Trophoblasts: Cells lining the outside of the BLASTOCYST. After binding to the ENDOMETRIUM, trophoblasts develop into two distinct layers, an inner layer of mononuclear cytotrophoblasts and an outer layer of continuous multinuclear cytoplasm, the syncytiotrophoblasts, which form the early fetal-maternal interface (PLACENTA).Porcupines: Common name for large, quilled rodents (RODENTIA) comprised of two families: Old World porcupines (Hystricidae) and New World porcupines (Erethizontidae).Embryonic Stem Cells: Cells derived from the BLASTOCYST INNER CELL MASS which forms before implantation in the uterine wall. They retain the ability to divide, proliferate and provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Bone Morphogenetic Proteins: Bone-growth regulatory factors that are members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily of proteins. They are synthesized as large precursor molecules which are cleaved by proteolytic enzymes. The active form can consist of a dimer of two identical proteins or a heterodimer of two related bone morphogenetic proteins.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2: A potent osteoinductive protein that plays a critical role in the differentiation of osteoprogenitor cells into OSTEOBLASTS.Pluripotent Stem Cells: Cells that can give rise to cells of the three different GERM LAYERS.Bone Morphogenetic Protein 7: A bone morphogenetic protein that is widely expressed during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT. It is both a potent osteogenic factor and a specific regulator of nephrogenesis.Bone Morphogenetic Protein 4: A bone morphogenetic protein that is a potent inducer of bone formation. It also functions as a regulator of MESODERM formation during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Bone Morphogenetic Protein Receptors, Type I: A subtype of bone morphogenetic protein receptors with high affinity for BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEINS. They can interact with and undergo PHOSPHORYLATION by BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN RECEPTORS, TYPE II. They signal primarily through RECEPTOR-REGULATED SMAD PROTEINS.Bone Morphogenetic Protein 6: A bone morphogenetic protein that is a potent inducer of BONE formation. It plays additional roles in regulating CELL DIFFERENTIATION of non-osteoblastic cell types and epithelial-mesenchymal interactions.Pulmonary Embolism: Blocking of the PULMONARY ARTERY or one of its branches by an EMBOLUS.Hypertension, Pulmonary: Increased VASCULAR RESISTANCE in the PULMONARY CIRCULATION, usually secondary to HEART DISEASES or LUNG DISEASES.Pulmonary Artery: The short wide vessel arising from the conus arteriosus of the right ventricle and conveying unaerated blood to the lungs.Endarterectomy: Surgical excision, performed under general anesthesia, of the atheromatous tunica intima of an artery. When reconstruction of an artery is performed as an endovascular procedure through a catheter, it is called ATHERECTOMY.Thromboembolism: Obstruction of a blood vessel (embolism) by a blood clot (THROMBUS) in the blood stream.Hypertrophy: General increase in bulk of a part or organ due to CELL ENLARGEMENT and accumulation of FLUIDS AND SECRETIONS, not due to tumor formation, nor to an increase in the number of cells (HYPERPLASIA).Hyperplasia: An increase in the number of cells in a tissue or organ without tumor formation. It differs from HYPERTROPHY, which is an increase in bulk without an increase in the number of cells.Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor: A cell surface receptor involved in regulation of cell growth and differentiation. It is specific for EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR and EGF-related peptides including TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR ALPHA; AMPHIREGULIN; and HEPARIN-BINDING EGF-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR. The binding of ligand to the receptor causes activation of its intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity and rapid internalization of the receptor-ligand complex into the cell.Epidermal Growth Factor: A 6-kDa polypeptide growth factor initially discovered in mouse submaxillary glands. Human epidermal growth factor was originally isolated from urine based on its ability to inhibit gastric secretion and called urogastrone. Epidermal growth factor exerts a wide variety of biological effects including the promotion of proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal and EPITHELIAL CELLS. It is synthesized as a transmembrane protein which can be cleaved to release a soluble active form.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Serine: A non-essential amino acid occurring in natural form as the L-isomer. It is synthesized from GLYCINE or THREONINE. It is involved in the biosynthesis of PURINES; PYRIMIDINES; and other amino acids.ras Proteins: Small, monomeric GTP-binding proteins encoded by ras genes (GENES, RAS). The protooncogene-derived protein, PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN P21(RAS), plays a role in normal cellular growth, differentiation and development. The oncogene-derived protein (ONCOGENE PROTEIN P21(RAS)) can play a role in aberrant cellular regulation during neoplastic cell transformation (CELL TRANSFORMATION, NEOPLASTIC). This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Breast: In humans, one of the paired regions in the anterior portion of the THORAX. The breasts consist of the MAMMARY GLANDS, the SKIN, the MUSCLES, the ADIPOSE TISSUE, and the CONNECTIVE TISSUES.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Adenocarcinoma: A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast: An invasive (infiltrating) CARCINOMA of the mammary ductal system (MAMMARY GLANDS) in the human BREAST.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Neural Tube Defects: Congenital malformations of the central nervous system and adjacent structures related to defective neural tube closure during the first trimester of pregnancy generally occurring between days 18-29 of gestation. Ectodermal and mesodermal malformations (mainly involving the skull and vertebrae) may occur as a result of defects of neural tube closure. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch55, pp31-41)Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Neural Tube: A tube of ectodermal tissue in an embryo that will give rise to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, including the SPINAL CORD and the BRAIN. Lumen within the neural tube is called neural canal which gives rise to the central canal of the spinal cord and the ventricles of the brain. For malformation of the neural tube, see NEURAL TUBE DEFECTS.Prenatal Diagnosis: Determination of the nature of a pathological condition or disease in the postimplantation EMBRYO; FETUS; or pregnant female before birth.alpha-Fetoproteins: The first alpha-globulins to appear in mammalian sera during FETAL DEVELOPMENT and the dominant serum proteins in early embryonic life.Smad1 Protein: A receptor-regulated smad protein that undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION by BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN RECEPTORS. It regulates BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN signaling and plays an essential role in EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Smad3 Protein: A receptor-regulated smad protein that undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION by ACTIVIN RECEPTORS, TYPE I. Activated Smad3 can bind directly to DNA, and it regulates TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA and ACTIVIN signaling.Transforming Growth Factor beta: A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.Smad4 Protein: A signal transducing adaptor protein and tumor suppressor protein. It forms a complex with activated RECEPTOR-REGULATED SMAD PROTEINS. The complex then translocates to the CELL NUCLEUS and regulates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of target GENES.Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors: A family of DNA-binding transcription factors that contain a basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF.Helix-Loop-Helix Motifs: Recurring supersecondary structures characterized by 20 amino acids folding into two alpha helices connected by a non-helical "loop" segment. They are found in many sequence-specific DNA-BINDING PROTEINS and in CALCIUM-BINDING PROTEINS.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Spinal Cord: A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.

*Bone morphogenetic protein 4

"Effect of extracellular calcium on the gene expression of bone morphogenetic protein-2 and -4 of normal human bone cells". J. ... "Entrez Gene: BMP4 bone morphogenetic protein 4". Miyazono K, Kamiya Y, Morikawa M (January 2010). "Bone morphogenetic protein ... Bone morphogenetic protein 4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by BMP4 gene. BMP4 is found on chromosome 14q22-q23 BMP4 is ... "Expression of bone morphogenetic protein messenger RNAs by normal rat and human prostate and prostate cancer cells". Prostate. ...

*Bone morphogenetic protein 5

6 on DNA synthesis and expression of bone-related proteins in cultured human periodontal ligament cells". Cell Biology ... The protein encoded by this gene is member of the TGFβ superfamily. Bone morphogenetic proteins are known for their ability to ... "Expression of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP), BMP receptors, and BMP associated proteins in human trabecular meshwork and ... This gene encodes a member of the bone morphogenetic protein family which is part of the transforming growth factor-beta ...

*Bone morphogenetic protein 7

... and hemodynamic gene expression in proximal tubule cells". Kidney Int. 61 (1): 51-60. doi:10.1046/j.1523-1755.2002.00103.x. ... The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the TGF-β superfamily. Like other members of the bone morphogenetic protein ... Bone morphogenetic protein 7 or BMP7 (also known as osteogenic protein-1 or OP-1) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ... 2009). "Bone morphogenetic protein 7 (BMP7) gene polymorphisms are associated with inverse relationships between vascular ...

*Laminin, gamma 2

2000). "Differential expression of the LAMB3 and LAMC2 genes between small cell and non-small cell lung carcinomas". Biochem. ... 2000). "Bone morphogenetic protein 1 is an extracellular processing enzyme of the laminin 5 gamma 2 chain". J. Biol. Chem. 275 ... Laminin subunit gamma-2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the LAMC2 gene. Laminins, a family of extracellular matrix ... Each laminin chain is a multidomain protein encoded by a distinct gene. Several isoforms of each chain have been described. ...

*Bone morphogenetic protein 10

"Entrez Gene: bone morphogenetic protein 10". Neuhaus H, Rosen V, Thies RS (February 1999). "Heart specific expression of mouse ... in endothelial cells". Blood. 109 (5): 1953-61. doi:10.1182/blood-2006-07-034124. PMID 17068149. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... Bone morphogenetic protein 10 (BMP10) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the BMP10 gene. BMP10 is a polypeptide ... Bone morphogenetic proteins are known for their ability to induce bone and cartilage development. BMP10 is categorized as a BMP ...

*PSMB4

"A novel link between the proteasome pathway and the signal transduction pathway of the bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs)". BMC ... "Gene Expression Analysis of the 26S Proteasome Subunit PSMB4 Reveals Significant Upregulation, Different Expression and ... Wang ZV, Hill JA (Feb 2015). "Protein quality control and metabolism: bidirectional control in the heart". Cell Metabolism. 21 ... The eukaryotic proteasome recognized degradable proteins, including damaged proteins for protein quality control purpose or key ...

*Follistatin

... transcriptional activation of the bone morphogenetic protein/activin antagonist follistatin in human epidermal cells". J. Biol ... 2009). "Integrin alpha6beta4 controls the expression of genes associated with cell motility, invasion, and metastasis, ... The activin-binding protein follistatin is produced by folliculostellate (FS) cells of the anterior pituitary. FS cells make ... Follistatin also known as activin-binding protein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FST gene. Follistatin is an ...

*Hemojuvelin

... novel bone morphogenetic protein co-receptors, are key regulators of the growth and aggressiveness of prostate cancer cells". ... Schmidtmer J, Engelkamp D (January 2004). "Isolation and expression pattern of three mouse homologues of chick Rgm". Gene Expr ... "Bone morphogenetic protein signaling by hemojuvelin regulates hepcidin expression". Nat. Genet. 38 (5): 531-9. doi:10.1038/ ... However it has been demonstrated that hemojuvelin interacts with bone morphogenetic protein (BMP), possibly as a co-receptor, ...

*BMP2K

"Regulation of bone morphogenetic protein-2 expression by endogenous prostaglandin E2 in human mesenchymal stem cells". Journal ... Bone morphogenic proteins (BMPs) play a key role in skeletal development and patterning. Expression of the mouse gene is ... BMP-2-inducible protein kinase is an enzyme in humans encoded by the BMP2K gene. This gene is the human homolog of mouse BMP-2- ... Therefore, the protein encoded by this human homolog is thought to be a protein kinase with a putative regulatory role in ...

*LMX1A

The level and beta-cell specificity of insulin gene expression are regulated by a set of nuclear genes that bind to specific ... "Proteins associated with type II bone morphogenetic protein receptor (BMPR-II) and identified by two-dimensional gel ... is a protein which in humans is encoded by the LMX1A gene. Insulin is produced exclusively by the beta cells in the islets of ... "Localization of the genes encoding two transcription factors, LMX1 and CDX3, regulating insulin gene expression to human ...

*Repulsive guidance molecule B

... novel bone morphogenetic protein co-receptors, are key regulators of the growth and aggressiveness of prostate cancer cells". ... In humans this protein is encoded by the RGMB gene. RGMB is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored member of the ... Furthermore, aberrant expression of RGMs was indicated in breast cancer. The perturbed expression was associated with disease ... There is a potential association between RGMs and cancer bone metastasis, as RGMs coordinate bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) ...

*Bone morphogenetic protein 3

... , also known as osteogenin, is a protein in humans that is encoded by the BMP3 gene. The protein ... Chen AL, Fang C, Liu C, Leslie MP, Chang E, Di Cesare PE (November 2004). "Expression of bone morphogenetic proteins, receptors ... "Opposing actions of BMP3 and TGF beta 1 in human bone marrow stromal cell growth and differentiation". Biochemical and ... "Entrez Gene: BMP3 bone morphogenetic protein 3 (osteogenic)". Human BMP3 genome location and BMP3 gene details page in the UCSC ...

*NOV (gene)

... inactivation sensitizes osteoblasts to bone morphogenetic protein-2, but nov is dispensable for skeletal homeostasis". ... Forced expression of NOV inhibits proliferation and restores growth control in CML cells, suggesting that NOV may be an ... NOV (nephroblastoma overexpressed) also known as CCN3 is a matricellular protein that in humans is encoded by the NOV gene. NOV ... In February 2017, it was reported that the NOV protein was involved in regulatory T cell-mediated oligodendrocyte ...

*Gremlin (protein)

"Bone morphogenetic protein antagonist gremlin 1 is widely expressed by cancer-associated stromal cells and can promote tumor ... Grem1 expression is found in many cancers and is thought to play important roles in uterine cervix, lung, ovary, kidney, breast ... Gremlin1 was first identified in differential screening as a transcriptional down-regulated gene in v-mos-transformed rat ... "The bone morphogenetic protein antagonist gremlin 1 is overexpressed in human cancers and interacts with YWHAH protein". BMC ...

*HOXC8

"Transcriptional mechanisms of bone morphogenetic protein-induced osteoprotegrin gene expression". J. Biol. Chem. 276 (13): ... "Expression of HOX C homeobox genes in lymphoid cells". Cell Growth Differ. 4 (8): 665-9. PMID 8104467. Apiou F, Flagiello D, ... Shi X, Yang X, Chen D, Chang Z, Cao X (1999). "Smad1 interacts with homeobox DNA-binding proteins in bone morphogenetic protein ... Homeobox protein Hox-C8 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HOXC8 gene. This gene belongs to the homeobox family of ...

*Noggin (protein)

BMPedia - the Bone Morphogenetic Protein Wiki Noggin publications, gene expression data, sequences and interactants from ... Noggin proteins play a role in germ layer-specific derivation of specialized cells. The formation of neural tissues, the ... superfamily signaling proteins, such as bone morphogenetic protein-4 (BMP4). By diffusing through extracellular matrices more ... Hall AK, Burke RM, Anand M, Dinsio KJ (Jul 2002). "Activin and bone morphogenetic proteins are present in perinatal sensory ...

*BMPR1A

"Transcriptional mechanisms of bone morphogenetic protein-induced osteoprotegrin gene expression". J. Biol. Chem. 276 (13): ... "Bone morphogenetic protein receptor complexes on the surface of live cells: a new oligomerization mode for serine/threonine ... "Enhanced expression of type I receptors for bone morphogenetic proteins during bone formation". J. Bone Miner. Res. 10 (11): ... The bone morphogenetic protein receptor, type IA also known as BMPR1A is a protein which in humans is encoded by the BMPR1A ...

*Development of the human cortex

... helping neuronal progenitor cells in fate determination. Bmp-7, or bone morphogenetic protein 7 is an important regulator in ... Antypa, M., Faux, C., Eichele, G., Parnavelas, J. G., & Andrews, W. D. (2011). Differential gene expression in migratory ... Other bone morphogenetic proteins are also known to impact corticogenesis. Bmp2, 4, 5, and 6 are expressed during the process ... a motor protein that affects intercellular movement such as protein sorting and the process of cell division. Another protein ...

*Bone morphogenetic protein 6

Based on its expression early in embryogenesis, the BMP encoded by this gene has a proposed role in early development. In ... a novel endothelial cell precursor-derived protein, antagonizes bone morphogenetic protein signaling and endothelial cell ... Bone morphogenetic protein 6 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the BMP6 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a ... "Entrez Gene: BMP6 bone morphogenetic protein 6". Human BMP6 genome location and BMP6 gene details page in the UCSC Genome ...

*Cerberus (protein)

Cerberus inhibits the proteins bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4), Xnr1, and Xwnt8. This gene encodes a cytokine member of the ... Collectively, these proteins redirect SWI/SNF to activate the cardiac program of gene expression. Targeted inactivation of ... Katoh M, Katoh M (May 2006). "CER1 is a common target of WNT and NODAL signaling pathways in human embryonic stem cells". ... The cerberus-related cytokines, together with Dan and DRM / Gremlin, represent a group of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) ...

*DMP1

2004). "Bone morphogenetic protein-1/Tolloid-like proteinases process dentin matrix protein-1". J. Biol. Chem. 279 (2): 980-6. ... promoter regulates the cell type-specific DMP1 gene expression". J. Cell. Biochem. 92 (2): 332-49. doi:10.1002/jcb.20051. PMID ... This protein, which is critical for proper mineralization of bone and dentin, is present in diverse cells of bone and tooth ... In undifferentiated osteoblasts it is primarily a nuclear protein that regulates the expression of osteoblast-specific genes. ...

*Growth differentiation factor

Truksa J, Peng H, Lee P, Beutler E (2006). "Bone morphogenetic proteins 2, 4, and 9 stimulate murine hepcidin 1 expression ... GDF3 is also known as "Vg-related gene 2" (Vgr-2). Expression of GDF3 occurs in ossifying bone during embryonic development and ... Levine A, Brivanlou A (2006). "GDF3, a BMP inhibitor, regulates cell fate in stem cells and early embryos". Development. 133 (2 ... GDF6 interacts with bone morphogenetic proteins to regulate ectoderm patterning, and controls eye development. GDF8 is now ...

*TLL1

C-proteinase enhancer protein 1 and differs from bone morphogenetic protein 1 in the functional roles of homologous protein ... Tolloid-like protein 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TLL1 gene. This gene encodes an astacin-like zinc- ... Cytogenet Cell Genet. 86 (1): 64-5. doi:10.1159/000015412. PMID 10516436. "Entrez Gene: TLL1 tolloid-like 1". Takahara K, ... have differential enzymatic activities and distributions of expression relevant to patterning and skeletogenesis". Dev. Biol. ...

*Mammary gland

Basement membrane induces tissue-specific gene expression in the absence of cell-cell interaction and morphological polarity". ... "Conversion of the Nipple to Hair-Bearing Epithelia by Lowering Bone Morphogenetic Protein Pathway Activity at the Dermal- ... These hormones promote specific gene expression. Hence cap cells can differentiate into myoepithelial and luminal (duct) ... As one of the transcribed genes, Wnts secreted from mammary epithelial cells act paracrinely to induce more neighboring cells' ...

*GDF5

The protein encoded by this gene is closely related to the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) family and is a member of the TGF- ... "Synergistic effects of different bone morphogenetic protein type I receptors on alkaline phosphatase induction". J. Cell Sci. ... Hötten G, Neidhardt H, Jacobowsky B, Pohl J (1994). "Cloning and expression of recombinant human growth/differentiation factor ... Reddi AH (1997). "Cartilage morphogenesis: role of bone and cartilage morphogenetic proteins, homeobox genes and extracellular ...

*Spinal cord

Meanwhile, the overlying ectoderm secretes bone morphogenetic protein (BMP). This induces the roof plate to begin to secrete ... 4000 sets of digital images, showing spatial expression patterns for various genes in adult and juvenile mouse spinal cords ... Replacement of lost cells is facilitated by transplants with embryonic stem cells, stem cells from the spinal cord, and spinal ... Treatments need to focus on limiting post-injury cell death, promoting cell regeneration, and replacing lost cells. ...
The cape porcupine (Hystrix africaeaustralis) is sometimes called the South African porcupine, and can be found in much of sub-Saharan Africa, however, it is not found in the southwestern desert regions. It is an Old World porcupine. The cape porcupine prefers to make its home in hills or rocky outcrops in dens or caves that it burrows.. The female members of this species are the largest rodents in southern Africa, weighing in at an average between forty to sixty-six pounds and they can grow to be two feet in length. The quills of this porcupine can be as long as its body and the hollow spines on the tail are used as a defensive mechanism where the porcupine will shake them to make a loud noise. When defending itself, it will either retreat into its burrow, extending its quills to make it difficult to extract, or it may become aggressive and charge the attacker to stab it with its spines.. Cape porcupines, unlike other rodents, can live to be between fifteen to twenty years and they mature very ...
Natural predators of this species include fishers (a cat-sized mustelid)[18], wolverines[19], coyotes, wolves[20], American black bears[21], and cougars[22], as well as humans. The only known avian predators of this species are golden eagles and great horned owls.[23][24][25] In many cases, injury or even death may occur in the predator from embedded porcupine quills even if they are successful in dispatching the porcupine.[26][27] The North American porcupine is most at risk from the fisher (Martes pennanti). Fishers are related to the weasel, with males sometimes exceeding a mass of 5.5 kg (12 lb). Fishers have two advantages that make them capable hunters of the porcupine. First, they are agile tree climbers. If a fisher locates a porcupine, it cannot hide by fleeing into a tree because the fisher can pursue it and force it down to the ground. A porcupine can sometimes defend itself by facing the trunk on a branch and presenting its tail to the fisher. If the fisher manages to force a ...
Porcupines stick close to the trees. Beyond forests, you may find them alongside river undergrowth and maybe in the trees by a rocky ledge. They live in dens found in rock piles, caves, fallen logs and trees. Generally, they stay close to home leaving their dens for food - porcupines eat a variety of shrubs, bark, water plants and they love anything salty.. A peaceful animal, the porcupine will try to run away if it feels theres danger. Theyll make loud chattering noises as a warning for predators to leave. If they cant get away, their muscles tighten forcing their quills to come out. It will tuck its head in, lean forward and thump its back feet while swinging its tail as a warning. Sometimes loose quills fly out of the tail or if a predator tries to get too close, the quills will stick them. The quills are an amazing defense mechanism - when they get lodged in the skin, body heat makes the barbs swell, making it even harder and more painful to pull them out.. Animals like bears, bobcats, ...
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A couple of years ago we spent an evening plucking barbed porcupine quills out of the paws and face of our Wheaten terrier, Wooster, with pliers, an experience I hope never to have to repeat. A year earlier we had lost a spruce tree because a porcupine had eaten the bark off it. Nevertheless, I find porcupines (or "quilled pigs," to use the French root of their name) interesting to watch. The North American variety, of which we have plenty in Maine, is the largest of the species and each one can have as many as 30,000 quills. A porcupine waddled by as I was leaving the house on Saturday. His rear quills looked like spiky blond hair-and in fact quills are hair, coated in keratin, which also makes up human fingernails. I followed Blondie into the woods, where he scooted up a dead tree like a cute little bear. A lot of people around here shoot porcupines, or are happy to see them turned into roadkill. (Porcupines are attracted to salt, including-unfortunately for them-leftover residue from the ...
It has long been known that porcupines accumulate and modify bones, but few actualistic studies on the contents of porcupine burrows have been undertaken. Here we present the results of an investigation of recent Indian porcupine (Hystrix indica) burrows that riddle the archaeological site of Tel Zahara (Israel). Faunal remains were recovered from the den entrances and inside a burrow system that we excavated. Bones exhibiting typical porcupine gnaw-damage i.e., flat-bottomed parallel grooves, were recovered from all dens, but no clear porcupine damage was evident on human osteological remains that were encountered by the porcupines during excavation of their dens. The surface patina of many of the bones is dark, signifying long-term burial, and is probably indicative of their archaeological origin. Porcupine gnawed areas on these bones are lighter in colour and so post-date the patina. Compared to the Roman period deposits on the tel, the ...
We were fortunate enough to spend three nights camping in her lovely mopani-treed bush camp, and for a nominal initial fee we were allowed to attend the porcupine feeding every evening. Katrin has a small concrete area in front of the farmhouse which she uses as the feeding stage. Before the sun goes down she throws pellets or vegetables and porridge on this area and then waits for her hungry guests to arrive. We were extremely excited when we heard a "swish swish" of quills announcing the arrival of her first guests. Two large porcupines shuffled into the spotlight and proceeded to gobble up food as if their lives depended on it. It wasnt long before more wandered in and joined in the fray for food that lasted for up to two hours.. ...
Porcupines are forced to exert a lot of effort if they are in need of food and the snow is deep. Unlike many rodents that are light enough to travel on top of the snow, Porcupines must plow their way through it. Their weight, short legs, and bare footpads make traveling in snow challenging, to…
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Pulling out a porcupine quill is painful and slow, as many a dog discovers to its dismay after tangling with the big rodent. But those tenacious quills are
A microfluidics assay to study invasion of human placental trophoblast cells.. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Monoclonal antibodies raised against living, early invasive mouse trophoblast cells were screened on paraffin sections from first- and third-trimester placentas and from hydatidiform moles and choriocarcinoma. Several mouse-human cross-reacting antibodies were recognized, which implies that mouse trophoblast cells can be used as immunogen for producing antibodies against human trophoblast. Among the new antibodies obtained, some were selected for further study. That panel includes a trophoblast specific antibody with capacity to differ between invasive and noninvasive molar tissues, and two antibodies, which detect antigen epitopes in the normal, but not in the neoplastic trophoblast.. ...
In contrast to cattle, there is an abundance of data on human trophoblast proliferation [7] and differentiation [8] or mouse trophoblast development [9, 10]. Cancer research also disclosed an abundance of data on proliferative and invasive properties, thereby providing evidence for molecular circuits shared with human trophoblast cells [7]. Moreover, a special kind of trophoblastic cancer, usually of the placenta - choriocarcinoma type - was used to derive choriocarcinoma cell lines, frequently used to study trophoblast properties (Rcho-1, for example) [11], and to elucidate transcriptional regulation of a bovine trophoblast-specific gene, such as the IFN-tau [12, 13]. Stem cell research also provides molecular data on trophoblast stem cells in mouse and human [14, 15].. In addition to the text mining issue, we addressed here inter-specific differences in proliferation and differentiation, whose molecular bases are likely common over species and cell types. ...
During pregnancy, the placenta plays a vital role in protecting the developing fetus from microbial infections. The multinucleated and terminally differentiated syncytiotrophoblasts actively coordinate host defense through a multitude of mechanisms. In addition to forming a cellular barrier, the syncytiotrophoblasts release extracellular vesicles containing microRNAs from the chromosome 19 microRNA cluster (C19MC). These vesicle-packaged miRNAs, upon uptake by recipient cells, induce autophagy and limit viral infection, acting against a diverse panel of both DNA and RNA viruses. We have shown that medium conditioned by primary human trophoblast (PHT) cells, which contain these vesicles, confers resistance from pathogens associated with congenital infections to recipient non-placental cells. Furthermore, we have demonstrated that primary human trophoblasts constitutively produce interferon lambda 1 (IFNλ1), leading to a robust induction of interferon ...
Human cytotrophoblast cells are invasive by virtue of their ability to secrete metalloproteinases (MMP) capable of digesting the extracellular matrix of the endometrium. It is the aim of the present study to determine which of the known MMP is responsible for this invasive behavior and to see to what extent endometrial secretions can modulate this enzymatic activity. Under our experimental conditions, first-trimester cytotrophoblast cells invade matrigel; this invasive behavior is inhibited by phenanthroline (an inhibitor of MMP) and by a polyclonal antibody to the 92-kDa gelatinase but not to other MMP. Since cytotrophoblast cells cultured in vitro secrete the 92-kDa gelatinase, and since adhesion to a substrate increases their gelatinolytic activity, it is believed that cytotrophoblast cells invade their surrounding matrix by binding to it and by increasing their secretion of 92-kDa gelatinase which then digests the ...
The trophoblast cell lineage is an interesting model system because it is composed of a limited number of cell types that are spatially patterned. Trophoblast stem (TS) cells reside within a layer called the chorion and either remain as stem cells or differentiate into spongiotrophoblast (SpT), trophoblast giant (TG) cells or syncytiotrophoblast cells (SynT) of the labyrinth. Maintenance of the TS phenotype is dependent on stimulation by FGF4, whereas differentiation and/or maintenance of the differentiated derivatives are dependent on key transcription factors: Mash2 for SpT, Hand1 for TG cells and Gcm1 for SynT cells. TS cells proliferate and retain their stem cell phenotype in culture in response to FGF4 and an additional factor(s) that can be provided by conditioned medium from embryonic fibroblast feeder cells (CM). To understand the functions of Hand1, Mash2 and Gcm1 ...
The mammalian placenta consists of different trophoblast cell types that assist in the variety of functions required for the maintenance of pregnancy. In rodents, labyrinthine trophoblasts of the placenta are especially important, because they are capable of differentiating into fused labyrinthine cells, which form the feto-maternal exchange surface. Even though the molecular signals triggering labyrinthine trophoblast differentiation are poorly understood, transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) has been shown to be present in the placental environment and alter trophoblast development. In this study, we investigated the effects of TGF-β on the differentiation of the labyrinthine trophoblast stem cell lines SM10 and HRP-1. RT-PCR analyses demonstrated that while the molecular expression of labyrinthine-specific lineage markers (Esx1, Tfeb, and Tec) was maintained in TGF-β-treated SM10 and HRP-1 cells, TGF-β induced the down-regulation of trophoblast stem cell ...
Preeclampsia is associated with placental hypoxia at early gestation. We therefore investigated the effect of hypoxia on the apoptosis of cultured first trimester human cytotrophoblasts and the expression of apoptosis relevant proteins, Bcl-2 and Bax. First trimester human cytotrophoblasts were isolated and cultured under either standard or hypoxic conditions. Cellular apoptosis was monitored by TUNEL and Annexin V binding, and the expression of Bcl-2 and Bax was determined by Western blot analysis. Apoptosis increased significantly in cytotrophoblasts cultured for 24 h under hypoxic conditions in contrast with those cultured under standard conditions, meanwhile expression of Bcl-2 reduced, and that of Bax increased. These changes suggested that hypoxia induced apoptosis in cultured first trimester cytotrophoblasts with altered Bcl-2 and Bax expression. Further study is needed to explore the role of cytotrophoblasts ...
The maternal syndrome of pre-eclampsia is thought to result from endothelial cell damage caused by a circulating factor derived from the placenta. This study investigates the hypothesis that trophoblast deportation may be part of the process by which this factor enters the maternal circulation. The nature and incidence of trophoblast deportation was studied in uterine vein and peripheral blood taken from normal and pre-eclamptic women at caesarean section. Trophoblasts were enriched using immunomagnetic beads to deplete leucocytes and labelled with trophoblast-specific monoclonal antibodies. Syncytiotrophoblast, cytotrophoblast, cytotrophoblast clumps and anucleate trophoblast cells were found in uterine vein blood. Cytotrophoblast cells were found to be shed less frequently than syncytiotrophoblast and the majority were probably villous in origin. Trophoblasts were found in the uterine vein blood of normal pregnant women with higher levels in pre-eclampsia. However, ...
A monoclonal antibody GB25 which was raised against placental syncytiotrophoblast reacted specifically with villous trophoblasts. It recognized syncytiotrophoblast, villous cytotrophoblasts of the first-trimester placentae, and a majority of the cytotrophoblasts in the chorion laeve, but not the residual cells of cytotrophoblastic shell in the basal plates and the cells in the cytotrophoblastic columns. This antibody will be useful for isolating and differentiating villous from extravillous cytotrophoblasts in the first-trimester placentae.
Polyclonal antibodies raised against the human erythrocyte nucleoside transporter were used to investigate the distribution of the nucleoside transporters in the placenta. Immunoblots of brush-border membranes isolated from the human syncytiotrophoblast revealed a cross-reactive species that co-migrated with the erythrocyte nucleoside transporter as a broad band of apparent M(r) 55,000. In contrast, no labelling was detected in basal membranes containing a similar number of equilibrative nucleoside transporters as assessed by nitrobenzylthioinosine (NBMPR)-binding. The absence of cross-reactive epitopes in basal membranes and their presence in brush-border membranes was confirmed by confocal immunofluorescence microscopy. The results suggest that at least two isoforms of the NBMPR-sensitive nucleoside transporter are present in the human placenta. The lumenal surfaces of fetal capillaries, small placental vessels and umbilical vein ware also strongly labelled by the antibody, a finding that ...
Large granular lymphocytes (LGL) are the most abundant cell type in first trimester human pregnancy decidua. We have shown previously that CD56-positive decidual LGL have cytotoxic activity against the natural killer (NK) target K562, and that this cytotoxicity is augmented by pretreatment with interleukin-2 (IL-2). We now report that flow cytometrically purified populations of CD56-positive decidual LGL have no cytotoxic activity against either the BeWo choriocarcinoma cell line or freshly isolated term trophoblast. Incubation of unfractionated decidual cells with IL-2 induced cytotoxicity against BeWo, but term trophoblast remained resistant to lysis. Both BeWo and trophoblast showed much lower binding frequencies to decidual or peripheral blood cells than K56 targets, and excess trophoblast did not inhibit cytotoxic activity against K562. This suggests that the resistance of trophoblast to lysis by either decidual or peripheral blood LGL is due to the lack of accessible ...
Goose bumps , also called chicken skin or the medical term cutis anserina , are the bumps on a persons skin at the base of body hairs which may involuntarily develop when a person is cold or experiences strong emotions such as fear, awe, admiration or sexual arousal. The reflex of producing goose bumps is known as piloerection and the vestigial structures involved are the piloerector muscles. It occurs not only in humans but also in many other mammals; a prominent example are porcupines which raise their quills when threatened, or sea otters when they encounter sharks or other predators. Goose bumps do not appear on the face. As a response to cold: in animals covered with fur or hair, the erect hairs trap air to create a layer of insulation. Goose bumps can also be a response to anger or fear: the erect hairs make the animal appear larger, in order to intimidate enemies. This can be observed in the intimidation displays of chimpanzees, in stressed mice and rats, and in frightened cats. In ...
Uncorrected OCR) Abstract of thesis entitled GENE EXPRESSION PROFILE IN HUMAN TROPHOBLAST AND GESTATIONAL TROPHOBLASTIC DISEASE submitted by Feng Hui-Chen for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy at the University of Hong Kong in August 2004 Trophoblast in normal placenta is pseudo-malignant in nature. Neoplastic transformation of trophoblast leads to gestational trophoblastic diseases (GTD). Choriocarcinoma (CCA) and hydatidiform mole (HM) are major types of GTD. Generally GTD shows varying potential for local invasion and metastasis, but responds well to chemotherapy. The major problem in the treatment of GTD is the delay of chemotherapy particularly in highly malignant cases. Identification of predictive molecular markers may improve the early diagnosis for malignant GTD. In this study, both trophoblastic cell lines and clinical tissues were used in the examination of differentially expressed genes using various approaches. Their ...
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The PORCN gene provides instructions for making a protein that belongs to a group of related proteins called the porcupine (Porc) family. Although the precise function of the PORCN protein is unknown, proteins in the Porc family are involved in the process of transferring a molecule called palmitoleic acid to Wnt proteins. Wnt proteins participate in chemical signaling pathways in the body and play critical roles in development before birth. Members of the Porc family are located in the endoplasmic reticulum, which is a structure inside the cell that is involved in protein processing and transport. The transfer of palmitoleic acid to Wnt proteins facilitates the release of these proteins from the cell so they can regulate development of the skin, bones, and other structures. Researchers are working to determine the specific ...
In mouse, X-chromosome inactivation (XCI) can either be imprinted or random. Imprinted XCI (iXCI) is considered unstable and depending on continuous Xist expression, whereas random XCI (rXCI) is stably maintained even in the absence of Xist. Here we have systematically examined epigenetic modifications associated with the inactive X-chromosome (Xi) in Trophoblast Stem cells, eXtra-Embryonic Endoderm Cells, undifferentiated and differentiated Epiblast Like Stem Cells in order to understand intrinsic differences in epigenetic mechanisms involved in silencing of the inactive X-chromosome in lineages presenting iXCI and rXCI. Whereas euchromatic histone modifications are predominantly lost from the Xi territory in all cell types, the accumulation of heterochromatic modifications diverges in between the analysed cell lineages. Particularly, only the Xi of multipotent Trophoblast (iXCI) and Epiblast stem ...
Very rare," admits Sereno, "that a plant-eater like Pegomastax would sport sharp-edged, enlarged canines" like that of a vampire. Some scientists have argued that consuming meat or at the least insects was a good part of the diet of heterodontosaurs, which evolved near the root of the great bird-hipped radiation of dinosaurs that includes the famous plant-eaters Triceratops and Stegosaurus.. Self-defense and competitive sparring for mates is more likely their role, argues Sereno in the study, based on microscopic examination of the teeth of Pegomastax and kin. Wear facets and chipped enamel suggest that the fangs of Pegomastax and other heterodontosaurs were used like those of living fanged deer for nipping or even digging rather than slicing flesh. A bizarre covering of bristles, something like that of a porcupine, likely covered most of the body of Pegomastax, which measured less than two-feet in length and weighed less than a housecat. These bristles first came to light in a similar-sized ...
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12.Dan Xu, Qian Du, Cong Han, Zengguo Wang, Xiujuan Zhang, Tongtong Wang, Xiaomin Zhao, Yong Huang, Dewen Tong*, p53 signaling modulation of cell cycle arrest and viral replication in porcine circovirus type 2 infection cells. Veterinary Research, 2016. 47(1): p. 120-131.. 13.Hongling Zhang, Yong Huang, Lili Wang, Tingting Yu, Zengguo Wang, Lingling Chang, Xiaomin Zhao, Xiaomao Luo, Liang Zhang, Dewen Tong*, Immortalization of porcine placental trophoblast cells through reconstitution of telomerase activity. Theriogenology, 2016. 85(8): p. 1446-1456.. 14.Delong Li, Yong Huang, Qian Du, Zhenyu Wang, Lingling Chang, Xiaomin Zhao, Dewen Tong*, CD40 Ligand and GMCSF coexpression enhance the immune responses and protective efficacy of PCV2 adenovirus vaccine. Viral Immunology, 2016. 29(3): p. 148-158.. 15.Xiaomin Zhao, Hailing Xiang, Xiaoyuan Bai, Naijiao Fei, Yong Huang, Xiangjun Song, Hongling Zhang, Liang Zhang, Dewen Tong*, Porcine parvovirus infection ...
Ferritin has been purified from normal full-term human placentae and its antigenic and molecular characteristics compared with adult liver ferritin. Placental ferritin is composed predominantly of a single subunit type, co-migrating with a liver ferritin standard on sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. Comparison of dose-response curves in an immunoradiometric assay indicated some tissue-specific antigenicity for placental ferritin. This was supported by immunofluorescence studies on cryostat sections of human placentae by using antibodies to placental and spleen ferritin. Specific staining for placental ferritin was demonstrated within placental syncytiotrophoblast, particularly localized towards the microvillus plasma membrane. Ferritin has also been shown by electrophoretic and antigenic analysis to be present in protein fractions solubilized from isolated human syncytiotrophoblast microvillus plasma-membrane preparations, suggesting that ferritin may play an active ...
In a study of ," Soy milk intake and plasma sex hormones: a cross-sectional study in pre- and postmenopausal women (EPIC-Oxford). by Verkasalo PK, Appleby PN, Davey GK, Key TJ. Cytotrophoblast cells were isolated from human term placentas. Phytoestrogens genistein and daidzein were incubated in different concentrations with trophoblast cells. Untreated cells were used as controls. After 24 h aliquots were removed and tested for progesterone and estrogen production, researchers found that phytoestrogens (genistein and daidzein) sufficiently reduce progesterone production in human term trophoblast cells. Because blockade of progesterone is a possible mechanism involved in initiation of labor, we may speculate that high doses of phytoestrogens at the feto-maternal interphase could play a negative role in maintenance of pregnancy. Stimulation of estrogen production by genistein and daidzein in trophoblast cells is probably due ...
Header}} ==Introduction== {, , valign=top,[[File:Stage5 bf11L.jpg,alt=Human embryo Carnegie stage 5,400px]] , valign="top", Facts: Week 1 - 2, size 0.1 - 0.2 mm ===Summary=== Implantation completed, inner cell mass, bilaminar embryo, trophoblast development, no villous development. See also [[#Events,Events]] * The conceptus completes implantation during this stage. * The trophoblast cells (syncytiotrophoblast and cytotrophoblast) proliferate. Syncytiotrophoblast cells continue to invade the maternal endometrium and cytotrophoblast cells form clumps that will later form sites of chorionic villi formation. * The maternal endometrium locally begins the decidual process and the endometrial stroma accumulates fluid (edematous). * The extraembryonic cavities begin to form. * The bilaminar embryonic disc forms from the inner cell mass (embryoblast). [[Carnegie stage 5#Historic Stage 5 Embryos,Historically]] * This stage was described as "Streeter Horizon V" and ...
DISCUSSION In this paper is shown that obesity associate with hypertension produce severe degenerative changes in stem villi and other placental villi. Although no thrombosis was observed in stem villi, it could to be possible that obstructive lumina of the vessels in the chorionic plate leads to villous stromal changes in the placental villi or in the syncytio by reduction of blood flow.Hypertension appears to induce vascular endothelial damage. Maternal hypertension predispose to decresead uteroplacental blood flow which could to stimulate few attracting of blood by intermediate placental villi provoking isquemic placental villi with degenerative changes.The underperfusion of the intervillous space has resulted in local areas with increased perivillous fibrin and villous agglutination. Growing evidence in human and animal models of maternal obesity indicate several placental changes: increased idiopathic villitis, macrophage infiltration and placental vascularity9. A ...
Header}} ==Introduction== {, , valign=top,[[File:Stage5 bf11L.jpg,alt=Human embryo Carnegie stage 5,400px]] , valign="top", Facts: Week 1 - 2, size 0.1 - 0.2 mm ===Summary=== Implantation completed, inner cell mass, bilaminar embryo, trophoblast development. [[Carnegie stage 5#Historic Stage 5 Embryos,Historically]], this stage was subdivided again into three separate sub-stages (a, b, and c), currently these are discussed as a single stage. * The conceptus completes implantation during this stage. * The trophoblast cells (syncytiotrophoblast and cytotrophoblast) proliferate. Syncytiotrophoblast cells continue to invade the maternal endometrium and cytotrophoblast cells form clumps that will later form sites of chorionic villi formation. * The maternal endometrium locally begins the decidual process and the endometrial stroma accumulates fluid (edematous). * The extraembryonic cavities begin to form. * The bilaminar embroyonic disc forms from the inner cell ...
www.MOLUNA.de Human Trophoblast Neoplasms [4203994] - Pregnancy and Neoplasia.- On the Nature of Gestational Trophoblastic Disease.- Exposure to Chemical Carcinogens During Pregnancy: Consequences for Mother and Conceptus.- Immunology, Gestation, and Neoplasia.- Genetic Origin, Immunobiology, and Gonadotropin Expression in Trophoblast and Nontrophoblast Neoplasms.- Immunology in Genesis of Partial and Total Hydatidiform Mole.- Complement System in Abnormal Pregnancy
Invasion of the trophoblast into the maternal decidua is regulated by both the trophoectoderm and the endometrial stroma, and entails the action of tissue remodeling enzymes. Trophoblast invasion requires the action of metalloproteinases (MMPs) to degrade extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins and in turn, decidual cells express tissue inhibitors of MMPs (TIMPs). The balance between these promoting and restraining factors is a key event for the successful outcome of pregnancy. Gene expression is post-transcriptionally regulated by histone deacetylases (HDACs) that unpacks condensed chromatin activating gene expression. In this study we analyze the effect of histone acetylation on the expression of tissue remodeling enzymes and activity of human endometrial stromal cells (hESCs) related to trophoblast invasion control. Treatment of hESCs with the HDAC inhibitor ...
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs, which function as critical posttranscriptional regulators of gene expression by promoting mRNA degradation and translational inhibition. Placenta expresses many ubiquitous as well as specific miRNAs. These miRNAs regulate trophoblast cell differentiation, proliferation, apoptosis, invasion/migration, and angiogenesis, suggesting that miRNAs play important roles during placental development. Aberrant miRNAs expression has been linked to pregnancy complications, such as preeclampsia. Recent research of placental miRNAs focuses on identifying placental miRNA species, examining differential expression of miRNAs between placentas from normal and compromised pregnancies, and uncovering the function of miRNAs in the placenta. More studies are required to further understand the functional significance of miRNAs in placental development and to explore the possibility of using miRNAs as ...
Introduction. In recent years the multipotent extraembryonic endoderm (XEN) stem cells have been a focus of intense research. In Vivo, XEN cells contribute to the formation of the extraembryonic endoderm, visceral and parietal endoderm and later on, the yolk sac. The mature mouse blastocyst consists of three distinct cell types: the trophectoderm, which gives rise to the trophoblast and extraembryonic ectoderm (ExEc), the pluripotent cells of the epiblast, and the primitive or extraembryonic endoderm (ExEn), an epithelial layer of cells on the surface of the epiblast. The primitive endoderm gives rise to: (i) visceral endoderm (VE) that surrounds the epiblast and the ExEc; and (ii) parietal endoderm (PE) that interacts with the trophoblast giant cell layer. PE cells migrate along the inner surface of the trophectoderm and together with trophoblast giant cells form the parietal yolk sac.. Description of ...
Am J Reprod Immunol. 2009 Aug;62(2):96-111. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0897.2009.00717.x. Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Govt
Maternal immunoglobulin-G (IgG) is known to be transported across the placental syncytiotrophoblast during the period when the human fetus is incapable of manufacturing these defensive molecules. In this study we investigated the possible role of the amniochorion, that surrounds the amniotic cavity in which the fetus lies, in the transfer of immunoglobulin. Endogenous IgG was localised in the amniochorion by confocal immunofluorescence microscopy and by ultrastructural labelling of ultrathin frozen tissue sections using the protein A-gold technique. Immunoreactivity was identified in the extracellular matrix tissues and necrotic amniotic epithelial cells. Healthy amniotic epithelial cells and cytotrophoblast cells of the chorion laeve were devoid of endogenous IgG. These results suggest a possible nonspecific paracellular transport pathway between cytotrophoblast cells, which may conceivably contribute to the acquisition of ...
The lymphocyte differentiation marker CD8 acts as a coreceptor with the T cell receptor (TCR) during recognition of peptide presented by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules. The functions of CD8 in the TCR complex are thought to be signaling through the association of CD8 with the protein tyrosine kinase p56lck and adhesion to MHC class I through the alpha 3 domain. While the ability of the CD8 alpha/alpha homodimer to bind to classical MHC class I molecules has been shown, it is unclear whether CD8 can also bind nonclassical molecules. Of particular interest is human histocompatibility leukocyte antigen (HLA)-G which is expressed on placental cytotrophoblast cells. These cells do not express HLA-A, -B and -C molecules. In this report, we demonstrate that CD8 can bind to HLA-G. It is possible, therefore, that a cell bearing CD8 may interact with HLA-G-expressing cells. ...
Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), or cloning, is a form of artificial reproductive technology that can be used to improve economic traits of domestic animals. However, extreme inefficiency of producing viable offspring via this method is a major limitation. An aggressive immune response at the maternal-fetal interface is an important reason for SCNT pregnancy loss. The goal of this project was to investigate the molecular mechanisms of immune-mediated miscarriage in cloned cattle pregnancies. Many publications hint that immune-mediated miscarriage is associated with abnormal MHC-I expression in the placenta. The regulation of bovine MHC-I genes was systematically studied to identify the cause of abnormal MHC-I expression during immune-mediated miscarriage. We also produced cloned pregnancies to study immune- mediated pregnancy loss. MHC-I and cytokines involved in proinflammatory responses were highly expressed in the placental trophoblast ...
Adequate maternal, intervillous and fetal blood flow are all necessary for fetal wellbeing. Compromise to any part of this exchange would be detrimental to pregnancy outcome. Preeclampsia is associated with reduced maternal spiral artery flow, resulting in reduced placental perfusion. This in turn creates an ischemic environment which may pre-dispose morphological changes in placental villi. This pilot study utilized morphometric image analysis to examine some features of the fetal component of the placenta in normotensive (NT) and pre-eclamptic (PE) groups. The features examined included: density of placental villi (expressed as percentage of field area occupied by placental tissue); stem vessel carrying capacity (expressed as percentage of stem villus area occupied by vessel lumina); the thickness of the stem arterial walls relative to artery size (expressed as percentage of artery area occupied by arterial wall) and the extent of fibrosis associated with villi (expressed as percentage of ...
As a first step to explore the possible relationships existing between the effects of low oxygen pressure in the first trimester placenta and placental pathologies developing from mid-gestation, two subtracted libraries totaling 2304 cDNA clones were constructed. For achieving this, two reciprocal suppressive/subtractive hybridization procedures (SSH) were applied to early (11 weeks) human placental villi after incubation either in normoxic or in hypoxic conditions. The clones from both libraries (1440 hypoxia-specific and 864 normoxia-specific) were spotted on nylon macroarrays. Complex cDNAs probes prepared from placental villi (either from early pregnancy, after hypoxic or normoxic culture conditions, or near term for controls or pathological placentas) were hybridized to the membranes. Three hundred and fifty nine clones presenting a hybridization signal above the background were sequenced and shown to correspond to 276 different genes. Nine of these genes are ...
HLA-G histocompatibility antigen, class I, G, also known as human leukocyte antigen G (HLA-G), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HLA-G gene. HLA-G belongs to the HLA nonclassical class I heavy chain paralogues. This class I molecule is a heterodimer consisting of a heavy chain and a light chain (beta-2 microglobulin). The heavy chain is anchored in the membrane. HLA-G is expressed on fetal derived placental cells. The heavy chain is approximately 45 kDa and its gene contains 8 exons. Exon one encodes the leader peptide, exons 2 and 3 encode the alpha1 and alpha2 domain, which both bind the peptide, exon 4 encodes the alpha3 domain, exon 5 encodes the transmembrane region, and exon 6 encodes the cytoplasmic tail. Exon 7 and 8 are not translated due to a stop codon present in exon 6. HLA-G may play a role in immune tolerance in pregnancy, being expressed in the placenta by extravillous trophoblast cells (EVT), ...
Trophoblast cells that comprise the placenta play a crucial role in the complex cross-talk between fetus and maternal tissues. Although anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol, the best studied endocannabinoids, affect trophoblast attachment and outgrowth, the functional significance of the endocannabinoid system in the development of placenta has not been established. We investigated the correlation between endocannabinoid levels and the pattern of expression of the receptors and metabolic enzymes of the endocannabinoid system during rat placental development. Here, we showed that all the endocannabinoid machinery is dynamically expressed in the functionally distinct basal and labyrinth zones of the rat placenta. Indeed, endocannabinoid levels are shown to increase with the progression of pregnancy. Together, these data support a role for the endocannabinoid system in normal placental function and evidence for a potential novel cellular target for the deleterious action of ...
The serotonin (5-HT) transporter (SERT) regulates serotoninergic neurotransmission by clearing 5-HT released into the synaptic space. Phosphorylation of SERT on serine and theronine mediates SERT regulation. Whether tyrosine phosphorylation regulates SERT is unknown. Here, we tested the hypothesis that tyrosine-phosphorylation of SERT regulates 5-HT transport. In support of this, alkali-resistant 32P-labelled SERT was found in rat platelets and Src-tyrosine kinase inhibitor PP2 decreased platelet SERT function and expression. In human placental trophoblast (HTR) cells expressing SERT, PP2 reduced transporter function, expression and stability. While siRNA silencing of Src expression decreased SERT function and expression, coexpression of Src resulted in PP2-sensitive increases in SERT function and expression. PP2 treatment markedly decreased SERT protein stability. Compared ...
in Veterinary parasitology (2016), 216. Neospora caninum is an obligate intracellular protozoan that causes abortion in cattle worldwide. Plasma concentrations of pregnancy-associated glycoprotein 1 (PAG-1), produced by binucleate trophoblast ... [more ▼]. Neospora caninum is an obligate intracellular protozoan that causes abortion in cattle worldwide. Plasma concentrations of pregnancy-associated glycoprotein 1 (PAG-1), produced by binucleate trophoblast cells, are used for pregnancy diagnosis and as a marker of foetal-placental well-being, while PAG-2, produced by both mono- and binucleate trophoblast cells, may serve as an indicator of abortion risk. In prior work, natural N. caninum infection was found to modify plasma PAG-1 and PAG-2 patterns. The present study examines PAG-1 and PAG-2 dynamics and trophoblast cell populations following experimental infection with N. caninum. The study population was comprised of 17 N. caninum ...
in Veterinary parasitology (2016), 216. Neospora caninum is an obligate intracellular protozoan that causes abortion in cattle worldwide. Plasma concentrations of pregnancy-associated glycoprotein 1 (PAG-1), produced by binucleate trophoblast ... [more ▼]. Neospora caninum is an obligate intracellular protozoan that causes abortion in cattle worldwide. Plasma concentrations of pregnancy-associated glycoprotein 1 (PAG-1), produced by binucleate trophoblast cells, are used for pregnancy diagnosis and as a marker of foetal-placental well-being, while PAG-2, produced by both mono- and binucleate trophoblast cells, may serve as an indicator of abortion risk. In prior work, natural N. caninum infection was found to modify plasma PAG-1 and PAG-2 patterns. The present study examines PAG-1 and PAG-2 dynamics and trophoblast cell populations following experimental infection with N. caninum. The study population was comprised of 17 N. caninum ...
Our aim is to understand how the complex system of interacting maternal KIR receptors and fetal HLA-C ligands affect trophoblast behaviour during placentation. Both KIR and HLA-C are polymorphic and genetic studies show that NK cells respond inadequately in certain maternal KIR/HLA-C combinations. KIR/HLA-C interactions are predicted to have particular biological importance during placentation because of high expression levels of KIR on uNK cells and HLA-C on trophoblast. We will study functional responses of primary uterine NK cells in women with known KIR genotypes using in vitro assays that mimic different maternal KIR/fetal HLA-C combinations. A particular focus will be on KIR2DS1, the activating KIR for HLA-C2 group alleles, because women with a C2+ fetus are at particular risk of pre-eclampsia if they lack the KIR2DS1 gene. Using functional read-outs - including CD107 assays, cytokine production and ...
Early development and implantation of the embryo.. A. The zygote stage begins upon fertilization of the secondary oocyte by the sperm. The zygote contains both pro-nuclei and is contained within the zona pellucida, until the blastocyst stage. B. The morula stage. Following compaction and symmetrical cleavage divisions of the blastomeres (the cells of the early embryo), the embryo contains 8 (early morula) to 32 cells (morula). The inner cells will give rise to the inner cell mass, whereas the outer cells will give rise to the trophoblast, which forms a cavity called the blastocoele cavity. C. The blastocyst stage. The developing embryo is defined as a blastocyst from the appearance of the blastocoele cavity, and now contains two cell populations- the surrounding outer trophoblast cells, and the inner cell mass cells, located at one side of the inner cavity. The portion of the trophoblast nearest to the inner ...
Timely regulated changes in oxygen partial pressure are important for placental formation. Disturbances could be responsible for pregnancy-related diseases like preeclampsia and intrauterine growth restriction. We aimed to (i) determine the effect of oxygen partial pressure on cytotrophoblast differentiation; (ii) measure mRNA expression and protein secretion from genes associated with placental angiogenesis; and (iii) determine the reversibility of these effects at different oxygen partial pressures. Term cytotrophoblasts were incubated at 21% and 2.5% O2 for 96 hr, or were switched between the two oxygen concentrations after 48 hr. Real-time PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) were used to evaluate cell fusion and differentiation, measuring transcript levels for those genes involved in cell fusion and placental angiogenesis, including VEGF, PlGF, VEGFR1, sVEGFR1, sENG, INHA, and GCM1. ...
The molecular regulation of mammalian peri-implantation development is complex and difficult to study in vivo. We successfully cultured hamster blastocysts through hatching and peri-attachment stages, using a chemically defined medium, HECM-2h. Using this system, we showed that a species-specific, embryonic cysteine-like protease is involved in blastocyst hatching and that the process is modulated by growth factors. In particular, heparin binding-epidermal growth factor (HB-EGF) or leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) enhance blastocyst hatching, and the former also improves attachment and trophoblast outgrowth. We observed interesting changing patterns of expression of mRNA and/or immunoreactive protein for EGF, HB-EGF, LIF and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) in the embryo and/or endometrial tissue, during peri-implantation development. Together, it appears that hamster blastocyst hatching, attachment and trophoblast outgrowth are regulated by autocrine and/or ...
For a proper development of the placenta, maternal NK cells should not attack the fetal extravillous cytotrophoblast cells. This inhibition of maternal NK cells is partially mediated via the nonclassical MHC class I molecule HLA-G. Recently, we demonstrated that HLA-G forms disulfide-linked high molecular complexes on the surface of transfected cells. In the present study, we demonstrate that HLA-G must associate with beta(2)m for its interaction with CD85J/leukocyte Ig-like receptor-1 (LIR-1). Although HLA-G free H chain complexes are expressed on the surface, they are not recognized and possibly interfere with CD85J/LIR-1 and HLA-G interaction. The formation of these complexes on the cell surface might represent a novel mechanism developed specifically by the HLA-G protein aimed to control the efficiency of the CD85J/LIR-1-mediated inhibition. We also show that endogenous HLA-G complexes are expressed on the cell surface. ...
Gestational choriocarcinoma is a rare malignancy believed to arise from the trophoblast cells of the placenta. Despite the frequently aggressive clinical nature, choriocarcinoma has been routinely curable with cytotoxic chemotherapy for over 50 years. To date little is known regarding the route to oncogenesis in this malignancy. In a case of intraplacental choriocarcinoma, we have performed detailed genetic studies including microsatellite analysis, whole genome sequencing (WGS) and methylation analysis of the tumour and surrounding mature placenta. The results of the WGS sequencing indicated a very low level of mutation and the absence of any driver mutations or oncogene activity in the tumour. The methylation analysis identified a distinctly different profile in the tumour from that of the mature placenta. Comparison with a panel of reference methylation profiles from different stages of placental development indicated that the tumour ...
Video articles in JoVE about acetic acid include Generation of Organotypic Raft Cultures from Primary Human Keratinocytes, Constructing a Collagen Hydrogel for the Delivery of Stem Cell-loaded Chitosan Microspheres, Chromosomics: Detection of Numerical and Structural Alterations in All 24 Human Chromosomes Simultaneously Using a Novel OctoChrome FISH Assay, Skeletal Muscle Gender Dimorphism from Proteomics, A Chitosan Based, Laser Activated Thin Film Surgical Adhesive, SurgiLux: Preparation and Demonstration, Rotating Cell Culture Systems for Human Cell Culture: Human Trophoblast Cells as a Model, Visualization of DNA Replication in the Vertebrate Model System DT40 using the DNA Fiber Technique, High-throughput Saccharification Assay for Lignocellulosic Materials, Organotypic Collagen I Assay: A Malleable Platform to Assess Cell Behaviour in a 3-Dimensional Context, Long-term Culture of Human Breast Cancer Specimens and Their Analysis Using Optical Projection Tomography, Ex ...
The Circular RNA circBIRC6 Participates in the Molecular Circuitry Controlling Human Pluripotency Scientists identified a subset of circRNAs that are enriched in undifferentiated human embryonic stem cells and demonstrated that two, circBIRC6 and circCORO1C, are functionally associated with the pluripotent state. [Nat Commun] Full Article GATA2/3-TFAP2A/C Transcription Factor Network Couples Human Pluripotent Stem Cell Differentiation to Trophectoderm with Repression of Pluripotency To elucidate the molecular basis of BMP4-induced differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells toward progeny with trophectoderm characteristics, investigators produced transcriptome, epigenome H3K4me3, H3K27me3, and CpG methylation maps of trophoblast progenitors, purified using the surface marker aminopeptidase A. [Proc Natl Acad Sci USA] Full Article Mutational Signatures of Non-Homologous and Polymerase Theta-Mediated End-Joining in Embryonic Stem Cells Researchers found ...
BACKGROUND: Expansions of gene families are predictive for ongoing genetic adaptation to environmental cues. We describe such an expansion of the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) gene family in certain bat families. Members of the CEA family in humans and mice are exploited as cellular receptors by a number of pathogens, possibly due to their function in immunity and reproduction. The CEA family is composed of CEA-related cell adhesion molecules (CEACAMs) and secreted pregnancy-specific glycoproteins (PSGs). PSGs are almost exclusively expressed by trophoblast cells at the maternal-fetal interface. The reason why PSGs exist only in a minority of mammals is still unknown. RESULTS: Analysis of the CEA gene family in bats revealed that in certain bat families, belonging to the subgroup Yangochiroptera but not the Yinpterochiroptera subgroup an expansion of the CEA gene family took place, ...
By mimicking an increase in circulating EG-VEGF beyond 11.5 dpc, similar to that observed beyond the first trimester of pregnancy in women with pathological pregnancies, we created a new mouse model of PIH. This statement is based on several key findings. First, EG-VEGF inhibited trophoblast invasion,9,11 a key process that ensures the establishment of the fetomaternal circulation. EG-VEGF function during early pregnancy is important9,11 as the embryo is not protected against potential reactive oxygen species present in the oxygenated maternal blood.24 However, maintenance of its production over the first trimester seems to be harmful for the establishment of the fetomaternal circulation. Second, placentae from EG-VEGF-treated mice exhibited increased hypoxia, a hallmark of stressed placentae.25 Although several reports have discussed the role of low-oxygen tension in PIH development, direct in vivo evidence linking increased placental hypoxia with PIH was still unsatisfactory. Third, placentae ...
Development of the placenta during the late first trimester is critical to ensure normal growth and development of the fetus. Developmental differences in this window such as sex-specific variation are implicated in later placental disease states, yet gene expression at this time is poorly understood. RNA-sequencing was performed to characterize the transcriptome of 39 first trimester human placentas using chorionic villi following genetic testing (17 females, 22 males). Gene enrichment analysis was performed to find enriched canonical pathways and gene ontologies in the first trimester. DESeq2 was used to find sexually dimorphic gene expression. Patient demographics were analyzed for sex differences in fetal weight at time of chorionic villus sampling and birth. RNA-sequencing analyses detected 14,250 expressed genes, with chromosome 19 contributing the greatest proportion ...
OBJECTIVES: To examine whether syncytin-1 has immune regulatory functions and is carried by human placental exosomes. Further, to examine whether corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) can induce the production of syncytin-1. STUDY DESIGN: Human placental exosomes were isolated from placental explant, primary trophoblast and BeWo cell cultures. The presence of exosomes was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy and western blotting. Exosomal protein was probed with 3 separate antibodies targeting syncytin-1. Syncytin-1 immunosuppression was tested, using either a syncytin-1 recombinant ectodomain protein or a synthetic peptide with the human syncytin-1 immunosuppressive domain sequence, in an in vitro human blood culture system immune challenged with LPS or PHA. The inhibition of cytokine production by syncytin-1 was determined by ELISA of TNF-α, IFN-γ and CXCL10. BeWo cells were stimulated with CRH or vehicle for 24 h. mRNA and ...
The placenta forms in the early stages of pregnancy and connects the developing fetus to the uterine wall of the mother. The normal term placenta measures 15-20 cm in diameter, 1.5-3 cm in thickness and weighs approximately 450-600 grams. The main components are the villous parenchyma and maternal decidual tissue, umbilical cord (54-61 cm in length, containing two umbilical arteries and one umbilical vein) and placental membranes. The placental membranes include the amnion (the innermost lining of the amniotic cavity composed of a single layer of flat epithelial cells) and the chorion (connective tissue that carries the fetal vasculature). The structure of the villus changes dramatically over the period of a normal gestation. Immature first trimester villi are large and covered by two layers of trophoblast, an inner layer of cytotrophoblast and an outer layer of syncytiotrophoblast. The villous stroma is very loose and blood vessels are small and centrally placed. Hofbauer ...
Immunoglobulin G (IgG) is the only antibody isotype actively transferred across the placenta from around 13 weeks of gestation and increases exponentially during the third trimester such that the concentration of IgG in the newborn infant is similar to, or exceeds, that in the mother. IgG provides passive immunity to the infant in the first months of life.. The neonatal Fc receptor facilitates transcytosis of maternal IgG. IgG is transferred from maternal blood across the syncytiotrophoblast layer of the placenta, initially by endocytosis of IgG. Within the acidic endosome, IgG binds to membrane-bound neonatal Fc receptor, which is then released on the fetal side of the syncytiotrophoblast as the pH returns to physiologic pH. Neonatal Fc receptor is then recycled back to the maternal side of the syncytiotrophoblast to bind further IgG.. There are a number of factors that may affect the efficiency of IgG transcytosis, including gestation, IgG subclass and maternal infection.1 The concentration of ...
treatment add-ons, you may be interested in some impartial and expert advice in two new scientific opinion papers published by the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (RCOG). They call for more high quality research into the role of natural killer cells in fertility and the effect of endometrial scratching on pregnancy outcomes.. Scientific Impact Papers (SIP), are up-to-date reviews of emerging or controversial scientific issues. The first paper looks at the role of uterine natural killer (uNK) cells, how they are measured, the role of testing and the evidence behind any links to improving implantation rates and early placental development. The paper clarifies that uNK cells are completely different from peripheral blood natural killer cells (which you would be testing in the blood tests some fertility clinics currently offer).. The paper makes it clear that there is no evidence to offer routine tests for NK ...
BACKGROUND: Post-transplant malignancy (PTM) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality following heart transplantation. Human leukocyte antigen-G (HLA-G) is an immune checkpoint molecule which functions to dampen the immune response. HLA-G expression was initially thought to be restricted to cytotrophoblast cells, where it was shown to confer protection to the semi-allograft fetus from the maternal immune system. Since its discovery, HLA-G has been implicated as an important mediator in a variety of pathological situations, such as transplantation and cancer. Literature suggests high HLA-G expression is beneficial in reducing acute rejection by dampening the host immune response against the allograft. However, this same level of expression may be detrimental in the context of cancer; post-transplant HLA-G expression may be utilized by malignant cells as an escape mechanism to evade the host immune system ...
In this study, we have demonstrated that half of the NK activity of PBL can be inhibited upon HLA-G transfection and that inhibition was mediated, in part at least, by NKAT3. The fetus downregulates classical MHC class I molecules, HLA-A and HLA-B, at the feto-maternal interface ((22)) and, for this reason, the immune system of the mother is not able to attack the placenta by alloreactive T cells. However, the absence of HLA-A and HLA-B molecules potentially renders the fetal cytotrophoblast sensitive for NK recognition and lysis. Moreover, high numbers of CD56+ large granular lymphocytes (LGL) are present in the decidua during early pregnancy; yet, even so, the trophoblast is usually not destroyed. Up to 70% of all decidual lymphocytes show this phenotype ((35)). Based on the two NK receptor theory ((25)), there are two possible explanations for nonrecognition of the fetal cytotrophoblast by maternal NK cells. One is that these cells lack activatory ...
The negatively charged sugar sialic acid (Sia) occupies the outermost position in the bulk of cell surface glycans. Lack of sialylated glycans due to genetic ablation of the Sia-activating enzyme CMP-sialic acid synthase (CMAS) resulted in embryonic lethality around day 9.5 post coitum (E9.5) in mice. Developmental failure was caused by complement activation on trophoblasts in Cmas-/- implants and was accompanied by infiltration of maternal neutrophils at the fetal-maternal interface, intrauterine growth restriction, impaired placental development, and a thickened Reicherts membrane. This phenotype, which shared features with complement receptor 1-related protein Y (Crry) depletion, was rescued in E8.5 Cmas-/- mice upon injection of cobra venom factor, resulting in exhaustion of the maternal complement component C3. Here we show that Sia is dispensable for early development of the embryo proper but pivotal for fetal-maternal immune homeostasis during pregnancy, i.e., for ...
The negatively charged sugar sialic acid (Sia) occupies the outermost position in the bulk of cell surface glycans. Lack of sialylated glycans due to genetic ablation of the Sia-activating enzyme CMP-sialic acid synthase (CMAS) resulted in embryonic lethality around day 9.5 post coitum (E9.5) in mice. Developmental failure was caused by complement activation on trophoblasts in Cmas-/- implants and was accompanied by infiltration of maternal neutrophils at the fetal-maternal interface, intrauterine growth restriction, impaired placental development, and a thickened Reicherts membrane. This phenotype, which shared features with complement receptor 1-related protein Y (Crry) depletion, was rescued in E8.5 Cmas-/- mice upon injection of cobra venom factor, resulting in exhaustion of the maternal complement component C3. Here we show that Sia is dispensable for early development of the embryo proper but pivotal for fetal-maternal immune homeostasis during pregnancy, i.e., for ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Transcriptional regulation of the TGF-β2 gene in choriocarcinoma cells and breast carcinoma cells. T2 - Differential utilization of cis-regulatory elements. AU - Kingsley-Kallesen, Michelle. AU - Johnson, Lance. AU - Scholtz, Beáta. AU - Kelly, David. AU - Rizzino, Angie. PY - 1997/4. Y1 - 1997/4. N2 - Previous studies have shown that the transcription of the TGF-β2 gene is controlled by at least one negative and two positive regulatory regions in differentiated cells derived from both embryonal carcinoma cells and embryonic stem cells. The use of TGF-β2 promoter/reporter gene constructs has also identified a CRE/ATF motif near the TATA box that appears to heavily influence the transcription of the TGF-β2 gene. In this study, two choriocarcinoma cell lines, JAR and JEG-3, and the breast cancer cell line, MCF-7, were used to determine whether ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Brain and sperm cell surface antigen (NS-4) on preimplantation mouse embryos. AU - Solter, Davor. AU - Camartin, Melitta. PY - 1976/1/1. Y1 - 1976/1/1. N2 - Antiserum prepared in rabbit against 4-day-old mouse cerebellum (anti-NS-4 serum) reacts in the complement-mediated cytotoxicity test with unfertilized and fertilized mouse eggs, cleavage stage embryos, and cells of the trophoblast and inner cell mass of the mouse blastocyst. This activity is specifically removed by absorption of antiserum with adult mouse brain and epididymal sperm but not with adult liver, spleen, kidney, and thymocytes. The antiserum reacts most strongly with cells of the trophoblast and inner cell mass and, in order of decreasing reactivity, with four- to eight-cell stage embryos, zygotes, unfertilized eggs, and two-cell stage embryos.. AB - Antiserum prepared in rabbit against 4-day-old mouse cerebellum (anti-NS-4 serum) reacts in the complement-mediated cytotoxicity test with ...
Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling is one of the most avidly studied signaling networks in mammalian biology, with critical roles in cellular growth and survival. The EGFR is also vital for normal placental formation and development. This body of work examines the role and potential of targeting the EGFR cascade in the pregnancy complications preeclampsia and ectopic pregnancy. In the first arm of this PhD, we investigated EGFR signaling in preeclampsia, a major pregnancy complication associated with shallow placental invasion and placental insufficiency. Anti-angiogenic factors are then released from the preeclamptic placenta into the maternal circulation causing endothelial dysfunction (a hallmark of the disease), hypertension and organ injury. Firstly, we examined whether administering EGF peptide (the natural EGFR ligand) to primary endothelial cells affects endothelial dysfunction in-vitro. From this, we found EGF peptide to significantly reduce a number of markers of ...
... Our research aims to address two fundamental questions in reproductive biology: how does the endometrium prepare for pregnancy and, once the embryo implants, how is the placenta formed? During pregnancy, the maternal lining of the uterus, the decidua, and the fetal placenta interact together to provide support for the developing fetus. Despite advances in the field of reproductive biology, disorders of pregnancy resulting from aberrant placentation still occur frequently. There are ethical and practical difficulties in the use of human tissue for research and a lack of reliable in vitro tools. To overcome these issues, we have developed 3D cultures (organoids) of endometrium and placentas which show remarkable phenotypical and functional similarities to their tissue of origin. Using an interdisciplinary approach which will involve 3D culture techniques, single cell RNA sequencing and Crispr/Cas9 genome editing, we aim to unravel the basic ...
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Pregnancy, a state of insulin resistance, is associated with elevated levels of cytokines and profound alterations in metabolism. Serum adiponectin, an adipokine with anti-inflammatory and insulin-sensitising properties, has been shown to be lower in patients with gestational diabetes mellitus, a state of greater insulin resistance than normal pregnancies. Hypothesising that the human placenta is a source of adiponectin, we investigated its expression and secretion, and the regulation by cytokines of adiponectin and its receptors. METHODS: Real-time RT-PCR, radioimmunoassay, Western blotting, radioligand binding and immunofluorescent analyses were applied to demonstrate the expression, secretion and functionality of placental adiponectin. RESULTS: Adiponectin gene expression and protein were found in the human term placenta, with expression primarily in the syncytiotrophoblast. RIA of ...
Background: Activated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and its downstream serine/threonine protein kinase B (PKB)/AKT are important regulators of cell proliferation, apoptosis and invasion. The activation at Ser473 residue of PKB by phosphorylation (p-PKB Ser473) is required for its maximal activity. Dysregulation of PI3K/PKB signaling pathway has been found to be an important feature of many human malignancies. However, the role of activated PI3K/PKB in choriocarcinoma is not reported yet. In this study, we investigated the expression of p-PKB (Ser473) in gestational trophoblastic disease and the effects of inhibiting PI3K/PKB signaling pathway in choriocarcinoma. Methods: Choriocarcinoma cell lines JEG-3 and JAR were treated with PI3K inhibitor LY294002 and possible change in p-PKB (Ser473) expression was detected by Western Blot. The effects of activated PI3K/PKB on invasive activity, cell proliferation, apoptosis and cell cycle regulation in ...
In severe preeclampsia, heightened activation of downstream complement protein C5 leads to excess generation of C5a and C5b-9.13-16 C5a propagates a potent proinflammatory response,13,24-26 whereas C5b-9 incorporates into cell membranes, including villous trophoblast,27 and contributes to platelet activation, procoagulant effects, and lytic cell death.28-31 In addition, C5a stimulates monocytes to release soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1,32 which sequesters vascular endothelial growth factor and PlGF, contributing to hypertension and glomerular endotheliosis.33,34. Our results introduce the novel finding that complement activation products C3a, C5a, and C5b-9 are excreted in urine in association with severe preeclampsia. Although urinary excretion of C3a, C5a, and C5b-9 was exaggerated in cases with severe preeclampsia compared with healthy controls, excretion of C5b-9 distinguished most clearly between severe preeclampsia and chronic hypertension. As a biomarker of ...
The mdm2 oncogene has transforming potential that is activated by overexpression. We previously reported the identification of human choriocarcinoma cell lines that have very high levels of mdm2 proteins as well as elevated levels of a stabilized wild-type p53 protein. Importantly, this mdm2 overexpression resulted from enhanced translation of mdm2 mRNA, a mechanism that had not previously been implicated in mdm2 expression control. The focus of this study was to investigate the breadth of enhanced translation of mdm2 mRNA in human cancers and to elucidate the basis for this translational activation. Here we present evidence that translational enhancement of mdm2 expression occurs in a variety of human tumor cells. Most of these samples also have high levels of wild-type p53 protein. However, there is no evidence for concomitant ...
Dr Abrahams research focuses on understanding the role of innate immune Toll-like receptor and Nod-like receptor family members in placental and maternal-fetal immune responses, and their role in regulating pregnancy outcome, including those complicated by infections and by autoimmune diseases. Studies from the Abrahams laboratory has characterized the mechanisms by which Toll-like receptors, Nod-like receptors, and the inflammasome function in the placental trophoblast and fetal membranes in response to both infectious and non-infectious stimuli.. Dr Abrahams is a member of the American Association of Immunologists, International Society for Immunology of Reproduction, Society for Reproductive Investigation, and the American Society of Reproductive Immunology. Dr Abrahams is the Associate Editor for Reviews of the American Journal of Reproductive Immunology and also serves on the editorial boards for a number of other journals within the Reproductive Sciences field. ...
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We used a whole genome approach to identify major functional gene categories (including xenobiotic transporters and metabolizing enzymes) whose expression depends on gestational age. STUDY DESIGN: We compared gene expression profiles of 1st (45-59 days) and 2nd trimester (109-115 days), and C-section term placentae. RESULTS: In 1st trimester placentae, genes related to cell cycle, DNA, aminoacids and carbohydrate metabolism were significantly overrepresented, while genes related to signal transduction were downregulated. In the organism defense category, we identified genes involved in chemical response, metabolism, and transport. Analysis of signal transduction pathways suggested, and subsequently confirmed independently, that the Wnt pathway was regulated by gestational age. CONCLUSIONS: Our study will serve as a reference database to gain insight into the regulation of ...
Because epigenetic alterations are believed to be involved in the repression of tumor suppressor genes and promotion of tumorigenesis in choriocarcinomas, novel compounds endowed with a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitory activity are an attractive therapeutic approach. HDAC inhibitors (HDACIs) were able to mediate inhibition of cell growth, cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, and the expression of genes related to the malignant phenotype in choriocarcinoma cell lines. In this review, we discuss the biologic and therapeutic effects of HDACIs in treating choriocarcinoma, with a special focus on preclinical studies.
Bilaminar blastocyst or Bilaminar disc refers to the epiblast and the hypoblast, evolved from the embryoblast. These two layers are sandwiched between two balloons: the primitive yolk sac and the amniotic cavity. The inner cell mass, the embryoblast, begins to transform into two distinct epithelial layers just before implantation occurs. The epiblast is the outer layer that consists of columnar cells.The inner layer is called the hypoblast, or primitive endoderm, which is composed of cuboidal cells. As the two layers become evident, a basement membrane presents itself between the layers. The final two layers of the embryoblast are known collectively as the bilaminar embryonic disc as well as the bilaminar blastocyst or bilaminar blastoderm. This bilaminar blastocyst also defines the primitive dorsal ventral axis. Blastocyst implantation will occur during the second week of fetal development in the endometrium of the uterus; the epiblast is dorsal and the hypoblast is ...
Scientists at Childrens Hospital Oakland Research Institute (CHORI) led by Vladimir Serikov, MD, PhD, and Frans Kuypers, PhD, report in the current Epub issue of Stem Cells Translational Medicine that placental stem cells with important therapeutic properties can be harvested in large quantities from the fetal side of human term placentas (called the chorion). The chorion is a part of the afterbirth and is normally discarded after delivery, but it contains stem cells of fetal origin that appear to be pluripotent -- i.e., they can differentiate into different types of human cells, such as lung, liver, or brain cells. Since these functional placental stem cells can be isolated from either fresh or frozen term human placentas, this implies that if each individuals placenta is stored at birth instead of thrown away, these cells can be harvested in the future if therapeutic need arises. This ...
Gastrulation stage of mouse embryo.. A. Cells of the primitive endoderm colonize the blastocoelic surface of the mural trophectoderm and become the parietal endoderm, which, together with the trophoblast that derives from the mural trophectoderm, forms the parietal yolk sac.. B. As the epiblast and extaembryonic ectoderm become elongated into a cylinder, the visceral endoderm covers their outer surface.. C. The trophoblast and parietal endoderm together with the thick basement membrane between them surround the entire embro, and is later removed (indicated by a dotted line) in panels F-H.. D. Gastrulation stage in which the primary germ layers are formed (ectoderm, mesoderm and definitive endoderm), from which all the fetal tissues will develop.. ...
In early pregnancy, the O2 gradient between the maternal circulation and the gestational sac tissues modulates trophoblast biological functions. The aim was to evaluate if placental partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2) modulates in vivo synthesis of specific placental proteins inside the first trimester gestational sac. Matched samples of peripheral venous blood, blood from the placental bed (PB), coelomic fluid (CF) and placental tissue were obtained in 37 normal pregnancies at 6-12 weeks gestation. PaO2 was measured in PB and CF using an IRMA blood gas monitor. Inhibin A, activin A, sEng, PlGF, sFlt-1 and free VEGF concentrations were measured in all samples. HSP 70 was measured in placental extracts. ANOVA showed ∼60% increase in PB PaO2 (P = 0.02) between after 10 weeks gestation. Unpaired Students T-test between two groups (6-9 weeks vs 9-12 weeks) shows a significant increase in MS Activin A (P = 0.001), CF activin A (P|0.001), MS P1GF (P = 0.001), CF PlGF (P|0.001), MS sFLT-1 (P = 0.03), ...
Inflammatory immune response plays a key role in reproductive failures such as multiple implantation failures (MIF), early pregnancy loss, and recurrent pregnancy losses (RPL). Cellular immune responses particularly mediated by natural killer (NK), and T cells are often dysregulated in these conditions. Excessive or inappropriate recruitment of peripheral blood NK cells to the uterus may lead to cytotoxic environment in utero, in which proliferation and differentiation of trophoblast is hampered. In addition, inadequate angiogenesis by uterine NK cells often leads to abnormal vascular development and blood flow patterns, which, in turn, leads to increased oxidative stress or ischemic changes in the invading trophoblast. T-cell abnormalities with increased Th1 and Th17 immunity, and decreased Th2 and T regulatory immune responses may play important roles in RPL and MIF. A possible role of stress in inflammatory immune response is also ...
Home » Langhans-type giant cells. Langhans-type giant cells --, langhans cells multinucleated giant cells seen in tuberculosis and other granulomas; the nuclei are arranged in an arciform manner at the periphery of the cells. Synonym: langhans-type giant cells. Synonym: cytotrophoblastic cells. ...
PURPOSE: Gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN) is a highly treatable disease, most often affecting young women of childbearing age. This study reviewed patients managed for GTN at the Butaro Cancer Center of Excellence (BCCOE) in Rwanda to determine initial program outcomes. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective medical record review was performed for 35 patients with GTN assessed or treated between May 1, 2012, and November 30, 2014. Stage, risk score, and low or high GTN risk category were based on International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics staging and the WHO scoring system and determined by beta human chorionic gonadotropin level, chest x-ray, and ultrasound per protocol guidelines for resource-limited settings ...
A successful pregnancy requires that the maternal immune system adapts to tolerate the semi-allogeneic fetal-placental unit. This adaptation mainly occurs locally, i.e. at the fetal-maternal interface, where fetal-derived tissues come into close contact with maternal cells in the uterine endometrium (called decidua during pregnancy). Macrophages and regulatory T (Treg) cells are maternal immune cells that are enriched in the decidua and they likely play a central role in promoting fetal tolerance. However, the precise function of decidual macrophages and the factors regulating both macrophages and Treg cells in humans are unknown. The aim of this thesis was to characterize the phenotype and function of decidual macrophages from first trimester human pregnancy and to identify factors responsible for inducing tolerogenic properties in both decidual macrophages and Treg cells. CD14+ decidual macrophages showed ...
The inner cell mass (ICM) is the part of the blastocyst that is fated to become the embryo, amnion, and yolk sac. In contrast, the trophectoderm cells of the blastocyst will contribute to extra-embryonic tissues, such as the placenta and umbilical cord. Cells of the ICM are pluripotent, meaning they can give rise to all the cell lineages (ectoderm, endoderm, and mesoderm) found in the body. The ICM is, thus, a source of embryonic stem cells.. ...
The prolactin (PRL) and growth hormone (GH) gene families represent species-specific expansions of pregnancy-associated hormones/cytokines. In this review we examine the structure, expression patterns, and biological actions of the pregnancy-specific PRL and GH families.
Assistant Professor(601) 984-2320EmailCVCurrent researchPreeclampsia is a pregnancy specific disease that occurs in 5-10% of pregnancies worldwide. The disease is characterized as hypertension after the 20th week of pregnancy associated with new-onset proteinuria, endothelial dysfunction, systemic vasoconstriction, and an increased risk for cardiovascular disease later in life.A substantial amount of evidence suggests lack of spiral artery remodeling resulting in placental ischemia/hypoxia is the initiating event in the disease process. However, the factors contributing to the reduced vascular remodeling are unknown and a better understanding of placentation and the pathophysiology of the preeclamptic placenta is needed. Therefore, my research focuses around the central hypothesis that increases in CYP4A expression and production of 20-HETE in the placental vasculature leads to the abnormal spiral artery remodeling, reductions in placental perfusion, and triggers placental ...
We aimed to investigate the expression of suppressors cytokine signaling (SOCS)-3, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygense (IDO) and to analyse the relationship of SOCS3 and TGF-β with IDO expression in early pregnancy chorionic villi and decidua in the maternal-fetal interface. Western blot analysis and immunohistochemical method were used to detect the expression of TGF-β, SOCS3 and IDO in chorionic villi and decidua tissues of normal pregnant women. SOCS3, TGF-β and IDO protein was identified in chorionic villi and decidua tissues of normal pregnant women and there was a negative correlation between the expression of IDO and SOCS3, but TGF-β expression was positively correlated with IDO expression ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Samantha D Smith, Ruhul H Choudhury, Patricia Matos, James A Horn, Stephen J Lye, Caroline E Dunk, John D Aplin, Rebecca L Jones, Lynda K Harris].
Author(s): Kim, Minah; Park, Hyeung Ju; Seol, Jae Won; Jang, Jeon Yeob; Cho, Young-Suk; Kim, Kyu Rae; Choi, Youngsok; Lydon, John P; Demayo, Francesco J; Shibuya, Masabumi; Ferrara, Napoleone; Sung, Hoon-Ki; Nagy, Andras; Alitalo, Kari; Koh, Gou Young | Abstract: The features and regulation of uterine angiogenesis and vascular remodelling during pregnancy are poorly defined. Here we show that dynamic and variable decidual angiogenesis (sprouting, intussusception and networking), and active vigorous vascular remodelling such as enlargement and elongation of vascular sinus folding (VSF) and mural cell drop-out occur distinctly in a spatiotemporal manner in the rapidly growing mouse uterus during early pregnancy - just after implantation but before placentation. Decidual angiogenesis is mainly regulated through VEGF-A secreted from the progesterone receptor (PR)-expressing decidual stromal cells which are largely distributed in the ...
Uncovering the causes of pregnancy complications such as preterm labor requires greater insight into how the uterus remains in a noncontractile state until term and then surmounts this state to enter labor. Here, we show that dynamic generation and erasure of the repressive histone modification tri-methyl histone H3 lysine 27 (H3K27me3) in decidual stromal cells dictate both elements of pregnancy success in mice. In early gestation, H3K27me3-induced transcriptional silencing of select gene targets ensured uterine quiescence by preventing the decidua from expressing parturition-inducing hormone receptors, manifesting type 1 immunity, and most unexpectedly, generating myofibroblasts and associated wound-healing responses. In late gestation, genome-wide H3K27 demethylation allowed for target gene upregulation, decidual activation, and labor entry. Pharmacological inhibition of H3K27 demethylation in late gestation not only ...
05/04/07 10:50 AM >>> Our OB/GYN department is requesting we accession/receive all placentas. They want us to continue with the gross and micro for the one that meet the criteria for examination. For the normal placentas, they want us to gross the placenta, take a few sections and store these sections (uncut) for up to 20 years. Is there any pathology departments that receive all placentas? If you do, do you perform just a gross exam on the normal placentas or do you perform a gross and micro on all specimens? If you receive all placentas, do the insurance companies reimburse for the normal (the ones that do not meet the CAP guidelines for examination) placentas? Please contact me if your hospital does this or something similar with the placentas. Thank you, Kari Breal Histology Supervisor Alexian Brothers Medical Center 847-437-5500 ext. 5155 Fax 847-981-2023 [email protected] CONFIDENTIALITY NOTICE: This e-mail message, including any attachments, is for the sole use of the intended ...
DEL MONACO, Silvana M.; MARINO, Gabriela; ASSEF, Yanina y KOTSIAS, Basilio A.. Preeclampsia, cellular migration and ion channels. Medicina (B. Aires) [online]. 2008, vol.68, n.5, pp. 405-410. ISSN 1669-9106.. The syncytiotrophoblast acts in human placenta as a transporting barrier regulating the transference of nutrients, solutes and water between maternal and fetal blood. This transepithelial transport involves movement of Na+ and its contribution to the osmotic pressure is an important determinant of the extracellular fluid volume. ENaC is a channel that mediates entry of Na+ from the luminal fluid into the cells in many reabsorbing epithelia; it is aldosterone, vasopressin, insulin and catecholamine-inducible, modulated by estrogens and progesterone and blocked by amiloride and its analogs. Multiple proteases are involved in the proteolytic processing and activation of ENaC subunits and aldosterone alters the protease-protease inhibitors balance. ENaC is also expressed in human placenta; ...

ATP and UTP stimulate bone morphogenetic protein-2,-4 and -5 gene expression and mineralization by rat primary osteoblasts...ATP and UTP stimulate bone morphogenetic protein-2,-4 and -5 gene expression and mineralization by rat primary osteoblasts...

... regulate the differentiation of osteoprogenitor bone cells and stimulate bone formation. In this study, we investigate the ... ATP and UTP stimulate bone morphogenetic protein-2,-4 and -5 gene expression and mineralization by rat primary osteoblasts ... On the other hand, bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), members of the transforming growth factor-β superfamily, ... and their relation with the gene expression of osteogenic proteins BMP-2, BMP-4 and BMP-5 as well as of differentiation markers ...
more infohttps://ri.conicet.gov.ar/handle/11336/12398

Human Papillomavirus Type 16 E6 and E7 Proteins Inhibit Differentiation-dependent Expression of Transforming Growth Factor-β2...Human Papillomavirus Type 16 E6 and E7 Proteins Inhibit Differentiation-dependent Expression of Transforming Growth Factor-β2...

... apoptosis-related genes, genes involved in tissue remodeling, and cell cycle genes. One of the genes that was strongly down- ... bone morphogenetic proteins, growth/differentiation factors, and inhibins/activins. Human keratinocytes express three TGF-β ... ELISA Analysis of Cell-associated and Secreted TGF-β1 and TGF-β2 Proteins.. For analyses of cell-associated TGF-βs, cells were ... Over 100 cellular genes or ∼7% of genes on the array were either increased or decreased in expression by ,2-fold. These genes ...
more infohttp://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/60/15/4289.full

Bone morphogenetic protein 4 - WikipediaBone morphogenetic protein 4 - Wikipedia

"Effect of extracellular calcium on the gene expression of bone morphogenetic protein-2 and -4 of normal human bone cells". J. ... "Entrez Gene: BMP4 bone morphogenetic protein 4". Miyazono K, Kamiya Y, Morikawa M (January 2010). "Bone morphogenetic protein ... Bone morphogenetic protein 4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by BMP4 gene. BMP4 is found on chromosome 14q22-q23 BMP4 is ... "Expression of bone morphogenetic protein messenger RNAs by normal rat and human prostate and prostate cancer cells". Prostate. ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bone_morphogenetic_protein_4

Bone morphogenetic protein-4 affects both trophoblast and non-trophoblast lineage-associated gene expression in human embryonic...Bone morphogenetic protein-4 affects both trophoblast and non-trophoblast lineage-associated gene expression in human embryonic...

... and estradiol in the differentiated cells confirmed that trophoblast-like cells were obtained. Gene expression by EB was ... can be induced to differentiate to trophoblast by bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) and by aggregation to form embryoid bodies ... whether the BMP4 antagonist noggin elicits direct effects on gene expression and hormone production in the cells. Transcriptome ... an up-regulation of trophoblast-associated genes, and either a down-regulation or no change in gene expression for many markers ...
more infohttps://www.scirp.org/journal/paperinformation.aspx?paperid=23760

Bone morphogenetic protein 5 - WikipediaBone morphogenetic protein 5 - Wikipedia

6 on DNA synthesis and expression of bone-related proteins in cultured human periodontal ligament cells". Cell Biology ... The protein encoded by this gene is member of the TGFβ superfamily. Bone morphogenetic proteins are known for their ability to ... "Expression of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP), BMP receptors, and BMP associated proteins in human trabecular meshwork and ... This gene encodes a member of the bone morphogenetic protein family which is part of the transforming growth factor-beta ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bone_morphogenetic_protein_5

HJV gene - Genetics Home ReferenceHJV gene - Genetics Home Reference

Bone morphogenetic protein signaling by hemojuvelin regulates hepcidin expression. Nat Genet. 2006 May;38(5):531-9. Epub 2006 ... Blood Cells Mol Dis. 2004 Jul-Aug;33(1):40-4. Review. ... How do genes direct the production of proteins?. *More about ... The HJV gene provides instructions for making a protein called hemojuvelin. This protein is made in the liver, heart, and ... As a result, an abnormally small protein is made.. Mutations in the HJV gene lead to an altered hemojuvelin protein that cannot ...
more infohttps://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/gene/HJV

In Vivo Host Response and Degradation of Copolymer Scaffolds Functionalized with Nanodiamonds and Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2In Vivo Host Response and Degradation of Copolymer Scaffolds Functionalized with Nanodiamonds and Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2

Gene analysis at week 1 shows highest expression of proinflammatory markers around nDP scaffolds; although the presence of ... inflammatory cells and foreign body giant cells is more prominent around the PLCL. Tissue regeneration markers are highly ... BMP-2 scaffolds at week 1 with ectopic bone seen at week 8. Even when almost 90% of the scaffold is degraded at week 27, nDP ... 5, no 6, p. 730-742Article in journal (Refereed) Published Resource type. Text Abstract [en] The aim is to evaluate the effect ...
more infohttp://kth.diva-portal.org/smash/record.jsf?pid=diva2:924014

Robert Thomas Grant, MD, MSc, FACS | Columbia University Department of SurgeryRobert Thomas Grant, MD, MSc, FACS | Columbia University Department of Surgery

Expression of human bone morphogenetic protein 7 in primary rabbit periosteal cells: Potential utility in gene therapy for ... Gene-enhanced tissue engineering: Application for bone healing using cultured periosteal cells transduced retrovirally with the ... Biological alchemy: Engineering bone and fat from fat-derived stem cells. Ann Plast Surg 2003;50:610-617. ... Tissue engineered bone repair of calvarial defects using cultured periosteal cells. Plast Reconstr Surg 1998;101: 567-574. ...
more infohttp://columbiasurgery.org/node/1319

Brain from bone: Efficient meta-differentiation of marrow stroma-derived mature osteoblasts to neurons with Noggin or a...Brain from bone: Efficient "meta-differentiation" of marrow stroma-derived mature osteoblasts to neurons with Noggin or a...

Gene Expression * Genes Keywords. *Bone morphogenetic protein. *Dedifferentiation. *Mesenchymal stem cell. *Methylation ... keywords = "Bone morphogenetic protein, Dedifferentiation, Mesenchymal stem cell, Methylation, Neuron, Noggin, ... This transdifferentiation or meta-differentiation was enhanced by Noggin, an inhibitor of bone morphogenetic proteins, in ... This transdifferentiation or meta-differentiation was enhanced by Noggin, an inhibitor of bone morphogenetic proteins, in ...
more infohttps://keio.pure.elsevier.com/en/publications/brain-from-bone-efficient-meta-differentiation-of-marrow-stroma-d

Dpp receptors are autonomously required for cell proliferation in the entire developing Drosophila wing | DevelopmentDpp receptors are autonomously required for cell proliferation in the entire developing Drosophila wing | Development

1994) Specificity of bone morphogenetic protein-related factors: cell fate and gene expression changes in Drosophila embryos ... 1993) Targeted gene expression as a means of altering cell fates and generating dominant phenotypes. Development 118, 401-415. ... 1994) Identification of two bone morphogenetic protein type I receptors in Drosophila and evidence that Brk25D is a ... 1995) Kip/Cip and Ink4 Cdk inhibitors cooperate to induce cell cycle arrest in response to TGF. Genes Dev 9, 1831-1845. ...
more infohttps://dev.biologists.org/content/122/7/2261?ijkey=ec39e3b38fe2d2aa50ad91ca175edc35014934ce&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Development and Pathology of Pulmonary Hypertension | JACC: Journal of the American College of CardiologyDevelopment and Pathology of Pulmonary Hypertension | JACC: Journal of the American College of Cardiology

bone morphogenetic protein. BMPR. bone morphogenetic protein receptor. BPD. bronchopulmonary dysplasia. CDH. congenital ... expression of marker molecules, and biological functions. These cells range from macrophages to inflammatory cells, EPCs, and ... 1999) Cell-based gene transfer to the pulmonary vasculature: Endothelial nitric oxide synthase overexpression inhibits ... Role of Bone Marrow Cells in Pulmonary Vascular Structure and Remodeling. The term "bone marrow-derived cells" characterizes a ...
more infohttp://www.onlinejacc.org/content/54/1_Supplement/S3

Regulating Gene Expression to Promote Osteoblastic Differentiation of Stem CellsRegulating Gene Expression to Promote Osteoblastic Differentiation of Stem Cells

We have optimized an innovative strategy for the transient transfection of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) expressing ... Regulating Gene Expression to Promote Osteoblastic Differentiation of Stem Cells. Paidikondala, Maruthibabu Uppsala University ... Ex vivo gene therapy offers enormous potential for cell-based therapies, however, cumbersome in vitro cell culture conditions ... Impact of Hydrogel Crosslinking Chemistry on the In Vitroand In VivoBioactivity of Recombinant Human Bone Morphogenetic Protein ...
more infohttp://uu.diva-portal.org/smash/record.jsf?pid=diva2%3A1271021&c=3&searchType=LIST_COMING&language=en&query=&af=%5B%5D&aq=%5B%5B%5D%5D&aq2=%5B%5B%5D%5D&aqe=%5B%5D&noOfRows=50&sortOrder=author_sort_asc&sortOrder2=title_sort_asc&onlyFullText=false&sf=all

Regulating Gene Expression to Promote Osteoblastic Differentiation of Stem CellsRegulating Gene Expression to Promote Osteoblastic Differentiation of Stem Cells

We have optimized an innovative strategy for the transient transfection of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) expressing ... Regulating Gene Expression to Promote Osteoblastic Differentiation of Stem Cells. Paidikondala, Maruthibabu Uppsala universitet ... Ex vivo gene therapy offers enormous potential for cell-based therapies, however, cumbersome in vitro cell culture conditions ... Impact of Hydrogel Crosslinking Chemistry on the In Vitroand In VivoBioactivity of Recombinant Human Bone Morphogenetic Protein ...
more infohttp://uu.diva-portal.org/smash/record.jsf?pid=diva2%3A1271021&c=111&searchType=SIMPLE&language=no&query=&af=%5B%5D&aq=%5B%5B%7B%22categoryId%22%3A%2211534%22%7D%5D%5D&aq2=%5B%5B%5D%5D&aqe=%5B%5D&noOfRows=50&sortOrder=author_sort_asc&sortOrder2=title_sort_asc&onlyFullText=false&sf=all

A 5-mC Dot Blot Assay Quantifying the DNA Methylation Level of Chondrocyte Dedifferentiation In Vitro | Protocol (Translated to...A 5-mC Dot Blot Assay Quantifying the DNA Methylation Level of Chondrocyte Dedifferentiation In Vitro | Protocol (Translated to...

우리는 5- 메틸 시토신 (5-mC) 도트 블롯을 기반으로 DNA 메틸화를 정량화하는 방법을 제시합니다. 우리는 연골 세포 탈분화 동안 5-mC 수준을 결정했다. 이 간단한 기술은 ACI 치료에서 연골 세포 표현형을 신속하게 ... Single-cell Quantitation of mRNA and Surface Protein Expression in Simian Immunodeficiency Virus-infected CD4+ T Cells Isolated ... in collagen sponge scaffolds by using siRNA to stabilizechondrocytes phenotype cultured with bone morphogenetic protein-2 under ... Ma, B., et al. Gene expression profiling of dedifferentiated human articular chondrocytes in monolayer culture. Osteoarthritis ...
more infohttps://www.jove.com/video/55565/-dna-5-mc-dot-blot-assay?language=Korean

Differential expression of GADD45  in normal and osteoarthritic cartilagePotential
      role in homeostasis of articular...Differential expression of GADD45 in normal and osteoarthritic cartilagePotential role in homeostasis of articular...

Localization of bone morphogenetic protein-2 in human osteoarthritic cartilage and osteophyte. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 2003;11 ... GADD45␤ gene expression was up-regulated in early OA, along with genes involved in cell cycle regulation, such as DDX11, ... J Bone Miner Res 2002;17:2141-50. Spentzos D, Levine DA, Ramoni MF, Joseph M, Gu X, Boyd J, et al. Gene expression signature ... Transcriptional suppression by interleukin-1 and interferon-␥ of type II collagen gene expression in human chondrocytes. J Cell ...
more infohttps://www.docme.ru/doc/2177289/differential-expression-of-gadd45--in-normal-and-osteoart..

Methylation signature of lymph node metastases in breast cancer patientsMethylation signature of lymph node metastases in breast cancer patients

Epigenetic regulation of bone morphogenetic protein-6 gene expression in breast cancer cells. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2007; ... Expression of bone morphogenetic protein-6 and bone morphogenetic protein receptors in myoepithelial cells of canine mammary ... Bone morphogenetic protein-6 promotes osteoblastic prostate cancer bone metastases through a dual mechanism. Cancer Res. 2005; ... Cell signaling and pathway analysis. Gene networks and canonical pathways displaying hypermethylated genes in lymph node ...
more infohttp://pubmedcentralcanada.ca/pmcc/articles/PMC3437205/

FRZB | Cancer Genetics WebFRZB | Cancer Genetics Web

Bone morphogenetic protein-focused strategies to induce cytotoxicity in lung cancer cells.. Anticancer Res. 2014; 34(5):2095- ... gene, one of the secreted antagonists that bind Wnt protein, and re-expression of this gene with the demethylation agent (5-aza ... BACKGROUND: High bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2 expression in lung carcinoma correlates with poor patient prognosis. The ... The protein encoded by this gene is a secreted protein that is involved in the regulation of bone development. Defects in this ...
more infohttp://www.cancerindex.org/geneweb/FRZB.htm

IJMS  | Free Full-Text | Comparative Analysis of Osteogenic/Chondrogenic Differentiation Potential in Primary Limb Bud-Derived...IJMS | Free Full-Text | Comparative Analysis of Osteogenic/Chondrogenic Differentiation Potential in Primary Limb Bud-Derived...

Although the adipogenic lineage-specific marker gene FABP4 was also expressed in micromass cultures, Oil Red O-positive cells ... while notable lubricin expression was only detected in primary cultures. Furthermore, mRNA transcripts for markers of ... Although the BMP-2 overexpressing C3H10T1/2 cells failed to form chondrogenic nodules, cells of both models expressed mRNA ... Apart from lineage-specific marker genes, pluripotency factors (Nanog and Sox2) were also expressed in these models, reflecting ...
more infohttp://www.mdpi.com/1422-0067/14/8/16141/htm

Bmp5 bone morphogenetic protein 5 [Mus musculus (house mouse)] - Gene - NCBIBmp5 bone morphogenetic protein 5 [Mus musculus (house mouse)] - Gene - NCBI

Title: A distinct regulatory region of the Bmp5 locus activates gene expression following adult bone fracture or soft tissue ... Early endothelial outgrowth cells act protective in diabetic nephropathy, and such effects are significantly stimulated by BMP- ... mRNA and Protein(s) * NM_007555.4 → NP_031581.2 bone morphogenetic protein 5 preproprotein ... bone morphogenetic protein 5provided by MGI. Primary source. MGI:MGI:88181 See related. Ensembl:ENSMUSG00000032179 Gene type. ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/gene/12160

Prkd1 - Serine/threonine-protein kinase D1 - Mus musculus (Mouse) - Prkd1 gene & proteinPrkd1 - Serine/threonine-protein kinase D1 - Mus musculus (Mouse) - Prkd1 gene & protein

The PRKD1-HDAC5 pathway is also involved in angiogenesis by mediating VEGFA-induced specific subset of gene expression, cell ... In osteoblast differentiation, mediates the bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2)-induced nuclear export of HDAC7, which results ... cell survival through NF-kappa-B activation, cell migration, cell differentiation by mediating HDAC7 nuclear export, cell ... which leads to accumulation of immediate-early gene products including FOS that stimulate cell cycle progression. Plays an ...
more infohttp://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/Q62101

FK506 Induces Ligand-Independent Activation of the Bone Morphogenetic Protein Pathway and Osteogenesis.  - PubMed - NCBIFK506 Induces Ligand-Independent Activation of the Bone Morphogenetic Protein Pathway and Osteogenesis. - PubMed - NCBI

Activated Smad complexes regulate gene expression of several target genes. Calcineurin is a Ca++-calmodulin-dependent serine/ ... A) FK506 has no effect on calcineurin A protein levels. We treated C2C12 cells with FK506 (0, 0.5, 1, 2.5, and 7.5 µM) and ... Osteoinductive bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), including BMP-2, have a unique capability of mediating bone formation both ... Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling pathway and inhibition by Noggin. The BMP dimer binds to BMP receptor type II, which ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30999619

Gene Expression Literature Summary - MGIGene Expression Literature Summary - MGI

J:160559 Caronia G, Wilcoxon J, Feldman P, Grove EA, Bone morphogenetic protein signaling in the developing telencephalon ... Mesenchymal Hox6 function is required for mouse pancreatic endocrine cell differentiation. Development. 2015 Nov 15;142(22): ... Gene Expression Database (GXD), Mouse Models of Human Cancer database (MMHCdb) (formerly Mouse Tumor Biology (MTB), Gene ... Summary by Gene and Reference: Number indicates the number of results matching the search criteria recorded for each reference. ...
more infohttp://www.informatics.jax.org/gxdlit/summary/ageAssay?age=12.5&assayType=Immunohistochemistry%20

UACC-732 ATCC ® CRL-3166™ Homo sapiens breast inflammatory cUACC-732 ATCC ® CRL-3166™ Homo sapiens breast inflammatory c

This human breast cancer cell line, UACC-732, was derived from a 33 year-old female with infiltrating ductal inflammatory ... inhibition of cell growth and induction of cell migration and invasion in breast cancer cells by bone morphogenetic protein 4. ... Epigenetic silencing of maspin gene expression in human breast cancers. Int. J. Cancer. 85(6): 805-810, 2000 PubMed: 10709100 ... Parallel inhibition of cell growth and induction of cell migration and invasion in breast cancer cells by bone morphogenetic ...
more infohttps://www.atcc.org/Products/All/CRL-3166.aspx?p=1&rel=%7B0%7D

Osteoarthritis: Practice Essentials, Background, AnatomyOsteoarthritis: Practice Essentials, Background, Anatomy

Genes in the BMP (bone morphogenetic protein) and WNT (wingless-type) signaling cascades have been implicated in osteoarthritis ... This gene is key in neurotrophin-mediated regulation of peripheral nervous system cell motility. [59] ... Additionally, Jefferies et al found evidence for hypermethylation and reduced expression of the type XI collagen gene COL11A2. ... 9] ; bone scans also can help differentiate osteoarthritis from osteomyelitis, bone metastases, and metabolic bone diseases ...
more infohttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/330487-overview

Genetic requirements of vestigial in the regulation of Drosophila wing development | DevelopmentGenetic requirements of vestigial in the regulation of Drosophila wing development | Development

Specificity of bone morphogenetic protein-related factors: cell fate and gene expression changes in Drosophila embryos induced ... reducing the expression of wing blade genes to groups of cells within clones. The change of wing blade genes expression in ... and cells expressing distal genes (wing blade genes), remains unresolved.. The expression of selector genes like Ubx and en is ... The Vestigial and Scalloped proteins act together to directly regulate wing-specific gene expression in Drosophila. Genes Dev. ...
more infohttp://dev.biologists.org/content/130/1/197
  • Murine micromass models have been extensively applied to study chondrogenesis and osteogenesis to elucidate pathways of endochondral bone formation. (mdpi.com)
  • FK506 treatment activated the BMP receptor, as shown by increased pSmad1/5 levels, and produced significantly higher mRNA levels of the early response genes in BMP and TGF-β pathways. (nih.gov)
  • These genes are considered to be able to individually initiate and drive specific developmental pathways, thus changing the fate of the tissues in which they are ectopically expressed. (biologists.org)
  • Moreover, the possibility of regulating cell fate by triggering intracellular pathways is a current challenge in regenerative medicine. (rsc.org)
  • ERK activation by holotransferrin provoked increased levels of phospho-Smad1/5/8 highlighting cross-talk between the bone morphogenetic protein/hemojuvelin and ERK1/2 pathways. (haematologica.org)
  • In this study, we showed that neurons, which are of an ectoderm-origin, could be generated from marrow-derived stromal cells by specific inducers, fibronectin/ornithine coating, and neurosphere formation. (elsevier.com)
  • The contribution of aberrant methylation alterations of BMP6, BRCA1 and P16 genes in lymph node metastasis might provide a further clue to establish useful biomarkers for screening metastasis. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • BMP-5 is mapped on human chromosome 6.4 The standard used in this kit is recombinant BMP-5 with the monomer molecular mass of 18KDa. (gentaur.com)
  • This particular family member plays an important role in the onset of endochondral bone formation in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Finally, we demonstrated, using hepatocytes isolated from Hfe −/− mice, that HFE was not critical for the hepcidin response to holotransferrin but important for basal hepcidin expression. (haematologica.org)
  • Stem Cells, 21, 521-526. (scirp.org)
  • In these niches new neurons are continuously generated from stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • In fact it has been shown that in the dentate gyrus BMP4 maintains neural stem cells in quiescence, thus preventing the depletion of the pool of stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the SVZ , BMP-mediated signaling via Smad4 is required to initiate neurogenesis from adult neural stem cells and suppress the alternative fate of oligodendrogliogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Biological alchemy: Engineering bone and fat from fat-derived stem cells. (columbiasurgery.org)
  • Furthermore, bone mineralization enhance 1 and 1.5 fold after culturing osteoblasts in the presence of 100 μM ATP or UTP, respectively, but not of ADP or UDP for 22 days. (conicet.gov.ar)
  • It has been shown to be involved in muscle development, bone mineralization, and ureteric bud development. (wikipedia.org)
  • Among stromal cells, isolated mature osteoblasts which had strong in vivo osteogenic activity could be efficiently converted into functional neurons. (elsevier.com)
  • Since the high dose of rh-BMP-2 is known to confer many side effects, alternative ex-vivo strategies involving transient transfection of BMP-2 expressing plasmid DNA and silencing of anti-osteogenic genes using siRNA are developed. (diva-portal.org)
  • Our findings state a novel molecular mechanism that involves specific gene expression activation of osteoblast function by the purinoreceptors, which would be of help in setting up new pharmacological strategies for the intervention in bone loss pathologies. (conicet.gov.ar)
  • Under oxidative stress, is phosphorylated at Tyr-469 via SRC-ABL1 and contributes to cell survival by activating IKK complex and subsequent nuclear translocation and activation of NFKB1. (uniprot.org)
  • This downregulation of BMP signaling in LECs occurs simultaneously with an activation of canonical TGFβ signaling and the onset of fibrotic marker expression. (arvojournals.org)
  • Ser368 of Cx43 is phosphorylated by protein kinase C (PKC) after activation by phorbol esters, which decreases cell-to-cell communication (3). (cellsignal.com)
  • NF- ␬ B overexpression increased GADD45␤ promoter activity, and siRNA-GADD45␤ decreased cell survival per se and enhanced tumor necrosis factor ␣-induced cell death in human articular chondrocytes. (docme.ru)
  • In contrast, COL2A1, other collagen genes, and factors associated with skeletal development were up-regulated in late OA, compared with early OA or normal cartilage. (docme.ru)
  • Although the BMP-2 overexpressing C3H10T1/2 cells failed to form chondrogenic nodules, cells of both models expressed mRNA transcripts for major cartilage-specific marker genes including Sox9 , Acan , Col2a1 , Snorc , and Hapln1 at similar temporal sequence, while notable lubricin expression was only detected in primary cultures. (mdpi.com)
  • Acts downstream of the heterotrimeric G-protein beta/gamma-subunit complex to maintain the structural integrity of the Golgi membranes, and is required for protein transport along the secretory pathway. (uniprot.org)
  • This human breast cancer cell line, UACC-732, was derived from a 33 year-old female with infiltrating ductal inflammatory carcinoma of the breast metastatic to the pleural fluid. (atcc.org)
  • May act by activating the lipid kinase phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase beta (PI4KB) at the TGN for the local synthesis of phosphorylated inositol lipids, which induces a sequential production of DAG, phosphatidic acid (PA) and lyso-PA (LPA) that are necessary for membrane fission and generation of specific transport carriers to the cell surface. (uniprot.org)
  • Connexins assemble as a hexamer and are transported to the plasma membrane to create a hemichannel that can associate with hemichannels on nearby cells to create cell-to-cell channels. (cellsignal.com)
  • Background: Ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase-phosphodiesterase 1 (ENPP1) is a single-pass, type II transmembrane protein primarily involved in ATP hydrolysis at the plasma membrane. (cellsignal.com)
  • Src can interact with and phosphorylate Cx43 to alter gap junction communication (4,5). (cellsignal.com)
  • A targeting vector containing neomycin resistance, herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase and lacZ genes was used to disrupt most of the Nog coding region and some 3' flanking sequence. (jax.org)
  • These results suggest that TGF-β2- and TGF-β-responsive genes are important targets for the HPV-16 E6 and E7 oncoproteins in differentiating cervical keratinocytes. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The TGF 2 -β family of growth factors are important regulators of gene expression during embryogenesis, differentiation, and wound healing. (aacrjournals.org)
  • BMP4 is important for bone and cartilage metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • These observations suggest that GADD45␤ might play an important role in regulating chondrocyte homeostasis by modulating collagen gene Dr. Zerbini's work was supported by US Department of Defense grant PC-051217. (docme.ru)
  • Invasion and metastasis are two important hallmarks of malignant tumors associated with complex genetic and epigenetic alterations that allow tumors to disseminate throughout lymphatics or blood vessels, giving rise to the colonization and growth of metastatic cells in distant organs [ 4 - 6 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)