Adult Stem Cells: Cells with high proliferative and self renewal capacities derived from adults.Stem Cells: Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Embryoid Bodies: Spontaneous aggregations of human embryonic stem cells that occur in vitro after culturing in a medium that lacks LEUKEMIC INHIBITORY FACTOR. The embryoid bodies can further differentiate into cells that represent different lineages.Embryonic Stem Cells: Cells derived from the BLASTOCYST INNER CELL MASS which forms before implantation in the uterine wall. They retain the ability to divide, proliferate and provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Stem Cell Transplantation: The transfer of STEM CELLS from one individual to another within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or between species (XENOTRANSPLANTATION), or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS). The source and location of the stem cells determines their potency or pluripotency to differentiate into various cell types.Pluripotent Stem Cells: Cells that can give rise to cells of the three different GERM LAYERS.Hematopoietic Stem Cells: Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.Multipotent Stem Cells: Specialized stem cells that are committed to give rise to cells that have a particular function; examples are MYOBLASTS; MYELOID PROGENITOR CELLS; and skin stem cells. (Stem Cells: A Primer [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Institutes of Health (US); 2000 May [cited 2002 Apr 5]. Available from: http://www.nih.gov/news/stemcell/primer.htm)Cell Lineage: The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.Stem Cell Niche: A particular zone of tissue composed of a specialized microenvironment where stem cells are retained in a undifferentiated, self-renewable state.Mesenchymal Stromal Cells: Bone-marrow-derived, non-hematopoietic cells that support HEMATOPOETIC STEM CELLS. They have also been isolated from other organs and tissues such as UMBILICAL CORD BLOOD, umbilical vein subendothelium, and WHARTON JELLY. These cells are considered to be a source of multipotent stem cells because they include subpopulations of mesenchymal stem cells.Planarians: Nonparasitic free-living flatworms of the class Turbellaria. The most common genera are Dugesia, formerly Planaria, which lives in water, and Bipalium, which lives on land. Geoplana occurs in South America and California.Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells: Cells from adult organisms that have been reprogrammed into a pluripotential state similar to that of EMBRYONIC STEM CELLS.Regeneration: The physiological renewal, repair, or replacement of tissue.Cell Culture Techniques: Methods for maintaining or growing CELLS in vitro.Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation: Transfer of MESENCHYMAL STEM CELLS between individuals within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS).Embryo, Mammalian: The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: Transfer of HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS from BONE MARROW or BLOOD between individuals within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS). Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has been used as an alternative to BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION in the treatment of a variety of neoplasms.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Regenerative Medicine: A field of medicine concerned with developing and using strategies aimed at repair or replacement of damaged, diseased, or metabolically deficient organs, tissues, and cells via TISSUE ENGINEERING; CELL TRANSPLANTATION; and ARTIFICIAL ORGANS and BIOARTIFICIAL ORGANS and tissues.Stem Cell Research: Experimentation on STEM CELLS and on the use of stem cells.Neural Stem Cells: Self-renewing cells that generate the main phenotypes of the nervous system in both the embryo and adult. Neural stem cells are precursors to both NEURONS and NEUROGLIA.Octamer Transcription Factor-3: An octamer transcription factor that is expressed primarily in totipotent embryonic STEM CELLS and GERM CELLS and is down-regulated during CELL DIFFERENTIATION.Cell SeparationTeratoma: A true neoplasm composed of a number of different types of tissue, none of which is native to the area in which it occurs. It is composed of tissues that are derived from three germinal layers, the endoderm, mesoderm, and ectoderm. They are classified histologically as mature (benign) or immature (malignant). (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1642)Cell- and Tissue-Based Therapy: Therapies that involve the TRANSPLANTATION of CELLS or TISSUES developed for the purpose of restoring the function of diseased or dysfunctional cells or tissues.Bone Marrow Cells: Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.Tissue Engineering: Generating tissue in vitro for clinical applications, such as replacing wounded tissues or impaired organs. The use of TISSUE SCAFFOLDING enables the generation of complex multi-layered tissues and tissue structures.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Fetal Stem Cells: Cells derived from a FETUS that retain the ability to divide, proliferate and provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Neoplastic Stem Cells: Highly proliferative, self-renewing, and colony-forming stem cells which give rise to NEOPLASMS.Aging, Premature: Changes in the organism associated with senescence, occurring at an accelerated rate.Germ Cells: The reproductive cells in multicellular organisms at various stages during GAMETOGENESIS.Endoderm: The inner of the three germ layers of an embryo.Stem Cell Factor: A hematopoietic growth factor and the ligand of the cell surface c-kit protein (PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-KIT). It is expressed during embryogenesis and is a growth factor for a number of cell types including the MAST CELLS and the MELANOCYTES in addition to the HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Hair Follicle: A tube-like invagination of the EPIDERMIS from which the hair shaft develops and into which SEBACEOUS GLANDS open. The hair follicle is lined by a cellular inner and outer root sheath of epidermal origin and is invested with a fibrous sheath derived from the dermis. (Stedman, 26th ed) Follicles of very long hairs extend into the subcutaneous layer of tissue under the SKIN.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.SOXB1 Transcription Factors: A subclass of SOX transcription factors that are expressed in neuronal tissue where they may play a role in the regulation of CELL DIFFERENTIATION. Members of this subclass are generally considered to be transcriptional activators.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Spermatogonia: Euploid male germ cells of an early stage of SPERMATOGENESIS, derived from prespermatogonia. With the onset of puberty, spermatogonia at the basement membrane of the seminiferous tubule proliferate by mitotic then meiotic divisions and give rise to the haploid SPERMATOCYTES.Cell Aging: The decrease in the cell's ability to proliferate with the passing of time. Each cell is programmed for a certain number of cell divisions and at the end of that time proliferation halts. The cell enters a quiescent state after which it experiences CELL DEATH via the process of APOPTOSIS.Dental Pulp: A richly vascularized and innervated connective tissue of mesodermal origin, contained in the central cavity of a tooth and delimited by the dentin, and having formative, nutritive, sensory, and protective functions. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Chondrogenesis: The formation of cartilage. This process is directed by CHONDROCYTES which continually divide and lay down matrix during development. It is sometimes a precursor to OSTEOGENESIS.Mice, Inbred C57BLNestin: A type VI intermediate filament protein expressed mostly in nerve cells where it is associated with the survival, renewal and mitogen-stimulated proliferation of neural progenitor cells.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Totipotent Stem Cells: Single cells that have the potential to form an entire organism. They have the capacity to specialize into extraembryonic membranes and tissues, the embryo, and all postembryonic tissues and organs. (Stem Cells: A Primer [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Institutes of Health (US); 2000 May [cited 2002 Apr 5]. Available from: http://www.nih.gov/news/stemcell/primer.htm)Hematopoiesis: The development and formation of various types of BLOOD CELLS. Hematopoiesis can take place in the BONE MARROW (medullary) or outside the bone marrow (HEMATOPOIESIS, EXTRAMEDULLARY).Homeodomain Proteins: Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).Cell Transplantation: Transference of cells within an individual, between individuals of the same species, or between individuals of different species.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Myocytes, Cardiac: Striated muscle cells found in the heart. They are derived from cardiac myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, CARDIAC).Mesoderm: The middle germ layer of an embryo derived from three paired mesenchymal aggregates along the neural tube.Coculture Techniques: A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Plant Stems: Parts of plants that usually grow vertically upwards towards the light and support the leaves, buds, and reproductive structures. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Cell Dedifferentiation: A reverse developmental process in which terminally differentiated cells with specialized functions revert back to a less differentiated stage within their own CELL LINEAGE.Stromal Cells: Connective tissue cells of an organ found in the loose connective tissue. These are most often associated with the uterine mucosa and the ovary as well as the hematopoietic system and elsewhere.Satellite Cells, Skeletal Muscle: Elongated, spindle-shaped, quiescent myoblasts lying in close contact with adult skeletal muscle. They are thought to play a role in muscle repair and regeneration.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Colony-Forming Units Assay: A cytologic technique for measuring the functional capacity of stem cells by assaying their activity.Antigens, CD34: Glycoproteins found on immature hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. They are the only molecules to date whose expression within the blood system is restricted to a small number of progenitor cells in the bone marrow.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Germ Layers: The three primary germinal layers (ECTODERM; ENDODERM; and MESODERM) developed during GASTRULATION that provide tissues and body plan of a mature organism. They derive from two early layers, hypoblast and epiblast.Wnt Proteins: Wnt proteins are a large family of secreted glycoproteins that play essential roles in EMBRYONIC AND FETAL DEVELOPMENT, and tissue maintenance. They bind to FRIZZLED RECEPTORS and act as PARACRINE PROTEIN FACTORS to initiate a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. The canonical Wnt signaling pathway stabilizes the transcriptional coactivator BETA CATENIN.Adipogenesis: The differentiation of pre-adipocytes into mature ADIPOCYTES.Transplantation, Autologous: Transplantation of an individual's own tissue from one site to another site.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Hematopoietic Stem Cell Mobilization: The release of stem cells from the bone marrow into the peripheral blood circulation for the purpose of leukapheresis, prior to stem cell transplantation. Hematopoietic growth factors or chemotherapeutic agents often are used to stimulate the mobilization.Adipose Tissue: Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.Cell Transdifferentiation: A naturally occurring phenomenon where terminally differentiated cells dedifferentiate to the point where they can switch CELL LINEAGES. The cells then differentiate into other cell types.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Lentivirus: A genus of the family RETROVIRIDAE consisting of non-oncogenic retroviruses that produce multi-organ diseases characterized by long incubation periods and persistent infection. Lentiviruses are unique in that they contain open reading frames (ORFs) between the pol and env genes and in the 3' env region. Five serogroups are recognized, reflecting the mammalian hosts with which they are associated. HIV-1 is the type species.Tissue Scaffolds: Cell growth support structures composed of BIOCOMPATIBLE MATERIALS. They are specially designed solid support matrices for cell attachment in TISSUE ENGINEERING and GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION uses.Osteogenesis: The process of bone formation. Histogenesis of bone including ossification.HMGB3 Protein: An HMG-box domain (HMG-BOX DOMAINS) found highly expressed in embryonic tissue and in placenta.Progeria: An abnormal congenital condition, associated with defects in the LAMIN TYPE A gene, which is characterized by premature aging in children, where all the changes of cell senescence occur. It is manifested by premature greying; hair loss; hearing loss (DEAFNESS); cataracts (CATARACT); ARTHRITIS; OSTEOPOROSIS; DIABETES MELLITUS; atrophy of subcutaneous fat; skeletal hypoplasia; elevated urinary HYALURONIC ACID; and accelerated ATHEROSCLEROSIS. Many affected individuals develop malignant tumors, especially SARCOMA.Epigenesis, Genetic: A genetic process by which the adult organism is realized via mechanisms that lead to the restriction in the possible fates of cells, eventually leading to their differentiated state. Mechanisms involved cause heritable changes to cells without changes to DNA sequence such as DNA METHYLATION; HISTONE modification; DNA REPLICATION TIMING; NUCLEOSOME positioning; and heterochromatization which result in selective gene expression or repression.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Clone Cells: A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Stage-Specific Embryonic Antigens: Cell-surface molecules that exhibit lineage-restricted patterns of expression during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT. The antigens are useful markers in the identification of EMBRYONIC STEM CELLS.Feeder Cells: Cells used in COCULTURE TECHNIQUES which support the growth of the other cells in the culture. Feeder cells provide auxillary substances including attachment substrates, nutrients, or other factors that are needed for growth in culture.Testis: The male gonad containing two functional parts: the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES for the production and transport of male germ cells (SPERMATOGENESIS) and the interstitial compartment containing LEYDIG CELLS that produce ANDROGENS.Bone Morphogenetic Protein 4: A bone morphogenetic protein that is a potent inducer of bone formation. It also functions as a regulator of MESODERM formation during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT.Polycomb Repressive Complex 1: A multisubunit polycomb protein complex with affinity for CHROMATIN that contains methylated HISTONE H3. It contains an E3 ubiquitin ligase activity that is specific for HISTONE H2A and works in conjunction with POLYCOMB REPRESSIVE COMPLEX 2 to effect EPIGENETIC REPRESSION.Nuclear Reprogramming: The process that reverts CELL NUCLEI of fully differentiated somatic cells to a pluripotent or totipotent state. This process can be achieved to a certain extent by NUCLEAR TRANSFER TECHNIQUES, such as fusing somatic cell nuclei with enucleated pluripotent embryonic stem cells or enucleated totipotent oocytes. GENE EXPRESSION PROFILING of the fused hybrid cells is used to determine the degree of reprogramming. Dramatic results of nuclear reprogramming include the generation of cloned mammals, such as Dolly the sheep in 1997.Wnt Signaling Pathway: A complex signaling pathway whose name is derived from the DROSOPHILA Wg gene, which when mutated results in the wingless phenotype, and the vertebrate INT gene, which is located near integration sites of MOUSE MAMMARY TUMOR VIRUS. The signaling pathway is initiated by the binding of WNT PROTEINS to cells surface WNT RECEPTORS which interact with the AXIN SIGNALING COMPLEX and an array of second messengers that influence the actions of BETA CATENIN.Yolk Sac: The first of four extra-embryonic membranes to form during EMBRYOGENESIS. In REPTILES and BIRDS, it arises from endoderm and mesoderm to incorporate the EGG YOLK into the DIGESTIVE TRACT for nourishing the embryo. In placental MAMMALS, its nutritional function is vestigial; however, it is the source of INTESTINAL MUCOSA; BLOOD CELLS; and GERM CELLS. It is sometimes called the vitelline sac, which should not be confused with the VITELLINE MEMBRANE of the egg.Cell Shape: The quality of surface form or outline of CELLS.Cell Count: The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.Dental Sac: Dense fibrous layer formed from mesodermal tissue that surrounds the epithelial enamel organ. The cells eventually migrate to the external surface of the newly formed root dentin and give rise to the cementoblasts that deposit cementum on the developing root, fibroblasts of the developing periodontal ligament, and osteoblasts of the developing alveolar bone.Osteocytes: Mature osteoblasts that have become embedded in the BONE MATRIX. They occupy a small cavity, called lacuna, in the matrix and are connected to adjacent osteocytes via protoplasmic projections called canaliculi.Chimera: An individual that contains cell populations derived from different zygotes.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Neurogenesis: Formation of NEURONS which involves the differentiation and division of STEM CELLS in which one or both of the daughter cells become neurons.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Bone Morphogenetic Protein 6: A bone morphogenetic protein that is a potent inducer of BONE formation. It plays additional roles in regulating CELL DIFFERENTIATION of non-osteoblastic cell types and epithelial-mesenchymal interactions.Receptors, Notch: A family of conserved cell surface receptors that contain EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR repeats in their extracellular domain and ANKYRIN repeats in their cytoplasmic domains. The cytoplasmic domain of notch receptors is released upon ligand binding and translocates to the CELL NUCLEUS where it acts as transcription factor.Cell Aggregation: The phenomenon by which dissociated cells intermixed in vitro tend to group themselves with cells of their own type.Hedgehog Proteins: A family of intercellular signaling proteins that play and important role in regulating the development of many TISSUES and organs. Their name derives from the observation of a hedgehog-like appearance in DROSOPHILA embryos with genetic mutations that block their action.Homeostasis: The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.Intestines: The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.Leukemia Inhibitory Factor: An INTERLEUKIN-6 related cytokine that exhibits pleiotrophic effects on many physiological systems that involve cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival. Leukemia inhibitory factor binds to and acts through the lif receptor.Embryonic Development: Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS.Genes, Reporter: Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.Mice, SCID: Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.Myoblasts, Skeletal: Precursor cells destined to differentiate into skeletal myocytes (MYOCYTES, SKELETAL).Bone Marrow Transplantation: The transference of BONE MARROW from one human or animal to another for a variety of purposes including HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION or MESENCHYMAL STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation: Transplantation of stem cells collected from the peripheral blood. It is a less invasive alternative to direct marrow harvesting of hematopoietic stem cells. Enrichment of stem cells in peripheral blood can be achieved by inducing mobilization of stem cells from the BONE MARROW.RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Bone Marrow: The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.Melanocytes: Mammalian pigment cells that produce MELANINS, pigments found mainly in the EPIDERMIS, but also in the eyes and the hair, by a process called melanogenesis. Coloration can be altered by the number of melanocytes or the amount of pigment produced and stored in the organelles called MELANOSOMES. The large non-mammalian melanin-containing cells are called MELANOPHORES.Tretinoin: An important regulator of GENE EXPRESSION during growth and development, and in NEOPLASMS. Tretinoin, also known as retinoic acid and derived from maternal VITAMIN A, is essential for normal GROWTH; and EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT. An excess of tretinoin can be teratogenic. It is used in the treatment of PSORIASIS; ACNE VULGARIS; and several other SKIN DISEASES. It has also been approved for use in promyelocytic leukemia (LEUKEMIA, PROMYELOCYTIC, ACUTE).Spheroids, Cellular: Spherical, heterogeneous aggregates of proliferating, quiescent, and necrotic cells in culture that retain three-dimensional architecture and tissue-specific functions. The ability to form spheroids is a characteristic trait of CULTURED TUMOR CELLS derived from solid TUMORS. Cells from normal tissues can also form spheroids. They represent an in-vitro model for studies of the biology of both normal and malignant cells. (From Bjerkvig, Spheroid Culture in Cancer Research, 1992, p4)Transplantation, Homologous: Transplantation between individuals of the same species. Usually refers to genetically disparate individuals in contradistinction to isogeneic transplantation for genetically identical individuals.Blastocyst: A post-MORULA preimplantation mammalian embryo that develops from a 32-cell stage into a fluid-filled hollow ball of over a hundred cells. A blastocyst has two distinctive tissues. The outer layer of trophoblasts gives rise to extra-embryonic tissues. The inner cell mass gives rise to the embryonic disc and eventual embryo proper.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Repressor Proteins: Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Extracellular Matrix: A meshwork-like substance found within the extracellular space and in association with the basement membrane of the cell surface. It promotes cellular proliferation and provides a supporting structure to which cells or cell lysates in culture dishes adhere.Cryoultramicrotomy: The technique of using a cryostat or freezing microtome, in which the temperature is regulated to -20 degrees Celsius, to cut ultrathin frozen sections for microscopic (usually, electron microscopic) examination.Muscle Development: Developmental events leading to the formation of adult muscular system, which includes differentiation of the various types of muscle cell precursors, migration of myoblasts, activation of myogenesis and development of muscle anchorage.Bromodeoxyuridine: A nucleoside that substitutes for thymidine in DNA and thus acts as an antimetabolite. It causes breaks in chromosomes and has been proposed as an antiviral and antineoplastic agent. It has been given orphan drug status for use in the treatment of primary brain tumors.Lamin Type A: A subclass of developmentally regulated lamins having a neutral isoelectric point. They are found to disassociate from nuclear membranes during mitosis.Epithelium, Corneal: Stratified squamous epithelium that covers the outer surface of the CORNEA. It is smooth and contains many free nerve endings.beta Catenin: A multi-functional catenin that participates in CELL ADHESION and nuclear signaling. Beta catenin binds CADHERINS and helps link their cytoplasmic tails to the ACTIN in the CYTOSKELETON via ALPHA CATENIN. It also serves as a transcriptional co-activator and downstream component of WNT PROTEIN-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS.Drosophila melanogaster: A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.Fetal Proteins: Proteins that are preferentially expressed or upregulated during FETAL DEVELOPMENT.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Bone Regeneration: Renewal or repair of lost bone tissue. It excludes BONY CALLUS formed after BONE FRACTURES but not yet replaced by hard bone.Metamorphosis, Biological: Profound physical changes during maturation of living organisms from the immature forms to the adult forms, such as from TADPOLES to frogs; caterpillars to BUTTERFLIES.Wound Healing: Restoration of integrity to traumatized tissue.Primitive Streak: A linear band of rapidly proliferating cells that begins near the posterior end of an embryo and grows cranially. Primitive streak is formed during GASTRULATION by the convergent migration of primary ectodermal cells (EPIBLAST). The knot at the tip of the streak is called HENSEN NODE.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Karyotyping: Mapping of the KARYOTYPE of a cell.GATA4 Transcription Factor: A GATA transcription factor that is expressed in the MYOCARDIUM of developing heart and has been implicated in the differentiation of CARDIAC MYOCYTES. GATA4 is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION and regulates transcription of cardiac-specific genes.Muscle Cells: Mature contractile cells, commonly known as myocytes, that form one of three kinds of muscle. The three types of muscle cells are skeletal (MUSCLE FIBERS, SKELETAL), cardiac (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC), and smooth (MYOCYTES, SMOOTH MUSCLE). They are derived from embryonic (precursor) muscle cells called MYOBLASTS.Cell Fusion: Fusion of somatic cells in vitro or in vivo, which results in somatic cell hybridization.Hepatocytes: The main structural component of the LIVER. They are specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that are organized into interconnected plates called lobules.Models, Animal: Non-human animals, selected because of specific characteristics, for use in experimental research, teaching, or testing.Culture Media, Serum-Free: CULTURE MEDIA free of serum proteins but including the minimal essential substances required for cell growth. This type of medium avoids the presence of extraneous substances that may affect cell proliferation or unwanted activation of cells.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Teratocarcinoma: A malignant neoplasm consisting of elements of teratoma with those of embryonal carcinoma or choriocarcinoma, or both. It occurs most often in the testis. (Dorland, 27th ed)Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Skin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.Hematopoiesis, Extramedullary: The formation and development of blood cells outside the BONE MARROW, as in the SPLEEN; LIVER; or LYMPH NODES.Neovascularization, Physiologic: The development of new BLOOD VESSELS during the restoration of BLOOD CIRCULATION during the healing process.Cell Transformation, Neoplastic: Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Bone Morphogenetic Proteins: Bone-growth regulatory factors that are members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily of proteins. They are synthesized as large precursor molecules which are cleaved by proteolytic enzymes. The active form can consist of a dimer of two identical proteins or a heterodimer of two related bone morphogenetic proteins.Kruppel-Like Transcription Factors: A family of zinc finger transcription factors that share homology with Kruppel protein, Drosophila. They contain a highly conserved seven amino acid spacer sequence in between their ZINC FINGER MOTIFS.Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Adipocytes: Cells in the body that store FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. WHITE ADIPOCYTES are the predominant type and found mostly in the abdominal cavity and subcutaneous tissue. BROWN ADIPOCYTES are thermogenic cells that can be found in newborns of some species and hibernating mammals.Gene Knockdown Techniques: The artificial induction of GENE SILENCING by the use of RNA INTERFERENCE to reduce the expression of a specific gene. It includes the use of DOUBLE-STRANDED RNA, such as SMALL INTERFERING RNA and RNA containing HAIRPIN LOOP SEQUENCE, and ANTI-SENSE OLIGONUCLEOTIDES.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Fetal Blood: Blood of the fetus. Exchange of nutrients and waste between the fetal and maternal blood occurs via the PLACENTA. The cord blood is blood contained in the umbilical vessels (UMBILICAL CORD) at the time of delivery.Staining and Labeling: The marking of biological material with a dye or other reagent for the purpose of identifying and quantitating components of tissues, cells or their extracts.Ectoderm: The outer of the three germ layers of an embryo.Laminin: Large, noncollagenous glycoprotein with antigenic properties. It is localized in the basement membrane lamina lucida and functions to bind epithelial cells to the basement membrane. Evidence suggests that the protein plays a role in tumor invasion.Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled: The largest family of cell surface receptors involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They share a common structure and signal through HETEROTRIMERIC G-PROTEINS.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit: A protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is specific for STEM CELL FACTOR. This interaction is crucial for the development of hematopoietic, gonadal, and pigment stem cells. Genetic mutations that disrupt the expression of PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-KIT are associated with PIEBALDISM, while overexpression or constitutive activation of the c-kit protein-tyrosine kinase is associated with tumorigenesis.Neural Crest: The two longitudinal ridges along the PRIMITIVE STREAK appearing near the end of GASTRULATION during development of nervous system (NEURULATION). The ridges are formed by folding of NEURAL PLATE. Between the ridges is a neural groove which deepens as the fold become elevated. When the folds meet at midline, the groove becomes a closed tube, the NEURAL TUBE.Cord Blood Stem Cell Transplantation: Transplantation of STEM CELLS collected from the fetal blood remaining in the UMBILICAL CORD and the PLACENTA after delivery. Included are the HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Antigens, CD15: A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Genetic Therapy: Techniques and strategies which include the use of coding sequences and other conventional or radical means to transform or modify cells for the purpose of treating or reversing disease conditions.Thrombospondins: A family of related, adhesive glycoproteins which are synthesized, secreted, and incorporated into the extracellular matrix of a variety of cells, including alpha granules of platelets following thrombin activation and endothelial cells. They interact with a number of BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS and anticoagulant factors. Five distinct forms have been identified, thrombospondin 1, -2, -3, -4, and cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP). They are involved in cell adhesion, platelet aggregation, cell proliferation, angiogenesis, tumor metastasis, VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE growth, and tissue repair.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.Animals, Genetically Modified: ANIMALS whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING, or their offspring.Embryonic and Fetal Development: Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS or FETUSES.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Drosophila: A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.Endothelial Cells: Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.Organ Specificity: Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.Alkaline Phosphatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.1.Transgenes: Genes that are introduced into an organism using GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Brain Stem: The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.Gene Targeting: The integration of exogenous DNA into the genome of an organism at sites where its expression can be suitably controlled. This integration occurs as a result of homologous recombination.
When subjected to single cell suspension culture, the cells will generate clusters that are similar to embryoid bodies in ... induced pluripotent stem cells, from adult cells. It is important to note that these are not adult stem cells, but adult cells ... Adult stem cells, also called somatic (from Greek σωματικóς, "of the body") stem cells, are stem cells which maintain and ... mesenchymal stem cell, adipose-derived stem cell, endothelial stem cell, dental pulp stem cell, etc.). Muse cells (multi- ...
Gastric organoids have also been generated using LGR5 expressing stomach adult stem cells. Gastric organoids have been used as ... the cells are usually, but not all the time, allowed to form embryoid bodies. Those embryoid bodies are then pharmacologically ... Organoid bodies can then be made through embedding stem cells in the 3D medium. When pluripotent stem cells are used for the ... They are derived from one or a few cells from a tissue, embryonic stem cells or induced pluripotent stem cells, which can self- ...
... adult cells take on character of embryonic stem cells Generating iPS Cells from MEFS through Forced Expression of Sox-2, Oct-4 ... Embryoid body: hESCs in culture spontaneously form ball-like embryo-like structures termed "embryoid bodies", which consist of ... Induced pluripotent stem cells (also known as iPS cells or iPSCs) are a type of pluripotent stem cell that can be generated ... Induced pluripotent stem cells are similar to natural pluripotent stem cells, such as embryonic stem (ES) cells, in many ...
... while embryonic stem cells can generate all cell types in the body, adult stem cells are multipotent and can produce only a ... Embryoid body Embryonic Stem Cell Research Oversight Committees Fetal tissue implant Stem cell controversy Induced stem cells ... Embryonic stem cells (ES cells) are pluripotent stem cells derived from the inner cell mass of a blastocyst, an early-stage pre ... Pluripotency distinguishes embryonic stem cells from adult stem cells found in adults; ...
In the 1980s, it became clear that transplanting pluripotent/embryonic stem cells into the body of adult mammals, usually leads ... "Small Molecule Mesengenic Induction of Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells to Generate Mesenchymal Stem/Stromal Cells". Stem ... "Sonic hedgehog and other soluble factors from differentiating embryoid bodies inhibit pancreas development". Stem Cells. 25 (5 ... specialized adult cells can naturally revert to stem cells. For example, "chief" cells express the stem cell marker Troy. While ...
... bone marrow-mesenchymal stem cells and adipose-derived stem cells. Muse cells are able to generate cells representative of all ... Muse cells, SSEA-3(+) form clusters (which are similar to embryoid bodies of ES cells) from a single cell in suspension, while ... "Unique multipotent cells in adult human mesenchymal cell populations". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the ... Muse cells do not express CD34 (markers for hematopoietic stem cells, adipose stem cells, VSELs) and CD117 (hematopoietic stem ...
... treatments have been used for many years to successfully treat leukemia and related bone/blood cancers utilizing bone marrow transplants.[49] The use of adult stem cells in research and therapy is not considered as controversial as the use of embryonic stem cells, because the production of adult stem cells does not require the destruction of an embryo. Early regenerative applications of adult stem cells has focused on intravenous delivery of blood progenitors known as Hematopetic Stem Cells (HSC's). CD34+ hematopoietic Stem Cells have been clinically applied to treat various diseases including spinal ...
... (DPSCs) are stem cells present in the dental pulp, the soft living tissue within teeth. They are multipotent, so they have the potential to differentiate into a variety of cell types. Other sources of dental stem cells are the dental follicle and the developed periodontal ligament. A subpopulation of dental pulp stem cells has been described as human immature dental pulp stem cells (IDPSC). There are various studies where the importance of these cells and their regenerative capacity has been demonstrated. Through the addition of tissue-specific cytokines, differentiated cells were obtained in vitro from these cells, not only of mesenchymal linage but also of endodermal and ectodermal linage. Among them ...
Stem cells cells of the body (somatic cells) which can divide and become differentiated.[1]. When an organism grows, stem cells specialize, and take specific functions. For instance, mature tissues like skin, muscle, blood, bone, liver, nerves, all have different types of cells. Because stem cells are not yet differentiated, they can change to become some kind of specialized cells. Organisms also use stem cells to replace damaged cells.. Stem cells are found in most, if not all, plants and animals. They divide and differentiate into a range of cell types.Research in the stem ...
Neurogenesis is the process of birth of neurons wherein neurons are generated from neural stem cells. Contrary to popular belief, neurogenesis continuously occurs in specific regions in the adult brain. Developmental neurogenesis and adult neurogenesis differ markedly. This article is limited in scope to adult neurogenesis. In humans, new neurons are continually born throughout adulthood in two regions of the brain: The subgranular zone (SGZ), part of the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. The striatum; however the adult-born neurons are a type of interneuron, not a type that projects to other brain areas. In other species of mammals, particularly rodents, adult-born neurons also appear in the olfactory bulb. In humans, however, few if any ...
Endothelial stem cells (ESCs) are one of three types of stem cells found in bone marrow. They are multipotent, which describes the ability to give rise to many cell types, whereas a pluripotent stem cell can give rise to all types. ESCs have the characteristic properties of a stem cell: self-renewal and differentiation. These parent stem cells, ESCs, give rise to progenitor cells, which are intermediate stem cells that lose potency. Progenitor stem cells are committed to differentiating along a particular cell developmental pathway. ESCs will eventually produce endothelial cells (ECs), which create the thin-walled endothelium that lines the inner surface of ...
The stem cell theory of aging postulates that the aging process is the result of the inability of various types of stem cells to continue to replenish the tissues of an organism with functional differentiated cells capable of maintaining that tissue's (or organ's) original function. Damage and error accumulation in genetic material is always a problem for systems regardless of the age. The number of stem cells in young people is very much higher than older people and this cause a better and more efficient replacement mechanism in the young contrary to the old. In other words, aging is not a matter of the increase of damage, but a matter of failure to replace it due to decreased number of stem cells. Stem cells decrease in number and tend to ...
In developmental biology, cellular differentiation is the process where a cell changes from one cell type to another. Most commonly the cell changes to a more specialized type. Differentiation occurs numerous times during the development of a multicellular organism as it changes from a simple zygote to a complex system of tissues and cell types. Differentiation continues in adulthood as adult stem cells divide and create fully differentiated daughter cells during tissue repair and during normal cell turnover. Some differentiation occurs in response to antigen exposure. Differentiation dramatically changes a cell's size, shape, membrane potential, metabolic activity, and responsiveness to signals. These changes are largely due to highly controlled modifications in gene expression and are the study of epigenetics. With a few exceptions, ...
Cellular differentiation is the process by which a less specialized cell becomes a more specialized cell type. It is part of developmental biology. Different tissues have different kinds of organelles inside the cells. Differentiation occurs many times during the development of a multicellular organism. The organism changes from a single zygote to a complex system of tissues and cell types. Differentiation is also common process in adults: adult stem cells divide to make fully-differentiated daughter cells during tissue repair and during normal cell turnover.[1] Differentiation dramatically changes a cell's size, shape, metabolic activity, and responsiveness to signals. These changes are largely due to changes in gene expression. With a few exceptions, cellular differentiation almost never involves a change ...
Stem cells cells of the body (somatic cells) which can divide and become differentiated.[1]. When an organism grows, stem cells specialize, and take specific functions. For instance, mature tissues like skin, muscle, blood, bone, liver, nerves, all have different types of cells. Because stem cells are not yet differentiated, they can change to become some kind of specialized cells. Organisms also use stem cells to replace damaged cells.. Stem cells are found in most, if not all, plants and animals. They divide and differentiate into a range of cell types.Research in the stem ...
... (DPSCs) are stem cells present in the dental pulp, the soft living tissue within teeth. They are multipotent, so they have the potential to differentiate into a variety of cell types. Other sources of dental stem cells are the dental follicle and the developed periodontal ligament. A subpopulation of dental pulp stem cells has been described as human immature dental pulp stem cells (IDPSC). There are various studies where the importance of these cells and their regenerative capacity has been demonstrated. Through the addition of tissue-specific cytokines, differentiated cells were obtained in vitro from these cells, not only of mesenchymal linage but also of endodermal and ectodermal linage. Among them ...
... treatments have been used for many years to successfully treat leukemia and related bone/blood cancers utilizing bone marrow transplants.[49] The use of adult stem cells in research and therapy is not considered as controversial as the use of embryonic stem cells, because the production of adult stem cells does not require the destruction of an embryo. Early regenerative applications of adult stem cells has focused on intravenous delivery of blood progenitors known as Hematopetic Stem Cells (HSC's). CD34+ hematopoietic Stem Cells have been clinically applied to treat various diseases including spinal ...
Endothelial stem cells (ESCs) are one of three types of stem cells found in bone marrow. They are multipotent, which describes the ability to give rise to many cell types, whereas a pluripotent stem cell can give rise to all types. ESCs have the characteristic properties of a stem cell: self-renewal and differentiation. These parent stem cells, ESCs, give rise to progenitor cells, which are intermediate stem cells that lose potency. Progenitor stem cells are committed to differentiating along a particular cell developmental pathway. ESCs will eventually produce endothelial cells (ECs), which create the thin-walled endothelium that lines the inner surface of ...
The stem cell theory of aging postulates that the aging process is the result of the inability of various types of stem cells to continue to replenish the tissues of an organism with functional differentiated cells capable of maintaining that tissue's (or organ's) original function. Damage and error accumulation in genetic material is always a problem for systems regardless of the age. The number of stem cells in young people is very much higher than older people and this cause a better and more efficient replacement mechanism in the young contrary to the old. In other words, aging is not a matter of the increase of damage, but a matter of failure to replace it due to decreased number of stem cells. Stem cells decrease in number and tend to ...
... neuronal cells, and embryonic erythrocytes.48 ES cell differentiation is often performed through embryoid bodies, which are ... The most stringent criterion for mouse ES/iPS cells is their ability to generate germline-competent adult mouse chimeras and ... Stem cells are classified into 2 types of cells, somatic stem cells and pluripotent stem cells. ... embryonic carcinoma cells, and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. Among these pluripotent stem cells, ES cells and iPS cells ...
When subjected to single cell suspension culture, the cells will generate clusters that are similar to embryoid bodies in ... induced pluripotent stem cells, from adult cells. It is important to note that these are not adult stem cells, but adult cells ... Adult stem cells, also called somatic (from Greek σωματικóς, "of the body") stem cells, are stem cells which maintain and ... mesenchymal stem cell, adipose-derived stem cell, endothelial stem cell, dental pulp stem cell, etc.). Muse cells (multi- ...
Since the adult retina does not harbour any stem cells, alternative stem cell sources like the embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and ... Pluripotency was confirmed by embryoid body (EB) formation and lineage-specific marker expression. Also, upon retinal ... induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) offer a great promise for generating different cell types of the retina. Here, we report ... patches of pigmented cells with typical cobble-stone phenotype similar to RPE cells are generated within 6 weeks and they ...
Mouse embryonic stem cell derived embryoid bodies generate progenitors that integrate long term into renal proximal tubules in ... 58 Potential sources include adult kidney somatic cells, adult renal stem cells, extrarenal stem cells, pluripotent stem cells ... Epithelial cells, adult kidney stem cells, ex tra renal stem cells, and even amniotic fluid stem cells have all been used in ... The alternative approach is to use stem cells. Adult Stem Cells Stem cells have a high capacity for proliferation and the ...
These NOD iPSCs readily differentiated in vitro to form embryoid bodies and in vivo by teratoma formation in immunodeficient ... RESULTS Eighteen NOD iPSC lines were generated, and three of these cell lines were further characterized. All three cell lines ... CONCLUSIONS Adult tail-tip fibroblasts from NOD mice can be reprogrammed, without constitutive ectopic expression of ... providing an alternative source of stem cells for the production of genetically modified NOD cells and mice. ...
Gastric organoids have also been generated using LGR5 expressing stomach adult stem cells. Gastric organoids have been used as ... the cells are usually, but not all the time, allowed to form embryoid bodies. Those embryoid bodies are then pharmacologically ... Organoid bodies can then be made through embedding stem cells in the 3D medium. When pluripotent stem cells are used for the ... They are derived from one or a few cells from a tissue, embryonic stem cells or induced pluripotent stem cells, which can self- ...
Embryonic stem (ES) cells, with their ability to generate all, or nearly all, of the cell types in the adult body and a ... Although these cells possessed ES cell-like characteristics, including the ability to form embryoid bodies generating multiple ... embryonic stem; HSC, hematopoietic stem cell; BMSC, bone marrow-derived stem cell; MAPC, multipotent adult progenitor cell; NOD ... Their potential to generate any given cell type of the embryo makes them in some ways the most attractive stem cell for cell ...
... human embryoid body; hESC, human embryonic stem cell; hPSC, human pluripotent stem cell; iPSC, induced pluripotent stem cell; ... adult endothelial cells (HUVEC, HMEC); hiPSC donor cells; and hESC lines. Data were generated from samples in Figure X in the ... human embryoid body; hESC, human embryonic stem cell; hPSC, human pluripotent stem cell; HUVEC, human umbilical vein ... human embryoid body; hESC, human embryonic stem cell; HMVEC, human microvascular endothelial cell; hPSC, human pluripotent stem ...
... and clinical studies in all areas of stem cell biology and applications. The journal will consider basic, translational, and ... Stem Cells International is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research articles, review articles, ... AFS cells are capable of forming embryoid bodies. Indeed, monoclonal human AFS cells can form embryoid bodies, when cultured ... Compared to other types of stem cells, such as adult stem cells, ES cells, or induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, AFS cells, ...
Cultrex® Embryoid Body Formation Kits. The Cultrex® Embryoid Body Formation Kit offers a useful tool for generating consistent ... Long-Term Culture of Genome-Stable Bipotent Stem Cells from Adult Human Liver. Cell , 160, 299 - 312 Living organoid biobank ... Cultrex® Stem Cell Qualified Human Fibronectin, Pathclear™. 1mg. 3421-001-03. Cultrex® Stem Cell Qualified Human Vitronectin, ... Stem Cell Qualified Extracellular Matrix Proteins. Cultrex® Stem Cell Qualified BME has been shown to provide an effective ...
Title: Stem Cell Basics, Author: Mai2xs, Name: Stem Cell Basics, Length: 8 pages, Page: 1, Published: 2008-04-02 ... Adult stem cells typically generate the cell types of the tissue in which they reside. A blood-forming adult stem cell in the ... Embryoid bodies - Clumps of cellular structures that arise when embryonic stem cells are cultured. Embryonic germ cells - Cells ... What are adult stem cells? An adult stem cell is an undifferentiated cell found among differentiated cells in a tissue or organ ...
... reproducible and identically-sized embryoid bodies (EBs) from human pluripotent stem cells (hESCs and iPSCs) ... Cultrex® Embryoid Body Formation Kit can be used to generate consistent, ... organoid cultures from adult human liver ... Cell Culture Reagents & Labware Kits Stem Cells Bioseparation ... for mouse and human pluripotent stem cell culture (ED and iPS). All our feeder cells are vigorously tested on stem cells to ...
... these methods either used non-human/non-primate stem cells or used an embryoid body-dependent method (i.e. no direct ... is a formation of erythroid cells from stem cells, typically from hematopoietic stem cells. In an average adult, production of ... Patent application title: ERYTHROID CELLS PRODUCING ADULT-TYPE BETA-HEMOGLOBIN GENERATED FROM HUMAN EMBRYONIC STEM CELLS. ... Lymphoid cells, including B-cells and T-cells, are a type of white blood cell that play a significant role in the bodys immune ...
... and clinical studies in all areas of stem cell biology and applications. The journal will consider basic, translational, and ... Stem Cells International is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research articles, review articles, ... Figure 2: Histological evidence of germ layer differentiation in embryoid bodies generated from human pluripotent stem cells ... "Induction of pluripotent stem cells from adult human fibroblasts by defined factors," Cell, vol. 131, no. 5, pp. 861-872, 2007. ...
The transcriptional regulator far upstream binding protein 1 (FUBP1) is essential for fetal and adult hematopoietic stem cell ( ... FUBP1 is expressed in undifferentiated ESCs and during spontaneous differentiation following aggregation into embryoid bodies ( ... Basing on the significant Aven promoter activity detected in the adult brain and in the mammary gland, I generated and ... Depletion of AVEN in the blood cells had no effect on hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell frequencies. Consequently, AVEN ...
Cell Biology, Issue 17, Embryonic stem cell, hanging drop, embryoid body, cardiomyocyte ... Recently, we reported the derivation of iPSC lines that reproducibly generate adult mice via TEC1. These iPSC lines give rise ... Stem Cell Biology, Issue 89, Pluripotent stem cells, human embryonic stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells, cell culture, ... Stem Cells, Embryonic Stem Cells, ESCs, Pluripotent Stem Cells, Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells, iPSC, neural differentiation, ...
Channels lined by VE-cadherin positive cells developed within the embryoid bodies (EBs) formed by differentiating ES cells. VE- ... This process is recapitulated in the adult when endothelial progenitor cells are generated in the bone marrow and can ... Conclusion: The isolation of CD144+ cells during ES cell differentiation from embryoid bodies provides an excellent model ... and a subset of VEGF-R2+ cells, that were CD41 positive at 3.5 days. A separate population of VEGF-R2+ stem cells expressing ...
Appropriate manipulation of the culture results in the formation of embryoid bodies, and a defined chemical cocktail can ... Adult stem cells. As far as we know, all organs have specific stem cells, but in some tissues such as the heart and brain, they ... dont generate new cells after cell loss caused by a heart attack or stroke. In the kidney, specialised tubular cells can ... What are stem cells?. Stem cells are relatively primitive cells that can be stimulated to produce large families of cells that ...
... derivation of cardiac progenitor cells from both mouse and human embryonic stem cells will be illustrated. A major... ... This protocol illustrates procedures to form embryoid bodies (EBs) from ESCs for CPC specification and enrichment. The isolated ... Cell Stem Cell. 3, (1), 69-84 (2008).. *Bu, L., et al. Human ISL1 heart progenitors generate diverse multipotent cardiovascular ... Various CPCs have been isolated from embryonic and adult hearts, even from bone marrows2. During embryo development, bone ...
... and mesenchymal stem cells (hiPSC-MSCs) via embryoid body formation. Electrophysiological and calcium imaging assays identified ... hiPSCs were derived from neonatal and adult dermal fibroblasts via retroviral transduction of OCT-4, SOX-2, c-MYC and KLF-4 and ... This study proves the feasibility of generating hiPSCs from young and older donors. It suggests that hiPSC-CMs are functionally ... induced pluripotent stem cells, cardiomyocytes, mesenchymal stem cells, electrophysiology, hydrogen sulfide, cardiovascular ...
The SDEC human cell line in this study was generated from embryoid bodies that formed in culture by the aggregation of human EG ... PGCs give rise to the germ cells, eggs and sperm, in the adult.) The PGCs were mechanically and chemically dissociated, then ... ES cell = Embryonic stem cell. EG cell = Embryonic germ cell. EC cell = Embryonal carcinoma cell. SSEA = Stage-specific ... and Human Pluripotent Stem Cells. Marker. Name. Mouse EC/. ES/EG cells. Monkey. ES cells. Human. ES cells. Human. EG cells. ...
Intrastriatal Transplantation of Adenovirus-Generated Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells for Treating Neuropathological and ... cells overlapped with the changes during embryoid body formation. KAP1 repressed differentiation-inducible genes and ... Adult rats received a regimen of 3-nitropropionic acid (3-NP) to induce behavioral and neuropathological deficits that resemble ... simple way to reprogram mature cells into stem cells. The committee concluded that these acts constitute research misconduct ...
... differentiating PG ES cell cultures was used to promote the formation of adult-engrafting hematopoietic progenitor/stem cells ( ... PB, polar body, EB, embryoid body. In PG ES cells rendered diploid via second polar body retention, the frequency of obtaining ... Treatment of sickle cell anemia mouse model with iPS cells generated from autologous skin. Science. 2007;318(5858):1920-1923. ... Giudice A, Trounson A. Genetic modification of human embryonic stem cells for derivation of target cells. Cell Stem Cell. 2008; ...
... called embryoid body-derived (EBD) cells, derived from the germ cells of aborted fetuses. Johns Hopkins researchers generated ... adult stem cells, stem cells cultivated from fetal germ cells, cells cultivated from a type of tumor, and fetal cells from pigs ... human adult stem cells called fibroblasts, a line of stem cells derived from fetal brains, mouse neural stem cells, fetal pig ... bone marrow stem cells, adult stem cells from tissue taken from brain surgery patients, and two types of myelin-forming cells ...
a, b RT-qPCR was performed on cDNA prepared from ESCs or embryoid bodies (EBs) of wild-type and Nsun3 cat/cat cells at the ... Nsun3-mutant cells exhibit loss of C34 methylation and strong reduction of formylation indicating that we have generated a cell ... Adult somatic cells rely heavily on oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) in mitochondria to meet their energy demands. Therefore ... Embryonic stem cell culture and differentiation. Mouse embryonic stem cells (129/Sv) were cultured in ESC medium (LIF+2i) (DMEM ...
  • Murine embryonic stem cells were seeded into the decellularized scaffolds and cultured up to 14 days with one of three protocols: whole scaffold, perfused scaffold, and sectioned scaffold culture. (ufl.edu)
  • Recent work from the laboratory of Dr. Azim Surani has identified Blimp-1 ( Prdm1 ) as an early marker of the first primordial germ cells that can be detected in a small cluster of 6-10 cells in the proximal epiblast at E6.5 of murine embryonic development (Ohinata et al. (stembook.org)
  • Conventional approaches rely on multi-lineage inclination of pluripotent cells through spontaneous germ layer differentiation, resulting in inefficient and uncontrollable lineage-commitment that is often followed by phenotypic heterogeneity and instability, hence, a high risk of tumorigenicity 7-10 . (jove.com)
  • Specifically, successful reprogramming was demonstrated from a single vial of blood or less using cells expressing the early lineage marker CD34 as well as from unpurified peripheral blood mononuclear cells. (jove.com)
  • By manipulating the culture conditions in which ES cells differentiate, it has been possible to control and restrict the differentiation pathways and thereby generate cultures enriched in lineage-specific precursors ( 5 , 6 ). (pnas.org)
  • and (ii) adding nicotinamide (NAM) to the culture, wherein the hES cells are cultured in the presence of NAM for a period of time sufficient to induce the expression of cardiac specific transcription factor (CSX) Nkx2.5 and cause the hES cells to directly differentiate into cells of cardiac lineage. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Currently little is known about the signals required for induction of the respiratory lineage and that generate cellular diversity in the respiratory epithelium. (stembook.org)
  • The acquisition of respiratory cell fate begins with the lineage specification of lung epithelial cells from the definitive endodermal germ layer. (stembook.org)
  • There is limited information from lineage tracing studies in mice suggesting that cells that give rise to the distal regions of the respiratory tract (distal airway epithelium and alveoli) and proximal regions (trachea and proximal airways) have different origins. (stembook.org)
  • Mfopou JK, Houbracken I, Wauters E, Mathijs I, Song I, Himpe E, Baldan J, Heimberg H, Bouwens L: Acinar phenotype is preserved in human exocrine pancreas cells cultured at low temperature: implications for lineage-tracing of β-cell neogenesis. (ac.be)
  • However, these protocols all require culture at very low densities and cell-cell/matrix interactions for neuronal differentiation, and the mechanisms underlying neuronal lineage commitment induced by these techniques remain unclear. (biologists.org)
  • The stem cell differentiation paradigm is based on the progression of cells through generations of daughter cells that eventually become restricted and committed to one lineage resulting in fully differentiated cells. (academicjournals.org)
  • Typically the particles will contain at least a growth factor for delivery to the embryoid bodies, and generally the growth factor induces differentiation of the cells in the embryoid body along a specific lineage. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Embryoid body tri-lineage staining. (thermofisher.com)
  • More specifically, mAbs that detect cell-surface proteins are useful because they can be employed for positive and negative selection of cell populations via techniques such as fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) or magnetic-activated cell sorting (MACS). (thermofisher.com)
  • While the pancreatic acini, composed of cells dedicated to the secretion into the intestine of enzymes that will participate in the digestive process of the ingested food, constitute the exocrine component of the gland, the islets are made up of 4 cell populations, organized in a stereotypical topological order, which constitute instead the endocrine component of the gland. (jci.org)
  • We used hundreds of defined mAbs, generated hundreds of novel anti-hESC mAbs, and used these to isolate and characterize dozens of hESC-derived populations. (ca.gov)
  • Ideally, the resulting extracellular matrices would retain the organ-specific architecture and chemical composition to guide implanted cells into functional structures and eventually working organs. (ufl.edu)
  • Despite these inefficiencies, once derived and subjected to even minimal quality control, it is remarkable how similar these two types of pluripotent cells behave in functional assays. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Additional studies are required to analyze functional viability and test cell survival in animal models of retinal degeneration. (arvojournals.org)
  • It attracted about 150 researchers from many countries, discussing both historical and new ideas around the endoderm - ranging from germ layer specification, organ induction, expansion and morphogenesis to cell fate choices, functional differentiation and disease. (biologists.org)
  • In general, stem cells are undifferentiated cells which can give rise to a succession of mature functional cells. (google.es)
  • Lemper M, De Groef S, Stangé G, Baeyens L, Heimberg H:A combination of cytokines EGF and CNTF protects the functional beta cell mass in mice with short-term hyperglycaemia. (ac.be)
  • These molecular changes had direct functional implications, since shear stress-exposed cells showed a greater tendency to form hematopoietic precursor colonies. (mechanobio.info)
  • Functional ryanodine-sensitive Ca 2+ stores, detected by caffeine-induced Ca 2+ release, appeared in most GFP-positive cells 1-2 d after I Ca . Coexpression of both I Ca and ryanodine-sensitive Ca 2+ stores at day 10 of development coincided with the beginning of spontaneous contractions in most EBs. (rupress.org)
  • High levels of telomerase activity are detected in embryonic stem cells and cancer cells, whereas little or no telomerase activity is present in most mature, differentiated cell types. (nih.gov)
  • Lindsey Van Haute and colleagues from the Department of Embryology and Genetics at the Free University of Brussels (Vrije Universiteit Brussel) demonstrated for the first time that hESC could be converted into epithelial-like cells in human models. (blogspot.com)
  • Van Haute and colleagues assessed hESC differentiation using an air-liquid interface system that mimicks the conditions found in an adult trachea. (blogspot.com)
  • Upon hESC differentiation into embryoid bodies, the transcription of this pathway declined. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In the present study, to select a more suitable hNSC model for developing human‑based experimental platforms, two representative hNSC types were compared, namely human embryonic stem cell (hESC)‑derived hNSCs and ReNcell CX cells, which are well‑characterized immortalized hNSC lines. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Comparative analyses of the transcriptome profiles of the hESC‑derived hNESs and ReNcell CX hNSCs showed that the differentiated hNESs were analogous to the ReNcell CX cells, as demonstrated by principal component analysis and hierarchical sample clustering. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • The results suggested that hESC‑derived hNESs, an expandable and accessible cell source, may be used as a relevant hNSC model in a wide range of neurological investigations. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • We have generated hESC-lines that express the anti-apoptotic gene BCL2, and have found that these cells produce significantly greater amounts of hematopoietic and cardiac cells, because of their increased survival during culturing and sorting. (ca.gov)
  • BioPORTER® Protein Delivery Reagent is a unique lipid formulation that allows direct translocation of proteins into living cells. (amsbio.com)
  • employed a modified serum-free floating culture of embryoid body-like aggregates with quick reaggregation method to successfully generate cerebral organoids with elongated epithelium and the spatially appropriate expression of marker proteins from human pluripotent stem cells. (stemcellsportal.com)
  • The routine procedure called immunocytochemistry binds antibodies with specific fluorescent color tags to the cells' proteins. (bradley.edu)
  • The present invention provides a vehicle for delivering various chemicals, compositions and proteins to stem cells and embryoid bodies. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • A bacterial collagen-like proteins Scl2 continues to be developed like a recombinant collagen magic size program to host human being collagen ligand-binding sequences, with the purpose of generating biomaterials with selective collagen bioactivities. (extremebiology.net)
  • The cytoskeleton is a highly dynamic network of filamentous proteins that enables the active transport of cellular cargo, transduces force, and when assembled into higher-order structures, forms the basis for motile cellular structures that promote cell movement. (mechanobio.info)
  • Autophagic activity affects the pathogenesis of diverse diseases, such as cancer, neurodegenerative and infectious diseases [ 5 ], as it degrades toxic intracytoplasmic contents (such as aggregate-prone proteins and various bacteria), but also serves as a buffer against cellular starvation by generating amino acids and other macromolecules. (biochemsoctrans.org)
  • Attempts to create organs in vitro started with one of the first dissociation-reaggregation experiment where Henry Van Peters Wilson demonstrated that mechanically dissociated sponge cells can reaggregate and self-organize to generate a whole organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • The advent of the field of organoids, started with a shift from culturing and differentiating stem cells in 2D media, to 3D media to allow for the development of the complex 3-dimensional structures of organs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since 1987, researchers have devised different methods for 3-D culturing, and were able to utilize different types of stem cells to generate organoids resembling a multitude of organs. (wikipedia.org)
  • An approach that raises no ethical dilemmas and is meeting with good results is the use of adult stem cells (postnatal) to either repair damaged organs in situ (in place) or to create organs in the laboratory. (culture-of-life.org)
  • The team was trying to make organoids-small three-dimensional clusters of cells grown in the lab that are similar to tiny organs. (bioethics.com)
  • Stem cells can already be employed to replicate any cell in the body and may one day be used to grow entire organs or cure diseases such as Parkinson's and diabetes. (sciencenordic.com)
  • The human body is composed of many different cell types that enable our organs to perform diverse functions from the production of digestive enzymes and hormones to the generation of sensation and thought. (sciencenordic.com)
  • While they can be grown indefinitely in a dish in the laboratory, there are also stem cells that remain in many of our organs all our life. (sciencenordic.com)
  • Based on the natural capacity of stem cells to make and regenerate organs, it is natural to think that they could be used to repair our failing body parts. (sciencenordic.com)
  • Expression data of lung-specific biomarkers from quantitative real-time RT-PCR supported the differentiation into lung epithelial cells. (blogspot.com)
  • Choroid plexus epithelial cells (CPECs) have essential developmental and homeostatic roles related to the CSF and blood-CSF barrier they produce. (jneurosci.org)