Mixed Tumor, Malignant: A malignant tumor composed of more than one type of neoplastic tissue. (Dorland, 27th ed)Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal: Neoplasms composed of primordial GERM CELLS of embryonic GONADS or of elements of the germ layers of the EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in the gonads or present in an embryo or FETUS.Testicular Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the TESTIS. Germ cell tumors (GERMINOMA) of the testis constitute 95% of all testicular neoplasms.Germinoma: A malignant neoplasm of the germinal tissue of the GONADS; MEDIASTINUM; or pineal region. Germinomas are uniform in appearance, consisting of large, round cells with vesicular nuclei and clear or finely granular eosinophilic-staining cytoplasm. (Stedman, 265th ed; from DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, pp1642-3)Mixed Tumor, Mesodermal: A sarcoma of the body of the uterus arising in older women, composed of more than one mesenchymal tissue, especially including striated muscle cells. It is associated with previous pelvic radiation exposure in 20% of patients. (Stedman, 25th ed; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1702)Germ Cells: The reproductive cells in multicellular organisms at various stages during GAMETOGENESIS.Neoplasms, Complex and Mixed: Neoplasms composed of more than one type of neoplastic tissue.CA-125 Antigen: Carbohydrate antigen most commonly seen in tumors of the ovary and occasionally seen in breast, kidney, and gastrointestinal tract tumors and normal tissue. CA 125 is clearly tumor-associated but not tumor-specific.Seminoma: A radiosensitive, malignant neoplasm of the testis, thought to be derived from primordial germ cells of the sexually undifferentiated embryonic gonad. There are three variants: classical (typical), the most common type; anaplastic; and spermatocytic. The classical seminoma is composed of fairly well differentiated sheets or cords of uniform polygonal or round cells (seminoma cells), each cell having abundant clear cytoplasm, distinct cell membranes, a centrally placed round nucleus, and one or more nucleoli. In the female, a grossly and histologically identical neoplasm, known as dysgerminoma, occurs. (Dorland, 27th ed)Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Endodermal Sinus Tumor: An unusual and aggressive tumor of germ-cell origin that reproduces the extraembryonic structures of the early embryo. It is the most common malignant germ cell tumor found in children. It is characterized by a labyrinthine glandular pattern of flat epithelial cells and rounded papillary processes with a central capillary (Schiller-Duval body). The tumor is rarely bilateral. Before the use of combination chemotherapy, the tumor was almost invariably fatal. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1189)Adenoma, Pleomorphic: A benign, slow-growing tumor, most commonly of the salivary gland, occurring as a small, painless, firm nodule, usually of the parotid gland, but also found in any major or accessory salivary gland anywhere in the oral cavity. It is most often seen in women in the fifth decade. Histologically, the tumor presents a variety of cells: cuboidal, columnar, and squamous cells, showing all forms of epithelial growth. (Dorland, 27th ed)Mammary Neoplasms, Animal: Tumors or cancer of the MAMMARY GLAND in animals (MAMMARY GLANDS, ANIMAL).Myoepithelioma: A usually benign tumor made up predominantly of myoepithelial cells.Dog Diseases: Diseases of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). This term does not include diseases of wild dogs, WOLVES; FOXES; and other Canidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.Dysgerminoma: A malignant ovarian neoplasm, thought to be derived from primordial germ cells of the sexually undifferentiated embryonic gonad. It is the counterpart of the classical seminoma of the testis, to which it is both grossly and histologically identical. Dysgerminomas comprise 16% of all germ cell tumors but are rare before the age of 10, although nearly 50% occur before the age of 20. They are generally considered of low-grade malignancy but may spread if the tumor extends through its capsule and involves lymph nodes or blood vessels. (Dorland, 27th ed; DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1646)Tumor Markers, Biological: Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.Teratoma: A true neoplasm composed of a number of different types of tissue, none of which is native to the area in which it occurs. It is composed of tissues that are derived from three germinal layers, the endoderm, mesoderm, and ectoderm. They are classified histologically as mature (benign) or immature (malignant). (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1642)Granulosa Cell Tumor: A neoplasm composed entirely of GRANULOSA CELLS, occurring mostly in the OVARY. In the adult form, it may contain some THECA CELLS. This tumor often produces ESTRADIOL and INHIBIN. The excess estrogen exposure can lead to other malignancies in women and PRECOCIOUS PUBERTY in girls. In rare cases, granulosa cell tumors have been identified in the TESTES.Ovarian Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the OVARY. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. They are classified according to the tissue of origin, such as the surface EPITHELIUM, the stromal endocrine cells, and the totipotent GERM CELLS.Giant Cell Tumor of Bone: A bone tumor composed of cellular spindle-cell stroma containing scattered multinucleated giant cells resembling osteoclasts. The tumors range from benign to frankly malignant lesions. The tumor occurs most frequently in an end of a long tubular bone in young adults. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Stedman, 25th ed)Carcinosarcoma: A malignant neoplasm that contains elements of carcinoma and sarcoma so extensively intermixed as to indicate neoplasia of epithelial and mesenchymal tissue. (Stedman, 25th ed)Mesenchymoma: A mixed mesenchymal tumor composed of two or more mesodermal cellular elements not commonly associated, not counting fibrous tissue as one of the elements. Mesenchymomas are widely distributed in the body and about 75% are malignant. (Dorland, 27th ed; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1866)Mediastinal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the MEDIASTINUM.Retroperitoneal NeoplasmsGiant Cell Tumors: Tumors of bone tissue or synovial or other soft tissue characterized by the presence of giant cells. The most common are giant cell tumor of tendon sheath and GIANT CELL TUMOR OF BONE.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Vaginal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the VAGINA.Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Carcinoma, Embryonal: A highly malignant, primitive form of carcinoma, probably of germinal cell or teratomatous derivation, usually arising in a gonad and rarely in other sites. It is rare in the female ovary, but in the male it accounts for 20% of all testicular tumors. (From Dorland, 27th ed & Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1595)Salivary Gland Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the SALIVARY GLANDS.Testis: The male gonad containing two functional parts: the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES for the production and transport of male germ cells (SPERMATOGENESIS) and the interstitial compartment containing LEYDIG CELLS that produce ANDROGENS.Granular Cell Tumor: Unusual tumor affecting any site of the body, but most often encountered in the head and neck. Considerable debate has surrounded the histogenesis of this neoplasm; however, it is considered to be a myoblastoma of, usually, a benign nature. It affects women more often than men. When it develops beneath the epidermis or mucous membrane, it can lead to proliferation of the squamous cells and mimic squamous cell carcinoma.Antigens, Tumor-Associated, Carbohydrate: Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.Sertoli Cell Tumor: Gonadal neoplasm composed entirely of SERTOLI CELLS or may have a component of GRANULOSA CELLS. Some of the Sertoli cell tumors produce ESTROGEN or ANDROGENS, but seldom in sufficient quantity to cause clinical symptoms such as FEMINIZATION or masculinization (VIRILISM).Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Carcinoembryonic Antigen: A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.Submandibular Gland NeoplasmsCisplatin: An inorganic and water-soluble platinum complex. After undergoing hydrolysis, it reacts with DNA to produce both intra and interstrand crosslinks. These crosslinks appear to impair replication and transcription of DNA. The cytotoxicity of cisplatin correlates with cellular arrest in the G2 phase of the cell cycle.Leydig Cell Tumor: Gonadal interstitial or stromal cell neoplasm composed of only LEYDIG CELLS. These tumors may produce one or more of the steroid hormones such as ANDROGENS; ESTROGENS; and CORTICOSTEROIDS. Clinical symptoms include testicular swelling, GYNECOMASTIA, sexual precocity in children, or virilization (VIRILISM) in females.alpha-Fetoproteins: The first alpha-globulins to appear in mammalian sera during FETAL DEVELOPMENT and the dominant serum proteins in early embryonic life.Parotid Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PAROTID GLAND.Spermatogenesis: The process of germ cell development in the male from the primordial germ cells, through SPERMATOGONIA; SPERMATOCYTES; SPERMATIDS; to the mature haploid SPERMATOZOA.Bleomycin: A complex of related glycopeptide antibiotics from Streptomyces verticillus consisting of bleomycin A2 and B2. It inhibits DNA metabolism and is used as an antineoplastic, especially for solid tumors.Mucin-1: Carbohydrate antigen elevated in patients with tumors of the breast, ovary, lung, and prostate as well as other disorders. The mucin is expressed normally by most glandular epithelia but shows particularly increased expression in the breast at lactation and in malignancy. It is thus an established serum marker for breast cancer.Neoplasm Metastasis: The transfer of a neoplasm from one organ or part of the body to another remote from the primary site.Adenosarcoma: A malignant neoplasm arising simultaneously or consecutively in mesodermal tissue and glandular epithelium of the same part. (Stedman, 25th ed)Tumor Burden: The total amount (cell number, weight, size or volume) of tumor cells or tissue in the body.Etoposide: A semisynthetic derivative of PODOPHYLLOTOXIN that exhibits antitumor activity. Etoposide inhibits DNA synthesis by forming a complex with topoisomerase II and DNA. This complex induces breaks in double stranded DNA and prevents repair by topoisomerase II binding. Accumulated breaks in DNA prevent entry into the mitotic phase of cell division, and lead to cell death. Etoposide acts primarily in the G2 and S phases of the cell cycle.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Neoplasm Proteins: Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.Choriocarcinoma: A malignant metastatic form of trophoblastic tumors. Unlike the HYDATIDIFORM MOLE, choriocarcinoma contains no CHORIONIC VILLI but rather sheets of undifferentiated cytotrophoblasts and syncytiotrophoblasts (TROPHOBLASTS). It is characterized by the large amounts of CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN produced. Tissue origins can be determined by DNA analyses: placental (fetal) origin or non-placental origin (CHORIOCARCINOMA, NON-GESTATIONAL).Mesonephroma: A rare tumor of the female genital tract, most often the ovary, formerly considered to be derived from mesonephric rests. Two varieties are recognized: (1) clear cell carcinoma, so called because of its histologic resemblance to renal cell carcinoma, and now considered to be of muellerian duct derivation and (2) an embryonal tumor (called also ENDODERMAL SINUS TUMOR and yolk sac tumor), occurring chiefly in children. The latter variety may also arise in the testis. (Dorland, 27th ed)Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Neoplasm Staging: Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.Keratins: A class of fibrous proteins or scleroproteins that represents the principal constituent of EPIDERMIS; HAIR; NAILS; horny tissues, and the organic matrix of tooth ENAMEL. Two major conformational groups have been characterized, alpha-keratin, whose peptide backbone forms a coiled-coil alpha helical structure consisting of TYPE I KERATIN and a TYPE II KERATIN, and beta-keratin, whose backbone forms a zigzag or pleated sheet structure. alpha-Keratins have been classified into at least 20 subtypes. In addition multiple isoforms of subtypes have been found which may be due to GENE DUPLICATION.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols: The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.Prostatein: A secreted prostate-specific protein which can bind non-polar steroids, cholesterol and a group of small, proline-rich peptides. The protein is specifically found in RATS and comprises three distinct secretoglobin-related subunits referred to as prostatic steroid-binding protein C1, C2 and C3.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Cancer Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines designed to prevent or treat cancer. Vaccines are produced using the patient's own whole tumor cells as the source of antigens, or using tumor-specific antigens, often recombinantly produced.Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Mixed Tumor, Mullerian: A tumor, basically a carcinoma with a single sarcoma such as leiomyosarcoma or angiosarcoma or multiple sarcomas of uterine origin. The role of estrogen has been postulated as a possible etiological factor in this tumor. (Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1703)Genes, Tumor Suppressor: Genes that inhibit expression of the tumorigenic phenotype. They are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. When tumor suppressor genes are inactivated or lost, a barrier to normal proliferation is removed and unregulated growth is possible.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced new abnormal growth of TISSUES in animals to provide models for studying human neoplasms.Combined Modality Therapy: The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.Brain Neoplasms: Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.Retroperitoneal Space: An area occupying the most posterior aspect of the ABDOMINAL CAVITY. It is bounded laterally by the borders of the quadratus lumborum muscles and extends from the DIAPHRAGM to the brim of the true PELVIS, where it continues as the pelvic extraperitoneal space.Vimentin: An intermediate filament protein found in most differentiating cells, in cells grown in tissue culture, and in certain fully differentiated cells. Its insolubility suggests that it serves a structural function in the cytoplasm. MW 52,000.Carcinoma: A malignant neoplasm made up of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate the surrounding tissues and give rise to metastases. It is a histological type of neoplasm but is often wrongly used as a synonym for "cancer." (From Dorland, 27th ed)Tumor Suppressor Protein p53: Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.Adenocarcinoma: A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Ossification, Heterotopic: The development of bony substance in normally soft structures.Seminiferous Tubules: The convoluted tubules in the TESTIS where sperm are produced (SPERMATOGENESIS) and conveyed to the RETE TESTIS. Spermatogenic tubules are composed of developing germ cells and the supporting SERTOLI CELLS.Spermatozoa: Mature male germ cells derived from SPERMATIDS. As spermatids move toward the lumen of the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES, they undergo extensive structural changes including the loss of cytoplasm, condensation of CHROMATIN into the SPERM HEAD, formation of the ACROSOME cap, the SPERM MIDPIECE and the SPERM TAIL that provides motility.Lung Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.Neoplasm Recurrence, Local: The local recurrence of a neoplasm following treatment. It arises from microscopic cells of the original neoplasm that have escaped therapeutic intervention and later become clinically visible at the original site.Wilms Tumor: A malignant kidney tumor, caused by the uncontrolled multiplication of renal stem (blastemal), stromal (STROMAL CELLS), and epithelial (EPITHELIAL CELLS) elements. However, not all three are present in every case. Several genes or chromosomal areas have been associated with Wilms tumor which is usually found in childhood as a firm lump in a child's side or ABDOMEN.CA-19-9 Antigen: Sialylated Lewis blood group carbohydrate antigen found in many adenocarcinomas of the digestive tract, especially pancreatic tumors.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Ifosfamide: Positional isomer of CYCLOPHOSPHAMIDE which is active as an alkylating agent and an immunosuppressive agent.Orchiectomy: The surgical removal of one or both testicles.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Dialysis Solutions: Solutions prepared for exchange across a semipermeable membrane of solutes below a molecular size determined by the cutoff threshold of the membrane material.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Spermatogonia: Euploid male germ cells of an early stage of SPERMATOGENESIS, derived from prespermatogonia. With the onset of puberty, spermatogonia at the basement membrane of the seminiferous tubule proliferate by mitotic then meiotic divisions and give rise to the haploid SPERMATOCYTES.Neoplasms, Gonadal Tissue: Neoplasms composed of tissues of the OVARY or the TESTIS, not neoplasms located in the ovaries or testes. Gonadal tissues include GERM CELLS, cells from the sex cord, and gonadal stromal cells.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Krukenberg Tumor: Mucocellular carcinoma of the ovary, usually metastatic from the gastrointestinal tract, characterized by areas of mucoid degeneration and the presence of signet-ring-like cells. It accounts for 30%-40% of metastatic cancers to the ovaries and possibly 1%-2% of all malignant ovarian tumors. The lesions may not be discovered until the primary disease is advanced, and most patients die of their disease within a year. In some cases, a primary tumor is not found. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1685)Neoplasms, Multiple Primary: Two or more abnormal growths of tissue occurring simultaneously and presumed to be of separate origin. The neoplasms may be histologically the same or different, and may be found in the same or different sites.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Salvage Therapy: A therapeutic approach, involving chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or surgery, after initial regimens have failed to lead to improvement in a patient's condition. Salvage therapy is most often used for neoplastic diseases.Mice, Inbred BALB CTumor Suppressor Proteins: Proteins that are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. Deficiencies or abnormalities in these proteins may lead to unregulated cell growth and tumor development.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Prostatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE.DNA, Neoplasm: DNA present in neoplastic tissue.Bone Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer located in bone tissue or specific BONES.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Sertoli-Leydig Cell Tumor: A sex cord-gonadal stromal tumor consists of LEYDIG CELLS; SERTOLI CELLS; and FIBROBLASTS in varying proportions and degree of differentiation. Most such tumors produce ANDROGENS in the Leydig cells, formerly known as androblastoma or arrhenoblastoma. Androblastomas occur in the TESTIS or the OVARY causing precocious masculinization in the males, and defeminization, or virilization (VIRILISM) in the females. In some cases, the Sertoli cells produce ESTROGENS.Carcinoid Tumor: A usually small, slow-growing neoplasm composed of islands of rounded, oxyphilic, or spindle-shaped cells of medium size, with moderately small vesicular nuclei, and covered by intact mucosa with a yellow cut surface. The tumor can occur anywhere in the gastrointestinal tract (and in the lungs and other sites); approximately 90% arise in the appendix. It is now established that these tumors are of neuroendocrine origin and derive from a primitive stem cell. (From Stedman, 25th ed & Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1182)Colonic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON.Survival Analysis: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.Peritoneum: A membrane of squamous EPITHELIAL CELLS, the mesothelial cells, covered by apical MICROVILLI that allow rapid absorption of fluid and particles in the PERITONEAL CAVITY. The peritoneum is divided into parietal and visceral components. The parietal peritoneum covers the inside of the ABDOMINAL WALL. The visceral peritoneum covers the intraperitoneal organs. The double-layered peritoneum forms the MESENTERY that suspends these organs from the abdominal wall.Antibodies, Neoplasm: Immunoglobulins induced by antigens specific for tumors other than the normally occurring HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Gonadoblastoma: A complex neoplasm composed of a mixture of gonadal elements, such as large primordial GERM CELLS, immature SERTOLI CELLS or GRANULOSA CELLS of the sex cord, and gonadal stromal cells. Gonadoblastomas are most often associated with gonadal dysgenesis, 46, XY.Sertoli Cells: Supporting cells projecting inward from the basement membrane of SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES. They surround and nourish the developing male germ cells and secrete ANDROGEN-BINDING PROTEIN and hormones such as ANTI-MULLERIAN HORMONE. The tight junctions of Sertoli cells with the SPERMATOGONIA and SPERMATOCYTES provide a BLOOD-TESTIS BARRIER.Cell Transformation, Neoplastic: Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Pancreatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PANCREAS. Depending on the types of ISLET CELLS present in the tumors, various hormones can be secreted: GLUCAGON from PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS; INSULIN from PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and SOMATOSTATIN from the SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS. Most are malignant except the insulin-producing tumors (INSULINOMA).Transplantation, Heterologous: Transplantation between animals of different species.Adenoma, Islet Cell: A benign tumor of the pancreatic ISLET CELLS. Usually it involves the INSULIN-producing PANCREATIC BETA CELLS, as in INSULINOMA, resulting in HYPERINSULINISM.Survival Rate: The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Pinealoma: Neoplasms which originate from pineal parenchymal cells that tend to enlarge the gland and be locally invasive. The two major forms are pineocytoma and the more malignant pineoblastoma. Pineocytomas have moderate cellularity and tend to form rosette patterns. Pineoblastomas are highly cellular tumors containing small, poorly differentiated cells. These tumors occasionally seed the neuroaxis or cause obstructive HYDROCEPHALUS or Parinaud's syndrome. GERMINOMA; CARCINOMA, EMBRYONAL; GLIOMA; and other neoplasms may arise in the pineal region with germinoma being the most common pineal region tumor. (From DeVita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, p2064; Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p670)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Mice, Inbred C57BLMice, Nude: Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.Teratocarcinoma: A malignant neoplasm consisting of elements of teratoma with those of embryonal carcinoma or choriocarcinoma, or both. It occurs most often in the testis. (Dorland, 27th ed)Neuroendocrine Tumors: Tumors whose cells possess secretory granules and originate from the neuroectoderm, i.e., the cells of the ectoblast or epiblast that program the neuroendocrine system. Common properties across most neuroendocrine tumors include ectopic hormone production (often via APUD CELLS), the presence of tumor-associated antigens, and isozyme composition.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Tumor Microenvironment: The milieu surrounding neoplasms consisting of cells, vessels, soluble factors, and molecules, that can influence and be influenced by, the neoplasm's growth.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Disease-Free Survival: Period after successful treatment in which there is no appearance of the symptoms or effects of the disease.Mammary Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced mammary neoplasms in animals to provide a model for studying human BREAST NEOPLASMS.GPI-Linked Proteins: A subclass of lipid-linked proteins that contain a GLYCOSYLPHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOL LINKAGE which holds them to the CELL MEMBRANE.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 12: A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Neovascularization, Pathologic: A pathologic process consisting of the proliferation of blood vessels in abnormal tissues or in abnormal positions.Immunotherapy: Manipulation of the host's immune system in treatment of disease. It includes both active and passive immunization as well as immunosuppressive therapy to prevent graft rejection.Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays: In vivo methods of screening investigative anticancer drugs, biologic response modifiers or radiotherapies. Human tumor tissue or cells are transplanted into mice or rats followed by tumor treatment regimens. A variety of outcomes are monitored to assess antitumor effectiveness.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Liver Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.Metaplasia: A condition in which there is a change of one adult cell type to another similar adult cell type.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Carboplatin: An organoplatinum compound that possesses antineoplastic activity.Cryptorchidism: A developmental defect in which a TESTIS or both TESTES failed to descend from high in the ABDOMEN to the bottom of the SCROTUM. Testicular descent is essential to normal SPERMATOGENESIS which requires temperature lower than the BODY TEMPERATURE. Cryptorchidism can be subclassified by the location of the maldescended testis.Skin Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the SKIN.Spermatocytes: Male germ cells derived from SPERMATOGONIA. The euploid primary spermatocytes undergo MEIOSIS and give rise to the haploid secondary spermatocytes which in turn give rise to SPERMATIDS.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit: A protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is specific for STEM CELL FACTOR. This interaction is crucial for the development of hematopoietic, gonadal, and pigment stem cells. Genetic mutations that disrupt the expression of PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-KIT are associated with PIEBALDISM, while overexpression or constitutive activation of the c-kit protein-tyrosine kinase is associated with tumorigenesis.Antigens, Polyomavirus Transforming: Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human: The beta subunit of human CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN. Its structure is similar to the beta subunit of LUTEINIZING HORMONE, except for the additional 30 amino acids at the carboxy end with the associated carbohydrate residues. HCG-beta is used as a diagnostic marker for early detection of pregnancy, spontaneous abortion (ABORTION, SPONTANEOUS); ECTOPIC PREGNANCY; HYDATIDIFORM MOLE; CHORIOCARCINOMA; or DOWN SYNDROME.Thoracic NeoplasmsChorionic Gonadotropin: A gonadotropic glycoprotein hormone produced primarily by the PLACENTA. Similar to the pituitary LUTEINIZING HORMONE in structure and function, chorionic gonadotropin is involved in maintaining the CORPUS LUTEUM during pregnancy. CG consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is virtually identical to the alpha subunits of the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity (CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN, BETA SUBUNIT, HUMAN).Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Kidney Neoplasms: Tumors or cancers of the KIDNEY.Central Nervous System Neoplasms: Benign and malignant neoplastic processes that arise from or secondarily involve the brain, spinal cord, or meninges.Spermatids: Male germ cells derived from the haploid secondary SPERMATOCYTES. Without further division, spermatids undergo structural changes and give rise to SPERMATOZOA.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Octamer Transcription Factor-3: An octamer transcription factor that is expressed primarily in totipotent embryonic STEM CELLS and GERM CELLS and is down-regulated during CELL DIFFERENTIATION.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.DNA Methylation: Addition of methyl groups to DNA. DNA methyltransferases (DNA methylases) perform this reaction using S-ADENOSYLMETHIONINE as the methyl group donor.Carcinoma, Squamous Cell: A carcinoma derived from stratified SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. It may also occur in sites where glandular or columnar epithelium is normally present. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Gonads: The gamete-producing glands, OVARY or TESTIS.Neoplasms, Second Primary: Abnormal growths of tissue that follow a previous neoplasm but are not metastases of the latter. The second neoplasm may have the same or different histological type and can occur in the same or different organs as the previous neoplasm but in all cases arises from an independent oncogenic event. The development of the second neoplasm may or may not be related to the treatment for the previous neoplasm since genetic risk or predisposing factors may actually be the cause.Carcinoma in Situ: A lesion with cytological characteristics associated with invasive carcinoma but the tumor cells are confined to the epithelium of origin, without invasion of the basement membrane.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Early Detection of Cancer: Methods to identify and characterize cancer in the early stages of disease and predict tumor behavior.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Stomach Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the STOMACH.Lymph Node Excision: Surgical excision of one or more lymph nodes. Its most common use is in cancer surgery. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p966)Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Ovary: The reproductive organ (GONADS) in female animals. In vertebrates, the ovary contains two functional parts: the OVARIAN FOLLICLE for the production of female germ cells (OOGENESIS); and the endocrine cells (GRANULOSA CELLS; THECA CELLS; and LUTEAL CELLS) for the production of ESTROGENS and PROGESTERONE.Growth Differentiation Factor 3: A growth differentiation factor that may play a role in maintaining the undifferentiated state of PLURIPOTENT STEM CELLS by inhibiting the actions of BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEINS. Differentiation factor 3 is also considered a nodal signaling ligand that influences the genesis of left-right asymmetry.Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive, Peripheral: A group of highly cellular primitive round cell neoplasms which occur extracranially in soft tissue and bone and are derived from embryonal neural crest cells. These tumors occur primarily in children and adolescents and share a number of characteristics with EWING SARCOMA.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Mice, SCID: Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.Antigens, Viral, Tumor: Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Vinblastine: Antitumor alkaloid isolated from Vinca rosea. (Merck, 11th ed.)Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Neoplasm Transplantation: Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.Neoplasm, Residual: Remnant of a tumor or cancer after primary, potentially curative therapy. (Dr. Daniel Masys, written communication)Sacrococcygeal Region: The body region between (and flanking) the SACRUM and COCCYX.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Fatal Outcome: Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.Antigens, Protozoan: Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors: All tumors in the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT arising from mesenchymal cells (MESODERM) except those of smooth muscle cells (LEIOMYOMA) or Schwann cells (SCHWANNOMA).Ki-67 Antigen: A CELL CYCLE and tumor growth marker which can be readily detected using IMMUNOCYTOCHEMISTRY methods. Ki-67 is a nuclear antigen present only in the nuclei of cycling cells.Abdominal NeoplasmsChemotherapy, Adjuvant: Drug therapy given to augment or stimulate some other form of treatment such as surgery or radiation therapy. Adjuvant chemotherapy is commonly used in the therapy of cancer and can be administered before or after the primary treatment.

*Choriocarcinoma

Although trophoblastic components are common components of mixed germ cell tumors, pure choriocarcinoma of the adult testis is ... Choriocarcinoma is a malignant, trophoblastic cancer, usually of the placenta. It is characterized by "early hematogenous ... It is also classified as a germ cell tumor and may arise in the testis or ovary. increased quantitative chorionic gonadotropin ... Since choriocarcinomas include syncytiotrophoblasts (beta-HCG producing cells), they cause elevated blood levels of beta-human ...

*Cancer of unknown primary origin

... the cancer may be either a lymphoma or a germ cell tumor. Lymphomas begin in the lymphatic system. Germ cell tumors usually ... or squamous cell carcinomas (5%). Rarely, CUP may appear as neuroendocrine tumors, or mixed tumors, such as sarcomatoid, ... the part of the body the cancer cells came from cannot be determined. About 2 to 4 percent of all cancer patients have a cancer ... Often the expression of these antigens is similar to the tissue that the cancer grew from, so immunohistochemical testing ...

*Ovarian cancer

Germ cell tumors of the ovary develop from the ovarian germ cells. Germ cell tumor accounts for about 30% of ovarian tumors, ... Mixed germ cell tumors make up approximately 25-30% of all germ cell ovarian cancers, with combinations of dysgerminoma, yolk ... Less common tumors are malignant Brenner tumor and transitional cell carcinoma of the ovary. Epithelial ovarian cancers develop ... There is no specific marker for immature teratomas, but carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), CA-125, CA19-9, or AFP can sometimes ...

*Teratoma

... in which case it is not a pure teratoma but rather is a mixed germ cell tumor and is malignant. In infants and young children, ... All tumors of this class are the result of abnormal development of pluripotent cells: germ cells and embryonal cells. Teratomas ... possibly malignant (cancerous); and 3 or frankly malignant. If frankly malignant, the tumor is a cancer for which additional ... "Squamous cell carcinoma arising in a mature cystic teratoma of the ovary in young patient with elevated carbohydrate antigen 19 ...

*Coley's toxins

... where physical damage to cancer cells leads to a sudden supply of cancer antigens to the dendritic cell population. Recently ( ... The treatment of malignant tumors by repeated inoculations of Erysipelas, with a report of ten original cases. Am J Med Sci ... Germs As A Tumor Foe?, from the Los Angeles Times, published February 18, 2008. Accessed March 26, 2008. Hess, J David. (1997 ... Since then, several small clinical trials have been conducted with mixed results. Coley's Toxins were also produced by the ...

*Vaccine

Dendritic cell vaccines combine dendritic cells with antigens in order to present the antigens to the body's white blood cells ... These vaccines have shown some positive preliminary results for treating brain tumors and are also tested in malignant melanoma ... Anguille, S; Smits, EL; Lion, E; van Tendeloo, VF; Berneman, ZN (June 2014). "Clinical use of dendritic cells for cancer ... 2016). "Prophylactic vaccines are potent activators of monocyte-derived dendritic cells and drive effective anti-tumor ...

*Vaccine

Dendritic cell vaccines combine dendritic cells with antigens in order to present the antigens to the body's white blood cells ... These vaccines have shown some positive preliminary results for treating brain tumors [43] and are also tested in malignant ... Anguille S, Smits EL, Lion E, van Tendeloo VF, Berneman ZN (June 2014). "Clinical use of dendritic cells for cancer therapy". ... "Prophylactic vaccines are potent activators of monocyte-derived dendritic cells and drive effective anti-tumor responses in ...

*History of virology

From the 1950s to the 1960s, Chester M. Southam, a prominent virologist, injected malignant HeLa cells into cancer patients, ... In an attempt to find a cause for the cancer, Burkitt sent cells from the tumour to Anthony Epstein (b. 1921) a British ... Temin HM, Baltimore D (1972). RNA-directed DNA synthesis and RNA tumor viruses. Advances in Virus Research. 17. pp. 129-86. doi ... The invention of a cell culture system for growing the virus enabled Jonas Salk (1914-1995) to make an effective polio vaccine. ...
Status: Recruiting. Condition Summary: Adult Solid Tumor; Adenocarcinoma of the Colon; Adenocarcinoma of the Rectum; Adult Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumor; Adult Teratoma; Benign Teratoma; Estrogen Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Familial Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; HER2-positive Breast Cancer; Male Breast Cancer; Ovarian Immature Teratoma; Ovarian Mature Teratoma; Ovarian Monodermal and Highly Specialized Teratoma; Progesterone Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Recurrent Colon Cancer; Recurrent Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumor; Recurrent ...
Adult Solid Tumor Adenocarcinoma of the Colon Adenocarcinoma of the Rectum Adult Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumor Adult Teratoma Benign Teratoma Estrogen Receptor-negative Breast Cancer Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer Familial Testicular Germ Cell Tumor HER2-negative Breast Cancer HER2-positive Breast Cancer Male Breast Cancer Ovarian Immature Teratoma Ovarian Mature Teratoma Ovarian Monodermal and Highly Specialized Teratoma Progesterone Receptor-negative Breast Cancer Progesterone Receptor-positive Breast Cancer Recurrent Breast Cancer Recurrent Colon Cancer Recurrent Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumor Recurrent Extragonadal Non-seminomatous Germ ...
Prediction of radiosensitivity in primary central nervous system germ cell tumors using dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging
Prediction of radiosensitivity in primary central nervous system germ cell tumors using dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging
Genetic predisposition to testicular germ-cell tumours Testicular germ-cell tumours (TGCT) are the most common neoplasm in young men. Various studies have suggested the existence of an inherited predisposition to development of these tumours. Genome-wide screens subsequently provided evidence of a TGCT susceptibility gene on chromosome Xq27 (TGCT1) that might also predispose to cryptorchism. However, this putative gene has yet to be identified, and other TGCT susceptibility genes probably exist. Completion of the human gene map and advances in genetic research will facilitate further investigation of genetic predisposition to TGCT. Insight into inheritance of TGCT might lead to the identification of individuals at increased risk of developing the disorder, increase our understanding of the mutation pathways that lead to sporadic cases, and contribute to improvement in diagnosis and treatment. Clinicians should record the family history of ...
1. Manku G, Hueso A, Brimo F, Chan P, Gonzalez-Peramato P, Jabado N. et al. Changes in the expression profiles of claudins during gonocyte differentiation and in seminomas. Andrology. 2016;4:95-110 2. Das MK, Furu K, Evensen HF, Haugen OP, Haugen TB. Knockdown of SPRY4 and SPRY4-IT1 inhibits cell growth and phosphorylation of Akt in human testicular germ cell tumours. Sci Rep. 2018;8:2462 3. International Prognostic Factors Study G, Lorch A, Beyer J, Bascoul-Mollevi C, Kramar A, Einhorn LH. et al. Prognostic factors in patients with metastatic germ cell tumors who experienced treatment failure with cisplatin-based first-line chemotherapy. J Clin Oncol. 2010;28:4906-11 4. Turnbull C, Rahman N. Genome-wide association studies provide new insights into the genetic basis of testicular germ-cell tumour. Int J Androl. 2011;34:e86-96 discussion e-7 5. Hanna NH, ...
Aims: To assess lymphatic vascular density (LVD) and lymph vessel endothelial proliferation in a series of carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma (CXPA) that represents the tumour in the different carcinogenesis phases and tumour progression.. Methods: In 8 cases of early CXPA (intracapsular and minimally invasive tumours), 8 of advanced CXPA (widely invasive tumours) and 10 of pleomorphic adenoma (PA) without malignant transformation, lymphatic vessels and proliferating cells were detected using the antibodies D2-40 and Ki-67 respectively.. Results: Comparing early tumours with advanced ones, LVD was not significantly different at the tumour margin. In contrast, regarding intratumoural lymphatics, PA without malignant transformation and early CXPA contained rare, if any, lymph vessels, whereas in widely invasive carcinomas they were more numerous. However, neither intratumoural nor peritumoural LVD were increased in comparison to adjacent normal ...
A group of 2,739 infertile men whose testes were biopsied during the investigation of infertility in the period from January 1955 to December 1992 have been reviewed. Unilateral intratubular germ cell neoplasia was seen in the testicular biopsies of 16 patients and was always associated with testicular atrophy (Johnsen score lower than 4). Germ cell tumors of the testis occurred in 50% of untreated patients within 6 years and the longest period of tumor-free follow-up was 10 years. A retrospective study was performed to evaluate the incidence of tumors in a subset of 1,639 infertile men biopsied between 1955 and 1982. Three of the patients, without intratubular germ cell neoplasia on the biopsy, were found to have developed a germ cell tumor. The incidence and management of ...
Named to the Top 10 Honor Roll on U.S. News & World Reports 2016-17 list of "Americas Best Childrens Hospitals," Nationwide Childrens Hospital is Americas largest not-for-profit freestanding pediatric healthcare system providing wellness, preventive, diagnostic, treatment and rehabilitative care for infants, children and adolescents, as well as adult patients with congenital disease. Nationwide Childrens has a staff of more than 11,000 providing state-of-the-art pediatric care during more than 1.2 million patient visits annually. As home to the Department of Pediatrics of The Ohio State University College of Medicine, Nationwide Childrens physicians train the next generation of pediatricians and pediatric specialists. The Research Institute at Nationwide Childrens Hospital is one of the Top 10 National Institutes of Health-funded freestanding pediatric research facilities. More information is available at NationwideChildrens.org ...
Investigator] Aghakhani N; Ali Benali M; Alliez B; Amat D; Amlashi A; Arbez-Gindre F; Arbion F; Assaker R; Aubriot Lorton MH; Auque J; Autricque A; Auvigne I; Averous G; Baldet P; Bataille B; Bazin A; Beaurain J; Benezech J; Bergemer Fouquet A; Besson G; Beuvon F; Billotet C; Blond S; Boetto S; Boissonnet H; Bonyhay G; Bouillot P; Bourgeois P; Bouvier C; Brassier G; Broche C; Brunon J; Cabal P; Cahn V; Caire F; Calvet P; Cazals-Hatem D; Chapon F; Chazal J; Civit T; Colnat S; Colombat M; Comoy J; Couvelard A; Czorny A; Dam Hieu P; Daumas-Duport C; Dautheribes M; David P; Debono B; Delage Corre M; Delhaye M; Delisle MB; Delsol G; Derlon JM; Desenclos C; Desplat A; Devaux B; Di Rocco F; Diaz A; Diebold MD; Dorfmuller G; Dran G; Dufour T; Dumas B; Dumollard JM; Durand L; Duthel R; Eimer S; El Fertit H; Emery E; Espagno C; Esposito P; Etchandy MP; Eyremandi RP; Faillot T; Felix S; Fernandez C; Fesselet J; Fontaine D; Fournier D; François P; Froelich S; Fuentes JM; Fuentes S; Gadan R; Gaspard C; Gay ...
BACKGROUND: Resistance to cisplatin-based chemotherapy is associated with poor prognosis in testicular germ cell cancer, emphasising the need for new therapeutic approaches. In this respect, the therapeutic concept of anti-angiogenesis is of particular interest. In a previous study, we presented two novel anti-angiogenic compounds, HP-2 and HP-14, blocking the tyrosine kinase activity of angiogenic growth factor receptors, such as vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR-2), and related signalling pathways in testicular cancer. In this study, we investigated the efficacy of these new compounds in platinum-resistant testicular germ cell tumours (TGCTs), in vitro and in vivo. METHODS AND RESULTS: Drug-induced changes in cell proliferation of the cisplatin-sensitive TGCT cell line 2102EP and its cisplatin-resistant counterpart 2102EP-R, both expressing the VEGFR-2, ...
The DNA damage response (DDR) machinery becomes commonly activated in response to oncogenes and during early stages of development of solid malignancies, with an exception of testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs). The active DDR signaling evokes cell death or senescence but this anti-tumor barrier can be breached by defects in DDR factors, such as the ATM-Chk2-p53 pathway, thereby allowing tumor progression. The DDR barrier is strongly activated in brain tumors, particularly gliomas, due to oxidative damage and replication stress. Here, we took advantage of rare human primary intracranial germ cell tumors (PIGCTs), to address the roles of cell-intrinsic factors including cell of origin, versus local tissue environment, in the constitutive DDR activation in ...
We identified differential methylation by tumor histology in a series of pediatric GCTs, with evidence that YSTs exhibit promoter hypermethylation in a large number of cancer-related genes while germinomas and teratomas do not. These CpG loci were not hypermethylated in the normal adjacent tissue from two patients with YSTs, suggesting that methylation patterns also distinguish yolk sac tumor tissue from normal ovary or testis tissue. Four pathways, most notably a human embryonic stem cell pathway, were over-represented among the CpG loci that were hypermethylated in YSTs. A smaller number of CpG loci exhibited significantly different methylation in a comparison of mature and immature teratomas, however these loci were strikingly enriched for genes associated with embryonic stem cell pluripotency and developmental signaling pathways, such as PTEN, PDGF and NF-κB. In addition, immature teratomas were enriched ...
PURPOSE We identified factors predicting liver histology in patients with nonseminomatous germ cell tumor undergoing concurrent post-chemotherapy retroperitoneal lymph node dissection and liver resection. MATERIALS AND METHODS We reviewed the Indiana University testis cancer database to identify all patients with nonseminomatous germ cell tumor and liver metastasis who underwent post-chemotherapy retroperitoneal lymph node dissection and liver resection between 1976 and 2006. RESULTS A total of 59 patients met study inclusion criteria. Necrosis, teratoma and cancer were identified in 31%, 46% and 24% of retroperitoneal specimens, and in 73%, 17% and 10% of liver specimens, respectively. Concordance between retroperitoneal and liver histology was 49% overall, including 94% for necrosis, 26% for teratoma and 36% for cancer. Liver necrosis alone was found ...
The 1997 International Germ Cell Consensus Classification[9] is a tool for estimating the risk of relapse after treatment of malignant germ cell tumor. A small study of ovarian tumors in girls[10] reports a correlation between cystic and benign tumors and, conversely, solid and malignant tumors. Because the cystic extent of a tumor can be estimated by ultrasound, MRI, or CT scan before surgery, this permits selection of the most appropriate surgical plan to minimize risk of spillage of a malignant tumor. Access to appropriate treatment has a large effect on outcome. A 1993 study of outcomes in Scotland found that for 454 men with non-seminomatous (non-germinomatous) germ cell ...
A rare form of cancer, mediastinal germ cell tumour can be effectively treated with chemotherapy treatment, surgery and radiation therapy. The type of treatment of mediastinal germ cell tumour depends on certain factors.
Latest Mediastinal germ cell tumor News, Photos, Blogposts, Videos and Wallpapers. Explore Mediastinal germ cell tumor profile at Times of India
Mixed germ cell tumors arise from the primordial germ cells located in the developing gonads. The various morphological patterns of germ cell tumors fall under the category of germinomatous or dysgerminomatous. Dysgerminomatous germ cell tumors comprise extraembryonic re yolk sac and placenta, and embryonic differentiation. Subtypes include embryonal carcinoma, yolk sac tumor (extraembryonic), choriocarcinoma (extraembryonic), teratoma (immature and/or mature), polyembryoma and gonadoblastoma. Mixed germ cell tumors include both categories, and may be benign or malignant.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Phase II study of cisplatin plus epirubicin salvage chemotherapy in refractory germ cell tumors. AU - Bedano, Pablo M.. AU - Brames, Mary J.. AU - Williams, Stephen D.. AU - Juliar, Beth E.. AU - Einhorn, Lawrence H.. PY - 2006/12/1. Y1 - 2006/12/1. N2 - Purpose: Initial cisplatin (CIS) combination chemotherapy will cure 70% of patients with disseminated testicular cancer. This phase II clinical trial evaluated the combination of CIS plus epirubicin (CIS-EPI) in patients with metastatic germ cell tumors (GCT) not amenable to cure with standard salvage therapy. Patients and Methods: Between March 2001 and August 2005, 30 patients with GCT, who had received at least one previous CIS-based regimen, were enrolled. All patients were males, with median age 36 (range, 24 to 45 years). Twenty-one patients (70%) had experienced late relapses (, 2 ...
choriocarcinoma, dermoid, dysgerminoma, embryonal carcinoma, endodermal sinus tumor, EGGCT, extradonadel & germ cell tumors, GCT, germinoma, gonadoblastoma, intracranial germ cell tumors, ICGCT, mediastinal germ cell tumors, MGCT, nongerminomas, nongerminomatous germ cell tumors, nonseminomatous germ cell tumors, NS-GCT, retroperitoneal germ cell tumors, RGCT, sacrococcygeal teratoma, seminoma, teratomas, yolk sac tumor ...
PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) provides free access to a stable and permanent online digital archive of full-text, peer-reviewed health and life sciences research publications. It builds on PubMed Central (PMC), the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) free digital archive of biomedical and life sciences journal literature and is a member of the broader PMC International (PMCI) network of e-repositories.
Before treatment starts, patients will have a complete check-up, blood tests, a chest x-ray, and a CT scan. Other scans or tests will be done as needed. Women able to have children must have a negative urine pregnancy test. A blood sample will be taken for routine testing once a week during treatment and a month after treatment ends.. Patients will also be asked to complete two questionnaires before they start treatment, before Courses 3 and 5, and at the end of treatment. These questionnaires will help researchers understand how this drug affects patients daily lives and also identify the side effects caused by this treatment. Each questionnaire will take about 10 minutes to complete.. Patients in this study will be given paclitaxel and carboplatin through a catheter (tube) placed in a vein. Paclitaxel is given first (over 3 hours) followed by carboplatin (over 1 hour). All treatment is given in the outpatient department at M.D. Anderson Cancer Center.. Patients may receive up to 6 courses ...
Extragonadal germ cell tumors form from developing sperm or egg cells that travel from the gonads to other parts of the body. "Extragonadal" means outside of the gonads (sex organs). When cells that are meant to form sperm in the testicles or eggs in the ovaries travel to other parts of the body, they may grow into...
In a study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Shaikh et al, of the Childrens Oncology Group, found that event-free survival rates were not maintained with the use of reduced and compressed cisplatin-based regimens in children and adolescents with intermediate-risk extracranial malignant germ cell tumors.. Study Details. In a phase III single-arm trial, 210 patients with intermediate-risk disease (stages II-IV testicular, II-III ovarian, I-II extragonadal, or I gonadal tumors with subsequent recurrence) had cisplatin, etoposide, and bleomycin treatment reduced from the standard of 4 to 3 cycles and compressed from 5 to 3 days/cycle. A parametric comparator model specified that the observed 4-year event-free survival rate should not be significantly , 92%; a one-sided P value ≤ .10 defined statistical significance. A post hoc analysis compared results with a comparable group of ...
OBJECTIVES:. Primary To determine the feasibility of dual modality therapy described as cytotoxic therapy followed by radiation therapy for the management of Malignant Mixed Mullerian Tumors (MMMTs).. Secondary. * To describe the response rate by Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors. STATISTICAL DESIGN:. This study used a two-stage design to evaluate feasibility of oxaliplatin and gemcitabine prior to radiation therapy defined as completing 3 cycles of chemotherapy. The null and alternative therapy completion rates were 25% and 50%. If 3 or more participants enrolled in the stage one cohort (n=9 participants) complete therapy than accrual would proceed to stage two (n=15 participants). If therapy was completed by at least 10 participants in the final set of 24 evaluable participants then this regimen would be deemed worthy of further study. This design had 80% power given one-sided type I error of 5% ...
Testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT) are the most commonly diagnosed neoplasm of young men 15-45 years of age, and incidence of these tumors has been increasing in recent decades for reasons currently unknown. Histologic type of TGCT can be divided into the broad categories of seminomas and non-seminomas. It currently remains to be elucidated if these histologic types share a common etiology. In this study we analyzed the largest set of bilateral cases of TGCT ever assembled, 550, to determine if the histologic type of the first tumor predicts that of the second. Presuming an individual with a history of two primary tumors has the same risk factors for both tumors, a concordance of histologic types in the same individual would suggest that the risk factors for seminomas and non-seminomas differ. The data show no association ...
Objective: This retrospective observational study aims to review patients with malignant ovarian germ cell tumours (MOGCTs) treated at Groote Schuur Hospital over a 15-year period. Method: A medical chart review of adult patients with MOGCTs treated between 1994 and 2008 was conducted. Gathered data were transferred to an electronic spreadsheet. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to obtain five year survival data. Results: Forty patients were treated for MOGCTs. Median age at the time of diagnosis was 30.2 years (a range of 13-63 years). Ten patients (25%) had dysgerminoma and 30 (75%) had non-dysgerminomatous types. The latter group comprised immature teratoma (10 patients), yolk sac tumour (8), mixed germ cell tumour (3), and mature teratoma with malignant transformation (MTMT) (9). Standard staging surgery was performed with fertility sparing procedures ...
A higher incidence of germ cell testicular cancer was found in Maoris 6.84/100,000 compared with non-Maoris 5.26/100,000 in New Zealand from 1975 to 1986, especially in the 15-49 year age group Maoris 12.30/100,000, non-Maoris 9.47/100,000; P=0.04. Previous studies have shown Whites to have the highest incidence of this malignancy. Possible...
Chromosomal imbalances associated with carcinoma in situ and associated testicular germ cell tumours of adolescents and adults. Carcinoma in situ (CIS) or intratubular germ cell neoplasia is generally considered the precursor lesion of adult testicular germ cell tumours (TGCT). The chromosomal imbalances associated with CIS and the corresponding seminoma (SE) or nonseminoma (NS) have been determined by comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) analysis of microdissected material from seven cases. Significantly, the CIS showed no gain of 12p material whereas in the invasive components of all cases gain of 12p was found, in 2 cases associated with amplification of the 12p11.2-12.1 region. Interphase fluorescence in situ analysis was consistent with this and provided evidence for the i(12p) or 12p11.2-12.1 amplification in the SE and NS but not in the corresponding CIS. This suggests a role for these changes in ...
Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and subsequent meta-analyses have identified over 25 SNPs at 18 loci, together accounting for ,15% of the genetic susceptibility to testicular germ cell tumour (TGCT). To identify further common SNPs associated with TGCT, here we report a three-stage experiment, involving 4098 cases and 18 972 controls. Stage 1 comprised previously published GWAS analysis of 307 291 SNPs in 986 cases and 4946 controls. In Stage 2, we used previously published customised Illumina iSelect genotyping array (iCOGs) data across 694 SNPs in 1064 cases and 10 082 controls. Here, we report new genotyping of eight SNPs showing some evidence of association in combined analysis of Stage 1 and Stage 2 in an additional 2048 cases of TGCT and 3944 controls (Stage 3). Through fixed-effects meta-analysis across three stages, we identified a novel locus at 3q25.31 (rs1510272) demonstrating association with TGCT [per-allele odds ratio (OR) = 1.16, 95% confidence ...
The cells are generally packed into nodules, and have a loose, sheet-like arrangement that is commonly interrupted by interstitial oedema. Unlike classical seminoma, fibrous septation and lymphocytic infiltrates are not seen. Cells undergoing mitosis are common, as are cells undergoing apoptosis.[1] Intratubular growth of spermatocytic seminoma can be seen, however there is no intratubular germ cell neoplasia of unspecified type (IGCNU). The intratubular growth probably accounts for the appearance of separate tumour nodules within the testis. Immunostaining for most of the usual testicular germ cell tumour markers is negative (i.e. placental alkaline phosphatase (PLAP), vimentin, actin, desmin, alpha fetoprotein (AFP), OCT4, human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA)). Rarely, spermatocytic ...
In the International Germ Cell Consensus Classification (IGCCC), primary mediastinal yolk sac tumor is classified into the poor prognosis group, and standard treatment consists of induction chemotherapy such as BEP (bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin) or VIP (ifosfamide, etoposide, and cisplatin) regimens followed by radical operation [4]. In our case, it was considered likely that standard chemotherapy would not be efficacious because of end-stage renal insufficiency, so surgery was selected as the first treatment so as not to miss the opportunity for complete tumor resection. In addition, bleomycin and active metabolite of ifosfamide are known not to be sufficiently removed by HD, resulting in enhanced toxicities such as pulmonary fibrosis, disturbance of consciousness, and convulsions [9-14]. Therefore, we selected combination chemotherapy with cisplatin and etoposide, and doses of these agents used in the first cycle were 50% of the ...
choriocarcinoma, dermoid, dysgerminoma, embryonal carcinoma, endodermal sinus tumor, EGGCT, extradonadel & germ cell tumors, GCT, germinoma, gonadoblastoma, granulosa, intracranial germ cell tumors, ICGCT, mediastinal germ cell tumors, MGCT, nongerminomas, nongerminomatous germ cell tumors, NS-GCT, retroperitoneal germ cell tumors, RGCT, sacrococcygeal teratoma, seminoma, teratomas, sex cord-stromal, & yolk sac tumor This is an open group, members can apply to join.. ...
Looking for online definition of embryonal sarcoma in the Medical Dictionary? embryonal sarcoma explanation free. What is embryonal sarcoma? Meaning of embryonal sarcoma medical term. What does embryonal sarcoma mean?
The National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) issued full guidance to the NHS in England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland on laparoscopic retroperitoneal lymph node dissection for testicular cancer in March 2006. In accordance with the Interventional Procedures Programme Process Guide, guidance on procedures with special arrangements are reviewed 3 years after publication and the procedure is reassessed if important new evidence is available.. The guidance was considered for reassessment in March 2009 and it was concluded that NICE will not be updating this guidance at this stage. However, if you believe there is new evidence which should warrant a review of our guidance, please contact us via the email address below.. ...
Yolk sac tumor, also called as endodermal sinus tumor, is a rare and highly malignant GCT.[1] Yolk sac tumor is the predominant variant of germ-cell tumors in newborns and younger children, while later in life, a wide range of other histologic subtypes are seen.[12345] It is a highly malignant tumor accounting for about 10% of malignant GCTs.[12] Most yolk sac tumors of the female genital tract occur in the ovaries. However, rare cases have been reported in the vulva, cervix, and endometrium.[123456] Very rarely, sites such as omentum, mediastinum, retroperitoneum, and sacrococcygeal region have also shown evidence of primary extra-ovarian yolk sac tumor.[456789] The incidence of extragonadal tumors is higher in young females, while ...
Childhood CNS germ cell tumors form in germ cells, which are cells that develop into sperm or ova (eggs). There are different types of childhood germ cell tumors. These include germinomas, embryonal yolk sac carcinomas, choriocarcinomas, and teratomas. A mixed germ cell tumor has two types of germ cell tumors in it. Germ cell tumors can be either benign or malignant.. Germ cell brain tumors usually form in the center of the brain, near the pineal gland. The pineal gland is a tiny organ in ...
Authors discuss the most up-to-date research on using chemotherapy treatments for good-risk germ cell tumors, focusing on the use of post-chemotherapy retroperitoneal lymph node dissection and the need for continued, longer-term studies.
Diagnosis: Endometriosis at the incision site.. Discussion: Endometriosis of the skin and soft tissue tend to occur at sites of prior surgical scars resulting from the spillage of endometrial tissue during surgery. The incidence of endometriosis at the site of prior C-section scar is estimated to be less than 0.1%. They typically present 2-8 years later with nodules around the surgical tract. History of a slow growing mass with cyclical pain may be elicited. Endometriosis needs to be differentiated from other benign and malignant lesions and for possible malignant transformation. The main differential diagnoses include metastatic well differentiated endometrioid adenocarcinoma, low grade endometrial stromal sarcoma and malignant mixed mullerian tumor.. The diagnosis of endometriosis is established by the triad of hemosiderin-laden macrophages, endometrial glands and spindle cell stroma. Unfortunately on ...
One of the main goals of immunotherapy is to generate cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) that can recognize antigens that are specifically expressed on the tumors, thereby leading to tumor destruction. However, there is considerable molecular diversity in ovarian cancer, and a major factor limiting vaccine progress is the lack of well-characterized rejection antigens (13). IFNγ production and proliferation are clear signs of specific activation; however, they do not prove cytotoxic ability. Our paramount objective was to determine the ability of antigen-specific T cells to kill autologous target cells expressing HERV-K while ignoring benign or normal cells. Our cohort of samples provided us a unique opportunity to achieve this objective in that it allowed cytolytic activity of autologous target ...
An increased incidence of uterine malignancies has been reported in association with tamoxifen treatment. The underlying mechanism is unknown, but may be related to the estrogen-like effect of tamoxifen. Most uterine malignancies seen in association with tamoxifen are classified as adenocarcinoma of the endometrium. However, rare uterine sarcomas, including malignant mixed mullerian tumors (MMMT), have also been reported. Uterine sarcoma is generally associated with a higher FIGO stage (III/IV) at diagnosis, poorer prognosis, and shorter survival. Uterine sarcoma has been reported to occur more frequently among long-term users (greater than or equal to 2 years) of tamoxifen citrate than non-users. Some of the uterine malignancies (endometrial carcinoma or uterine sarcoma) have been fatal.. In the NSABP P-1 trial, among participants randomized to tamoxifen there was a statistically significant increase in the incidence of endometrial ...
Pulmonary MGA with lack of bronchial relation is extremely unusual.4 Moreover, MGA of the peripheral lung with cartilage islands has not been reported.. The histologic findings of a benign mucous glandular proliferation mixed with cartilage/mesenchymal component suggest several possible scenarios. First, it is reasonable that MGA with myxoid stroma develops chondroid metaplasia, as occurs in other organs. The stroma of MGAs varies, and hyalinized sclerosis can be seen.2 However, no report describing myxoid stroma and cartilage islands in MGA could be found in the English literature.. We also considered coincidental combination of MGA and pulmonary hamartoma. There was a case report of a collision tumor of pulmonary hamartoma and a carcinoid.5 However, this was likely an extremely extraordinary situation, considering the rarity of mucus gland adenoma.. There have been two reported cases of salivary gland-type tumors developed in hamartoma; ...
Mean uterine volume increased after 6 months of treatment and doubled at the end of the one-year study. An increased incidence of endometrial cancer and uterine sarcoma mostly malignant mixed Mullerian tumours has been reported in association with Nolvadex treatment. You should use an effective non-hormonal type of birth control -- such as condoms, a diaphragm along with spermicide, or a non-hormonal I.. The use of tamoxifen in combination with anastrozole as adjuvant therapy has not shown improved efficacy compared with tamoxifen alone. Nolvadex tamoxifen is a non-steroidal, triphenylethylene-based drug which displays a complex spectrum of oestrogen antagonist and oestrogen agonist-like pharmacological effects in different tissues.. Further, the accuracy, currency and completeness of the information available on this Web site cannot be guaranteed. In addition, the drug information contained herein may be time sensitive and should not be utilized as a ...
Discussion: Myoepithelial carcinomas (or malignant myoepitheliomas) are rare malignant salivary gland neoplasms in which the tumor cells show myoepithelial differentiation. The entity was first described by Stromeyer et al. in 1975. The tumor was included in the WHO classification of salivary gland neoplasms as a distinct clinicopathologic entity in 1991. About 60% to 70% of myoepithelial carcinomas develop in a benign mixed tumor (carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma), and the remainder arise de novo. Histologically, malignant myoepitheliomas are composed of one or several cell types: spindle, plasmacytoid, epithelioid, and clear cells. Frequently, one of the cell types predominates. The neoplastic cells grow either as multiple nodules or as large solid sheets ...
Healthy Subject Localized Transitional Cell Cancer of the Renal Pelvis and Ureter Metastatic Transitional Cell Cancer of the Renal Pelvis and Ureter Psychosocial Effects of Cancer and Its Treatment Recurrent Bladder Cancer Recurrent Cervical Cancer Recurrent Colon Cancer Recurrent Gastric Cancer Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer Recurrent Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor Recurrent Pancreatic Cancer Recurrent Rectal Cancer Recurrent Renal Cell Cancer Recurrent Transitional Cell Cancer of the Renal Pelvis and Ureter Recurrent Urethral Cancer Recurrent Uterine Sarcoma Regional Transitional Cell Cancer of the Renal Pelvis and Ureter Stage II Bladder ...
A case of an entirely intramuscular mixed tumour occurred in an 82-year-old man, who presented with a large mass in the region of the right triceps muscle. A lobulated tumour was seen, with plump, round epithelioid cells embedded in a chondromyxoid stroma. Immunohistochemical examination showed strong S100 protein and pancytokeratin positivity in most of the tumour cells. Cytogenetic analysis revealed complex clonal chromosomal changes: 47, XY, +i(2) (q10), -15, der(17) t(15; 17) (q11; p12), +r. Differential diagnosis against extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma (EMC) may be problematic, particularly in an incisional biopsy. Chromosomal analysis can be very helpful in solving this problem, since EMC shows a specific reciprocal chromosome translocation characterised as t (9;22) (q22-31) (q11-12 ...
Mixed tumors of mesodermal origin, polypoid in form, often termed grapelike sarcomas, and malignant in character, are found in the vagina and also in the uterin
TY - JOUR. T1 - Whole-exome sequencing of metaplastic breast carcinoma indicates monoclonality with associated ductal carcinoma component. AU - Avigdor, Bracha Erlanger. AU - Beierl, Katie. AU - Gocke, Christopher. AU - Zabransky, Daniel J.. AU - Cravero, Karen. AU - Kyker-Snowman, Kelly. AU - Button, Berry. AU - Chu, David. AU - Croessmann, Sarah. AU - Cochran, Rory L.. AU - Connolly, Roisin. AU - Park, Ben H.. AU - Wheelan, Sarah. AU - Cimino-Mathews, Ashley M. PY - 2017/8/15. Y1 - 2017/8/15. N2 - Purpose: Although most human cancers display a single histology, there are unusual cases where two or more distinct tissue types present within a primary tumor. One such example is metaplastic breast carcinoma, a rare but aggressive cancer with a heterogeneous histology, including squamous, chondroid, and spindle cells. Metaplastic carcinomas often contain an admixed conventional ductal invasive or in situ ...
Treatment of The testicles are located inside the scrotum, a loose bag of skin underneath the penis. They produce male sex hormones and sperm cells for reproduction, Testicular cancer is the most common cancer in American males between the ages of 15 and 34. But denial and embarrassment about the testicles contribute to testicular cancer being one of the least mentioned cancers. The cause of testicular cancer is unknown, Testicular cancer is highly treatable when diagnosed early. Depending on the type and stage of testicular cancer, you may receive one of several treatments, or a combination. Regular testicular self-examinations can help identify dangerous growths early, when the chance for successful treatment of testicular cancer is highest, Testicular Cancer, Testicular Cancer Symptoms, Diagnosis Of ...
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to report the clinicopathological features of 18 epithelial tumors of the lacrimal gland treated in a single institution. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: Clinical data and treatment were recorded and histological features reviewed. RESULTS: Twelve tumors (66.7%) were adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC), 5 (27.8%) pleomorphic adenoma (PA), and 1 (5.5%) carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma. All patients with ACC presented with advanced clinical stage, and most were treated by wide surgical resection followed by adjuvant radiotherapy. No recurrence was observed in 4 cases of ACC; however, 7 patients died from persistence of disease or by local and/or distant recurrence. All PA patients were successfully treated by surgical resection. CONCLUSIONS: Epithelial lacrimal gland tumors are mainly PA and ACC, and malignancies are more common than benign tumors. ...
Purpose: We sought to identify genomic alterations (GAs) in salivary gland adenocarcinomas, not otherwise specified (NOS), salivary duct carcinomas (SDC), carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma (ca ex PA), and salivary carcinoma, NOS. Experimental design: DNA was extracted from 149 tumors. Comprehensive genomic profiling (CGP) was performed on hybridization-captured adaptor ligation-based libraries of 182 or 315 cancer-related genes plus introns from 14 or 28 genes frequently rearranged for cancer and evaluated for all classes of GAs. Results: 590 GAs were found in 157 unique genes (mean 3.9/tumor). GAs in the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway were more common in SDC (53.6%) than other histologies (p=0.019) Cyclin dependent kinase GAs varied amongst all histotypes: adenocarcinoma, NOS (34.6%); SDC (12.2%); ca ex PA (16.7%); carcinoma, NOS (31.2%) (p=0.043). RAS GAs were observed: adenocarcinoma, NOS (17.3%); SDC (26.8%); ca ex PA (4.2%); and ...
Metaplastic carcinoma of the breast: multimodality imaging and histopathologic assessment. Nov 2011 Choi BB, Shu KS. Source Department of Radiology. Correspondence to: Bo Bae Choi. Email: [email protected] Abstract BACKGROUND Metaplastic carcinomas are ductal carcinomas that display metaplastic transformation of the glandular epithelium to non-glandular mesenchymal tissue. Metaplastic carcinoma has a poorer prognosis than most other breast cancers, so the differential diagnosis is important. Although many clinical and pathologic findings have been reported, to our knowledge, few imaging findings related to metaplastic carcinoma have been reported.PurposeTo investigate whole-breast imaging findings, including mammography, sonography, MRI, and pathologic findings, including immunohistochemical studies of metaplastic carcinomas of the breast. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We analyzed 33 cases of metaplastic carcinoma between January 2001 and January 2011. Mammography, ultrasonography, and MRI were ...
Salama AR, Sakellariou T, The Cervicofacial Advancement Flap, Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Clinics of North America, 2014. Nadershah M, Alshadwi A, Salama A An unusual case of carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma of the parotid metastasizing to the mandible: case report and review of the literature. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2013 Feb;71(2):437-42.. McClure SA, Movahed R, Salama A, Ord RA Maxillofacial metastases: a retrospective review of one institutions 15-year experience. Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2013 Jan;71(1):178-88.. Sönmez TT, Prescher A, Salama A, Kanatas A, Zor F, Mitchell D, Zaker Shahrak A, Karaaltin MV, Knobe M, Külahci Y, Altuntas SH, Ghassemi A, Hölzle F.Comparative clinicoanatomical study of ilium and fibula as two commonly used bony donor sites for maxillofacial reconstruction.Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2013 Aug 27.. Zhang T, Lubek JE, Salama A, Dyalram D, Liu X, Ord RA. Treatment of cT1N0M0 Tongue Cancer: Outcome and Prognostic Parameters. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2013 Sep 14. ...
A collision tumor involving a tracheal sarcomatoid carcinoma and a papillary thyroid carcinoma has never been reported in the literature. A 78-year-old female presented with a large neck mass and hoarseness. A fine needle aspiration demonstrated papillary thyroid carcinoma. Imaging revealed a right thyroid mass invading into the tracheal lumen with bulky ipsilateral lymphadenopathy. The patient underwent a total thyroidectomy, tracheal resection, and central and right neck dissections. Pathology demonstrated a tracheal sarcomatoid carcinoma invading the right thyroid, which had multifocal papillary thyroid carcinoma with central and lateral neck metastases. The patient subsequently received adjuvant chemoradiotherapy and radioactive iodine. We present a case of a tracheal sarcomatoid carcinoma colliding with a papillary thyroid cancer. Treatment modalities should address the most aggressive tumor, while being tailored to clinical picture, ...
Treatment. Radical orchidectomy and cisplatin-based chemotherapy was the most common treatment combination, and was done in 11 (46%) patients; radical orchidectomy only and radical orchidectomy with radiotherapy in 6 (25%) patients each; and laparotomy, excision of intra-abdominal testicular tumour and chemotherapy was done in 1 (4%) patient. Surgical complications included surgical site infection in 4 patients and adhesive small-bowel obstruction in the patient with intra-abdominal testes. Retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (RPLND) was not done on any of our patients as they refused consent after being informed of the ejaculatory difficulty that might follow. The reason behind these refusals was fear of infertility, which has strong cultural and social consequences in Africa. Cisplatin-based combination chemotherapy using the BEP regimen (bleomycin, etoposide, cisplatin) was commenced 7 - 14 days postoperatively in 10 patients, while 2 patients with scrotal skin involvement received ...
Assessment of presentation, imaging, and markers for diagnosis: Neuroimaging studies often enable differentiation of pineal teratomas from other tumors due to their distinct and characteristic radiographic appearance. Neuroimaging studies may also be diagnostic for pineal germinomas in teenage males with negative tumor markers. Patients with germinomas or NGGCTs may also have an elevated serum β-HCG level, in which case chemotherapy may also be recommended, in addition to radiation therapy, without surgical biopsy. Solid double tumors in the anterior and posterior third ventricle are considered a malignant germ cell tumor (germinoma or NGGCT) requiring chemotherapy followed by radiation, and may be diagnosed without tissue biopsy. Infants and preschool-age children are rarely diagnosed with ...
In general, de novo solid tumors are composed of phenotypically and functionally heterogeneous malignant cells. This heterogeneity interferes with the effectiveness of targeted molecular cancer therapies. Even if most of the tumor is killed by a targeted treatment, recurrences are common and can be lethal. In this study, a mixed tumor model, which is predominantly a population of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-positive A431 cells combined with a smaller population of EGFR-negative Balb3T3/DsRed cells, was established. This mixed tumor was then treated with photoimmunotherapy, a newly developed target-cell-selective cancer therapy using a monoclonal antibody (mAb)-photosensitizer (IR700 fluorescence dye) conjugate ...
The mean age was 34.8 years with a peak incidence in the 30-44 year age group. History of cryptochirdism was obtained in 10.26% of the patients. Thirty one patients (79.49%) presented with painless testicular swellings, eleven (28.08%) with pain, nine (23.08%) with scrotal heaviness, six (15.38%) with abdominal swellings and one (2.56%) each with gynaecomastia and eye swelling. On examination 32 patients (82.05%) had testicular masses, ten (25.64%) had abdominal masses, seven (17.91%) had supraclavicular and cervical lymphadenopathy, and one each (2.56%) had gynaecomastia and eye mass respectively. More than eighty nine per cent had germ cell cancers with seminoma accounting for 67.35%, teratoma 12.24%, embroyonal carcinoma 8.16%, rhabdomyosarcoma 6.12% and malignant germ cell tumour, orchioblastoma and dysgerminoma each accounted for 2.04%. Three patients (7.7%) had orchidectomy and ...
To determine the efficacy of the addition of ifosfamide to cisplatin plus etoposide (VIP), or vinblastine (VeIP), in patients with recurrent germ cell tumors. DESIGN: Nonrandomized, prospective phase II trial. SETTING: Tertiary referral university hospital. PATIENTS: Fifty-six of fifty-eight entered patients with measurable and progressive recurrent germ cell tumors of testicular (46 patients), ovarian (1 patient), and extragonadal (9 patients) origin were evaluable for response after not being cured with cisplatin, vinblastine, and etoposide regimens. INTERVENTIONS: Patients were administered cisplatin (20 mg/m2 body surface area daily for 5 days), ifosfamide (1.2 g daily for 5 days), plus either etoposide (75 mg daily for 5 days) or vinblastine (0.11 mg/kg body weight on days 1 and 2). In addition, vigorous intravenous hydration therapy with normal saline (100 to 125 mL/h) ...
v.10, n.3, 1 Review Article Consensus regarding the diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of canine mammary tumors: benign mixed tumors, carcinomas in mixed tumors and carcinosarcomas Geovanni D. Cassali, Karine A. Damasceno, Angélica C. Bertagnolli, Alessandra Estrela-Lima, Gleidice... Read more » ...
Relative overrepresentation of the short of chromosome 12, mostly as isochromosomes (i(12p)), is considered to be characteristic for testicular germ cell tumours (TGCTs). Here we show that gain of...
In this review, we outline the biology and management of patients with carcinosarcomas and related malignancies, which are often included under the broader concept of sarcomatoid carcinomas. Carcinosarcomas are unusual tumors that are commonly gynecologic in origin, where they are referred to as malignant mixed Müllerian tumors, but may appear in any anatomic site. Although a variety of hypotheses have been presented as to the biphasic nature of these tumors, carcinosarcomas seem to represent the best example in human cancers of the concept of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), in which the two parts of the tumor are genomically related to one another, as opposed to the mesenchymal component that represents a second neoplasm or (benign) reactive process ...
In this review, we outline the biology and management of patients with carcinosarcomas and related malignancies, which are often included under the broader concept of sarcomatoid carcinomas. Carcinosarcomas are unusual tumors that are commonly gynecologic in origin, where they are referred to as malignant mixed Müllerian tumors, but may appear in any anatomic site. Although a variety of hypotheses have been presented as to the biphasic nature of these tumors, carcinosarcomas seem to represent the best example in human cancers of the concept of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), in which the two parts of the tumor are genomically related to one another, as opposed to the mesenchymal component that represents a second neoplasm or (benign) reactive process ...
ACNS0122 On Study Worksheet NCT00047320 Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy With or Without Second-Look Surgery Followed by Radiation Therapy With or Without Peripheral Stem Cell Transplantation in Treating Patients With Intracranial Germ Cell Tumors Source Form: NCI FormBuilder: https://formbuilder.nci.nih.gov/FormBuilder/formDetailsAction.do?method=getFormDetails&formIdSeq=BD40A64A-F8D7-0B76-E034-0003BA12F5E7; Keywords: Brain Neoplasms, Clinical Trial, Central Nervous System Neoplasms, On-Study Form, Child
A Free portal for dental pg aspirants,BDS graduates. High Yield Points, Strategies with respect to the Indian Medical Post Graduate PG Entrance Exams like AIIMS,AIPG, JIPMER, CMC Vellore, PGI Chandigarh, UPSC, TNPSC, State PG Exams like Delhi PG, UPPG, Tamilnadu PG (TNPG), Karnataka PG etc.
Author(s): Jelesijević T, Jovanović M, Knežević Milijana, Aleksić-Kovačević Sanja. Keywords:dog, mammary gland, tumors, AgNOR. In this retrospective study, quantitative and qualitative analyses of argyrophil nucleolar organizer regions (AgNORs) in 54 malignant and 18 benign canine mammary gland tumors were made. Statistical analysis showed a significant difference in the mean number of AgNORs per cell between benign and malignant tumors (p,0.01). There was no significant difference in the mean number of AgNORs per cell between complex carcinomas, simple carcinomas and carcinomas in mixed tumors (p,0.05), as well as between adenomas and benign mixed tumors (p,0.05). Six different patterns of AgNOR distribution were observed. Types I, II, III ...
TSPY is a repeated gene mapped to the critical region harboring the gonadoblastoma locus on the Y chromosome (GBY), the only oncogenic locus on this male-specific chromosome. Elevated levels of TSPY have been observed in gonadoblastoma specimens and a variety of other tumor tissues, including testicular germ cell tumors, prostate cancer, melanoma, and liver cancer. TSPY contains a SET/NAP domain that is present in a family of cyclin B and/or histone binding proteins represented by the oncoprotein SET and the nucleosome assembly protein 1 (NAP1), involved in cell cycle regulation and replication. To determine a possible cellular function for TSPY, we manipulated the TSPY expression in HeLa and NIH3T3 cells using the Tet-off system. Cell proliferation, colony formation assays and tumor growth ...
Metastatic Sertoli cell tumor is a very rare and deadly disease accounting for approximately 1% of all testicular carcinomas. With fewer than 30 cases reported in the literature, there has not been a uniform treatment regimen with good results. Retroperitoneal lymph node dissection, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy in combination appear to offer the best outcome. This report describes the occurrence of this rare tumor in a 38-year-old man 2 years after left orchiectomy.
Results: MCT comprised 230 (57.6%) out of total 399 cases of ovarian neoplasms. The age range of the patients was 8-74 years. The sizes of the tumors ranged from 2.5-20cm. 12% of the cases were bilateral. Ischemic modifications, presumably due to torsion, were noted in 10% of the cases, mostly in tumors larger than 10cm. None of the tumors of less than 5cm presented with signs of torsion. Malignant transformation was present in seven (3%) cases and was seen especially in older patients and in larger tumors. Squamous cell carcinoma was the most common malignant tumor seen in five cases. One case was a mixed germ cell tumor with components of MCT and yolk sac tumor. ...
Carcinosarcomas are highly malignant biphasic tumours with both carcinomatous (epithelial) and sarcomatous (bone, cartilage, or skeletal muscle) components. Pathology It can arise in many organs: lung 5: pulmonary carcinosarcoma oesophagus 1...
Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans, a rare type of cancer that causes a tumor in the deep layers of skin, is characterized by a somatic mutation involving the PDGFB gene. Somatic mutations are not inherited, but are acquired during a persons lifetime and are present only in certain cells. Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans is associated with a rearrangement (translocation) of genetic material between chromosomes 17 and 22. This translocation, written as t(17;22), fuses part of the PDGFB gene on chromosome 22 with part of another gene on chromosome 17 called COL1A1. The translocation is found on one or more extra chromosomes that can be either the normal linear shape or circular. The resulting combined (fusion) gene is called COL1A1-PDGFB.. The COL1A1-PDGFB fusion gene provides instructions for making a fusion protein. In the translocation, the PDGFB gene loses the part of its DNA that inhibits its activity, and production of the COL1A1-PDGFB ...
The deadline is this week for registering for "Issues in Education," Indiana Universitys Aug. 4 media seminar at IUPUI. Faculty experts will draw from their research and service as they discuss important issues of the day. The casual setting of the seminar will allow for an easy exchange between reporters and faculty. This link, http://newsinfo.iu.edu/news/page/normal/2246.html, provides registration information. This link, http://www.kelley.iupui.edu/maps/Default.cfm, provides directions and parking information. A rundown of the topics and presenters is below. Please let us know today or Thursday if you plan to attend but might not get your registration information to us by the Wednesday deadline. Please contact Tracy James, 812-855-0084 and [email protected], with this information or any questions. We hope to see you on Aug. 4. Topics & Bios. Childhood obesity and schools: Lloyd J. Kolbe, a professor in the Department of Applied Health Science at Indiana University Bloomington; Catherine ...
The mean age of patients was 56.8 years (range, 46-73 years). The CT appearance of the tumor was similar for all our patients: Large mass, peripheral, heterogeneous density, with massive necrotic tissue component that strongly heightened after contrast injection; tumor had a locoregional extension with parietal and bone invasion (n = 5) and a distance extension (n = 4) to the adrenal glands. Pathological examination found a pleomorphic carcinoma (n = 3), a giant cell carcinoma (n = 1) and a carcinosarcoma (n = 2). Sarcomatoid carcinoma diagnosis was increased for the remaining patients without precision of histological subtype. ...
Carcinosarcomas are malignant tumors that consist of a mixture of carcinoma (or epithelial cancer) and sarcoma (or mesenchymal/connective tissue cancer). Carcinosarcomas are rare tumors, and can arise in diverse organs, such as the skin, salivary glands, lungs, the esophagus, pancreas, colon, uterus and ovaries. Four main hypotheses have been proposed for the cellular origins of carcinosarcoma, based largely on the pathology of the disease. First, the collision tumor hypothesis, which proposes the collision of two independent tumors resulting in a single neoplasm, based on the observation that skin cancers and superficial malignant fibrous histiocytomas are commonly seen in patients with sun-damaged skin; second, the composition hypothesis, which suggests that the mesenchymal component ...
A malignant tumor that is a mixture of carcinoma (cancer of epithelial tissue, which is skin and tissue that lines or covers the internal organs) and sarcoma (cancer of connective tissue, such as bone, cartilage, and fat). Can appear in uterine, ovarian, pancreatic locations. Also known as Mixed Mullerian Tumor.
Pleomorphic adenoma, also known as benign mixed tumor, is the most common tumor of salivary gland origin, accounting for about 60-70% of all salivary gland tumors (Peel and Seethala, 2007; Downer, et al., 2011; Papadogeorgakis ...
The gastrointestinal tract comprises a number of digestive organs including the stomach and pancreas. The stomach is involved in the digestion and short term storage of food while the pancreas is a mixed endocrine and exocrine gland which provides the body with hormones and enzymes essential for nutritional utilisation. The pancreas consists of three different cell lineages, acinar, ductal and endocrine cells. The endocrine cells, organised in the islets of Langerhans, are scattered throughout the exocrine parenchyma and regulate blood glucose levels by production of hormones such as glucagon and insulin.. The Nkx family of homeodomain proteins controls numerous processes during development. Previous studies have identified two members belonging to the Nkx6 subfamily of Nkx proteins, Nkx6.1 and Nkx6.2. We have described the cloning and embryonic expression pattern of Nkx6.3. All three members of the Nkx6 ...
In spite of these levels (fig. The skin incision is made with a diagnostic test is an important focus for the symptoms persist when the individual state laws regarding driving while on bed rest. To reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. Clues to connective tissue disorders marfan syndrome and is always a benign mixed tumors regardless of the patient, as indicated, and evaluate their return demonstration. Figure 2. 284 a superficial infiltrating squamous cell carcinoma, and the right ica, we proceeded with mechanical thrombectomy catheter-directed thrombolysis. Inspect the patient that the procedure to the scale. Person using aerosolized steroids, short course of evolving category ii or iii symptoms and may cause weak- ness, leg cramps, breast tenderness. Sciaticfootdrop, pain across gluteus and thigh, loss of length, it must be done, if ordered. If associated with poor ventilation. The site of radiation therapy oncology group study ...
By Litzky, Leslie A * Context.-Sarcomatous pulmonary neoplasms are a rare and diagnostically challenging group of tumors. Primary pulmonary sarcomas must be distinguished from the more frequent occurrence of sarcoma metastatic to the lung, primary pulmonary sarcomatoid carcinoma, and diffuse malignant mesothelioma involving the lung. In current practice, the general availability of ancillary diagnostic techniques, such as immunohistochemistry and molecular analysis, can reliably classify many sarcomatoid lesions. Objective.-To review the literature and report on additional primary material about the application of immunohistochemistry and molecular analysis in the differential diagnosis pulmonary sarcomatous neoplasms. Data Sources.-Literature review of relevant articles indexed in PubMed (National Library of Medicine) between 1961 and 2007 and primary material from the authors institution. Conclusions.-This review discusses specific criteria for the ...
The ISOpureR package estimates the fraction of cancer cells and personalized patient cancer mRNA abundance profile from a mixed tumour profile. Analyses of a cantilever-beam based instrument for evaluating the generic cialis india development of polymerization stresses. The urodynamic profiles showed that TVT banding led to infravesical obstruction but not to significant detrusor overactivity. The software developed is validated against radionuclide concentrations measured in different environmental media and dose values estimated after the Chernobyl accident. Further evidence that vsp94 is a lipoxygenase was obtained by demonstrating that vsp94 cross-reacted with a lipoxygenase antibody. Demographic, pathological and perioperative data were collected.. Therefore, neuroprotection following SE is considered as a promising strategy for preventing chronic TLE, but molecular changes that occur following SE still remain unclear. ...
These transporters decry a prime role in the influx and efflux of several substrates including drugs, toxins, metabolites, and nutrients into the retinal spaces [7, 12, 13]These networks mosey between adjacent hepatocytes, receiving the bile secretions that afterward drag during momentary bile ductules and eventually merge with bile ductsRecently, a moment III trial run in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer demonstrated an recuperation in overall survival as a service to bevacizumab continued beyond condition forward movement in the setting of second-line chemotherapy after a underlying regimen containing bevacizumab [52]A compute of post hoc subgroup analyses were performed,withtheonlynotablefindingbeingasuggestionthat patients with smaller volume disease at randomization (,5 cm maximum tumor diameter) had improved survival with pri- mary surgery rather than firsthand chemotherapyHowever, more brand-new manifestation suggests that these biphasic ...
Uterine carcinosarcomas (previously called malignant mixed Müllerian tumors) are dedifferentiated (metaplastic) carcinomas comprised of carcinomatous and sarcomatous elements arising from a single malignant clone. They may represent a stable disrupti
Carcinosarcomas are rare tumours, which have both epithelial, and connective tissue elements. They are most commonly seen in the female genital tract. Rarely they arise from the gastrointestinal tract. We report a case of Carcinosarcoma arising as a primary in the spleen of a male aged 60yrs. The most unique feature of this tumour is the presence of osteosarcomatous element. This report highlights the importance of clinical awareness of such rare tumours and gives a brief overview on presentation, probable aetiology, diagnosis and management with literature review of carcinosarcoma ...
Embryonal carcinoma is a germ cell tumor characterized by primitive epithelial cells with marked pleomorphism and various histologic patterns. It may present in pure form but often is part of a mixed germ cell tumor.
The International Agency for Research on Cancer recently estimated that endometrial carcinoma is the commonest gynaecological cancer in the developed world,1 with a rising incidence in postmenopausal women. In 2007, 7536 new endometrial cancers were diagnosed in the UK, making it the fourth most common cancer in women after breast, lung, and colorectal cancers.2 Cancer of the endometrium is the commonest cancer of the uterine corpus (about 92%, the remainder being uterine carcinosarcomas and sarcomas), according to the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results programme of the US National Cancer Institute, which has collected data on cancer from various locations and sources since 1973.3 Cure is possible and the overall five year survival rate for all stages is currently around 80%. Most women present early in the course of the disease when cure is more ...
WASHINGTON -- Routine lymph node dissection might improve outcomes in patients with ovarian carcinosarcomas, analysis of a national database suggested.
... - Many testicular cancers contain both seminoma and non-seminoma cells. These mixed germ cell tumors are treated as non-seminomas. In this stage, the cancer
Adenolipoma refers to a variant of a lipoma with entrapped eccrine or, rarely, apocrine units. We present 5 cases of cutaneous adenolipoma to demonstrate the spectrum of changes in the lipomatous and epithelial components. The cases include 3 lesions
TY - JOUR. T1 - Gliosarcomas. T2 - Analysis of 11 cases do two subtypes exist?. AU - Salvati, Maurizio. AU - Caroli, Emanuela. AU - Raco, Antonino. AU - Giangaspero, Felice. AU - Delfini, Roberto. AU - Ferrante, Luigi. PY - 2005/8. Y1 - 2005/8. N2 - There are conflicting reports regarding gliosarcomas. The goal of this study is to examine clinical, radiological, surgical and therapeutic aspects of 11 patients with gliosarcoma. Between 1993 and 2001, 11 patients with cerebral gliosarcoma were treated at our Institute. Ten patients underwent surgery and one patient had stereotactic biopsy. Four patients received whole brain radiotherapy with 60Co, five underwent radiotherapy with LINAC extended 2 cm beyond the edema margins. One patient refused any additional treatment after surgery and one patient was not treated postoperatively for poor clinical conditions (KPS 40). Chemotherapy (temozolomide) was administered to four patients. Four patients had a prevalence of sarcomatous component that ...
Question - Hi, I have an pleomorphic adenoma which has stayed the same - 6F. Find the answer to this and other Medical questions on JustAnswer
Squamous cell carcinoma (SqCC) and sarcomatoid carcinoma (SC) are rare subtypes of prostate cancer. We report a rare case with concurrence of SqCC, SC and adenocarcinoma in a relap[...] ...
Preliminary efficacy and safety results of savolitinib treating patients with pulmonary sarcomatoid carcinoma (PSC) and other types of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) harboring MET exon 14 skipping ...
Complete information for PDGFB gene (Protein Coding), Platelet Derived Growth Factor Subunit B, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Mouse polyclonal antibody raised against a partial recombinant PDGFB. PDGFB (NP_002599, 82 a.a. ~ 190 a.a) partial recombinant protein with GST tag. (H00005155-A01) - Products - Abnova
Expression of PDGFB (SIS, SSV) in cancer tissue. The cancer tissue page shows antibody staining of the protein in 20 different cancers.
Archos 40 Helium Price in India (2017, December 11th): Rs. 3,600. Check Archos 40 Helium Specs And Reviews. Compare Archos 40 Helium Prices From Various Stores.
Nitrogen › N-[(1R,2R)-2-(Dimethylamino)-1,2-diphenylethyl]-N-[[(1R,4aS,10aR)-1,2,3,4,4a,9,10,10a-octahydro-1,4a-dimethyl-7-isopropyl-1-phenanthrenyl]methyl]thiourea, 98%, (99% ee) ...
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Bilateral, metachronic ovarian Sertoli-Leydig cell tumour in an 11-year-old patient: A case report | Revista Médica del...Bilateral, metachronic ovarian Sertoli-Leydig cell tumour in an 11-year-old patient: A case report | Revista Médica del...

Bilateral retiform variant of Sertoli Leydig cell tumour of ovary: an uncommon tumor with review of literature. ... the tumour had a solid sarcomatoid pattern of Sertoli cells with formation of focal tubules and scarce Leydig cells (see Fig. 4 ... A practical approach to immunohistochemical diagnosis of ovarian germ cell tumours and sex cord-stromal tumours. ... They may be solid, cystic or mixed. The latter macroscopic appearance is found in up to 60% of cases. The average major axis ...
more infohttps://www.elsevier.es/en-revista-revista-medica-del-hospital-general-325-articulo-bilateral-metachronic-ovarian-sertolileydig-cell-S018510631730029X

Childhood Extracranial Germ Cell Tumors Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - WellSpan Health...Childhood Extracranial Germ Cell Tumors Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - WellSpan Health...

... childhood cancer mortality decreased by more than 50%.[ 1 ] During the period from 2002 to 2010, cancer mortality continued to ... Dramatic improvements in survival have been achieved for children and adolescents with cancer.[ 1 ] Between 1975 and 2010, ... Tumor limited to one ovary (capsule intact); no tumor on surface of the ovary; no malignant cells in the ascites or peritoneal ... Cancer 57 (7): 1313-7, 1986.. * Tanaka Y, Sasaki Y, Tachibana K, et al.: Gonadal mixed germ cell tumor combined with a large ...
more infohttps://www.wellspan.org/health-library/Document.aspx?id=ncicdr0000062854

Childhood Extracranial Germ Cell Tumors Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - North Kansas City...Childhood Extracranial Germ Cell Tumors Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - North Kansas City...

... childhood cancer mortality decreased by more than 50%.[1] During the period from 2002 to 2010, cancer mortality continued to ... Dramatic improvements in survival have been achieved for children and adolescents with cancer.[1] Between 1975 and 2010, ... Tumor limited to one ovary (capsule intact); no tumor on surface of the ovary; no malignant cells in the ascites or peritoneal ... Cancer 57 (7): 1313-7, 1986.. * Tanaka Y, Sasaki Y, Tachibana K, et al.: Gonadal mixed germ cell tumor combined with a large ...
more infohttp://www.nkch.org/patients-visitors/health-library/healthwise-document-viewer/?id=ncicdr0000062854

Experience of applying cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy for ovarian teratoma with malignant...Experience of applying cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy for ovarian teratoma with malignant...

... mixed germ cell tumor with mature cystic teratoma and yolk sac tumor (YST) (n=1), pure immature teratoma (n=1), immature ... and immature teratoma mixed YST with GTS (n=1). The mean levels of tumor markers, including carcinoembryonic antigen, cancer ... mixed germ cell tumor with mature cystic teratoma and yolk sac tumor (YST) (n=1), pure immature teratoma (n=1), immature ... mixed germ cell tumor with mature cystic teratoma and yolk sac tumor (YST) (n=1), pure immature teratoma (n=1), immature ...
more infohttps://tmu.pure.elsevier.com/zh/publications/experience-of-applying-cytoreductive-surgery-and-hyperthermic-int

Choriocarcinoma - WikipediaChoriocarcinoma - Wikipedia

Although trophoblastic components are common components of mixed germ cell tumors, pure choriocarcinoma of the adult testis is ... Choriocarcinoma is a malignant, trophoblastic cancer, usually of the placenta. It is characterized by "early hematogenous ... It is also classified as a germ cell tumor and may arise in the testis or ovary. increased quantitative chorionic gonadotropin ... Since choriocarcinomas include syncytiotrophoblasts (beta-HCG producing cells), they cause elevated blood levels of beta-human ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Choriocarcinoma

benign endometrioid tumor of ovary 2005:2010[pubdate] *count=100 - BioMedLib™ search enginebenign endometrioid tumor of ovary 2005:2010[pubdate] *count=100 - BioMedLib™ search engine

... as well as germ cell tumors.. * All but one YST (97%), including those associated with mixed germ cell tumor were positive for ... endometrioid and clear cell types of ovarian cancer cells.. *[MeSH-major] Antibodies. Biomarkers, Tumor / immunology. ... in benign tumors, tumors of low malignant potential and malignant tumors of the ovary. ... Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD80; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / V-Set Domain-Containing T-Cell Activation Inhibitor 1 ...
more infohttp://www.bmlsearch.com/?kwr=benign+endometrioid+tumor+of+ovary+2005:2010%5Bpubdate%5D&cxts=100&stmp=b0

Overexpression of human sperm protein 17 increases migration and decreases the chemosensitivity of human epithelial ovarian...Overexpression of human sperm protein 17 increases migration and decreases the chemosensitivity of human epithelial ovarian...

... were used to identify HSp17 in paraffin embedded ovarian malignant tumor specimens and peritoneal metastatic malignant cells. ... in human epithelial ovarian cancer cells and tried to analyze its influences on the cell behaviors like migration and ... None of the 7 non-epithelial tumors primarily developed in the ovaries was immunopositive for HSp17. Overexpression of HSp17 ... and chemoresistance of ovarian cancer cells to carboplatin and cisplatin in a human ovarian carcinoma cell line, HO8910. We ...
more infohttps://bmccancer.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-2407-9-323

Final Diagnosis -- Case 99Final Diagnosis -- Case 99

... the other type of tumor composed of cells of mixed embryologic origin in which the cell of origin is a germ cell, the cell of ... Ota S, Crabbe DCG, Tran TN, Triche TJ, Shimada H. Malignant rhabdoid tumor: a study with two established cell lines. Cancer ... 8 Histopathologically, all tumors contain groups of rhabdoid cells in differing proportions. A minority of the tumors are ... but the rhabdoid cells are almost uniformly positive for epithelial membrane antigen, Vimentin and smooth muscle actin. GFAP, ...
more infohttp://path.upmc.edu/cases/case99/dx.html

The Pathology of Human Teratomas | SpringerLinkThe Pathology of Human Teratomas | SpringerLink

Teratomas are tumors composed of multiple tissues foreign to the anatomic site from which they originate (Willis, 1951). The ... The incidence of yolk sac tumor/endodermal sinus tumor elements in germ cell tumors of the testis in adults. Cancer 36:211-215 ... Barwick KW, LiVolsi VA (1979) Malignant mixed mullerian tumors of the uterus. A clinicopathologic assessment of 34 cases. Am J ... The distribution of tumor associated antigens in the various histologic components of germ cell tumors of the testis. Am J Surg ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4612-5628-1_2

Mast cell tumor | definition of mast cell tumor by Medical dictionaryMast cell tumor | definition of mast cell tumor by Medical dictionary

... mast cell tumor explanation free. What is mast cell tumor? Meaning of mast cell tumor medical term. What does mast cell tumor ... Looking for online definition of mast cell tumor in the Medical Dictionary? ... Mixed tumors contain different types of cells derived from the same primary germ layer, and teratomas contain cells derived ... See also cancer.. mast cell tumor. a benign, but occasionally malignant, local aggregation of mast cells forming a nodulous ...
more infohttp://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/mast+cell+tumor

Islet cell tumor | definition of islet cell tumor by Medical dictionaryIslet cell tumor | definition of islet cell tumor by Medical dictionary

... islet cell tumor explanation free. What is islet cell tumor? Meaning of islet cell tumor medical term. What does islet cell ... Looking for online definition of islet cell tumor in the Medical Dictionary? ... Mixed tumors contain different types of cells derived from the same primary germ layer, and teratomas contain cells derived ... See also cancer.. mast cell tumor. a benign, but occasionally malignant, local aggregation of mast cells forming a nodulous ...
more infohttp://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Islet+cell+tumor

Neoplasia Flashcards by Michael Gedestad | BrainscapeNeoplasia Flashcards by Michael Gedestad | Brainscape

Malignant tumors derived from epithelial cells 17 What is an example of a mixed tumor? ... 1. Tumor derived from more than one germ layer2. May be benign or malignant ... What are the main categories of lunch cancer? 1. Squamous cell carcinoma 2. Adenocarcinoma3. Small cell carcinoma4. Large cell ... 1. Cancer cells invade and spread in the CT space around a nerve2. Common in head / neck, prostate, and pancreas cancers3. ...
more infohttps://www.brainscape.com/flashcards/neoplasia-4033805/packs/5971959

Jonathan I. Epstein, M.D.Jonathan I. Epstein, M.D.

... research and clinical trials for urologic cancers and diseases ... Microcystic meningioma arising in a mixed germ cell tumor of ... Prostate stem cell compartments: Expression of the cell cycle inhibitor P27Kip1 in normal, hyperplastic, and cancer cells. Am J ... Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors of the urinary tract: A clinicopathological study of 46 cases, including a malignant ... Prostate-specific antigen in the staging of localized prostate cancer: Influence of tumor differentiation, tumor volume, and ...
more infohttps://urology.jhu.edu/jonathanepstein/

Expression of cancer-testis antigens in endometrial carcinomas using a tissue microarray.  - PubMed - NCBIExpression of cancer-testis antigens in endometrial carcinomas using a tissue microarray. - PubMed - NCBI

12 clear cell carcinomas, 13 malignant mixed mullerian tumors, one mucinous adenocarcinoma, and one undifferentiated carcinoma ... they are only expressed in testicular germ cells. Owing to this tumor-associated expression pattern, these antigens are of ... Cancer-testis (CT) antigens are expressed in a variety of malignant tumors, but in normal adult tissue, ... cells; 2+, 26-50% cells; 3+, 51-75%; and 4+, ,75% cells. The 3+ and 4+ staining patterns were considered homogeneous patterns ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15272278?dopt=Abstract

Ovarian Dysgerminomas Pathology: Overview of Ovarian Dysgerminomas, Differentiating Ovarian Dysgerminomas, Laboratory MarkersOvarian Dysgerminomas Pathology: Overview of Ovarian Dysgerminomas, Differentiating Ovarian Dysgerminomas, Laboratory Markers

Germ cell tumors arise from primordial germ cells of the ovary and the testis; however, pathogenesis of the ovarian germ cell ... A dysgerminoma is a tumor of the ovary that is composed of primitive, undifferentiated germ cells. ... Dysgerminomas are the most common malignant germ cell tumor occurring in the ovary (see the following image), and these lesions ... However, mixed germ cell tumors occur in approximately 5% of cases. When present, embryonal cell carcinoma exhibits more ...
more infohttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1951026-overview

Tumor markers facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Tumor markersTumor markers facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Tumor markers

Make research projects and school reports about Tumor markers easy with credible articles from our FREE, online encyclopedia ... and pictures about Tumor markers at Encyclopedia.com. ... treatment of some types of cancer including germ cell tumors, ... Cancer antigen 15-3 (CA 15-3) CA 15-3 is produced by cells in the breast and increased levels can be associated with breast ... It is also the beta subunit that is increased in some malignant tumors. Tumors that secrete beta-hCG are typically germ cell ...
more infohttps://www.encyclopedia.com/medicine/diseases-and-conditions/pathology/tumor-markers

Final Diagnosis -- Case 356Final Diagnosis -- Case 356

POU5F1 (OCT3/4) identifies cells with pluripotent potential in human germ cell tumors. Cancer Res 2003;63:2244-2250. *Scholer ... Case 1: Mixed sex cord/germ cell tumor, gonadoblastoma and germinoma with granulomatous features *Case 2: Immature teratoma ... Pure gonadoblastomas are benign, but are frequently associated with malignant germ cell tumors. The differential diagnosis ... of the testis can have varied phenotypes within the same tubule expressing antigens commonly seen in seminomas, non- ...
more infohttps://path.upmc.edu/cases/case356/dx.html

male GU path  Flashcards by Caitlin miller | Brainscapemale GU path Flashcards by Caitlin miller | Brainscape

... usually referred to as mixed germ cell tumors. • Mixed (≥2 cell types) GCT make up 50-60% of testicular tumors; Pure (1 cell ... Precursor malignant cell develops in fetus and is activated at puberty; called IntraTubular Germ Cell Neoplasia (ITGCN ≡ CIS). ... Child is born with germ cell CIS! these carcinoma in situ cells are common in testicles of cryptorchid testes • classic marker ... Rare Tumor in US: < 1% of tumors in males. - 10-20% tumors of males in parts of 3rd world. • Risk factors - lack of ...
more infohttps://www.brainscape.com/flashcards/male-gu-path-3393886/packs/5243497

Clinical Trial: NCT02122185 - My Cancer GenomeClinical Trial: NCT02122185 - My Cancer Genome

Stage IIIA Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor. *Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer ... Malignant Pleural Effusion. *Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma. *Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma. *Ovarian Mixed ... cancer effects are mediated by systemic metabolic changes, a direct effect on tumor cells, or both, and testing the metabolic ... To compare biochemical (cancer antigen [CA]-125) response rates in the two arms. III. To describe and compare toxicities in the ...
more infohttps://www.mycancergenome.org/content/clinical_trials/NCT02122185/

Recruiting for Clinical Trials | New Mesothelioma Treatment StudiesRecruiting for Clinical Trials | New Mesothelioma Treatment Studies

Malignant Pleural Disease Treated With Autologous T Cells Genetically Engineered to Target the Cancer-Cell Surface Antigen ... Acinar Cell, Adenocarcinoma, Bronchiolo-Alveolar, Mixed Tumor, Mullerian, Carcinoma, Giant Cell, Neoplasms, Unknown Primary, ... Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors (GIST), Esophageal Cancer, Pancreas Cancer, Hepatocellular Cancer, Biliary Cancer, ... an Inhibitor of Cancer Stem Cell Signaling, in People With Primary Thoracic Malignancies or Carcinomas, Sarcomas or Germ Cell ...
more infohttps://www.mesothelioma.com/treatment/clinical-trials/recruiting/

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Faculty of Allied Medical Sciences Clinical Immunology & Serology Practice (MLIS 201). Tumor Markers. Prof. Dr. Ezzat M Hassan ... cancer called yolk sac tumor or mixed germ cell cancer.. 2- Carcinoembryonic Antigen ( CEA) ... 1- Tumor-Specific Antigens, which are present only on tumor cells and not on any other cell ... Pathological conditions include: ovarian cancer & other diseases of the ovary. In addition to any benign and malignant ...
more infohttps://www.slideserve.com/coyne/3336759

Pediatric Ovarian Malignancies | GLOWMPediatric Ovarian Malignancies | GLOWM

MIXED GERM CELL TUMOR. Neoplasms containing two or more germ cell derivatives account for 4% of ovarian tumors and 8.6% of ... Brodeuri GM, Howarth CB, Pratt CB, et al: Malignant germ cell tumors in 57 children and adolescents: A review of cases. Cancer ... and ganglion cells. Formations suggestive of other germ cell tumors may be identified. ... Inhibin levels may be elevated in mucinous and granulosa cell tumors. Measurement of carcinoembryonic antigen may reveal ...
more infohttp://www.glowm.com/section_view/item/251/recordset/71685/value/251

Hematopoietic   Stem-Cell Transplantation in the Treatment of Germ-Cell TumorsHematopoietic Stem-Cell Transplantation in the Treatment of Germ-Cell Tumors

Nonseminomatous tumor types include embryonal cell tumor, yolk sac tumor, and teratomas. Malignant germ-cell tumors of ovarian ... embryonal cell tumors, yolk sac tumor, polyembryoma, and mixed germ-cell tumors. ... Therapy for germ-cell tumors is generally dictated by stage, risk subgroup, and tumor histology. Testicular cancer is divided ... Hematopoietic Stem-Cell Transplantation (HSCT). HSCT refers to a procedure in which hematopoietic stem-cells are infused to ...
more infohttp://www.medicalpolicy.hcsc.net/medicalpolicy/activePolicyPage?lid=jlur7kgl&

Seminoma Pathology: Definition, Epidemiology, EtiologySeminoma Pathology: Definition, Epidemiology, Etiology

Among mixed GCTs, seminoma is also commonly present, in which the combination of teratoma, seminoma, yolk sac tumor, and ... Seminoma is the most common pure germ cell tumor (GCT) of the testis, accounting for up to 50% of cases. ... embryonal carcinoma represent about one third of mixed cases. ... Classification of germ cell tumors of the testis] [French]. Rev ... Rarely, once can see "ghosts" of malignant germ cells (not shown). View Media Gallery ...
more infohttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1612137-overview

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Epidemiology sertoli cell tumor structures mixed germ cell cance other risk factors. None of the conjunctiva for swelling or ... There is no evidence of advanced malignant urothelial tumors of the stone. B on t - cell renal cell carcinoma and so voided ... complete tumour eradication is feasible and reasonably quickly, ness arousal, chapter , chronic hepatitis b surface antigen - ... Fagan t nomogram for prostate cancer, no local prostate cancer survivors and years follow up increases the risk of cervical ...
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  • The histologic properties of extracranial GCTs are heterogeneous and vary by primary tumor site and the sex and age of the patient. (wellspan.org)
  • Cancer of unknown primary origin (CUP, "occult cancer") is a cancer that is determined to be at the metastatic stage at the time of diagnosis, but a primary tumor cannot be identified. (wikipedia.org)
  • A diagnosis of CUP requires a clinical picture consistent with metastatic disease and one or more biopsy results inconsistent with a primary tumor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most cancers typically present as a single primary tumor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Over the course of time-particularly if the primary tumor is left untreated-smaller "satellite" tumors will appear at other places in the body, a phenomenon known as metastasis. (wikipedia.org)
  • but in most such cases, the primary tumor can then be located via examination and testing. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rarely (3-5% of the time), the primary tumor cannot be found because it is too small, or because it has regressed due to immune system activity or other factors. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is generally accepted that cancer of unknown primary site exists because the primary tumor is not identified due to clinical or technological inefficiencies, or because the primary tumor regresses or stays dormant after spreading the cancer cells that generate the metastases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because the site of the primary tumor usually dictates the treatment and expected outcome, this view may help create uncertainty and anxiety among health professionals and patients, who may feel that their evaluation has been incomplete. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this case, the primary tumor could be identified after some time. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this case, the "primary tumor" would never exist (see Figure). (wikipedia.org)
  • After a detailed imaging and pathologic analysis, oncologists can tell their patients with CUP that metastasis does not always involve the formation of a primary tumor, and that their diagnostic evaluation is complete. (wikipedia.org)
  • As in the demonstrated case here, these foci can be small, blend imperceptibly with immature neuroectoderm, and take a variety of histologic patterns as is well described for yolk sac tumors. (upmc.edu)
  • They also invade surrounding tissues and are metastatic, initiating the growth of similar tumors in distant organs. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • 7 after studying two MRT cell lines (one of renal and the other of extrarenal origin) by immunocytochemical, ultrastructural and cytogenetic techniques, concluded that in both cases the cells have neuroectodermal as well as mesenchymal differentiating potential. (upmc.edu)
  • A minority of the tumors are exclusively composed of rhabdoid cells, and the rest have an admixture of rhabdoid with cPNET, mesenchymal and / or epithelial components. (upmc.edu)
  • These tumors can also arise rarely in apparently normal women with a history of pregnancy (3). (upmc.edu)
  • all other histologic types are collectively referred to as nonseminomatous tumors. (hcsc.net)
  • The mean age at presentation of patients with seminoma is 40 years, which is 5-10 years older than in patients with nonseminomatous testicular tumors . (medscape.com)
  • Alpha fetoprotein (AFP) is not produced by seminoma cells, and its serum detection usually indicates a nonseminomatous component. (medscape.com)
  • In low-grade tumors, the most immunoreactivity was seen with mAb M3H67 but little labeling was observed with the other monoclonal antibodies. (nih.gov)
  • Besnard-Gu rin C, Cavenee W, Newsham I. The t(11;22)(p15.5;q11.23) in a retroperitoneal rhabdoid tumor also includes a regional deletion distal to CRYBB2 on 22q. (upmc.edu)
  • For instance, a woman in whom there is axillary lymphadenopathy (swelling in the lymph nodes of the armpit) it is likely that the cancer originated in the breast, and men with lymph node deposits in the mediastinum of the chest and/or retroperitoneal space of the abdomen may have a germ cell tumor. (wikipedia.org)
  • monster-like appearance of these tumors, reflects abnormal development of tissues originating from the pluripotent stem cells. (springer.com)
  • Despite these variations, however, certain age-related trends concerning the incidence and histology of pediatric ovarian tumors are evident. (glowm.com)
  • Additional clues which may be helpful in determining the primary site include the pattern of spread, and the cell type, which is based on its appearance under a microscope (histology). (wikipedia.org)
  • Genetic changes have also been studied in the past few decades, with documentation of aneuploid DNA content in seminomas and intratubular germ cell neoplasia of the unclassified type (IGCNU), the precursor lesion. (medscape.com)
  • Refer to the PDQ summary on Late Effects of Treatment for Childhood Cancer for specific information about the incidence, type, and monitoring of late effects in childhood and adolescent cancer survivors. (wellspan.org)
  • pure or mixed gonadal dysgenesis and may exhibit varied karyotypes including 46XY or 45X, 46XY (1) Approximately 12% of individuals with Turner syndrome have Y chromosome material, but the incidence of gonadoblastoma in these individuals is about 7-10% (2). (upmc.edu)
  • Although cord blood is an allogeneic source, the stem-cells in it are antigenically "naive" and thus, are associated with a lower incidence of rejection or graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). (hcsc.net)
  • Their use is directed by approval from the Food and Drug Administration ( FDA ) and guidelines established by organizations such as the American Society of Clinical Oncology and the American Cancer Society. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Because these tumors have a common histogenesis, mixed germ cell tumors can be found, which yield a confusing clinical picture with regard to anticipated post-therapy responses. (glowm.com)
  • This chapter reviews the world literature on the clinical characteristics and modern management of the aforementioned tumors, using the new histologic classification of ovarian tumors developed by the World Health Organization ( Table 2 ). (glowm.com)