Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Madin Darby Canine Kidney Cells: An epithelial cell line derived from a kidney of a normal adult female dog.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Cell Polarity: Orientation of intracellular structures especially with respect to the apical and basolateral domains of the plasma membrane. Polarized cells must direct proteins from the Golgi apparatus to the appropriate domain since tight junctions prevent proteins from diffusing between the two domains.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Tight Junctions: Cell-cell junctions that seal adjacent epithelial cells together, preventing the passage of most dissolved molecules from one side of the epithelial sheet to the other. (Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, p22)Epithelium: One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Influenza A virus: The type species of the genus INFLUENZAVIRUS A that causes influenza and other diseases in humans and animals. Antigenic variation occurs frequently between strains, allowing classification into subtypes and variants. Transmission is usually by aerosol (human and most non-aquatic hosts) or waterborne (ducks). Infected birds shed the virus in their saliva, nasal secretions, and feces.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Intercellular Junctions: Direct contact of a cell with a neighboring cell. Most such junctions are too small to be resolved by light microscopy, but they can be visualized by conventional or freeze-fracture electron microscopy, both of which show that the interacting CELL MEMBRANE and often the underlying CYTOPLASM and the intervening EXTRACELLULAR SPACE are highly specialized in these regions. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p792)Zonula Occludens-1 Protein: A 195-kDa zonula occludens protein that is distinguished by the presence of a ZU5 domain at the C-terminal of the molecule.Hepatocyte Growth Factor: Multifunctional growth factor which regulates both cell growth and cell motility. It exerts a strong mitogenic effect on hepatocytes and primary epithelial cells. Its receptor is PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-MET.Golgi Apparatus: A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Orthomyxoviridae: A family of RNA viruses causing INFLUENZA and other diseases. There are five recognized genera: INFLUENZAVIRUS A; INFLUENZAVIRUS B; INFLUENZAVIRUS C; ISAVIRUS; and THOGOTOVIRUS.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Endocytosis: Cellular uptake of extracellular materials within membrane-limited vacuoles or microvesicles. ENDOSOMES play a central role in endocytosis.Hemagglutinin Glycoproteins, Influenza Virus: Membrane glycoproteins from influenza viruses which are involved in hemagglutination, virus attachment, and envelope fusion. Fourteen distinct subtypes of HA glycoproteins and nine of NA glycoproteins have been identified from INFLUENZA A VIRUS; no subtypes have been identified for Influenza B or Influenza C viruses.Cadherins: Calcium-dependent cell adhesion proteins. They are important in the formation of ADHERENS JUNCTIONS between cells. Cadherins are classified by their distinct immunological and tissue specificities, either by letters (E- for epithelial, N- for neural, and P- for placental cadherins) or by numbers (cadherin-12 or N-cadherin 2 for brain-cadherin). Cadherins promote cell adhesion via a homophilic mechanism as in the construction of tissues and of the whole animal body.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Kidney Tubules, Distal: The portion of renal tubule that begins from the enlarged segment of the ascending limb of the LOOP OF HENLE. It reenters the KIDNEY CORTEX and forms the convoluted segments of the distal tubule.LLC-PK1 Cells: Epithelial cell line originally derived from porcine kidneys. It is used for pharmacologic and metabolic studies.Influenza B virus: Species of the genus INFLUENZAVIRUS B that cause HUMAN INFLUENZA and other diseases primarily in humans. Antigenic variation is less extensive than in type A viruses (INFLUENZA A VIRUS) and consequently there is no basis for distinct subtypes or variants. Epidemics are less likely than with INFLUENZA A VIRUS and there have been no pandemics. Previously only found in humans, Influenza B virus has been isolated from seals which may constitute the animal reservoir from which humans are exposed.Hemagglutinins, Viral: Specific hemagglutinin subtypes encoded by VIRUSES.Antigens, CD164: A sialomucin protein that functions as a cell adhesion molecule. It is a negative regulator of certain types of HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS.Receptors, Polymeric Immunoglobulin: Specialized Fc receptors (RECEPTORS, FC) for polymeric immunoglobulins, which mediate transcytosis of polymeric IMMUNOGLOBULIN A and IMMUNOGLOBULIN M into external secretions. They are found on the surfaces of epithelial cells and hepatocytes. After binding to IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, the receptor-ligand complex undergoes endocytosis, transport by vesicle, and secretion into the lumen by exocytosis. Before release, the part of the receptor (SECRETORY COMPONENT) that is bound to IMMUNOGLOBULIN A is proteolytically cleaved from its transmembrane tail. (From Rosen et al., The Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)Myelin and Lymphocyte-Associated Proteolipid Proteins: A family of MARVEL domain-containing proteolipid proteins involved in vesicular trafficking cycling between the GOLGI COMPLEX and the apical PLASMA MEMBRANE.Brefeldin A: A fungal metabolite which is a macrocyclic lactone exhibiting a wide range of antibiotic activity.Occludin: A MARVEL domain protein that plays an important role in the formation and regulation of the TIGHT JUNCTION paracellular permeability barrier.Neuraminidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of alpha-2,3, alpha-2,6-, and alpha-2,8-glycosidic linkages (at a decreasing rate, respectively) of terminal sialic residues in oligosaccharides, glycoproteins, glycolipids, colominic acid, and synthetic substrate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Cell Compartmentation: A partitioning within cells due to the selectively permeable membranes which enclose each of the separate parts, e.g., mitochondria, lysosomes, etc.Ricin: A protein phytotoxin from the seeds of Ricinus communis, the castor oil plant. It agglutinates cells, is proteolytic, and causes lethal inflammation and hemorrhage if taken internally.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Kidney Tubules: Long convoluted tubules in the nephrons. They collect filtrate from blood passing through the KIDNEY GLOMERULUS and process this filtrate into URINE. Each renal tubule consists of a BOWMAN CAPSULE; PROXIMAL KIDNEY TUBULE; LOOP OF HENLE; DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULE; and KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCT leading to the central cavity of the kidney (KIDNEY PELVIS) that connects to the URETER.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Contactin 1: A contactin subtype that is predominantly expressed in the CEREBELLUM; HIPPOCAMPUS; NEOCORTEX; and HYPOTHALAMUS.Desmoplakins: Desmoplakins are cytoskeletal linker proteins that anchor INTERMEDIATE FILAMENTS to the PLASMA MEMBRANE at DESMOSOMES.Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 2. The H3N2 subtype was responsible for the Hong Kong flu pandemic of 1968.Zonula Occludens Proteins: A family of proteins that play a role in TIGHT JUNCTION formation by binding to and anchoring proteins to the ACTIN CYTOSKELETON.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Microscopy, Confocal: A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Nocodazole: Nocodazole is an antineoplastic agent which exerts its effect by depolymerizing microtubules.Electric Impedance: The resistance to the flow of either alternating or direct electrical current.Cyclopentanes: A group of alicyclic hydrocarbons with the general formula R-C5H9.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Cytoskeletal Proteins: Major constituent of the cytoskeleton found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They form a flexible framework for the cell, provide attachment points for organelles and formed bodies, and make communication between parts of the cell possible.Sodium-Potassium-Exchanging ATPase: An enzyme that catalyzes the active transport system of sodium and potassium ions across the cell wall. Sodium and potassium ions are closely coupled with membrane ATPase which undergoes phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, thereby providing energy for transport of these ions against concentration gradients.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Adaptor Protein Complex gamma Subunits: A family of large adaptin protein subunits of approximately 90 KDa in size. They have been primarily found as components of ADAPTOR PROTEIN COMPLEX 1.Zonula Occludens-2 Protein: A zonula occludens protein subtype found in epithelial cell junctions. Several isoforms of zonula occludens-2 protein exist due to use of alternative promoter regions and alternative mRNA splicings.Glycosylphosphatidylinositols: Compounds containing carbohydrate or glycosyl groups linked to phosphatidylinositols. They anchor GPI-LINKED PROTEINS or polysaccharides to cell membranes.Desmosomes: A type of junction that attaches one cell to its neighbor. One of a number of differentiated regions which occur, for example, where the cytoplasmic membranes of adjacent epithelial cells are closely apposed. It consists of a circular region of each membrane together with associated intracellular microfilaments and an intercellular material which may include, for example, mucopolysaccharides. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990; Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Cell Membrane Permeability: A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.Adherens Junctions: Anchoring points where the CYTOSKELETON of neighboring cells are connected to each other. They are composed of specialized areas of the plasma membrane where bundles of the ACTIN CYTOSKELETON attach to the membrane through the transmembrane linkers, CADHERINS, which in turn attach through their extracellular domains to cadherins in the neighboring cell membranes. In sheets of cells, they form into adhesion belts (zonula adherens) that go all the way around a cell.Claudin-1: An integral membrane protein that is localized to TIGHT JUNCTIONS, where it plays a role in controlling the paracellular permeability of polarized cells. Mutations in the gene for claudin-1 are associated with Neonatal Ichthyosis-Sclerosing Cholangitis (NISCH) Syndrome.Orthomyxoviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by the ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE.Octoxynol: Nonionic surfactant mixtures varying in the number of repeating ethoxy (oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) groups. They are used as detergents, emulsifiers, wetting agents, defoaming agents, etc. Octoxynol-9, the compound with 9 repeating ethoxy groups, is a spermatocide.Virus Cultivation: Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Influenzavirus C: A genus of the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE comprising viruses similar to types A and B but less common, more stable, more homogeneous, and lacking the neuraminidase protein. They have not been associated with epidemics but may cause mild influenza. Influenza C virus is the type species.Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Oseltamivir: An acetamido cyclohexene that is a structural homolog of SIALIC ACID and inhibits NEURAMINIDASE.Zanamivir: A guanido-neuraminic acid that is used to inhibit NEURAMINIDASE.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Kidney Tubules, Collecting: Straight tubes commencing in the radiate part of the kidney cortex where they receive the curved ends of the distal convoluted tubules. In the medulla the collecting tubules of each pyramid converge to join a central tube (duct of Bellini) which opens on the summit of the papilla.Cell Size: The quantity of volume or surface area of CELLS.Coated Vesicles: Vesicles formed when cell-membrane coated pits (COATED PITS, CELL-MEMBRANE) invaginate and pinch off. The outer surface of these vesicles are covered with a lattice-like network of coat proteins, such as CLATHRIN, coat protein complex proteins, or CAVEOLINS.Glycosylation: The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.Cysts: Any fluid-filled closed cavity or sac that is lined by an EPITHELIUM. Cysts can be of normal, abnormal, non-neoplastic, or neoplastic tissues.Membrane Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.PyransPrecipitin Tests: Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.Cytoskeleton: The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.Adaptor Protein Complex beta Subunits: A family of large adaptin protein complex subunits of approximately 90-130 kDa in size.Actins: Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.Diatrizoate: A commonly used x-ray contrast medium. As DIATRIZOATE MEGLUMINE and as Diatrizoate sodium, it is used for gastrointestinal studies, angiography, and urography.Gels: Colloids with a solid continuous phase and liquid as the dispersed phase; gels may be unstable when, due to temperature or other cause, the solid phase liquefies; the resulting colloid is called a sol.Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.Biotinylation: Incorporation of biotinyl groups into molecules.PhosphoproteinsHerpesvirus 1, Canid: A species of VARICELLOVIRUS virus that causes a disease in newborn puppies.Kidney Diseases, Cystic: A heterogeneous group of hereditary and acquired disorders in which the KIDNEY contains one or more CYSTS unilaterally or bilaterally (KIDNEY, CYSTIC).Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.TRPP Cation Channels: A subgroup of TRP cation channels that are widely expressed in various cell types. Defects are associated with POLYCYSTIC KIDNEY DISEASES.Caveolins: The main structural proteins of CAVEOLAE. Several distinct genes for caveolins have been identified.Receptors, Transferrin: Membrane glycoproteins found in high concentrations on iron-utilizing cells. They specifically bind iron-bearing transferrin, are endocytosed with its ligand and then returned to the cell surface where transferrin without its iron is released.Organelles: Specific particles of membrane-bound organized living substances present in eukaryotic cells, such as the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Chloral Hydrate: A hypnotic and sedative used in the treatment of INSOMNIA.Cell Culture Techniques: Methods for maintaining or growing CELLS in vitro.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Microscopy, Immunoelectron: Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.Caveolin 2: Caveolin 2 is a binding partner of CAVEOLIN 1. It undergoes tyrosine phosphorylation by C-SRC PROTEIN PP60 and plays a regulatory role in CAVEOLAE formation.Endosomes: Cytoplasmic vesicles formed when COATED VESICLES shed their CLATHRIN coat. Endosomes internalize macromolecules bound by receptors on the cell surface.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Influenza, Human: An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.alpha Catenin: A catenin that binds F-ACTIN and links the CYTOSKELETON with BETA CATENIN and GAMMA CATENIN.Morphogenesis: The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.Chick Embryo: The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.Membrane Microdomains: Detergent-insoluble CELL MEMBRANE components. They are enriched in SPHINGOLIPIDS and CHOLESTEROL and clustered with glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins.Caco-2 Cells: Human colonic ADENOCARCINOMA cells that are able to express differentiation features characteristic of mature intestinal cells, such as ENTEROCYTES. These cells are valuable in vitro tools for studies related to intestinal cell function and differentiation.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Calcium Oxalate: The calcium salt of oxalic acid, occurring in the urine as crystals and in certain calculi.Serial Passage: Inoculation of a series of animals or in vitro tissue with an infectious bacterium or virus, as in VIRULENCE studies and the development of vaccines.Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 1. The H5N1 subtype, frequently referred to as the bird flu virus, is endemic in wild birds and very contagious among both domestic (POULTRY) and wild birds. It does not usually infect humans, but some cases have been reported.Protein Synthesis Inhibitors: Compounds which inhibit the synthesis of proteins. They are usually ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS or toxins. Mechanism of the action of inhibition includes the interruption of peptide-chain elongation, the blocking the A site of ribosomes, the misreading of the genetic code or the prevention of the attachment of oligosaccharide side chains to glycoproteins.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Viral Plaque Assay: Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.Sialic Acids: A group of naturally occurring N-and O-acyl derivatives of the deoxyamino sugar neuraminic acid. They are ubiquitously distributed in many tissues.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Hemagglutination: The aggregation of ERYTHROCYTES by AGGLUTININS, including antibodies, lectins, and viral proteins (HEMAGGLUTINATION, VIRAL).Detergents: Purifying or cleansing agents, usually salts of long-chain aliphatic bases or acids, that exert cleansing (oil-dissolving) and antimicrobial effects through a surface action that depends on possessing both hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties.Intracellular Membranes: Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.Antiviral Agents: Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.Viral Matrix Proteins: Proteins associated with the inner surface of the lipid bilayer of the viral envelope. These proteins have been implicated in control of viral transcription and may possibly serve as the "glue" that binds the nucleocapsid to the appropriate membrane site during viral budding from the host cell.Ribosome Inactivating Proteins, Type 2: Ribosome inactivating proteins consisting of two polypeptide chains, the toxic A subunit and a lectin B subunit, linked by disulfide bridges. The lectin portion binds to cell surfaces and facilitates transport into the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM.Protein Sorting Signals: Amino acid sequences found in transported proteins that selectively guide the distribution of the proteins to specific cellular compartments.Luminescent Proteins: Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.Rimantadine: An RNA synthesis inhibitor that is used as an antiviral agent in the prophylaxis and treatment of influenza.GTP-Binding Proteins: Regulatory proteins that act as molecular switches. They control a wide range of biological processes including: receptor signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and protein synthesis. Their activity is regulated by factors that control their ability to bind to and hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.Receptors, Virus: Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Cell Adhesion Molecules: Surface ligands, usually glycoproteins, that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion. Their functions include the assembly and interconnection of various vertebrate systems, as well as maintenance of tissue integration, wound healing, morphogenic movements, cellular migrations, and metastasis.Stress Fibers: Bundles of actin filaments (ACTIN CYTOSKELETON) and myosin-II that span across the cell attaching to the cell membrane at FOCAL ADHESIONS and to the network of INTERMEDIATE FILAMENTS that surrounds the nucleus.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.beta Catenin: A multi-functional catenin that participates in CELL ADHESION and nuclear signaling. Beta catenin binds CADHERINS and helps link their cytoplasmic tails to the ACTIN in the CYTOSKELETON via ALPHA CATENIN. It also serves as a transcriptional co-activator and downstream component of WNT PROTEIN-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Claudins: A large family of transmembrane proteins found in TIGHT JUNCTIONS. They take part in the formation of paracellular barriers and pores that regulate paracellular permeability.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Exocytosis: Cellular release of material within membrane-limited vesicles by fusion of the vesicles with the CELL MEMBRANE.Protein Processing, Post-Translational: Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.Solubility: The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Adaptor Protein Complex 1: A clathrin adaptor protein complex primarily involved in clathrin-related transport at the TRANS-GOLGI NETWORK.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-met: Cell surface protein-tyrosine kinase receptors for HEPATOCYTE GROWTH FACTOR. They consist of an extracellular alpha chain which is disulfide-linked to the transmembrane beta chain. The cytoplasmic portion contains the catalytic domain and sites critical for the regulation of kinase activity. Mutations of the gene for PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-MET are associated with papillary renal carcinoma and other neoplasia.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Microtubules: Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.Desmocollins: A group of desmosomal cadherins with cytoplasmic tails that are divergent from those of classical CADHERINS. Their intracytoplasmic domains bind PLAKOGLOBIN; PLAKOPHILINS; and DESMOPLAKINS.Biological Transport, Active: The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.Glycoconjugates: Carbohydrates covalently linked to a nonsugar moiety (lipids or proteins). The major glycoconjugates are glycoproteins, glycopeptides, peptidoglycans, glycolipids, and lipopolysaccharides. (From Biochemical Nomenclature and Related Documents, 2d ed; From Principles of Biochemistry, 2d ed)Sulfur Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of sulfur that decay or disintegrate spontaneously emitting radiation. S 29-31, 35, 37, and 38 are radioactive sulfur isotopes.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Transferrin: An iron-binding beta1-globulin that is synthesized in the LIVER and secreted into the blood. It plays a central role in the transport of IRON throughout the circulation. A variety of transferrin isoforms exist in humans, including some that are considered markers for specific disease states.Vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus: The type species of VESICULOVIRUS causing a disease symptomatically similar to FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cattle, horses, and pigs. It may be transmitted to other species including humans, where it causes influenza-like symptoms.Saline Solution, Hypertonic: Hypertonic sodium chloride solution. A solution having an osmotic pressure greater than that of physiologic salt solution (0.9 g NaCl in 100 ml purified water).rab GTP-Binding Proteins: A large family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that play a key role in cellular secretory and endocytic pathways. EC 3.6.1.-.Sphingolipids: A class of membrane lipids that have a polar head and two nonpolar tails. They are composed of one molecule of the long-chain amino alcohol sphingosine (4-sphingenine) or one of its derivatives, one molecule of a long-chain acid, a polar head alcohol and sometimes phosphoric acid in diester linkage at the polar head group. (Lehninger et al, Principles of Biochemistry, 2nd ed)Cell Communication: Any of several ways in which living cells of an organism communicate with one another, whether by direct contact between cells or by means of chemical signals carried by neurotransmitter substances, hormones, and cyclic AMP.Butadienes: Four carbon unsaturated hydrocarbons containing two double bonds.Immunoglobulin A: Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.Caveolin 1: A tyrosine phosphoprotein that plays an essential role in CAVEOLAE formation. It binds CHOLESTEROL and is involved in LIPIDS transport, membrane traffic, and SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION.Acetamides: Derivatives of acetamide that are used as solvents, as mild irritants, and in organic synthesis.Alprostadil: A potent vasodilator agent that increases peripheral blood flow.Tetradecanoylphorbol Acetate: A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL with very effective tumor promoting activity. It stimulates the synthesis of both DNA and RNA.Cytochalasin D: A fungal metabolite that blocks cytoplasmic cleavage by blocking formation of contractile microfilament structures resulting in multinucleated cell formation, reversible inhibition of cell movement, and the induction of cellular extrusion. Additional reported effects include the inhibition of actin polymerization, DNA synthesis, sperm motility, glucose transport, thyroid secretion, and growth hormone release.Clostridium perfringens: The most common etiologic agent of GAS GANGRENE. It is differentiable into several distinct types based on the distribution of twelve different toxins.Biotin: A water-soluble, enzyme co-factor present in minute amounts in every living cell. It occurs mainly bound to proteins or polypeptides and is abundant in liver, kidney, pancreas, yeast, and milk.Lysosome-Associated Membrane Glycoproteins: Ubiquitously expressed integral membrane glycoproteins found in the LYSOSOME.N-Acetylneuraminic Acid: An N-acyl derivative of neuraminic acid. N-acetylneuraminic acid occurs in many polysaccharides, glycoproteins, and glycolipids in animals and bacteria. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p1518)Hemagglutinins: Agents that cause agglutination of red blood cells. They include antibodies, blood group antigens, lectins, autoimmune factors, bacterial, viral, or parasitic blood agglutinins, etc.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Plasma Membrane Calcium-Transporting ATPases: Calcium-transporting ATPases found on the PLASMA MEMBRANE that catalyze the active transport of CALCIUM from the CYTOPLASM into the extracellular space. They play a role in maintaining a CALCIUM gradient across plasma membrane.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Streptolysins: Exotoxins produced by certain strains of streptococci, particularly those of group A (STREPTOCOCCUS PYOGENES), that cause HEMOLYSIS.Inulin: A starch found in the tubers and roots of many plants. Since it is hydrolyzable to FRUCTOSE, it is classified as a fructosan. It has been used in physiologic investigation for determination of the rate of glomerular function.Plant Lectins: Protein or glycoprotein substances of plant origin that bind to sugar moieties in cell walls or membranes. Some carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) from PLANTS also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. Many plant lectins change the physiology of the membrane of BLOOD CELLS to cause agglutination, mitosis, or other biochemical changes. They may play a role in plant defense mechanisms.Vesicular Transport Proteins: A broad category of proteins involved in the formation, transport and dissolution of TRANSPORT VESICLES. They play a role in the intracellular transport of molecules contained within membrane vesicles. Vesicular transport proteins are distinguished from MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS, which move molecules across membranes, by the mode in which the molecules are transported.Vinculin: A cytoskeletal protein associated with cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. The amino acid sequence of human vinculin has been determined. The protein consists of 1066 amino acid residues and its gene has been assigned to chromosome 10.Orthoreovirus: A genus of the family REOVIRIDAE infecting vertebrates only. Transmission is horizontal and infected species include humans, birds, cattle, monkeys, sheep, swine, baboons, and bats. MAMMALIAN ORTHOREOVIRUS is the type species.Cilia: Populations of thin, motile processes found covering the surface of ciliates (CILIOPHORA) or the free surface of the cells making up ciliated EPITHELIUM. Each cilium arises from a basic granule in the superficial layer of CYTOPLASM. The movement of cilia propels ciliates through the liquid in which they live. The movement of cilia on a ciliated epithelium serves to propel a surface layer of mucus or fluid. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Receptors, Fc: Molecules found on the surface of some, but not all, B-lymphocytes, T-lymphocytes, and macrophages, which recognize and combine with the Fc (crystallizable) portion of immunoglobulin molecules.Tannins: Polyphenolic compounds with molecular weights of around 500-3000 daltons and containing enough hydroxyl groups (1-2 per 100 MW) for effective cross linking of other compounds (ASTRINGENTS). The two main types are HYDROLYZABLE TANNINS and CONDENSED TANNINS. Historically, the term has applied to many compounds and plant extracts able to render skin COLLAGEN impervious to degradation. The word tannin derives from the Celtic word for OAK TREE which was used for leather processing.rac GTP-Binding Proteins: A sub-family of RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that is involved in regulating the organization of cytoskeletal filaments. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC Proteins that share the common characteristic of binding to carbohydrates. Some ANTIBODIES and carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. PLANT LECTINS are carbohydrate-binding proteins that have been primarily identified by their hemagglutinating activity (HEMAGGLUTININS). However, a variety of lectins occur in animal species where they serve diverse array of functions through specific carbohydrate recognition.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Reassortant Viruses: Viruses containing two or more pieces of nucleic acid (segmented genome) from different parents. Such viruses are produced in cells coinfected with different strains of a given virus.trans-Golgi Network: A network of membrane compartments, located at the cytoplasmic side of the GOLGI APPARATUS, where proteins and lipids are sorted for transport to various locations in the cell or cell membrane.Ferrets: Semidomesticated variety of European polecat much used for hunting RODENTS and/or RABBITS and as a laboratory animal. It is in the subfamily Mustelinae, family MUSTELIDAE.Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.Organic Cation Transporter 1: An organic cation transporter found in kidney. It is localized to the basal lateral membrane and is likely to be involved in the renal secretion of organic cations.Receptors, Collagen: Collagen receptors are cell surface receptors that modulate signal transduction between cells and the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. They are found in many cell types and are involved in the maintenance and regulation of cell shape and behavior, including PLATELET ACTIVATION and aggregation, through many different signaling pathways and differences in their affinities for collagen isoforms. Collagen receptors include discoidin domain receptors, INTEGRINS, and glycoprotein VI.Cytopathogenic Effect, Viral: Visible morphologic changes in cells infected with viruses. It includes shutdown of cellular RNA and protein synthesis, cell fusion, release of lysosomal enzymes, changes in cell membrane permeability, diffuse changes in intracellular structures, presence of viral inclusion bodies, and chromosomal aberrations. It excludes malignant transformation, which is CELL TRANSFORMATION, VIRAL. Viral cytopathogenic effects provide a valuable method for identifying and classifying the infecting viruses.Collagen: A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).Influenza A Virus, H9N2 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 9 and neuraminidase 2. The H9N2 subtype usually infects domestic birds (POULTRY) but there have been some human infections reported.Fluorescent Dyes: Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.Viral Envelope Proteins: Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect: A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
Optaflu is nearly identical to Flucelvax; it is also produced in MDCK cells and targets the same Influenza subtypes. The main ... In addition, cell lines can be grown in synthetic media avoiding animal serum. This prevents the spread of transmissible ... The vaccine was produced by Novartis through culturing of the Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cell line. Specifically, ... Cell-based vaccine is a type of vaccine developed from mammalian cell lines rather than embryonic chicken eggs. The potential ...
MDCK cells are used for a wide variety of cell biology studies including cell polarity, cell-cell adhesions (termed adherens ... Epithelial cells in culture grow normally as tight clusters. However, they could be induced to break cell-cell contacts and ... in order to correctly position daughter cells to continue branch extension. Cell motility by which MDCK cells produce and ... This cell culture strategy, termed coculture, induced MDCK acini to undergo branching morphogenesis, in which cells rearrange ...
The cost of growing mammalian cell cultures is high, so research is underway to produce such complex proteins in insect cells ... kept as cell suspension culture, they are model system of plant cell) Other species cell lines Dog MDCK kidney epithelial ... cells Cell-to-cell contact can stimulate cell cycle arrest, causing cells to stop dividing, known as contact inhibition. Cell- ... Cancer Cells in Culture Evolution of Cell Culture Surfaces Hypertext version of the Cell Line Data Base Microcarrier Cell ...
Expression is localized to the apical membrane of intestinal and polarized MDCK dog kidney cells. PCFT is also expressed at the ... Cell. 127 (5): 917-28. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.09.041. PMID 17129779. Zhao, R; Unal, ES; Shin, DS; Goldman, ID (6 April 2010 ... Because of the Warburg Effect, and a compromised blood supply, human epithelial cancers grow within an acidic milieu, as ... Cell. 122 (5): 789-801. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2005.06.025. PMID 16143108. Subramanian, VS; Marchant, JS; Said, HM (January 2008 ...
Clonal populations of CD8+ cytotoxic T cells have been grown which carry T cell receptors specific to influenza. These work ... "Additional inhibitory effect of tea extract on the growth of influenza A and B viruses in MDCK cells". Microbiol. Immunol. 46: ... Andrographis paniculata was shown to be most effective in inhibiting RANTES secretion by H1N1 influenza infected cells in cell ... in equine influenza-infected canine kidney cells, and to reduce RANTES production in cultured airway cells in response to ...
Cell culture and transfections. MDCK type II cells were grown in modified Dulbecco Eagle"s medium (DMEM) containing Earles ... MDCKpro cells had similar collagen I-dependent cell adhesion to MDCKcon cells (Fig. 4A). Pretreating cells with β1-integrin ... Compared with MDCKcon or MDCKsol cells, MDCK5aa cells also developed significantly higher resistance, suggesting tighter cell- ... HGF/SF-induced cell scattering/motility in MDCK cells involves changes in cell-matrix interactions and disassembly of cell-cell ...
Two-thirds of the viruses grew in both cell lines, and the remaining viruses were recovered only in MDCK-SIAT1 cells (Fig. 1A ... using MDCK cells for viruses that had been grown in MDCK cells and MDCK-SIAT1 cells for viruses that had been grown in MDCK- ... MDCK cell-passaged and egg-passaged influenza viruses propagate in MDCK-SIAT1 cells.To determine if MDCK-SIAT1 cells could ... MDCK-SIAT1 cells (with MDCK cells as a control) were infected in duplicate with 10 MDCK cell-passaged viruses [3 A(H1N1), 4 A( ...
I culture MDCK cell to research toxicity mechaism of heavy metal. , MDCK cell is kidney epithelial cell and always had grown ... Have you had your cell cultures checked for Mycoplasma/Ureaplasma contamination? The condition of your cells makes me think ... Doubling time of the cell is very long. , I want to knowf what happen to my cell!! , Could character of MDCK cell be changed by ... But Shape , of mdck cell changed into fibroblastic and size of the cell looks very , small. All the worse, after trypsinizing ...
EX-CELL MDCK is a serum-free, animal-protein free medium designed and optimized to support high-density culture of Madin Darby ... Fresh EX-CELL MDCK with 10% DMSO. MDCK cells recovered from cryopreservation with initial thaw viabilities , 85%. Cells grew to ... EX-CELL MDCK supports MDCK cell density up to 5 x 105 cells/cm2 with doubling time as short as 30 hours. MDCK cells in EX-CELL ... Figure 3. Sequential Adaptation of MDCK Cells to EX-CELL MDCK. MDCK cells were adapted to EX-CELL MDCK in a sequential manner ...
There is growing evidence that the receptor-binding characteristics of influenza viruses are affected by the host-dependent ... glycosylation of hemagglutinin on receptor-binding properties on H1N1 human influenza A virus grown in MDCK cells and in ... in either embryonated chicken eggs or MDCK cell. Those variants were then compared for their ability to bind soluble receptor ... MDCK-grown viruses bound substantially more weakly than their egg-grown counterparts to receptors of avian origin, whereas ...
Cell Culture. MDCK strain II cells were grown on 1.2- (Western blotting, microscopy, and transport assays), 2.4- (pulse-chase ... Confocal immunofluorescence microscopy of caveolin-1 and -2 in filter-grown MDCK cells. The cells were labeled with anti- ... Filter-grown MDCK cells were pulse labeled for 7 min with [35S]methionine and then chased as indicated in A, B, and C. When ... Filter-grown, confluent MDCK cells were rinsed once in PBS and then fixed for 10 min in 4% paraformaldehyde/PBS. The filters ...
Cell culture and adenovirus infection. MDCK cells were grown on transwell polycarbonate filters (Costar) in MEM with 10% FCS ... D-G) Cells expressing A-VSVG-GFP. (D and E) Control cells. (F and G) FAPP-depleted cells. (D and F) Cell surface VSVG labeling ... filter-grown MDCK cells that were seeded 24 h before were infected for 3 h with the adenovirus-mediated RNAi. The cells were ... Brefeldin A causes structural and functional alterations of the trans-Golgi network of MDCK cells. J. Cell Sci. 107:933-943. ...
l-cell contacts. This effect of Rac1 was prominent with cells grown at low density. Similar morphological changes were observed ... MDCK) cells. As with Rab11a in MDCK cells, the myosin Vb immunoreactivity was dispersed with nocodazole treatment and relocated ... Cell , 2000 "... Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells expressing constitutively active Rac1 (Rac1V12) accumulate a large ... in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells causes extensive formation of lamellipodia and altered cell-cell contacts at low cell ...
Coincubation of Trophozoites with MDCK Cells. MDCK cell monolayers were trypsinized and grown in round plastic cover slips ... Culture of MDCK Cells. Monolayers of epithelial cells of the established MDCK line of canine kidney origin (Madin Darby Canine ... Coincubation of trophozoites with MDCK cell monolayers resulted in a local damage to target cells after 24 h of interaction, ... By transmission electron microscopy, amoebae appeared to engulf small portions of the MDCK cells; however, the cells that were ...
... and replicated within MDCK-TMPRSS2 and MDCK-MSPL cells and viral titer were comparable to the virus grown in MDCK cells with ... Data showed that the cell lines stably expressed TMPRSS2 and MSPL after 20 serial passages. Both MDCK-TMPRSS2 and MDCK-MSPL ... Thus, our results indicate a potential application for these cell lines in cell-based influenza vaccine production and may ... MDCK) cell lines stably expressing human airway transmembrane protease: transmembrane protease, serine 2 (TMPRSS2) and mosaic ...
... were plaque purified and amplified on MDCK cells. These viruses grew to comparable titers on MDCK cells. BALB/c mice were ... All growth of virus in cell culture was performed in biological safety hoods under BSL-3+ Ag containment. MDCK cells were ... The resulting viruses, although growing to comparable titers in MDCK cells, displayed reduced virulence in mice as compared ... Cells were infected at a multiplicity of infection = 0.001. Viruses were titered by plaque assay on MDCK cells. (B) Survival of ...
... but not on the apical membrane of MDCK and Caco-2 cells. (A) PtK2 cells grown on coverslips. (B and D) MDCK cells polarized on ... Cell Culture and Transfection. PtK2 cells were grown in MEM with 10% FCS and nonessential amino acids. For experiments they ... MDCK II cells stably expressing PLAP were a gift from D. Brown (Stony Brook University, New York) (23). Caco-2 cells were grown ... MDCK II cells were grown in MEM with 5% FCS. For terminal polarization, cells were seeded onto Transwell filters (Corning ...
MDCK cells are used for a wide variety of cell biology studies including cell polarity, cell-cell adhesions (termed adherens ... Epithelial cells in culture grow normally as tight clusters. However, they could be induced to break cell-cell contacts and ... in order to correctly position daughter cells to continue branch extension. Cell motility by which MDCK cells produce and ... This cell culture strategy, termed coculture, induced MDCK acini to undergo branching morphogenesis, in which cells rearrange ...
Optaflu is nearly identical to Flucelvax; it is also produced in MDCK cells and targets the same Influenza subtypes. The main ... In addition, cell lines can be grown in synthetic media avoiding animal serum. This prevents the spread of transmissible ... The vaccine was produced by Novartis through culturing of the Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cell line. Specifically, ... Cell-based vaccine is a type of vaccine developed from mammalian cell lines rather than embryonic chicken eggs. The potential ...
Analysis of proliferation in MDCK tTA/hPAX2 cells. Cells were grown in the absence or presence of 1 μg/ml of tetracycline and ... we have studied the role of PAX2 in cultured renal cells. We show that mIMCD-3 cells, a murine collecting duct cell line with ... Lanes 4 and 5: Expression of exogenous PAX2 protein in HEK293 tTA/PAX2 cells grown in the absence or the presence of 1 μg/ml of ... Cells transfected with caspase-2 (D), anti-sense-PAX2 (E), and sense-PAX2 (F) and GFP marker. Apoptotic condensed cells (arrows ...
Cell Lines and Cell Culture. HeLa cells (ATCC, CCL-2, female) and MDCK (Madine-Darby canine kidney) cells (ATCC, CCL-34, female ... Virus stocks were propagated and grown on MDCK cells. Virus titers were determined by plaque test on MDCK cells following ... A plaque test on MDCK cells was performed to determine viral titers of virus stocks, in cell culture supernatants or in organ ... After 24 h, the medium was removed from the cells, cells were washed once with PBS, cell lysates were prepared and analyzed for ...
Polarized cell surface distribution of CD1d and CD8 constructs in MDCK cells. Cells grown on Transwell polycarbonate filters ... Polarized cell surface distribution of CD1d constructs in MDCK cells. Cells grown on Transwell polycarbonate filters were ... Cell growth. MDCK (strain II) and COS cells were grown in full growth medium (DMEM supplemented with 10% FCS, 2 mM glutamine, ... Stably transfected MDCK cells were grown on Transwell polycarbonate filter units (106 cells/filter; Costar, Cambridge, MA) for ...
125I]Lf degradation and recycling in MDCK or HK-2 cells.. Filter-grown MDCK cells (infected with AV-mini-megalin) or HK-2 cells ... in MDCK and HK-2 cells. A: comparable levels of MDCK and HK-2 cell lysates were blotted with antibodies against ARH and Dab-2. ... Adenoviral infection of MDCK-T23 cells and HK-2 cells was as described previously for cells growing on transwells or plastic ... mini-megalin expressing MDCK cells. MDCK cells grown on Transwell filters were incubated with apically or basolaterally added ...
MDCK Cell Culture. The following procedures were used to culture MDCK and the transfected MDCK cells. The cells were grown in ... Parental MDCK and MDR1-transfected MDCK cells were grown as described above. For the studies, each cell line (50,000 cells/well ... MDCK) cell line. The MDCK cell line can be stably transfected with human MDR1 or mouse Mdr1a (MDR1-MDCK or Mdr1a-MDCK, ... MDCK, Madin-Darby canine kidney; MDR1-MDCK, MDR1-transfected MDCK; Mdr1a-MDCK, Mdr1a-transfected MDCK; B/P, brain/plasma ratio ...
Colorized transmission electron micrograph shows avian influenza A H5N1 viruses (gold) grown in MDCK cells (green). Image ... FDA approves first seasonal influenza vaccine manufactured using cell culture technology. US Food & Drug Administration. ...
Colorized transmission electron micrograph shows avian influenza A H5N1 viruses (gold) grown in MDCK cells (green). Image ... FDA approves first seasonal influenza vaccine manufactured using cell culture technology. US Food & Drug Administration. ...
107 cells) are shown as error bars, * p,0.05. (B) Lung immune cell sub-populations. Mean lung immune cell sub-populations (as ... Lungs were homogenized in 1 ml of PBS and virus titers determined by plaque assay (+ TPCK trypsin 1 µg/ml) on MDCK cells in ... Human macrophages were grown in 6 well plates and also infected in duplicate. Virus titers were determined from supernatants in ... Cell suspensions were prepared from pooled samples and macrophages (A) and dendritic cells (B) were isolated by CD11b+ ad ...
G) Control transfected MDCK cells grow in a regular pattern. (H) MDCK cells transfected with Vangl2-HA are irregular in shape ... We then went on to study MDCK cells, which are more suitable for studies of cell polarity. MDCK cells were transfected with ... J-K′) MDCK cells. Rac1 (arrow in J) and Vangl2 (arrow in J′) overlap in the cell membranes of control transfected cells. (J″) ... Vangl2 affects cell shape and actin distribution in HEK293T and MDCK cells. In order to study the effect of Vangl2 on cell ...
Here we show that tetracycline inducible depletion of Kif3a in MDCK cells slows epithelial cell migration. Microtubules at the ... cells failed to grow perpendicularly into the leading edge and microtubular dynamics were dampened in Kif3a depleted cells. ... Kif3a guides microtubular dynamics, migration and lumen formation of MDCK cells.. [Christopher Boehlke, Fruzsina Kotsis, Bjoern ... These data uncover that Kif3a regulates the microtubular cytoskeleton in the cell periphery and imply that extra-ciliary Kif3a ...
Colorized transmission electron micrograph shows avian influenza A H5N1 viruses (gold) grown in MDCK cells (green). Image ... FDA approves first seasonal influenza vaccine manufactured using cell culture technology. US Food & Drug Administration. ...
  • Infection of immortalized mammalian cell lines in vitro with influenza virus has provided an alternative to egg inoculation ( 10 , 13 ). (
  • However, unlike human respiratory cells, the level of α-2,6-linked sialic acid receptors on MDCK cells is relatively low, and thus, MDCK cells are not an ideal in vitro representation of the human respiratory system ( 1 , 7 , 19 , 40 ). (
  • I'm not aware of the MDCK spontaneously transforming in vitro, fom epithelial to fibroblast. (
  • Thirty-one structurally diverse marketed central nervous system (CNS)-active drugs, one active metabolite, and seven non-CNS-active compounds were tested in three P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in vitro assays: transwell assays using MDCK, human MDR1-MDCK, and mouse Mdr1a-MDCK cells, ATPase, and calcein AM inhibition. (
  • Additionally, the permeability for these compounds was measured in two in vitro models: parallel artificial membrane permeation assay and apical-to-basolateral apparent permeability in MDCK. (
  • Primary mouse and human macrophages and dendritic cells were also susceptible to 1918 and H5N1 influenza virus infection in vitro. (
  • In vivo, Rac1 was re-distributed within the cells in a similar way to that observed by us in vitro. (
  • Here, using gain-of-function and loss-of-function approaches in vivo and in vitro, we report that Vangl2 indeed affects the cytoskeleton and cell-cell adhesion. (
  • In order to study the effect of Vangl2 on cell shape and actin localization in vitro, 80% confluent HEK293T cells were transfected with control plasmid (DsRed) or Vangl2-HA expression plasmid. (
  • 3. A method of inhibiting influenza virus replication in cells in vitro by introducing an oligonucleotide having SEQ ID NO: 1, SEQ ID NO: 3, SEQ ID NO: 4, SEQ ID NO: 5, SEQ ID NO: 6, SEQ ID NO: 7 or SEQ ID NO: 8, wherein at least some of the internucleotide linkages within said oligonucleotide are phosphorothioate linkages, into said cells in an amount sufficient to inhibit replication. (
  • To investigate the effect of this bacterium on macrophages, we infected J774A.1 cells and primary bone-marrow-derived murine macrophages with the P. aeruginosa strain PA103 in vitro. (
  • Microtubule and motor dependent fusion in vitro between apical and basolateral endocytic vesicles from MDCK cells. (
  • Therefore, monitoring oxygen tension inside microfluidic devices is essential, as it brings the in vitro conditions closer to real physoxia in cell culture and provides the basis for more reproducible and standardized results with maximal physiological relevance. (
  • In the in vitro experiments, supersaturated solution of calcium and oxalate, kidney epithelial cell lines (MDCK) and urinary bladder of rabbits were used, whereas, in the in vivo studies, rat model of urolithiasis was used for the study of preventive and curative effect. (
  • In spite of convincing observations in animal and cell culture models, extrapolation of these in vitro findings for tea polyphenols to the in vivo situation is difficult, because the accumulation at target tissues is unknown. (
  • To examine the cellular basis of these processes, migration of T. gondii was studied in vitro using polarized host cell monolayers and extracellular matrix. (
  • Cleaved HA proteins bind to cell receptor and then are endocytosed into the endosome where they undergo conformational changes and exposure of fusion peptide on HA2 subunit under low pH. (
  • Phase connectivity was assessed by measuring long-range diffusion of several membrane proteins by fluorescence recovery after photobleaching in two polarized epithelial cell lines and one fibroblast cell line. (
  • In contrast to the fibroblast plasma membrane, in which all of the proteins diffused with similar characteristics, in the apical membrane of epithelial cells the proteins could be divided into two groups according to their diffusion characteristics. (
  • Glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins in the exoplasmic leaflet ( 10 , 11 ) and lipid-anchored proteins in the cytoplasmic leaflet ( 12 - 14 ) of cell membranes were shown to be distributed nonrandomly in the plasma membrane with cluster sizes of 4-200 nm, but whether these correlate with lipid domains in a phase-separating system is not known. (
  • Indications for distinct lipid environments in living cells come from the measurements of different viscous drags for different bead-coupled proteins in the plasma membrane of fibroblasts ( 15 ) and from fluorescence anisotropy measurements of diphenyl chain-labeled phosphatidylcholine revealing liquid-ordered environments in the plasma membrane of mast cells ( 16 ) and in vivo images of liquid-ordered domains in macrophages labeled with 6-lauroyl-2-dimethylaminonaphthalene ( 17 ). (
  • Similar collective behaviour persists down to micro-scales, where bacterial suspensions, tissues and intracellular filaments use their intrinsic activity to create motions on lengths larger than individual cells or proteins. (
  • This approach allowed for the definition and quantitative comparison of about 3500 proteins in human lung epithelial cells in response to seasonal or low-pathogenic avian H3N2 IAV. (
  • MHC class II molecules are transported to the endocytic pathway, where they bind peptides derived from proteins entering the endosomal-phagosomal pathway, which are then at the plasma membrane presented to CD4 + T cells. (
  • Approximately 20 C. parvum proteins ranging in size from 11 to 900 kDa, including several recognized by HBC Ig, have been localized to the sporozoite plasmalemma by cell surface radioiodination experiments and are, therefore, candidate neutralization antigens ( 23 , 84 , 104 ). (
  • This system secretes several effector proteins that have interesting effects on host cells. (
  • Specifically, apical proteins that would normally face the urinary space are mislocalized throughout the cell. (
  • Association of influenza virus NP and M1 proteins with cytoskeletal elements in influenza virus-infected cells. (
  • The asymmetric distribution of membrane proteins in different cell surface domains is a feature common to many types of polarized cells, including epithelia, neurons, and immune cells ( Yamada and Nelson, 2007 ). (
  • In epithelial cells, membrane proteins are segregated into functionally and structurally different apical and basolateral membrane domains. (
  • In fully polarized cells, the delivery of basolateral membrane proteins from the TGN and recycling endosomes to the plasma membrane may be regulated at several steps, including long-range vesicle delivery and membrane tethering and fusion. (
  • HA then binds to sialylated proteins on the cell surface, eliciting endocytosis of the viral particle. (
  • Invasion of fibroblasts into the matrix affected the integrity of the MDCK-C7 monolayer and The extracellular matrix (ECM) is a network of structural proteins, including collagens, glycoproteins, and proteoglycans. (
  • The directed traffic of membrane proteins to the cell surface is crucial for many developmental events. (
  • Such processes require membrane traffic to particular domains of the cell surface, in order to insert proteins at restricted regions of the membrane, to enlarge particular regions of the cell membrane, or to signal asymmetrically to neighboring cells. (
  • In multicellular organisms, though less extensively studied, these proteins are implicated in establishing cell polarity. (
  • Within the egg chamber, which consists of 16 germline cells interconnected by ring canals and surrounded by somatic follicle cells, membrane ligands, adhesion proteins and transmembrane receptors are called upon to signal within particular domains of the cell surface. (
  • These events all rely on the directed trafficking of proteins, including E-cadherin, Gurken and the EGFR, to the plasma membrane, so as to establish polarity within the oocyte and its surrounding cells. (
  • Microneme proteins secreted in the early stages of this process participate in attachment to the host cell and subsequent formation of the connection with the parasite actinomyosin system, thereby providing the platform from which to drive invasion . (
  • In renal epithelial cells, most newly synthesized membrane proteins are thought to be sorted at the level of the trans-Golgi network (TGN) to the appropriate cellular domains ( 5 , 24 ). (
  • These results indicate that SNARE proteins contribute to the overall specificity of membrane trafficking in vivo, and that the polarity of syntaxin 3 is essential for epithelial cell polarization. (
  • Here, we study the biogenesis of HA stem epitopes recognized in cells infected with various drifted IAV H1N1 strains using mouse and human StRAbs. (
  • Here, we selected a plaque variant of the WSN (H1N1) strain that grew better than the wild-type virus in NA-expressing MDCK cell culture. (
  • Matrosovich and colleagues established an MDCK cell line, MDCK-SIAT1, that was stably transfected with human CMP- N -acetylneuraminate:β-galactoside α-2,6-sialyltransferase, an enzyme that catalyzes the α-2,6-sialylation of galactose on glycoproteins or glycolipids. (
  • The MDCK cell line can be stably transfected with human MDR1 or mouse Mdr1a (MDR1-MDCK or Mdr1a-MDCK, respectively). (
  • One drug and its metabolite, risperidone and 9-hydroxyrisperidone, of the 32 CNS compounds, and 6 of the 7 non-CNS drugs were determined to have positive efflux using ratio of ratios in MDR1-MDCK versus MDCK transwell assays. (
  • In addition, 3300 Pfizer compounds were tested in MDR1-MDCK and Mdr1a-MDCK transwell assays, with a good correlation ( R 2 = 0.92) between the efflux ratios in human MDR1-MDCK and mouse Mdr1a-MDCK cells. (
  • The sensitivity of clinical virus isolates to NA inhibitors can vary in cell culture assays dramatically (up to complete insensitivity) despite a uniform high sensitivity of the enzyme in NA-inhibition tests ( 1 , 3 , 37 ). (
  • EtMIC3 consists of seven tandem MAR1-type domains, which possess a high specificity for sialylated glycans as shown by cell-based assays and carbohydrate microarray analyses. (
  • Cell-based assays are crucial for understanding mechanisms of both normal and diseased biological states. (
  • However, during development, tissue repair and tissue metamorphosis, concerted cell-cell dissociation and cell migration occur and appear to be intimately linked, such as is observed with epithelial `scattering' ( Tsukamoto and Nigam, 1999 ). (
  • Thus the initial goal in isolating and culturing cells from this tissue was not to generate a new model system for epithelial cell biology. (
  • In their report, the authors speculated that the "histotypic expression" by which MDCK cells formed structures reminiscent of their tissue of origin might be fruitfully applied to the study of other tissues. (
  • Through the 1970s, the MDCK cell line found new use as a model for mammalian epithelial tissue. (
  • This work solved an outstanding mystery of MDCK culture, as the tissue from which these cells were derived is tubular, yet they had previously only developed into spherical acini in 3D culture. (
  • There is increasing evidence that such collective behaviour is important in equipping the cells with an ability to invade and occupy their surrounding spaces or to shape various cell morphologies needed for tissue function 5 . (
  • In xenografts of human tumor cell lines or non-small cell lung cancer and hepatocellular carcinoma patient-derived tumor tissue driven by MET aberration, SCC244 administration exhibits robust antitumor activity at the well-tolerated doses. (
  • A control bird that received uninfected tissue culture cells remained healthy until it was euthanized at 77 days. (
  • Class II molecules have also been detected in intracellular vesicles in tissue epithelial cells of human and rodents in vivo ( 17 , 18 , 19 , 20 , 21 ), but little is known about the actual endocytic compartment to which class II molecules traffic and the signals involved in this transport in epithelial cells. (
  • L. monocytogenes infections begin in the intestinal epithelium, a tissue made up of polarized epithelial cells connected to each other by cell-cell junctions ( Hartsock and Nelson, 2008 ). (
  • Primary cells are taken directly from living tissue. (
  • For cultivation, the original tissue fragment is dissociated enzymatically, chemically, or mechanically into single cells which can be seeded on culture flasks. (
  • They can differentiate from non-specialized cells into specialized tissue cells with dedicated characteristics and functions. (
  • A comparison of MDCK cells grown on impermeable tissue culture plastic and on a MilliporeSigma membrane (Millicell®-HA insert). (
  • Continuous cell lines that could be used to define ion transport mechanisms in this tissue are not readily available. (
  • Following the initial isolation in 1958 of epithelial cells from the kidney tubule of an adult Cocker Spaniel by S. H. Madin and N. B. Darby, the cell line bearing their name was employed primarily as a model for viral infection of mammalian cells. (
  • Indeed, they chose to isolate kidney tubules with precisely this goal in mind, as they had previously succeeded with viral infection of cells derived from kidney tubules from other mammals. (
  • It was not until 1970 that the laboratory of Zbynek Brada published work describing MDCK cells as a representative cell line bearing hallmarks of kidney tubule epithelial cells. (
  • This hinted for the first time that the cell line would respond to 3D environments by self-organizing into the appropriate 3D structure reminiscent of kidney tubules. (
  • PAX2 has no effect on proliferation of embryonic kidney or in cultured kidney cells. (
  • Endogenous expression of PAX2 protein in mIMCD-3, COS-7 and HEK293 kidney cell lines, respectively. (
  • OCRL1 appears to be the major PIP 2 -hydrolyzing enzyme in human kidney proximal tubule cells, and kidney cells derived from Lowe syndrome patients have roughly double the normal cellular contingent of PIP 2 ( 55 ). (
  • Depletion of dynamin-binding protein or Tuba, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor, disrupted renal ciliogenesis in cell culture and led to abnormal kidney morphology in a Tuba knockdown zebrafish model of PKD. (
  • The kidney originates from two mesenchymally derived components: the Wolffian duct and the metanephric mesenchyme (MM). Directed by inductive signals emanating from the MM, the Wolffian duct forms an epithelial out-pouching called the ureteric bud (UB), which invades the adjacent MM cell cluster. (
  • CIL:44511, Canis lupus familiaris, kidney epithelial cell. (
  • College of Pharmacy,Chung-Ang university,seoul, south korea Dr. Kang, I have not had that much experience with the MDCK cell line but have worked with a number of other cell lines and primary cultures over the years. (
  • The condition of your cells makes me think that the cell line is contaminated either through subpassaging or a component of the medium, i.e. serum. (
  • An additional but less likely possibility is that you MDCK cell line was cross contaminated with another cell type being used in your laboratory. (
  • The MDCK cell line can be easily adapted to EX-CELL MDCK using a direct adaptation method or a sequential adaptation method. (
  • The MDCK cell line is used in applications such as development of viral vaccines, anticancer agents and the production of recombinant adenoviral vectors. (
  • We show that mIMCD-3 cells, a murine collecting duct cell line with high endogenous PAX2 expression, undergo apoptosis when transfected with anti-sense PAX2. (
  • In contrast to gemcitabine-sensitive pancreatic cancer cell lines, MIA PaCa-2, a gemcitabine-resistant pancreatic cancer cell line, exhibited relatively restrictive, cell cycle-dependent hCNT1 expression and transport. (
  • It's a very common phenomena that stable cell line looses expression especially if the gene is lethal. (
  • Metabolic flux model for an anchorage-dependent MDCK cell line: Characteristic Growth Phases and Minimum Substrate Consumption Flux Distribution. (
  • The bacteria first invade the epithelial cells that line the small intestine. (
  • In Nature Microbiology today [April 29, Kawaoka and his team describe a new cell line that enables better growth of H3N2 for vaccine use. (
  • Kawaoka has already provided the cell line to public health agencies for testing influenza samples from patients and for testing the effectiveness of antiviral drugs against the circulating strains. (
  • In vivo , epithelial cells line the body structures. (
  • This fact makes them very easy to culture as a cell line. (
  • A very prominent example is the HeLa cell line which was derived from a cervix carcinoma. (
  • In the present study, porcine vas deferens epithelial cells were isolated by standard techniques, and the cells spontaneously immortalized to form a porcine vas deferens epithelial cell line that we have titled PVD9902. (
  • EX-CELL MDCK is a serum-free, animal-protein free medium specially formulated to support large-scale, high-density MDCK culture and adenovirus production. (
  • These results suggest that interaction of the NS1 protein with host-cell factors plays a significant role in viral pathogenesis. (
  • Myristoylated and palmitoylated (MyrPalm)-yellow fluorescent protein (YFP), YFP-GL-GPI, linker of T cell activation (LAT)-WT-GFP, GFP-podocalyxin (PCX)-Δtail, vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein 3 (VSVG3)-GFP, and the placental alkaline phosphatase (PLAP) expression construct have been described ( 12 , 19 - 23 ). (
  • Developed by Protein Sciences Corporation, FluBlok is produced with insect cells. (
  • Expression of exogenous PAX2 protein in HEK293 tTA/PAX2 cells grown in the absence or the presence of 1 μg/ml of tetracycline. (
  • Expression of exogenous PAX2 protein under regulation of the tetracycline-sensitive promoter in MDCKtTA/hPAX2 cells in the absence or presence of tetracycline. (
  • There is no significant difference between the rate of proliferation in cells with high (No Tet) or undetectable level (+Tet) of PAX2 protein expression. (
  • While mutations throughout the 970 amino acid protein encoded by the OCRL1 gene can result in Lowe syndrome, cell extracts from fibroblasts cultured from Lowe syndrome patients universally exhibit a markedly reduced ability to dephosphorylate PIP 2 ( 29 , 44 ). (
  • The defect in protein reabsorption has been suggested to result from improper function or trafficking of the cell surface receptor megalin ( 30 , 37 ). (
  • Megalin, a member of the LDL receptor family, is a 600-kDa transmembrane protein that recycles at the apical domain of polarized epithelial cells ( 10 ). (
  • On the experimental side we will concentrate on microtubule (MT)-motor protein mixtures, but will also mention bacterial suspensions and cell layers. (
  • MDCK Cells seeded on extracellular matrix- (ECM) coated dishes and exposed to medium supplemented with high-density lipoproteins (HDLs, 750 micrograms protein/ml) and transferrin (10 micrograms/ml) have a proliferative rate, final cell density, and morphological appearance similar to those of cells grown in serum-supplemented medium. (
  • Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is mitogenic for MDCK cells when present at low concentrations (from 2.5 to 100 micrograms protein/ml). (
  • Above 100 micrograms protein/ml, LDL is cytotoxic and therefore cannot support cell proliferation at an optimal rate. (
  • Although hCNT1 protein was induced during G1/S transition, increased hCNT1 trafficking resulted in maximal cell surface recruitment and transport-overshoot in the G2/M phase-enriched cell population. (
  • hCNT1 protein was directed predominantly to proteasomal or lysosomal degradation in S or G2/M phase MIA PaCa-2 cells, respectively. (
  • One trick is to express your protein of interest fused to a fluorescent protein such as GFP, so you regularly can FACS your cells and sustain high expression. (
  • The majority are protein or glycoprotein antigens present on the zoite surface or resident in the secretory organelles of the zoite apical complex, and several are secreted during gliding motility and/or epithelial cell invasion. (
  • Here we combine metabolic pulse labeling and quantitative proteomics to monitor protein synthesis upon infection of human cells with a human- and a bird-adapted IAV strain and observe striking differences in viral protein synthesis. (
  • GTP binding YPT1 protein and Ca2+ function independently in a cell-free protein transport reaction. (
  • We further observed an increase in the CK2 activity during the replication cycle of influenza virus, although Western blot analysis did not reveal any increase in the amount of CK2 protein in virus-infected cells. (
  • The uptake of ECG in the Caco-2 cells increased 2-fold in the presence of 50 μM 3-[{3-[2-(7-chloroquinolin-2-yl)vinyl]phenyl}-(2-dimethylcarbamoylethylsulfanyl)methylsulfanyl] propionic acid (MK-571), suggesting the involvement of multidrug-associated protein (MRP)2 in efflux of ECG. (
  • Functional disruption of individual components of a putative lateral targeting patch (e.g., microtubules, the exocyst, and soluble N -ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptors) did not inhibit cell-cell adhesion or colocalization of the other components with E-cadherin, but each blocked AQP3 delivery to forming cell-cell contacts. (
  • The type III secretion system is a specialized, evolutionarily conserved protein secretion apparatus required for the export of virulence determinants which plays an important role in the invasion and destruction of the epithelial cells by Salmonella ( 12 , 29 ). (
  • Analysis of cell proliferation and apoptosis in E15 fetal kidneys of wild-type and Pax2 1Neu +/− mice. (
  • Analysis of proliferation in MDCK tTA/hPAX2 cells. (
  • A close association between the ability of HDLs to support cell proliferation and their ability to induce the activity of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG CoA) reductase is observed. (
  • The time course of the stimulation of proliferation and the increase in enzyme activity of sparse, quiescent cells after exposure to HDLs are parallel. (
  • Despite the expression of one or more of the aforementioned transporters in most cells types, hENT1 is generally considered to be predominantly involved in gemcitabine transport in tumors as its expression correlates with cellular proliferation ( 8 , 11 ). (
  • Although the degree of tumor cell differentiation often correlates with the clinical response to chemotherapy, it is not clear whether the expression of hCNT1 itself is altered in tumors, and if so, whether such alterations influence tumor cell proliferation and drug sensitization. (
  • Prior to challenge, an increased frequency of cytotoxic T lymphocytes, antigen-specific lymphocyte proliferation, and recall IFN-γ secretion by restimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells in CNPs-KAg compared to control KAg vaccinates were observed. (
  • Of note, introduction of the Y161F mutation into the HA of seasonal H3N2 influenza A virus (IAV) and canine H3N8 IAV also increased yields and thermostability in MDCK cells and chicken embryotic eggs. (
  • PAX2 suppresses apoptosis in renal collecting duct cells. (
  • To ascertain whether apoptosis is directly linked to the level of PAX2 expression, we have studied the role of PAX2 in cultured renal cells. (
  • To examine this possibility, we investigated the effects of siRNA-mediated OCRL1 knockdown on biosynthetic and postendocytic membrane traffic in canine and human renal epithelial cells. (
  • In the JBC article, Lipschutz and his MUSC coauthors go a step further -- showing in cell culture and a zebrafish model that depletion of Tuba, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor required for Cdc42 activation, also disrupts renal ciliogenesis. (
  • These data indicating the antiurolithic activity in Ov.Cr, possibly mediated through inhibition of CaOx crystallization, antioxidant, renal epithelial cell protective and antispasmodic activities, rationalizes its medicinal use in urolithiasis. (
  • In 1982 Mina Bissell and colleagues showed that MDCK monolayers responded to the addition of a collagen overlay (dubbed a "sandwich culture") by proliferating and forming hollow tubules. (
  • In addition, PVD9902 cell monolayers responded to physiological (i.e., adenosine, norepinephrine) and pharmacological [i.e., 5′-( N -ethylcarboxamido)adenosine, isoproterenol] agonists with increases in I sc . (
  • Enhanced α-2,6-linked receptor levels should increase the number of interactions between human influenza virions and the cell surface, and hence, the avidity of the binding. (
  • Our data indicated that the effects of the carbohydrate side chain of HA on virus receptor-binding activity are dependent on both the cells in which the virus was grown and the nature of the cellular receptors or intercellular inhibitors to which the virus binds. (
  • CD44, the major cell surface receptor for hyaluronic acid (HA), was shown to localize to detergentresistant cholesterol-rich microdomains, called lipid rafts, in fibroblasts and blood cells. (
  • This technique was validated by ( a ) staining CD8 + cells in the spleens of transgenic mice that express a T cell receptor (TCR) specific for H-2D b in association with peptide GP33-41, and ( b ) by staining virus-specific CTLs in the cerebrospinal fluid of C57BL/6 (B6) mice that had been infected intracranially with LCMV-DOCILE. (
  • In 1991, the response of MDCK acini in 3D culture to the scatter factor was first reported by Lelio Orci and colleagues. (
  • Barr "Mammalian Subtilisins: The Long-Sought Dibasic Processing Endoproteases", Cell, 66:1-3 (1991). (
  • In 84.6 ± 3.6% (mean ± SEM) of cells expressing YFP-PH, HA did not reach the apical membrane ( Fig. 1 , outlined cells and cells with asterisks) but colocalized with YFP-PH in the Golgi. (
  • In cells that expressed no or low levels of YFP-PH, HA transport to the apical membrane was unaffected ( Fig. 1 , cells without asterisks or outlines). (
  • Our data are consistent with the coexistence of lipid bilayer phases, a raft and a nonraft phase, in the apical membrane of epithelial cells. (
  • More importantly, giant unilamellar vesicles prepared from cell membrane lipid extracts ( 9 ) also show visible fluid-fluid phase coexistence. (
  • b o,+ AT‐reconstituted systems from HeLa or MDCK cells catalysed transport of arginine that was totally dependent on the presence of one of the b o,+ substrates inside the liposomes. (
  • Expressing the cystinuria‐specific mutant A354T of b o,+ AT in HeLa cells together with rBAT resulted in defective arginine uptake in whole cells, which was paralleled by the reconstituted b o,+ AT activity. (
  • Figure 2: HeLa cells belong to the group of immortalized cell lines. (
  • recorded videos of L. monocytogenes spreading between epithelial cells grown on a glass coverslip, and developed computer simulations to try to reproduce how the bacteria spread. (
  • MDCK cells in EX-CELL MDCK were also infected with Canine Adenovirus (CAV) and produced 10 7.5 TCID 50 /mL at a multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 0.1 and 10 7.4 TCID50/mL at a MOI of 0.01. (
  • A) Total viable lung cell numbers post-infection. (
  • The NA activity is believed to be particularly important at the late stages of infection by preventing hemagglutinin (HA)-mediated self-aggregation and facilitating release of progeny virions from cells. (
  • BDV can be grown in mammalian cell culture, where it causes a noncytolytic persistent infection. (
  • After this, L. monocytogenes can move from one host cell to another, which allows the infection to reach other organs. (
  • Each of our cells contains antiviral factors that work to inhibit infection. (
  • Infection by apicomplexans is established in the host by rapid and forced invasion of host cells using a multistep process . (
  • Staining of spleen cells isolated from B6 mice revealed that up to 40% of CD8 + T cells were GP33 tetramer + during the initial phase of LCMV infection. (
  • The tetrameric class I-peptide complexes, which stained CTLs specifically, were used to follow the fate of GP33-specific CD8 + T cells in mice during the acute phase of LCMV infection. (
  • However, they could be induced to break cell-cell contacts and become elongated and motile after exposure to a "scatter factor" that was secreted by mesenchymal cells such as Swiss 3T3 fibroblasts. (
  • One isolate was passed 6 times in duck embryo fibroblasts, and the infected cells were then injected intramuscularly into 2 healthy Patagonian conures ( Cyanoliseus patagonis) . (
  • Have you had your cell cultures checked for Mycoplasma/Ureaplasma contamination? (
  • cell cultures are routinely checked for contamination every 6 weeks (Hoechst stain method) and discarded when they reach 50-60 subpassages from the freezer. (
  • However, there is no good correlation between virus sensitivity to NAI in vivo and in laboratory cell cultures. (
  • The mitogenic stimulus provided by HDLs is not limited by the initial cell density at which cultures are seeded, nor is it limited in time, since cells grown in medium supplemented with transferrin and HDLs grew to at least 50 generations. (
  • However, the proliferative rate of the cells is suboptimal and cultures cannot be passaged on this substrate indefinitely, as they can be on ECM-coated dishes. (
  • Animal cell cultures for the production of viral vaccines. (
  • Indeed, initial studies revealed ion transport mechanisms in freshly isolated human vas deferens ( 11 ) and primary cultures of epithelial cells derived from distal portions of the human ( 11 ), porcine ( 12 , 36 , 41 ), and ovine ( 7 ) reproductive duct. (
  • The candidate will have access to modern equipment at our Max Planck Institute in an international group of researchers and work with actual key aspects in industrial biopharmaceutical production such as process intensification of suspension animal cell cultures. (
  • Myosin Va is associated with discrete vesicle populations in a number of cell types, but little is known of the function of myosin Vb. (
  • p120 catenin (p120ctn) binds to the cytoplasmic domain of cadherins in the juxtamembrane region, which has been implicated in regulating cell motility. (
  • This connection remains significant as a link between precisely defined mechanisms of cell motility in 2D and complex rearrangements in 3D whose regulation is yet to be understood fully. (
  • This ubiquitous Gram-positive bacterium can invade and replicate within non-phagocytic cells and, importantly, use a form of actin-based motility to spread directly from the cytoplasm of an infected host cell into the cytoplasm of another host cell without exposure to the extracellular milieu ( Tilney and Portnoy, 1989 ). (
  • In this paper, we present two complementary strategies for enrichment of glycoproteins on living cells that combine the desirable attributes of “robust enrichment†afforded by covalent-labeling techniques and “specificity for glycoproteins†typically provided by lectin or. (
  • Neuraminidase (NA) is one of the two glycoproteins on the surface of influenza virus, which cleaves terminal sialic acid residues and facilitates the release of virions from infected cells. (
  • dFdU inhibited cell cycle progression and its cytotoxicity significantly increased with longer duration of exposure. (
  • The HMG CoA reductase activity of sparse MDCK cells is induced six-fold by exposure to compactin, a competitive inhibitor of HMG CoA reductase. (
  • MDCK cells viability was determined after different times of exposure to different concentrations of HESA-A through MTT at an optical density of 540 nm. (
  • Values (averages of 4 independent experiments) showed cytotoxicity of different concentrations of HESA-A at different exposure time (24, 48 &72 hr) on MDCK cells (mean ± SD). (
  • Unlike their freshly isolated counterparts, however, PVD9902 cells did not respond to glucocorticoid exposure with an increase in amiloride-sensitive I sc . (
  • Cells transfected with caspase-2 ( A ), anti-sense PAX2 ( B ), and sense PAX2 ( C ) vectors and β-Gal marker. (
  • To answer to an ever increasing demand of vaccines and viral vectors for gene therapies, production process intensification through high cell density perfusion cultivations could be a solution. (
  • The oligomers become larger, increasingly detergent insoluble, and phosphorylated on caveolin-2 during transport to the cell surface. (
  • The role of PI(4)P in regulating polarized sorting to the cell surface in the Golgi complex of epithelial cells is unclear. (
  • To gain more insight into the mechanisms of polarized trafficking, we have addressed the functional role of PI(4)P, FAPP1, and FAPP2 in the delivery of biosynthetic cargo from the Golgi complex to the cell surface in polarized MDCK cells. (
  • They based this conclusion on the fluid transport activities of monolayers formed of MDCK cells, the presence of microvilli on their apical (upper) surface, and their ability to self-organize, when grown in 3D, into hollow spheres. (
  • The subsequent extraction of cholesterol from cells grown in the presence of inhibitors led to a further reduction in microvilli on the surface of the cells and, in some cases, resulted in monolayers devoid of full length microvilli. (
  • Significantly, smaller spikes were observed on the surface of the smoother cells. (
  • Binding to HA becomes temperature-dependent, however, as N -linked oligosaccharides mature during transport of trimerized HA through the GC to the cell surface. (
  • Post-Golgi to apical surface delivery in polarized epithelial cells requires the cytoplasmic dynein motor complex. (
  • Studies to date suggest 2 transporters from each of the human concentrative nucleoside transporter family (hCNT1, hCNT3) and the equilibrative nucleoside transporter family (hENT1, hENT2) are capable of translocating gemcitabine across the cell surface ( 3 , 6 , 7-10 ). (
  • After treatment of breast cancer cells with drugs, we found that two independent modifications of E-cadherin inhibit its cell surface transport. (
  • However, deletion mutants that cannot be O-GlcNAcylated continued to bind PIPKIγ, trafficked to the cell surface and delayed apoptosis, confirming the biological significance of the modifications and PIPKIγ binding. (
  • The modifications of E-cadherin by O-GlcNAcylation and lack of pro-region processing represent novel mechanisms for rapid regulation of cell surface transport of E-cadherin in response to intoxication. (
  • SHM accumulates massive point mutations in the V exon and gives rise to affinity maturation of antibodies in association with selection of B cells expressing high affinity Igs on their surface. (
  • This review discusses recent advances in our understanding of the interactions between epithelial ion channels and the actin-based cytoskeleton, and the roles these interactions play in regulating the cell surface expression, activity, and intracellular trafficking of epithelial ion channels. (
  • We previously used monoclonal antibody 11A5 to identify a 15-kDa surface glycoprotein that was shed behind motile sporozoites and was recognized by several lectins that neutralized parasite infectivity for cultured epithelial cells. (
  • rBAT was essential for the cell surface expression of b o,+ AT, but it was not required for reconstituted b o,+ AT transport activity. (
  • Holding material within the jammed medium negates the effects of surface tension, gravity, and particle diffusion, and enables a wide variety of materials to be written by this process, including silicones, hydrogels, colloids, and living cells. (
  • In contrast to fibroblastic or epithelial-like cells they do not attach to the surface. (
  • Polar epithelial cells can be found on the surface of multi-cellular organisms and can cover cavities throughout the body and serve in this way as protection barrier. (