Th2 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.Th1 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.Helper Viruses: Viruses which enable defective viruses to replicate or to form a protein coat by complementing the missing gene function of the defective (satellite) virus. Helper and satellite may be of the same or different genus.Th17 Cells: Subset of helper-effector T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete IL-17, IL-17F, and IL-22. These cytokines are involved in host defenses and tissue inflammation in autoimmune diseases.T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer: Subpopulation of CD4+ lymphocytes that cooperate with other lymphocytes (either T or B) to initiate a variety of immune functions. For example, helper-inducer T-cells cooperate with B-cells to produce antibodies to thymus-dependent antigens and with other subpopulations of T-cells to initiate a variety of cell-mediated immune functions.Interleukin-4: A soluble factor produced by activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that induces the expression of MHC CLASS II GENES and FC RECEPTORS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and causes their proliferation and differentiation. It also acts on T-lymphocytes, MAST CELLS, and several other hematopoietic lineage cells.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Th1-Th2 Balance: Homeostatic control of the immune system by secretion of different cytokines by the Th1 and Th2 cells. The concentration dependent binding of the various cytokines to specific receptors determines the balance (or imbalance leading to disease).Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Mice, Inbred BALB CCD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Interleukin-17: A proinflammatory cytokine produced primarily by T-LYMPHOCYTES or their precursors. Several subtypes of interleukin-17 have been identified, each of which is a product of a unique gene.Mice, Inbred C57BLB-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory: CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Helping Behavior: Behaviors associated with the giving of assistance or aid to individuals.GATA3 Transcription Factor: A GATA transcription factor that is found predominately in LYMPHOID CELL precursors and has been implicated in the CELL DIFFERENTIATION of HELPER T-CELLS. Haploinsufficiency of GATA3 is associated with HYPOPARATHYROIDISM; SENSORINEURAL HEARING LOSS; and renal anomalies syndrome.T-Lymphocyte Subsets: A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.Interleukins: Soluble factors which stimulate growth-related activities of leukocytes as well as other cell types. They enhance cell proliferation and differentiation, DNA synthesis, secretion of other biologically active molecules and responses to immune and inflammatory stimuli.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Receptors, CXCR5: CXCR receptors isolated initially from BURKITT LYMPHOMA cells. CXCR5 receptors are expressed on mature, recirculating B-LYMPHOCYTES and are specific for CHEMOKINE CXCL13.Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Nuclear Receptor Subfamily 1, Group F, Member 3: An orphan nuclear receptor found in the THYMUS where it plays a role in regulating the development and maturation of thymocytes. An isoform of this protein, referred to as RORgammaT, is produced by an alternatively transcribed mRNA.Interleukin-2: A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.Clone Cells: A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Antibody-Producing Cells: Cells of the lymphoid series that can react with antigen to produce specific cell products called antibodies. Various cell subpopulations, often B-lymphocytes, can be defined, based on the different classes of immunoglobulins that they synthesize.Defective Viruses: Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.Ovalbumin: An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Interleukin-10: A cytokine produced by a variety of cell types, including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; DENDRITIC CELLS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS that exerts a variety of effects on immunoregulation and INFLAMMATION. Interleukin-10 combines with itself to form a homodimeric molecule that is the biologically active form of the protein.Interleukin-5: A cytokine that promotes differentiation and activation of EOSINOPHILS. It also triggers activated B-LYMPHOCYTES to differentiate into IMMUNOGLOBULIN-secreting cells.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.HemocyaninAntigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Immunoglobulin E: An immunoglobulin associated with MAST CELLS. Overexpression has been associated with allergic hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).Satellite Viruses: Defective viruses which can multiply only by association with a helper virus which complements the defective gene. Satellite viruses may be associated with certain plant viruses, animal viruses, or bacteriophages. They differ from satellite RNA; (RNA, SATELLITE) in that satellite viruses encode their own coat protein.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.Immunologic Memory: The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.STAT6 Transcription Factor: A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to INTERLEUKIN-4. Stat6 has been shown to partner with NF-KAPPA B and CCAAT-ENHANCER-BINDING PROTEINS to regulate GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of interleukin-4 responsive GENES.Interleukin-13: A cytokine synthesized by T-LYMPHOCYTES that produces proliferation, immunoglobulin isotype switching, and immunoglobulin production by immature B-LYMPHOCYTES. It appears to play a role in regulating inflammatory and immune responses.T-Box Domain Proteins: Proteins containing a region of conserved sequence, about 200 amino acids long, which encodes a particular sequence specific DNA binding domain (the T-box domain). These proteins are transcription factors that control developmental pathways. The prototype of this family is the mouse Brachyury (or T) gene product.Histocompatibility Antigens Class II: Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.Hemolytic Plaque Technique: A method to identify and enumerate cells that are synthesizing ANTIBODIES against ANTIGENS or HAPTENS conjugated to sheep RED BLOOD CELLS. The sheep red blood cells surrounding cells secreting antibody are lysed by added COMPLEMENT producing a clear zone of HEMOLYSIS. (From Illustrated Dictionary of Immunology, 3rd ed)Germinal Center: The activated center of a lymphoid follicle in secondary lymphoid tissue where B-LYMPHOCYTES are stimulated by antigens and helper T cells (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER) are stimulated to generate memory cells.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Inducible T-Cell Co-Stimulator Protein: A costimulatory receptor that is specific for INDUCIBLE T-CELL CO-STIMULATOR LIGAND. The receptor is associated with a diverse array of immunologically-related effects including the increased synthesis of INTERLEUKIN 10 in REGULATORY T-LYMPHOCYTES and the induction of PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Antigen-Presenting Cells: A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte: Antigens expressed on the cell membrane of T-lymphocytes during differentiation, activation, and normal and neoplastic transformation. Their phenotypic characterization is important in differential diagnosis and studies of thymic ontogeny and T-cell function.T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic: Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Interleukin-23: A heterodimeric cytokine that plays a role in innate and adaptive immune responses. Interleukin-23 is comprised of a unique 19 kDa subunit and 40 kDa subunit that is shared with INTERLEUKIN-12. It is produced by DENDRITIC CELLS; MACROPHAGES and a variety of other immune cellsTrinitrobenzenes: Benzene derivatives which are substituted with three nitro groups in any position.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell: Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Haptens: Small antigenic determinants capable of eliciting an immune response only when coupled to a carrier. Haptens bind to antibodies but by themselves cannot elicit an antibody response.STAT4 Transcription Factor: A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to INTERLEUKIN-12 in T-LYMPHOCYTES. Stat4 is an important signaling molecule for differentiation in TH1 CELLS.Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte: Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.Adjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Immune Tolerance: The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Allergens: Antigen-type substances that produce immediate hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).Antigens, CD4: 55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.Hypersensitivity: Altered reactivity to an antigen, which can result in pathologic reactions upon subsequent exposure to that particular antigen.Adoptive Transfer: Form of passive immunization where previously sensitized immunologic agents (cells or serum) are transferred to non-immune recipients. When transfer of cells is used as a therapy for the treatment of neoplasms, it is called adoptive immunotherapy (IMMUNOTHERAPY, ADOPTIVE).History, 19th Century: Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Interleukin-9: A multifunctional cytokine secreted by primarily by activated TH2 CELLS that may play a role as a regulator of allergic INFLAMMATION. It has been shown to enhance the growth and CELL DIFFERENTIATION of MAST CELLS, and can act on a variety of other immune cells.Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Herpestidae: The family of agile, keen-sighted mongooses of Asia and Africa that feed on RODENTS and SNAKES.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Autoimmune Diseases: Disorders that are characterized by the production of antibodies that react with host tissues or immune effector cells that are autoreactive to endogenous peptides.Immunophenotyping: Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.RNA, Satellite: Small, linear single-stranded RNA molecules functionally acting as molecular parasites of certain RNA plant viruses. Satellite RNAs exhibit four characteristic traits: (1) they require helper viruses to replicate; (2) they are unnecessary for the replication of helper viruses; (3) they are encapsidated in the coat protein of the helper virus; (4) they have no extensive sequence homology to the helper virus. Thus they differ from SATELLITE VIRUSES which encode their own coat protein, and from the genomic RNA; (=RNA, VIRAL); of satellite viruses. (From Maramorosch, Viroids and Satellites, 1991, p143)Pokeweed Mitogens: Proteins isolated from the roots of the pokeweed, Phytolacca americana, that agglutinate some erythrocytes, stimulate mitosis and antibody synthesis in lymphocytes, and induce activation of plasma cells.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.HLA-DR7 Antigen: A HLA-DR antigen that is associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS encoded by DRB1*07 alleles.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Cytotoxicity, Immunologic: The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Major Histocompatibility Complex: The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.Encephalomyelitis, Autoimmune, Experimental: An experimental animal model for central nervous system demyelinating disease. Inoculation with a white matter emulsion combined with FREUND'S ADJUVANT, myelin basic protein, or purified central myelin triggers a T cell-mediated immune response directed towards central myelin. The pathologic features are similar to MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, including perivascular and periventricular foci of inflammation and demyelination. Subpial demyelination underlying meningeal infiltrations also occurs, which is also a feature of ENCEPHALOMYELITIS, ACUTE DISSEMINATED. Passive immunization with T-cells from an afflicted animal to a normal animal also induces this condition. (From Immunol Res 1998;17(1-2):217-27; Raine CS, Textbook of Neuropathology, 2nd ed, p604-5)Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic: A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.Mice, Inbred CBADependovirus: A genus of the family PARVOVIRIDAE, subfamily PARVOVIRINAE, which are dependent on a coinfection with helper adenoviruses or herpesviruses for their efficient replication. The type species is Adeno-associated virus 2.Concanavalin A: A MANNOSE/GLUCOSE binding lectin isolated from the jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis). It is a potent mitogen used to stimulate cell proliferation in lymphocytes, primarily T-lymphocyte, cultures.Mice, Inbred C3HLeishmaniasis, Cutaneous: An endemic disease that is characterized by the development of single or multiple localized lesions on exposed areas of skin that typically ulcerate. The disease has been divided into Old and New World forms. Old World leishmaniasis is separated into three distinct types according to epidemiology and clinical manifestations and is caused by species of the L. tropica and L. aethiopica complexes as well as by species of the L. major genus. New World leishmaniasis, also called American leishmaniasis, occurs in South and Central America and is caused by species of the L. mexicana or L. braziliensis complexes.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Genes, MHC Class II: Genetic loci in the vertebrate major histocompatibility complex that encode polymorphic products which control the immune response to specific antigens. The genes are found in the HLA-D region in humans and in the I region in mice.Receptors, Interleukin: Cell surface proteins that bind interleukins and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.Cell SeparationLeukocyte Count: The number of WHITE BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in venous BLOOD. A differential leukocyte count measures the relative numbers of the different types of white cells.Receptors, Interleukin-12: Cell surface receptors for INTERLEUKIN-12. They exist as dimers of beta 1 and beta 2 subunits. Signaling from interleukin-12 receptors occurs through their interaction with JANUS KINASES.History, 17th Century: Time period from 1601 through 1700 of the common era.Immunoglobulins: Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Antigens, CD3: Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).Potyvirus: A large genus of plant viruses of the family POTYVIRIDAE which infect mainly plants of the Solanaceae. Transmission is primarily by aphids in a non-persistent manner. The type species is potato virus Y.Antigen Presentation: The process by which antigen is presented to lymphocytes in a form they can recognize. This is performed by antigen presenting cells (APCs). Some antigens require processing before they can be recognized. Antigen processing consists of ingestion and partial digestion of the antigen by the APC, followed by presentation of fragments on the cell surface. (From Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Lymphocyte Culture Test, Mixed: Measure of histocompatibility at the HL-A locus. Peripheral blood lymphocytes from two individuals are mixed together in tissue culture for several days. Lymphocytes from incompatible individuals will stimulate each other to proliferate significantly (measured by tritiated thymidine uptake) whereas those from compatible individuals will not. In the one-way MLC test, the lymphocytes from one of the individuals are inactivated (usually by treatment with MITOMYCIN or radiation) thereby allowing only the untreated remaining population of cells to proliferate in response to foreign histocompatibility antigens.H-2 Antigens: The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-maf: Maf proto-oncogene protein is the major cellular homolog of the V-MAF ONCOGENE PROTEIN. It was the first of the mammalian MAF TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS identified, and it is induced in activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and regulates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of INTERLEUKIN-4. c-maf is frequently translocated to an immunoglobulin locus in MULTIPLE MYELOMA.HLA-DR Antigens: A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Hypersensitivity, Delayed: An increased reactivity to specific antigens mediated not by antibodies but by cells.History, 18th Century: Time period from 1701 through 1800 of the common era.Interleukin-18: A cytokine which resembles IL-1 structurally and IL-12 functionally. It enhances the cytotoxic activity of NK CELLS and CYTOTOXIC T-LYMPHOCYTES, and appears to play a role both as neuroimmunomodulator and in the induction of mucosal immunity.Autoimmunity: Process whereby the immune system reacts against the body's own tissues. Autoimmunity may produce or be caused by AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Leukocytes, Mononuclear: Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Histocompatibility Antigens: A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.CD40 Ligand: A membrane glycoprotein and differentiation antigen expressed on the surface of T-cells that binds to CD40 ANTIGENS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and induces their proliferation. Mutation of the gene for CD40 ligand is a cause of HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 1.Forkhead Transcription Factors: A subclass of winged helix DNA-binding proteins that share homology with their founding member fork head protein, Drosophila.Lymphocyte Count: The number of LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD.Mice, Inbred DBAModels, Immunological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of immune system, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electrical equipment.Antigens, CD8: Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Coculture Techniques: A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.Cell Communication: Any of several ways in which living cells of an organism communicate with one another, whether by direct contact between cells or by means of chemical signals carried by neurotransmitter substances, hormones, and cyclic AMP.Asthma: A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).Immunoglobulin Idiotypes: Unique genetically-controlled determinants present on ANTIBODIES whose specificity is limited to a single group of proteins (e.g., another antibody molecule or an individual myeloma protein). The idiotype appears to represent the antigenicity of the antigen-binding site of the antibody and to be genetically codetermined with it. The idiotypic determinants have been precisely located to the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION of both immunoglobin polypeptide chains.Immunity, Innate: The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Isoantigens: Antigens that exist in alternative (allelic) forms in a single species. When an isoantigen is encountered by species members who lack it, an immune response is induced. Typical isoantigens are the BLOOD GROUP ANTIGENS.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Cell Lineage: The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.Killer Cells, Natural: Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)History, 15th Century: Time period from 1401 through 1500 of the common era.Antigens, Helminth: Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.Immunosuppression: Deliberate prevention or diminution of the host's immune response. It may be nonspecific as in the administration of immunosuppressive agents (drugs or radiation) or by lymphocyte depletion or may be specific as in desensitization or the simultaneous administration of antigen and immunosuppressive drugs.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Receptors, Interleukin-4: Receptors present on a wide variety of hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cell types that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-4. They are involved in signaling a variety of immunological responses related to allergic INFLAMMATION including the differentiation of TH2 CELLS and the regulation of IMMUNOGLOBULIN E production. Two subtypes of receptors exist and are referred to as the TYPE I INTERLEUKIN-4 RECEPTOR and the TYPE II INTERLEUKIN-4 RECEPTOR. Each receptor subtype is defined by its unique subunit composition.Eosinophils: Granular leukocytes with a nucleus that usually has two lobes connected by a slender thread of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing coarse, round granules that are uniform in size and stainable by eosin.Retroviridae: Family of RNA viruses that infects birds and mammals and encodes the enzyme reverse transcriptase. The family contains seven genera: DELTARETROVIRUS; LENTIVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE B, MAMMALIAN; ALPHARETROVIRUS; GAMMARETROVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE D; and SPUMAVIRUS. A key feature of retrovirus biology is the synthesis of a DNA copy of the genome which is integrated into cellular DNA. After integration it is sometimes not expressed but maintained in a latent state (PROVIRUSES).Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Friend murine leukemia virus: A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) producing leukemia of the reticulum-cell type with massive infiltration of liver, spleen, and bone marrow. It infects DBA/2 and Swiss mice.Thymus Gland: A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.Lymphocyte Subsets: A classification of lymphocytes based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.Respiratory Hypersensitivity: A form of hypersensitivity affecting the respiratory tract. It includes ASTHMA and RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.History, 16th Century: Time period from 1501 through 1600 of the common era.Nesting Behavior: Animal behavior associated with the nest; includes construction, effects of size and material; behavior of the adult during the nesting period and the effect of the nest on the behavior of the young.Dermatitis, Atopic: A chronic inflammatory genetically determined disease of the skin marked by increased ability to form reagin (IgE), with increased susceptibility to allergic rhinitis and asthma, and hereditary disposition to a lowered threshold for pruritus. It is manifested by lichenification, excoriation, and crusting, mainly on the flexural surfaces of the elbow and knee. In infants it is known as infantile eczema.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Genes, Viral: The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.Strongylida Infections: Infections with nematodes of the order STRONGYLIDA.Vaccines, DNA: Recombinant DNA vectors encoding antigens administered for the prevention or treatment of disease. The host cells take up the DNA, express the antigen, and present it to the immune system in a manner similar to that which would occur during natural infection. This induces humoral and cellular immune responses against the encoded antigens. The vector is called naked DNA because there is no need for complex formulations or delivery agents; the plasmid is injected in saline or other buffers.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Immunity: Nonsusceptibility to the invasive or pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or to the toxic effect of antigenic substances.Immunoglobulin Isotypes: The classes of immunoglobulins found in any species of animal. In man there are nine classes that migrate in five different groups in electrophoresis; they each consist of two light and two heavy protein chains, and each group has distinguishing structural and functional properties.Mice, Inbred AKRMice, Inbred AReceptors, CCR4: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL17 and CHEMOKINE CCL22. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; MAST CELLS; DENDRITIC CELLS; and NK CELLS.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Interleukin-6: A cytokine that stimulates the growth and differentiation of B-LYMPHOCYTES and is also a growth factor for HYBRIDOMAS and plasmacytomas. It is produced by many different cells including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.Interleukin-12: A heterodimeric cytokine that plays a role in innate and adaptive immune responses. Interleukin-12 is a 70 kDa protein that is composed of covalently linked 40 kDa and 35 kDa subunits. It is produced by DENDRITIC CELLS; MACROPHAGES and a variety of other immune cells and plays a role in the stimulation of INTERFERON-GAMMA production by T-LYMPHOCYTES and NATURAL KILLER CELLS.gamma-Globulins: Serum globulins that migrate to the gamma region (most positively charged) upon ELECTROPHORESIS. At one time, gamma-globulins came to be used as a synonym for immunoglobulins since most immunoglobulins are gamma globulins and conversely most gamma globulins are immunoglobulins. But since some immunoglobulins exhibit an alpha or beta electrophoretic mobility, that usage is in decline.Adaptive Immunity: Protection from an infectious disease agent that is mediated by B- and T- LYMPHOCYTES following exposure to specific antigen, and characterized by IMMUNOLOGIC MEMORY. It can result from either previous infection with that agent or vaccination (IMMUNITY, ACTIVE), or transfer of antibody or lymphocytes from an immune donor (IMMUNIZATION, PASSIVE).Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Lymphokines: Soluble protein factors generated by activated lymphocytes that affect other cells, primarily those involved in cellular immunity.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Antigens, CD40: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Antigens, CD45: High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Immunity, Mucosal: Nonsusceptibility to the pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or antigenic substances as a result of antibody secretions of the mucous membranes. Mucosal epithelia in the gastrointestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts produce a form of IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) that serves to protect these ports of entry into the body.Leukemia Virus, Murine: Species of GAMMARETROVIRUS, containing many well-defined strains, producing leukemia in mice. Disease is commonly induced by injecting filtrates of propagable tumors into newborn mice.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Antigens, Ly: A group of lymphocyte surface antigens located on mouse LYMPHOCYTES. Specific Ly antigens are useful markers for distinguishing subpopulations of lymphocytes.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, alpha-beta: T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.Viral Interference: A phenomenon in which infection by a first virus results in resistance of cells or tissues to infection by a second, unrelated virus.Mice, Mutant Strains: Mice bearing mutant genes which are phenotypically expressed in the animals.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Tetanus ToxoidReticuloendotheliosis virus: A species in the group RETICULOENDOTHELIOSIS VIRUSES, AVIAN of the genus GAMMARETROVIRUS that causes a chronic neoplastic and a more acute immunosuppressive disease in fowl.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Hybridomas: Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Lymphoid Tissue: Specialized tissues that are components of the lymphatic system. They provide fixed locations within the body where a variety of LYMPHOCYTES can form, mature and multiply. The lymphoid tissues are connected by a network of LYMPHATIC VESSELS.
It appears to be essential for the normal function of T helper cells type 2 (Th2 cells) . Mutations in this gene have been ... 2003). "Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci ... 1997). "The expression of ST2 gene in helper T cells and the binding of ST2 protein to myeloma-derived RPMI8226 cells". J. ... 2002). "Activated, but not resting human Th2 cells, in contrast to Th1 and T regulatory cells, produce soluble ST2 and express ...
Some mice experiments indicate an imbalance between Th1 and Th2 helper cells with a predominance of Th1 cytokines. However, ... The remaining inner cell mass can be injected into a blastocele of the recipient species to acquire its trophoblastic cells. It ... Deer mouse embryos survive in the uterus of the white-footed mouse, but the reciprocal transfer fails. Methods to artificially ... Also, murine embryos of Ryukyu mouse (Mus caroli) will survive to term inside the uterus of a house mouse (Mus musculus) only ...
... which promotes TH2 differentiation. Gata3 enhances T helper cell 2 (Th2) differentiation signals by regulating BHLHE41 ... BHLHE41 knockout mice show decreased TH2 cytokine production, defective TH2 responses after being repeatedly stimulated with ... However, these mice showed no deficits in embryonic muscle repair. BHLHE41 has been shown to be regulator of T-cell activation ... in sarcoma cells and oral cancer cells. BHLHE41 also suppresses cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) in hepatocellular carcinoma cells ...
Interleukin 27 receptor, alpha subunit
In mice, CD4+ helper T-cells differentiate into type 1 (Th1) cells, which are critical for cell-mediated immunity, ... Also, IL4 influences their differentiation into type 2 (Th2) cells, which are critical for most antibody responses. Mice ... Th1 or Th2 immune responses. This gene encodes a protein which is similar to the mouse T-cell cytokine receptor Tccr at the ... Pradhan A, Lambert QT, Reuther GW (2008). "Transformation of hematopoietic cells and activation of JAK2-V617F by IL-27R, a ...
The activation of type 2 helper cells (Th2) is decreased in the presence of antibiotics because there are fewer whipworms ... Trichuris muris is a nematode parasite of mice. It is very similar to the human roundworm parasite Trichuris trichiura due to ... These whipworms utilize their anterior ends to embed themselves into the cells that line the walls of the large intestine. ... This in turn drives up the proliferation and differentiation of Th17 and Th1 cells. Eighteen days after infection, the worm ...
Knockout studies in mice suggested the roles of this gene in differentiation of T helper 2 (Th2), expression of cell surface ... Masuda A, Matsuguchi T, Yamaki K, Hayakawa T, Yoshikai Y (Jul 2001). "Interleukin-15 prevents mouse mast cell apoptosis through ... "Lack of IL-4-induced Th2 response and IgE class switching in mice with disrupted Stat6 gene". Nature. 380 (6575): 630-3. doi: ... "Mouse PubMed Reference:". Leek JP, Hamlin PJ, Bell SM, Lench NJ (1997). "Assignment of the STAT6 gene (STAT6) to human ...
IL-25 is a cytokine that belongs to the IL-17 cytokine family and is secreted by type 2 helper T cells (Th2) and mast cells. IL ... "IL-25 enhances allergic airway inflammation by amplifying a TH2 cell-dependent pathway in mice". The Journal of Allergy and ... Studies of the similar gene in mice suggested that this cytokine may be a proinflammatory cytokine favoring Th2-type immune ... a Th2-biased response, and multiorgan inflammation in mice". Journal of Immunology. 167 (11): 6559-67. doi:10.4049/jimmunol. ...
... (IL5) is an interleukin produced by type-2 T helper cells and mast cells. Through binding to the interleukin-5 ... IL-5 is a 115-amino acid (in human, 133 in the mouse) -long TH2 cytokine that is part of the hematopoietic family. Unlike other ... Given that eosinophils are the primary IL-5Rα-expressing cells, it is not surprising that this cell type responds to IL-5. In ... "The IL-4 and IL-5 genes are closely linked and are part of a cytokine gene cluster on mouse chromosome 11". Somat. Cell Mol. ...
Adaptive immune system
... and receives additional signals from a helper T cell (predominately Th2 type)), it further differentiates into an effector cell ... there is strong evidence from mouse and human-based scientific studies of a broader diversity in CD4+ effector T helper cell ... Helper T-cells require a much milder activation stimulus than cytotoxic T cells. Helper T cells can provide extra signals that ... as opposed to CD4+ and CD8+ αβ T cells and share characteristics of helper T cells, cytotoxic T cells and natural killer cells ...
As an inflammatory cytokine, AIMp1/p43 has demonstrated the ability to skew T-helper polarization in the direction of Th-1, and ... 2004). "Colorectal cancer cells induce lymphocyte apoptosis by an endothelial monocyte-activating polypeptide-II-dependent ... 2003). "Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci ... its homozygous deletion leads to a hyper-polarized Th-2 phenotype. SCYE1 has been shown to interact with SMURF2. GRCh38: ...
IL-17A producing T helper cells (Th17 cells) are a distinct lineage from the Th1 and Th2 CD4+ lineages and the differentiation ... in 1993 from a rodent T-cell hybridoma, derived from the fusion of a mouse cytotoxic T cell clone and a rat T cell lymphoma. ... Mouse model studies using the IL-17RA knock out mice and the IL-17A knock out mice with the murine adapted influenza strain ( ... "T helper 17 cells promote cytotoxic T cell activation in tumor immunity". Immunity. 31 (5): 787-98. doi:10.1016/j.immuni. ...
This cytokine is predominantly released by activated monocytes, macrophages and T helper 2 (Th2) cells and acts on non- ... "Mouse PubMed Reference:". Poindexter NJ, Walch ET, Chada S, Grimm EA (September 2005). "Cytokine induction of interleukin-24 in ... Several studies have shown that cell death occurs in cancer cells/cell lines following exposure to IL-24. The gene for IL-24 is ... IL-24 appears to control in cell survival and proliferation by inducing rapid activation of particular transcription factors ...
... dynamics of human umbilical cord blood T helper cells cultured in absence and presence of cytokines promoting Th1 or Th2 ... There was also a GPR84 downregulation in dentritic cell derived from FcRgamma chain KO mice. In microglial cells, the GPR84 ... Ly6G + MDSCs in Lal-/- mice show strong immunosuppression on T cells, which contributes to impaired T cell proliferation and ... mice were fed a western diet. GPR84 is important in regulating the expression of cytokines: CD4+ T cells from GPR84-/- mice ...
T helper cell
Th17 helper cells are a subset of T helper cells developmentally distinct from Th1 and Th2 lineages producing interleukin 17 ( ... Of note, recent evidence suggest that functional plasticity is an intrinsic capacity of T helper cells. Indeed, a study in mice ... The main effector cells are eosinophils, basophils, and mast cells as well as B cells, and IL-4/IL-5 CD4 T cells. The key Th2 ... helper T cells that develop into effector T cells differentiate into two major subtypes of cells known as Th1 and Th2 cells ( ...
T helper 17 cell
... but were also found to promote tumor formation induced by colonic inflammation in mice. Like other T helper cells, Th17 cells ... Activated T helper cells such as Th1, Th2, and Th17 are found in the synovial cavity during the time of inflammation due to ... T helper 17 cells (Th17) are a subset of pro-inflammatory T helper cells defined by their production of interleukin 17 (IL-17 ... November 2009). "T helper 17 cells promote cytotoxic T cell activation in tumor immunity". Immunity. 31 (5): 787-798. doi: ...
Prostaglandin DP1 receptor
... see T helper cell#Th1/Th2 Model for helper T cells and T helper cell#Limitations to the Th1/Th2 model. DH1 activation also ... DP1 protein is expressed in mouse placenta and testes and mRNA transcripts have also been detected in the meninges of the mouse ... Th2 cells, and dendritic cells, and by cells contributing to these reactions, i.e. human and/or rodent airway epithelial cells ... this biases the development of naïve T lymphocytes to Th-2 rather than Th-1 helper cells and thereby promotes allergic rather ...
Furthermore, responses of type-two T helper cells rarely kill the parasitic worms. Rather, the Th2 response limits the ... Studies conducted on mice and rat models of colitis, muscular sclerosis, type 1 diabetes, and asthma have shown helminth- ... Th cells can be divided into subtypes based on the characteristic cytokines they secrete. Th2 immune responses result in the ... that promote the induction of regulatory T cells while inhibiting the function of antigen presenting cells and other T cells. ...
TH-2 cells. These IP-induced responses likely contribute to its apparent function in inhibiting certain mouse inflammation ... cells showed a greatly reduced ability to stimulate the proliferation of T helper cell as well as the ability of these cells to ... IP(-/-) mice exhibit little or no writhing responses in an acetic acid-induced pain model. The mouse IP receptor also appears ... IP gene knockout mice (i.e. IP(-/-) mice) exhibit increased tendency to thrombosis in response to experimentally-induced ...
Follicular B helper T cells
May 2009). "T follicular helper cells differentiate from Th2 cells in response to helminth antigens". J Exp Med. 206 (5): 991-9 ... vivo enzymatic treatment of aged CD4 T cells restores cognate T cell helper function and enhances antibody production in mice ... Follicular B helper T cells (also known as just follicular helper T cells or TFH), are antigen-experienced CD4+ T cells found ... 2008). "Generation of T follicular helper cells is mediated by interleukin-21 but independent of T helper 1, 2, or 17 cell ...
Thymic stromal lymphopoietin
T helper 2 pathway). The TH2 cells then release factors promoting an inflammatory reaction following the ... TSLP production has been observed in various species, including humans and mice. In humans TSLP is encoded by the TSLP gene. ... epithelial cells and different types of stromal or stromal-like cells. These cells are located in regions ... 2007). "IL-25 augments type 2 immune responses by enhancing the expansion and functions of TSLP-DC-activated Th2 memory cells ...
... is a cytokine that induces differentiation of naive helper T cells (Th0 cells) to Th2 cells. Upon activation by IL-4, Th2 cells ... homologous to mouse B-cell stimulatory factor 1, that expresses B-cell- and T-cell-stimulating activities". Proc. Natl. Acad. ... including the stimulation of activated B-cell and T-cell proliferation, and the differentiation of B cells into plasma cells. ... The nucleotide sequence for human IL-4 was isolated four years later confirming its similarity to a mouse protein called B-cell ...
IL-9 is produced by variety of cells like mast cells, NKT cells, Th2, Th17, Treg, ILC2, and Th9 cells in different amounts. ... Th9 cells are regarded as the major CD4+ T cells that produce IL-9. Il-9 is a cytokine secreted by CD4+ helper cells that acts ... "Cloning and expression of a cDNA for the human homolog of mouse T cell and mast cell growth factor P40". Cytokine. 2 (1): 9-12 ... Interleukin 33 (IL-33) induces IL-9 expression and secretion in T cells, which was confirmed by the results obtained in mice by ...
RAR-related orphan receptor alpha
In mice, RORα is essential for development of cerebellum through direct regulation of genes expressed in Purkinje cells. It ... "Retinoic-acid-receptor-related orphan nuclear receptor alpha is required for natural helper cell development and allergic ... "Group 2 innate lymphoid cells facilitate sensitization to local, but not systemic, TH2-inducing allergen exposures". The ... In addition, although present in normal numbers, the ILC3 and Th17 cells from RORα deficient mice are defective for cytokine ...
Th2)) on the basis of their cytokine secretion patterns. Th1 cells and their associated cytokines are involved in cell-mediated ... CD4-positive T helper lymphocytes can be divided into several types (including types 1 (Th1) and 2 ( ... "Mouse PubMed Reference:". Monney L, Sabatos CA, Gaglia JL, Ryu A, Waldner H, Chernova T, Manning S, Greenfield EA, Coyle AJ, ... Later, the expression was detected in Th17 cells, regulatory T-cells, and innate immune cells (DCs, NK cells, monocytes). ...
T helper cell
Of note, recent evidence suggest that functional plasticity is an intrinsic capacity of T helper cells. Indeed, a study in mice ... There is evidence to suggest that TGF-β may not suppress activated Th2 cells as effectively as it might suppress naive cells, ... Main article: T helper 17 cell. Th17 helper cells are a subset of T helper cells developmentally distinct from Th1 and Th2 ... The T helper cells (Th cells), also known as CD4 cells, are a type of T cell that play an important role in the immune system, ...
Zhang Y, Zhang Y, Gu W, Sun B (2014). "TH1/TH2 cell differentiation and molecular signals". T Helper Cell Differentiation and ... BHLHE41 knockout mice show decreased TH2 cytokine production, defective TH2 responses after being repeatedly stimulated with ... which promotes TH2 differentiation. Gata3 enhances T helper cell 2 (Th2) differentiation signals by regulating BHLHE41 ... in sarcoma cells and oral cancer cells. BHLHE41 also suppresses cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) in hepatocellular carcinoma cells ...
Type 1 regulatory T cells (Tr1 cells)
The specific cell-surface markers for Tr1 cells in humans and mice are CD4+ CD49b+LAG-3+ CD226+ from which LAG-3+ and CD49b+ ... ROG then dowregulates GATA-3, a characteristic transcription factor for Th2 cells. Tr1 cells express high levels of regulatory ... β but no IL-4 nor IL-2 Production of IL-10 is also much more rapid then its production of other T-helper cell types. Tr1 cells ... Tr 1 cells) are a class of regulatory T cells participating in peripheral immunity as a subsets of CD4+ T cells . Tr1 cells ...
... and IL-13 from Th2 cells, and induces the differentiation of Th0 cells towards this Th2 cell subtype while suppressing their ... "Essential role of GATA3 for the maintenance of type 2 helper T (Th2) cytokine production and chromatin remodeling at the Th2 ... GATA-3 was shown to directly regulate luminal cell differentiation in mouse models of breast cancer. It is also considered a ... "GATA-3 maintains the differentiation of the luminal cell fate in the mammary gland". Cell. 127 (5): 1041-55. doi:10.1016/j.cell ...
These cytokines aid in generating CD4 T helper 2 effector cells necessary for adaptive immune responses against the parasite. ... Natural infection intensity displays high variability in wood mice, ranging from 0 - 244 adult worms per mouse. Both male and ... In addition costimulatory signals via CD80 and CD86 has also be shown important in mounting a Th2 immune response and producing ... Mucus secreted by goblet cells of the intestine, acts as the first line of defense, hence increases in goblet cell number are a ...
This signal is required for the activation of mast cells. Type 2 helper T cells,(Th2) and many other cell types lack the β ... and mice without mast cells seem to be much more susceptible to a variety of infections. Mast cell granules ... Other neoplastic disorders associated with mast cells include mast cell sarcoma and mast cell leukemia. Mast cell activation ... connective tissue-type mast cells and mucosal mast cells. The activities of the latter are dependent on T-cells. Mast cells are ...
Mucosal adjuvant effect of cholera toxin in mice results from induction of T helper 2 (Th2) cells and IL-4. | The Journal of...
Mucosal adjuvant effect of cholera toxin in mice results from induction of T helper 2 (Th2) cells and IL-4.. M Marinaro, H F ... Mucosal adjuvant effect of cholera toxin in mice results from induction of T helper 2 (Th2) cells and IL-4. ... Mucosal adjuvant effect of cholera toxin in mice results from induction of T helper 2 (Th2) cells and IL-4. ... Mucosal adjuvant effect of cholera toxin in mice results from induction of T helper 2 (Th2) cells and IL-4. ...
T Helper 2 (Th2) T Cells Induce Acute Pancreatitis and Diabetes in Immune-compromised Nonobese Diabetic (NOD) Mice | JEM
Th2 Cells Transfer Disease in NOD.scid Mice.. We generated Th1 and Th2 cells from naive populations of BDC2.5/ NOD.scid ... while Th2 cells (open circles) do not transfer even up to 35 d. (b) Th1 and Th2 cells transfer diabetes into NOD.scid mice. ... something Th2-polarized T cell fail to do, both Th1- and Th2-polarized T cells can transfer disease in NOD.scid mice and other ... and Th2-like cells into NOD.scid mice. (a) Th1 cells (closed circles) transfer diabetes into neonatal NOD mice in 7-14 d, ...
Differential modulation of T helper type 1 (Th1) and T helper type 2 (Th2) cytokine secretion by prostaglandin E2 critically...
Th2)-like cytokine secretion profiles in murine and human CD4+ T cells by inhibiting the production of the Th1-associated ... cytokines interleukin-2 (IL-2) and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and up-regulating the production of the Th2-associated ... Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) favors T helper type 2 (Th2)-like cytokine secretion profiles in murine and human CD4+ T cells by ... Differential modulation of T helper type 1 (Th1) and T helper type 2 (Th2) cytokine secretion by prostaglandin E2 critically ...
Blockade of Airway Inflammation by Kaempferol via Disturbing Tyk-STAT Signaling in Airway Epithelial Cells and in Asthmatic Mice
In asthmatic process, antigen-sensitized T helper 2 (Th2) cells produce specific cytokines, which cause several key features of ... H. Kuipers and B. N. Lambrecht, "The interplay of dendritic cells, Th2 cells and regulatory T cells in asthma," Current Opinion ... After culturing cells with 2 μg/mL LPS in the absence and presence of 1-20 μM kaempferol or 20 μg/mL OxPAPC for 8 h, cell ... Mice were divided into four subgroups (. for each subgroup). Mice were sensitized with 20 μg OVA dissolved in a solution of 30 ...
Intravenous Infusion of Human Adipose Tissue-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells to Treat Type 1 Diabetic Mellitus in Mice: An...
Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) transplantation is a novel treatment for diabetes mellitus, especially type 1 diabetes. Many recent ... Th1/Th2. T helper 1/T helper 2. TNF-α. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha ... Diabetes mellitus Stem cells Adipose-derived stem cells Mesenchymal stem cells Cell dose Islet regeneration ... cells from adult human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells control streptozotocin-induced diabetes in nude mice. Cell ...
Mouse Vα14i natural killer T cells are resistant to cytokine polarization in vivo | PNAS
... cells can cause a T helper (Th) 1 or a Th2 polarization of immune responses. We show here, however, that mouse NKT cells with ... NK cells in αGalCer-primed mice and IL-12Rβ2-/- mice produce less IFN-γ.(A) Intracellular IFN-γ content of DX5+TCRβ- cells from ... At 2 h, BALB/c mice (n = 6), IL-4Rα-/- mice (n = 4), and IL-12Rβ2-/- mice (n = 6) were analyzed. At 6 h, BALB/c mice (n = 4), ... mice (Fig. 2A). Likewise, IFN-γ was not reduced in Vα14i T cells from IL-12Rβ2-/- mice. Similar Vα14i T cell responses were ...
IL1RL1 - Wikipedia
It appears to be essential for the normal function of T helper cells type 2 (Th2 cells) . Mutations in this gene have been ... 2003). "Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci ... 1997). "The expression of ST2 gene in helper T cells and the binding of ST2 protein to myeloma-derived RPMI8226 cells". J. ... 2002). "Activated, but not resting human Th2 cells, in contrast to Th1 and T regulatory cells, produce soluble ST2 and express ...
Interspecific pregnancy - Wikipedia
Some mice experiments indicate an imbalance between Th1 and Th2 helper cells with a predominance of Th1 cytokines. However, ... The remaining inner cell mass can be injected into a blastocele of the recipient species to acquire its trophoblastic cells. It ... Deer mouse embryos survive in the uterus of the white-footed mouse, but the reciprocal transfer fails. Methods to artificially ... Also, murine embryos of Ryukyu mouse (Mus caroli) will survive to term inside the uterus of a house mouse (Mus musculus) only ...
Frontiers | Effect of murine exposure to gamma rays on the interplay between Th1 and Th2 lymphocytes | Pharmacology
Exposure to gamma radiation could cause a state of immune stimulation or suppression via controlling Th1/Th2 cell ... Methods: mice were exposed to whole body gamma irradiation and tested for the effect of recovery times on splenocyte ... Methods: mice were exposed to whole body gamma irradiation and tested for the effect of recovery times on splenocyte ... Aim: This study is carried out to show the effect of gamma rays on the interplay between Th1/Th2 response, splenocyte ...
The Role of Distinct T Cell Subsets in Periodontitis-Studies from Humans and Rodent Models | Springer for Research & Development
... cytotoxic T cell CD4+ helper T cell Th1 Th2 Th17 Regulatory T cell (Treg) NKT cell ... SCID mice (lack of T and B cells), H2-Aβ KO mice (lack of MHC-II-restricted CD4+ T cells), IFN-γ KO mice, and IL-6 KO mice ... cytotoxic T cells, CD4+ T helper cells (Th1, Th2, and Th17), regulatory T cells, and natural killer T (NKT) cells in the ... Th2, Th17, or inducible regulatory T cells. Th1 and Th2 are classic T helper subsets that are characterized by the ...
CiNii Articles - Th2 cells
We hypothesized that T helper (Th)2 and Th17 cells mediate this process. … A mouse model of DBA/1JJmsSlc collagen-induced ... Administration of Th2 cell inhibitor abolished the increase in TEWL, IL-6, and TNF-α levels, whereas Th17 cell inhibitor ... non-B cells) and potently produce characteristic cytokines of T cell subsets (Th1, Th2, Th17). … ... mediated by cytokines released from T-helper type-2 (Th2) cells. … ...
Oral Administration of Chitin Down-Regulates Serum IgE Levels and Lung Eosinophilia in the Allergic Mouse | The Journal of...
Two types of mouse helper T cell. IV. Th2 clones secrete a factor that inhibits cytokine production by Th1 clones. J. Exp. Med. ... CD4 cell- and NK cell-eliminated spleen cells contained 0.5% CD4+ cells and 0.3% DX5+ cells, respectively (data not shown). As ... To dissect the inhibitory mechanisms of Th2 responses, spleen cells (4 × 106 cells/ml) isolated from the ragweed-immunized mice ... Th2 spleen cells. When costimulated with chitin, Th1 cytokines including IFN-γ produced by NK cells appear to inhibit the Th2 ...
Frontiers | B-Cell Gene Therapy for Tolerance Induction: Host but Not Donor B-Cell Derived IL-10 is Necessary for Tolerance |...
We found that peptide-IgG transduced IL-10 KO B cells have the same effects as wt B cells in tolerance induction in an EAE ... We found that peptide-IgG transduced IL-10 KO B cells have the same effects as wt B cells in tolerance induction in an EAE ... In the current study, we defined the role of B-cell produced IL-10 in tolerance induction by using IL-10 deficient B cells as ... In the current study, we defined the role of B-cell produced IL-10 in tolerance induction by using IL-10 deficient B cells as ...
New immune cell found to be a key to inflammatory diseases
... of T helper cells. "They are completely different from TH1 and TH2 effector cells," says Dong. They then used a mouse model of ... the researchers designed a series of cell culture studies and mouse experiments. In brief, they "educated" T helper cells to ... and the activation and deactivation of other immune cells. T helper cells are specific T cells that have receptors that ... These T helper cells are also called CD4 T cells since they express CD4 molecules.) Once the antigen has been bound, these T ...
Possible Treatment Target Found For Main Cause Of Severe Liver Disease In Kids - Redorbit
Some patients have a second molecular conductor of disease called Th2 (T helper cell 2) immune system. ... which points to how immune system dendritic cells trigger the initial immune response in a mouse model of biliary atresia. ... Th cytokines, also referred to as T-helper cells, are part of the immune system. They send molecular signals to help initiate ... The mice were infected with rhesus rotavirus Type A, which can cause severe inflammation of the bile ducts if infections occur ...
Peanut allergies may soon be treated with a vaccine
... which they have just successfully tested in mice. ... with tests showing decreased activity of the Th2 cells, as well ... This occurs as a result of a skewed immune response from immune cells called T helper 2 (Th2). In the new research, the ... and colleagues sensitized mice to peanut proteins so that their immune system produced IgE antibodies and their Th2 cells ... Stopping peanut allergies in mice. OKonek and team explain that food allergies are caused by a faulty immune reaction, wherein ...
Researchers shed light on a key molecular switch in T helper cells
Understanding the molecular steps involved in how T helper cells mature may help researchers develop treatments for these ... Defects in immune system cells called T helper cells may lead to diseases characterized by a faulty inflammatory response such ... The mice lacking Notch signaling were unable to mount a protective Th2 cell response against infection by the gastrointestinal ... where they instruct immature T cells how to differentiate into Th1 or Th2 helper T cells, killer T cells, or other types of ...
JCI - Welcome
... revealing an active helper function by TFR cells on antigen-specific IgE. The helper function of TFR cells for IgE production ... Notch deficiency in mice prevented house dust mite-driven eosinophilic airway inflammation and significantly reduced Th2 ... Loss of TFR cells led to greatly increased non-specific IgE levels, showing that TFR cells have both helper and suppressor ... decreased GC B cell survival and loss of GC dark zone B cells after peanut sensitization. We thus reveal that TFR cells have an ...
JCI - Welcome
We found that Notch signaling was not required for T cell proliferation or Th2 polarization. Instead, Notch-deficient in vitro ... Here we show that T cell-specific Notch deficiency in mice prevented house dust mite-driven eosinophilic airway inflammation ... Allergic asthma is mediated by T helper 2 (Th2) responses to inhaled allergens. Although previous experiments indicated that ... pups that lacked NK cells and was induced in normal pups receiving NK cells from wild type DEP pups. "DEP NK cells expressed ...
AMP-activated protein kinase inhibits NF-κB signaling and inflammation: impact on healthspan and lifespan | SpringerLink
Helper T cells were hyperactivated and produced more Th1 and Th2 cytokines than their wild-type counterparts. They also ... 59] demonstrated that PGC-1α could bind to the p65 subunit of NF-κB in human cardiac cells and mouse heart. They also observed ... 41] demonstrated that the NF-κB signaling was activated in the aortic endothelial cells isolated from AMPKα2 knockout mice ... Herranz D, Serrano M (2010) SIRT1: recent lessons from mouse models. Nat Rev Cancer 10:819-823PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ...
Stem Cells: Innovations in Clinical Applications
This orchestration of host response can be applied to a variety of clinical scenarios not only through cell-cell interactions ... potentiating the versatility of the MSCs and opening avenues for corrective therapy and cell delivery of genes. The ... The use of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) as clinical therapeutics is a relatively new avenue of study for treatment of a ... depends on the environment with which the MSCs are put and results in active communication between the newly administered cells ...
Modulation of Th1/Th2 balance by Lactobacillus strains isolated from Kimchi via stimulation of macrophage cell line J774A.1 in...
1/Th2 balance. Ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized mouse splenocytes were cultured with 26 strains of lactobacilli; the highest IL-12 ... Lactobacilli isolated from Kimchi, a Korean traditional food, were tested for their capacity to modulate the T helper (Th) ... Modulation of Th1/Th2 balance by Lactobacillus strains isolated from Kimchi via stimulation of macrophage cell line J774A.1 in ... from Kimchi may modulate the Th1/Th2 balance via macrophage activation in the hypersensitive reaction caused by Th2 cells. ...
Splenocyte-Conditioned Media Inhibit Breast Cancer MCF-7 Cell Growth, Associated with Increased Th2/Th1 Cytokine Secretion...
The association between breast cancer MCF-7 cell growth and type 1 helper T-cell (Th1)/type 2 helper T-cell (Th2) cytokine ... Isolated mouse primary splenocytes are composed of 41.54% B cells and 47.11% T cells, as well as trace amounts of macrophages ... Cytokine levels produced by type 1 helper T-cells [Th1; interleukin (IL)-2 and interferon-γ] and type 2 helper T-cells (Th2; IL ... Type 1 Helper T-cell; Th2: Type 2 Helper T-cell; YFLPS: Yellow Formosa Lambsquarters Polysaccharide. ...
New Approaches to Vaccine Adjuvants: Inhibiting the Inhibitor | BioFiles v5 n3 Vaccine Adjuvants | China-Mainland | Sigma...
Th2 response: A T helper 2 response implies a polarized CD4+ T cell response with dominant expression of interleukin-4, ... Th1 response: A T helper 1 response implies a polarized CD4+ T cell response with dominant expression of interferon-γ. In mice ... gp120-pulsed bone marrow-derived dendritic cells: Dendritic cells are key antigen-presenting cells that in this case were ... as well as cytokines traditionally associated with polarized T helper cell (Th)1 or Th2 responses. Importantly, in vivo ...
LEGENDplex™ Mouse Th2 Panel (6-plex) with V-bottom Plate V02
They secrete cytokines to stimulate various effector cells, such as cytotoxic T cells, B cells and macrophages. These cytokines ... cells play important roles in regulating immune responses. ... T helper cells, cytokines, LEGENDplex, Th2, IL-5, IL-13, IL-6, ... Mouse Th2 Panel (6-Plex). LEGENDplex™ Mouse Th17 Panel (8-Plex). LEGENDplex™ Mouse Th1/Th2 Panel (8-Plex). LEGENDplex™ Mouse ... Click this text to review the details of the improved versions of the Mouse Th Cytokine Panels.. T helper (Th) cells play ...
The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene | Volume 96, Issue 6
A mixed T-helper cell 1 (Th1)/Th2 response was associated with slightly prolonged survival. These findings provide evidence ... gondii RH strain in BALB/c mice. The DNA vaccines of pcGRA2 and pcGRA5 elicited cellular-mediated immune response with ... Intestinal protozoa and helminths induce polarizing CD4+ T-helper cell 1 (Th1) mediated cytokine responses within the host. ... Recombinant DNA vaccines constructed with genes encoding GRAs were validated in Chinese hamster ovary cells before evaluation ...
Interleukin 6 influences germinal center development and antibody production via a contribution of C3 complement component. -...
T cell priming was not impaired nor was a gross imbalance of T helper cell (Th) 1 versus Th2 cytokines observed. However, B7.1 ... Germinal center cells were isolated from wild-type mice as specified in Materials and Methods. T cells, B cells and FDC were ... A Th2 cell line was used as the positive control (+VE CONTROL). Embryonic stem cells were used as a negative control (ES CELLS ... Analysis of T cell priming and cytokine production in IL-6- deficient mice. T cells were isolated from wild-type (solid bars) ...
IL-10 Modulates Th17 Pathogenicity during Autoimmune Diseases | Open Access Journals
Fiorentino DF, Bond MW, Mosmann TR (1989) Two types of mouse T helper cell. IV. Th2 clones secrete a factor that inhibits ... In addition to Th17 cells, various types of T cells, including Th1, Th2, Treg, Tr1 cells as well as CD8 T cells can produce IL- ... Even though Th17 cells are a major source of IL-17, other types of cells including CD8 (Tc17), γδT cells, NK cells and innate ... Th2 cells secrete IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13. TGFβ and IL-6 induce Th17 cells to produce IL-17A (generally referred to as IL-17 in ...
Th1/Th2 balance: the hypothesis, its limitations, and implications for health and disease. - Wellness Resources
... and T-helper 2 (Th2) activity. The Th1/Th2 hypothesis arose from 1986 research suggesting mouse T-helper cells expressed ... and Th2-helper cells directing different immune response pathways. Th1 cells drive the type-1 pathway ("cellular immunity") to ... The non-helper regulatory T cells, or the antigen-presenting cells (APC), likely influence immunity in a manner comparable to ... Th1/Th2-based immunotherapies, e.g., T-cell receptor (TCR) peptides and interleukin-4 (IL-4) injections, have produced mixed ...
Itch - E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase Itchy - Mus musculus (Mouse) - Itch gene & protein
Critical regulator of type 2 helper T (Th2) cell cytokine production by inducing JUNB ubiquitination and degradation (PubMed: ... "Ndfip1 protein promotes the function of itch ubiquitin ligase to prevent T cell activation and T helper 2 cell-mediated ... Critical regulator of type 2 helper T (Th2) cell cytokine production by inducing JUNB ubiquitination and degradation (PubMed: ... "Dysregulation of T lymphocyte function in itchy mice: a role for Itch in TH2 differentiation.". Fang D., Elly C., Gao B., Fang ...
CytokinesResponsesDendriticAllergicAntibodiesInflammatoryImmunologyImmune systemTransgenicRegulatoryPathogensAntigensOvalbuminSubsetEffector cellsSecretionResponseAdaptivePathwayAirwayTumorPathogenesisFindingsReceptorImmunizationAsthmaActivationMarkedlyCytokine productionPulmonaryVitroPathogenPopulationsAntibodyHypothesisSerumGenesLymphAntigen-preseLevels of mRNASecreteMast cellsLymphoidPathwaysCellular
- Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) favors T helper type 2 (Th2)-like cytokine secretion profiles in murine and human CD4+ T cells by inhibiting the production of the Th1-associated cytokines interleukin-2 (IL-2) and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and up-regulating the production of the Th2-associated cytokines IL-4 and IL-5 in a dose-dependent way. (nih.gov)
- The differential modulation of Th1 and Th2 cytokines by PGE2 was observed only upon modes of stimulation resulting in high IL-2 production. (nih.gov)
- In asthmatic process, antigen-sensitized T helper 2 (Th2) cells produce specific cytokines, which cause several key features of allergic bronchial asthma [ 5 ]. (hindawi.com)
- To examine the potential to polarize Vα14 i T cells in vivo , we analyzed both the ex vivo cytokine production by Vα14 i T cells from the liver and the spleen of mice given αGalCer and the systemic responses of these mice by measuring the cytokines released immediately in the blood. (pnas.org)
- Some mice experiments indicate an imbalance between Th1 and Th2 helper cells with a predominance of Th1 cytokines. (wikipedia.org)
- These cytokines lead to the production of IFN-γ by NK cells. (jimmunol.org)
- Moreover, spleen cells isolated from the chitin-treated mice showed ragweed-stimulated IFN-γ production (15 U/ml) and significantly lower levels of the Th2 cytokines, suggesting that the immune responses were redirected toward a Th1 response. (jimmunol.org)
- These Mφ cytokines subsequently induce IFN-γ production by NK cells and Th1 lymphocytes. (jimmunol.org)
- It is of importance that Th1 cytokines reverse Th2 cell-facilitating allergic inflammation. (jimmunol.org)
- Although TH1 and TH2 are known to produce powerful cytokines - such as interferon-gamma (IFN-g) and allergy-associated interleukin 4 (IL-4), respectively - they are not inflammatory or associated with production of IL-17, which sets off an errant immune response that results in tissue inflammation. (innovations-report.com)
- Asarinin treatment suppressed the expression of Th1 cytokines and increased the levels of Th2 cytokines (IL-10), TGF-β and Foxp3 in the synovium and hindpaw, however T-bet mRNA levels in synovium decreased. (nii.ac.jp)
- Although these pathognomonic features are mainly mediated by antigen-specific Th2 cells and their cytokines, such as IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13, recent studies have revealed that other inflammatory cells , including Th17 cells and innate lymphoid cells (ILCs), also play a critical role in the pathogenesis of asthma. (nii.ac.jp)
- Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are a heterogeneous collection of lymphocytes that lack antigen-specificity (non-T, non-B cells ) and potently produce characteristic cytokines of T cell subsets (Th1, Th2 , Th17). (nii.ac.jp)
- Th cytokines, also referred to as T-helper cells, are part of the immune system. (redorbit.com)
- This prompted an almost immediate and robust immune response involving Th2 cytokines. (redorbit.com)
- Bezerra examined the blood of children with biliary atresia and found that some of them exhibit high levels of Th2 cytokines. (redorbit.com)
- T cell priming was not impaired nor was a gross imbalance of T helper cell (Th) 1 versus Th2 cytokines observed. (nih.gov)
- They secrete cytokines to stimulate various effector cells, such as cytotoxic T cells, B cells and macrophages. (biolegend.com)
- To keep immune homeostasis, the immune system develops a number of negative feedback mechanisms, such as the production of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10, to dampen excessive production of inflammatory cytokines and uncontrolled activation of immune cells. (omicsonline.org)
- In addition, efforts have been made to develop antibodies that can block IL-17 or cytokines inducing Th17 cell differentiation for the treatment of autoimmune diseases [ 27 - 31 ]. (omicsonline.org)
- IL-10, produced by innate immune cells as well as T and B cells, functions as one of major negative feedback mechanisms to dampen uncontrolled production of inflammatory cytokines and excessive inflammation [ 32 - 40 ]. (omicsonline.org)
- It has been demonstrated that after therapeutic intervention, the resultant regulatory T-cells operate through the production of the immunomodulatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-10 ( 7 - 9 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
- We then demonstrated that MWCNT induced the expression of Th2 cytokines interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-13, and a panel of signature downstream genes, such as Il4i1, Chia, and Ccl11/Eotaxin, time dependently. (cdc.gov)
- Induction of Th2 cytokines took place in CD4+ T lymphocytes indicating activation of Th2 cells. (cdc.gov)
- Additionally, these mice display a state of inflammation as indicated by the high systemic levels of inflammatory cytokines. (aacrjournals.org)
- Since GzmB expression can be inhibited by steroid hormones and corticosteroid levels are often elevated during stress, these findings may explain the increased levels of Th2 cytokines found in astronauts post-flight. (nsbri.org)
- Thus, in contrast to an IL-4 knockout mouse, the IL-4Ra knockout blocks the function of both cytokines. (taconic.com)
- To explore the phenomenon that corneal and conjunctival tissues subjected to desiccating stress (DS) promote Th17 differentiation by stimulating the production of Th17-inducing cytokines through a dendritic cell (DC)-mediated pathway. (arvojournals.org)
- These findings demonstrate that DS creates an environment on the ocular surface that stimulates the production of Th17-inducing cytokines by corneal and conjunctival epithelia that promote Th17 differentiation through a dendritic cell-mediated pathway. (arvojournals.org)
- Ulcerative colitis (UC) is an inflammatory bowel disease, and its pathogenesis includes genetic, environmental, and immunological factors, such as T helper cells and their secreted cytokines. (go.jp)
- Measurement of GATA-3-induced cytokines demonstrated that IL-13 was highly expressed in the colon from DSS-induced GATA-3 Tg mice. (go.jp)
- One workhorse of the adaptive system is the helper T cell, a white blood cell that secretes protein messengers called cytokines to accelerate the immune response. (emaxhealth.com)
- According to Mosmann's model, T cells differentiate into two major sets of helper T cells, Type 1 (Th1) and Type 2 (Th2), each defined by the cytokines they produce. (emaxhealth.com)
- Th2 cytokines include interleukin-4 (IL-4), interleukin-5 (IL-5) and interleukin-13 (IL-13), all of which are useful in immune responses against worms. (emaxhealth.com)
- After 14 days of infection, the study found increased expression of amphiregulin along with higher levels of Th2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-13. (emaxhealth.com)
- Cytokines were determined using mouse T helper (Th)1/Th2 cytokine CBA kits, and total immunoglobulin (Ig)E or IgG2a levels were done using ELISA method. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- HDME exerted anti-inflammatory effects, including suppression of AHR, and reduced expressions of inflammatory cells and cytokines in this murine model, which appears to be suitable for studying the effects of drugs on atypical asthma and COPD, and for screening those on typical asthma. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- CD4+ helper T (Th) cells are important mediators of the immune response through their regulated production of cytokines. (bu.edu)
- Naive CD4+ Th cells differentiate during the course of an immune response to secrete cytokines tailored to promote eradication of the specific pathogenic assault. (bu.edu)
- Two well-studied CD4+ T cell effector subsets, Th1 and Th2 cells, are defined by their ability to secrete the cytokines IFNγ and IL-4, respectively. (bu.edu)
- In contrast, analysis of stomachs from protected immunized mice did not demonstrate elevated levels of mRNA for Th2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13) at 4 weeks after challenge ( 15 ). (asm.org)
- Interleukin-10 (IL-10), a cytokine produced by T-helper-2 (Th2) lymphocytes, macrophages, and other cell types, has numerous anti-inflammatory functions including inhibition of the release of cytokines, chemokines, lipid mediators, and oxidants from neutrophils and macrophages. (ahajournals.org)
- 4 ILC2-derived cytokines in turn activate other cell types and initiate T cell- and B cell-dependent adaptive immune responses. (stemcell.com)
- Different cytokines are also involved in the regulation of the B-cell isotype and subclass switch process ( 3 ). (asm.org)
- Cinnamamides suppressed serum immunoglobulin (Ig) levels and expression of T-helper (Th)1/Th2 cytokines. (bvsalud.org)
- Attenuation of the primary Th1 immune response by immunological inhibition or genetic deletion of Th1 cytokines interferon-γ (IFN-γ) ( 4 , 7 ) and interleukin-12 (IL-12) ( 8 ) or by administration of Th2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-10 ( 9 ) attenuates crescentic GN. (asnjournals.org)
- Separate from NK cells is another subset of cells that produces IFN-γ, but is unable to generate any Th2 or Th17-related cytokines. (biolegend.com)
- When treated with IL-25, these mice could produce IL-5 and IL-13, cytokines normally associated with Th2 cells. (biolegend.com)
- In a different model, a non-B, non-T cell population was found to produce type 2 cytokines upon treatment with IL-25, which defended against helminth infections. (biolegend.com)
- But the researchers found the immune system proteins called cytokines that help to oust intestinal worms in mouse lungs and also initiate a cascade of healing. (jagran.com)
- Natural helper (NH) cells are considered a key factor for virus-induced or exacerbated airway inflammation and airway hyper-responsiveness by producing type 2 cytokines. (ovid.com)
- Furthermore, adoptive transfer of NH cells into neonatal mice was able to boost eosinophilic infiltration as well as the production of type 2 cytokines in the lungs after reinfection at adulthood. (ovid.com)
- Mucosal immunity to Chlamydia trachomatis in a mouse model of female genital tract infection is mediated predominantly by Th1-type cells, as shown by in vivo neutralization of cytokines involved in the Th1 vs Th2 pathways. (jimmunol.org)
- Invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells, a unique subset of T lymphocytes, which recognize glycolipid antigens and secrete a large amount of T helper (Th) 1/Th2 cytokines on activation, function as immunomodulatory cells in the various pathological processes. (ahajournals.org)
- We investigated the influence of CT on T helper (Th)-type 1 (Th1) and Th2 cell-regulated Ag-specific B cell isotype and IgG subclass Ab responses elicited when the toxin was co-administered orally with different protein Ags. (jimmunol.org)
- When mice were orally immunized with tetanus toxoid (TT) and CT as adjuvant, this regimen induced TT-specific secretory IgA responses in the gastrointestinal tract as well as serum IgG, including IgG1 and IgG2b subclasses, and IgA responses. (jimmunol.org)
- To determine whether the route of immunization influenced IgE responses, mice were immunized s.c. with TT and CT as adjuvant. (jimmunol.org)
- Taken together, these results show that CT acts as a mucosal adjuvant to enhance Th2-type responses and in particular, the IL-4 produced results in a characteristic Ab isotype pattern associated with this cytokine. (jimmunol.org)
- Since this parameter varies with the experimental conditions and the T cell population studied, this finding may explain why certain immune responses may be either up- or down-regulated by PGE2 under different conditions. (nih.gov)
- Under different circumstances, natural killer T (NKT) cells can cause a T helper (Th) 1 or a Th2 polarization of immune responses. (pnas.org)
- Our data therefore indicate that Vα14 i NKT cells have a relatively inflexible immediate cytokine response, but that changes in their ability to induce IFN-γ secretion by NK cells may determine the extent to which they promote Th1 responses. (pnas.org)
- C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice demonstrated comparable Vα14 i T cell responses to αGalCer, both by intracellular cytokine staining and serum cytokine levels (see Figs. 2 and 4). (pnas.org)
- Therefore, the progression and severity of the disease are strongly modulated by the host immune response, particularly, T cell responses. (springer.com)
- They activate macrophage and serve as mediators of cell-mediated immune responses, such as delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH), and promote tumoricidal activity. (frontiersin.org)
- To determine whether chitin could down-regulate Th2 responses, chitin was given orally (8 mg/day for 3 days before and 13 days during ragweed allergen immunization) in BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice. (jimmunol.org)
- To dissect the inhibitory mechanisms of Th2 responses, spleen cells (4 × 10 6 cells/ml) isolated from the ragweed-immunized mice (controls) were cultured in the presence of ragweed and/or chitin for 3 days (recall responses). (jimmunol.org)
- Collectively, these results indicate that chitin-induced innate immune responses down-regulate Th2-facilitated IgE production and lung eosinophilia in the allergic mouse. (jimmunol.org)
- These allergen-induced Th2 responses enhance airway hyperreactivity in mouse models, although the mechanism(s) appears to be multifactorial depending on mouse strains ( 3 , 4 , 5 ). (jimmunol.org)
- In contrast, the development of Th1/cell-mediated immunity responses induced by intracellular bacterial infection is characterized by the initial production of IL-12, TNF-α, and IL-18 by macrophages (Mφ) 3 phagocytosing bacteria. (jimmunol.org)
- Whereas iron was dispensable, the porphyrin moiety of heme was sufficient to mediate suppression of STAT1-dependent responses in human and mouse macrophages and promoted liver dissemination of K. pneumoniae in vivo. (jci.org)
- By redirecting the immune responses," explains O'Konek, "our vaccine not only suppresses the response but prevents the activation of cells that would initiate allergic reactions. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- These findings indicate that regulating Notch signaling may have a therapeutic role in treating diseases caused by abnormally increased Th2 responses, such as asthma, autoimmunity, and some forms of inflammatory bowel disease. (news-medical.net)
- This study - published in today's issue of the Journal of Experimental Medicine - suggests that these drugs may be useful in treating diseases typified by increased Th2 responses. (news-medical.net)
- The ability of these same animals to mount strong Th1 responses demonstrates the specificity of the Notch pathway in regulating this important cell type of the immune system. (news-medical.net)
- T helper (Th) cells play important roles in regulating immune responses. (biolegend.com)
- These Prkcq knock-out mice exhibit severely impaired T helper cell (Th2) immune responses as well as abnormal insulin signaling and glucose transport. (jax.org)
- Mature T lymphocytes from null mice have blunted proliferative responses with decreased levels of both IL-2 and IL-2 receptor, and defective T cell receptor-initiated IkappaB-degradation/NF-kappaB activation. (jax.org)
- Homozygous mice exhibit severely impaired Th2, but normal Th1, immune responses as well as abnormal insulin signaling and glucose transport. (jax.org)
- In these studies, type 1 diabetes-protected NOD mice exhibited T H 2 responses to several islet antigens such as insulin and GAD, whereas nonprotected mice produced γ-interferon (IFN-γ) in parallel assays ( 8 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
- This, coupled with exogenous administration of low-dose IL12, obviated the need for host preconditioning, creating curative responses in nonirradiated mice. (aacrjournals.org)
- Genome-wide microarray analyses of the lungs identified a range of differentially expressed genes that potentially function in the acute-to-chronic transition through pathways involving immune and inflammatory regulation, responses to stress and extracellular stimuli, and cell migration and adhesion. (cdc.gov)
- T helper cells, also known as effector T cells, tend to rev up our immune responses, while T regulatory cells tend to suppress or downregulate them. (harvard.edu)
- Standard immunosuppressive drugs reduce transplant rejection by curbing effector T cell responses. (harvard.edu)
- We have found that GzmB-deficient mice develop stronger Th2-type immune responses. (nsbri.org)
- Mice subjected to HU also have increased Th2 responses and serum glucocorticoids. (nsbri.org)
- We are still examining the role of GzmB in immune responses of mice subjected to HU. (nsbri.org)
- Elevated levels of corticosterone were investigated as a possible immunosuppressant mechanism responsible for low Ab responses in the tg mice. (jove.com)
- Prevailing models suggest that T helper type 2 (Th2) responses induced by helminth infection impair Th1 immune responses and thereby limit Mycobacterium tuberculosis ( Mtb ) control. (jci.org)
- Using a pulmonary mouse model of Mtb infection, we demonstrated that S. mansoni coinfection or immunization with S. mansoni egg antigens can reversibly impair Mtb -specific T cell responses without affecting macrophage-mediated Mtb control. (jci.org)
- Studies in mice using the model antigen Ovalbumin, showed that both combinations enhanced lymph node germinal center and T follicular helper cell responses. (nih.gov)
- The triple adjuvant combination showed increased antigen-specific antibody titer with an overall balanced Th1/Th2 response, while the dual combination promoted Th1-polarized IgG responses. (nih.gov)
- Adenosine (ADO), generated by the ectonucleotidase CD39 and CD73 from ATP, interacts with its specific G protein-coupled receptors, which can impair anti-tumor immune responses inhibiting the infiltration and function of CD8 T cell and natural killer cell. (bioportfolio.com)
- Parallel studies comparing the immune responses of BALB/c IL-4 and IL-4Ra mice have revealed a unique role for IL-13 in allergic responses, and susceptibility to infection with Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, Schistosoma mansoni, and to some strains of Leishmania major parasites. (taconic.com)
- T-helper 2 (Th2) cell responses defend against parasites. (gla.ac.uk)
- Although dendritic cells (DCs) are vital for the induction of T-cell responses, the DC subpopulations that induce Th2 cells in the intestine are unidentified. (gla.ac.uk)
- Here we show that intestinal Th2 responses against Trichuris muris worms and Schistosoma mansoni eggs do not develop in mice with IRF-4-deficient DCs (IRF-4f/f CD11c-cre). (gla.ac.uk)
- Adoptive transfer of conventional DCs, in particular CD11b-expressing DCs from the intestine, is sufficient to prime S. mansoni-specific Th2 responses. (gla.ac.uk)
- Surprisingly, transferred IRF-4-deficient DCs also effectively prime S. mansoni-specific Th2 responses. (gla.ac.uk)
- Furthermore, CD11b+CD103+ DCs induce Th2 responses in the small intestine, whereas CD11b+CD103− DCs perform this role in the colon, revealing a specific functional heterogeneity among intestinal DCs in inducing Th2 responses. (gla.ac.uk)
- To differentiate T-helper cell (Th) 1 and Th2 immune responses we used subclasses of IgGs as indicators. (fraunhofer.de)
- Persisting infections in the two mice strains are associated with Th1 and Th2 immune responses, respectively, and differences in the bacterial burden of the lung. (fraunhofer.de)
- Each profile is more effective at attacking certain invaders, with Th1 responses, for example, better against bacteria that live inside cells. (emaxhealth.com)
- Asthma is caused by T-helper cell 2 (Th2)-driven immune responses, but the immunological mechanisms that protect against asthma development are poorly understood. (nature.com)
- Intestinal CD4 + T-cell depletion and the potential for cytokine responses were examined during SIV infection and compared with results for lymphocytes from lymph nodes and blood. (asm.org)
- Thus, severe depletion of CD4 + LPL and IEL in primary SIV infection accompanied by altered cytokine responses may reflect altered T-cell homeostasis in intestinal mucosa. (asm.org)
- HIV infection is characterized by CD4 + T-cell depletion and depressed proliferative and cytokine responses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) to mitogenic or antigenic stimulations. (asm.org)
- Since intestinal T lymphocytes are localized at functionally distinct sites, including intestinal epithelium and lamina propria, it will be important to examine isolated cell populations for their cytokine responses. (asm.org)
- Th1 responses are most effective against intracellular pathogens such as viruses whereas Th2 cells protect against extracellular pathogens including bacteria and fungi. (bu.edu)
- A third subset of CD4+ T cells, called regulatory T cells, are critical for controlling both normal and abnormal (autoimmune) T cell responses. (bu.edu)
- To test the hypothesis that a Th2 response to Helicobacter pylori is necessary for protection and to address the possibility that humoral and Th2 cellular responses may compensate for each other, we generated mice deficient in both interleukin-4 (IL-4) and antibodies. (asm.org)
- This was specific to endotoxin, because acute chemotactic stimuli including N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine elicited similar responses in IL-10 −/− and wild-type mice. (ahajournals.org)
- 5 6 This multitude of anti-inflammatory properties suggests an important role for IL-10 in controlling cell-mediated immune and inflammatory responses. (ahajournals.org)
- Indeed, use of IL-10 in the treatment of steroid-refractory Crohn's disease, which is thought to result from dysregulation of cell-mediated immunity, already has shown promise in initial clinical trials, suggesting that exogenous IL-10 is capable of regulating immune responses in vivo. (ahajournals.org)
- Her research has centred around a population of innate immune cells, known as antigen-presenting cells (APC), that play vital role in initiating immune responses. (malaghan.org.nz)
- A remarkable feature of the mammalian immune system is the way in which immune responses, in particular CD4+ T cell responses, are specifically tailored towards different pathogens and antigens. (malaghan.org.nz)
- My research is focussed on understanding how CD4+ T cell responses are regulated, by studying antigen presenting cells (APC) exposed to material from bacteria, helminths or fungi. (malaghan.org.nz)
- This type of data is crucial to further our understanding how APC influence and instruct CD4+ T cell responses, as well as responses to vaccine preparations. (malaghan.org.nz)
- In addition, I have an interest in CD4+ T cell responses in the context of helminth infection and allergy. (malaghan.org.nz)
- APC are required for the initiation of Th2 responses, but the instructive signals involved in the specific promotion Th2 responses are unclear. (malaghan.org.nz)
- Th2 responses are primed by skin dendritic cells with distinct transcriptional profiles. (malaghan.org.nz)
- Dendritic cells are highly adapted to their role of presenting antigen and directing immune responses. (biomedsearch.com)
- This study was undertaken to examine the effects of LPS inhalation on mast cell functions and allergen-specific immune responses in a murine model of asthma. (ovid.com)
- Allergen-specific T cell responses were further analysed by adoptively transferring OVA-specific CD4+ T cells. (ovid.com)
- LPS inhalation exacerbates airway inflammation, which is accompanied by mast cell activation and enhanced Th2 responses. (ovid.com)
- Acute watery diarrhea caused by Vibrio cholerae O1 and V. cholerae O139 induces strong mucosal and systemic antibody responses to cholera toxin (CT) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS), as well as to other cell surface components, resulting in a long-lasting protection from cholera ( 8 , 10 , 22 , 25 - 27 ). (asm.org)
- CT-mediated infections induce a Th2 type of cytokine response reflected by the production of specific immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1), IgG4, and IgE antibodies ( 16 , 22 , 23 ), as well as interleukin-6 (IL-6) production by mast cells ( 14 ), further showing an induction of inflammatory responses. (asm.org)
- Very little difference in the B-cell responses to LPS and CT in the different subclasses was seen in the two groups of cholera patients. (asm.org)
- The expansion of Th2 cells during allergic responses is IL-4 driven itself raising a ?chicken and egg? (pewtrusts.org)
- We are now testing whether IL-4 producing basophils are the key instigators of Th2-driven allergic responses following mold inhalation in a mouse asthma model. (pewtrusts.org)
- These DCs were functional and could be important regulators of adipose tissue inflammation by regulating the switch toward Th17 cell responses in obesity-associated insulin resistance. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Our lab has had a long-standing interest in T cell responses, particularly human, and one of our main analytical tools has been high-dimensional flow cytometry. (rochester.edu)
- Interleukin-12 (IL-12) directs the cognate nephritogenic T helper type 1 responses that initiate renal injury in murine crescentic glomerulonephritis (GN). (asnjournals.org)
- Neonatal exposure to antigen primes the immune system to develop responses in various lymphoid organs and promotes bystander regulation of diverse T cell specificities. (southernbiotech.com)
- A CD4 + T-cell subset inhibits antigen-specific T-cell responses and prevents colitis. (southernbiotech.com)
- These findings and the related mechanism are very different from the current residing view of activation of specific T helper cell responses," said principal investigator Eyal Raz, MD, professor of medicine. (ucsd.edu)
- Th1 responses target intracellular pathogens, such as viruses and bacteria that have invaded host cells. (ucsd.edu)
- Macrophages are innate immune cells with key roles in immune defense mechanisms, including tissue homeostasis, primary responses to pathogens, immune resolution, coordination of adaptive immune responses, inflammation and tissue repair ( 3 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
- By contrast, M2 macrophages are induced by IL-4 and IL-13, and serve roles in Th1 inflammatory responses and adaptive immunity, enhancement of Th2 inflammatory responses, angiogenesis and tissue repair ( 6 - 9 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
- Fungal and particulate B-glucans…can be taken up by the M cells of Peyer's patches, and interact with macrophages or dendritic cells and activate systemic immune responses to overcome the fungal infection. (betaglucan.org)
- For example, dendritic cells and natural killer cells are thought to link the innate and adaptive immune responses. (qiagen.com)
- These cells show the nonspecific responses to pathogens of the innate immune system, but are also involved in the activation of T and B cells, part of adaptive immunity. (qiagen.com)
- However, immune system dysfunction can also lead to excessive activation, such as mast cell hyperstimulation during allergic responses, or the broad immune system activation caused by septic shock. (qiagen.com)
- The Mouse Innate & Adaptive Immune Responses RT² Profiler PCR Array profiles the expression of 84 genes involved in the host response to bacterial infection and sepsis. (qiagen.com)
- Immunological responses also activate T cells, inducing them to differentiate into a wide variety of subtypes, including cytotoxic T cells and T helper cells. (qiagen.com)
- Cytotoxic T cells recognize and destroy infected cells, and T helper cells communicate with B cells to mediate appropriate immune responses. (qiagen.com)
- The Human Th1 & Th2 Responses RT² Profiler PCR Array profiles the expression of 84 genes involved in T helper cell (Th cell) immune responses. (qiagen.com)
- It follows a study from Bezerra and colleagues published Sept. 29 in Science Translational Medicine, which points to how immune system dendritic cells trigger the initial immune response in a mouse model of biliary atresia. (redorbit.com)
- The September study reported that dendritic cells - which process and transmit signals from the surfaces of tissues to recruit other immune system components - activated natural killer cells in the immune system. (redorbit.com)
- Researchers were able to disable the process be depleting or blocking the signaling activity of plasmacytoid dendritic cells and Interleukin 15. (redorbit.com)
- Low density cells with dendritic morphology were the local source of IL-6 and not the germinal center lymphocytes. (nih.gov)
- Additional investigation revealed that Tc17 plasticity and antitumor activity were mediated by IL12 secreted by irradiated host dendritic cells (DC). (aacrjournals.org)
- We found that exposure to apoptotic cells rendered dendritic cells (DC) capable of producing much greater amounts of nitric oxide in response to exogenous IFN-gamma compared to normal DC. (nsbri.org)
- We evaluated primary bone-marrow-derived Dendritic Cell phenotypes and functionality, and identified several synergistic combinations. (nih.gov)
- Mature pulmonary dendritic cells in the bronchial lymph nodes of mice exposed to respiratory allergen induced the development of T R cells, in a process that required T-cell costimulation via the inducible costimulator (ICOS)-ICOS-ligand pathway. (nature.com)
- The p40 subunit (IL-12p40) is expressed in a highly regulated manner in cells of the immune system, especially macrophages and dendritic cells ( 5 , 36 ). (asm.org)
- Carbon monoxide-treated dendritic cells decrease β1-integrin induction on CD8⁺ T cells and protect from type 1 diabetes. (semanticscholar.org)
- Human dendritic cell subsets. (biomedsearch.com)
- Dendritic cells, monocytes and macrophages traditionally comprise the mononuclear phagocyte system. (biomedsearch.com)
- Dendritic cells (DCs) and T cells were studied in mice and in two cohorts of obese patients. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Such an approach probably depletes dendritic cells (DCs) since CD11c is considered to be a specific marker of mouse DCs ( 10 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
- The role of cAMP formation and action in dendritic cells in the induction of allergic response was really surprising," added co-author Paul Insel, MD, professor of pharmacology and medicine. (ucsd.edu)
- The interplay between airway epithelial cells and the immune cells plays an important role in the pathogenesis of an allergic asthma attack [ 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
- This could be responsible for the beneficial effects of αGalCer treatment of diabetes-prone NOD mice and in experimental allergic encephalomyelitis models ( 18 - 22 ). (pnas.org)
- RMD also downregulated the serum levels of OVA-specific Th1- and Th2 -related antibodies, which were elevated in the food-allergic condition. (nii.ac.jp)
- New research demonstrates how a vaccine can alter the immune response to peanuts in mice, thus effectively stopping an allergic reaction from unfolding. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- In the new research, the scientists hypothesized that rerouting these Th2 cells might help to regulate the allergic immune response. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- To test this hypothesis, O'Konek and colleagues sensitized mice to peanut proteins so that their immune system produced IgE antibodies and their Th2 cells behaved in the same way that they would in an allergic reaction. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Allergic reactions including asthma and atopy are caused by predominance of Th2 response over Th1 response. (nih.gov)
- The skewed T helper (Th) 2 response plays a central role in the pathogenesis of allergic diseases, while its initiating factors remain elusive. (bioportfolio.com)
- Umetsu, D.T. & DeKruyff, R.H. Th1 and Th2 CD4 + cells in human allergic diseases. (nature.com)
- Using mouse models, we aim to uncover signalling pathways that could be potential targets for the treatment and prevention of allergic disease. (malaghan.org.nz)
- IL-4 is produced by Th2 T helper cells present at allergic sites. (pewtrusts.org)
- Researchers at the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine, with collaborators in Korea and Scotland, have identified a novel signaling pathway critical to the immune response of cells associated with the initiation of allergic asthma. (ucsd.edu)
- The Th2 response is more effective against extracellular pathogens (such as bacteria, parasites and toxins that operate outside of cells) and also plays a major role in allergic reactions and related diseases. (ucsd.edu)
- The common form of allergic asthma is associated with an exaggerated Th2 immune response. (ucsd.edu)
- Raz noted that the genetic mouse model developed for the research shares multiple similarities with human allergic asthma, "We are quite optimistic the mice will reveal additional, novel insights into human allergy," he said. (ucsd.edu)
- Such envelopment can be created by first isolating the inner cell mass of blastocysts of the species to be reproduced by immunosurgery, wherein the blastocyst is exposed to antibodies toward that species. (wikipedia.org)
- Because only the outer layer, that is, the trophoblastic cells, are exposed to the antibodies, only these cells will be destroyed by subsequent exposure to complement. (wikipedia.org)
- Before this study, two such different types of effector T helper cells had been known - type I (TH1), linked to the body s response to microbial infection, and type 2 (TH2), which plays a crucial function in production of B cell antibodies and also is associated with development of allergies. (innovations-report.com)
- The vaccine successfully protected the rodents from exposure to peanuts, with tests showing decreased activity of the Th2 cells, as well as decreased IgE antibodies. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Indeed, C3 provided an essential stimulatory signal for wild-type germinal center cells as both monoclonal antibodies that interrupted C3-CD21 interactions and sheep anti-mouse C3 antibodies caused a significant decrease in antigen-specific antibody production. (nih.gov)
- Further differences in lymphokine synthesis between Th1 and Th2 clones revealed by RNA hybridization, functionally monospecific bioassays, and monoclonal antibodies. (els.net)
- The fact that mice lacking antibodies are protected by immunization from Helicobacter infection ( 5 , 12 , 45 ) suggests that the putative Th2 response is cellular rather than humoral. (asm.org)
- To determine whether IL-4 is necessary for protection in the absence of antibodies, we generated mice genetically deficient in production of both IL-4 and antibodies. (asm.org)
- Generation of mice lacking both IL-4 and antibodies. (asm.org)
- Mice genetically deficient in both IL-4 and antibodies (double knockout [DKO]) were generated by breeding female C57BL/6- Igh - 6 tm1Cgn mice (μMT) ( 25 ) (Jackson Laboratory, Bar Harbor, Maine) with male C57BL/6J- Il4 tm1Cgn mice (IL-4 KO) ( 29 ) (Jackson Laboratory). (asm.org)
- Results showing that activation of Th2-type cells in mice treated with anti-immunoglobulin D antibodies or infected with Nippostrongylus brasiliensis also results in gamma delta+ T-cell expansion suggest that this effect of the Th2-type CD4+ cells is a general phenomenon not restricted to infection with L. major. (epfl.ch)
- In preclinical studies, repeated subcutaneous injection of ACI-24 into APPxPS-1 transgenic mice and into cynomolgus monkeys was reported to generate high titers of anti-Aβ IgG1 and IgG2b antibodies, which involve a non-inflammatory Th2 helper cell response. (alzforum.org)
- During an infection, activation of B cells causes them to proliferate, differentiate, and synthesize a variety of potential antibodies to pathogenic antigens. (qiagen.com)
- Mouse macrophage inflammatory protein-2 production and CXCR2 expression were upregulated in OVA-challenged mice, which was attenuated by oral administration of ≥10 mg/kg kaempferol. (hindawi.com)
- These findings suggest that shutting down the activity of these THi cells might stop chronic inflammatory diseases from developing in the first place. (innovations-report.com)
- This action, in turn, stimulates expression of "chemokines," which results in a rush of inflammatory cells into the tissue. (innovations-report.com)
- While RMD was shown to contribute to an increase in goblet cells , RMD did not change the overall inflammatory status when ingested with the egg-white diet. (nii.ac.jp)
- Now, depending on the molecular signature of a child's disease, we can develop new strategies to also target the Th2 immune system with anti-inflammatory agents. (redorbit.com)
- Defects in immune system cells called T helper cells may lead to diseases characterized by a faulty inflammatory response such as autoimmunity and asthma. (news-medical.net)
- Helper T cells fight many types of infectious diseases and are also the cells that regulate tolerance to self and the molecules that cause the pathogenesis of such inflammatory diseases as arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, and asthma. (news-medical.net)
- Accumulating evidence suggests that both innate immune system such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and adaptive immune system such as T cells contribute to the pathogenesis of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases [ 5 - 10 ]. (omicsonline.org)
- The long-chain omega-3 fatty acids EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid) and DHA (docosahexaenoic acid) significantly benefit diverse inflammatory and autoimmune conditions without any specific Th1/Th2 effect. (wellnessresources.com)
- Our study uncovers activation of a Th2-driven immune/inflammatory response during pulmonary fibrosis development induced by MWCNT. (cdc.gov)
- The findings provide novel insights into the molecular events that control the transition from an acute inflammatory response to chronic fibrosis through Th2 functions in CNT-exposed lungs. (cdc.gov)
- IL-17-producing T cells have been identified as key effector cells in a variety of human autoimmune diseases and experimental autoimmune diseases in mouse models, including multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, respiratory disease, systemic lupus erythematosus, psoriasis, systemic sclerosis, chronic inflammatory bowel disease, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, and autoimmune uveitis. (arvojournals.org)
- Cholera has long been considered a classic paradigm of a non-inflammatory toxigenic diarrhoea until observations showed that Vibrio cholerae O1 infection induces an increase in inflammatory cells. (bmj.com)
- Inflammatory cells were counted using a hemocytometer. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- If this balance is disrupted, inappropriate inflammatory processes can result, leading to host cell damage and/or autoimmunity. (mdpi.com)
- T cell tolerance induced by cross-reactive TCR ligands can be broken by superagonist resulting in anti-inflammatory T cell cytokine production. (semanticscholar.org)
- Although cholera is commonly considered to be a noninflammatory secretory disease, ultrastructural studies of the gut in cholera patients have shown increases and activation of inflammatory cells ( 17 ). (asm.org)
- The recent demonstration of IL-12 production by intrinsic renal cells, including mesangial and proximal tubular cells, raises the possibility that IL-12 from nonimmune cells may contribute to inflammatory renal injury. (asnjournals.org)
- The regulation of apoptotic activity in inflammatory cells may be important in the pathogenesis of TMEV-induced demyelinating disease as well as MS. (asm.org)
- ACI-24 is a liposome vaccine that is designed to elicit an antibody response against aggregated Aβ peptides without concomitant pro-inflammatory T cell activation. (alzforum.org)
- Conversely, increasing cAMP levels inhibited the cells' inflammatory response that results in asthma's characteristic symptoms. (ucsd.edu)
- It is generally considered to be a T helper type 2 (Th2) driven inflammatory disorder ( 1 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
- CD40 -/- mice on the C57BL/6 background ( 26 ) were provided by S. Schoenberger (La Jolla Institute for Allergy and Immunology). (pnas.org)
- In 1986, Tim Mosmann, Ph.D., now director of the David H. Smith Center for Vaccine Biology and Immunology at the University of Rochester Medical Center, led a team that first described a new concept for how the immune system might make such choices: the Th1/Th2 Model. (emaxhealth.com)
- T cells are white blood cells that play a variety of roles in the immune system, including the identification of foreign molecules in the body, such as bacteria and viruses, and the activation and deactivation of other immune cells. (innovations-report.com)
- T helper cells are specific T cells that have receptors that recognize and bind to fragments (known as antigens) of the invaders that already have been displayed on the surface of other immune system cells. (innovations-report.com)
- Some patients have a second molecular conductor of disease called Th2 (T helper cell 2) immune system. (redorbit.com)
- However, the mice did mount a healthy Th1 response to an infection by the intracellular parasite Leishmania major, showing that Notch signaling is specifically required for the Th2 arm of the immune system. (news-medical.net)
- Antigen-presenting cells take up pathogens and migrate to the spleen or lymph nodes, where they instruct immature T cells how to differentiate into Th1 or Th2 helper T cells, killer T cells, or other types of immune system cells. (news-medical.net)
- The immune system has two major kinds of T cells. (harvard.edu)
- While turning DEPTOR on in effector T cells didn't inhibit organ rejection, doing so in T regulatory cells was enough to tip the immune system toward long-term transplant survival. (harvard.edu)
- To be effective, the immune system must "decide" which cells and chemicals need to be ramped up to best destroy the invader at hand, be it bacterium, virus or worm. (emaxhealth.com)
- Part of the immune system is adaptive, pumping out vast numbers of immune cells on the hope that one will be the right shape to link up with, and become activated by, any invader encountered. (emaxhealth.com)
- How the mouse immune system reacts to the worms is central to Mosmann's research because mice and humans share the Th1/Th2 immune system divide, because mouse and human roundworm parasites are relatives, and because roundworm infection remains a major threat in the developing world. (emaxhealth.com)
- The current results define amphiregulin for the first time as an important new player in the immune system, in the Th2 immune profile and perhaps in the many disease processes touched by it. (emaxhealth.com)
- However, our understanding is limited with respect to how the intestinal mucosal immune system is involved in the primary HIV infection and whether immunophenotypic and functional alterations in intestinal immune cells are adequately reflected by circulating immune cells in peripheral blood. (asm.org)
- Scientists now report that a signaling molecule called vasointestinal peptide, or VIP, can restore order to the immune system in arthritic mice and even reverse arthritis. (thefreelibrary.com)
- These immune system workhorses come in two forms dubbed Th1 and Th2. (thefreelibrary.com)
- That action is called a Th2 response that involves immune system white blood cells called Type 2 helper T cells. (jagran.com)
- The second is the adaptive immune system in which highly specialized T and B cells eliminate or prevent pathogen growth - and create immunological memory in case of future encounters with the same pathogen. (ucsd.edu)
- These cells allow the adaptive immune system to mount a stronger response upon the next exposure to the pathogen. (qiagen.com)
- In this study, we attempt to evaluate directly this hypothesis by producing Th1 and Th2 T cells from the islet-reactive BDC2.5 TCR transgenic NOD mouse (( 20 )), and then transfer sequentially Th2 and then Th1 T cells into NOD recipients mice. (rupress.org)
- Finally, they developed a transgenic mouse model of asthma and found that, by producing excessive IL-17 in the lung, they were able to produce asthmalike symptoms. (innovations-report.com)
- We used the fatless A-ZIP/F-1 transgenic mouse to dissociate the relative role of each of these underlying factors in the development of cancer. (aacrjournals.org)
- In two cancer models, the classic two-stage skin carcinogenesis protocol and the C3(1)/T-Ag transgenic mouse mammary tumor model, A-ZIP/F-1 mice displayed higher tumor incidence, tumor multiplicity, and decreased tumor latency than wild-type mice. (aacrjournals.org)
- Pubmed ID: 12094019 Effects of growth hormone (GH) levels on the humoral immune response were investigated in metallothionein I (MT)-bovine (b) GH-transgenic (tg) and GH-deficient Ames dwarf (Prop1 df(-/-)) mice. (jove.com)
- Peripheral tolerance in T cell receptor-transgenic mice: evidence for T cell anergy. (semanticscholar.org)
- Therefore, we examined peripheral tolerance in mice transgenic for a T cell receptor specific for a cytochrome c peptide bound to I-Ek. (semanticscholar.org)
- Antigen-specific hyporesponsiveness could be induced in the transgenic mice. (semanticscholar.org)
- Depletion of CD11c + cells by conditional ablation based on transgenic expression of the diphtheria toxin receptor under the control of CD11c promoter normalized insulin sensitivity in obese and insulin-resistant animals ( 9 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
- Mutant mice also have defective regulatory T cell development (very low CD25 expression). (jax.org)
- The first study showed that bolstering populations of T regulatory cells might help people tolerate organ transplants better. (harvard.edu)
- The new study suggests a complementary approach: enhancing and stabilizing T regulatory cells. (harvard.edu)
- The researchers found that boosting DEPTOR in T regulatory cells enabled heart transplants to survive in mice much longer than usual. (harvard.edu)
- In multiple experiments, boosting DEPTOR activity made T regulatory cells more long-lived and functional. (harvard.edu)
- T regulatory cells are not fully functional in autoimmune diseases, he said, so enhancing their stability or activity could help. (harvard.edu)
- T-cell tolerance, induced by respiratory exposure to allergen, can inhibit the development of airway hyperreactivity (AHR), a cardinal feature of asthma, and we show here that regulatory T (T R ) cells can mediate this protective effect. (nature.com)
- Both the development and the inhibitory function of regulatory cells were dependent on the presence of IL-10 and on ICOS-ICOS-ligand interactions. (nature.com)
- Figure 4: Effector function of regulatory T cells is dependent on IL-10 and ICOS. (nature.com)
- We are also interested in determining if Ikaros regulates regulatory T cell development and function. (bu.edu)
- Furthermore CD73 has been found on regulatory T cells. (fishersci.com)
- Protein kinases are one of the largest gene families and have regulatory roles in all aspects of eukaryotic cell function. (ias.ac.in)
- In addition, HIV-1 glycoprotein (gp)160 can directly cause dysfunction of antigenpresenting cells, and HIV-1 can infect CD4 + T cells, which cripples the key elements required to initiate the adaptive immune response to viral pathogens. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- The initial characterisation of both mouse and human T cells described distinct and sharply defined cytokine patterns that were relatively stable and were functionally specialised for successfully attacking different pathogens. (els.net)
- I am working to understand how APC recognise and respond to material from different pathogens and allergens, and ultimately, regulate the function of effector immune cells. (malaghan.org.nz)
- As part of an international collaboration, we have sequenced the genetic information of more than 13,000 individual cells to uncover the early signals APC receive from pathogens and the tissue environment. (malaghan.org.nz)
- We are also applying our tools for deep analysis of pregnancy-induced immune state changes in T cells specific for pathogens, and for paternal antigens expressed on the fetus. (rochester.edu)
- Because T cells consist of a variety of subpopulations, numerous studies have attempted to associate an impaired balance between each T cell subset and periodontal tissue destruction in periodontitis patients. (springer.com)
- LTi (lymphoid tissue inducer) cells are a subset of group 3 ILCs primarily involved with secondary lymphoid organ formation during embryogenesis. (biolegend.com)
- Once the antigen has been bound, these T helper cells become activated, and they morph into "effector" cells which then boost an immune response by secreting "cytokine" molecules such as interleukins and interferons. (innovations-report.com)
- They are completely different from TH1 and TH2 effector cells," says Dong. (innovations-report.com)
- These results demonstrate that the net modulatory effect of PGE2 on the cytokine secretion profile of T cells critically depends on the availability of IL-2. (nih.gov)
- Combinatorial human progenitor cell transplantation optimizes islet regeneration through secretion of paracrine factors. (springer.com)
- There were negative correlations between MCF-7 cell viabilities and IL-10 cytokine secretion levels, as well as IL-10/IL-2 cytokine secretion ratios in the corresponding SCM. (omicsonline.org)
- GSPS, BBPS and RFLPS may be further applied to treat human breast cancer via tumor immunotherapy by increasing the Th2/ Th1 cytokine secretion ratio. (omicsonline.org)
- Mosmann, T.R. & Coffman, R.L. Th1 and Th2 cells: Different patterns of lymphokine secretion lead to different functional properties. (nature.com)
- Moreover, this effect appears to be mediated via the secretion of lymphokines by CD4+ cells with a T-helper 2 (Th2) functional phenotype. (epfl.ch)
- However, we wondered if we transferred Th2 cells before transfer of Th1 cells, we might amplify the protective influence of Th2 cells, and thereby control the subsequent Th1 T cell response. (rupress.org)
- Despite this finding, in vivo priming of mice with the glycolipid antigen recognized by Vα14 i NKT cells resulted in a more Th2-oriented response upon antigen re-exposure. (pnas.org)
- The results from studies of animal models of autoimmune diseases ( 4 - 7 ), as well as in human autoimmune disease patients ( 8 - 11 ), support the hypothesis that Vα14 i T cells and their human homologs may regulate the immune response. (pnas.org)
- However, other mice experiments indicate that an immune response towards xeno-fetuses does not belong to classical cytotoxic T lymphocyte or natural killer cell pathways. (wikipedia.org)
- This study is carried out to investigate the effect of gamma rays on the interplay between Th1/Th2 response, splenocyte lymphoproliferative response to polyclonal mitogenic activators and lymphocytic capacity to produce IL-12 and IL-10 in mice. (frontiersin.org)
- For example, when retrovirally transduced with a fusion construct encoding IgG heavy chain and factor VIII (fVIII) immunodominant domain C2 or A2, B cells are tolerogenic in both naïve and fVIII-primed hemophilic mice (E16, fVIII −/− ) as measured by specific cellular response and inhibitory antibody titers ( Lei and Scott, 2005 ). (frontiersin.org)
- They tested their hypothesis with genetically modified newborn mice that lack the ability to mount a Th1-modulated immune response. (redorbit.com)
- This activation set off a cascade of hyperactive immune response in the newborn mice, worsening the disease. (redorbit.com)
- This occurs as a result of a skewed immune response from immune cells called T helper 2 (Th2). (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Using mice in which Notch signaling could be induced to turn off in mature T cells, the researchers showed that Notch signaling is an important determinant of whether an organism can mount an effective Th2 response. (news-medical.net)
- This orchestration of host response can be applied to a variety of clinical scenarios not only through cell-cell interactions but also through production of bioactive secreted factors. (hindawi.com)
- After cells are infected, there are virus-specific mechanisms that disrupt the normal regulation of immune activation, and HIV-1 can also become latent or infect immunoprivileged sites and remain hidden from the immune response. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- In vivo activation of a T helper 2-driven innate immune response in lung fibrosis induced by multi-walled carbon nanotubes. (cdc.gov)
- In particular, a T helper 2 (Th2)-driven innate immune response was significantly enriched. (cdc.gov)
- The second study found that an imbalance of T helper cells causes an exaggerated immune response that may also contribute to transplant rejection. (harvard.edu)
- OX40, a membrane-bound molecule of the tumor-necrosis-factor-receptor superfamily, is a critical costimulatory receptor during the immune response, especially to T cells, but studies described their presence of OX-40 on neutrophils and monocytes, suggesting a potential role in the activation of immune response. (bioportfolio.com)
- Considered major players in the immune response to infectious organisms, CD4 + T helper (Th) cells also promote systemic and organ-specific autoimmune diseases. (arvojournals.org)
- Although there is some evidence for complete conversion, for example Th1 to Th2, these experiments are normally less conclusive because T cells do not synthesise their entire cytokine repertoire in response to each stimulation. (els.net)
- We also considered the possibility that clearance mechanisms may be redundant and that either a humoral response or a Th2 cellular response could reduce bacterial load. (asm.org)
- Susceptibility of both IL-12p35 −/− and IL-12p40 −/− mice was associated with marginal production of gamma interferon and elevated levels of IL-4 from CD4 + T cells, which indicates Th2 polarization in the absence of IL-12, whereas wild-type mice developed a Th1 response. (asm.org)
- Phagocytic cells are most important in defeating invading cryptococci after opsonization primarily by complement, as the response takes place without prior contact to the pathogen. (asm.org)
- These results suggest that endogenous IL-10 may be a homeostatic regulator of hemodynamic parameters, leukocyte-endothelial cell interactions, and microvascular dysfunction in response to endotoxin and provide potential mechanisms to explain the protective effect of IL-10 against LPS-induced mortality. (ahajournals.org)
- In particular, I am fascinated by a population of innate immune cells, known as antigen-presenting cells (APC), that play an important role in dictating the outcome of an immune response. (malaghan.org.nz)
- LPS-specific antibody-secreting cells (ASC) of both the immunoglobulin A1 (IgA1) and IgA2 subclasses were seen, with the IgA1 ASC response predominating in both V. cholerae O1- and O139-infected patients. (asm.org)
- Adoptive transfer of naive CD4 + T cells in Rag1 −/− mice led to a predominant Th1 response in adipose tissue. (diabetesjournals.org)
- IL-12 chimeric mice showed no attenuation of their systemic cognate immune response to the nephritogenic antigen (sheep globulin), indicated by antigen-specific circulating antibody and cutaneous delayed-type hypersensitivity. (asnjournals.org)
- Why it is that atopic indiviuals react with a TH2 cell dominated immune response upon allergen contact is still not fully understood, but it is believed to be caused by a combination of genetic, epigenetic, and posttranscriptional regulation. (uni-marburg.de)
- A wide array of cells and proteins influences every immune response to a pathogen. (thefreelibrary.com)
- The key findings are that the Th2 response has secondary, potent acute wound-healing effects and that worms can trigger it. (jagran.com)
- T cells are central players in determining a successful outcome in response to such organisms, and therefore the ability to manipulate and even enhance their activation has a wide spread application in the field of medicine. (technologynetworks.com)
- The immune response of humans, mice and other vertebrates consists of two fundamental components. (ucsd.edu)
- Some studies suggest that Notch is important for the Th1 pathway, others suggest both Th1 and Th2. (news-medical.net)
- There appears to be an IL-4-independent induction of IL-4 pathway taking place in NK T cells and also in conventional, naive CD4+ T cells. (taconic.com)
- QIAGEN provides a broad range of assay technologies for T and B cell research that enables analysis of gene expression and regulation, epigenetic modification, genotyping, and signal transduction pathway activation. (qiagen.com)
- In vivo, HDME (3~30 μmol/kg, orally (p.o.)) dose-dependently and significantly attenuated the airway resistance (RL) and increased lung dynamic compliance (Cdyn), and decreased enhanced pause (Penh) values induced by methacholine in sensitized and challenged mice. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- LPS inhalation with OVA resulted in exacerbated airway infiltration, which was not evident in mast cell-deficient mice. (ovid.com)
- To unravel the cause and possible prevention of breast cancer, five potential polysaccharides from guava seed (GSPS), common buckwheat (CBPS), bitter buckwheat (BBPS), red Formosa lambsquarters (RFLPS) and yellow Formosa lambsquarters (YFLPS) were selected to treat human breast cancer MCF-7 cells with direct action or indirect tumor immunotherapy using polysaccharide-treated splenocyte-conditioned media (SCM). (omicsonline.org)
- Lymphodepletion before ACT enhances IFNγ + CD8 + T cell (Tc0)-mediated tumor regression. (aacrjournals.org)
- The adoptive cell transfer (ACT) of ex vivo expanded tumor-reactive T cells is one of the most promising approaches for the treatment of patients with advanced malignancies, such as melanoma and leukemia. (aacrjournals.org)
- We have focused our studies on defining the role of Ikaros in T cell development and function as well as on how Ikaros acts as a tumor suppressor. (bu.edu)
- Ikaros is a tumor suppressor for the lymphocyte lineage in mice. (bu.edu)
- We have shown that Ikaros is required for transcriptional repression of Notch target genes in developing thymocytes and leukemia cells, and hypothesized that this may contribute to Ikaros' mechanistic role as a tumor suppressor. (bu.edu)
- In vitro , renal tubular epithelial cells produce IL-12 mRNA and low levels of IL-12 protein ( 18 ), and mesangial cells produce IL-12 mRNA and protein after lipopolysaccharide or tumor necrosis factor-α stimulation ( 19 ). (asnjournals.org)
- The recent discovery of innate lymphoid cells has revolutionized our understanding of the pathogenesis of immune diseases including allergy and asthma. (nii.ac.jp)
- We evaluated whether pathogenesis of spontaneous diabetes in NOD mice could be accelerated in a similar way when a novel autoantigen was expressed in pancreatic β-cells. (diabetesjournals.org)
- These findings indicate that under certain conditions Th2 T cells may not produce a benign or protective insulitis but rather acute pathology and disease. (rupress.org)
- This, coupled with the current study findings, demonstrate "a compatibility between Th2 and the onset of biliary atresia, and suggest that patient subgrouping in future clinical trials should account for differences in Th2 status," he said. (redorbit.com)
- Our findings establish a direct link between lamin A and PcG epigenetic silencing and indicate that lamin A-dependent muscular dystrophy can be ascribed to intrinsic epigenetic dysfunctions of muscle stem cells. (jci.org)
- These findings show that miRNA-15b targets IFN γ and that it seems to have an effect on IFN-γ expression in T helper cells in atopic asthma. (uni-marburg.de)
- Their findings highlight a variety of genes involved in regulating Th2 development, both verifying the role of those recognized in previous work, and identifying novel factors, such as Pparg and Bhlhe40 . (technologynetworks.com)
- These findings claim that in individuals with RA, TSLP may are likely involved in ACPA creation by B cells. (acmbcb.org)
- We have previously shown that Th2 T cells bearing the same T cell receptor (TCR) as the diabetogenic Th1 T cells invade islets in neonatal nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice but fail to cause disease. (rupress.org)
- These cells express an invariant T cell antigen receptor (TCR) α chain comprised of a Vα14-Jα18 rearrangement and they recognize a nonpolymorphic class I antigen-presenting molecule, CD1d. (pnas.org)
- Moreover, we demonstrated that the tolerogenic effect of peptide-IgG B cells was completely abrogated in anti-IL-10 receptor antibody treated recipients. (frontiersin.org)
- 2000) Follicular B helper T cells express CXC chemokine receptor 5, localize to B cell follicles, and support immunoglobulin production. (els.net)
- The Notch receptor is a transmembrane protein that, like Ikaros, plays an important role in T cell development in the thymus. (bu.edu)
- T cells belong to either the alpha beta+ or gamma delta+ lineage as defined by their antigen receptor. (epfl.ch)
- Several labs simultaneously reported a population of mouse cells expressing NKp46 (also known as a natural cytotoxicity receptor or NCR) that did not resemble normal NK cells. (biolegend.com)
- Researchers in Germany have examined samples from non-virus infected patients and determined that the receptor for SARS-CoV-2 is primarily expressed in certain progenitor cells in the bronchi. (technologynetworks.com)
- Dectin-1:Immune Cell Receptor - Ambati S, Ferarro A, et al, "Dectin-1-Targeted Antifungal Liposomes Exhibit Enhanced Efficacy," MSphere 4(2): e00121-19, PMIC 30760610, March 6 2019. (betaglucan.org)
- containing (7A beta-glucan receptor) in mice and humans. (betaglucan.org)
- Dectin-1:Immune Cell Receptor - Takano T, Motozono C, et al, "Dectin-1 Intracellular domain determines species-specific ligand spectrum by modulating receptor sensitivity," JBC Papers in Press, Manuscrit M117.800847, Aug 28, 2017. (betaglucan.org)
- Titers reached maximum levels at 3-4 weeks post-primary immunization (PPI) and declined gradually through 24 weeks PPI in all groups of mice. (jove.com)
- Bordmann G, Rudin W, Favre N. Immunization of mice with phosphatidylcholine drastically reduces the parasitaemia of subsequent Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi blood-stage infections. (southernbiotech.com)
- The only clue they had was that excess IL-17 molecules are found in arthritic joints, in lungs swollen by asthma and in brain cells that lead to nerve degeneration and the onset of MS. "But we didn t know which T cells were responsible for secreting IL-17," Dong says. (innovations-report.com)
- The scientists don t know what initially sets off activation of the newly discovered T helper cell in diseases such as arthritis and asthma, Dong says. (innovations-report.com)
- They are suitable for use in applications related to T cell development, Th2-mediated disease, asthma, and diabetes. (jax.org)
- This mutant may be suitable for use in studies related to T cell proliferation/signal transduction/immunodeficiency, Th2-mediated disease, asthma, and diabetes. (jax.org)
- Even though T cell plasticity is becoming more important in the context of atopic asthma, TH2 cells still count as one of the main contributing factors in the pathophysiology of the disease. (uni-marburg.de)
- miRNA expression arrays of T helper cells isolated from lungs of mice with acute asthma phenotype showed higher miRNA-15b levels in TH2 cells compared to TH1 and naïve T helper cells. (uni-marburg.de)
- Similar inhibition of Tyk2 activation by kaempferol was observed in OVA-induced mice. (hindawi.com)
- Surprisingly, although cytokine protein was detected only after activation, resting Vα14 i NKT cells contained IL-4 and IFN-γ mRNAs. (pnas.org)
- While exposure of splenocytes suspension to different doses of γ-rays (5, 10, 20 Gy) showed activation in splenocytes stimulated by PWM at 5 Gy then a state of conventional immune suppression that is characterized by being dose-dependent and is manifested by decreased cell proliferation and IL-12 release accompanied by increase in IL-10 production (i.e. (frontiersin.org)
- In order to be transduced, B cells require activation with mitogens such as LPS. (frontiersin.org)
- Using the novel genome editing technique, CRISPR, a team of researchers at the Wellcome Sanger Institute have isolated the genes involved in regulating T helper cell activation. (technologynetworks.com)
- Secondary outcomes include, besides clinical endpoints, amyloid PET scanning with Piramar Imaging's tracer Neuroceq (formerly Bayer's florbetaben), as well as biomarker measures such as MRI volumetry, tau, phospho-tau and Aβ levels in CSF, and measures of T-cell activation. (alzforum.org)
- Both Peyer's patches and splenic CD4+ T cells expressed markedly increased levels of IL-4-specific message, but did not result in changes in IFN-gamma mRNA expression. (jimmunol.org)
- Much to our surprise, we found that Th2 T cells exerted markedly differing effects on NOD recipients depending on the immune status of the recipient mouse. (rupress.org)
- While T helper 2 (Th2) are markedly diminished in IL-4Ra-/- mice, IL-4 production can readily be detected. (taconic.com)
- It seems likely that pulmonary NH cells may play a role in the occurrence, since mice first infected at 1 wk of age developed an additional increase in the number of NH cells as well as IL-5- and IL-13-producing NH cells in the lungs than those first infected as young adults. (ovid.com)
- In fact, an elevated expression of mRNAs for IL-5 and IL-13 in pulmonary NH cells was detected in mice first infected as neonates. (ovid.com)
- BACKGROUND Preclinical experiments have shown that donor blood cells, modified in vitro by an alkylating agent (modified immune cells [MICs]), induced long-term specific immunosuppression against. (jci.org)
- Adding IL-6 in vitro to IL-6-deficient germinal center cells stimulated cell cycle progression and increased levels of antibody production. (nih.gov)
- IL-6 augments proliferation and antibody production by germinal center cells in vitro. (nih.gov)
- Mice were subjected to high-energy Fe-56 ions, and the effects on various lymphocyte populations were determined. (nsbri.org)
- Peripheral CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell populations were significantly lower in tg than in Ntg, df, or Ndf mice. (jove.com)
- T helper 2 (Th2) cell populations were significantly greater in df mice compared to Ntg control mice. (jove.com)
- Thus, high endogenous GH levels inhibit specific Ab production and peripheral T cell populations but not peripheral B cell numbers, Th2 cell populations, or IL-4 or IFN-gamma production. (jove.com)
- Extraction of full information from these rich datasets was very difficult by traditional manual analysis, and this led us to develop new tools for the primary clustering of flow cytometry data into multi-dimensional cell sub-populations. (rochester.edu)
- Mosmann TR , Naim I, Rebhahn J, Datta S, Cavenaugh JS, Weaver JM, Sharma G. SWIFT-scalable clustering for automated identification of rare cell populations in large, high-dimensional flow cytometry datasets, Part 2: Biological evaluation . (rochester.edu)
- They then used a mouse model of MS and demonstrated that they could stop development of the disease with an antibody agent that blocked IL-17. (innovations-report.com)
- Applications Tested: This MUNC33 antibody has been tested by flow cytometirc analysis of mouse lymph node cells or IL-25R-transfected cells. (fishersci.com)
- A test is defined as the amount (µg) of antibody that will stain a cell sample in a final volume of 100 µL. (fishersci.com)
- Antibody blockade experiments showed that in both types of mice, leukocyte rolling was mediated by E-selectin and P-selectin. (ahajournals.org)
- show that lung ILC2s enhance B cell proliferation and antibody production. (stemcell.com)
- Applications Tested: This eBioTY/11.8 (TY/11.8) antibody has been tested by flow cytometric analysis of mouse splenocytes. (fishersci.com)
- Th1/Th2 balance: the hypothesis, its limitations, and implications for health and disease. (wellnessresources.com)
- The Th1/Th2 hypothesis arose from 1986 research suggesting mouse T-helper cells expressed differing cytokine patterns. (wellnessresources.com)
- Some data from the mouse- Helicobacter felis model appear to support this hypothesis. (asm.org)
- Three days after the challenge, the immunized mice with saline (controls) showed increases in serum IgE levels and lung eosinophil numbers. (jimmunol.org)
- A second alteration involved impaired de novo synthesis of C3 both in serum and germinal center cells from IL-6-deficient mice. (nih.gov)
- The panel has been validated for use on serum and cell culture supernatant samples. (biolegend.com)
- To examine the mechanism, mice deficient in apoptosis-inducing genes were tested. (nsbri.org)
- The effect essentially depends on expression of viral immediate early and/or early genes, as binding of ultraviolet light-inactivated virus to the cells had no effect on EGF-R expression. (jove.com)
- CRISPR technology enables scientists to target and cut a cell's genome at a desired location, providing the unique opportunity to remove and explore the role of all the specific genes within one cell. (technologynetworks.com)
- The research team created a genome-wide CRISPR library of 88,000 guides, enabling them to effectively regulate each of the 20,000 genes in mouse Th2 cells. (technologynetworks.com)
- RMD suppressed IL-4 and IL-10 production from splenocytes but not cells from mesenteric lymph nodes. (nii.ac.jp)
- Although the frequency of nucleoprotein-specific CD8 T-cells in the pancreatic draining lymph node was comparable with the frequency of islet-specific glucose-6-phosphatase catalytic subunit-related protein (IGRP)-specific T-cells, more IGRP-specific CD8 T-cells were found both systemically and in the islets where there was a fourfold increase. (diabetesjournals.org)
- In contrast, CD4 + T-cell depletion was gradual in peripheral lymph nodes and blood. (asm.org)
- The time course and severity of CD4 + T-cell depletion in intestinal mucosa compared to peripheral blood or peripheral lymph nodes are not known. (asm.org)
- investigated the evolution of breast cancer spread to lymph nodes by sequencing laser-captured single cells from morphologically distinct areas of primary breast tumors and metastases, revealing that metastatic capability correlated with copy number variations in specific genomic regions. (jci.org)
- Genetically modified B cells are excellent tolerogenic antigen-presenting cells (APCs) in multiple models of autoimmunity. (frontiersin.org)
- Because of alterations in adipose tissue T-cell composition in obesity, we aimed to identify the antigen-presenting cells in adipose tissue of obese mice and patients with insulin resistance. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Antigen-presenting cells produce IL-12 after engagement with activated T cells and co-stimulation via CD40 ligand ( 14 ). (asnjournals.org)
Levels of mRNA1
- Starting in 2010, research groups began to identify cells that have characteristics of lymphoid cells but lack lineage markers (Lin-) and re-arranged antigen specific cell surface receptors. (stemcell.com)
- 1,2 As these cells were identified they were referred to by different names such as natural helper cells, 3,4 nuocytes, 5 innate lymphoid cells 6 and innate helper 2 cells. (stemcell.com)
- 7 In 2013 a uniform nomenclature was proposed to classify these cells as group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s). (stemcell.com)
- Recently, innate counterparts to these lymphoid cells have come into focus. (biolegend.com)
- Termed Innate Lymphoid Cells (ILCs), these cells develop from ID2+ precursor cells and also seem to promote functions associated with T helper cells, but do not share their surface markers (e.g. (biolegend.com)
- Branch-like arterial vessels are sheathed by lymphoid tissues, which constitute the white pulp and consists of T cells (mainly in the periarteriolar lymphoid sheath, PALS) and B cells (mainly in the germinal center, GC). (biomedcentral.com)
- We are interested in understanding the molecular pathways underlying normal blood cell development and how, when these pathways are deregulated, leukemia can result. (bu.edu)
- T helper 2 (Th2) cells are generated in both these circumstances, presumably via similar or overlapping pathways. (malaghan.org.nz)