodies and excludes cytotoxic cells of the host. (
  • A cell line derived from a Morris hepatoma, MH1C1, was examined for its in vitro expression of monooxygenases. (
  • This study was designed to examine the in vitro antiproliferative effect of brassinin and its derivatives on human cancer cell lines. (
  • Our goal is to demonstrate the use of in vitro elastic scattering spectroscopy (ESS) to monitor changes in light-scattering properties of cells due to apoptotic micro-morphology changes. (
  • We demonstrate that the overexpression of p21 reduces the Pax7(+)MyoD(-) reserve cell population, a population of in vitro quiescent satellite cells. (
  • Indeed we performed high throughput proteomic analysis (MudPIT), on human freshly isolated and in vitro cultured Treg and Tconv cells and we found that ex vivo Treg cells were highly glycolytic while Tconv cells used predominantly fatty-acid oxidation (FAO). (
  • When cultured in vitro, Treg cells engaged both glycolysis and FAO to proliferate. (
  • However, very high concentrations of AA are used, and it has been previously reported that AA can induce cell lysis in other settings. (
  • Thus, short-term immune signaling can induce C/EBPβ-dependent chromatin accessibility, resulting in HSC-trained immunity, during secondary infection. (
  • Oligodeoxynucleotides containing CpG motifs can induce T cell-dependent arthritis in rats. (
  • A study headed by Salvador Aznar Benitah, ICREA researcher at the Institute for Research in Biomedicine (IRB Barcelona), and published today in Nature identifies metastasis-initiating cells through a specific marker, namely the protein CD36. (
  • This protein, which is found in the membranes of tumour cells, is responsible for taking up fatty acids. (
  • We made time-lapse recordings of cell division in cell lines stably expressing the centrin protein coupled to the green fluorescent protein (GFP) as a centrosomal marker ( 8 ). (
  • Prestin is a membrane protein necessary for outer hair cell (OHC) electromotility and normal hearing. (
  • However, these parasites can become coated with an antibody called IgE that is recognized by an Fc receptor (FcєRI) of eosinophils , a cell type that contains granules (such as major basic protein) against which helminths are not resistant. (
  • C-terminal truncations of Fus2p cause mislocalization and fusion defects, which are suppressed by overexpression of Kel1p , a kelch-domain protein of unknown function previously implicated in cell fusion. (
  • Moreover, treatment of primary CD34 + cell-derived erythroid cultures with metformin, an FDA-approved drug known to enhance FOXO3 activity in nonerythroid cells, caused dose-related FOXO3-dependent increases in the percentage of HbF protein and the fraction of HbF-immunostaining cells (F cells). (
  • We report a new method, Interaction-Dependent PRobe Incorporation Mediated by Enzymes, or ID-PRIME, for imaging protein-protein interactions (PPIs) inside living cells. (
  • However, whole cell analysis yielded no evidence of truncated Ku86, suggesting that the protease is not active in intact cells, but is exerting a marked activity during the protein extraction procedure. (
  • Breast cancer cells with increased abundance of Mena [an epidermal growth factor (EGF)-responsive cell migration protein] are present with macrophages at sites of intravasation, called TMEM sites (for tumor microenvironment of metastasis), in patient tumor samples. (
  • However, this cell density-dependent change does not affect the protein levels of sorting nexin 1, a key component of retrograde transport for Stx. (
  • Knocking down p27 protein partially blocked erlotinib-induced cell death and cell cycle arrest. (
  • We determined that the key mediator of Hsp90-dependent azole resistance is calcineurin ( 7 ), an Hsp90 client protein and a conserved calcium-activated protein phosphatase. (
  • Experiments utilizing a human cancer cell line, a squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck, and a probe of OGFr fused to green fluorescent protein (eGFP), revealed the presence of a transport factor, karyopherin β, which plays a key role in nucleocytoplasmic transport. (
  • A recent Penn Medicine study has shown that a certain misfolded protein implicates a different type of neurodegenerative disorder depending on the type of cell the protein is in. (
  • No study has ever shown that cell type leads to a different variety of malformed protein in any other type of neurodegenerative disorder. (
  • Our results show that insulin deprivation decreases caspase-dependent apoptotic signaling in cultured rat SCs evidencing a possible mechanism by which lack of insulin can affect spermatogenesis and fertility. (
  • Folch J, Junyent F, Verdaguer E, Auladell C, Pizarro JG, Zarate CB, Pallas M, Camins A (2012) Role of cell cycle re-entry in neurons: a common apoptotic mechanism of neuronal cell death. (
  • Although the impact of Th17 cells on autoimmunity is undisputable, their pathogenic effector mechanism is still enigmatic. (
  • The interaction of the FcєRI receptor with the Fc portion of helminth bound IgE causes the eosinophil to release these granules in a mechanism similar to that of the NK cell during ADCC. (
  • Our data suggest that cells use a multitiered mechanism by which different conditions in the ER lead to distinct outputs from Ire1. (
  • We hypothesized that vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) are involved in the mechanism underlying the normalization of endothelial dysfunction by calcium antagonists. (
  • High performance thin-layer chromatography analysis showed that low density cells have higher Gb3 levels for both C16 and C24 species compared to high density cells, indicating a mechanism for the cell density-dependent change of Stx binding. (
  • Plant cells are surrounded by rigid walls restricting their movement, and therefore oriented cell division is a central mechanism in defining shape during growth and development. (
  • These findings contrast with the traditional assumption that rotavirus is released from nonpolarized cells by a nonspecific mechanism when the cell integrity is lost. (
  • However, the mechanism of the cytotoxic effect exerted by EVO on tumor cells is not yet fully understood. (
  • In conclusion, the results of the present study unveiled a novel mechanism of drug action by EVO in human melanoma cells and suggested its potential value in treating human melanoma by inducing cell death via ROS activation. (
  • These results indicate that the bulk of chlamydial clearance from the genital mucosa is mediated by an IL-12-dependent, IFN-gamma-independent mechanism, while prevention of disseminated disease requires the action of IFN-gamma. (
  • The mRNA levels of LSD1 and β -catenin are inversely correlated with the levels of Lefty1 in pancreas and breast tumors, implying that this mechanism is common to mouse embryonic stem cells and cancer cells. (
  • Initial stimuli (not all known) dysregulate information signaling and activate oncogenes and/or cancer stem cells, resulting in a partial glycolytic "Warburg" phenotype [ 1 - 5 ] in which pyruvate is diverted, at least to a certain extent, from oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). (
  • Yet, a direct temporal and spatial correlation between specific enzymatic activity, altered target phosphorylation sites in keratin polypeptides and consecutive keratin reorganization, has not been established so far in the context of a living cell. (
  • In parallel, we also observed that this scenario was altered in MS subjects and that glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation (measured by Seahorse assays) were impaired during T cell activation in MS patients when compared with healthy controls. (
  • This process involves B cell expression of lymphotoxin (LT)α1β2, a cytokine that is required for expression of CCL21 and gp38. (
  • Type 2 diabetes was known to be in proinflammatory state due to NF-кB-dependent cytokine secretion (for example, TNF-α, IL1 and IL6), which in turn contribute to NF-кB upregulation. (
  • Reports that cell lines showing sensitivity to EGFR-TKIs showed G 1 arrest after treatment with EGFR-TKIs ( 11 - 13 ) led us to study the potential relationship between cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK), particularly CDK2 ( 12 , 13 ) and erlotinib sensitivity. (
  • Fus2p , a key regulator of cell fusion, localizes to the shmoo tip in a highly regulated manner. (
  • By chaperoning regulators of cell signaling in an environmentally contingent manner, Hsp90 is poised to influence the evolution of new traits. (
  • Within lymph nodes, non-hematopoietic stromal cells organize and interact with leukocytes in an immunologically important manner. (
  • It is likely that β-catenin serves as a platform which orchestrates the sequential recruitment of chromatin remodeling factors in a stimulus-dependent manner. (
  • Furthermore, B. burgdorferi stimulation of monocytes via TLR, and secondary activation of gammadelta T cells, are both caspase-dependent. (
  • Fus2p mediates cell fusion by binding activated Cdc42p . (
  • CD56dim natural killer (NK) cells, a fraction of monocyte/macrophages, and a fraction of T cells, and activates these effector cells. (
  • We report that a serum factor(s) provides a more than threefold increase in the uptake of apoptotic cells by human macrophages and demonstrate that complement components are required for this high level of uptake. (
  • Interaction between human macrophages and apoptotic cells was performed as described (( 3 ), ( 14 )) with minor modifications in the presence or absence of 15% human serum. (
  • The remainder of the spleen, termed red pulp, contains large numbers of macrophages, vascular cells, and transiting blood cells. (
  • We found that intravasation of breast cancer cells may be prevented by blocking the signaling between cancer cells and macrophages. (
  • Glutamate secretion could be blocked by inhibiting either glutaminase or KV1.3 channels, which are known to be linked to integrin expression and highly expressed on stimulated T cells. (
  • Patients with MS have higher glutamine levels in the CSF and elevated glutamate secretion by T cells. (
  • These results indicate that in STC-1 cells a potassium current is increased by agents that stimulate CCK secretion, presumably by increasing the level of cytosolic calcium. (
  • Expression of Cyclin D1 and pRb (Ser 795) indicate the cell cycle re-entry of neurons. (
  • Herein, we used flow cytometry, immunohistochemistry, RT-PCR, and functional coagulation assays to demonstrate that duct cells exert a potent factor VII-dependent procoagulant activity related to their expression of tissue factor. (
  • The expression of numerous developmental and neuroendocrine marker genes in both folliculostellate and hormone-producing cells supports that they have a common origin. (
  • The embryonic development of anterior and intermediate lobes is initiated by formation of a rudimentary Rathke's pouch, followed by development of a definitive pouch, which is critically dependent on expression of LIM homeobox genes Lhx3 and Lhx4 ( 1 , 2 ). (
  • This is followed by expression of Prop1 and other progenitor genes, detachment from the oral ectodomain and generation of three major hormonal cell lineages ( 8 ). (
  • The expression of Tbx19 in a fraction of these cells leads to generation of two cell types producing proopiomelanocortin (POMC): corticotrophs (C)-secreting adrenocorticotropin, and melanotrophs-secreting melanocyte-stimulating hormone ( 9 ). (
  • HbF induction by metformin in erythroid precursors was dependent on FOXO3 expression and did not alter expression of BCL11A, MYB, or KLF1. (
  • Introduction of a B cell specific LTα transgene on to the LTα-deficient background restored splenic CCL21 and gp38 expression, DC numbers, and T zone size. (
  • Normal expression of CXCL13 and development of FDCs is dependent on signals provided by B cells ( 8 - 10 ). (
  • LTα1β2 causes growth and maturation of the follicular stromal cells, leading to increased expression of CXCL13 and upregulation of FDC markers ( 7 ). (
  • Expression of these chemokines is also dependent on LTα1β2 ( 14 ). (
  • We demonstrate here that splenic expression of CCL21 is dependent on the presence of B cells but not T cells, whereas expression in lymph nodes is B cell independent. (
  • Similarly, when used as a solvent for APAP, DMSO again increased NKT cell numbers and induced IFN-γ and granzyme B expression in both cell types. (
  • In this master thesis cell density-dependent changes in the expression of Gb3 species, and the ability of the cells to bind and internalize Shiga toxin (Stx) was measured. (
  • In estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer cell lines, very low expression of glutathione peroxidase-1 (GPX-1) activity and hgpx1 mRNA has been observed. (
  • Expression of hgpx2 mRNA (producing GPXGI, the GI tract GPX) was detected in several long and newly established, ER-negative breast cancer cell lines. (
  • TY - JOUR T1 - Expression of selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase in human breast tumor cell lines. (
  • VL - 55 IS - 4 N2 - In estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer cell lines, very low expression of glutathione peroxidase-1 (GPX-1) activity and hgpx1 mRNA has been observed. (
  • Importantly, AT-VISA demonstrated little or no expression in normal cells. (
  • Cl - channel expression in freshly isolated cells was studied with patch clamp and qPCR. (
  • Exposure to crizotinib impaired cell growth, and accumulation at G2/M phase was attributed to an altered expression and activation of checkpoint regulators, such as Cyclin B1 and Cdc2. (
  • Moreover these events associated with specific epigenetic modifications, altered engagement of autophagy and clock genes expression, strongly impacting again Treg cell homeostasis and function. (
  • The expression level of mdr-1 mRNA transcripts (analyzed by Northern blot and in situ hybridization) and P-glycoprotein (analyzed by flow cytometry) inversely correlated with cell density. (
  • The ectopic expression of ILT3 in CLL was a distinctive feature of neoplastic B cells and hematopoietic stem cells, thus identifying ILT3 as a selective marker of malignancy in CLL and the first example of phenotypic continuity between mature CLL cells and their progenitors in the bone marrow. (
  • Our proof-of-principle experiments show that β-catenin can recruit the H3K4me2/1 demethylase LSD1 to regulate the expression of the tumor suppressor Lefty1 in mouse embryonic stem cells. (
  • In the human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa , a complex quorum-sensing circuitry, linked to RpoS expression, is required for cell density-dependent production of many secreted virulence factors, including LasB elastase. (
  • We found that overexpression of relA activated the expression of rpoS in P. aeruginosa and led to premature, cell density-independent LasB elastase production. (
  • Furthermore, expression of rpoS during starvation conditions is prevented in E. coli cells lacking polyP ( 42 ). (
  • With encapsulated cells, we are developing methods to improve immunoprotection by combining the semipermeable barrier with the local presentation and delivery of pro-survival and insulinotropic factors. (
  • NGF treatment significantly increased neurite outgrowth and survival of TH-immunoreactive cells. (
  • Tissue microarray analysis with 91 HGG tumors demonstrates that the proportion of MELK (+) cells is a statistically significant indicator of postsurgical survival periods. (
  • In addition to organizing T and B cell segregation and expressing lymphocyte survival factors, several recent studies have shown that lymph node stromal cells shape the naïve T cell repertoire, expressing self-antigens which delete self-reactive T cells in a unique and non-redundant fashion. (
  • Enhanced permeability has been implicated in compromised immunity due to reduced flow of lymph and immune cells to LNs, which are the primary site of antigen presentation to T cells. (
  • The sex hormone estrogen tempers the killing activity of a specific group of immune cells, the cytotoxic T cells (CTLs), which are known to attack tumor cells and cells infected by viruses. (
  • The immune cells can release much more of the tumor-killing enzymes than in the presence of EBAG9. (
  • They have greater quantities of these granules at their disposal once the blockage of the immune cells through EBAG9 is lifted. (
  • The immune cells are ready to attack and destroy the tumor cells. (
  • The overactivation of immune cells plays an important role in the pathogenesis of hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy)-accelerated atherosclerosis. (
  • This compartment functions in red cell and immune complex clearance and leukocyte exit. (
  • Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) maintain life-long production of immune cells and can directly respond to infection, but sustained effects on the immune response remain unclear. (
  • Cells at the interface between these two arms of the immune response are thus critical to provide full engagement of host defense. (
  • The results of the cascade are the activation of mating-specific genes, cell-cycle arrest, and polarized growth along the pheromone gradient toward the mating partner. (
  • FUS1 , FUS2 , and PRM1 are all pheromone-induced genes and are required in at least one of two mating cells to produce a diploid. (
  • Six pituitary-specific cell types were identified based on known marker genes and characterized: folliculostellate cells and hormone-producing corticotrophs, gonadotrophs, thyrotrophs, somatotrophs, and lactotrophs. (
  • For several genes, the validity of transcriptome analysis was confirmed by qRT-PCR and single cell immunocytochemistry. (
  • These genes were switched on by co-culture with osteoblastic cells. (
  • Unique to key developmental genes in mES cells are bivalent chromatin domains with both activating and repressing marks, which contribute to the pluripotency potential of mES cells ( 5 ). (
  • RpoS is responsible for the transcription of a variety of genes expressed after cells enter stationary phase or during starvation and stress conditions ( 28 ). (
  • MIM 172420)-mediated B cell antigen receptor (BCR) signaling and FC-epsilon R1 (see FCER1A, MIM 147140)-mediated mast cell degranulation (Cao et al. (
  • B cells may contribute to MS pathogenesis through production of autoantibodies (or antibodies directed at foreign bodies, which unfortunately cross-react with self-antigens), through promotion of T cell activation via antigen presentation, or through production of cytokines. (
  • We present here the synthesis and analysis of vaccines based on conjugation of MHC-binding peptide epitopes to α-galactosylceramide, a glycolipid presented by the nonpolymorphic antigen-presenting molecule CD1d to provoke the stimulatory activity of type I natural killer T (NKT) cells. (
  • In addition, it elicits intriguing persistent translation and replication, giving rise to sustained type I interferon (IFN)-dominant proinflammatory stimulation of antigen-presenting cells. (
  • β-catenin, the effector of Wnt signaling, has a dual function in the cell and is involved in both cell adhesion and transcription. (
  • These cells are maintained as a proliferating population in embryonic and fetal muscles of the trunk and limbs throughout development. (
  • Oriented divisions underlie formative events during embryonic and post-embryonic development to generate cell diversity. (
  • In this study, we used a strategy combining the genetic manipulation of mouse embryonic stem cells with affinity purification and quantitative mass spectroscopy utilizing stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture to study the interactome of chromatin-bound β-catenin with and without Wnt3a stimulation. (
  • Further, no information is available on the effects of NaF on mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs). (
  • In kidney tissue, the levels of autophagy and mitophagy were examined, and proliferative properties of renal cells obtained from rats of different age were compared. (
  • Renal cells from old rats showed impaired proliferative capacity, a worse rate of recovery after ischemic injury, increased levels of oxidative stress, accumulation of lipofuscin granules and lower mitochondria membrane potential. (
  • In 1900, Adami speculated that a sequence of context‐independent energetic and structural changes governed the reversion of differentiated cells to a proliferative, regenerative state. (
  • Accordingly, we show here that differentiated cells in diverse organs become proliferative via a shared program. (
  • Drs. Zagon and McLaughlin discovered the cell proliferative properties of endogenous opioids, identified OGF as the specific opioid peptide involved, and cloned and sequenced OGFr. (
  • The amount of variant Ku86 is strongly increased in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) by storage of blood prior to the isolation of PBMC. (
  • We tested this hypothesis by arresting human tumor cell lines at different stages of the cell cycle. (
  • The final established phenotype is exemplified by human glioblastoma cells, which, despite their low respiration, maintain a constant pyruvate flux through PDH and hence partial OXPHOS [ 9 ]. (
  • The human body consists of about 35 trillion cells, so it could be said that overall body growth is the growth of individual cells. (
  • Although these complications were shown to be related to the presence of tissue factor in human islet preparations, the contribution of duct cells, which represent a major contaminant of clinical islet isolates, has not been specified so far. (
  • The demonstration that endocrine cells express tissue factor (TF) provided a plausible cause for the thrombotic reaction elicited by human islet suspensions ( 5 ). (
  • The organs were procured by European hospitals affiliated with the Eurotransplant Foundation (Leiden, the Netherlands) and sent to the Human β-Cell Bank in Brussels (Belgium) for the preparation of isolated fractions. (
  • Previous studies in the human neuroblastoma cell line CHP-100 have demonstrated that exposure to hypoosmotic solutions activates Cl(-) channels which are sensitive to Ca(2+). (
  • These results suggest that in response to hypoosmotic stress, a Ca(2+)-dependent K(+) conductance is activated in the human neuroblastoma cell line CHP-100. (
  • B ) mRNA analysis of the enzyme glutaminase was performed in unstimulated and stimulated human Th1 and Th17 cells from 8 healthy donors (HDs) and 15 patients with MS after 24 hours (normalized to β-actin). (
  • C ) Human CD4 + cells were isolated from PBMCs of healthy donors ( n = 17), and glutamate levels were measured after 24 hours. (
  • Unstimulated human Th17 cells showed only sporadic positive signals in the cytoplasm (left panels), whereas stimulated human Th17 cells showed clear positive signals in the cytoplasm and in vesicles (middle and right panels). (
  • E ) Quantification of glutamate-positive cells within unstained ( n = 13), unstimulated (Th17 unstim) ( n = 11), and stimulated (Th17 stim) ( n = 17) human Th17 cells. (
  • The Burkitt B cell line, BL-41, and normal human mature peripheral T cells were rendered apoptotic by γ-irradiation (4,000 cGy) followed by incubation in the absence of serum as for human neutrophils. (
  • Human polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMN) have been reported to completely lack DNA-PK, and promyelocytic HL-60 cells to express a variant form of Ku resulting in enhanced radiation sensitivity. (
  • This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to Alexa Fluor® 488 fluorescent dye and tested in-house for direct flow cytometric analysis of human cells. (
  • N-[2-(indol-3-yl)ethyl]-S-methyldithiocarbamate) exhibited the most potent activity with IC 50 = 8.0 μM in human colorectal Caco2 cells and was selected for further studies. (
  • The present study aimed to evaluate the antitumor effects of evodiamine in human melanoma A‑375 cells. (
  • Characterization of an ATP-dependent DNA strand transferase from human cells. (
  • We have characterized an enzymatic activity from human cell nuclei which is capable of catalyzing strand exchange between homologous DNA sequences. (
  • Canonical Wnt signaling is repeatedly used during development to control cell fate, and it is often implicated in human cancer. (
  • We have previously observed that human gammadelta T cells of the Vdelta1 subset accumulate in inflamed joints in Lyme arthritis and proliferate in response to stimulation with the causative spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi. (
  • In line with these evidence, we also showed that high fat diet (HFD) worsened EAE score and brain inflammation (via mTOR overactivation), by decreasing the number and function of Treg cells, while caloric restriction (CR) improved EAE by increasing mTOR oscillations, boosting Treg cell expansion and repressing inflammatory cytokines production. (
  • Altogether, our findings demonstrate that β1-integrin- and KV1.3 channel-dependent signaling stimulates glutamate release from Th17 cells upon direct cell-cell contact between Th17 cells and neurons. (
  • In conclusion, our results demonstrate that PKM2 is required to support metabolic reprogramming for Hcy-induced B cell activation and function, and it might serve as a critical regulator in HHcy-accelerated initiation of atherosclerosis. (
  • These data demonstrate a previously unappreciated effect of DMSO on hepatic NKT and NK cells, suggesting that DMSO should be used cautiously in experiments involving these cells. (
  • Taken together our data demonstrate that metabolism can modulate autoimmune diseases susceptibility, by regulating Treg cell function. (
  • Arteriolar niches maintain haematopoietic stem cell quiescence. (
  • Although we have not yet tested this in all tumour types, we can state that CD36 is a general marker of metastatic cells, the first marker I know of that is generally specific to metastasis," says Salvador Aznar Benitah, head of the Stem Cell and Cancer Lab at IRB Barcelona. (
  • Researchers are getting very excited about an innovative new stem-cell study, published in the latest issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association , which permitted some type 1 diabetes patients to stop taking insulin. (
  • The preliminary study, which can be found in the April 11 issue of JAMA and was carried out at the University of Sao Paulo in Ribeirao Preto, Brazil, claims that a therapy that includes stem cell transplantation induced extended insulin independence in patients with type 1 diabetes. (
  • The authors of the study, led by Julio Voltarelli of the University of Sao Paulo and Richard Burt of Chicago's Northwestern University, examined the effect of high-dose immunosuppression followed by autologous nonmyeloablative haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (AHST) to preserve beta-cell function in 15 newly diagnosed patients with type 1 diabetes. (
  • However, some observers have expressed concern over whether the risks of stem-cell transplantation outweigh the inconvenience of being dependent on insulin, while others expressed concern that patients as young as 14 took part in the Brazilian study, which was published just as the future of stem-cell research in the USA was being debated in Congress. (
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  • Islet cell autoantigens in insulin-dependent diabetes. (
  • The main finding of the study was a loss of experience-dependent plasticity in the place fields of old rats. (
  • Here, we report single-cell transcriptome profiling of over 6,800 freshly dispersed anterior pituitary cells from postpubertal male and female rats. (
  • We then investigate the effect of chandelier cell activation on pyramidal neuron spiking in several conditions, ranging from the resting membrane potential to stimuli designed to approximate in vivo membrane potential dynamics. (
  • However, the direct effects of HHcy on B cell function in vivo, the underlying mechanisms, and the potential pathophysiological significance remain to be elucidated. (
  • 2 SOD deficiency has been shown to result in impairment of endothelium-dependent dilation as a result of increased inactivation of NO in vivo. (
  • The difference in cell density-dependent sensitivity to Stx is even more dramatic, with a 9-fold higher sensitivity in low than in high density cells, suggesting a more efficient sorting of toxin towards the ER in the low density cells. (
  • The contaminating duct cells have already been suggested to directly contribute to β-cell damage through their production of nitric oxide ( 9 ). (
  • This unexpected movement was observed in 45 of 50 HeLa cells. (
  • HeLa cell stably expressing centrin-GFP. (
  • Butyric acid treatment of the cancer cells HeLa and SW480 resulted in increased levels of Gb3, for both C24 and C16 species. (
  • In HeLa cells there was also a shift in species distribution after butyric acid treatment, with a higher increase in C16 compared to C24 species. (
  • In this study, the effects of PDI-knockdown were compared among three cell lines: MCF-7, SH-SY5Y and HeLa. (
  • In flow cytometry, very limited platelet activation was detected before reaching AA concentrations in the millimolar range, where cell lysis also occurred, making it problematic to develop a reliable flow cytometry assay using AA as reagent. (
  • To examine the stress response, including the role of DNA-PK in patients with autoimmune disease, B-cell lines were exposed to gamma-radiation and then post-incubated to allow for inducible stress functions to develop. (
  • Glial cells regulate multiple aspects of synaptogenesis. (
  • Together, these results suggest that Schwann cells regulate NMJs by opposing the effects of activity-regulated, muscle-derived negative factors and provide the first genetic evidence that thrombin plays a central role outside of the coagulation system. (
  • A research group at Osaka University led by Takeshi Noda discovered that TOR (Target of Rapamycin), an enzyme complex that played a central role in cell growth, controlled autophagy. (
  • From these findings, the researchers found that the Pib2 complex bound directly to glutamine, activated TOR complexes, and regulated cell growth and autophagy. (
  • These findings of the researchers in Berlin may also explain why drugs like tamoxifen act on tumor cell growth. (
  • however, further exposure to exogenous ROS results in tumor cell death ( 20 , 21 ). (
  • This increase is caused by several factors, including increased concentration and cellular abundance of CC10 in granules and an increased mass of nonciliated secretory cells. (
  • Therefore, the proinflammatory state and its correlation to cellular NF-кB-dependent RAGE activation is noteworthy to be determined in the MSC of type 2 diabetes. (
  • at early times postinfection, it has been found on the cell surface and associated with microtubules ( 2 ), cellular lipid rafts ( 3 ), the small GTPase Rab5, and the prenylated Rab acceptor PRA1 ( 4 ). (
  • These results establish a direct link between telomerase activity and progression through the cell cycle. (
  • Given the complex and multiple physiological functions of islet cells and the continuous variation in their activity, it is reasonable to speculate that the speed of the progression to IDD could vary between individuals with respect to their insulin needs and the relative activities of their islets. (
  • The checkpoint concept ( 1 , 2 ) was introduced to describe mechanisms controlling the progression of the cell division cycle at critical steps that impose delays to allow corrections or repairs, or even to trigger cell death. (
  • Its initiation and progression involve circulating factors such as low density lipoproteins (LDLs) and triglycerides, inflammatory activation of the cells of the vascular wall, and recruitment of leukocytes. (
  • This Commentary will review our current understanding of how endothelial cell responses to fluid shear stress leads to the development and progression of atherosclerosis. (
  • Co-author Dr. McLaughlin states "Given the extraordinary multifaceted and subtle biological control of the cell cycle by the OGF-OGFr axis, it may be envisioned that either a loss or a gain in nucleocytoplasmic transport could contribute to the onset and progression of disease. (
  • This is similar to, but independent of, responses by cytotoxic T cells (CTLs). (
  • T cells play a critical role in the host response to influenza A virus by supporting the innate and humoral responses, mediating cytotoxic activity, and promoting recovery. (
  • Next, we describe how the juvenile CD4+, CD8+, and regulatory T cell responses compare to those in adults and discuss the potential physiologic and clinical consequences of the differences. (
  • We report that cell lysis, especially of red blood cells, does occur at concentrations of AA used in the clinical tests and that ADP is very important for the AA-induced platelet activation responses. (
  • We conclude that cell lysis and ADP release contribute to AA-induced platelet responses, most markedly in whole blood assays. (
  • In addition to their role in the transition from innate to adaptive immunity, innate antiviral IFN responses may intercept the viral life cycle in cancerous cells, prevent viral cytopathogenicity, and restrict viral spread. (
  • By chaperoning calcineurin, Hsp90 regulates membrane stress responses that are crucial for cells to survive in the presence of azoles, thereby enabling the phenotypic consequences of new resistance mutations. (
  • Further, hyperphosphorylation of p38 (Thr 180/Tyr 182) confirms the activation of DNA damage-dependent checkpoint. (
  • Exposure of phosphatidylserine on the apoptotic cell surface was partially responsible for complement activation and resulted in coating the apoptotic cell surface with C3bi. (
  • Complement activation is likely to be required for efficient uptake of apoptotic cells within the systemic circulation, and early component deficiencies could predispose to systemic autoimmunity by enhanced exposure to and/or aberrant deposition of apoptotic cells. (
  • This action blocks downstream signal transduction and inhibits the tumorigenic effects associated with ligand-dependent and ligand-independent EGFR activation ( 1 , 2 ). (
  • CD36 activity and dependence on lipid (fat) metabolism distinguish metastasis-initiating cells from other tumour cells. (
  • The role of metabolism on cell motility was investigated by testing the hypothesis that glycolysis is required for cancer cell migration. (
  • Induction of cytochrome(s) P450-dependent drug metabolism in cultured MH1C1 hepatoma cells. (
  • At the same time EBAG9 can no longer inhibit the cytotoxic T cells. (
  • Researchers have discovered a new family of agents that inhibit the growth of estrogen-dependent breast cancer cells. (
  • Therefore, B cells influence spleen T zone development by providing: (a) signals that promote T cell accumulation, and: (b) signals, including LTα1β2, that promote stromal cell development and DC accumulation. (
  • Along with Dr. Cheng, they have documented that OGF enters cells by clathrin-mediated endocytosis, showed that the OGF-OGFr complex undergoes nucleocytoplasmic trafficking which is dependent on nuclear localization signals, and collaborated on demonstrating the remarkable properties of these native peptides in a variety of clinical studies. (
  • However, the rituximab concentration resulting in 50% lysis (EC 50 ) observed with NK cells from VV donors was 4.2 times lower than that observed with NK cells from FF donors (on average 0.00096 and 0.00402 μg/ml, respectively, P = 0.0043). (
  • This study supports the conclusion that FCGR3A genotype is associated with response to rituximab because it affects the relationship between rituximab concentration and NK cell-mediated lysis of CD20+ cells. (
  • It has been assumed historically that rotavirus exits nonpolarized cells following cell lysis. (