Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Genetic Therapy: Techniques and strategies which include the use of coding sequences and other conventional or radical means to transform or modify cells for the purpose of treating or reversing disease conditions.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.X-Linked Combined Immunodeficiency Diseases: Forms of combined immunodeficiency caused by mutations in the gene for INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA SUBUNIT. Both severe and non-severe subtypes of the disease have been identified.Cumulus Cells: The granulosa cells of the cumulus oophorus which surround the OVUM in the GRAAFIAN FOLLICLE. At OVULATION they are extruded with OVUM.Hematopoietic Stem Cells: Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.Growth Differentiation Factor 3: A growth differentiation factor that may play a role in maintaining the undifferentiated state of PLURIPOTENT STEM CELLS by inhibiting the actions of BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEINS. Differentiation factor 3 is also considered a nodal signaling ligand that influences the genesis of left-right asymmetry.Retroviridae: Family of RNA viruses that infects birds and mammals and encodes the enzyme reverse transcriptase. The family contains seven genera: DELTARETROVIRUS; LENTIVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE B, MAMMALIAN; ALPHARETROVIRUS; GAMMARETROVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE D; and SPUMAVIRUS. A key feature of retrovirus biology is the synthesis of a DNA copy of the genome which is integrated into cellular DNA. After integration it is sometimes not expressed but maintained in a latent state (PROVIRUSES).Lentivirus: A genus of the family RETROVIRIDAE consisting of non-oncogenic retroviruses that produce multi-organ diseases characterized by long incubation periods and persistent infection. Lentiviruses are unique in that they contain open reading frames (ORFs) between the pol and env genes and in the 3' env region. Five serogroups are recognized, reflecting the mammalian hosts with which they are associated. HIV-1 is the type species.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Transduction, Genetic: The transfer of bacterial DNA by phages from an infected bacterium to another bacterium. This also refers to the transfer of genes into eukaryotic cells by viruses. This naturally occurring process is routinely employed as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Gene Transfer Techniques: The introduction of functional (usually cloned) GENES into cells. A variety of techniques and naturally occurring processes are used for the gene transfer such as cell hybridization, LIPOSOMES or microcell-mediated gene transfer, ELECTROPORATION, chromosome-mediated gene transfer, TRANSFECTION, and GENETIC TRANSDUCTION. Gene transfer may result in genetically transformed cells and individual organisms.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Stem Cells: Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Theileria annulata: A protozoan parasite causing tropical theileriasis in cattle. It is transmitted by ticks of the Hyalomma genus.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Cell Lineage: The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Octamer Transcription Factor-3: An octamer transcription factor that is expressed primarily in totipotent embryonic STEM CELLS and GERM CELLS and is down-regulated during CELL DIFFERENTIATION.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Microarray Analysis: The simultaneous analysis, on a microchip, of multiple samples or targets arranged in an array format.Antigens, CD34: Glycoproteins found on immature hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. They are the only molecules to date whose expression within the blood system is restricted to a small number of progenitor cells in the bone marrow.Validation Studies as Topic: Research using processes by which the reliability and relevance of a procedure for a specific purpose are established.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Transgenes: Genes that are introduced into an organism using GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Severe Combined Immunodeficiency: Group of rare congenital disorders characterized by impairment of both humoral and cell-mediated immunity, leukopenia, and low or absent antibody levels. It is inherited as an X-linked or autosomal recessive defect. Mutations occurring in many different genes cause human Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (SCID).Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: Transfer of HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS from BONE MARROW or BLOOD between individuals within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS). Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has been used as an alternative to BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION in the treatment of a variety of neoplasms.Adenosine Deaminase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ADENOSINE to INOSINE with the elimination of AMMONIA.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Schwann Cells: Neuroglial cells of the peripheral nervous system which form the insulating myelin sheaths of peripheral axons.Neoplastic Stem Cells: Highly proliferative, self-renewing, and colony-forming stem cells which give rise to NEOPLASMS.Embryonic Stem Cells: Cells derived from the BLASTOCYST INNER CELL MASS which forms before implantation in the uterine wall. They retain the ability to divide, proliferate and provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Mice, Inbred C57BLHomeodomain Proteins: Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).Transcriptome: The pattern of GENE EXPRESSION at the level of genetic transcription in a specific organism or under specific circumstances in specific cells.Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.Organ Specificity: Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Mice, SCID: Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Leydig Cells: Steroid-producing cells in the interstitial tissue of the TESTIS. They are under the regulation of PITUITARY HORMONES; LUTEINIZING HORMONE; or interstitial cell-stimulating hormone. TESTOSTERONE is the major androgen (ANDROGENS) produced.Cell Line, Transformed: Eukaryotic cell line obtained in a quiescent or stationary phase which undergoes conversion to a state of unregulated growth in culture, resembling an in vitro tumor. It occurs spontaneously or through interaction with viruses, oncogenes, radiation, or drugs/chemicals.Host-Pathogen Interactions: The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Anemia, Sickle Cell: A disease characterized by chronic hemolytic anemia, episodic painful crises, and pathologic involvement of many organs. It is the clinical expression of homozygosity for hemoglobin S.Gene Regulatory Networks: Interacting DNA-encoded regulatory subsystems in the GENOME that coordinate input from activator and repressor TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS during development, cell differentiation, or in response to environmental cues. The networks function to ultimately specify expression of particular sets of GENES for specific conditions, times, or locations.Testis: The male gonad containing two functional parts: the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES for the production and transport of male germ cells (SPERMATOGENESIS) and the interstitial compartment containing LEYDIG CELLS that produce ANDROGENS.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Virus Integration: Insertion of viral DNA into host-cell DNA. This includes integration of phage DNA into bacterial DNA; (LYSOGENY); to form a PROPHAGE or integration of retroviral DNA into cellular DNA to form a PROVIRUS.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Endothelial Cells: Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.Repressor Proteins: Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.Bone Marrow Cells: Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Gene Silencing: Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Cell Culture Techniques: Methods for maintaining or growing CELLS in vitro.Leukocytes, Mononuclear: Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Genetic Markers: A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Sertoli Cells: Supporting cells projecting inward from the basement membrane of SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES. They surround and nourish the developing male germ cells and secrete ANDROGEN-BINDING PROTEIN and hormones such as ANTI-MULLERIAN HORMONE. The tight junctions of Sertoli cells with the SPERMATOGONIA and SPERMATOCYTES provide a BLOOD-TESTIS BARRIER.Pluripotent Stem Cells: Cells that can give rise to cells of the three different GERM LAYERS.Luminescent Proteins: Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.Genes, Reporter: Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.DNA Methylation: Addition of methyl groups to DNA. DNA methyltransferases (DNA methylases) perform this reaction using S-ADENOSYLMETHIONINE as the methyl group donor.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Stem Cell Transplantation: The transfer of STEM CELLS from one individual to another within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or between species (XENOTRANSPLANTATION), or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS). The source and location of the stem cells determines their potency or pluripotency to differentiate into various cell types.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Transcriptional Activation: Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.Hematopoiesis: The development and formation of various types of BLOOD CELLS. Hematopoiesis can take place in the BONE MARROW (medullary) or outside the bone marrow (HEMATOPOIESIS, EXTRAMEDULLARY).Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Epigenesis, Genetic: A genetic process by which the adult organism is realized via mechanisms that lead to the restriction in the possible fates of cells, eventually leading to their differentiated state. Mechanisms involved cause heritable changes to cells without changes to DNA sequence such as DNA METHYLATION; HISTONE modification; DNA REPLICATION TIMING; NUCLEOSOME positioning; and heterochromatization which result in selective gene expression or repression.Embryo, Mammalian: The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors: A family of DNA-binding transcription factors that contain a basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Gene Expression Regulation, Viral: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.Cell SeparationDisease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.RNA: A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Models, Animal: Non-human animals, selected because of specific characteristics, for use in experimental research, teaching, or testing.Endothelium, Vascular: Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Bone Marrow Transplantation: The transference of BONE MARROW from one human or animal to another for a variety of purposes including HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION or MESENCHYMAL STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Oocytes: Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).Leukocytes: White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).Neoplasm Proteins: Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Herpesvirus 4, Human: The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Cell Transformation, Neoplastic: Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Nerve Tissue ProteinsVirus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Mice, Inbred BALB CBinding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Intermediate genes activate replication of the DNA genome by DNA strand displacement in the nucleus. Expression of L4-22K and ... Translation takes place by ribosomal shunting. The virus exits the host cell by nuclear envelope breakdown, viroporins, and ... Transcription of early genes (E genes) by host RNA pol II: these proteins optimize the cellular milieu for viral replication, ... Transcription of late genes (L genes) by host RNA pol II, mostly encoding structural proteins. Host translation shutoff ...
Smith JS; Boeke JD (January 1997). "An unusual form of transcriptional silencing in yeast ribosomal DNA". Genes & Development. ... Specifically, Rine & Herskowitz reasoned that a haploid yeast cell with a recessive mutation in matα1 could be complemented if ... screen were characterized and mapped, and it was shown that the causative genes were the same. In fact, the genes that are now ... Although Klar, Hartwell and Hopper identified mutations in SIR genes and applied other names to the genes before Rine performed ...
DNA sequencing of the ribosomal genes corrected the characterization. Another W. chondrophila strain, 2032/99, was found along ... It is hypothesized that the bacterial grows in placental cells, damaging the placenta. The species Waddlia malaysiensis G817 ... Species in this genus have a Chlamydia-like cycle of replication and their ribosomal RNA genes are 80-90% identical to ... ribosomal genes in the Chlamydiaceae. The type species is Waddlia chondrophila strain WSU 86-1044T, which was isolated from the ...
If the cell is synthesizing DNA each pore complex needs to transport about 100 histone molecules per minute. If the cell is ... RNA and ribosomal subunits must be continually transferred from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. Histones, gene regulatory ... Liver cells are another example of specialized cells that contain an abundance of smooth ER. These cells provide an example of ... In plant cells, vacuoles cover anywhere from 30% to 90% of the total cell volume. Most mature plant cells contain one large ...
The coding sequences of 40 new genes (KIAA0081-KIAA0120) deduced by analysis of cDNA clones from human cell line KG-1". DNA Res ... "The human mitochondrial ribosomal protein genes: mapping of 54 genes to the chromosomes and implications for human disorders". ... 39S ribosomal protein L19, mitochondrial is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MRPL19 gene. Mammalian mitochondrial ... "Entrez Gene: MRPL19 mitochondrial ribosomal protein L19". Nagase T, Miyajima N, Tanaka A, et al. (1995). "Prediction of the ...
Amplification of the region of DNA encoding this gene and overexpression of this kinase are seen in some breast cancer cell ... "Entrez Gene: RPS6KB1 ribosomal protein S6 kinase, 70kDa, polypeptide 1". Chung J, Grammer TC, Lemon KP, Kazlauskas A, Blenis J ... Amplification of the region of DNA encoding this gene and overexpression of this kinase are seen in some breast cancer cell ... Genes to Cells. 5 (9): 765-75. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2443.2000.00365.x. PMID 10971657. Burnett PE, Barrow RK, Cohen NA, Snyder SH ...
... "c-Myc binds to human ribosomal DNA and stimulates transcription of rRNA genes by RNA polymerase I". Nat. Cell Biol. 7 (3): 311- ... binds to the core promoter of ribosomal RNA genes to position the polymerase properly and acts as a channel for regulatory ... subunits regulate preinitiation complex assembly at the ribosomal gene promoter". EMBO Rep. 3 (11): 1082-7. doi:10.1093/embo- ... This gene encodes one of the SL1-specific TAFs. TAF1B has been shown to interact with RRN3. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ...
... "c-Myc binds to human ribosomal DNA and stimulates transcription of rRNA genes by RNA polymerase I". Nat. Cell Biol. 7 (3): 311- ... binds to the core promoter of ribosomal RNA genes to position the polymerase properly and acts as a channel for regulatory ... Cell. Biol. 20 (16): 5930-8. doi:10.1128/MCB.20.16.5930-5938.2000. PMC 86070 . PMID 10913176. Seo SB, McNamara P, Heo S, Turner ... This gene encodes the smallest SL1-specific TAF. Two transcripts encoding different isoforms have been identified. TAF1A has ...
... "c-Myc binds to human ribosomal DNA and stimulates transcription of rRNA genes by RNA polymerase I". Nat. Cell Biol. 7 (3): 311- ... binds to the core promoter of ribosomal RNA genes to position the polymerase properly and acts as a channel for regulatory ... subunits regulate preinitiation complex assembly at the ribosomal gene promoter". EMBO Rep. 3 (11): 1082-7. doi:10.1093/embo- ... Cell. Biol. 20 (16): 5930-8. doi:10.1128/MCB.20.16.5930-5938.2000. PMC 86070 . PMID 10913176. Di Pietro C, Rapisarda A, Amico V ...
Genes to Cells. 10 (2): 151-63. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2443.2005.00826.x. PMID 15676026. TOB1 human gene location in the UCSC ... The protein undergoes phosphorylation by a serine/threonine kinase, 90 kDa ribosomal S6 kinase. Interactions of this protein ... The protein interacts with both mothers against decapentaplegic Drosophila homolog 2 and 4 to enhance their DNA binding ... This gene encodes a member of the tob/btg1 family of anti-proliferative proteins that have the potential to regulate cell ...
... coli cells. Fis has been known to activate ribosomal RNA transcription, as well other genes. It has a direct role in upstream ... This small, basic, DNA-bending protein has recently been shown to function in many other reactions including phage lambda site- ... fis is the E. coli gene encoding FIS protein. The regulation of this gene is more complex than most other genes in the E. coli ... Fis levels increase from less than 100 to over 50,000 copies per cell prior to the first cell division. As cells enter ...
The injected DNA takes over the host cell's mechanisms for transcription and translation and begins to manufacture new viruses ... DNA-templated transcription is the method of transcription. Translation takes place by -1 ribosomal frameshifting. The virus ... The gene order in the structural unit of the genome is in the order: terminase-portal-head-tail-base plate-tail fibers. Viruses ... On attaching to a host cell, the virus uses its contractile sheath like a syringe, piercing the cell wall with its central tube ...
"An electron microscope study of the relative positions of the 4S and ribosomal RNA genes in HeLa cell mitochondrial DNA". Cell ... For example, cell surface proteins can be specifically labelled with membrane impermeable biotin reagent, then specifically ... The Journal of Cell Biology. 73 (3): 783-8. doi:10.1083/jcb.73.3.783. PMC 2111432 . PMID 326797. Nurminen, Kirsi P.; ...
... "c-Myc binds to human ribosomal DNA and stimulates transcription of rRNA genes by RNA polymerase I". Nature Cell Biology. 7 (3 ... Ribosomal DNA transcription is confined to the nucleolus, where about 400 copies of the 42.9-kb rDNA gene are present, arranged ... In mammalian cells, the number of active rDNA genes varies between cell types and level of differentiation. In general, as a ... Myc is known to bind to human ribosomal DNA in order to stimulate rRNA transcription by RNA polymerase I. Two specific ...
J Cell Sci. 112. ( Pt 12): 1889-900. PMID 10341208. "Entrez Gene: D21S2056E DNA segment on chromosome 21 (unique) 2056 ... Ribosomal RNA processing protein 1 homolog A is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RRP1 gene. The protein encoded by ... this gene is the putative homolog of the yeast ribosomal RNA processing protein RRP1. The encoded protein is involved in the ... Cell. 13 (11): 4100-9. doi:10.1091/mbc.E02-05-0271. PMC 133617 . PMID 12429849. Strausberg RL, Feingold EA, Grouse LH, et al. ( ...
Eukaryotic cells contain hundreds of ribosomal DNA repeats, sometimes distributed over multiple chromosomes. Termination of ... The gene expression patterns that define cell identity are inherited through cell division. This process is called epigenetic ... For every DNA base pair separated by the advancing polymerase, one hybrid RNA:DNA base pair is immediately formed. DNA strands ... "Selective removal of transcription-blocking DNA damage from the transcribed strand of the mammalian DHFR gene". Cell. 51 (2): ...
"Involvement of the TIP60 histone acetylase complex in DNA repair and apoptosis". Cell. 2000 102(4):463-73.  Nakatani Y, ... They used multifaceted mass spectrometry proteomic screens to identify yeast ribosomal complexes and then used TAP tagging to ... Genes Dev. 2006. 20: 1294-1307 Ikura T et al. " ... of more than 230 multi-protein complexes in a yeast cell by ... Subsequently, the fusion protein is retrieved from the host by breaking the cells and retrieving the fusion protein through ...
In eukaryote cells, RNA polymerase III (also called Pol III) transcribes DNA to synthesize ribosomal 5S rRNA, tRNA and other ... The genes transcribed by RNA Pol III fall in the category of "housekeeping" genes whose expression is required in all cell ... Therefore, the regulation of Pol III transcription is primarily tied to the regulation of cell growth and the cell cycle, thus ... gene initiation: TFIIIA (Transcription Factor for polymerase III A) binds to the intragenic (lying within the transcribed DNA ...
Once in the cell, the viral DNA is protected from degradation by the host nucleases. The viral DNA is then circularized and ... Translation takes place by -1 ribosomal frameshifting. Once the viral genes have been replicated, the procapsid is assembled ... The virus attaches to the host cell lipopolysaccharides using its terminal fibers, and ejects the viral DNA into the host ... DNA-templated transcription is the method of transcription. ...
"Organization of the ribosomal RNA genes of dictyostelium discoideum: Mapping of the nontrascribed spacer regions". Cell. 9 (4 ... List of Y-DNA single-nucleotide polymorphisms Non-canonical base pairing "Sequence-Dependent Variability of B-DNA". DNA ... Many DNA-binding proteins can recognize specific base pairing patterns that identify particular regulatory regions of genes. ... The size of an individual gene or an organism's entire genome is often measured in base pairs because DNA is usually double- ...
Translation takes place by -1 ribosomal frameshifting, and +1 ribosomal frameshifting. The virus exits the host cell by lysis, ... Siphoviridae is a family of double-stranded DNA viruses in the order Caudovirales. Bacteria and archaea serve as natural hosts ... Genomes are double stranded and linear, around 50kb in length, containing about 70 genes. The guanine/cytosine content is ... Entry into the host cell is achieved by adsorption into the host cell. Replication follows the replicative transposition model ...
As their distinct nature became clear through 18S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequencing, they were relocated in the metazoa. Detailed ... and cell-cell communication. The genomes of some myxozoans are now among the smallest genomes of any known animal species. The ... More careful cloning of 50 coding genes from Buddenbrockia firmly established the clade as severely modified members of the ... Each of these contain one or two sporoblast cells and one or more polar capsules that contain filaments which anchor the spore ...
... and DNA recovery by ethanol precipitation were used. The 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequence of H. larsenii was studied using ARB ... Cells of Halostagnicola larsenii XH48 are 0.5-1.0 micrometers wide and 1.0-3.0 micrometers long. Cells of H. larsenii are ... The genome includes 4,246 genes of which 4,171 are protein coding genes, 19 are pseudogenes, 6 rRNA genes, and 49 tRNA genes. ... chromosomal DNA was ioslated using the Marmur methods of simple cell disruption by detergent lysis, nucleic extraction by an ...
... has evolved to cut a 22-nucleotide sequence of DNA that occurs in alleles of the 23S ribosomal RNA gene that lack the I- ... Rochaix, JD; Malnoe, P (1978). "Anatomy of the chloroplast ribosomal DNA of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii". Cell. 15: 661-670. doi: ... such gene isolated from C. reinhardtii. Its gene resides in a group I intron in the 23S ribosomal RNA gene of the C. ... The 23S gene is an RNA gene, meaning that its transcript is not translated into protein. As RNA, it forms part of the large ...
"Human ribosomal DNA: novel sequence organization in a 4.5-kb region upstream from the promoter". Gene. 84 (1): 193-6. doi: ... Cell. Biol. 6 (1): 227-35. PMC 367502 . PMID 3785147. Gonzalez IL, Gorski JL, Campen TJ, et al. (1985). "Variation among human ... RNA, ribosomal 1, also known as RNR1, is a human gene. "Human PubMed Reference:". "Entrez Gene: RNR1 RNA, ribosomal 1". Kern SE ... "Human ribosomal RNA gene: nucleotide sequence of the transcription initiation region and comparison of three mammalian genes". ...
1 DNA-Viren *1.1 Doppelsträngige DNA-Viren (dsDNA: double stranded DNA). *1.2 Einzelsträngige DNA-Viren (ssDNA: single stranded ... Orsay virus utilizes ribosomal frameshifting to express a novel protein that is incorporated into virions, in: Virology 450-451 ... Santeuil and Le Blanc viruses primarily infect intestinal cells in Caenorhabditis nematodes, in: Virology, Volume 448, 5. ... Familie Geminiviridae (ssDNA(+/-): die einzelnen Gene haben unterschiedliche Polarität). *Genus Becurtovirus. *Genus ...
by using two "18S ribosomal RNA" and "Theileria annulata merozoite surface antigen" gene sequences. Arch Razi 68: 47-52. 20. ... was transformed into Escherichia coli TOP10 competent cells after purified DNA fragments were cloned and inserted. Then, the E ... This finding provides evidence of a significant similarity between the Ms1 gene of T. lestoquardi and the Tams1 gene of T. ... A similarity on immunodominant major surface antigen gene was also found between the Ms1 gene of T. lestoquardi and the Tams1 ...
Here, we demonstrate that human c-Myc also directly enhances Pol I transcription of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes. rRNA synthesis ... c-Myc coordinates cell growth and division through a transcriptional programme that involves both RNA polymerase (Pol) II- and ... c-Myc binds to human ribosomal DNA and stimulates transcription of rRNA genes by RNA polymerase I Nat Cell Biol. 2005 Mar;7(3): ... Here, we demonstrate that human c-Myc also directly enhances Pol I transcription of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes. rRNA synthesis ...
It is shown that in intact cells, two distinct types of ribosomal chromatin coexist in Friend cells, one that contains ... in stationary cells, and in metaphase chromosomes was studied by psoralen photocrosslinking. ... The structure of ribosomal chromatin in exponentially growing Friend cells, ... DNA, Ribosomal / drug effects * DNA, Ribosomal / genetics* * DNA, Ribosomal / isolation & purification * Leukemia, ...
Purchase Recombinant DNA And Cell Proliferation - 1st Edition. Print Book & E-Book. ISBN 9780126650808, 9780323153362 ... Isolation of Eukaryotic Ribosomal Protein Genes. III. Characteristics of Eukaryotic Ribosomal Protein Genes. IV. Metabolism of ... Murine Erythroleukemia Cells (Friend Cells). III. Role of the Cell Cycle in Friend Cell Differentiation. IV. Friend Cell ... The Information for Growth in Size and for Cell DNA Replication Is Encoded in Different DNA Sequences of the SV40 A Gene. VIII ...
Serizawa N, Horiuchi T, Kobayashi T (2004). "Transcription-mediated hyper-recombination in HOT1". Genes Cells. 9 (4): 305-15. ... Ribosomal DNA (rDNA) is a DNA sequence that codes for ribosomal RNA. Ribosomes are assemblies of proteins and rRNA molecules ... A fragment of yeast rDNA containing the 5S gene, nontranscribed spacer DNA, and part of the 35S gene has localized cis-acting ... and coding regions in the EcoR I fragment of the ribosomal DNA of the Japanese pond frog Rana nigromaculata". Genes & genetic ...
... and the T cell cytokine receptor. In addition, a variety of transcription- and translation-related factors (such as ribosomal ... myeloid cell leukemia sequence; and RAD23B, DNA repair and recombination protein. ... Several genes involved in T cell development were identified as regulated by zinc and will be targets to evaluate the effects ... Given an estimated 15,000 genes actively transcribed in any one cell type, the data, statistically (15), represent a ...
DNA purified from a Chinese hamster cell line of lung fibroblast origin (DC83F) was analyzed by density gradient centrifugation ... Marked increase in ribosomal RNA gene multiplicity in a rat hepatoma cell line. Chromosoma (Berlin) 71183.Google Scholar ... DNA purified from a Chinese hamster cell line of lung fibroblast origin (DC83F) was analyzed by density gradient centrifugation ... Gall, J. G. (1968). Differential synthesis of the genes for ribosomal RNA during amphibian oogenesis. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 60 ...
Genes contain coded DNA instructions that tell cells how to build proteins. Step 1 in building proteins is to copy the gene ... The ROOM (ribosomal). Many put together help to make the ribosome where proteins are made. How do cells make RNA?. with a ... DNA is the genetic material of cells. The squence of nucleotide bases in the strands of DNA carries some sort of code. In order ... Where is the cells decoding system?. The Role of RNA. How Does RNA differ from DNA?. RNA. DNA. Sugar= Ribose. Sugar = ...
Information Transfer in Normal and Abnormal Cells - 1st Edition. Print Book & E-Book. ISBN 9780126044508, 9780323143707 ... ß-like Globin Genes from Total Genomic Goat DNA. Regulation of Metallothionein Synthesis in Cultured Mammalian Cells: Induction ... Cyclic AMP Stimulation of Ribosomal Phosphoprotein Phosphatase Activity. Unusual Genome Organization of Neurospora crassa. ... From Gene to Protein: Information Transfer in Normal and Abnormal Cells 1st Edition. Write a review ...
... cytosolic small ribosomal subunit, nucleus, protein tag, ubiquitin protein ligase binding, modification-dependent protein ... p>This section provides information on the expression of a gene at the mRNA or protein level in cells or in tissues of ... R-DRE-5696397 Gap-filling DNA repair synthesis and ligation in GG-NER. R-DRE-5696400 Dual Incision in GG-NER. R-DRE-6781823 ... Gene expression databases. Bgee dataBase for Gene Expression Evolution. More...Bgeei. ENSDARG00000041435 Expressed in 27 organ( ...
Ribosomal DNA Copy Numbers Decrease in Some Cancers. "This is the first comprehensive, in-depth analysis of ribosomal DNA copy ... Detailed study reveals genes are constantly rearranged by cells. Moving genes about could help cells to respond to change ... Gene Thieves: Female Salamanders Hijack DNA from Multiple Males. In the natural world, stealing is a necessary and frequent ... Your Intelligence Genes: 52 and Counting. A new study finds 52 genes that are related to intelligence - a rousing success in a ...
Cells. 12 (2): 158-63. PMID 11710515. Deloukas P, Matthews LH, Ashurst J, et al. (2002). "The DNA sequence and comparative ... "Entrez Gene: RPL41 ribosomal protein L41". Human RPL41 genome location and RPL41 gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. ... Uechi T, Tanaka T, Kenmochi N (2001). "A complete map of the human ribosomal protein genes: assignment of 80 genes to the ... As is typical for genes encoding ribosomal proteins, there are multiple processed pseudogenes of this gene dispersed through ...
Petes, T. D., 1980 Unequal meiotic recombination within tandem arrays of yeast ribosomal DNA genes. Cell 19: 765-774. ... Coen, E., T. Strachan and G. Dover, 1982a Dynamics of concerted evolution of ribosomal DNA and histone gene families in the ... By digesting the genomic DNA of the cells containing two LEU2 genes with a restriction enzyme that cleaved within the LEU2 ... Gene conversion usually involves short regions of DNA, and thus the large selectable gene insertions in the rDNA locus used by ...
... to DNA and synthesizes RNA molecules in accordance with the instructions carried by the DNA, a process called transcription. ... This enzyme is involved in the production (synthesis) of ribonucleic acid (RNA), a chemical cousin of DNA. The RNA polymerase ... Learn about this gene and related health conditions. ... The POLR3A gene provides instructions for making the largest ... RNA polymerase III helps synthesize several forms of RNA, including ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and transfer RNA (tRNA). Molecules of ...
... to DNA and synthesizes RNA in accordance with the instructions carried by the DNA, a process called transcription. Learn about ... This enzyme is involved in the production (synthesis) of ribonucleic acid (RNA), a chemical cousin of DNA. The RNA polymerase ... The POLR3B gene provides instructions for making one part (subunit) of an enzyme called RNA polymerase III. ... RNA polymerase III helps synthesize several forms of RNA, including ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and transfer RNA (tRNA). Molecules of ...
... download and read DNA Replication, Recombination, and Repair ebook online in PDF format for iPhone, iPad, Android, Computer and ... and repair of DNA (collectively called the 3Rs) and the rel ... Lesson From the Ribosomal RNA Gene Repeat.- 11 Translesion DNA ... Part 6 Cell Cycle and Checkpoints.- 16 Signaling of DNA Replication Stress Through the ATR Checkpoint.- 17 Spindle Assembly ... Part 1 DNA Replication.- 1 Molecular Mechanism of DNA Replication.- 2 Characteristics of Metazoan DNA Replication Origins.- 3 ...
Ribosomal DNA Copy Numbers Decrease in Some Cancers. By Abby Olena , June 22, 2017 ... An analysis of human cancer genome projects uncovers a counterintuitive loss of ribosomal gene copies. ... T Cells That Drive Toxic Shock in Mice Identified. By Ashley Yeager , June 20, 2017 ... Analysis of Mouse Genes Reveals Novel Disease Models. By Diana Kwon , June 26, 2017 ...
Ribosomal DNA Copy Numbers Decrease in Some Cancers. By Abby Olena , June 22, 2017 ... An analysis of human cancer genome projects uncovers a counterintuitive loss of ribosomal gene copies. ... A team has engineered two stem cell lines into "synthetic T cells" that destroy breast cancer cells in vitro. ... A study suggests that "chief" cells in the stomach act as reserve stem cells that are activated by tissue damage and may be the ...
206 Znc fnger DNA-bndng protens (ZFPs); ZFP Transcrpton Factors - gene modfcaton; mammalan cells; plant cells ... 140 Translation Engineering expression; CODA; Computationally Optimized DNA Assembly; Hot Rod Genes; Controlled Ribosomal ... 244 Ex-Cell EBx expresson; EBx cells; Chcken embryonc stem cells; Chcken EBx cells; Duck EBx cells ... 425 Drosophla melanogaster S2 cells; Drosophla-SFM.D.Mel-2 Cells; Schneder S2 Drosophla cells; S2 cells, SFM - nsect cell ...
Intermediate genes activate replication of the DNA genome by DNA strand displacement in the nucleus. Expression of L4-22K and ... Translation takes place by ribosomal shunting. The virus exits the host cell by nuclear envelope breakdown, viroporins, and ... Transcription of early genes (E genes) by host RNA pol II: these proteins optimize the cellular milieu for viral replication, ... Transcription of late genes (L genes) by host RNA pol II, mostly encoding structural proteins. Host translation shutoff ...
A gas is introduced to controllably generate bubbles that reduce the density of the cell debris and create a buoyant flocculent ... fluid lysate phase that is enriched in extrachromosomal DNA but substantially depleted of cellular proteins and chromosomal DNA ... Apparatus and methods are described for pharmaceutical grade manufacture extrachromosomal nucleic acids from cell lysates using ... flotation to separate and eliminate undesired insoluble cellular debris including chromosomal DNA from the lysates. ...
Lysinibacillus sphaericus D3 cell-immobilized beads in natural gel sodium alginate decolorized the xylidine orange dye 1-( ... 16S Ribosomal Ribonucleic Acid (rRNA) Gene Sequencing of the Dye Degrading Strain D3. DNA extraction, PCR amplification of 16S ... the cells were immobilized in sodium alginate beads since immobilized cells had several advantages over suspended cells . ... Figure 4. Phylogenetic tree based on 16S ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA) gene sequence showing the phylogenetic relationship between ...
This paper presents a sensitive method called Circle-Seq for purifying extrachromosomal circular DNA (eccDNA). The method ... mitochondrial DNA, ribosomal RNA genes on chromosome XII, and the three internal control plasmids pBR322, pUC19 and pUG72 that ... Repeated findings of ASP3-1, COS111, CUP1, RSC30, HXT6, HXT7 genes on circular DNA in both S288c and CEN.PK suggests that DNA ... Incubate the cells at 30°C with agitation at 150 rounds per minutes (rpm) until cells reach maximum cell density of ...
Telford MJ, Holland PWH (1997) Evolution of 28S ribosomal DNA in chaetognaths: duplicate genes and molecular phylogeny. J Mol ... the minor spliceosome acts outside the nucleus and controls cell proliferation. Cell 131:718-729PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Hillis DM, Dixon MT (1991) Ribosomal DNA: molecular evolution and phylogenetic inference. Q Rev Biol 66:411-453PubMedCrossRef ... Pelliccia F, Barzotti R, Bucciarelli E, Rocchi A (2001) 5S ribosomal and U1 small nuclear RNA genes: a new linkage type in the ...
doi: 10.1016/j.gene.2014.11.010. Epub 2014 Nov 8. Research Support, Non-U.S. Govt; Review ... Thus cells have developed an intricate sensing network to monitor the cellular environment and modulate ribosomal DNA ... Consequently, ribosomal RNA gene transcription is tightly coupled to the availability of growth factors, nutrients and energy. ... This review outlines the current knowledge of how cells respond to environmental cues to control ribosomal RNA synthesis. We ...
MutationAssaysRibosomeRibosomesTRNAChromatinGenomicOrganismNucleolarNucleolusTandemly repeated ribosomalMRNAMoleculesCopiesEukaryotesMolecularChromosomalTelomeresExpression of geAbstractInduceSaccharomycesNucleoliChromosomeOrganizationRNAsEpigeneticEukaryotic CellsBiogenesisCellularTumorOxidative phosphorylationRecombinationEnzymePathwaysFragments1997BacterialRegulateSequence similarity
- The regulation of ribosome synthesis is likely to play an important role in the regulation of cell growth. (biologists.org)
- Previously, we have shown that the ncl-1 gene in Caenorhabditis elegans functions as an inhibitor of cell growth and ribosome synthesis. (biologists.org)
- These results suggest that the tumorous phenotype of brat mutants may be due to excess cell growth and ribosome synthesis. (biologists.org)
- An additional way in which cells can regulate protein synthesis, and therefore growth, is through control of ribosome synthesis. (biologists.org)
- rRNA production by RNA polymerase-I (RNA Pol I), the key component of ribosome biogenesis, is the rate-limiting step for translation/protein synthesis and cell growth. (aacrjournals.org)
- The protein manufacturing unit of all living cells, the ribosome , is composed of ribosomal RNA and protein . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
- Importantly, synthesis of ribosomal RNA by RNA polymerase I is a key regulatory step in ribosome biogenesis and a major biosynthetic and energy consuming process. (nih.gov)
- Surprisingly, at the non-permissive temperature, G80E cells rapidly lose viability and yet do not display an additional ribosome defect. (umich.edu)
- Thus, the essential nature of the cgtA C gene does not appear to result from its ribosome function. (umich.edu)
- Ribosome biogenesis requires all three RNA polymerases: Pol I for rRNA genes, Pol II for ribosomal protein genes, and Pol III for tRNA and 5S RNA genes. (wikipathways.org)
- In stress conditions, the surface serine patch undergoes phosphorylation, which impairs the interaction of Rrn3p with RNA Pol I, repressing Pol I transcription, and thereby also reducing ribosome production and cell growth. (wikipathways.org)
- All the catalytic properties of the ribosome can be found within its rRNA, and of all ribosomal genes, these are the most conserved. (scienceblogs.com)
- The nucleolus is the clearest subnuclear structure in most eukaryotic cells and is the site of rDNA transcription and ribosome biosynthesis. (els.net)
- By exploring molecular functions of DDX21, a DEAD-box RNA helicase involved in control of both RNA polymerase (Pol) I- and II-dependent transcriptional arms of ribosome biogenesis, we uncovered a previously unappreciated mechanism linking nucleolar dysfunction, ribosomal DNA (rDNA) damage, and craniofacial malformations. (stanford.edu)
- For instance, ribosomal RNAs receive numerous chemical modifications that are required for proper ribosome assembly and function. (umassmed.edu)
- Acr triggers ribosomal stress responses, inhibits rRNA synthesis, reduces RNA polymerase I binding to the promoter of rRNA gene, disrupts nucleolar integrity, and impairs ribosome biogenesis and polysome formation. (unboundmedicine.com)
- WGL2 is preferentially expressed in the leaf, and mutating WGL2 led to obvious changes in the expression of genes related to chlorophyll biosynthesis, photosynthesis, chloroplast development, and ribosome development compared with wild-type. (springer.com)
- Ribosomes are the roundish structures upon which the amino acids of a protein are strung together, following the instructions of a gene's DNA sequence. (plos.org)
- There are numerous ribosomes in cells-as many as 10 million in a single mammalian cell. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
- Every cell has ribosomes. (scienceblogs.com)
- Ribosomal biogenesis (the construction of new ribosomes) is extremely complicated. (scienceblogs.com)
- A new view that has come out of cell biology is that making ribosomes may be a key event that regulates when cells divide. (scienceblogs.com)
- Every time your cells grow and split into two, they must not only duplicate their DNA, but also their ribosomes. (scienceblogs.com)
- If you are a new cell and you didn't inherit enough ribosomes from your mother cell, then your ability to produce new ribosomes for your daughter cells is impaired. (scienceblogs.com)
- This signaling network measures the amount of nutrients, energy, growth signals and determines whether the cell should make new ribosomes and when the cell should divide. (scienceblogs.com)
- 2) when energy stores are adequate and 3) when the cell has enough ribosomes, it initiates a round of cell division. (scienceblogs.com)
- One outcome is that you don't make enough ribosomes before the cell division orders are given out and the resulting cells are small. (scienceblogs.com)
- Ribosomes are partially assembled around the newly synthesized ribosomal RNAs (rRNA) while still in the nucleus and then transported into the cytoplasm to continue their final assembly. (encyclopedia.com)
- These genes carry instructions for the parts that make up ribosomes, cellular machines that turn RNA molecules into every protein needed in the body. (eurekalert.org)
- In Saccharomyces cerevisiae , chromatin is spatially organized within the nucleus with centromeres clustering near the spindle pole body, telomeres clustering into foci at the nuclear periphery, ribosomal DNA repeats localizing within a single nucleolus, and transfer RNA (tRNA) genes present in an adjacent cluster. (rupress.org)
- The ribosomal DNA (rDNA) repeats are compartmentalized into the nucleolus, and tRNA genes are located adjacent to the nucleolus. (rupress.org)
- These catalytic RNAs include certain self-splicing RNA transcripts, ribozymes, and RNAse P, an RNA enzyme that trims the ends of tRNA precursors in essentially all cells. (umassmed.edu)
- 2017 ). During chloroplast development, NEP preferentially transcribes plastid housekeeping genes, such as those encoding the PEP apparatus, rRNA, and tRNA, and the overall transcriptional and translational activities in the chloroplast dramatically increase (Hajdukiewicz et al. (springer.com)
- It is shown that in intact cells, two distinct types of ribosomal chromatin coexist in Friend cells, one that contains nucleosomes and represents the inactive copies and one that lacks a repeating structure and corresponds to the transcribed genes. (nih.gov)
- A single gene copy is either in one or the other chromatin state. (nih.gov)
- This suggests that the two states of chromatin are maintained independently of the transcriptional process and that they are stably propagated through the cell cycle. (nih.gov)
- 14 Centromeric Chromatin and Kinetochore Assembly in Vertebrate Cells. (ebooks.com)
- A central feature of the eukaryotic cell nucleus is its morphological and functional heterogeneity generated by the presence of distinct nuclear compartments, which are generally composed by proteinaceous nuclear bodies and nucleoprotein structures, called chromatin domains. (uni-regensburg.de)
- 16) Zillner K., Filarsky M., Rachow K., Weinberger M., Längst G.#, Németh A.# (2013) Large-scale organization of ribosomal DNA chromatin is regulated by Tip5. (uni-regensburg.de)
- Transcription of rRNA genes (rDNAs) in the nucleolus is regulated by epigenetic chromatin modifications including histone H3 lysine (de)methylation. (semanticscholar.org)
- The formation of silent chromatin, which is best understood at the S. cerevisiae silent mating-type loci HMR and HML , and telomeres depends on DNA elements, or silencers. (pnas.org)
- Chromatin dynamics of plant telomeres and ribosomal genes. (semanticscholar.org)
- Among its related pathways are Chromatin organization and Activated PKN1 stimulates transcription of AR (androgen receptor) regulated genes KLK2 and KLK3 . (genecards.org)
- We propose that the cohesin network affects gene regulation by facilitating the subnuclear organization of chromatin. (rupress.org)
- The choice of the RNA Pol II dependent PHO5 gene and the ribosomal DNA locus, containing genes transcribed by RNA Pol I and III enables comparative analysis of chromatin transcribed by the three different eukaryotic RNA polymerases. (uni-regensburg.de)
- Figure 2: Two chromatin states exist within the coding region of ribosomal rRNA genes. (uni-regensburg.de)
- We further show that cranial neural crest cells are sensitized to p53-mediated apoptosis, but blocking DDX21 loss from the nucleolus and chromatin rescues both the susceptibility to apoptosis and the craniofacial phenotypes associated with Treacher Collins syndrome. (stanford.edu)
- Genomic analysis of an oak tree that lived during Napoleon's time supports the idea that plants somehow avoid the accumulation of mutations in their stem cells. (the-scientist.com)
- The findings by Yukiko Yamashita, Ph.D., a Howard Hughes Medical Institute investigator, and colleagues at the University of Michigan Life Sciences Institute provide clues as to how some cells could overcome genomic shrinkage that appears to occur as an organism ages. (genengnews.com)
- To evade host antibodies, P. falciparum switches between around 60 members of a diverse genomic repertoire of var genes, using an epigenetic mechanism that ensures only one PfEMP1 antigen is expressed at any one time by each parasite [ 6 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
- Here, we present a protocol for tracing genomic DNA (gDNA) contamination in RNA samples. (jove.com)
- In the yeast S. cerevisiae , the rRNA genes are present at a single genomic location on the right arm of chromosome XII ( Figure 1 ). (uni-regensburg.de)
- This genomic shrinkage may underlie aspects of aging -- and hint at ways that select cells might thwart it. (eurekalert.org)
- title=Genomic organization of a cDNA (QM) demonstrating an altered mRNA level in nontumorigenic Wilms' microcell hybrid cells and its localization to Xq28. (wikidoc.org)
- title=cDNA cloning and genomic analysis of a new multigene family sharing common phylogenetic and expression profiles with the laminin receptor gene. (wikidoc.org)
- Several genomic markers have been associated with body size traits and genes have been identified as causative candidates in humans, dog and cattle. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- A limited number of related GWAS have been performed in various sheep breeds and have identified genomic regions and candidate genes that partly account for body size variability. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Genomic_DNA. (genome.jp)
- By comparison of MspI and HpaII restriction patterns in genomic DNA of several insects we show that stick insects (Phasmatodea) have highly methylated genomes. (scienceblogs.com)
- The abundant rRNA transcripts readily available from any organism led to the development of saturation and competitive hybridization methods to estimate the number and sequence similarity of the genes ( L ong and D awid 1980 ). (genetics.org)
- This conservation appeared to account for the uniformity of sequence between the different copies of the genes within each organism. (genetics.org)
- have been found to be required for ribosomal RNA (rRNA) processing and are also important for organism growth. (biologists.org)
- As a strand of DNA from an organism passes through a nanopore, the electrical current flowing through the pore is measured, and these current levels are converted into basecalls in real time. (nanoporetech.com)
- In situations where the amount of available sample DNA is limited, or where there is a low level of pathogen DNA mixed with a high level of host DNA, and we wish to identify the pathogen, it can be helpful to amplify the target organism by PCR. (nanoporetech.com)
- Finding two new genes with a computer is not enough to justify naming a new organism. (photonics.com)
- Myxococcus xanthus , a model organism for the study of development, is ideal for investigating the complex effects of altered lipid metabolism on cell physiology. (asm.org)
- Prestalk cells form at the top of the organism and form the tip. (kenyon.edu)
- Studying the phenomenon of nucleolar dominance, in which one parental set of ribosomal genes in a hybrid is silenced, Craig Pikaard, Ph.D., Washington University professor of biology in Arts & Sciences and colleagues have identified the protein HDA6 as an important player in the silencing. (bio-medicine.org)
- For many years biologists thought that gene silencing in nucleolar dominance was a result of one set of ribosomal RNA genes being selectively turned on. (bio-medicine.org)
- In this process they found that knocking down HDA6 eliminated nucleolar dominance, such that the normally silent genes were now turned on. (bio-medicine.org)
- To find out where HDA6 is located in the cell, the group then genetically engineered the protein to include a fluorescent tag and found that much of the HDA6, seen as a glowin g red signal under the microscope, shows up in the nucleolus, which is precisely the site where ribosomal RNA genes are regulated and where nucleolar dominance occurs. (bio-medicine.org)
- This gene is co-transcribed with the small nucleolar RNA gene U70, which is located in its fifth intron. (wikidoc.org)
- We report on the effect of different doses and times of incubation of the cytostatic drug actinomycin D (AMD) on nucleolar morphology, rRNA gene transcription and rDNA gene localization using in situ hybridization and the immunocytochemical detection of the human upstream binding factor (UBF) at the electron microscopic level in HeLa cells. (nih.gov)
- Low doses of AMD (0.001 micrograms/ml, 30 min) selectively block rRNA gene transcription but alter neither nucleolar morphology nor the localization of rDNA with respect to the nucleolar components. (nih.gov)
- We conclude that the blocking of rRNA gene transcription and the changes in nucleolar morphology, both induced by AMD at different doses, are independent phenomena. (nih.gov)
- Acr preferentially binds nucleolar ribosomal DNA (rDNA) to form Acr-deoxyguanosine adducts, and induces oxidative damage to both rDNA and ribosomal RNA (rRNA). (unboundmedicine.com)
- The brat gene is able to rescue the large nucleolus phenotype of ncl-1 mutants. (biologists.org)
- The nucleolus is involved in stress sensing and has roles in triggering the p53 DNA damage response pathways. (els.net)
- b) In a cell undergoing rapid growth and division, the nucleolus is often irregular and reticulated or stranded in appearance. (els.net)
- d) In a typical plant cell nucleolus, the DFC occupies a much larger proportion of the nucleolus and can often only be distinguished from the granular component by a different texture. (els.net)
- TY - JOUR T1 - Acrolein preferentially damages nucleolus eliciting ribosomal stress and apoptosis in human cancer cells. (unboundmedicine.com)
- Differential mRNA display was used to comprehensively screen the murine thymic transcriptome for genes modulated in vivo by dietary zinc. (pnas.org)
- The chemical blueprint for the protein product is provided by the mRNA, derived from the DNA genes. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
- To do this, first we reduced the expression of ZDHHC2 mRNA (and consequently the function of the encoded enzyme, DHHC2) in HeLa cells using siRNA-mediated gene knockdown, resulting in a reduced level of palmitoylation of DHHC2 substrates. (mcponline.org)
- PGC-1 α overexpression increased the oxidation rate of palmitic acid and mRNA expression of genes regulating lipid metabolism, mitochondrial biogenesis, and function in human myotubes. (hindawi.com)
- Partial inhibition of the gene's expression by antisense mRNA in transgenic pea hairy roots prevented the normal separation of root border cells from the root tip into the external environment. (plantcell.org)
- Diverse classes of noncoding RNAs participate in gene regulation at many levels, affecting the production, stability, or translation of specific mRNA gene products. (umassmed.edu)
- The GeneChip™ Mouse Gene 2.0 ST Array and GeneChip WT PLUS Reagent Kit is a whole-transcript array that includes probes to measure both messenger (mRNA) and long intergenic non-coding RNA transcripts (lincRNA). (thermofisher.com)
- ATP molecules store the chemical energy required by the cell to carry out its metabolic functions. (brighthub.com)
- These sugar-based signal molecules are released from cell wall polymers by the action of enzymes that can come from fungi, bacteria, or other organisms in the environment, or from the plant itself. (plantcell.org)
- Most RNA molecules, once transcribed from the chromosomal DNA, require structural or chemical modifications before they can function. (umassmed.edu)
- Riboswitches regulate the activity of their host mRNAs by binding to small molecules such as nucleotides or amino acids, sensing the abundance of those small molecules and regulating the genes that make or use them accordingly. (umassmed.edu)
- Nucleoplasm : Contain a variety of particles with other molecules involved in maintenance and development of the cell. (scribd.com)
- Novel cationic amphiphiles are provided that facilitate transport of biologically active (therapeutic) molecules into cells. (google.com)
- Therapeutic molecules that can be delivered into cells according to the practice of the invention include DNA, RNA, and polypeptides. (google.com)
- This paper presents analysis of a model of gene regulation based on these molecules, in which Petri net is used to find the key reactions and, subsequently, an ODE-based model is used to verify these conclusions. (easychair.org)
- Autosomal recessive inheritance means both copies of the gene in each cell have mutations. (medlineplus.gov)
- Studies in fruit flies have shown how cells in the offspring of older fathers can replace copies of genes that have been lost due to aging. (genengnews.com)
- And with repeated cell divisions, some copies of the rDNA genes are lost. (genengnews.com)
- Such a cell would need to construct ten million copies of each type of ribosomal RNA molecule. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
- 1989). However, adequate rRNA is produced because cells contain multiple copies of the genes that code for rRNA (rRNA genes) (Alberts et al. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
- In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae , most strains contain tandemly duplicated copies of CUP1 , a gene that encodes a copper-binding metallothionein. (g3journal.org)
- These sons had considerably fewer copies of rDNA genes than sons born to younger fathers. (eurekalert.org)
- In addition to silencing ( 38 ), SIR2 suppresses recombination between tandem copies of rRNA genes ( 10 ) and thus reduces the formation of extrachromosomal ribosomal DNA (rDNA) circles and their accumulation in mother cells, a function critical for maintenance of mother-cell life span ( 36 ). (asm.org)
- Messenger RNAs (mRNAs) are copies of individual protein-coding genes, and serve as an amplified read-out of each gene's nucleic acid sequence. (umassmed.edu)
- THE most conserved and most utilized genes in eukaryotes are those encoding ribosomal RNA (rRNA). (genetics.org)
- Organization of the ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes in eukaryotes. (genetics.org)
- In eukaryotes, this process involves hundred of genes and takes place in numerous subcellular compartments. (scienceblogs.com)
- However, it shares the greatest similarity with genes found in other eukaryotes, where it is believed that these closely related homologues serve a comparable role in silencing. (pnas.org)
- The method is suited for reliable and sensitive detection of DNA contamination in most eukaryotes and prokaryotes. (jove.com)
- SIR2 homologues in higher eukaryotes have been implicated in a wide range of biological processes involving promotion of longevity in Caenorhabditis elegans ( 43 ), development and epigenetic regulation in Drosophila melanogaster ( 29 ), and modulation of stress responses and apoptosis in mammalian cells through downregulation of p53 activity ( 24 , 44 ). (asm.org)
- The basic cause of aging in multicellular organisms (eukaryotes) lies at the level of the genes, although nutrition and various types of stresses do influence the rate and pattern of aging. (worldcat.org)
- This text then examines the molecular mechanism by which steroid hormones regulate specific gene expression. (elsevier.com)
- This volume should attract the great interest of graduate students, postdoctoral fellows, and senior scientists in broad research fields of basic molecular biology, not only the core 3Rs, but also the various related fields (chromosome, cell cycle, transcription, epigenetics, and similar areas). (ebooks.com)
- IJBCB publishes original research articles, invited reviews and in-focus articles in all areas of cell and molecular biology and biomedical research. (elsevier.com)
- A major rate-limiting step in this process can be the extraction of sufficiently pure, high-molecular weight DNA from the sample, and so to address this limitation we evaluated several different methods of cell lysis, including both enzymatic and physical approaches. (nanoporetech.com)
- Restriction enzyme-resistant high molecular weight telomeric DNA fragments in tobacco. (semanticscholar.org)
- In this study, we constructed and characterized six cohesinopathy mutations in the orthologous genes from budding yeast with the goal of uncovering the underlying molecular defects caused by these mutations. (rupress.org)
- New advances in the molecular basis of anti-IGF1R blocking antibodies reveal they are biased agonists and promote the binding of IGF1 to integrin β3 receptors in some cancer cells. (frontiersin.org)
- The most direct impact that these mobile elements have on genomes is known as "molecular domestication" which occurs when a transposon loses its transpositional activity and becomes a host gene with an established function, thereby giving rise to a new gene (Sorek, 2007). (scielo.br)
- At the molecular level, p53 acts a transcription factor that activates gene expression programs to induce these different responses. (stanford.edu)
- 26, 1995 and entitled "Molecular Model of Cationic Lipid/DNA Complexes", and (2) United States provisional patent application Ser. (google.com)
- This book reviews the molecular biology of the gene in relation to aging. (worldcat.org)
- Genes and Aging is for all students and researchers interested in the molecular biology of aging. (worldcat.org)
- The method encompasses column purification, removal of remaining linear chromosomal DNA, rolling-circle amplification and high-throughput sequencing. (jove.com)
- Apparatus and methods are described for pharmaceutical grade manufacture extrachromosomal nucleic acids from cell lysates using flotation to separate and eliminate undesired insoluble cellular debris including chromosomal DNA from the lysates. (google.com)
- Because of nucleosomal folding, the six feet of DNA yields an organelle tightly packed with chromosomal material. (encyclopedia.com)
- Euchromatin are those chromosomal areas more likely to be active in gene transcription. (encyclopedia.com)
- In addition, those specific areas of euchromatin undergoing active RNA transcription (gene expression) are typically found on the very periphery of the chromosomal territory, at its juncture with the interchromatin channels. (encyclopedia.com)
- The results of this GWAS provide evidence for 39 causative candidate genes across nine chromosomal regions for body size traits, some of which are novel and some are previously identified candidates from other studies (e.g. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- The best-studied measure of biological age is the shrinking of chromosome tips, or telomeres, that do so with each division of most types of cells. (plos.org)
- Cells grown in the presence of the drug have silencing defects at telomeres, silent mating-type loci, and the ribosomal DNA. (pnas.org)
- Yeast Sir2p, the founding member of this family of enzymes, is required for silencing at the silent mating loci, telomeres, and rRNA genes ( rDNA ) and is responsible for the hypoacetylated state of histones at these locations (reviewed in reference 25 ). (asm.org)
- These profiling data show that differential expression of genes in the thymus in response to the dietary zinc supply precedes many of the phenotypic effects on thymic function associated with severe zinc restriction or supplementation. (pnas.org)
- In conclusion, PGC-1 α overexpression increased oxidative capacity of cultured myotubes by improving lipid metabolism, increasing expression of genes involved in regulation of mitochondrial function and biogenesis, and decreasing expression of MHCIIa. (hindawi.com)
- Coordinate regulation of the rRNA genes and 137 r-protein genes is affected by nutritional cues and a number of signal transduction pathways that can abruptly induce or silence the ribosomal genes, whose transcripts have naturally short lifetimes, leading to major implications for the expression of other genes as well. (wikipathways.org)
- Using transcript arrays, we show that low NAD + states specifically induce the de novo NAD + biosynthesis genes while the genes in the salvage pathway remain unaffected. (asm.org)
- We propose that Acr induces ribosomal stress which leads to activation of MDM2 and RPL11-MDM2 binding, consequently, activates p53 and enhances E2F-1 degradation, and that taken together these two processes induce apoptosis and cell death. (unboundmedicine.com)
- Unlike DNA damage, hypoxia does not induce p53-dependent cell cycle arrest, suggesting that p53 activity is differentially regulated by these two stresses. (asm.org)
- Genotoxic stress induces both kinds of interactions, whereas stresses that lack a DNA damage component as exemplified by hypoxia primarily induce interaction with corepressors. (asm.org)
- Furthermore, expression of p53 mutants that lack transactivation capability is able to induce apoptosis in certain cell lines ( 9 , 21 , 40 ), and deletion of the polyproline-rich domain of p53 which is located between the transactivation and DNA binding domains of p53 abrogates the apoptotic properties of p53 but does not affect DNA binding, bax induction, or cell cycle inhibition ( 43 ). (asm.org)
- Another mechanism of regulation of gene expression involves reactive oxygen species (ROS - radical and non-radical oxygen species formed by the partial reduction of oxygen) which, being released from mitochondrium cytochrome C and inducing DNA damage, induce the apoptosis pathway. (easychair.org)
- Nearly all current products are manufactured using much the same old, familiar technologies - primarily using Esherichia coli ( E. coli bacterium), Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells and the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae ( S. cerevisiae ) as hosts - technologies invented in the 1970s and commercialized in the 1980s. (mtbeurope.info)
- In a cell-based screen for inhibitors of Sir2p, we identified a compound, splitomicin, that creates a conditional phenocopy of a sir2 deletion mutant in Saccharomyces cerevisiae . (pnas.org)
- Furthermore, by using combined immunofluorescence and rRNA-FISH, we have detected endogenous c-Myc in nucleoli at sites of active ribosomal DNA (rDNA) transcription. (nih.gov)
- We also show that brat mutant cells are larger, have larger nucleoli, and have more ribosomal RNA than wild-type cells. (biologists.org)
- NCL-1 protein is predominantly cytoplasmic and its levels of expression in cells of the embryo, gonad ( Frank and Roth, 1998 ) and adult somatic tissue (D. J. Frank, PhD thesis, University of Washington: Seattle, 2000) are inversely related to the size of nucleoli: cells with small nucleoli have high level expression of NCL-1, whereas cells with large nucleoli have low level expression. (biologists.org)
- In this micrograph on the right, if the mouse cells' nuclei look like small cookies, the nucleoli would be the chocolate chips. (scienceblogs.com)
- Among mammalian sirtuins, SIRT7 is the only enzyme residing in nucleoli where ribosomal DNA is transcribed. (mcponline.org)
- a)-(c) Nucleoli from a mammalian cell culture under different growth conditions. (els.net)
- DNAs from several highly (≥ hundredfold increased resistance) antifolate-resistant sublines of DC-3F, characterized by a large homogeneously staining region (HSR) in the chromosome complement, were examined with both techniques and compared to the parental, antifolate-sensitive cell line DNA. (springer.com)
- Metaphase chromosome anomaly: Association with drug resistance and cell-specific products. (springer.com)
- Localization of a male-specific DNA fragment to a sub-region of the human Y chromosome. (springer.com)
- here at DNA Science , my Facebook feed filled with ads from companies like this one, offering to enlighten me on the status of my chromosome tips. (plos.org)
- These are dynamic structures which specifically interact with each other within and between chromosome territories depending on the cell's physiological state (e.g., differentiation, cell cycle, cellular age etc. (uni-regensburg.de)
- Compared with young male fruit flies, old males had a shortage of rDNA genes on the Y chromosome -- leaving them with a shrunken Y chromosome, the researchers discovered. (eurekalert.org)
- found fragments of extrachromosomal ribosomal DNA (rDNA) at the ends of each chromosome. (kenyon.edu)
- The genes that produce RNAs used for other purposes are therefore called "noncoding RNA" genes. (umassmed.edu)
- In eukaryotic cells, mRNAs are assembled from longer RNA transcripts by the spliceosome, which consists of spliceosomal RNAs and protein partners. (umassmed.edu)
- In prokaryotes (for example, bacteria), small antisense RNAs exert a variety of gene regulatory activities by base pairing specifically to their target mRNAs. (umassmed.edu)
- Eukaryotic cells contain thousands of small RNAs associated with various RNA interference (RNAi) pathways. (umassmed.edu)
- In plants, as well as animals, some epigenetic traits are stable and can be inherited when a cell divides or even into the next generation. (bio-medicine.org)
- In agreement with recent studies, these results suggest that additional factors such as modifications of the epigenetic state of DNA may be required to trigger evolutionary plasticity. (biomedcentral.com)
- Mitochondria (singular - mitochondrion) are rod-shaped or kidney-shaped, membrane-enclosed organelles, ranging in size from 1 to 10 micrometers, that are found in the cytoplasm of most eukaryotic cells. (brighthub.com)
- Mitochondria are double membrane bound cytoplasmic organelles present in most eukaryotic cells. (news-medical.net)
- The transcription factor Sfp1p also mediates TorC1 regulation of ribosomal protein and ribosomal biogenesis genes. (wikipathways.org)
- in heart, it is a powerful stimulant of mitochondrial gene expression and biogenesis [ 8 ], while PGC-1 α deficiency in brain has been shown to lead to behavioral abnormalities associated with axonal degeneration [ 9 ]. (hindawi.com)
- The overall size of a metazoan is controlled at the cellular level by the coordinate regulation of cell division and cell growth. (biologists.org)
- Thus cells have developed an intricate sensing network to monitor the cellular environment and modulate ribosomal DNA transcription accordingly. (nih.gov)
- In cells treated with rapamycin, Rrn3p is subject to proteasome-dependent degradation, reducing the cellular amount of transcription-initiation competent RNA Pol I - Rrn3p complexes. (wikipathways.org)
- Transglutaminase is a cross-linking enzyme involved in diverse cellular functions including blood coagulation and communication between cells and the extracellular matrix. (asbmb.org)
- Other functions of the mitochondria include controlling the cell cycle - signaling, differentiation, growth and death - and assisting with cellular aerobic respiration. (brighthub.com)
- Transcript array analysis shows that reduction in cellular NAD + levels preferentially affects Hst1p-regulated genes in comparison to genes regulated with other NAD + -dependent deacetylases (Sir2p, Hst2p, Hst3p, and Hst4p). (asm.org)
- Glowing cells mark the routes of tumor spread by way of newly formed lymph vessels. (the-scientist.com)
- We now indicate that the Drosophila melanogaster tumor suppressor brain tumor ( brat ) is an inhibitor of cell growth and is a functional homolog of the C. elegans gene ncl-1 . (biologists.org)
- BTW if you think that this TOR signaling is some esoteric process, most of the nastiest oncogenes and many of the important tumor suppressor genes are integral parts of TOR signaling. (scienceblogs.com)
- This gene was initially identified as a candidate for a Wilms tumor suppressor gene, but later studies determined that this gene is not involved in the suppression of Wilms tumor. (wikidoc.org)
- title=The QM gene is X-linked and therefore not involved in suppression of tumorigenesis in Wilms' tumor. (wikidoc.org)
- The observations that the p53 gene is mutated in at least half of all human cancers of a wide variety of types and that p53 null mice develop cancer at 100% frequency together underscore the critical role for p53 in tumor suppression. (stanford.edu)
- The critical role of p53 in tumor suppression is underscored by the findings that the p53 gene is mutated in over 50% of human cancers ( 17 ) and that mice nullizigous for the p53 gene develop tumors early in their lifetime ( 10 ). (asm.org)
- They are responsible for aerobic respiration, producing energy for the cell, which they achieve through oxidative phosphorylation. (news-medical.net)
- These include enzymes needed for oxidative phosphorylation, and ribosomal RNA and transfer RNA needed for protein assembly. (news-medical.net)
- 13 of its 37 genes are involved in the process known as oxidative phosphorylation. (brighthub.com)
- It is in an antisense orientation to and overlaps the gene of the DNA repair enzyme ERCC1. (uniprot.org)
- Different isoforms of the enzyme have different substrate specificities and are expressed differentially across tissues and cell types. (asbmb.org)
- DNA is isolated, subjected to restriction enzyme digestion (RED), separated by agarose gel electrophoresis (AGE) and analyzed in a Southern Blot. (uni-regensburg.de)
- Critical controllers in these sensing networks, which mediate growth factor activation of ribosomal DNA transcription, include the PI3K/AKT/mTORC1, RAS/RAF/ERK pathways and MYC transcription factor. (nih.gov)
- mouse HT Clariom S Assays focus on well-annotated genes, providing researchers with the ability to perform gene-level expression profiling studies and to quickly assess changes in key genes and pathways. (thermofisher.com)
- The complete solution comes with reagents and fast, simple Transcriptome Analysis Console (TAC) software to analyze and visualize global expression patterns of genes, pathways, and network interactions in minutes. (thermofisher.com)
- However, analysis of the digestion products of a battery of restriction endonucleases indicated that three of these enzymes, EcoR 1 , HaeIII , and XhoI , yielded discrete fragments which could be visualized with EtBr staining or identified by scintillation counting of [ 3 H] DNA. (springer.com)
- Although columns of this type typically remove DNA fragments greater than around 10 kb, the vast majority of strands produced by bead beating with the OmniLyse fall below this size limit and are retained in the eluate. (nanoporetech.com)
- These DNA fragments are identical in their sequence, but differ largely in their degree of Psoralen incorporation. (uni-regensburg.de)
- Bisulfite sequencing of one of these fragments and of parts of conserved protein-coding genes revealed a methylcytosine content of 12.6%, mostly found at CpG, but also at CpT and CpA dinucleotides. (scienceblogs.com)
- Overzealous activity by mucosa-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells in response to bacterial toxins can lead to illness instead of stopping it. (the-scientist.com)
- Bacterial 16 S ribosomal DNA genes revealed low diversity in the gene population. (sciencemag.org)
- For bacterial species identification, the 16S ribosomal RNA gene can be amplified from all bacteria non-specifically, without amplifying eukaryotic host DNA, or viruses. (nanoporetech.com)
- Recent data have shown that commensal bacterial provide immunomodulatory signals during the development of immune tissues and the activation of immune cells, which are important for the maintenance of immune homeostasis in mucosal tissues, such as the intestine, lungs and skin ( 3-7 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- have all been shown to regulate cell growth. (biologists.org)
- Although the factors that regulate cell division have been extensively studied ( Sherr and Roberts, 1999 ), the processes that control cell growth are just beginning to be elucidated ( Stocker and Hafen, 2000 ). (biologists.org)
- The HM silencers are located in proximity to the genes that they regulate and contain a combination of binding sites for Rap1p, Abf1p, and the origin recognition complex ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
- Pectin methylesterase (PME), although it does not by itself solubilize cell walls, has been postulated to regulate cell wall degradation by several mechanisms (e.g. (plantcell.org)
- There are hundreds of miRNA genes in plants and animals, and each miRNA can regulate the activity of hundreds of protein-coding genes. (umassmed.edu)