Muscles: Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.Myocytes, Cardiac: Striated muscle cells found in the heart. They are derived from cardiac myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, CARDIAC).Muscle, Smooth: Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Muscle Proteins: The protein constituents of muscle, the major ones being ACTINS and MYOSINS. More than a dozen accessory proteins exist including TROPONIN; TROPOMYOSIN; and DYSTROPHIN.Myocytes, Smooth Muscle: Non-striated, elongated, spindle-shaped cells found lining the digestive tract, uterus, and blood vessels. They are derived from specialized myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SMOOTH MUSCLE).Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Heart: The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.Muscle Fibers, Skeletal: Large, multinucleate single cells, either cylindrical or prismatic in shape, that form the basic unit of SKELETAL MUSCLE. They consist of MYOFIBRILS enclosed within and attached to the SARCOLEMMA. They are derived from the fusion of skeletal myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SKELETAL) into a syncytium, followed by differentiation.Muscle Cells: Mature contractile cells, commonly known as myocytes, that form one of three kinds of muscle. The three types of muscle cells are skeletal (MUSCLE FIBERS, SKELETAL), cardiac (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC), and smooth (MYOCYTES, SMOOTH MUSCLE). They are derived from embryonic (precursor) muscle cells called MYOBLASTS.Muscle Contraction: A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.Muscle Development: Developmental events leading to the formation of adult muscular system, which includes differentiation of the various types of muscle cell precursors, migration of myoblasts, activation of myogenesis and development of muscle anchorage.Muscle, Smooth, Vascular: The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Cardiac Output: The volume of BLOOD passing through the HEART per unit of time. It is usually expressed as liters (volume) per minute so as not to be confused with STROKE VOLUME (volume per beat).Arrhythmias, Cardiac: Any disturbances of the normal rhythmic beating of the heart or MYOCARDIAL CONTRACTION. Cardiac arrhythmias can be classified by the abnormalities in HEART RATE, disorders of electrical impulse generation, or impulse conduction.Myocardial Contraction: Contractile activity of the MYOCARDIUM.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Myoblasts, Cardiac: Precursor cells destined to differentiate into cardiac myocytes (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC).Aorta: The main trunk of the systemic arteries.Heart Ventricles: The lower right and left chambers of the heart. The right ventricle pumps venous BLOOD into the LUNGS and the left ventricle pumps oxygenated blood into the systemic arterial circulation.Muscle Fibers, Fast-Twitch: Skeletal muscle fibers characterized by their expression of the Type II MYOSIN HEAVY CHAIN isoforms which have high ATPase activity and effect several other functional properties - shortening velocity, power output, rate of tension redevelopment. Several fast types have been identified.Muscle Denervation: The resection or removal of the innervation of a muscle or muscle tissue.Muscle Fatigue: A state arrived at through prolonged and strong contraction of a muscle. Studies in athletes during prolonged submaximal exercise have shown that muscle fatigue increases in almost direct proportion to the rate of muscle glycogen depletion. Muscle fatigue in short-term maximal exercise is associated with oxygen lack and an increased level of blood and muscle lactic acid, and an accompanying increase in hydrogen-ion concentration in the exercised muscle.Muscle Fibers, Slow-Twitch: Skeletal muscle fibers characterized by their expression of the Type I MYOSIN HEAVY CHAIN isoforms which have low ATPase activity and effect several other functional properties - shortening velocity, power output, rate of tension redevelopment.Cardiomegaly: Enlargement of the HEART, usually indicated by a cardiothoracic ratio above 0.50. Heart enlargement may involve the right, the left, or both HEART VENTRICLES or HEART ATRIA. Cardiomegaly is a nonspecific symptom seen in patients with chronic systolic heart failure (HEART FAILURE) or several forms of CARDIOMYOPATHIES.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Mitochondria, Muscle: Mitochondria of skeletal and smooth muscle. It does not include myocardial mitochondria for which MITOCHONDRIA, HEART is available.Myofibrils: The long cylindrical contractile organelles of STRIATED MUSCLE cells composed of ACTIN FILAMENTS; MYOSIN filaments; and other proteins organized in arrays of repeating units called SARCOMERES .Cardiac Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the heart.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Death, Sudden, Cardiac: Unexpected rapid natural death due to cardiovascular collapse within one hour of initial symptoms. It is usually caused by the worsening of existing heart diseases. The sudden onset of symptoms, such as CHEST PAIN and CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS, particularly VENTRICULAR TACHYCARDIA, can lead to the loss of consciousness and cardiac arrest followed by biological death. (from Braunwald's Heart Disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine, 7th ed., 2005)Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Membrane Potentials: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).Muscle Relaxation: That phase of a muscle twitch during which a muscle returns to a resting position.Papillary Muscles: Conical muscular projections from the walls of the cardiac ventricles, attached to the cusps of the atrioventricular valves by the chordae tendineae.Models, Cardiovascular: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the cardiovascular system, processes, or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers and other electronic equipment.Muscle, Striated: One of two types of muscle in the body, characterized by the array of bands observed under microscope. Striated muscles can be divided into two subtypes: the CARDIAC MUSCLE and the SKELETAL MUSCLE.Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Neck Muscles: The neck muscles consist of the platysma, splenius cervicis, sternocleidomastoid(eus), longus colli, the anterior, medius, and posterior scalenes, digastric(us), stylohyoid(eus), mylohyoid(eus), geniohyoid(eus), sternohyoid(eus), omohyoid(eus), sternothyroid(eus), and thyrohyoid(eus).Oculomotor Muscles: The muscles that move the eye. Included in this group are the medial rectus, lateral rectus, superior rectus, inferior rectus, inferior oblique, superior oblique, musculus orbitalis, and levator palpebrae superioris.Sarcolemma: The excitable plasma membrane of a muscle cell. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Sarcomeres: The repeating contractile units of the MYOFIBRIL, delimited by Z bands along its length.Muscle Spindles: Skeletal muscle structures that function as the MECHANORECEPTORS responsible for the stretch or myotactic reflex (REFLEX, STRETCH). They are composed of a bundle of encapsulated SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS, i.e., the intrafusal fibers (nuclear bag 1 fibers, nuclear bag 2 fibers, and nuclear chain fibers) innervated by SENSORY NEURONS.Heart Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the HEART including its structural and functional abnormalities.Action Potentials: Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.Respiratory Muscles: These include the muscles of the DIAPHRAGM and the INTERCOSTAL MUSCLES.Muscle Weakness: A vague complaint of debility, fatigue, or exhaustion attributable to weakness of various muscles. The weakness can be characterized as subacute or chronic, often progressive, and is a manifestation of many muscle and neuromuscular diseases. (From Wyngaarden et al., Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p2251)Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Cardiomyopathies: A group of diseases in which the dominant feature is the involvement of the CARDIAC MUSCLE itself. Cardiomyopathies are classified according to their predominant pathophysiological features (DILATED CARDIOMYOPATHY; HYPERTROPHIC CARDIOMYOPATHY; RESTRICTIVE CARDIOMYOPATHY) or their etiological/pathological factors (CARDIOMYOPATHY, ALCOHOLIC; ENDOCARDIAL FIBROELASTOSIS).Ventricular Function: The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the HEART VENTRICLES.Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Actins: Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.Cardiac Pacing, Artificial: Regulation of the rate of contraction of the heart muscles by an artificial pacemaker.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Electrophysiology: The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Myosin Heavy Chains: The larger subunits of MYOSINS. The heavy chains have a molecular weight of about 230 kDa and each heavy chain is usually associated with a dissimilar pair of MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS. The heavy chains possess actin-binding and ATPase activity.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Mice, Inbred C57BLCell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Quadriceps Muscle: The quadriceps femoris. A collective name of the four-headed skeletal muscle of the thigh, comprised of the rectus femoris, vastus intermedius, vastus lateralis, and vastus medialis.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Abdominal Muscles: Muscles forming the ABDOMINAL WALL including RECTUS ABDOMINIS, external and internal oblique muscles, transversus abdominis, and quadratus abdominis. (from Stedman, 25th ed)Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Calcium Signaling: Signal transduction mechanisms whereby calcium mobilization (from outside the cell or from intracellular storage pools) to the cytoplasm is triggered by external stimuli. Calcium signals are often seen to propagate as waves, oscillations, spikes, sparks, or puffs. The calcium acts as an intracellular messenger by activating calcium-responsive proteins.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Chick Embryo: The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Angiotensin II: An octapeptide that is a potent but labile vasoconstrictor. It is produced from angiotensin I after the removal of two amino acids at the C-terminal by ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME. The amino acid in position 5 varies in different species. To block VASOCONSTRICTION and HYPERTENSION effect of angiotensin II, patients are often treated with ACE INHIBITORS or with ANGIOTENSIN II TYPE 1 RECEPTOR BLOCKERS.Isometric Contraction: Muscular contractions characterized by increase in tension without change in length.Aorta, Thoracic: The portion of the descending aorta proceeding from the arch of the aorta and extending to the DIAPHRAGM, eventually connecting to the ABDOMINAL AORTA.Heart Failure: A heterogeneous condition in which the heart is unable to pump out sufficient blood to meet the metabolic need of the body. Heart failure can be caused by structural defects, functional abnormalities (VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION), or a sudden overload beyond its capacity. Chronic heart failure is more common than acute heart failure which results from sudden insult to cardiac function, such as MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.Mitochondria, Heart: The mitochondria of the myocardium.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Cardiac Tamponade: Compression of the heart by accumulated fluid (PERICARDIAL EFFUSION) or blood (HEMOPERICARDIUM) in the PERICARDIUM surrounding the heart. The affected cardiac functions and CARDIAC OUTPUT can range from minimal to total hemodynamic collapse.Masseter Muscle: A masticatory muscle whose action is closing the jaws.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Muscular Atrophy: Derangement in size and number of muscle fibers occurring with aging, reduction in blood supply, or following immobilization, prolonged weightlessness, malnutrition, and particularly in denervation.Platelet-Derived Growth Factor: Mitogenic peptide growth hormone carried in the alpha-granules of platelets. It is released when platelets adhere to traumatized tissues. Connective tissue cells near the traumatized region respond by initiating the process of replication.Facial Muscles: Muscles of facial expression or mimetic muscles that include the numerous muscles supplied by the facial nerve that are attached to and move the skin of the face. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Potassium: An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.Masticatory Muscles: Muscles arising in the zygomatic arch that close the jaw. Their nerve supply is masseteric from the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Intercostal Muscles: Respiratory muscles that arise from the lower border of one rib and insert into the upper border of the adjoining rib, and contract during inspiration or respiration. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Potassium Channels: Cell membrane glycoproteins that are selectively permeable to potassium ions. At least eight major groups of K channels exist and they are made up of dozens of different subunits.Satellite Cells, Skeletal Muscle: Elongated, spindle-shaped, quiescent myoblasts lying in close contact with adult skeletal muscle. They are thought to play a role in muscle repair and regeneration.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Coronary Vessels: The veins and arteries of the HEART.Electromyography: Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.Heart Conduction System: An impulse-conducting system composed of modified cardiac muscle, having the power of spontaneous rhythmicity and conduction more highly developed than the rest of the heart.Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Cardiac Catheterization: Procedures in which placement of CARDIAC CATHETERS is performed for therapeutic or diagnostic procedures.Creatine Kinase: A transferase that catalyzes formation of PHOSPHOCREATINE from ATP + CREATINE. The reaction stores ATP energy as phosphocreatine. Three cytoplasmic ISOENZYMES have been identified in human tissues: the MM type from SKELETAL MUSCLE, the MB type from myocardial tissue and the BB type from nervous tissue as well as a mitochondrial isoenzyme. Macro-creatine kinase refers to creatine kinase complexed with other serum proteins.Heart Atria: The chambers of the heart, to which the BLOOD returns from the circulation.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Muscular Diseases: Acquired, familial, and congenital disorders of SKELETAL MUSCLE and SMOOTH MUSCLE.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Cardiac Electrophysiology: The study of the electrical activity and characteristics of the HEART; MYOCARDIUM; and CARDIOMYOCYTES.Ion Channels: Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.Isoproterenol: Isopropyl analog of EPINEPHRINE; beta-sympathomimetic that acts on the heart, bronchi, skeletal muscle, alimentary tract, etc. It is used mainly as bronchodilator and heart stimulant.Regeneration: The physiological renewal, repair, or replacement of tissue.Myoblasts: Embryonic (precursor) cells of the myogenic lineage that develop from the MESODERM. They undergo proliferation, migrate to their various sites, and then differentiate into the appropriate form of myocytes (MYOCYTES, SKELETAL; MYOCYTES, CARDIAC; MYOCYTES, SMOOTH MUSCLE).Creatine Kinase, Mitochondrial Form: A form of creatine kinase found in the MITOCHONDRIA.Sarcoplasmic Reticulum: A network of tubules and sacs in the cytoplasm of SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS that assist with muscle contraction and relaxation by releasing and storing calcium ions.Calcium Channel Blockers: A class of drugs that act by selective inhibition of calcium influx through cellular membranes.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Cardiotonic Agents: Agents that have a strengthening effect on the heart or that can increase cardiac output. They may be CARDIAC GLYCOSIDES; SYMPATHOMIMETICS; or other drugs. They are used after MYOCARDIAL INFARCT; CARDIAC SURGICAL PROCEDURES; in SHOCK; or in congestive heart failure (HEART FAILURE).Calcium Channels: Voltage-dependent cell membrane glycoproteins selectively permeable to calcium ions. They are categorized as L-, T-, N-, P-, Q-, and R-types based on the activation and inactivation kinetics, ion specificity, and sensitivity to drugs and toxins. The L- and T-types are present throughout the cardiovascular and central nervous systems and the N-, P-, Q-, & R-types are located in neuronal tissue.Myocardial Infarction: NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).Hypertrophy: General increase in bulk of a part or organ due to CELL ENLARGEMENT and accumulation of FLUIDS AND SECRETIONS, not due to tumor formation, nor to an increase in the number of cells (HYPERPLASIA).Ryanodine Receptor Calcium Release Channel: A tetrameric calcium release channel in the SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM membrane of SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS, acting oppositely to SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM CALCIUM-TRANSPORTING ATPASES. It is important in skeletal and cardiac excitation-contraction coupling and studied by using RYANODINE. Abnormalities are implicated in CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS and MUSCULAR DISEASES.Arteries: The vessels carrying blood away from the heart.Sodium: A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Pectoralis Muscles: The pectoralis major and pectoralis minor muscles that make up the upper and fore part of the chest in front of the AXILLA.Ventricular Remodeling: The geometric and structural changes that the HEART VENTRICLES undergo, usually following MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION. It comprises expansion of the infarct and dilatation of the healthy ventricle segments. While most prevalent in the left ventricle, it can also occur in the right ventricle.Caffeine: A methylxanthine naturally occurring in some beverages and also used as a pharmacological agent. Caffeine's most notable pharmacological effect is as a central nervous system stimulant, increasing alertness and producing agitation. It also relaxes SMOOTH MUSCLE, stimulates CARDIAC MUSCLE, stimulates DIURESIS, and appears to be useful in the treatment of some types of headache. Several cellular actions of caffeine have been observed, but it is not entirely clear how each contributes to its pharmacological profile. Among the most important are inhibition of cyclic nucleotide PHOSPHODIESTERASES, antagonism of ADENOSINE RECEPTORS, and modulation of intracellular calcium handling.Hemodynamics: The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Heart Arrest: Cessation of heart beat or MYOCARDIAL CONTRACTION. If it is treated within a few minutes, heart arrest can be reversed in most cases to normal cardiac rhythm and effective circulation.Patch-Clamp Techniques: An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Electrocardiography: Recording of the moment-to-moment electromotive forces of the HEART as projected onto various sites on the body's surface, delineated as a scalar function of time. The recording is monitored by a tracing on slow moving chart paper or by observing it on a cardioscope, which is a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Troponin: One of the minor protein components of skeletal muscle. Its function is to serve as the calcium-binding component in the troponin-tropomyosin B-actin-myosin complex by conferring calcium sensitivity to the cross-linked actin and myosin filaments.Biomechanical Phenomena: The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Myocardial Ischemia: A disorder of cardiac function caused by insufficient blood flow to the muscle tissue of the heart. The decreased blood flow may be due to narrowing of the coronary arteries (CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE), to obstruction by a thrombus (CORONARY THROMBOSIS), or less commonly, to diffuse narrowing of arterioles and other small vessels within the heart. Severe interruption of the blood supply to the myocardial tissue may result in necrosis of cardiac muscle (MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION).Fibrosis: Any pathological condition where fibrous connective tissue invades any organ, usually as a consequence of inflammation or other injury.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-sis: Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the sis gene (GENES, SIS). c-sis proteins make up the B chain of PLATELET-DERIVED GROWTH FACTOR. Overexpression of c-sis causes tumorigenesis.Cardiac Myosins: Myosin type II isoforms found in cardiac muscle.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Tunica Intima: The innermost layer of an artery or vein, made up of one layer of endothelial cells and supported by an internal elastic lamina.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Myoblasts, Skeletal: Precursor cells destined to differentiate into skeletal myocytes (MYOCYTES, SKELETAL).Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Atrial Natriuretic Factor: A potent natriuretic and vasodilatory peptide or mixture of different-sized low molecular weight PEPTIDES derived from a common precursor and secreted mainly by the HEART ATRIUM. All these peptides share a sequence of about 20 AMINO ACIDS.Desmin: An intermediate filament protein found predominantly in smooth, skeletal, and cardiac muscle cells. Localized at the Z line. MW 50,000 to 55,000 is species dependent.Hindlimb: Either of two extremities of four-footed non-primate land animals. It usually consists of a FEMUR; TIBIA; and FIBULA; tarsals; METATARSALS; and TOES. (From Storer et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p73)Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Endothelium, Vascular: Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.Protein Isoforms: Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.Trachea: The cartilaginous and membranous tube descending from the larynx and branching into the right and left main bronchi.Neuromuscular Junction: The synapse between a neuron and a muscle.Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Ventricular Function, Left: The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the left HEART VENTRICLE. Its measurement is an important aspect of the clinical evaluation of patients with heart disease to determine the effects of the disease on cardiac performance.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Nifedipine: A potent vasodilator agent with calcium antagonistic action. It is a useful anti-anginal agent that also lowers blood pressure.Psoas Muscles: A powerful flexor of the thigh at the hip joint (psoas major) and a weak flexor of the trunk and lumbar spinal column (psoas minor). Psoas is derived from the Greek "psoa", the plural meaning "muscles of the loin". It is a common site of infection manifesting as abscess (PSOAS ABSCESS). The psoas muscles and their fibers are also used frequently in experiments in muscle physiology.Calcium Channels, L-Type: Long-lasting voltage-gated CALCIUM CHANNELS found in both excitable and nonexcitable tissue. They are responsible for normal myocardial and vascular smooth muscle contractility. Five subunits (alpha-1, alpha-2, beta, gamma, and delta) make up the L-type channel. The alpha-1 subunit is the binding site for calcium-based antagonists. Dihydropyridine-based calcium antagonists are used as markers for these binding sites.Electric Conductivity: The ability of a substrate to allow the passage of ELECTRONS.Troponin I: One of the three polypeptide chains that make up the TROPONIN complex. It inhibits F-actin-myosin interactions.Phenylephrine: An alpha-1 adrenergic agonist used as a mydriatic, nasal decongestant, and cardiotonic agent.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.GATA4 Transcription Factor: A GATA transcription factor that is expressed in the MYOCARDIUM of developing heart and has been implicated in the differentiation of CARDIAC MYOCYTES. GATA4 is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION and regulates transcription of cardiac-specific genes.Cardiac Imaging Techniques: Visualization of the heart structure and cardiac blood flow for diagnostic evaluation or to guide cardiac procedures via techniques including ENDOSCOPY (cardiac endoscopy, sometimes refered to as cardioscopy), RADIONUCLIDE IMAGING; MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING; TOMOGRAPHY; or ULTRASONOGRAPHY.Cell Size: The quantity of volume or surface area of CELLS.MyoD Protein: A myogenic regulatory factor that controls myogenesis. Though it is not clear how its function differs from the other myogenic regulatory factors, MyoD appears to be related to fusion and terminal differentiation of the muscle cell.Cardiac Glycosides: Cyclopentanophenanthrenes with a 5- or 6-membered lactone ring attached at the 17-position and SUGARS attached at the 3-position. Plants they come from have long been used in congestive heart failure. They increase the force of cardiac contraction without significantly affecting other parameters, but are very toxic at larger doses. Their mechanism of action usually involves inhibition of the NA(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE and they are often used in cell biological studies for that purpose.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Arteriosclerosis: Thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES of all sizes. There are many forms classified by the types of lesions and arteries involved, such as ATHEROSCLEROSIS with fatty lesions in the ARTERIAL INTIMA of medium and large muscular arteries.Organ Specificity: Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.Echocardiography: Ultrasonic recording of the size, motion, and composition of the heart and surrounding tissues. The standard approach is transthoracic.Stress, Mechanical: A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.Fetal Heart: The heart of the fetus of any viviparous animal. It refers to the heart in the postembryonic period and is differentiated from the embryonic heart (HEART/embryology) only on the basis of time.Collagen: A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).Adrenergic beta-Agonists: Drugs that selectively bind to and activate beta-adrenergic receptors.Protein Kinase C: An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Temporal Muscle: A masticatory muscle whose action is closing the jaws; its posterior portion retracts the mandible.Oxidative Stress: A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).Cardiac Output, Low: A state of subnormal or depressed cardiac output at rest or during stress. It is a characteristic of CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES, including congenital, valvular, rheumatic, hypertensive, coronary, and cardiomyopathic. The serious form of low cardiac output is characterized by marked reduction in STROKE VOLUME, and systemic vasoconstriction resulting in cold, pale, and sometimes cyanotic extremities.Tissue Engineering: Generating tissue in vitro for clinical applications, such as replacing wounded tissues or impaired organs. The use of TISSUE SCAFFOLDING enables the generation of complex multi-layered tissues and tissue structures.Rats, Inbred WKY: A strain of Rattus norvegicus used as a normotensive control for the spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHR).Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Reactive Oxygen Species: Molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. These reactive oxygen intermediates include SINGLET OXYGEN; SUPEROXIDES; PEROXIDES; HYDROXYL RADICAL; and HYPOCHLOROUS ACID. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of PHAGOCYTES, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS.Heart Transplantation: The transference of a heart from one human or animal to another.Hyperplasia: An increase in the number of cells in a tissue or organ without tumor formation. It differs from HYPERTROPHY, which is an increase in bulk without an increase in the number of cells.GlycogenSodium Channels: Ion channels that specifically allow the passage of SODIUM ions. A variety of specific sodium channel subtypes are involved in serving specialized functions such as neuronal signaling, CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, and KIDNEY function.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Carotid Arteries: Either of the two principal arteries on both sides of the neck that supply blood to the head and neck; each divides into two branches, the internal carotid artery and the external carotid artery.Ryanodine: A methylpyrrole-carboxylate from RYANIA that disrupts the RYANODINE RECEPTOR CALCIUM RELEASE CHANNEL to modify CALCIUM release from SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM resulting in alteration of MUSCLE CONTRACTION. It was previously used in INSECTICIDES. It is used experimentally in conjunction with THAPSIGARGIN and other inhibitors of CALCIUM ATPASE uptake of calcium into SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM.Sodium-Calcium Exchanger: An electrogenic ion exchange protein that maintains a steady level of calcium by removing an amount of calcium equal to that which enters the cells. It is widely distributed in most excitable membranes, including the brain and heart.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Myocardial Reperfusion Injury: Damage to the MYOCARDIUM resulting from MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION (restoration of blood flow to ischemic areas of the HEART.) Reperfusion takes place when there is spontaneous thrombolysis, THROMBOLYTIC THERAPY, collateral flow from other coronary vascular beds, or reversal of vasospasm.Microscopy, Confocal: A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.

*CD29

... which replaces the canonical beta-1A isoform in cardiac and skeletal muscle cells. This isoform is produced from splicing into ... "Galectin-8 binding to integrins inhibits cell adhesion and induces apoptosis". Journal of Cell Science. 113 (13): 2385-97. PMID ... the function of this isoform was an inhibitory one on DNA synthesis in the G1 phase of the cell cycle. The third isoform, ... In cardiac muscle and skeletal muscle, the integrin beta-1D isoform is specifically expressed, and localizes to costameres, ...

*ENDOG

In epithelial cells, the nuclear localization and proapoptotic function of EndoG leads it to play a role in cell senescence. In ... "CHIP has a protective role against oxidative stress-induced cell death through specific regulation of endonuclease G". Cell ... A link has been established between Endonuclease G and mitochondrial function during cardiac hypertrophy, partly through the ... Similarly, myonuclear localization of EndoG is correlated with atrophied aging skeletal muscle, leading to increased apoptotic ...

*Celivarone

... causes depolarizations of cell membranes in node cells, which are then transmitted to cardiac muscle cells to induce ... Mutations resulting in loss of function of K+ channels can result in delayed repolarization of the cardiac muscle cells. ... Chapman, RA (January 1980). "Excitation-contraction Coupling in Cardiac Muscle". Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology. ... and cardiac muscle, to mutations in genes coding for ion channels of the heart. Movement of ions, particularly Na+, Ca2+ and K+ ...

*Cardiovascular Cell Therapy Research Network

... and/or C-kit+ Cardiac Stem Cells (CSCs) to patients with heart muscle damage is safe. It will also help us learn whether these ... Effect of Use and Timing of Bone Marrow Mononuclear Cell Delivery on Left Ventricular Function After Acute Myocardial ... In the first quarter of 2016, CCTRN is planning to open enrollment in a study in anthracycline-induced cardiomyopathy (AIC): ... Vascular and Cardiac Center for Adult Stem Cell Therapy (VC-CAST) ([6]) University of Miami Miller School of Medicine ([7]) ...

*Induced stem cells

... and cardiac function compared to those exposed to only GMT. See also: review The elderly often suffer from progressive muscle ... "Germ-like cell differentiation from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs)". Cell Biochemistry and Function. 31 (1): 12-9. doi: ... "Reprogramming of Human Peripheral Blood Cells to Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells". Cell Stem Cell. 7 (1): 20-4. doi:10.1016/j. ... In newts, muscle tissue is regenerated from specialized muscle cells that dedifferentiate and forget the type of cell they had ...

*Muscle tissue

The structure and function is basically the same in smooth muscle cells in different organs, but the inducing stimuli differ ... Cardiac muscle is one of three major types of muscle, the others being skeletal and smooth muscle. These three types of muscle ... In addition, the glomeruli of the kidneys contain smooth muscle-like cells called mesangial cells. Cardiac muscle is ... smooth or non-striated muscle; and cardiac muscle, which is sometimes known as semi-striated. Smooth and cardiac muscle ...

*Ductus arteriosus

EP4 is the major receptor associated with PGE2-induced dilation of the DA and can be found across the DA in smooth muscle cells ... It allows most of the blood from the right ventricle to bypass the fetus's fluid-filled non-functioning lungs. Upon closure at ... If left uncorrected, patency leads to pulmonary hypertension and possibly congestive heart failure and cardiac arrhythmias. The ... Gruzdeva, A; Nguyena, M.; Kovarovob, M.; Koller, B (March 2012). "PGE2 through the EP4 receptor controls smooth muscle gene ...

*Cyclin A2

Normally, Ccna2 is silenced postnatally in mammalian cardiac myocytes. Because of this gene silencing, adult heart muscle cells ... Delivery of Ccna2 into cardiac tissue invokes a regenerative response and markedly enhances cardiac function. Increased ... Ccna2 has been found to induce cardiac repair in small-animal models following myocardial infarction. Preclinical trials ... Yam CH, Fung TK, Poon RY (Aug 2002). "Cyclin A in cell cycle control and cancer". Cell. Mol. Life Sci. 59 (8): 1317-26. doi: ...

*PRKCE

In cardiac muscle cells, PKCε regulates muscle contraction through its actions at sarcomeric proteins, and PKCε modulates ... "A selective epsilon-protein kinase C antagonist inhibits protection of cardiac myocytes from hypoxia-induced cell death". The ... PKCε also interacts with Bax in cancer cells, and PKCε modulates its dimerization and function. Activation of PKCε with the ... In cardiac muscle, PKCε translocates to sarcomeres at Z-lines following α-adrenergic and endothelin (ET)A-receptor stimulation ...

*Cardiotoxicity

Impairs Cardiac Progenitor Cell Function and Vascularization Resulting in Greater Susceptibility to Stress-Induced Myocardial ... Cardiotoxicity is the occurrence of heart electrophysiology dysfunction or muscle damage. The heart becomes weaker and is not ... to detect cardiotoxicity at early stages when there is a subconical dysfunction is by measuring changes in regional function of ...

*Cardiac neural crest cells

The cardiac neural crest cells have a number of functions including creation of the muscle and connective tissue walls of large ... provide signals which induce the progenitor cells to become CNCCs. Little is known about the signal cascade that promotes ... glial cells, pigment-containing cells in skin, skeletal tissue cells in the head, and many more. Cardiac neural crest cells ( ... Tomita Y. et al "Cardiac neural crest cells contribute to the dormant multipotent stem cell in the mammalian heart." J Cell ...

*Beta-catenin

"The beta-catenin/T-cell factor/lymphocyte enhancer factor signaling pathway is required for normal and stress-induced cardiac ... HelixC is not necessary for beta-catenin to function in cell-cell adhesion. On the other hand, it is required for Wnt signaling ... In cardiac muscle development, beta-catenin performs a biphasic role. Initially, the activation of Wnt/beta-catenin is ... "A novel cell-cell junction system: the cortex adhaerens mosaic of lens fiber cells". Journal of Cell Science. 116 (Pt 24): 4985 ...

*Muse cell

Importantly, patients with an increased peripheral blood-Muse cell number in the acute phase show cardiac function recovery and ... In 2009, a study showed that only SSEA-3+ cells generate induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells in human fibroblasts. In 2011, it ... human dystrophin-expressing cells in the muscle, neurofilament and MAP-2-expressing neuronal cells in the spinal cord and ... When mesenchymal cells (sometimes called mesenchymal stem cells) are separated into Muse and non-Muse cells by SSEA-3 cell ...

*Tenomodulin

... tendon of the extraocular muscle and the retinal ganglion cell layer, lens fibre cells, inner nuclear layer cells and pigment ... The exact TNMD functions vary according to the type of cell and tissue, and in great extent they remain still not fully ... In ectopic tumour in vivo models, induced expression of TNMD in mouse melanoma cells resulted in suppression of tumour growth ... This is followed by cordis ruptures which can cause mitral regurgitation and cardiac valvular diseases. - With respect to Tnmd ...

*Anti-miRNA oligonucleotides

miRNA-1 plays a role in muscle differentiation between cardiac and skeletal muscle precursor cells. In development, if levels ... These synthetically designed molecules are used to neutralize microRNA (miRNA) function in cells for desired responses. miRNA ... Hydrogen peroxide can induce apoptosis through oxidative stress. This is because oxidative stress caused by H 2O 2 induces ... Because autoimmune disorders involve abnormalities in the immune system cells (i.e., B-cells, T-cells). It can be inferred that ...

*Cardiac excitation-contraction coupling

This is achieved in a region of the muscle cell, called the transverse-tubule during a process known as calcium induced calcium ... Cardiac T-Tubule Microanatomy and function', Reviews, 97(1), pp. 227-252. doi: 10.1152/physrev.00037.2015. Hinch, R., ... MODEL OF CALCIUM-INDUCED CALCIUM RELEASE MECHANISM IN CARDIAC CELLS', 54(1). MONFREDI, O., DOBRZYNSKI, H., MONDAL, T., BOYETT, ... which are also found in skeletal muscle cells) and allow for the action potential to travel into the centre of the cell. ...

*Nitric oxide synthase

... which induces smooth muscle relaxation by: Increased intracellular cGMP, which inhibits calcium entry into the cell, and ... nNOS has many other physiological functions, including regulation of cardiac function and peristalsis and sexual arousal in ... nNOS in the heart protects against cardiac arrhythmia induced by myocardial infarction. The primary receiver for NO produced by ... This dilates blood vessels by relaxing smooth muscle in their linings. eNOS is the primary controller of smooth muscle tone. NO ...

*ANGPTL3

... a feeding-induced hepatokine, to inhibit postprandial LPL activity in cardiac and skeletal muscles, as suggested by the ANGPTL3 ... 2002). "ANGPTL3 stimulates endothelial cell adhesion and migration via integrin alpha vbeta 3 and induces blood vessel ... In humans with genetic loss-of-function variants in one copy of ANGPTL3, the serum LDL-C levels are reduced. In those with loss ... and this binding induced endothelial cell adhesion and migration. This protein may also play a role in the regulation of ...

*Apelin

This activation induces the release of NO, a potent vasodilator, which induces relaxation of the smooth muscle cells of artery ... It is one of the most potent stimulators of cardiac contractility yet identified, and plays a role in cardiac tissue remodeling ... The sites of receptor expression are clearly linked to the different functions played by apelin in the organism. Vascular ... stomach enterochromaffine-like cells; unknown cells of endocrine pancreas, colon epithelial cells. In stomach, activation of ...

*Voltage-gated calcium channel

In cardiac muscle, opening of the L-type calcium channel permits influx of calcium into the cell. The calcium binds to the ... "Thromboxane A2-induced contraction of rat caudal arterial smooth muscle involves activation of Ca2+ entry and Ca2+ ... the β subunit functions initially to regulate the current density by controlling the amount of α1 subunit expressed at the cell ... When these cells are depolarized, the L-type calcium channels open as in smooth muscle. In skeletal muscle, the actual opening ...

*Cerebral hypoxia

Prolonged hypoxia induces neuronal cell death via apoptosis, resulting in a hypoxic brain injury. Cases of total oxygen ... Stroke, shock, cardiac arrest and heart attack may cause stagnant hypoxia. Ischemic hypoxia can also be created by pressure on ... Even if the patient wakes up, brain damage is likely to be significant enough to prevent a return to normal functioning. Long- ... Adjusting to the realities of ventilators, feeding tubes, bedsores, and muscle wasting may be difficult. Treatment decision ...

*Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction

The chemical mediators that provoke the muscle spasm appear to arise from mast cells. Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction can ... Treadmill or ergometer-based testing in lung function laboratories are effective methods for diagnosing exercise-induced ... There are many mimics that present with similar symptoms, such as vocal cord dysfunction, cardiac arrhythmias, cardiomyopathies ... What is Exercise-Induced Asthma? Fact sheet: Exercise-induced asthma. ...

*TEAD1

Smooth muscle development (alpha-actin of smooth muscles), Regulation of myosin heavy chain genes, cardiac muscular genes ... In HeLa cells TEAD1 and SRC induce gene expression, TEAD1 interacts with PARP (Poly-ADP ribose polymerase) to regulate smooth ... The precise function of TEAD and VGLL interaction is still poorly understood. It has been shown that TEAD/VGLL1 complexes ... Finally recent studies showed that TEAD1 and YAP in ovarian cancer can induces cell stemness and chemoresistance. and that ...

*Heat shock protein

... cardiac myocyte function and prevention of apoptosis after ischemic injury, and skeletal muscle function and muscle insulin ... Moreover, HSF1 inhibition by a potent RNA aptamer attenuates mitogenic (MAPK) signaling and induces cancer cell apoptosis. ... Hsp27 functions in small muscle migrations and appears to serve an integral role. Extracellular and membrane bound heat-shock ... Along with hspb7, hspb12 is involved in cardiac laterality determination. A kinase of the nitric oxide cell signalling pathway ...

*MAPK14

Wang Y, Huang S, Sah VP, Ross J, Brown JH, Han J, Chien KR (Jan 1998). "Cardiac muscle cell hypertrophy and apoptosis induced ... p38α MAPK is implicated in diverse cellular function, from gene expression to programmed cell death through a network of ... Ghosh J, Das J, Manna P, Sil PC (Oct 2009). "Taurine prevents arsenic-induced cardiac oxidative stress and apoptotic damage: ... Han J, Lee JD, Tobias PS, Ulevitch RJ (Nov 1993). "Endotoxin induces rapid protein tyrosine phosphorylation in 70Z/3 cells ...
Human muscle cell line - human body diagram at muscles. Human Muscle Cell Line encouraged for you to our website, on this period I am going to teach you with regards to Human muscle cell line.. Now, this can be a very first image, human muscle cell line, human muscle cell line atcc, human smooth muscle cell line, human skeletal muscle cell line atcc, human cardiac muscle cell line, human heart muscle cell line, human vascular smooth muscle cell line, human airway smooth muscle cell line, human skeletal muscle myoblast cell line, immortalized human skeletal muscle cell line :. ...
A method developed to study the effect of increased hydrostatic pressure on the isometric tension of a single muscle fibre is described and experiments done at room temperature (18-22°C) on glycerinated rabbit psoas muscle fibres are presented. Increase of pressure (range 1-10 MPa) caused little change in tension transducer response when a muscle fibre was relaxed. However, there was a reversible depression of isometric tension with an increase of pressure when a fibre was maximally calcium-activated or in rigor; the depression was around 15% for active tension and 30% for rigor tension, for an increase of pressure of 10 MPa (ca. 100 atm). ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Classification of the intrafusal muscle fibres in the frog muscle spindle. T2 - Histochemical and immunofluorescent studies. AU - Yoshimura, A.. AU - Fujitsuka, N.. AU - Sokabe, M.. AU - Naruse, Keiji. AU - Nomura, K.. AU - Diwan, F. H.. AU - Ito, F.. PY - 1990. Y1 - 1990. N2 - Intrafusal muscle fibers from bull-frog semitendinosus, iliofibularis and sartorius muscles were classified into three types using the histochemical, immunofluorescent and morphological characteristics, with reference to the extrafusal muscle fibres, which were classified into five types in accordance with Rowlerson and Spurway (1988). Immunofluorescent reactions with antibodies against slow or fast myosins obtained from anterior or posterior latissimus dorsi muscles (ALD or PLD), respectively, of chicken were used as the primary criterion. Histochemical profiles of muscle fibres were classified into ...
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Background Mutations in the PYGM gene encoding skeletal muscle glycogen phosphorylase (GP) cause a metabolic disorder known as McArdles disease. Previous studies in muscle biopsies and cultured muscle cells from McArdle patients have shown that PYGM mutations abolish GP activity in skeletal muscle, but that the enzyme activity reappears when muscle cells are in culture. The identification of the GP isoenzyme that accounts for this activity remains controversial. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study we present two related patients harbouring a novel PYGM mutation, p.R771PfsX33. In the patients skeletal muscle biopsies, PYGM mRNA levels were ∼60% lower than those observed in two matched healthy controls; biochemical analysis of a patient muscle biopsy resulted in undetectable GP ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Conformationally Restricted Creatine Analogs and Substrate Specificity of Rabbit Muscle Creatine Kinase. AU - Dietrich, Robert F.. AU - Miller, Robert B.. AU - Kenyon, George L.. AU - Leyh, Thomas S.. AU - Reed, George H.. PY - 1980/1/1. Y1 - 1980/1/1. N2 - Several conformationally restricted analogues of creatine have been both synthesized and examined as potential substrates or inhibitors of rabbit muscle creatine kinase (EC 2.7.3.2). When an asymmetric center was included in a creatine analogue in the position α to the carboxyl group, the enzyme had a pronounced preference for the R enantiomer. Thus, whereas (R)-N-amidinoazetidine-2-carboxylic acid (7) has been shown to be a good substrate (Ks = 72 mM, Km = 39 mM, and Vmax = 29% relative to that of creatine) for creatine kinase, the corresponding S enantiomer 6 showed only barely detectable reactivity (Fmax(rel) ≪ 1%). When the corresponding ring-opened analogue, N-methyl-N-amidino-alanine, was examined as ...
Full Text - Inducing cardiomyocyte proliferation is a hopeful approach for cardiac regeneration following myocardial infarction. Previous studies have shown that p21 inhibits the cardiomyocyte proliferation and cardiac regeneration. Deacetylation of p21 by Sirt1 deacetylase may reduce p21 abundance and remove p21-induced cell cycle arrest. However, whether p21 deacetylation and Sirt1 deacetylate control cardiomyocyte proliferation is unclear. Here, we show that acetylation of p21 induces cardiomyocyte proliferation arrest, whereas blocking the acetylation of p21 increases cardiomyocyte proliferation. P21 can be acetylated by Sirt1, and Sirt1 activate p21 ubiquitination through deacetylation. Additionally, overexpression of Sirt1 induces EdU-, pH3-, and Aurora B-positive cardiomyocytes in neonatal and adult mice. In contrast, depletion of Sirt1 reduces cardiomyocyte proliferation in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, ...
Impaired excitation-contraction coupling occurs in eccentric contraction (ECC)-induced damaged muscles. It has been suggested that sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) is susceptible to damage in the overstretched regions possibly marking the basis of excitation-contraction coupling damage. Recent studies have shown that dietary nitrate supplementation enhances SR function in fast-twitch muscles. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether dietary nitrate supplementation can alleviate a decline in muscle contractile properties and SR function following ECC. To this end, force production, Ca2+ uptake, Ca2+ release, and Ca2+-ATPase activity of the SR were examined in rat fast-twitch muscles immediately following ECC for 200 repetitions. In comparison with contralateral resting muscles, nitrate supplementation for up to 3 days resulted in an obvious decline in force production. ...
Slow twitch muscle fibers are built for activities that require endurance. BeWellBuzz shows how to use slow twitch muscles to crank up your endurance. Increasing your endurance can be trickier than you realize. Your muscles are made of a mix of unique fibers, each with its own job to do. To get the most out of your workouts, you need to understand whats going on. Muscle ... Continue Reading ...
Knee Pain In Runners Part 1 A Quick Anatomy Lesson Sartorius Muscle Strain Sartorius Muscle Strain Pain At The Front Of The Hip Sartorius Psoas Strain Causes And, Sartorius Muscle Strain Sartorius Muscle Wikipedia, Pain At The Front Of The Hip Sartorius Psoas Strain Causes And Sartorius Muscle Strain, Knee Pain In Runners Part 1 A Quick Anatomy Lesson Sartorius Muscle Strain, ...
In vitro human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) can differentiate into functional cardiomyocytes (CMs). Protocols for cardiac differentiation of hESCs and
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play essential roles in muscle cell proliferation and differentiation. The muscle-specific miRNAs miR-1 and miR-206 have been shown to regulate muscle development and promote myogenic differentiation; however, it is likely that a number of other miRNAs play important roles in regulating myogenesis as well. microRNA-128 (miR-128) has been reported to be highly expressed in brain and skeletal muscle, and we found that miR-128 is also up-regulated during bovine skeletal muscle satellite cell differentiation using microarray analysis and qRT-PCR. However, little is known about the functions of miR-128 in bovine skeletal muscle satellite cell development. In this study, we investigated the biological functions of miR-128 in bovine skeletal muscle cell development. Using a dual-luciferase reporter assay, we confirmed that miR-128 regulates the ...
Muscles are a specialized body part that produces movement or locomotion in animals. The muscle is comprised (largely) of muscle tissues. A muscle tissue is made up of muscle cells, which in turn, consist of several myofibrils. The myofibril is the contractile thread of a muscle. Each myofibril is comprised of repeating sections of sarcomere. The sarcomere is composed of long fibrous proteins that slide past each other resulting in the appearance of dark and light bands under the microscope. The sarcomere is regarded as the basic structural unit of a muscle. Animal muscles are of three different types: (1) skeletal muscles, (2) smooth muscles, and (3) cardiac muscles. The skeletal muscles may be classified into fast twitch fibers and slow ...
Read "Sodium Channel NaV1.5 Expression is Enhanced in Cultured Adult Rat Skeletal Muscle Fibers, The Journal of Membrane Biology" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Intracellular calcium (Ca) cycling plays a central role in cardiac excitation-contraction coupling.1,2 Ca alternans, a beat-to-beat alternation in intracellular Ca transient amplitude, is an important factor promoting T-wave alternans and pulsus alternans, markers conferring an increased risk of sudden cardiac death.3 Although Ca alternans has been widely studied in cardiac myocytes,4-13 the underlying mechanism remains controversial. Eisner et al4 were the first to propose that Ca alternans could be explained by a steep nonlinear dependence of sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca release on the diastolic SR Ca load immediately preceding the release (a steep fractional release-load relationship). This mechanism requires that diastolic SR Ca load alternate concomitantly with SR Ca release. Subsequent experimental6,7,9 and theoretical9,14,15 studies have provided evidence supporting this mechanism. However, later experimental studies in rabbit ventricular myocytes ...
The present study demonstrates that (1) human PF has a greater trophic effect than human serum on cultured rat adult cardiac myocytes, which is likely due to a high concentration of FGF2, and (2) both serum and PF from patients with cardiac hypertrophy have additional effects on cardiac myocytes that are related to the increase in LV mass and that suggest the presence of a circulating growth factor(s) involved in the process of hypertrophy.. One of the major findings of the present study is that PF has a hypertrophic effect on cardiac myocytes, as indicated by (1) the increase of MyHC mRNA level, (2) increased rate of protein synthesis, and (3) increase in total protein content. This trophic effect is not associated with a shift in myosin isoforms, since both α- and β-MyHC mRNAs increase. Furthermore, PF does not seem to enhance apoptosis, since the percentage of cells dying in culture was ...
Home » Muscle. muscle (Science: anatomy) tissue specialised for contraction. See twitch muscle, catch muscle: cardiac muscle (heart muscle) is a striated but involuntary muscle responsible for the pumping activity of the vertebrate heart. The individual muscle cells are joined through a junctional complex known as the intercalated disc and are not fused together into multinucleate structures as they are in skeletal muscle. Skeletal muscle is a rather non-specific term usually applied to the striated muscle of vertebrates that is under voluntary control. The muscle fibres are syncytial and contain myofibrils, tandem arrays of sarcomeres. Smooth muscle is muscle tissue in vertebrates made up from long tapering ...
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The second messenger cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) is the most important modulator of sympathetic control over cardiac contractility. In cardiac myocytes and many other cell types, however, cAMP transduces the signal generated upon stimulation of various receptors and activates different cellular functions, raising the issue of how specificity can be achieved. In the general field of signal transduction, the view is emerging that specificity is guaranteed by tight localization of signaling events. Here, we show that in neonatal rat cardiac myocytes, beta-adrenergic stimulation generates multiple microdomains with increased concentration of cAMP in correspondence with the region of the transverse tubule/junctional sarcoplasmic reticulum membrane. The restricted pools of cAMP show a range of action as small as approximately 1 micrometer, and free diffusion of the second messenger is limited by the activity of phosphodiesterases. ...
As pointed out by others is the concept of resilient relaxation (fang song). My understanding of what is involved here physiologically is that you want the muscles used for movement - the fast twitch muscles which are typically located towards the exterior of the muscle groups - to be as relaxed as possible while supporting the structure/postures with the slow twitch muscles located more internally. Thus you get "steel wrapped in cotton," and this seems to be what is trained in either standing meditation or holding postures from the form for lengthy periods of time. Holding postures for long periods of time tire out the fast twitch muscles until they are forced to relax while the slow twitch muscles can continue to hold ones structure/posture (or take over from the fast twitch muscles if they were being relied upon) and get built up. The more that the body is trained to use the slow twitch ...
Colloidal gold-conjugated monoclonal antibodies were prepared to stage-specific fast myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoforms of developing chicken pectoralis major (PM). Native thick filaments from different stages of development were reacted with these antibodies and examined in the electron microscope to determine their myosin isoform composition. Filaments prepared from 12-d embryo, 10-d chick, and 1-yr chicken muscle specifically reacted with the embryonic (EB165), neonatal (2E9), and adult (AB8) antimyosin gold-conjugated monoclonal antibodies, respectively. The myosin isoform composition was more complex in thick filaments from stages of pectoral muscle where more than one isoform was simultaneously expressed. In 19-d embryo muscle where both embryonic and neonatal isoforms were present, three classes of filaments were found. One class of filaments reacted only with the embryonic antibody, a second class reacted only with the neonatal-specific antibody, and ...
Glycerol-extracted rabbit psoas muscle fibers were examined by electron microscopy both before and after ATP-induced isotonic shortening. Ultrastructural changes were correlated with the initial sarcomere length and the degree of shortening. The ultrastructural appearance of the resting fiber at rest length was identical with that described by H. E. Huxley and Hanson. At sarcomere lengths greater than 3.7 to 3.8 µ, the A and I filaments were detached and separated by a gap. The presence of "gap" filaments was confirmed, and evidence is presented which indicates that these filaments form connections between the ends of the A and I filaments. Shortening from initial sarcomere lengths at which the filaments overlapped took place through sliding of the filaments. If shortening was initiated from sarcomere lengths at which there was a gap, a narrowing of the I band was brought about by a curling of the I filaments at the boundary between the A and I bands. No evidence could be ...
During muscle development myosin molecules form symmetrical thick filaments which integrate with the thin filaments to produce the regular sarcomeric lattice. In Drosophila indirect flight muscles (IFM) the details of this process can be studied using genetic approaches. The weeP26 transgenic line has a GFP-encoding exon inserted into the single Drosophila muscle myosin heavy chain gene, Mhc. The weeP26 IFM sarcomeres have a unique MHC-GFP-labelling pattern restricted to the sarcomere core, explained by non-translation of the GFP exon following alternative splicing. Characterisation of wild type IFM MHC mRNA confirmed the presence of an alternately spliced isoform, expressed earlier than the major IFM-specific isoform. The two wild-type IFM-specific MHC isoforms differ by the presence of a C-terminal tailpiece in the minor isoform. The sequential expression and assembly of these two MHCs into developing thick filaments suggest a role for the tailpiece in ...
Slovenščina (Slovenian). In the present research we tried to prove, that specific myosin heavy chain is relat-ed to a prevalent metabolic type and that activ-ities of succinate-dehydrogenase and a glycerophosphate dehydrogenase in the same fibre types can be different in different muscles. We defined the muscle fibre types (I, IIA and IIB) on transversal sections of frozen muscles accord-ing to their myofibrillar ATPase activity in alka-line and acidic media. We excised extensor digitorum longus, tibialis anterior and diaphragm muscles of five Wistar rats. In the same fibres we immunohistochemically demonstrated myosin heavy chains (MHC) I, IIA, IIB and IIX and histochemically and histophotometrically deter-mined the activities of succinate-dehydrogenase and glycerophosphate dehydrogenase. On the basis of the measured values we differ-entiated fibres in oxydative, glycolytic and oxydative-glycolytic. We found out, that MHC I are present in ...
The regenerative potential of the adult heart is very limited and insufficient to replace damaged muscle mass in the diseased heart. Recent advances in cardiac cell therapy and tissue engineering fuel new hope for the development of novel therapeutic approaches with the aim to trigger myocardial regeneration after injury. Stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes represent ideal candidates for cardiac cell-based therapeutic strategies, and current research focuses on the development of cardiac constructs for implantation. Despite the cardiogenic properties of the newly generated cardiomyocytes, these cells present a heterogeneous and immature phenotype, which is more comparable with cardiomyocytes of early developmental stages. However, successful employment of these new cardiomyocytes for myocardial repair demands that the physiological profile of stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes matches with the ...
The regenerative potential of the adult heart is very limited and insufficient to replace damaged muscle mass in the diseased heart. Recent advances in cardiac cell therapy and tissue engineering fuel new hope for the development of novel therapeutic approaches with the aim to trigger myocardial regeneration after injury. Stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes represent ideal candidates for cardiac cell-based therapeutic strategies, and current research focuses on the development of cardiac constructs for implantation. Despite the cardiogenic properties of the newly generated cardiomyocytes, these cells present a heterogeneous and immature phenotype, which is more comparable with cardiomyocytes of early developmental stages. However, successful employment of these new cardiomyocytes for myocardial repair demands that the physiological profile of stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes matches with the ...
Components of nonlinear capacitance, or charge movement, were localized in the membranes of frog skeletal muscle fibers by studying the effect of detubulation resulting from sudden withdrawal of glycerol from a glycerol-hypertonic solution in which the muscles had been immersed. Linear capacitance was evaluated from the integral of the transient current elicited by imposed voltage clamp steps near the holding potential using bathing solutions that minimized tubular voltage attenuation. The dependence of linear membrane capacitance on fiber diameter in intact fibers was consistent with surface and tubular capacitances and a term attributable to the capacitance of the fiber end. A reduction in this dependence in detubulated fibers suggested that sudden glycerol withdrawal isolated between 75 and 100% of the transverse tubules from the fiber surface. Glycerol withdrawal in two stages did not cause appreciable detubulation. Such glycerol-treated but not detubulated fibers were ...
One physiological method for estimating the motor unit number in a muscle depends on dividing into the maximum compound muscle action potential, the potential average of the first few motor unit potentials excited by a motor nerve stimulus above motor threshold. To be valid, such an average unit potential size must be representative of the whole motor unit population. This assumption may not be justified. The present study has shown that there are single motor units in healthy and abnormal, thenar, and EDB motor unit populations, many times larger than any motor unit excited close to the motor threshold. This finding suggests that previously reported motor unit estimates may not only be an overestimate of the true motor unit population number, but have excluded much larger motor units with higher thresholds. Low motor unit estimates in neuropathies may result from a change in the order of activation of motor units with the appearance of larger motor units, normally of higher ...
This investigation was undertaken to determine if there are altered histological, pathological and contractile properties in presymptomatic or endstage diseased muscle fibres from representative slow-twitch and fast-twitch muscles of SOD1 G93A mice in comparison to wildtype mice. In presymptomatic SOD1 G93A mice, there was no detectable peripheral dysfunction, providing evidence that muscle pathology is secondary to motor neuronal dysfunction. At disease endstage however, single muscle fibre contractile analysis demonstrated that fast-twitch muscle fibres and neuromuscular junctions are preferentially affected by amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-induced denervation, being unable to produce the same levels of force when activated by calcium as muscle fibres from their age-matched controls. The levels of transgenic SOD1 expression, aggregation state and activity ...
The molecular mechanisms underlying muscle atrophy during spaceflight are not well understood. We have analyzed the effects of a 10-day spaceflight on Caenorhabditis elegans muscle development. DNA microarray, real-time quantitative PCR, and quantitative western blot analyses revealed that the amount of MHC in both body-wall and pharyngeal muscle decrease in response to spaceflight. Decreased transcription of the body-wall myogenic transcription factor HLH-1 (CeMyoD) and of the three pharyngeal myogenic transcription factors, PEB-1, CEH-22 and PHA-4 were also observed. Upon return to Earth animals displayed reduced rates of movement, indicating a functional defect. These results demonstrate that C. elegans muscle development is altered in response to spaceflight. This altered development occurs at the level of gene transcription and was observed in the presence of innervation, not simply in isolated ...
Previous studies have shown that nitric oxide synthase (NOS), the enzyme that catalyzes the formation of nitric oxide (NO), is expressed in skeletal muscle. The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that NO can modulate glucose metabolism in slow- and fast-twitch skeletal muscles. Calcium-dependent NOS was detected in skeletal muscle, and the enzyme activity was greater in fast-type extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles than in slow-type soleus muscles. Both the neuronal-type (nNOS) and endothelial-type (eNOS) enzymes are expressed in resting skeletal muscles. However, nNOS protein was only detected in EDL muscles, whereas eNOS protein contents were comparable in soleus and EDL muscles. NOS expression in muscle cryosections (diaphorase histochemistry) was located in vascular endothelium and in muscle fibers, and the staining ...
Muscle, motor unit and muscle fibre type-specific differences in force-generating capacity have been investigated for many years, but there is still no consensus regarding specific differences between slow- and fast-twitch muscles, motor units or muscle fibres. This is probably related to a number of different confounding factors disguising the function of the molecular motor protein myosin. We have therefore studied the force-generating capacity of specific myosin isoforms or combination of isoforms extracted from short single human muscle fibre segments in a modified single fibre myosin in vitro motility assay, in which an internal load (actin-binding protein) was added in different concentrations to evaluate the force-generating capacity. The force indices were the x-axis intercept and the slope of the relationship between the fraction of moving filaments and the α-actinin concentration. The ...
Fast twitch muscles fibers have less mitochondria and therefore less capacity for oxygen utilization in the production of energy within the muscle. This makes them better suited to anaerobic activities such as weight training, sprinting, jumping and other explosive type activities. FT fibers create energy anaerobically, that is, without oxygen. This system uses glucose as a prime energy source. The byproduct of this anaerobic energy production is heat and lactic acid. Lactic acid accumulation in the muscle causes fatigue and soreness. The anaerobic energy system is a limited system for energy production ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Sensory partitioning of cat medial gastrocnemius muscle by its muscle spindles and tendon organs. AU - Cameron, William. AU - Binder, M. D.. AU - Botterman, B. R.. AU - Reinking, R. M.. AU - Stuart, D. G.. PY - 1981. Y1 - 1981. N2 - The response of 59 muscle afferents to the twitch contraction of the whole medial gastrocnemius muscle and the responses of 68 afferents to the contractions of two or three intramuscular compartments (i.e., muscle fibers innervated by a branch of the muscle nerve) have been analyzed. For 86% of the muscle spindle afferents studied, the twitch of the intramuscular compartment containing their receptors (test compartment) was a more potent stimulus than the contraction of an immediately adjacent compartment, although in each experiment the force produced by the test compartment was less than that produced by the adjacent compartment. In all the ...
Genetic regulation of the cell fate transition from lateral plate mesoderm to the specification of cardiomyocytes requires suppression of Wnt/β-catenin signaling, but the mechanism for this is not well understood. By analyzing gene expression and chromatin dynamics during directed differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), we identified a suppressor of Wnt/β-catenin signaling, transmembrane protein 88 (TMEM88), as a potential regulator of cardiovascular progenitor cell (CVP) specification. During the transition from mesoderm to the CVP, TMEM88 has a chromatin signature of genes that mediate cell fate decisions, and its expression is highly upregulated in advance of key cardiac transcription factors in vitro and in vivo. In early zebrafish embryos, tmem88a is expressed broadly in the lateral plate mesoderm, including the bilateral heart fields. Short hairpin RNA targeting of TMEM88 during hESC cardiac ...
Extensor digitorum brevis manus is an extra or accessory muscle on the backside (dorsum) of the hand. It was first described by Albinus in 1758. The muscles lies in the fourth extensor compartment of the wrist, and is relatively rare. It has a prevalence of 4% in the general population according to a meta-analysis. This muscle is commonly misdiagnosed as a ganglion cysta, synovial nodule or cyst. The extensor digitorum brevis manus usually originates from the dorsal aspect (backside) of the wrist, either from the joint capsule, the distal end (the most distant end) of the radius, the metacarpal, or from the radiocarpal ligament in the area of the fourth extensor compartment. Many variations of the muscle have been described in the literature. It could have up to four tendons with a single tendon inserting to the index or the middle finger being the two most common variations. At the insertion the tendon of the extensor digitorum brevis manus ...
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Paranemin was initially found to copurify with the intermediate filament (IF) proteins vimentin and desmin from embryonic chick skeletal muscle and was described as an IF-associated protein (IFAP). We have purified paranemin from embryonic chick skeletal muscle, prepared antibodies, and demonstrated that they label at the Z-lines of both adult avian and porcine cardiac and skeletal muscle myofibrils. We determined the cDNA sequence of paranemin by immunoscreening a λgt22A cDNA library from embryonic chick skeletal muscle. Northern blot analysis revealed a single transcript of 5.3 kilobases, which is much smaller than predicted from the size of paranemin (280 kDa) by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The derived amino acid sequence of paranemin (1,606 residues; 178,161 kDa) contains the conserved IF rod domain (308 amino acids), which has highest homology to the rod domains of nestin and tanabin. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Desmin is present in proliferating rat muscle satellite cells but not in bovine muscle satellite cells. AU - Allen, Ronald E.. AU - Rankin, Lucinda L.. AU - Greene, Elizabeth A.. AU - Boxhorn, Linda K.. AU - Johnson, Sally E.. AU - Taylor, Richard G.. AU - Pierce, Paul R.. PY - 1991/12. Y1 - 1991/12. N2 - The presence of desmin was characterized in cultured rat and bovine satellite cells and its potential usefulness as a marker for identifying satellite cells in vitro was evaluated. In primary cultures, positive immunohistochemical staining for desmin and skeletal muscle myosin was observed in rat and bovine myotubes. A small number of mononucleated cells (20% of rat satellite ...
Template:Anatomical lists This is a table of muscles of the human anatomy. There are approximately 642 skeletal muscles within the typical human, and almost every muscle constitutes one part of a pair of identical bilateral muscles, found on both sides, resulting in approximately 320 pairs of muscles, as presented in this article. Nevertheless, the exact number is difficult to define because different sources group muscles differently, e.g. regarding what is defined as different parts of a single muscle or as several muscles. Examples range from 640 to 850.[1] The muscles of the human body can be categorized into a number of groups which include muscles relating to the head and neck, muscles of the torso or trunk, muscles of the upper limbs, and muscles of the lower limbs. The action refers ...
Molecular forms of acetylcholinesterase in the rat extensor digitorum longus and soleus muscles regenerating from notexin-induced necrosis ...
It is now common, even in the health club arenas, to hear the terms "stabilizing exercise", and "core muscles". But what do these terms really mean, what are such muscles, and why are such exercises and muscle groups so important?. MUSCLES HAVE SPECIFIC ROLES. When we look at our skeletal muscle system, we know that not all muscles are the same in their function and physiological makeup. Some muscles are located deep and close to our joints, have predominantly slow twitch type muscle fibers, are often short muscles, and can contract for prolonged periods and have some tension most of the time. These are endurance type muscles, whose primary function is to ensure that the joints can move in a mechanically normal fashion. They thereby provide stability to the joints. These are the stabilizing, or true "core ...
Instrumentation has been developed to detect rapidly the polarization of tryptophan fluorescence from single muscle fibers in rigor, relaxation, and contraction. The polarization parameter (P⊥) obtained by exiciting the muscle tryptophans with light polarized perpendicular to the long axis of the muscle fiber had a magnitude P⊥ (relaxation) , P⊥ (contraction) , P⊥ (rigor) for the three types of muscle fibers examined (glycerinated rabbit psoas, glycerinated dorsal longitudinal flight muscle of Lethocerus americanus, and live semitendinosus of Rana pipiens). P⊥ from single psoas fibers in rigor was found to increase as the sarcomere length increased but in relaxed fibers P⊥ was independent of sarcomere length. After rigor, pyrophosphate produced little or no change in P⊥, but following an adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-containing solution, pyrophosphate produced a value of P⊥ that fell between the contraction and relaxation ...
The muscles of the thigh are the largest group of muscles in the body. These large muscles play pivotal roles in generating movements of the lower limb that are essential to walking, running, and jumping, as well as other movements associated with locomotion. During embryonic development the lower limb rotates so that the original ventral embryonic muscles assume a posterior position in the post-natal lower limb, while the embryonic dorsal muscles assume an anterior position in the limb. The muscles of the anterior compartment become the extensor muscles of the knee joint and share attachments, actions, blood supply, and innervation in common. The posterior muscles split into two compartments - the posterior compartment, often referred to as the hamstring muscles and the medial compartment, or adductors of the thigh. Within each of these compartments, the ...
We tested the proposition that muscle cell types have different contents of phosphocreatine (PCr), ATP, and Pi by 31P NMR spectroscopy and HPLC analyses of adult rat and mouse muscles containing various volume fractions of different fiber types. There was a 2-fold difference in the PCr content between muscles with a high volume fraction of fiber types 1 and 2x versus those with fast-twitch (types 2a and 2b) fiber types. Pi content was low, and PCr and ATP contents were high in muscles with large contents of type 2b and 2a fibers; the reverse was true in muscles with a large volume fraction of type 1 and 2x fibers. There is a large range in the Pi/PCr ratios in normal resting muscles, from less than 0.05 in type 2 to 0.51 in type 1 fibers, depending upon the distribution of their component fiber types. In all muscles, the peak area resulting from the beta phosphate of ATP constituted ...
1. The functional properties of tibialis anterior muscles of normal adult (C57BL/10) and age-matched dystrophin-deficient (C57BL/10 mdx) mice have been investigated in situ. Comparisons were made between tibialis anterior muscle strength, rates of force development and relaxation, force-frequency responses and fatiguability. Subjecting mdx and C57 muscles to a regimen of eccentric exercise allowed the hypothesis to be tested that dystrophin-deficient muscles are more susceptible to exercise-induced muscle damage.. 2. mdx muscles were, on average, 30% stronger than C57 muscles and almost 80% heavier, but both had similar muscle lengths. Thus, although mdx muscles were stronger in absolute terms, their estimated force per unit cross-sectional area was significantly less than that of C57 muscles.. 3. The ...
p,The purpose of the studies reported in this thesis was to obtain data concerning the embryonic origin and formation of the pectoralis major muscle of the chicken. This muscle is used extensively in studies on muscle development because it is large; readily available, and is composed almost entirely of one muscle fiber type. Moreover, it is the largest muscle to be affected by hereditary muscular dystrophy in the line of chickens afflicted with this disease. Information concerning its embryonic origin could be used for in vivo studies on the early development of both normal and dystrophic muscles.,/p, ,p,Previous investigations into the embryonic origin od skeletal muscle in several classes of vertebrates have resulted in controversy. Some investigators have concluded that all skeletal muscles arise from the myotomal layer of the somites. Others have cited evidence to show ...
Pax7 expressing muscle stem cells accompany all skeletal muscles in the body and in healthy individuals, efficiently repair muscle after injury. Currently, the in vitro manipulation and culture of these cells is still in its infancy, yet muscle stem cells may be the most promising route towards the therapy of muscle diseases such as muscular dystrophies.It is often overlooked that muscular dystrophies affect head and body skeletal muscle differently. Moreover, these muscles develop differently. Specifically, head muscle and its stem cells develop from the non-somitic head mesoderm which also has cardiac competence. To which extent head ...
Following denervation skeletal muscles change their functional and structural properties. Some changes resemble conditions in developing muscles and may be important for reinnervation. Due to inactivity following denervation most skeletal muscles loose muscle mass and become atrophic. The hemidiaphragm muscle, however, undergoes a phase of transient hypertrophy following denervation, gaining weight during the first 6-10 days followed by a decrease in weight. In this thesis the expression (mRNA, protein and protein phosphorylations) of potential factors involved in the regulation of muscle mass were examined in denervated hind-limb and hemidiaphragm muscles.. NIFK is a protein that associates with Ki67, a protein expressed predominantly in proliferating cells. The mRNA expression of NIFK was upregulated in denervated atrophic ...
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Looking for online definition of extraocular muscle myosin heavy chain in the Medical Dictionary? extraocular muscle myosin heavy chain explanation free. What is extraocular muscle myosin heavy chain? Meaning of extraocular muscle myosin heavy chain medical term. What does extraocular muscle myosin heavy chain mean?
Skeletal muscle constitutes a large part of the human body. It is a hierarchically organized heterogeneous tissue and is composed of muscle fiber bundles, muscle fibers, myofibrils and myofilaments. Since muscle cells are terminally differentiated, they have limited capacity to renew themselves. Only new cells can fuse with muscle fibers and increase the size and volume of skeletal muscle. Myosatellite cells or satellite cells are small, mononuclear progenitor cells with virtually no cytoplasm. They are located in between the sarcolemma and basement membrane of terminally-differentiated muscle fibers. Satellite ...
17 best ideas about human muscle anatomy on pinterest , muscle at muscles. Human Muscle Pictures delightful to help my blog site, in this occasion Ill show you in relation to Human muscle pictures.. And now, here is the initial image, human muscle pictures, human cadaver muscle pictures, real human muscle pictures, human skeletal muscle pictures, human body muscle groups pictures, trichinella spiralis in human muscle pictures :. ...
One objective of the red-white muscle experiment was simply to test the function of the newly assembled porcine microarray, from which two gene lists were generated (Tables 1 and 2). Genes that were expected to be differentially expressed and genes that were novel were found on each list. The microarray results validated our prior hypothesis of differential gene expression in red and white muscles, thus demonstrating the functional integrity of our newly constructed microarray. One of the well established distinguishing features of red muscle is its relatively high oxidative phosphorylation capacity, reflected by an abundance of mitochondria in red muscles. It is reassuring that genes from the mitochondrial genome were well represented in the red muscle pool of differentially expressed genes (Table 1). White muscles comprise predominantly more fast-glycolytic fibres than red ...
Preservation of skeletal muscle mass is of great importance for maintaining both metabolic health and functional capacity. Muscle mass maintenance is regulated by the balance between muscle protein breakdown and synthesis rates. Both muscle protein breakdown and synthesis rates have been shown to be highly responsive to physical activity and food intake. Food intake, and protein ingestion in particular, directly stimulates muscle protein synthesis rates. The postprandial muscle protein synthetic response to feeding is regulated on a number of levels, including dietary protein digestion and amino acid absorption, splanchnic amino acid retention, postprandial insulin release, skeletal muscle tissue perfusion, amino acid uptake by muscle, and intramyocellular signaling. The postprandial muscle protein synthetic response to feeding is blunted in ...
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The extra-ocular, or extrinsic eye, muscles are a series of small muscles that arise from the pre-otic somites in the developing head. Associated with these somites are the three ventral motor cranial nerves (III or the oculomotor, IV or the trochlear, and VI or the abducens) rostral to the developing ear. The seven extra-ocular muscles encircle the eye within the orbit. Six of the seven muscles attach to the sclera of the eye and produce the complete range of eye movements. The seventh muscle moves the upper eyelid out of the visual pathway. The six muscles of the eyeball are an incredibly stable muscle group over the long history of vertebrate evolution. Across the entire range of vertebrate animals, from fish to mammals, the six extra-ocular muscles show little variation. These intricately controlled muscles have some of the highest neuron to ...
1. The incorporation into protein, and the accumulation into the free amino acid pools, of radioactive l-leucine and glycine was studied in rat extensor digitorum longus muscle. 2. The tissue was incubated first with 14C-labelled and then with 3H-labelled amino acid. 3. The experimental results were consistent with a model based on the premise that the amino acids in protein were incorporated directly from the extracellular pool.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Impaired organization and function of myofilaments in single muscle fibers from a mouse model of Pompe disease. AU - Xu, Sengen. AU - Galperin, Mikhail. AU - Melvin, Gary. AU - Horowits, Robert. AU - Raben, Nina. AU - Plotz, Paul. AU - Yu, Leepo. PY - 2010/5. Y1 - 2010/5. N2 - Pompe disease, a defi-ciency of lysosomal acid α-glucosidase, is a disorder of glycogen, metabolism that can affect infants, children, or adults. In all forms of the disease, there is progressive muscle pathology leading to premature death. The pathology is characterized by accumulation of glycogen in lysosomes, autophagic buildup, and muscle atrophy. The purpose of the present investigation was to determine if myofibrillar dysfunction in Pompe disease contributes to muscle weakness beyond that attributed to atrophy. The study was performed on isolated myofibers dissected from severely affected fast glycolytic ...
The muscles of the head perform a wide variety of functions and come in a variety of shapes and sizes. Some of these muscles are the smallest muscles of the body, others have the highest ratio of neuron to muscle fibers in the body, and others can generate more force per unit area than any other muscle. They perform functions that range from chewing food to manipulating speech, from moving the eyes to creating the wide variety of facial expressions, and they even modify the strength of the sound waves approaching the inner ear. These interesting muscles arise from two distinct developmental programs in the embryo - the branchial, or pharyngeal, arches and the head somites. Each of these embryonic tissues has an associated cranial nerve. As the embryonic muscle mass develops to its final postnatal group of muscles, each of these ...
Illustration of (from anterior to posterior): tibialis anterior muscle, extensor digitorum longus muscle, fibularis (peroneus) brevis muscle, fibularis (peroneus) longus muscle, tendons of extensor hallucis longus muscle, and extensor digitorum longus muscles and peroneus tertius muscle and extensor digitorum brevis tendon, soleus muscle, gastrocnemius muscle, abductor digiti minimi muscle, superior and inferior extensor retinaculi, lateral (fibular) malleolus, lateral malleolar artery, sural nerve, small (short) saphenous vein, calcaneus. Dotted lines show site of surgical incision ...
The Notch (N) gene encodes a cell signaling protein that mediates neuronal and epidermal determination in Drosophila embryos. N also regulates several aspects of myogenic development; embryos lacking N function have too many muscle founder cells and fail to properly differentiate somatic muscle. To identify cell-autonomous requirements for Notch function during muscle development, we expressed a Notch minigene in the mesoderm, but not in the ectoderm, of amorphic N-embryos. In these embryos, muscle founder hypertrophy is rescued, indicating that Notch is autonomously required by mesoderm cells to regulate the proper number of muscle founders. However, somatic muscle differentiation is only partially normalized, suggesting that Notch is also required in the ectoderm for ...
A muscle biopsy is a procedure used to diagnose diseases involving muscle tissue. Tissue and cells from a specific muscle are removed and viewed microscopically. The procedure requires only a small piece of tissue to be removed from the designated muscle.. The tissue sample is obtained by inserting a biopsy needle into the muscle. If a larger sample is required, your doctor may make an incision in the skin (open biopsy) and remove a larger section of muscle.. The muscle selected for the biopsy depends on the location of symptoms which may include pain or weakness. The muscles often selected for sampling are the bicep (upper arm muscle), deltoid (shoulder muscle), or quadriceps (thigh muscle).. A related procedure that may be used to diagnose neuromuscular problems is ...
Definition of muscle f's, fast twitch in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is muscle f's, fast twitch? Meaning of muscle f's, fast twitch as a legal term. What does muscle f's, fast twitch mean in law?
Myostatin-related muscle hypertrophy (or myotonic hypertrophy) is a rare genetic condition characterized by reduced body fat and increased skeletal muscle size. Affected individuals have up to twice the usual amount of muscle mass in their bodies. They also tend to have increased muscle strength. Myostatin-related muscle hypertrophy is not known to cause medical problems, and affected individuals are intellectually normal. The prevalence of this condition is unknown. Mutations in the MSTN gene cause myostatin-related muscle hypertrophy. The MSTN gene provides instructions for making a protein called myostatin, which is active in muscles used for movement (skeletal muscles) both before and after birth. This protein normally restrains muscle growth, ensuring that muscles do not grow too large. Mutations that reduce the production of ...
Skeletal muscle satellite cells (SCs) are involved in remodeling and hypertrophy processes of skeletal muscle. However, little knowledge exists on extrinsic factors that influence the content of SCs in skeletal muscle. In a comparative human study, we investigated the muscle fiber type-specific association between emergence of satellite cells (SCs), muscle growth, and remodeling in response to 12 wk unilateral resistance training performed as eccentric (Ecc) or concentric (Conc) resistance training ± whey protein (Whey, 19.5 g protein + 19.5 g glucose) or placebo (Placebo, 39 g glucose) supplementation. Muscle biopsies (vastus lateralis) were analyzed for fiber type-specific SCs, myonuclei, and fiber cross-sectional area (CSA). Following training, SCs increased with Conc in both type I and type II fibers (P ...
OBJECTIVE: Physical activity and circadian rhythms are well-established determinants of human health and disease, but the relationship between muscle activity and the circadian regulation of muscle genes is a relatively new area of research. It is unknown whether muscle activity and muscle clock rhythms are coupled together, nor whether activity rhythms can drive circadian gene expression in skeletal muscle. METHODS: We compared the circadian transcriptomes of two mouse hindlimb muscles with vastly different circadian activity patterns, the continuously active slow soleus and the sporadically active fast tibialis anterior, in the presence or absence of a functional skeletal muscle clock (skeletal muscle-specific Bmal1 KO). In addition, we compared the effect of denervation on muscle circadian gene expression. RESULTS:We found that different ...
Skeletal muscle fibres form by fusion of mesoderm progenitors called myoblasts. After birth, muscle fibres do not increase in number but continue to grow in size because of fusion of satellite cells, the postnatal myogenic cells, responsible for muscle growth and regeneration. Numerous studies suggest that, on transplantation, non-myogenic cells also may contribute to muscle regeneration. However, there is currently no evidence that such a contribution represents a natural developmental option of these non-myogenic cells, rather than a consequence of experimental manipulation resulting in cell fusion. Here we show that pericytes, transgenically labelled with an inducible Alkaline Phosphatase CreERT2, but not endothelial ...
Abstract. Skeletal muscle fibre types are determined by the activity of motor neurons, hormones, stretch and probably cell lineage. The electrical activity of the motor neurons might, through an unknown pathway, influence the expression of a unique set of muscle specific genes in the different fibre types.. MRF4 is a member of a family of myogenic basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors (bHLH) that is important for the development of muscle fibres. These transcription factors are also suggested to be important in adult muscle, where they might be a possible link between electrical activity and expression of muscle specific genes. The myogenic bHLH transcription factors MyoD and myogenin has been shown to possible be involved in the regulation of fibre type specificity. This role is also proposed for MRF4, based on the high amount of MRF4 mRNA that is expressed in all adult skeletal muscle types and that ...
Looking for online definition of quadriceps femoris (muscle) in the Medical Dictionary? quadriceps femoris (muscle) explanation free. What is quadriceps femoris (muscle)? Meaning of quadriceps femoris (muscle) medical term. What does quadriceps femoris (muscle) mean?
Skeletal muscle is a major insulin-target tissue and plays an important role in glucose homeostasis. Impaired insulin action in muscles leads to insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus. 5′ AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) is an energy sensor, its activation increases glucose uptake in skeletal muscle and AMPK activators have been viewed as a targeted approach in combating insulin resistance. We previously reported AMPK activation and increased muscle glucose uptake by rosemary extract (RE). In the present study, we examined the effects and the mechanism of action of rosmarinic acid (RA), a major RE constituent, in L6 rat muscle cells. RA (5.0 μM) increased glucose uptake (186 ± 4.17% of control, p , 0.001) to levels comparable to maximum insulin (204 ± 10.73% of control, p , 0.001) and metformin (202 ± 14.37% of control, p , 0.001). Akt phosphorylation was not affected by ...
The quadriceps femoris muscle is the only extensor of the knee, which is why itís of utmost importance for the straightening up of the body (eg. from squatting). Since it works against gravity, it clearly surpasses the strength of the thigh flexors. The rectus femoris muscle also can bend in the hip joint, however, its effect is relatively weak. The muscle is only able to perform its full extension in the knee when the hip joint is extended, since the rectus femoris muscle becomes inefficient in a bent hip. The four muscles are also responsible for the patella to remain in its sliding groove. When they are unevenly developed, the patella can suffer a luxation. ...
Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of using combined glucose and fructose (GF) ingestion as a means to stimulate short-term (4 h) postexercise muscle glycogen synthesis compared to glucose only (G). Methods: On two separate occasions, six endurance-trained men performed an exhaustive glycogen-depleting exercise bout followed by a 4-h recovery period. Muscle biopsy samples were obtained from the vastus lateralis muscle at 0, 1, and 4 h after exercise. Subjects ingested carbohydrate solutions containing G (90 gIhj1) or GF (G = 60 gIhj1; F = 30 gIhj1) commencing immediately after exercise and every 30 min thereafter. Results: Immediate postexercise muscle glycogen concentrations were similar in both trials (G = 128 T 25 mmolIkgj1 dry muscle (dm) vs GF = 112 T 16 mmolIkgj1 dm; P 9 0.05). Total glycogen storage during the 4-h recovery period was 176 T 33 and 155 T 31 mmolIkgj1 dm for G and GF, respectively (G vs GF, P 9 0.05). ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Adult forms of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors are expressed in the absence of nerve during differentiation of a mouse skeletal muscle cell line. AU - Shepherd, Dawn. AU - Brehm, Paul. PY - 1994. Y1 - 1994. N2 - Changes in the functional properties of acetylcholine receptor (AchR) channels were followed in the C2 muscle cell line over the period of 1 to 17 days following myotube formation. Up to 1 week after myotube formation, the predominant class of channel exhibited low (45 pS) conductance and long mean channel open time (14 msec), characteristic of the major type of AchR in embryonic skeletal muscle. Three additional Ach-activated currents with conductances lower than 45 pS and long channel open times were also observed. Seven to 10 days following myotube formation, channels of 45 pS and 65 pS and short (2-6 msec) mean open duration were observed, characteristic of receptor channels in adult muscle. ...
1. Quadriceps muscle protein turnover was assessed in the post-absorptive state in six men immediately after the end of unilateral leg immobilization (37 ± 4 days) in a plaster cast after tibial fracture. A primed-constant intravenous infusion of l-[1-13C]leucine was administered over 7 h. Quadriceps needle biopsies, taken bilaterally at the end of the infusion, were analysed for muscle protein leucine enrichment with 13C.. 2. Quadriceps muscle protein synthetic rate, calculated from the fractional incorporation of [13C]leucine into protein compared with the average enrichment of blood α-ketoisocaproate, was 0.046 ±0.012%/h in the uninjured leg, but was only 0.034 ±0.007%/h in the quadriceps of the previously fractured leg (P , 0.05, means ± sd).. 3. Muscle RNA activity (i.e. protein synthetic rate per RNA) fell from 0.27 ±0.08 μg of protein synthesized h−1 μg−1 of RNA in the control leg to 0.14 ±0.03 μg of protein synthesized h−1 μg−1 of ...
INTRODUCTION The injury caused by reperfusion of ischemic skeletal muscle is mediated by the membrane attack complex of complement (C) . This C activation results from local classical pathway activation after deposition of IgM in injured muscle, an event analogous to C deposition in the mucosa of the gut during reperfusion . Our past analysis has indicated that the injury is not uniform even within a single microscopic section. This study was performed to elucidate the exact site of IgM and C deposition on muscle injured by ischemia and reperfusion. MATERIALS AND METHODS C57Bl/6 mice were subjected to 2 h of tourniquet-induced hindlimb ischemia followed by reperfusion for 0-6 h. Three muscle groups (vastus, gastrocnemius, and soleus) of varying fast-myosin content were compared for muscle fiber damage and C deposition. Adjacent paraffin-embedded cross-sections were immunostained to correlate C3 deposition ...
The muscles of the head include the tongue, muscles of facial expression, extra-ocular muscles and muscles of mastication. The tongue comprises of intrinsic and extrinsic muscles. It receives motor innervation from the hypoglossal nerve. Sensation of the tongue can be divided into taste, and general sensation. The muscles of facial expression are located in the subcutaneous tissue. The attach into the skin, and contract to exert their effects. The muscles of facial expression can be divided in to three groups: orbital, nasal and oral. The orbital muscles of facial expression exert control over movement of the eyelids. They are Orbicularis oculus and corrugator supercilia. Innervated by the facial nerve, these muscles protect the cornea from damage. The nasal muscles of facial expression exert control over movements of the nose, and the skin ...
In orthopteran insects, neural networks for joint control exhibit different characteristics due to behavioural specializations. We investigated whether these differences are generated purely by the neuronal networks, or whether characteristics of the muscles or joint architecture (muscle­joint system) are also involved in these behavioural specializations. We compared the properties of the muscle system moving the femur­tibia joint of the middle and hindleg of three species, Carausius morosus, Cuniculina impigra and Locusta migratoria. Four aspects were analysed for the tibial extensor muscle: (i) the frequency-dependence of motoneuronal activity in response to sinusoidal stimulation of the femoral chordotonal organ (fCO), (ii) the muscle structure, (iii) the innervation pattern of the muscle and (iv) the histochemical properties of the muscle fibres. These aspects were compared with ...
Skeletal muscle atrophy is caused by a variety of diseases and conditions. In particular, skeletal muscle atrophy in the elderly contributes to a loss of independence with advanced age and increases the risk of falling. However, the effect of food consumed on a daily basis on skeletal muscle atrophy has been the focus of little research. In this study, the effects of dietary supplementation with shiikuwasha extract or grape extract on dexamethasone-induced skeletal muscle atrophy were evaluated in aged rats. Aged male rats (15-month-old) were fed a diet supplemented with either 1 % shiikuwasha extract or 1 % grape extract for 19 days. During the last 5 days of the feeding period, rats were injected with dexamethasone to induce muscle atrophy. Body weight and hind-limb muscle weight were significantly decreased by dexamethasone treatment. The supplementation of shiikuwasha ...
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), a recessive X-linked disorder and the most common of a class of progressive muscle-wasting diseases, is characterized by the lack of dystrophin at the muscle cell membrane (1). Replacement of absent dystrophin in mdx mice by transgenic expression leads to complete restoration of normal muscle cell membrane function (2). Muscle is known to be a regenerative tissue, and this regeneration is accomplished via a heterogeneous population of cells called satellite cells or myoblasts. These cells divide upon damage to muscle, fuse to one another and with existing myofibers, and create new muscle fibers. One approach to therapy for DMD was the intramuscular injection of normal myoblasts into the skeletal ...
Skeletal muscle satellite cells located between the plasma membrane and the basal lamina of muscle fibres, could for many years, only be studied in situ by electron microscopy. The introduction of immunohistochemistry and the discovery of molecular markers of satellite cells then made them accessible for light microscopic studies and a wealth of information is today available. Satellite cells are myogenic stem cells that can be activated from a quiescent state to proliferate for self-renewal or differentiate into myogenic cells. The satellite cells are involved in muscle growth during fetal and postnatal development and play a key role in repair and ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Rapamycin administration in humans blocks the contraction-induced increase in skeletal muscle protein synthesis. AU - Drummond, Micah J.. AU - Fry, Christopher. AU - Glynn, Erin L.. AU - Dreyer, Hans C.. AU - Dhanani, Shaheen. AU - Timmerman, Kyle L.. AU - Volpi, Elena. AU - Rasmussen, Blake. PY - 2009. Y1 - 2009. N2 - Muscle protein synthesis and mTORC1 signalling are concurrently stimulated following muscle contraction in humans. In an effort to determine whether mTORC1 signalling is essential for regulating muscle protein synthesis in humans, we treated subjects with a potent mTORC1 inhibitor (rapamycin) prior to performing a series of high-intensity muscle contractions. Here we show that rapamycin treatment blocks the early (1-2 h) acute contraction-induced increase (∼40%) in human muscle protein synthesis. In addition, several downstream components of ...
1. Serum carnosinase activity was assayed in a group of alcoholic patients with and without histologically proven atrophy of type II skeletal muscle fibres, and in control subjects. No significant activity was detected in muscle biopsy samples or washed erythrocytes.. 2. Serum carnosinase activity was significantly lower in chronic alcoholic patients compared with a group of age-matched controls. Alcoholics with abnormal muscle biopsies had significantly lower enzyme activities than either those patients with normal muscle biopsies or the controls. Serum enzyme activities in patients with normal muscle biopsies were not significantly different from controls.. 3. Serum carnosinase activity was inversely correlated with the degree of muscle atrophy as measured by the type II fibre atrophy factor. There was a positive correlation between the enzyme activity and skeletal muscle mass as reflected ...
The ability of a muscle to shorten and produce force is crucial for locomotion, posture, balance and respiration. During a contraction, myosin heads on the myosin filament propel the actin filament via ATP hydrolysis, resulting in shortening of the muscle and/or force generation. The maximal shortening velocity of a muscle fibre is largely determined by the myosin ATPase activity, while maximal force is primarily determined by the cross-sectional area. Since most muscles are pennate rather than parallel-fibred and work at different lever ratios, muscle architecture and joint-tendon anatomy has to be taken into account to obtain the force and velocity characteristics of a muscle. Additionally, the recruitment of agonistic and antagonistic muscles will contribute to the torque generated during a contraction. Finally, tendon compliance may impact on the rate of force rise and force generated if ...
Myostatin (Mstn) is a negative regulator of skeletal muscle fibre size and satellite cell proliferation whose role in mature fibre compensatory growth has not been fully characterized. Myostatin knockout (Mstn-/-) mice display consistently larger skeletal muscle masses, as well as an overall increase in size and number of myofibres within the muscle, compared to the wild-type mice. Previous research has shown that Mstn plays a major role in the attenuation of both the hypertrophic and hyperplasic pathways of myofibre growth. Immunohistochemical staining of overloaded plantaris muscles was performed to analyze phenotypic and morphological changes in wild-type and Mstn-/- muscles. Preliminary results of these analyses indicated a tendency for muscles from Mstn-/- mice to express an increased number of myofibres, whereas muscles from Mstn+/+ mice tended to display hypertrophied pre-existing ...
Backgroundand objectives Idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIMs) are chronic inflammatory diseases characterised by muscle weakness and the mechanisms are still unclear. High mobility group box protein 1 (HMGB1) is often found together with aberrant expression of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I in muscle fibres of patients with IIMs but not in healthy individuals. Exogenous HMGB1 can accelerate development of muscle fatigue and increase MHC-class I expression in adult mice skeletal muscle fibres. In other tissues it has been shown that HMGB1 could mediate functions via different receptors including the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). In this study, the authors set out to investigate whether HMGB1 contribute to increased muscle fatigue and MHC-class I expression in muscle fibres via RAGE or TLR4 in adult skeletal ...
Coordinating the balance between progenitor self-renewal and myogenic differentiation is required for a regulated expansion of the developing muscles. Previous observation that neural crest cells (NCCs) migrate throughout the somite regions, where trunk skeletal muscles first emerge, suggests a potential role for these cells in influencing early muscle formation. However, specific signaling interactions between NCCs and skeletal muscle cells remain unknown. Here we show that mice with specific NCC and peripheral nervous system defects display impaired survival of skeletal muscle and show skeletal muscle progenitor cell (MPC) depletion due to precocious commitment to differentiation. We show that reduced NCC-derived Neuregulin1 (Nrg1) in the somite region ...
Although the cause of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is known, the specific factors that initiate and perpetuate disease progression are not well understood. We hypothesized that leaky dystrophin-deficient skeletal muscle releases endogenous danger signals (TLR ligands), which bind to Toll-like receptors (TLRs) on muscle and immune cells and activate downstream processes that facilitate degeneration and regeneration in dystrophic skeletal muscle. Here, we demonstrate that dystrophin-deficient mouse muscle cells show increased expression of several cell-surface and endosomal TLRs. In vitro screening identified ssRNA as a relevant endogenous TLR7 ligand. TLR7 activation led to myd88-dependent production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in dystrophin-deficient muscle cells, and ...
Smad7 is an intracellular antagonist of transforming growth factor-β signalling pathways and modulates muscle growth in vivo. Loss of Smad7 results in decreased muscle mass, reduced force generation, fibre type switching from glycolytic towards oxidative type and delayed recovery from injury. Upregulated Smad2/3 signalling in Smad7(-/-) muscle results in reduced myoblast proliferation and differentiation. Smad7 is an important regulator of muscle growth and may be a potential intracellular therapeutic target for muscle disorders.The transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) family of growth factors plays an essential role in mediating cellular growth and differentiation. Myostatin is a muscle-specific member of the TGF-β superfamily and a negative regulator of muscle growth. Myostatin inhibitors are currently being pursued as therapeutic options for muscle disorders. Smad7 ...
The effects of the venoms of the spiders Latrodectus mactans tredecimguttatus (black widow) and Latrodectus mactans hasselti (red back) on sensory nerve terminals in muscle spindles were studied in the mouse. A sublethal dose of venom was injected into tibialis anterior and extensor digitorum longus muscles of one leg. After survival from 30 minutes to 6 weeks muscles were examined in serial paraffin sections impregnated with silver or by electron microscopy. Sensory endings became swollen, some within 30 minutes, while over the next few hours there was progressive degeneration of annulospiral endings. By 24 hours every spindle identified by light or electron microscopy was devoid of sensory terminals. Degenerated nerve endings were taken up into the sarcoplasm of intrafusal muscle fibres. Regener-ation of sensory axons began within 24 hours, new incomplete spirals were formed by 5 days and by 1 week annulospiral endings were almost all ...
Examining muscle biopsies, the research team found that the number of mitochondria were decreased in the triceps, but not gluteal muscles with aging. They also found changes in the muscle fiber type with aging. A high proportion of type II fibers (like in gluteus muscle) gives horses their speed whereas more type I fibers play a role in maintaining posture (like in triceps). With aging, the gluteus muscle develops more type I fibers and the triceps muscle develops more type IIA fibers with less IIX fiber types in both muscles. Although the activities of some mitochondrial enzymes also declined with aging, it was not associated with a decline in mitochondrial function. The authors attributed this lack of measurable mitochondrial dysfunction to either the horses not being old enough for dysfunction to exist yet (20 years horse = about 65 years ...
Title: Regulatory Light Chains of Striated Muscle Myosin. Structure, Function and Malfunction. VOLUME: 3 ISSUE: 2. Author(s):Danuta Szczesna-Cordary. Affiliation:Department of Molecular&Cellular Pharmacology, University of Miami School of MedicineRosenstiel Medical Sciences Building R-189, Room 6113, USA. Keywords:regulatory light chains of myosin (rlc), Phosphorylation, skinned fibers, familial hypertrophic, cardiomyopathy (fhc) mutations.. Abstract: Striated (skeletal and cardiac) muscle is activated by the binding of Ca2+ to troponin C and is regulated by the thin filament proteins, tropomyosin and troponin. Unlike in molluscan or smooth muscles, the myosin regulatory light chains (RLC) of striated muscles do not play a major regulatory role and their function is still not well understood. The N-terminal domain of RLC contains a Ca2+-Mg2+-binding site and, analogous to ...
Hip Muscle And Ligaments - See more about Hip Muscle And Ligaments, diagram of hip muscles and ligaments, hip anatomy ligaments, hip muscle and ligament pain, hip muscle and ligaments, hip muscle ligament tear, hip muscles ligaments and tendons, muscles and ligaments around hip, muscles and ligaments from hip to knee, muscles and ligaments in hip, muscles and ligaments of hip
Duchenne muscular dystrophy is a neuromuscular disease caused by the lack of dystrophin that affects skeletal muscles, causing degeneration of muscle fibers and replacing them with fibrous and adipose tissue, events that gradually lead to functional loss. Patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy have shown that bones become more fragile with age and with advancement of the disease. Muscle weakness and reduced mobility have been suggested to be the factors that promote bone deterioration. However, it seems that this does not occur in mdx mice. It has been identified in mdx mice the existence of a factor related or not to the lack of dystrophin that also participates in the impairment of bone quality. Mdx mice also exhibit muscle degeneration, but unlike human, it is compensated by muscle regeneration. In consequence, there is an increase in the muscle mass, but not necessarily of ...
Shop Junctional sarcoplasmic reticulum protein ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Junctional sarcoplasmic reticulum protein Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody are available.
1. Combined histochemical and biochemical single-fibre analyses [Staron & Pette (1987) Biochem. J. 243, 687-693], were used to investigate the rabbit tibialis-anterior fibre population. 2. This muscle is composed of four histochemically defined fibre types (I, IIC, IIA and IIB). 3. Type I fibres contain slow myosin light chains LC1s and LC2 and the slow myosin heavy chain HCI, and types IIA and IIB contain the fast myosin light chains LC1f, LC2f and LC3f and the fast heavy chains HCIIa and HCIIb respectively. 4. A small fraction of fibres (IIAB), histochemically intermediate between types IIA and IIB, contain the fast light myosin chains but display a coexistence of HCIIa and HCIIb. 5. Similarly to the soleus muscle, C fibres in the tibialis anterior muscle contain both fast and slow myosin light chains and heavy chains. The IIC fibres show a predominance of the fast forms and the IC fibres (histochemically intermediate between types I and IIC) a ...
Urbandale Chiropractor. Dr. Rob Coons provides Electrical Muscle Stimulation , muscle stimulation, electrotherapy, muscle stimulator to patients suffering from back spasms, neck spasms, muscle spasms, acute pain, chronic pain in Des Moines, Johnston, West Des Moines , . Des Moines Chiropractor providing Electrical Muscle Stimulation in Urbandale, Iowa.
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Approximately one billion people worldwide are homozygous for a stop codon polymorphism in the ACTN3 gene (R577X) which results in complete deficiency of the fast fibre muscle protein α-actinin-3. ACTN3 genotype is associated with human athletic performance and α-actinin-3 deficient mice [Actn3 knockout (KO) mice] have a shift in the properties of fast muscle fibres towards slower fibre properties, with increased activity of multiple enzymes in the aerobic metabolic pathway and slower contractile properties. α-Actinins have been shown to interact with a number of muscle proteins including the key metabolic regulator glycogen phosphorylase (GPh). In this study, we demonstrated a link between α-actinin-3 and glycogen metabolism which may underlie the metabolic changes seen in the KO mouse. Actn3 KO mice have higher muscle glycogen content and a 50% reduction in the activity of GPh. The reduction in enzyme activity is accompanied by altered ...

Oxygen-induced Regulation of Na/K ATPase in Cerebellar Granule Cells | JGPOxygen-induced Regulation of Na/K ATPase in Cerebellar Granule Cells | JGP

Lack of nitric oxide synthase depresses ion transporting enzyme function in cardiac muscle. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 294: ... previous studies including our own suggest that hypoxia-induced suppression of the Na/K ATPase function in different cell types ... Oxygen-induced Regulation of Na/K ATPase in Cerebellar Granule Cells. Irina Yu. Petrushanko, Nikolai B. Bogdanov, N. Lapina, ... Oxygen-induced response of the ATPase could be observed as early as 7 min after the incubation of the cells at fixed pO2 and ...
more infohttp://jgp.rupress.org/content/130/4/389

Engineered Human Muscle Tissue from Skeletal Muscle Derived Stem Cells and Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Derived Cardiac CellsEngineered Human Muscle Tissue from Skeletal Muscle Derived Stem Cells and Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Derived Cardiac Cells

... cardiac and skeletal muscle and can serve as a useful in vitro functioning striated muscle model for investigation of stem cell ... Muscle derived stem cells (MDSCs) and induced pluripotent (iPS) stem cells are among the types of stem cells under ... cell-derived cardiac cells (iPS-EMT). Both MDSC-EMT and iPS-EMT expressed cardiac specific troponins, fast skeletal muscle ... can be used to obtain both cardiac and skeletal muscle cells from pluripotent stem cells [53]. We found that both cardiac and ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijte/2013/198762/

miR-21 regulates vascular smooth muscle cell function in arteriosclerosis obliterans of lower extremities through AKT and ERK1...miR-21 regulates vascular smooth muscle cell function in arteriosclerosis obliterans of lower extremities through AKT and ERK1...

The mechanism of ASO is associated with the proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). miR-21 plays a ... Inhibition of the activity of AKT or ERK could attenuate miR-21-induced cell proliferation and migration as well as altering ... We demonstrated that the expression of miR-21 in HASMCs could find potential application in cardiac therapy. ... miR-21 regulates vascular smooth muscle cell function in arteriosclerosis obliterans of lower extremities through AKT and ERK1/ ...
more infohttps://www.termedia.pl/miR-21-regulates-vascular-smooth-muscle-cell-function-in-arteriosclerosis-obliterans-of-lower-extremities-through-AKT-and-ERK1-2-pathways,19,33940,0,1.html

Multidisciplinary discovery of new therapeutic targets in ischemic heart disease through intercellular signalling pathways at...Multidisciplinary discovery of new therapeutic targets in ischemic heart disease through intercellular signalling pathways at...

Previously, it was proposed to replace lost cardiac muscle cells with the transplantation of new cardiac progenitors which can ... and preserved mitochondrial function in human induced pluripotent cells (iPSC)-derived cardiomyocytes. This model provides a ... grafting new cells into the heart after ischemic injury surprisingly still benefits long-term cardiac function. An evolving ... You will learn to use our ischemia-reperfusion model to study the interactions between cardiac progenitor cells and iPSC- ...
more infohttps://www.findaphd.com/phds/project/multidisciplinary-discovery-of-new-therapeutic-targets-in-ischemic-heart-disease-through-intercellular-signalling-pathways/?p117594

The Cytomegalovirus Enhancer Induces an Immediate Response to the Myosin Light Chain 2v Promoter during P19CL6 Cell...The Cytomegalovirus Enhancer Induces an Immediate Response to the Myosin Light Chain 2v Promoter during P19CL6 Cell...

A reporter plasmid for cardiac muscle differentiation was constructed by connecting the CMV enhancer and a 250 bp MLC-2v ... Thus the CMV enhancer may be not only useful for gene therapy and monitoring cell differentiation but also the study of the ... Concomitantly, GFP fluorescence was detected in the cells under a microscope. However, native MLC-2v was transcribed later on ... This plasmid (pCBVenh/MLC-2vpro/EGFP) was stably introduced into P19CL6 cells, and the transfectant differentiated into ...
more infohttps://file.scirp.org/Html/4-1070280_79736.htm

miR-21 Reduces Hydrogen Peroxide-Induced Apoptosis in c-kit+ Cardiac Stem Cells In Vitro through PTEN/PI3K/Akt SignalingmiR-21 Reduces Hydrogen Peroxide-Induced Apoptosis in c-kit+ Cardiac Stem Cells In Vitro through PTEN/PI3K/Akt Signaling

... immune function, metabolism and neurodegeneration. The journal fills a significant void in todays scientific literature and ... immune function, vascular biology, metabolism, cellular survival and cellular longevity. Oxidative stress impacts almost all ... most of the cardiac (myocytes, fibroblasts) and vascular cells (smooth muscle cells) treated with H2O2 showed increased miR-21 ... vascular smooth muscle cell survival, and cardiac cell growth [28]. miRNAs also play critical roles in cardiogenesis and ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/omcl/2016/5389181/

Effect of receptor activity-modifying protein-1 on vascular smooth muscle cellsEffect of receptor activity-modifying protein-1 on vascular smooth muscle cells

... mesenchymal stem cells may induce neointimal hyperplasia by directly or indirectly acting ... ... Although transplanting mesenchymal stem cells can improve cardiac function and contribute to endothelial recovery in a damaged ... Although transplanting mesenchymal stem cells can improve cardiac function and contribute to endothelial recovery in a damaged ... mesenchymal stem cells may induce neointimal hyperplasia by directly or indirectly acting on vascular smooth muscle cells. ...
more infohttps://medicalxpress.com/news/2014-03-effect-receptor-activity-modifying-protein-vascular.html

ankrd1, ankyrin repeat domain 1 (cardiac muscle) - Creative Biogeneankrd1, ankyrin repeat domain 1 (cardiac muscle) - Creative Biogene

The protein encoded by this gene is localized to the nucleus of endothelial cells and is induced by IL-1 and TNF-alpha ... Studies in rat cardiomyocytes suggest that this gene functions as a transcription factor. Interactions between this protein and ... Stable Knockout Cell Line GenerationStable Knock-in Cell Line GenerationCustom Gene Expression Cell LinesCustom Gene Knockdown ... ANKRD1; ankyrin repeat domain 1 (cardiac muscle); ankyrin repeat domain-containing protein 1; ALRP; C 193; CARP; CVARP; MCARP; ...
more infohttps://www.creative-biogene.com/symbolsearch_ankrd1.html

Cardiac repair in a porcine model of acute myocardial infarction with human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived...Cardiac repair in a porcine model of acute myocardial infarction with human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived...

... but preclinical studies in large animal models are required to determine optimal cell preparation and delivery strategies to ... Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) hold promise for myocardial repair following injury, ... endothelial cells, and smooth muscle cells, in combination with a 3D fibrin patch loaded with insulin growth factor (IGF)- ... Trilineage cell transplantation significantly improved left ventricular function, myocardial metabolism, and arteriole density ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Cardiac-repair-in-porcine-model/25479750.html

Håvard Attramadal
       - Institutt for klinisk medisinHåvard Attramadal - Institutt for klinisk medisin

... induced cell death (all p,0.05). Significance: HIF-1 alpha gene delivery to skeletal muscle preceding myocardial ischemia ... smaller increase of cardiac hypertrophy, and less LV dilatation and deterioration of LV function 4 weeks after MI. Tg-CTGF mice ... Transfection of HL-1 cells with HIF-1 alpha or HMOX-1 and administration of bilirubin or CORM-2 comparably salvaged cells from ... 3 at cardiac myocyte receptors provide basis for distinct roles in regulation of myocardial function. Molecular Pharmacology. ...
more infohttps://www.med.uio.no/klinmed/personer/vit/havarda/index.html

Homeobox Protein Hop Functions in the Adult Cardiac Conduction System | Circulation ResearchHomeobox Protein Hop Functions in the Adult Cardiac Conduction System | Circulation Research

Gourdie RG, Wei Y, Kim D, Klatt SC, Mikawa T. Endothelin-induced conversion of embryonic heart muscle cells into impulse- ... Synchronized contraction of the atrial and ventricular chambers is essential for normal cardiac function, and the cardiac ... Homeobox Protein Hop Functions in the Adult Cardiac Conduction System. Fraz A. Ismat, Maozhen Zhang, Hyun Kook, Bin Huang, Rong ... 9 and have normal cardiac structure and function as assessed by cardiac-gated MRI. ...
more infohttp://circres.ahajournals.org/content/96/8/898

Contractile Properties of Striated Muscle in Development and In DiseaseContractile Properties of Striated Muscle in Development and In Disease

The fetal cardiac muscle is a good milestone for assessing the maturity of human induced pluripotent stem cell derived ... potentially as a function of structure. ... Fetal cardiac muscle develops more force as gestation increase ... Finally, failing adult cardiac muscle demonstrates that the activation rate and force production of the myofilament can be ... The human induced pluripotent stem cell derived cardiomyocytes from patients with known mutations show potentially early onset ...
more infohttps://digital.lib.washington.edu/researchworks/handle/1773/33098

Buněčná léčba v kardiologii: přehled aktuálních dat za rok 2005 | proLékaře.czBuněčná léčba v kardiologii: přehled aktuálních dat za rok 2005 | proLékaře.cz

Cardiomyocytes induce endothelial cells to trans-differentiate into cardiac muscle: implications for myocardium regeneration. ... Smooth muscle cells transplantation is better than heart cells transplantation for improvement of heart function in dilated ... Haematopoietic stem cells improve cardiac function after infarction without permanent cardiac engraftment. Eur J Heart Failure ... Direct cell-cell interaction of cardiomyocytes is key for bone marrow stromal cells to go into cardiac lineage in vitro. J ...
more infohttps://www.prolekare.cz/casopisy/kardiologicka-revue/2006-1-2/bunecna-lecba-v-kardiologii-prehled-aktualnich-dat-za-rok-2005-31965

Patent US7440800 - System and method for managing detrimental cardiac remodeling - Google PatentsPatent US7440800 - System and method for managing detrimental cardiac remodeling - Google Patents

Pulses are administered using an anodal pulse followed by a cathodal pulse to stimulate cardiac muscle contraction. Stem cells ... Stimulation may be provided to both healthy and compromised cardiac tissue. ... A system and method for managing and inhibiting cardiac remodeling in MI patients. Bi-ventricular stimulation is constantly ... are administered to MI areas to encourage regeneration of cardiac tissue in the damaged area. ...
more infohttp://www.google.com/patents/US7440800?dq=3984803

Patent US7346394 - Cardiac stimulation at high ventricular wall stress areas - Google PatentsPatent US7346394 - Cardiac stimulation at high ventricular wall stress areas - Google Patents

... of cardiac muscle cells and eventual wall thinning which causes further deterioration in cardiac function. Thus, although ... It also has been shown that the sustained stresses causing hypertrophy may induce apoptosis (i.e., programmed cell death) ... Therapeutic device and method for treating diseases of cardiac muscle. US6574506. 26 Dec 2000. 3 Jun 2003. Cardiac Pacemakers, ... Congestive heart failure (CHF) is a clinical syndrome in which an abnormality of cardiac function causes cardiac output to fall ...
more infohttp://www.google.co.uk/patents/US7346394

Patente US20040049236 - Apparatus and method for reversal of myocardial remodeling with electrical ... - Google PatentesPatente US20040049236 - Apparatus and method for reversal of myocardial remodeling with electrical ... - Google Patentes

... of cardiac muscle cells and eventual wall thinning which causes further deterioration in cardiac function. Thus, although ... It also has been shown that the sustained stresses causing hypertrophy may induce apoptosis (i.e., programmed cell death) ... Therapeutic device and method for treating diseases of cardiac muscle. US6574506 *. 26 Dic 2000. 3 Jun 2003. Cardiac Pacemakers ... Congestive heart failure (CHF) is a clinical syndrome in which an abnormality of cardiac function causes cardiac output to fall ...
more infohttp://www.google.es/patents/US20040049236

US20050288720A1 - Method and apparatus for minimizing post-infarct ventricular remodeling 
        - Google PatentsUS20050288720A1 - Method and apparatus for minimizing post-infarct ventricular remodeling - Google Patents

A cardiac rhythm management device is configured to deliver pre-excitation pacing to one or more sites in proximity to an ... of cardiac muscle cells. Thus, although ventricular dilation and hypertrophy may at first be compensatory and increase cardiac ... Device, system, and method for modulating cardiac function US20130006317A1 (en) * 2011-06-30. 2013-01-03. Keel Allen J. Devices ... It also has been shown that the sustained stresses causing hypertrophy may induce apoptosis (i.e., programmed cell death) ...
more infohttps://patents.google.com/patent/US20050288720A1/en

Community Academic Profiles - Faculty & Researchers - Stanford MedicineCommunity Academic Profiles - Faculty & Researchers - Stanford Medicine

Elafin induced apoptosis in human pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells and in lung organ culture elafin decreased neointimal ... Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) is an ideal tool for the detailed characterization of cardiac function. Its feasibility is ... LTB4 was found to directly injure luminal endothelial cells and promote growth of the smooth muscle cell layer of pulmonary ... The results indicate that monoclonal or polyclonal anti-pan T cell antibodies, TLI, and a donor blood cell infusion function ...
more infohttps://med.stanford.edu/profiles/pulmonary/mark-nicolls?tab=teaching

Gundeep Dhillon, MD, MPH | Stanford Medicine ProfilesGundeep Dhillon, MD, MPH | Stanford Medicine Profiles

LTB4 induced proliferation and hypertrophy of human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells. We found that LTB4 acted through its ... of LTB4 biosynthesis or signal transduction in SU-treated athymic rats with established disease also improved cardiac function ... expressing cells, a receptor that activates endothelial cell survival pathways.PAH may arise when regulatory T-cell (Treg) ... Critical Care and Hematopoietic Stem Cell Recipients Thomas Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation 4th ed. Dhillon, G., Rizk, N. ...
more infohttps://med.stanford.edu/profiles/gundeep-dhillon

US20090228078A1 - System for stimulating autonomic targets from pulmonary artery 
        - Google PatentsUS20090228078A1 - System for stimulating autonomic targets from pulmonary artery - Google Patents

The sustained stresses causing hypertrophy induce apoptosis (i.e., programmed cell death) of cardiac muscle cells and eventual ... Heart failure refers to a clinical syndrome in which cardiac function causes a below normal cardiac output that can fall below ... to regulate muscles in the skin, eye, stomach, intestines and bladder, and to regulate cardiac muscle and the muscle around ... Cardiac Pacemakers, Inc.. Neural stimulation system for cardiac fat pads US7660628B2 (en) 2005-03-23. 2010-02-09. Cardiac ...
more infohttps://patents.google.com/patent/US20090228078A1/en

Ryanodine Receptor Type 2 Is Required for the Development of Pressure Overload-Induced Cardiac Hypertrophy | HypertensionRyanodine Receptor Type 2 Is Required for the Development of Pressure Overload-Induced Cardiac Hypertrophy | Hypertension

We conclude that RyR-2 contributes to the development of cardiac hypertrophy and adaptation of cardiac function during pressure ... cells compared with WT cells after TAC, although they were comparable between the 2 types of cells at baseline (Figure 2C). The ... and muscle contraction. Elevated cytosolic Ca2+ is then removed from the cytosol for relaxation, which is mediated by several ... Because pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy is attenuated in RyR-2+/− mice, we examined whether the load-induced ...
more infohttp://hyper.ahajournals.org/content/58/6/1099

JCI -
Torn apart: membrane rupture in muscular dystrophies and associated cardiomyopathiesJCI - Torn apart: membrane rupture in muscular dystrophies and associated cardiomyopathies

... that render cells more susceptible to strain-induced injury in mechanically active tissues such as skeletal or cardiac muscle. ... in membrane resealing in cardiomyocytes and that exercise results in increased membrane damage and disturbed cardiac function ...
more infohttps://www.jci.org/articles/view/32686/pdf

VitaKine Platelet Cell Therapy From Bioparadox Improves Cardiac Function After Heart Attack - RedorbitVitaKine Platelet Cell Therapy From Bioparadox Improves Cardiac Function After Heart Attack - Redorbit

... on cardiac function after inducing a heart attack in a pivotal swine model. VitaKine PCT was found to significantly enhance the ... the heart is unable to regain its muscle pumping action, also known as ejection fraction. Progressive lack of function can lead ... VitaKine Platelet Cell Therapy From Bioparadox Improves Cardiac Function After Heart Attack. by Sam Savage ... Platelet Cell Therapy (PCT) as a promising treatment for heart attack patients. The results of a preclinical cardiac study were ...
more infohttp://www.redorbit.com/news/health/2026262/vitakine_platelet_cell_therapy_from_bioparadox_improves_cardiac_function_after_1/

JDB | Free Full-Text | Role of Prokineticin Receptor-1 in Epicardial Progenitor CellsJDB | Free Full-Text | Role of Prokineticin Receptor-1 in Epicardial Progenitor Cells

The use of endogenous GPCR ligands to activate the stem cell maintenance or to direct cell differentiation would overcome many ... of the problems currently encountered in the use of stem cells, such as rapid in vitro differentiation and expansion or ... The expression of prokineticin and PKR1 increases during cardiac remodeling after myocardial infarction. Gain of function of ... Furthermore, PKR1 signaling promotes adult EPDC proliferation and differentiation to adopt endothelial and smooth muscle cell ...
more infohttps://www.mdpi.com/2221-3759/1/1/20
  • We constructed 3-dimensional collagen-based engineered muscle tissue (EMT) using MDSCs (MDSC-EMT) and compared the biochemical and contractile properties with EMT using induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell-derived cardiac cells (iPS-EMT). (hindawi.com)
  • We previously showed that rodent MDSCs differentiate into CM-like cells with cardiac-like electrophysiological, biochemical, and contractile properties using cell aggregate formation and 3-dimensional (3D) culture in a collagen-based scaffold [ 5 ], but engineered tissue models of human MDSCs in the context of their relationship to cardiac development and disease have not been investigated before. (hindawi.com)
  • Numerous animal experiments and small clinical trials have shown that MSC transplantation can promote the formation of new blood vessels and reduce myocardial infarct size, and diminish the formation of scar tissue and ventricular remodeling, and improve cardiac functions. (medicalxpress.com)
  • In fact, when injury occurs, cardiac tissue organization is disrupted at the level of the cells, the tissue architecture, and the coordinated interaction among the cells. (cdc.gov)
  • Connective tissue growth factor and bone morphogenetic protein 2 are induced following myocardial ischemia in mice and humans. (uio.no)
  • Stimulation may be provided to both healthy and compromised cardiac tissue. (google.com)
  • 4. The apparatus for minimizing cardiac remodeling of a non-arrhythmic patient according to claim 1 , wherein a compromised area of cardiac tissue has stem cells deposited thereon. (google.com)
  • 5. The apparatus for minimizing cardiac remodeling of a non-arrhythmic patient according to claim 4 , wherein the LV and RV electrodes are located so as to electrically stimulate the compromised area of cardiac tissue on which stem cells have been deposited. (google.com)
  • The most extreme example of this is a ventricular aneurysm where all of the muscle fibers in the area are destroyed and replaced by fibrous scar tissue. (google.com)
  • Systemic sclerosis-associated pulmonary arterial hypertension (SSc-PAH) is a serious, life-threatening manifestation of systemic sclerosis (SSc), an autoimmune disease of the connective tissue characterized by scarring (fibrosis) and atrophy of the skin, joints and tendons, skeletal muscles, and internal organs, and immunological disturbances. (stanford.edu)
  • BioParadox's Platelet Cell Therapy (PCT) shows significant potential to create a paradigm shift in biologic therapy for damaged myocardial tissue and improve cardiovascular care. (redorbit.com)
  • Directing ES cells to become a particular tissue type in vivo is an inefficient process. (rupress.org)
  • In mice induced to suffer heart-attacks, these cells integrated into heart muscle, repaired scar tissue, and improved heart function. (rupress.org)
  • Integrin family members are membrane receptors involved in cell adhesion and recognition in a variety of processes including embryogenesis, hemostasis, tissue repair, immune response and metastatic diffusion of tumor cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Adjustment of the Na/K ATPase activity to changes in oxygen availability is a matter of survival for neuronal cells. (rupress.org)
  • However, poor engraftment and viability of CSCs minimize the percentage of cell survival and hamper functional improvements and cardiac outcomes [ 19 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The very poor survival of donor cells is one of the challenges that need to be overcome before CSC-based therapies become a clinical reality. (hindawi.com)
  • Strategies to enhance cell survival after adoptive transfer would produce notable therapeutic implications in post-MI patients. (hindawi.com)
  • Sustained toll-like receptor 9 activation promotes systemic and cardiac inflammation, and aggravates diastolic heart failure in SERCA2a KO Mice. (uio.no)
  • PKR1 is expressed in the proepicardium and epicardial cells derived from mice kidneys. (mdpi.com)
  • Loss of PKR1 causes deficits in EPDCs in the neonatal mice hearts and kidneys and impairs vascularization and heart and kidney function. (mdpi.com)
  • When ES cells are delivered in vivo, their tumorigenicity is reduced in mice that suffer heart attacks. (rupress.org)
  • The team engineered mice to express high levels of TNF in their hearts, and found that the transfer of undifferentiated ES cells did not lead to tumor formation. (rupress.org)
  • TNF reduced the risk of tumor development by inducing the secretion of pro-cardiogenic factors including TGFβ. (rupress.org)
  • Tumor cells are efficiently killed after incubation with α-emitter immunoconjugates targeting tumor-specific antigens. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Therefore, application of α-emitter immunoconjugates is a promising therapeutic option for treatment of carcinomas that are characterized by dissemination of single tumor cells in the peritoneum like ovarian cancer or gastric cancer. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In diffuse-type gastric cancer, 10% of patients express mutant d9-E-cadherin on the surface of tumor cells that is targeted by the monoclonal antibody d9MAb. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Elucidation of the molecular mechanisms triggered by α-emitters in tumor cells could help to improve strategies of α-emitter radioimmunotherapy. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Selective targeting of tumor cells with radionuclides is achieved via antibodies recognizing cell surface proteins that are overexpressed or exclusively expressed by tumor cells ( 1 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • The use of α-emitter immunoconjugates is promising in the therapy of minimal residual disease as well as in the elimination of disseminated single tumor cells ( 3 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Hop acts downstream of Nkx2-5 during development, and Nkx2-5 mutations are associated with cardiac conduction system (CCS) defects. (ahajournals.org)
  • Synchronized contraction of the atrial and ventricular chambers is essential for normal cardiac function, and the cardiac conduction system (CCS) is required for mediating this delicate interplay. (ahajournals.org)
  • Muscle contractility can be studied directly, and the use of multiple assays has allowed me to examine muscle development and disease at the protein, subcellular, and cellular level. (washington.edu)
  • Human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMCs) were transfected with miR-21 mimics and co-treated with protein kinase B (AKT) or a mitogen-activated protein kinase (ERK) inhibitor. (termedia.pl)
  • and validate potential novel drug targets using gain and loss of function experiments with recombinant proteins, CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing, blocking antibodies and small molecule inhibitors. (findaphd.com)
  • Calcitonin gene related protein (CGRP) is one of the most well-known potent vasodilators and can regulate vascular tone and other aspects of vascular function. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Srivastava was the first to describe the role of tiny molecules in the heart-called microRNAs - that carefully titrate levels of gene activity to control the fate of cells. (ucsf.edu)
  • One physiological compensatory mechanism that acts to increase cardiac output is the increased diastolic filling pressure of the ventricles as an increased volume of blood is left in the lungs and venous system. (google.com)
  • HASMCs co-treated with miR-21 mimics and AKT or ERK inhibitor showed attenuation of the miR-21-induced high elongation ratio. (termedia.pl)
  • Alternative strategies, such as stem cell-based therapies, are urgently needed [ 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Coronary heart disease is the leading cause of death in industrialized nations, with nearly half a million heart attacks each year, and near-epidemic numbers of patient with heart failure," said Dr. Warren Sherman, director of stem cell research and regenerative medicine at the Center for Intervention Vascular Therapies at NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital/Columbia University Medical Center. (redorbit.com)
  • The study also represents a novel approach to a challenging clinical problem without the risk of rejection or the costs of extensive stem cell processing. (redorbit.com)
  • This option may remove the need for immunosuppression and improve the safety of stem cell therapy. (rupress.org)
  • In utero development is a key time for muscle formation, and muscle-related birth defects are sometimes linked to mutations in muscle contractile proteins expressed in utero. (washington.edu)
  • If the coronary artery becomes completely occluded and there is poor collateral blood flow to the affected area, a transmural or full-wall thickness infarct can result in which much of the contractile function of the area is lost. (google.com)
  • In this manuscript, we review the current status, challenges, and future priorities in cardiac regenerative or reparative medicine. (cdc.gov)
  • BioParadox, Inc., a regenerative medicine company pioneering point-of-care biologic treatments for cardiovascular disease, today announced data supporting the use of VitaKineà ® Platelet Cell Therapy (PCT) as a promising treatment for heart attack patients. (redorbit.com)
  • The results of a preclinical cardiac study were presented at the 2nd Annual Translational Regenerative Medicine Forum in Washington, D.C. (redorbit.com)
  • Programmed cell death is a distinct genetic and biochemical pathway essential to metazoans. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is a mode of cell death defined by characteristic morphological, biochemical and molecular changes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Beyond boosting inflammation as a part of its own mechanistic process, cathepsin S is also released by smooth muscle cells and macrophages as a systemic response to inflammation in a continuous recursive feedback loop. (frontiersin.org)
  • However, little is known about the molecular cascades regulating CCS development and function. (ahajournals.org)
  • However, the molecular mechanisms that are induced by α-particle-emitting nuclides are poorly understood. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Taken together, the results identify the cardionogen family members as important modulators of cardiac muscle cell development. (phys.org)
  • It plays an important role during embryonal development as programmed cell death and accompanies a variety of normal involutional processes in which it serves as a mechanism to remove "unwanted" cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gain of function of PKR1 in the adult mouse heart revealed that cardiomyocyte-PKR1 signaling activates EPDCs in a paracrine fashion, thereby promoting de novo vasculogenesis. (mdpi.com)
  • This may ultimately aid in design of therapeutic approaches to enhance repopulation of damaged heart muscle and restore function in diseased hearts. (phys.org)
  • cell migration and invasion were determined by the Transwell assay. (termedia.pl)