Keratinocytes: Epidermal cells which synthesize keratin and undergo characteristic changes as they move upward from the basal layers of the epidermis to the cornified (horny) layer of the skin. Successive stages of differentiation of the keratinocytes forming the epidermal layers are basal cell, spinous or prickle cell, and the granular cell.Epidermis: The external, nonvascular layer of the skin. It is made up, from within outward, of five layers of EPITHELIUM: (1) basal layer (stratum basale epidermidis); (2) spinous layer (stratum spinosum epidermidis); (3) granular layer (stratum granulosum epidermidis); (4) clear layer (stratum lucidum epidermidis); and (5) horny layer (stratum corneum epidermidis).Skin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Foreskin: The double-layered skin fold that covers the GLANS PENIS, the head of the penis.Keratins: A class of fibrous proteins or scleroproteins that represents the principal constituent of EPIDERMIS; HAIR; NAILS; horny tissues, and the organic matrix of tooth ENAMEL. Two major conformational groups have been characterized, alpha-keratin, whose peptide backbone forms a coiled-coil alpha helical structure consisting of TYPE I KERATIN and a TYPE II KERATIN, and beta-keratin, whose backbone forms a zigzag or pleated sheet structure. alpha-Keratins have been classified into at least 20 subtypes. In addition multiple isoforms of subtypes have been found which may be due to GENE DUPLICATION.Ultraviolet Rays: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Organic Anion Transport Polypeptide C: An organic anion transporter found in human liver. It is capable of transporting a variety organic anions and mediates sodium-independent uptake of bile in the liver.Psoriasis: A common genetically determined, chronic, inflammatory skin disease characterized by rounded erythematous, dry, scaling patches. The lesions have a predilection for nails, scalp, genitalia, extensor surfaces, and the lumbosacral region. Accelerated epidermopoiesis is considered to be the fundamental pathologic feature in psoriasis.4-Nitroquinoline-1-oxide: A potent mutagen and carcinogen. This compound and its metabolite 4-HYDROXYAMINOQUINOLINE-1-OXIDE bind to nucleic acids. It inactivates bacteria but not bacteriophage.Proline-Rich Protein Domains: Protein domains that are enriched in PROLINE. The cyclical nature of proline causes the peptide bonds it forms to have a limited degree of conformational mobility. Therefore the presence of multiple prolines in close proximity to each other can convey a distinct conformational arrangement to a peptide chain.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Dapsone: A sulfone active against a wide range of bacteria but mainly employed for its actions against MYCOBACTERIUM LEPRAE. Its mechanism of action is probably similar to that of the SULFONAMIDES which involves inhibition of folic acid synthesis in susceptible organisms. It is also used with PYRIMETHAMINE in the treatment of malaria. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p157-8)Protein PrecursorsGene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Skin Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the SKIN.Cell Line, Transformed: Eukaryotic cell line obtained in a quiescent or stationary phase which undergoes conversion to a state of unregulated growth in culture, resembling an in vitro tumor. It occurs spontaneously or through interaction with viruses, oncogenes, radiation, or drugs/chemicals.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Interleukin-8: A member of the CXC chemokine family that plays a role in the regulation of the acute inflammatory response. It is secreted by variety of cell types and induces CHEMOTAXIS of NEUTROPHILS and other inflammatory cells.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Catechin: An antioxidant flavonoid, occurring especially in woody plants as both (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin (cis) forms.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Dermatitis: Any inflammation of the skin.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Transcription Factor AP-1: A multiprotein complex composed of the products of c-jun and c-fos proto-oncogenes. These proteins must dimerize in order to bind to the AP-1 recognition site, also known as the TPA-responsive element (TRE). AP-1 controls both basal and inducible transcription of several genes.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Keratin-10: A type I keratin that is found associated with the KERATIN-1 in terminally differentiated epidermal cells such as those that form the stratum corneum. Mutations in the genes that encode keratin-10 have been associated with HYPERKERATOSIS, EPIDERMOLYTIC.Tretinoin: An important regulator of GENE EXPRESSION during growth and development, and in NEOPLASMS. Tretinoin, also known as retinoic acid and derived from maternal VITAMIN A, is essential for normal GROWTH; and EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT. An excess of tretinoin can be teratogenic. It is used in the treatment of PSORIASIS; ACNE VULGARIS; and several other SKIN DISEASES. It has also been approved for use in promyelocytic leukemia (LEUKEMIA, PROMYELOCYTIC, ACUTE).Caspase 14: A short pro-domain caspase that is almost exclusively expressed in the EPIDERMIS and may play a role in the differentiation of epidermal KERATINOCYTES.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Keratin-14: A type I keratin that is found associated with the KERATIN-5 in the internal stratified EPITHELIUM. Mutations in the gene for keratin-14 are associated with EPIDERMOLYSIS BULLOSA SIMPLEX.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Transglutaminases: Transglutaminases catalyze cross-linking of proteins at a GLUTAMINE in one chain with LYSINE in another chain. They include keratinocyte transglutaminase (TGM1 or TGK), tissue transglutaminase (TGM2 or TGC), plasma transglutaminase involved with coagulation (FACTOR XIII and FACTOR XIIIa), hair follicle transglutaminase, and prostate transglutaminase. Although structures differ, they share an active site (YGQCW) and strict CALCIUM dependence.Wound Healing: Restoration of integrity to traumatized tissue.Hair Follicle: A tube-like invagination of the EPIDERMIS from which the hair shaft develops and into which SEBACEOUS GLANDS open. The hair follicle is lined by a cellular inner and outer root sheath of epidermal origin and is invested with a fibrous sheath derived from the dermis. (Stedman, 26th ed) Follicles of very long hairs extend into the subcutaneous layer of tissue under the SKIN.Melanocytes: Mammalian pigment cells that produce MELANINS, pigments found mainly in the EPIDERMIS, but also in the eyes and the hair, by a process called melanogenesis. Coloration can be altered by the number of melanocytes or the amount of pigment produced and stored in the organelles called MELANOSOMES. The large non-mammalian melanin-containing cells are called MELANOPHORES.Keratin-1: A type II keratin that is found associated with the KERATIN-10 in terminally differentiated epidermal cells such as those that form the stratum corneum. Mutations in the genes that encode keratin-1 have been associated with HYPERKERATOSIS, EPIDERMOLYTIC.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Dermis: A layer of vascularized connective tissue underneath the EPIDERMIS. The surface of the dermis contains innervated papillae. Embedded in or beneath the dermis are SWEAT GLANDS; HAIR FOLLICLES; and SEBACEOUS GLANDS.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Skin, Artificial: Synthetic material used for the treatment of burns and other conditions involving large-scale loss of skin. It often consists of an outer (epidermal) layer of silicone and an inner (dermal) layer of collagen and chondroitin 6-sulfate. The dermal layer elicits new growth and vascular invasion and the outer layer is later removed and replaced by a graft.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Antioxidants: Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.Plakins: A family of related proteins that associate with cytoskeletal elements and junctional complexes at INTERCELLULAR JUNCTIONS. Plakins share a common plakin domain or a plakin repeat domain.Mice, Hairless: Mutant strains of mice that produce little or no hair.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Skin DiseasesDermatitis, Atopic: A chronic inflammatory genetically determined disease of the skin marked by increased ability to form reagin (IgE), with increased susceptibility to allergic rhinitis and asthma, and hereditary disposition to a lowered threshold for pruritus. It is manifested by lichenification, excoriation, and crusting, mainly on the flexural surfaces of the elbow and knee. In infants it is known as infantile eczema.Skin Physiological Phenomena: The functions of the skin in the human and animal body. It includes the pigmentation of the skin.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Viologens: A group of dipyridinium chloride derivatives that are used as oxidation-reduction indicators. The general formula is 1,1'-di-R-4,4'-bipyridinium chloride, where R = methyl, ethyl, benzyl or, betaine.Keratolytic Agents: Agents that soften, separate, and cause desquamation of the cornified epithelium or horny layer of skin. They are used to expose mycelia of infecting fungi or to treat corns, warts, and certain other skin diseases.Hair: A filament-like structure consisting of a shaft which projects to the surface of the SKIN from a root which is softer than the shaft and lodges in the cavity of a HAIR FOLLICLE. It is found on most surfaces of the body.Desmosomes: A type of junction that attaches one cell to its neighbor. One of a number of differentiated regions which occur, for example, where the cytoplasmic membranes of adjacent epithelial cells are closely apposed. It consists of a circular region of each membrane together with associated intracellular microfilaments and an intercellular material which may include, for example, mucopolysaccharides. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990; Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Papilloma: A circumscribed benign epithelial tumor projecting from the surrounding surface; more precisely, a benign epithelial neoplasm consisting of villous or arborescent outgrowths of fibrovascular stroma covered by neoplastic cells. (Stedman, 25th ed)Sebaceous Glands: Small, sacculated organs found within the DERMIS. Each gland has a single duct that emerges from a cluster of oval alveoli. Each alveolus consists of a transparent BASEMENT MEMBRANE enclosing epithelial cells. The ducts from most sebaceous glands open into a HAIR FOLLICLE, but some open on the general surface of the SKIN. Sebaceous glands secrete SEBUM.Tetradecanoylphorbol Acetate: A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL with very effective tumor promoting activity. It stimulates the synthesis of both DNA and RNA.Dermatologic Agents: Drugs used to treat or prevent skin disorders or for the routine care of skin.Skin Aging: The process of aging due to changes in the structure and elasticity of the skin over time. It may be a part of physiological aging or it may be due to the effects of ultraviolet radiation, usually through exposure to sunlight.Sulfamethoxazole: A bacteriostatic antibacterial agent that interferes with folic acid synthesis in susceptible bacteria. Its broad spectrum of activity has been limited by the development of resistance. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p208)Non-Fibrillar Collagens: A family of structurally-related short-chain collagens that do not form large fibril bundles.Intermediate Filament Proteins: Filaments 7-11 nm in diameter found in the cytoplasm of all cells. Many specific proteins belong to this group, e.g., desmin, vimentin, prekeratin, decamin, skeletin, neurofilin, neurofilament protein, and glial fibrillary acid protein.Sweat Glands: Sweat-producing structures that are embedded in the DERMIS. Each gland consists of a single tube, a coiled body, and a superficial duct.Blister: Visible accumulations of fluid within or beneath the epidermis.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Skin Pigmentation: Coloration of the skin.Fibroblast Growth Factor 7: A fibroblast growth factor that is a specific mitogen for EPITHELIAL CELLS. It binds a complex of HEPARAN SULFATE and FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR 2B.Desmoplakins: Desmoplakins are cytoskeletal linker proteins that anchor INTERMEDIATE FILAMENTS to the PLASMA MEMBRANE at DESMOSOMES.Galactosylgalactosylglucosylceramidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of a ceramidetrihexoside to a ceramidedihexoside plus galactose.9,10-Dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene: 7,12-Dimethylbenzanthracene. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon found in tobacco smoke that is a potent carcinogen.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 2: Member of the serpin family of proteins. It inhibits both the tissue-type and urokinase-type plasminogen activators.Dermatitis, Allergic Contact: A contact dermatitis due to allergic sensitization to various substances. These substances subsequently produce inflammatory reactions in the skin of those who have acquired hypersensitivity to them as a result of prior exposure.Interleukin-1alpha: An interleukin-1 subtype that occurs as a membrane-bound pro-protein form that is cleaved by proteases to form a secreted mature form. Unlike INTERLEUKIN-1BETA both membrane-bound and secreted forms of interleukin-1alpha are biologically active.Cornified Envelope Proline-Rich Proteins: A family of low molcular-weight proteins that contain PROLINE-RICH PROTEIN DOMAINS. Members of this family play a role in the formation of an insoluble cornified envelope beneath the plasma membrane of stratified squamous epithelial cells.Carcinoma, Squamous Cell: A carcinoma derived from stratified SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. It may also occur in sites where glandular or columnar epithelium is normally present. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Mustard Gas: Severe irritant and vesicant of skin, eyes, and lungs. It may cause blindness and lethal lung edema and was formerly used as a war gas. The substance has been proposed as a cytostatic and for treatment of psoriasis. It has been listed as a known carcinogen in the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP-85-002, 1985) (Merck, 11th ed).Integrin alpha6: An integrin alpha subunit that primarily associates with INTEGRIN BETA1 or INTEGRIN BETA4 to form laminin-binding heterodimers. Integrin alpha6 has two alternatively spliced isoforms: integrin alpha6A and integrin alpha6B, which differ in their cytoplasmic domains and are regulated in a tissue-specific and developmental stage-specific manner.Toll-Like Receptor 5: A pattern recognition receptor that binds FLAGELLIN. It mediates cellular responses to certain bacterial pathogens.Cell Communication: Any of several ways in which living cells of an organism communicate with one another, whether by direct contact between cells or by means of chemical signals carried by neurotransmitter substances, hormones, and cyclic AMP.Epidermal Growth Factor: A 6-kDa polypeptide growth factor initially discovered in mouse submaxillary glands. Human epidermal growth factor was originally isolated from urine based on its ability to inhibit gastric secretion and called urogastrone. Epidermal growth factor exerts a wide variety of biological effects including the promotion of proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal and EPITHELIAL CELLS. It is synthesized as a transmembrane protein which can be cleaved to release a soluble active form.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Cell Transformation, Neoplastic: Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.Carcinogens: Substances that increase the risk of NEOPLASMS in humans or animals. Both genotoxic chemicals, which affect DNA directly, and nongenotoxic chemicals, which induce neoplasms by other mechanism, are included.Retinoids: A group of tetraterpenes, with four terpene units joined head-to-tail. Biologically active members of this class are used clinically in the treatment of severe cystic ACNE; PSORIASIS; and other disorders of keratinization.
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... induced growth inhibition of human epidermal keratinocytes". The Journal of Cell Biology. 163 (4): 825-35. doi:10.1083/jcb. ... Nucleolin is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NCL gene. The human NCL gene is located on chromosome 2 and consists of ... Connection between cell surface signaling and nucleus in PC12 cells". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 272 (49): 31130-7. ... "Interaction of protein phosphatase 1 delta with nucleolin in human osteoblastic cells". The Journal of Histochemistry and ...
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9-HODE induces cultured normal human epidermal keratinocytes to stop growing by inhibiting their cell cycle at the G1 stage; it ... in HL-60 human leukemic cells. The mouse G2A receptor, encoded by Gpr132, has 67% amino acid identity to human G2A but does not ... movement from the cell interior to the cell surface and/or by preventing its movement away from the cell surface to the cell ... by transfecting the cells with the human oncogene (i.e., cancer causing) BCR-ABL or by treating the cells with DNA damaging ...
"Microsequences of 145 proteins recorded in the two-dimensional gel protein database of normal human epidermal keratinocytes". ... UPS proteolysis plays a major role in responses of cancer cells to stimulatory signals that are critical for the development of ... Madani N, Kabat D (December 1998). "An endogenous inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus in human lymphocytes is overcome by ... The human protein proteasome subunit alpha type-5 is 26.5 kDa in size and composed of 241 amino acids. The calculated ...
"Microsequences of 145 proteins recorded in the two-dimensional gel protein database of normal human epidermal keratinocytes". ... 2006). "Proteomics of human umbilical vein endothelial cells applied to etoposide-induced apoptosis". Proteomics. 5 (15): 3876- ... "Assignment of the human alpha-tropomyosin gene TPM4 to band 19p13.1 by fluorescence in situ hybridization". Cytogenet Cell ... Cell. Biol. 24 (20): 9176-85. doi:10.1128/MCB.24.20.9176-9185.2004. PMC 517884 . PMID 15456888. Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold ...
"Microsequences of 145 proteins recorded in the two-dimensional gel protein database of normal human epidermal keratinocytes". ... International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology. International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology. 292: 197-280. doi: ... This association prepares the MHC class I for binding an antigen for presentation on the cell surface. ATP and calcium ions are ... Tjoelker LW, Seyfried CE, Eddy RL, Byers MG, Shows TB, Calderon J, Schreiber RB, Gray PW (Mar 1994). "Human, mouse, and rat ...
"A functional screen for genes inducing epidermal growth factor autonomy of human mammary epithelial cells confirms the role of ... 1991). "A heparin sulfate-regulated human keratinocyte autocrine factor is similar or identical to amphiregulin". Molecular and ... "Production of epidermal growth factor related ligands in tumorigenic and benign human lung epithelial cells". Cancer Letters. ... 1993). "Colorectum cell-derived growth factor (CRDGF) is homologous to amphiregulin, a member of the epidermal growth factor ...
"Stimulation of DNA synthesis and cell proliferation of human mammary myoepithelial-like cells by hepatocyte growth factor/ ... Ware LB, Matthay MA (May 2002). "Keratinocyte and hepatocyte growth factors in the lung: roles in lung development, ... Epidermal growth factor. *Insulin-like growth factor 1. *Epithelial-mesenchymal transition. *Madin-Darby Canine Kidney Cells ... It is secreted by mesenchymal cells and targets and acts primarily upon epithelial cells and endothelial cells, but also acts ...
Gene expression analysis of human epidermal keratinocytes after N-acetyl L-cysteine treatment demonstrates cell cycle arrest ... we performed global gene expression analysis of normal human epidermal keratinocytes in a time series. Methods: Treated samples ... Normal keratinocytes and colon cancer cells were treated with the antioxidant N-acetyl L-cysteine (NAC) in a time series and ... Cell cycle, Gene expression, Keratinocytes, Microarray; N-acetyl L-cysteine, NHEK, Real-time, RT-PCR National Category ...
Human keratinocytes and keratinocyte cell cultures express VR1. A, RNA isolated from normal human keratinocytes (NHK) and a ... 2002) that human keratinocytes express VR1 and establish that the human keratinocyte cell line HaCaT similarly expresses VR1. ... In this study, we report that human keratinocytes and a human keratinocyte cell line, HaCaT, express VR1. Furthermore, ... HaCaT cells (human keratinocyte cell line) were loaded with 5 μM of the calcium indicator Fura-2/AM for 60 min before the ...
In this study, we added melanin directly to the culture of human epidermal keratinocytes and the uptake of melanin was found to ... Inhibited Ki-67 expression in melanin-containing keratinocyte was also found in human lentigo tissue. The cell cycle arrested ... Melanin uptake by keratinocytes inhibited cell proliferation as demonstrated both by the decrease of cell number and nuclear Ki ... The uptaken melanin accumulated perinuclearly in keratinocytes that is similar to the pattern observed in human solar lentigo ...
Melanoma cells influence the differentiation pattern of human epidermal keratinocytes ... Melanoma cells influence the differentiation pattern of human epidermal keratinocytes. By adavv321 on January 5, 2015. ... ETV2 expression increases the efficiency of primitive endothelial cell derivation from human embryonic stem cells ...
... and exposed the cells to two different sources of oxidants--a lipid-soluble azo-initiator of peroxyl radicals, 2,2-azobis(2,4- ... To characterize oxidative stress in phospholipids of normal human epidermal keratinocytes we metabolically labeled their ... Since viability of normal human epidermal keratinocytes was not changed either by labeling or exposure to oxidants the labeling ... To characterize oxidative stress in phospholipids of normal human epidermal keratinocytes we metabolically labeled their ...
Virus-Cell Interactions. Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Enters Human Epidermal Keratinocytes, but Not Neurons, via a pH-Dependent ... Normal keratinization in a spontaneously immortalized aneuploid human keratinocyte cell line. J. Cell Biol. 106:761-771. ... Normal adult primary human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEK; Cambrex, Walkersville, Md.) were propagated in complete keratinocyte ... Infection of neuronal cells permits HSV latency and reactivation. Human neurons proved to be distinct from keratinocytes in ...
Cell Differentiation , Cells, Cultured , Epidermis , Cell Biology , Epithelial Cells , Cell Biology , Metabolism , Gene ... Full text: Available Index: WPRIM (Western Pacific) Main subject: Stem Cells / Humans / Male / Keratinocytes / Cell ... Expression of microRNA-203 and P63 in human epidermal stem cells and keratinocytes / 中华烧伤杂志 ... Expression of microRNA-203 and P63 in human epidermal stem cells and keratinocytes ...
Human Epidermal Keratinocytes, Neonatal , 5x10^5 cells MilliporeSigma. Human Epidermal Keratinocyte, Epidermal Keratinocyte, ... Synonym(s): B-CELL LINEAGE-SPECIFIC ACTIVATOR PROTEIN; BSAP; PAIRED DOMAIN GENE 5; paired box gene 5 (B-cell lineage specific ... Synonym(s): Anti-B-cell translocation gene 4; Anti-MGC33003; Anti-PC3B Storage: −20°C ... Synonym(s): Anti-B-cell receptor-associated protein 29; Anti-BAP29 Storage: −20°C ...
Primary stromal cells are derived from bone marrow mononuclear cells expanded in MesenCult™ or MesenCult™-ACF Culture Media and ... Stem cells (Dayton, Ohio) 2017 JAN Reprogramming Postnatal Human Epidermal Keratinocytes Toward Functional Neural Crest Fates. ... human bone marrow cells,stromal cells,bone marrow stromal cells,mesenchymal stem cells,mesenchymal progenitor cells,frozen bone ... Human primary stromal cells (mesenchymal stem and progenitor cells) are produced by expanding bone marrow mononuclear cells ( ...
Primary Epidermal Keratinocytes; Normal, Human, Neonatal Foreskin. ATCC® PCS-200-010™. More Info ... Primary Cell Solutions®, a standardized cell culture system that includes high quality cells, media, supplements, reagents, and ... Human Primary Cell Selection Guide. ATCC offers a solution to help investigators overcome the high cost and inconsistency found ... Keratinocyte Melanocyte Endothelial Hematopoietic stem Mesenchymal stem Epithelial Cells Fibroblast Myocyte Epithelial Primary ...
Normal Human Epidermal Keratinocyte Cell Culture in phase contrast.. Figure 1. Normal Human Epidermal Keratinocyte Cell Culture ... Normal Human Epidermal Keratinocytes (NHEK). Primary Human Keratinocytes isolated from the epidermis of juvenile foreskin or ... Effects of human mesenchymal stem cells coculture on calcium-induced differentiation of normal human keratinocytes ... Yes, you can use accutase to detach Normal Human Cells. Accutase acts very gently on the cells. Cell membranes and surface ...
Expression of p63 by human epidermal stem and TA cells. (A) Cultured epidermal sheets prepared from primary keratinocytes were ... Expression of p63 by Stem and TA Cells of Epidermal Cultures.. In the epidermis, stem cells and TA cells are not segregated as ... but not by TA cells covering the corneal surface. Human keratinocyte stem and TA cells when isolated in culture give rise to ... cells that terminally differentiate after a discrete number of cell divisions (4). In vivo, keratinocyte stem cells are usually ...
... immortalization of human epidermal keratinocytes has been generally considered to have a massive impact on their ... HaCaT Cell Human Keratinocytes Normal Keratinocytes Human Epidermal Cell Human Keratinocyte Cell Line These keywords were added ... Banks-Schlegel SP, Howley PM (1983) Differentiation of human epidermal cells transformed by SV40. J Cell Biol 96: 330-337PubMed ... 1991) Human Keratinocyte Cell Lines. In: Wilson G., Davis S.S., Illum L., Zweibaum A. (eds) Pharmaceutical Applications of Cell ...
Our Primary Human Keratinocyte cell cultures are optimized to synthesize keratinocyte cells, the predominant cell type in the ... Phase contrast images of Human Epidermal Keratinocytes (HEKa) grown in culture HEKa cells grown in EpiLife (M-EPI-500-CA) with ... Our Primary Human Keratinocyte Cell Cultures are optimized to synthesize keratinocyte cells, the predominant cell type in the ... Primary Human Keratinocyte Cells adult (HEKa). Primary Human Keratinocyte Cells neonatal (HEKn) ...
Isolation and Cultivation of Adult Human Keratinocyte Stem Cells for Regeneration of Epidermal Sheets ... Isolation and Cultivation of Adult Human Keratinocyte Stem Cells for Regeneration of Epidermal Sheets. International Journal of ... scquamous cells and 2-3 layers of keratinized cells. Conclusion: Culture of keratinocyte stem cells could result in multilayer ... Background: Keratinocyte stem cell is one of the adult stem cells that inhabits the skin and contributes to skin function and ...
... phenotypic similarity of thymic epithelial cells to epidermal , keratinocytes. , , , Thank you, , , , Teresa , , , Teresa C. ... In fact, some human molecules , function in yeast and vice versa. , I would like to pin-down whether or not the human STE2 ... au: Patel et al , so: Journal of Clinical Immunology 15.2.80-92 1995 , ti: Characterization of human thymic epithelial cell ... described as occurring in the human thymic epithelium. Otherwise, all the , other STE2 and STE3 studies refer to cell-surface ...
... that induced both proliferative and migratory effects on a human epidermal keratinocyte cell line. Major royal jelly proteins ( ... of royal jelly were fractionated and investigated for the proliferative and migratory effects on human epidermal keratinocytes ... It exerted the greatest effects on the growth of HaCaT cells in the first 48 h. Furthermore, when treated with this protein ... stimulated proliferative and migratory activities in HaCaT cells without visible cytotoxicity. ...
Genomics Of Gene Regulation In Progenitor To Differentiated Keratinocytes. Differentiation of epidermal cells, primary human ... Maturation in response to pathogens, cultured human dendritic cells. Timothy Reddy, Ph.D.. Duke University. Decoding And ... Response to corticosteroids, cultured human cell line. Michael Snyder, Ph.D.. Stanford University. ... Rules Of Gene Expression Modeled On Human Dendritic Cell Response To Pathogens. ...
Human Epidermal Keratinocytes (Neonatal)*. √. Human Placental Epithelial Cells*. √. Transfected Cells. hERG-T-REx™ 293 Division ... Mimic the cell attachment motifs of native ECM proteins, promoting optimal cell binding and signaling in a broad range of serum ... Mimic the cell attachment motifs of native ECM proteins, promoting optimal cell binding and signaling in a broad range of serum ... Support Cell Attachment and Differentiation Improve the study of brain function and metabolism by culturing neural cells using ...
... which normal human cells are invariably exposed to during their growth cycle. We have studied human skin cells i.e. fibroblasts ... UVB radiation affects the mobility of epidermal growth factor receptors in human keratinocytes and fibroblasts. Lirvall, ... We found that human keratinocytes display a higher basal level of EGF-R mobility than human skin fibroblasts, viz, with ... in cultured human keratinocytes and human foreskin fibroblasts, b) to investigate effects of ultraviolet B radiation on the ...
2D, 3D, and 1D fibrillar migration of human epidermal keratinocytes. 2D matrices were constructed ... ... Topographical regulation of keratinocyte migration. 2D, 3D, and 1D fibrillar migration of human epidermal keratinocytes. 2D ... Andrew D. Doyle, Francis W. Wang, Kazue Matsumoto, Kenneth M. Yamada (2011) CIL:13160, Homo sapiens, keratinocyte, epidermal ... Cell Type. keratinocyte epidermal cell Cellular Component. cell Biological Context Biological Process. cell migration substrate ...
Contact our cell biology experts about custom preparation of primary cells, media, supplements and custom tools to address your ... Invitrogen has expanded its offerings for primary cell and contract research needs. ... Human Epidermal Keratinocytes HEM. Melanocytes. HDF. Human Dermal Fibroblasts. HMVEC. Microvascular Endothelial Cells. ... Primary Cell and Contract Research We provide custom cell offerings in addition to our standard primary cell and media systems. ...
Culture of human keratinocytes on feeders. cDNA and qRT-PCR set-up. Gene delivery and gene knockdown in epidermal cells ... Isolation of human keratinocytes and plating of feeder cells. Isolation of mouse keratinocytes. RNA isolation from ... isolation of human and mouse primary keratinocytes and melanocytes. *keratinocyte culture and keratinocyte/fibroblast co- ... RNA isolation from human and mouse primary keratinocytes, from freshly isolated epidermis, and cells of interest from fixed ...
In Epithelial Cell Culture Protocols, a team of well-versed experimenters and cli ... Many powerful new techniques for the isolation and culture of epithelial cells have been developed in the past decade. ... Isolation, Cultivation, and Differentiation of Normal Human Epidermal Keratinocytes in Serum-Free Medium ... Co-Culture and Crosstalk between Endothelial Cells and Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells Mediated by Intracellular Calcium ...
Journal Article] Eccrine sweat contains IL-1α, IL-1β and IL-31 and activates epidermal keratinocytes as a danger signal.2013. * ... Journal Article] Eccrine sweat contains IL- 1α, IL-1β and IL-31 and activates epidermal keratinocytes as a danger signal2013. * ... Presentation] Autophagy is induced by differenciation in epidermal keratinocytes2012. *. Author(s). Dai X, Okazaki H ... Presentation] Autophagy is an innate immune system of epidermal keratinocytes2012. *. Author(s). Okazaki H ...
  • 2011) Involvement of Pigment Globules Containing Multiple Melanosomes in the Transfer of Melanosomes from Melanocytes to Keratinocytes. (
  • Also in the basal layer few melanocytes with melanin pigments in the cells cytoplasm were found.The 20-day old cultured epithelium had 8-10 layers consisting of small and round basal cells, scquamous cells and 2-3 layers of keratinized cells. (
  • Normal Human Dermal Fibroblasts (NHDF) and Normal Human Epidermal Melanocytes (NHEM) cultured in M2 medium from the same donor are available on request. (
  • Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is a potent mitogen for hepatocytes and a variety of other cells, including endothelial and epithelial cells, melanocytes, and keratinocytes. (
  • Results presented here show that BMP-4 down-regulated the protein levels of TRP-1, PKC- , and MCI-R. When paired cultures of human melanocytes were treated with vehicle or BMP-4 (25 ng/ml), MAPK/ERK were phosphorylated within one hour of BMP-4 treatment. (
  • Recently, it was reported that BMP-4, a member of the TGF- superfamily (reviewed in [ 17 ]), negatively modulates melanogenesis in part by reducing the level of tyrosinase expression in cultured human melanocytes [ 18 ]. (
  • Depolarization of embryonic cells by misexpression of KCNE1 non-cell-autonomously induced melanocytes to overproliferate, spread out, and become highly invasive of blood vessels , liver , gut , and neural tube , leading to a deeply hyperpigmented phenotype. (
  • In Epithelial Cell Culture Protocols, a team of well-versed experimenters and clinical researchers share their best methods for establishing and maintaining epithelial cell cultures, for analyzing and studying their characteristics, and for using them to set up models of critical biological systems. (
  • Wide-ranging and highly practical, Epithelial Cell Culture Protocols offers both novices and expert investigators alike a step-by-step guide toward a deeper understanding of cellular and molecular mechanisms in general, as well as a set of robust techniques for specifically evaluating the nature and behavior of epithelial cells. (
  • The biological activity is measured by its ability to stimulate 3H-thymidine incorporation in the HGF responsive monkey epithelial cell line, 4MBr-5. (
  • Metaanalysis comparison with the EGF effects in other cell types identified extensive similarities between responses in keratinocytes and in other epithelial cell types, but specific differences with the EGF effects in endothelial cells, and in transformed, oncogenic epithelial cell lines. (
  • Lack of epithelial cell migration is a hallmark of nonhealing wounds, and diabetes often involves endothelial dysfunction. (
  • We previously addressed the putative functions of Rac1 and Cdc42 during the HSV-1 entry process in the well-studied epithelial cell line MDCKII ( 22 ). (
  • The lab is also involved in understanding the factors that regulate stem cell engraftment to improve epithelial cell therapy. (
  • We have established a spontaneously transformed human epithelial cell line from adult skin, which maintains full epidermal differentiation capacity. (
  • Thus, HaCaT is the first permanent epithelial cell line from adult human skin that exhibits normal differentiation and provides a promising tool for studying regulation of keratinization in human cells. (
  • The cellular pathways by which acute keratinocyte damage induces production and release of inflammatory mediators from epidermal cells are largely unresolved, but may involve calcium signaling. (
  • Thus, HSV utilizes fundamentally different cellular entry pathways to infect important target cell populations. (
  • Viral entry into this broad array of host cell types may be facilitated by multiple cellular pathways. (
  • These cells divide to give rise to transient amplifying cells which may continue to multiplicate or activate differentiation pathways. (
  • According to specific signaling, these cells can activate differentiation pathways, acquiring morphological, generic and protein expression changes in the upper epidermal layers changing their location and reaching specific function in differentiation. (
  • ATP generation in aerobic cells is divided between two main pathways: anaerobic glycolysis and mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. (
  • We also identified the genes and pathways suppressed by EGF but induced by agents promoting epidermal differentiation. (
  • Our results suggest that HSV-1 infection of keratinocytes does not depend on pathways involving Rac1 and Cdc42 and that constitutively active Rac1 and Cdc42 have the potential to interfere with HSV-1 infectivity. (
  • In vivo , keratinocyte stem cells are usually slow-cycling and retain labeled DNA precursors, whereas TA cells divide rapidly and dilute their label quickly ( 4 - 8 ). (
  • The great proliferative potential of holoclones ( 9 - 12 ), the capacity of a single holoclone to generate a mature epithelium in vivo ( 13 ) and to differentiate into distinct cellular lineages ( 11 ), and the permanent epithelial regeneration achieved in burn victims by means of grafts of autologous cultured keratinocytes ( 14 - 16 ), provide compelling evidence that keratinocyte "stem-ness" can be preserved in culture. (
  • The derived cell clones could be classified according to their growth properties in vivo into one (1) non-tumorigenic (growing as surface epithelia) and two tumorigenic groups, forming either (2) benign cysts or (3) well-differentiated squamous cell carcinomas. (
  • Changes in mitochondrial regulation might also be driven by genetic developmental programmes, reflecting the typical energy requirements of these cell types in vivo as opposed to the energy requirements in culture. (
  • By altering miR-203's spatiotemporal expression in vivo, we show that miR-203 promotes epidermal differentiation by restricting proliferative potential and inducing cell-cycle exit. (
  • We then quantitatively evaluated both populations using a previously described in vivo human epidermal cyst formation assay. (
  • In addition, a small synthetic peptide Zfra (zinc finger-like protein that regulates apoptosis) binds membrane HYAL-2 of non-T/non-B spleen HYAL-2 + CD3 − CD19 − Z lymphocytes and activates the cells to generate memory anticancer response against many types of cancer cells in vivo . (
  • Keratinocytes of the skin or mucosa are the primary entry portals for herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) in vivo. (
  • Finally, we show that SCC cells deficient in RacGAP1 grow slower and are sensitized to the cytotoxic actions of doxorubicin in vivo . (
  • Analysis of membrane potential in vivo using DiSBAC voltage reporter dye reveals that KCNE1 mRNA expression depolarizes cells in the neurulating embryo. (
  • After demonstrating that N-terminal truncation of the chemokine CCL11/eotaxin by DPPIV results in a loss of CCR3-mediated intracellular calcium mobilization and CCR3 internalization in human eosinophils, we focused on the in vivo role of CCL11 and provide direct evidence for specific kinetic and rate-determining effects by DPPIV-like enzymatic activity on CCL11-mediated responses of eosinophils. (
  • Clonal evolution (i.e., generation of TA cells from precursor stem cells) is promoted by the sigma isoform of the 14-3-3 family of proteins. (
  • A protein fraction, mainly containing major royal jelly proteins 2 (MRJP2), MRJP3 and MRJP7, stimulated proliferative and migratory activities in HaCaT cells without visible cytotoxicity. (
  • We fractionated the water-soluble proteins of royal jelly and identified one fraction (Fraction 2) that induced both proliferative and migratory effects on a human epidermal keratinocyte cell line. (
  • Magnetic cell sorting (MACS) is a method of enriching a heterogeneous cell mixture, by means of proteins or cell surface antigens, by MACS that is based on cell passage by magnetic column, or by the separation system (SEP system), in which a tube of labeled cells is placed in a magnetic field, and positive cells are retained in the tube while the negative cells are transfered to the suspension liquid. (
  • Squamous cell differentiation is a multistep process that is followed by the expression of many squamous cell-specific genes for proteins such as keratin 1, involucrin, and cornifin. (
  • Aquaporins (AQPs) are integral membrane proteins that form pores in the membrane of biological cells. (
  • Corneocytes, which are the cells in the stratum corneum, contain extensively cross-linked proteins, surrounded by a highly resistant cell envelope. (
  • In contrast to all other human endogenous retroviruses, some HERV-K proviruses have maintained open reading frames for all viral proteins. (
  • Viral proteins were shown to be expressed in primary melanomas, metastases, and melanoma cell lines by immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, and Western blot analyses using specific antisera. (
  • The human endogenous retrovirus K family (HERV-K) consists of 30 to 50 proviruses and is to date the only known human endogenous provirus that has retained open reading frames for all viral proteins ( 2 , 3 ). (
  • Rice RH, Steinmann KE, deGraffenried LA, Qin Q, Taylor N, Schlegel R (1993) Elevation of cell cycle control proteins during spontaneous immortalization of human keratinocytes. (
  • These organ specific autoimmune skin diseases have been linked to antibodies directed against specific proteins found in human skin. (
  • Mature human IFN-beta shares 47% and 46% amino acid sequence identity with the mouse and rat proteins, respectively. (
  • When bound to GTP, the Rho proteins can activate various downstream effectors, thereby stimulating diverse biological responses, such as actin dynamics, cell cycle progression, cell adhesion, and gene transcription ( 5 ). (
  • He has published a number of high impact papers on the role of small GTP-binding proteins in control of cell function and, more recently, on the role of membrane tyrosine phosphatases in control of cell adhesion and migration. (
  • Signalling through adhesion receptors such as integrins and cadherins plays a key role in regulating epidermal function and the Rho family of small GTP-binding proteins play a central role in regulating these adhesion-dependent signaling events. (
  • A promiscuous biotin ligase fusion protein identifies proximal and interacting proteins in mammalian cells. (
  • Association of human papillomavirus types 16 and 18 E6 proteins with p53. (
  • 500,000 cells), 500 ml growth medium, a Subculture Reagent Kit (including 100 ml each of Hank's Buffered Saline Solution, trypsin/EDTA, and trypsin neutralizing solution). (
  • Treatment with the isoflavone genistein, an inhibitor of protein tyrosine kinases, reduced the delivery of incoming viral particles to the nuclear periphery and virus-induced gene expression in keratinocytes but not neurons. (
  • These findings indicate the importance of these cells for clinical applications including regenerative medicine, tissue engineering and gene therapy. (
  • As set out in the RFA, individual projects collect genomic data on gene expression, as well as surrogate markers of regulatory elements, in different cell fates or cell states. (
  • They use the gene expression and functional element data to construct gene regulatory network models, taking advantage of the dynamics of the system as the cells transition from one physiologic state to another. (
  • GGR projects are designed to advance genomic science towards the long-term goal of NHGRI research in this area, which is to be able to predict, just by reading DNA sequence, when and at what level a gene is expressed, in the context of a particular cell fate/state. (
  • Assessment of gene delivery efficiency and purification of genetically-modified cells by cell sorting. (
  • Although the existence of a set of universal markers for stem cells 4 is in quarrel, the most used in the literature are CD34, CD44, AC133, Keratin15, and gene expression of ABCG2, p63 and BMI1. (
  • NHEKs were induced to differentiate by increasing the concentration of Ca 2+ , during which they executed a gene expression program bearing similarity to that of suprabasally located keratinocytes. (
  • Zinc finger protein SNAI2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SNAI2 gene. (
  • A bias towards ATP supply from oxidative phosphorylation in hESCs is consistent with the expression levels of the mitochondrial gene regulators peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator (PGC)-1α, PGC-1β and receptor-interacting protein 140 (RIP140) in hESCs when compared with a panel of differentiated cell types. (
  • TM2 domain containing 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TM2D1 gene. (
  • Therefore, we examined the effects of transferring the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21 sdi1 gene into human esophageal cancer cell lines as well as normal keratinocytes using an adenovirus vector system. (
  • Single-cell global gene expression profiling showed that undifferentiated cells fell into two clusters delineated by expression of DLL1 and its binding partner syntenin. (
  • Over the next few days or weeks it undergoes a well-defined series of changes in gene expression and cell morphology as it moves through first the spinous layer and then the granular layer towards the surface of the tissue. (
  • Publications] Teruaki Kobayashi Koji Hashimoto Kunihiko Yoshikawa: 'Growth Inhibition of Human Keratinocytes by 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D_3 is Linked to Dephosphorylation of Retinoblastoma Gene Product. (
  • Gene ontology enrichment and Ingenuity analyses identified cellular migration and closely related biological processes to be the most significant functions of the genes highly expressed in the TM keratinocytes. (
  • The genes of low expression showed a marked difference in homeobox (HOX) genes of clusters A and C, giving the TM keratinocytes a strikingly low HOX gene expression profile. (
  • Differential Gene Expression During Capillary Morphogenesis in 3D Collagen Matrices:" J. Cell. (
  • We have recently shown that macrophage-stimulating protein (MSP) promotes the invasion of recepteur d'origine nantais (RON), a tyrosine kinase receptor-positive MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-468 breast cancer cells, and also identified the regulatory elements required for RON gene expression. (
  • Treatment of MDA-MB-231 cells with pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate, an inhibitor of p65, or small interfering RNA knockdown of p65, blocked RON gene expression and MSP-mediated invasion of MDA-MB-231 cells. (
  • This is the first report showing the regulation of human RON gene expression by nuclear factor-κB and suggests a potential therapeutic role for curcumin in blocking RON tyrosine kinase-mediated invasion of carcinoma cells. (
  • The human recepteur d'origine nantais ( RON ) gene encodes a receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) of 1,400 amino acids that belong to the MET gene family. (
  • We have recently shown that the RON ligand, MSP, promotes the invasive phenotype of MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-468 breast cancer cells, and also identified the regulatory elements that are required for basal RON promoter activity and RON gene expression ( 24 ). (
  • Cell & Gene Therapy Insights: 521-551. (
  • The uptaken melanin accumulated perinuclearly in keratinocytes that is similar to the pattern observed in human solar lentigo tissue by microscopic examination. (
  • Inhibited Ki-67 expression in melanin-containing keratinocyte was also found in human lentigo tissue. (
  • Cell and Tissue Research, 314, 381-388. (
  • Select an organ/tissue area and then view the associated product listings along with its cell type and the ATCC product number. (
  • Choose our family of chemically-defined, animal-free enhanced tissue culture surfaces , which alter the surface charge of vessels to improve attachment and growth of difficult-to-culture cell types. (
  • Although the description makes specific reference to human disc cells, the invention may be used as a way to provide disease-free disc tissue derived from animal sources, and is applicable as well to other types of biologic tissues and materials such pancreas cells, cartilage cells, and so forth. (
  • Additional therapeutic substances like culture medium, growth factors, differentiation factors, hydrogels polymers, antibiotics, anti-inflammatory medications, or immunosuppressive medications could be added to the transplanted cells or tissue. (
  • 2. The method of claim 1 , further including the step of adding one or more therapeutic substances to the harvested cells or tissue. (
  • Inflammation protects organisms against pathogenic invaders and cleans up damaged cells after injury to prevent further tissue damage. (
  • The transcriptome changes caused by EGF have not been extensively explored in its eponymous tissue, although EGF is very important in the healthy epidermal homeostasis and in several diseases[ 10 ]. (
  • PURPOSE: Human amniotic fluid comprises cells with high differentiation capacity, thus representing a potential cell source for skin tissue engineering. (
  • Our laboratory has had long-standing thematic interests in the cell-type and tissue-type specific actions of certain oncogenes (cyclin D1, EGFR) and tumor suppressor genes (p53, p120 catenin) in modulating the initiation, progression and invasion of gastrointestinal cancers, especially upper GI, pancreatic and colon. (
  • However, the involvement of specific regulatory and effector molecules important in Ras function, depends on cellular setting and tissue type, and the factors important in epidermal Ras signaling are not clearly defined. (
  • In general, we advise purchasing the recombinant protein with BSA for use in cell or tissue culture, or as an ELISA standard. (
  • The notion that the ability to regenerate functional epidermal tissue is an exclusive property of epidermal stem cells is a general assumption in the stem cell biology field. (
  • Lamellar granules are organelles found in the terminally differentiating cells of keratinizing epithelia, and desmosomes are intercellular junctions in vertebrate epithelial cells, thus indicating that N -glycosylation of tissue-specific glycoproteins may contribute to increase the relative proportion of high mannose glycans. (
  • Despite the altered and unlimited growth potential, HaCaT cells, similar to normal keratinocytes, reform an orderly structured and differentiated epidermal tissue when transplanted onto nude mice. (
  • Although VR1 has been localized only on sensory neurons and within the central nervous system, recent evidence suggests a functional VR1 is expressed in human skin and epidermal cells. (
  • Microarray analysis, RT/real-time PCR and western blot demonstrated the inhibited expression of DKK1, a protein known to reduce skin pigmentation, in melanin-uptaken keratinocytes. (
  • 2010) Melanin Transfer in Human Skin Cells Is Mediated by Filopodia-A Model for Homotypic and Heterotypic Lysosome-Related Organelle Transfer. (
  • Epidermal keratinocytes were obtained from skin biopsies of healthy donors and cultivated on a feeder-layer of lethally irradiated 3T3-J2 cells as described ( 16 ). (
  • Bosca AR, Tinois E, Faure M, Kanitakis J, Roche P, Thivolet J (1988) Epithelial differentiation of human skin equivalents after grafting onto nude mice. (
  • Boukamp P, Tilgen W, Dzarlieva RT, Breitkreutz D, Haag D, Riehl RK, Bohnert A, Fusenig NE (1982) Phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of a cell line from a squamous cell carcinoma of human skin. (
  • Results: In our experience from 1 cm2 of skin sample, 2,5- 4×106 cells were obtained. (
  • Several protocols cover the culturing of epithelial cells and their use in treating patients with burns and other skin disorders. (
  • UV irradiation has recently been shown to deplete antioxidant enzymes in human skin. (
  • To try to reconcile these into an easily visualized 3D model of wound healing amenable for experimentation by cell biologists, a multiscale model of the formation of a 3D skin epithelium was established with TGF-beta 1 literature-derived rule sets and equations embedded within it. (
  • Expression of cathepsins K, S and V within keratinocytes is reduced in photoprotected skin of aged women. (
  • Regional skin barrier variation is produced by site-dependent epidermal differentiation from common keratinocyte precursors and often manifests as site-specific skin disease or irritation. (
  • These progenitors exit the cell cycle as they enter the suprabasal compartment, where they undergo a series of differentiation steps, ultimately forming the dead cornified layer at the surface of the skin. (
  • Furthermore, studies employing cell-sorted skin equivalents in SCID/NOD mice demonstrated enhanced transepidermal water loss following s.c. administration of IL-31. (
  • Together, these findings demonstrate that IL-31 affects keratinocyte differentiation in multiple ways and that the IL-1 cytokine network is a major downstream effector of IL-31 signaling in deregulating the physical skin barrier. (
  • The skin is the largest organ of the human body and forms an indispensable barrier to protect against penetration by environmental pathogens, allergens, or irritants. (
  • Human Epidermal Keratinocytes (HEK) perform a barrier function in the skin and mouth, protecting against invasion of bacteria and foreign particles. (
  • HEK has been used in numerous applications, including investigations of human epidermal development, differentiation, and cellular aspects of skin diseases. (
  • Such conformable OLEDs can be more effective in terms of therapeutic effects because they can efficiently transmit light to the skin since they are located close to the human body. (
  • LVMH Recherche-Parfums et Cosmétiques and Chesebrough-Ponds are two personal care companies with patent histories in raw materials and cosmetic compositions for regulating skin cell growth. (
  • Also, according to this 1997 patent, these compositions enable the restoration of normal keratinocyte differentiation, and therefore could be intended for the treatment of psoriatric skin. (
  • Epidermal differentiation is important for providing the essential function of the skin, namely to provide a protective barrier against the outside environment and to prevent loss of water from the body. (
  • Chesebrough-Ponds returned to this theme in 2001 with the observation that agents that increase the thickness of the dermal layer and increase the differentiation of keratinocytes in the epidermal layer should be ideal compounds for providing skin conditioning and antiaging benefits. (
  • Researchers at the University of California Davis have developed 3 epidermal cell lines from one human skin sample. (
  • Keratinocytes from normal human skin were cultured until they spontaneously formed immortalized keratinocytes. (
  • Concerning to TGF-beta, we identified the localization of TGF-beta isoforms in the human skin. (
  • CONCLUSION: Dermo-epidermal skin grafts with amniocytes show near-normal physiological behavior suggesting that amniocytes substitute fibroblast function to support the essential cross-talk between mesenchyme and epithelia needed for epidermal stratification. (
  • Pemphigus foliaceus is a skin disease in which antibodies against the cell surface of keratinocytes destroy the adhesion between epidermal cells, thereby producing blisters. (
  • Skin grafts using human cultured epidermal cells have been successful in treating patients with severe skin wounds. (
  • Therefore it is well accepted that the extensive regenerative capacity of the skin is most likely attributed to the activity of epidermal stem cells. (
  • It may be possible to harness the vast proliferative potential of readily available and accessible keratinocyte progenitors of the skin for cellular therapies, thereby removing the need for difficult and limited stem cell selection. (
  • pDCs were found to rapidly infiltrate both murine and human skin wounds and to transiently produce type I IFNs via TLR7- and TLR9-dependent recognition of nucleic acids. (
  • a chronic inflammatory disease of the skin mediated by autoimmune T cells. (
  • These pDCs were activated to produce IFN-α/β through TLR7 and TLR9, indicating that they recognize self-nucleic acids released by damaged cells in skin wounds. (
  • Current research targets the role of small microenvironmental variations on stem cell behavior, and exploring the potency of stem cells of stratified epithelia (skin, esophagus, ocular surface) and of thymic epithelial cells. (
  • This article aims to provide an up-to-date review of the research development and clinical applications of cell therapies in burn wound healing and skin regeneration. (
  • decades, cell-based therapies have emerged as popular Globally, severe burns lead to about 180,000 deaths an- choices in conjunction with standard skin grafting tech- nually and millions of patients suffering from non-fatal niques for burn wound healing and regeneration of skin burns experiencing substantial and life-long physical and structure and functions. (
  • up-to-date review of the research development and clin- Severe burn wound is characterised by the destruction ical applications of cell therapies in severe burn wound of skin structures, functions and more importantly the healing. (
  • Until now, autologous skin grafting remains a Development of cell therapy for burn wound healing standard practice in treating severe burns. (
  • However, its Cell therapy which also called cellular therapy or effectiveness is often challenged in treating severe burn cytotherapy involves delivering an autologous or allo- patients with limited donor sites for skin graft harvest- genic cellular component into a patient to repair or re- ing. (
  • tives for autologous skin grafts including allogeneic skin, Skin as the multi-functional and protective barrier in xenografts and synthetic skin substitutes have been widely human contains essential stem cell population and vari- adopted in burn wound care [3, (
  • Re- various bio-factors to facilitate the angiogenesis and search on skin cell transplantation for wound healing granulation of wound bed for further surgery, they could was first reported by Billingham and Reynolds in 1952 never replace the skin autograft delivering the essential . (
  • However, the era of cultured cell transient-amplifying keratinocytes and migrating to- therapy for burn injuries was only opened up after wards skin surface to form multiple keratinocytes Rheinwald and Green revolutionised the cell culture layers . (
  • KSC cultivation of strains of human keratinocytes from a skin populations with more active, proliferative and regen- biopsy . (
  • support to the metabolism of human epidermal cells, thus promoting the maintenance of healthy skin. (
  • Nicotinic acid receptor abnormalities in human skin cancer: implications for a role in epidermal differentiation. (
  • Chronic UV skin exposure leads to epidermal differentiation defects in humans that can be largely restored by pharmacological doses of nicotinic acid. (
  • We have examined the expression, cellular distribution, and functionality of GPR109A/B in human skin and skin derived epidermal cells. (
  • The results of these studies justify future genetic and pharmacological intervention studies to define possible specific role(s) of nicotinic acid receptors in human skin homeostasis. (
  • Sections from normal skin (top) and basal cell carcinoma (bottom) stained for CALML3 (left) and Ki-67 (right). (
  • Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS), which uses flow cytometry, allows objective and quantitative analysis of intra- and extracellular properties, which does not consider cell morphology. (
  • The nucleus pulposus is surrounded by the annulus fibrosis, which is composed of cells (fibrocyte-like and chondrocyte-like), collagen fibers, and non-fibrillar extracellular matrix. (
  • Even though the actual number of senescent cells seems not to be very high and fluctuates between a few and a dozen percent, changes in the extracellular milieu caused by the increased production of cytokines by senescent cells, and the senescence-associated impairment of regenerative processes, can lead to spectacular organismal dysfunctions. (
  • The α-chain is extracellular, whereas the β-chain traverses the cell membrane and contains the intracellular tyrosine kinase ( 1 ). (
  • Strikingly, lesions show large clusters of extracellular acid-fast bacilli, extensive necrosis, and a relative lack of infiltrating immune cells [ 12 ]. (
  • Leptin attenuates the growth of rabbit mesenchymal stem cells via the extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling pathway. (
  • After his PhD he worked as a postdoctoral Research Fellow at the Imperial Research Cancer Research Fund (now the Cancer Research UK London Research Institute) where he first became interested in how cell adhesion to extracellular matrix regulates cell function. (
  • In addition, we identified that LAR regulates of cell adhesion to extracellular matrix via a novel pathway involving Akt and CDK1. (
  • TA keratinocytes, immediately after their withdrawal from the stem cell compartment (meroclones), have greatly reduced p63, even though they possess very appreciable proliferative capacity. (
  • The identification of p63 as a keratinocyte stem cell marker will be of practical importance for the clinical application of epithelial cultures in cell therapy as well as for studies on epithelial tumorigenesis. (
  • This phenotype could be explained by either inability of the p63 −/− ectoderm to develop into epithelial lineages ( 20 ), or by lack of stem cell character necessary to sustain epithelial morphogenesis and renewal ( 21 ). (
  • The transition from a pluripotent stem cell through progressive stages of differentiation probably involves dynamic changes in the energy demand for cellular processes, depending on the needs of the individual cell types. (
  • Notably, p63 is an essential regulator of stem-cell maintenance in stratified epithelial tissues. (
  • Clonal growth assays have been used both to identify cell surface markers that enrich for stem cells and to examine the genes that regulate exit from the stem cell compartment ( 1 , 2 ). (
  • UNLABELLED Induced pluripotent stem cell-derived human hepatocyte-like cells (iHeps) could provide a powerful tool for studying the mechanisms underlying human liver development and disease, testing the efficacy and safety of pharmaceuticals across different patients (i.e., personalized medicine), and enabling cell-based therapies in the clinic. (
  • He has also participated to the transfer of the stem cell technology from Harvard University to a spin off biotechnology company, now part of Genzyme Corp. (
  • He is a partner in several EEC stem cell consortia (FP6: Therapeuskin and EuroStemCell, FP7: EuroSyStem, OptiStem, BetaCellTherapy). (
  • Yann Barrandon was a member of the Faculty Council of the EPFL School of Life Sciences 2006-2008, of the Board of Swiss Stem Cell Network, 2004-2009, and is a member of the EPFL Ethics Committee since 2008. (
  • However, proof of emergence of CSCs induced by arsenic in a stem cell population is not available. (
  • Maitz, Peter 2018-05-28 00:00:00 Cell therapy has emerged as an important component of life-saving procedures in treating burns. (
  • The proliferative compartment of stratified squamous epithelia consists of stem and transient amplifying (TA) keratinocytes. (
  • A population of keratinocyte stem cells in defined locations governs the renewal of mammalian stratified epithelia ( 1 - 3 ). (
  • The proliferative compartment of squamous epithelia also contains a third type of cell, the meroclone ( 9 ), which is considered a "young" TA cell endowed with a greater proliferative capacity than the paraclone ( 11 ). (
  • When given to diseased mice, the engineered T cells targeted and killed B cells that express antibodies targeting desmoglein 3, hinting that such a strategy may be an effective way to treat antibody-driven autoimmune diseases. (
  • It has been demonstrated that the elimination of senescent cells significantly improves the quality of life of mice. (
  • EGF was among the first signalling molecules isolated, and was named for its capacity to accelerate epidermal differentiation and eye opening in newborn mice[ 1 ]. (
  • IFN-beta -deficient mice show increased susceptibility to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a disease model of human multiple sclerosis (MS) (9). (
  • In humans, arsenic is carcinogenic in the urogenital system (UGS), including the bladder and potentially the prostate, whereas in mice arsenic induces multiorgan UGS cancers, indicating that UGS NSCs may represent targets for carcinogenic initiation. (
  • On the other hand, these cells might maintain themselves as a mere proliferative cell, in a quiescent phase, keeping a population of undifferentiated cells that may proliferate responding to some stimuli 2 . (
  • Human bone marrow stromal cells derived in ACF medium (Catalog #70071) using the MesenCult™-ACF Culture Kit (Catalog #05449) differentiate to A) adipocytes (Oil Red O staining), B) chondrocytes (Alcian Blue and Nuclear Fast Red staining) and C) osteoblasts (Alizarin Red S staining). (
  • Initially arising within the central nervous system, NC cells subsequently undergo an epithelial to mesenchymal transition to migrate into the periphery, where they differentiate into diverse cell types. (
  • These stem cells generate transient amplifying (TA) cells that terminally differentiate after a discrete number of cell divisions ( 4 ). (
  • Maintenance of mesenchymal phenotype enables metastasis of tumor cells, though SLUG is expressed in carcinomas regardless to invasiveness. (
  • Although particle production was observed in some tumor cell lines, to date no infectious HERV-K has been described. (
  • IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-13, and transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta) that enhances protumorigenesis responses in innate immune cells and inactivate CTL cytotoxicity, thus favoring tumor promotion [ 3 ]. (
  • These biophysical signals are key physiological aspects of the microenvironment that epigenetically regulate stem and tumor cell behavior. (
  • During this period, he participated in the world's first transplantations of epidermal stem cells on extensive third degree wounds and contributed several seminal findings including the demonstration of stem cells in cultures of human keratinocytes (PNAS 1987), and that human keratinocyte stem cells could be efficiently transduced by retroviral vectors (Science 1987), in collaboration with Richard Mulligan at the Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research (Massachussets Institute of Technology, Cambridge, USA). (
  • There are several indications that regulatory interactions between the microenvironment and hematopoietic cells are determined, at least partially, by mutual recognition and adhesion, and there may be a link between the adhesive characteristics of hematopoietic cells and their maturation. (
  • Factor XIIIa Supports Microvasculat Endothelial Cell Adhesion and Inhibits Capillary Tube Formation in Fribrin" Blood 95(8):2586-2592, 2000. (
  • We hypothesized that dynamics of cell motility and adhesion contribute to the initial steps of HSV-1 infection of epithelial cells, and thus, we investigated the impact of Rac1 and Cdc42, which serve as key regulators of actin dynamics. (
  • To characterize oxidative stress in phospholipids of normal human epidermal keratinocytes we metabolically labeled their membrane phospholipids with a natural oxidation-sensitive fluorescent fatty acid, cis-parinaric acid, and exposed the cells to two different sources of oxidants--a lipid-soluble azo-initiator of peroxyl radicals, 2,2'-azobis(2,4-dimethyl-valeronitrile), AMVN, and a superoxide generator, xanthine oxidase/xanthine. (
  • We demonstrated that both oxidants induced pronounced oxidation of four major classes of cis-parinaric acid-labeled phospholipids-phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylserine, and phosphatidylinositol-in normal human epidermal keratinocytes that was not detectable as any significant change of their phospholipid composition. (
  • Since viability of normal human epidermal keratinocytes was not changed either by labeling or exposure to oxidants the labeling protocol and oxidative stress employed are compatible with the quantitative analysis of phospholipid peroxidation in viable cells. (
  • Normal Human Epidermal Keratinocyte Cell Culture in phase contrast. (
  • It is therefore, of great value to understand receptor reactions in response to ultraviolet (UV) light which certain normal human cells are invaribly exposed to during their growth cycle. (
  • It is therefore of great importance to understand growth factor receptor reactions in response to stimuli such as calcium depletion or ultraviolet radiation, which normal human cells are invariably exposed to during their growth cycle. (
  • Differentiation of the epidermal keratinocytes is the driving force for the normal desquamation process to occur, asserted the inventors at Chesebrough-Ponds. (
  • Analysis of Interleukin 6 Receptor on Normal Human Keratinocytes by Digital Imaging Fluorescence Microscopy' The Journal of Dermatology. (
  • Normal keratinization in a spontaneously immortalized aneuploid human keratinocyte cell line. (
  • Evolving theory predicts that normal stem cells (NSCs) are transformed into cancer stem cells (CSCs) that then drive oncogenesis. (
  • In normal human primary and immortalized keratinocytes, nicotinic acid receptors show plasma membrane localization and functional G(i)-mediated signaling. (
  • It was observed that the exposure to gamma radiation dose- and time-dependently caused a significant decrease in the cell viability, while the treatment of UA attenuated this cytotoxicity. (