Th2 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.Th1 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.Helper Viruses: Viruses which enable defective viruses to replicate or to form a protein coat by complementing the missing gene function of the defective (satellite) virus. Helper and satellite may be of the same or different genus.Th17 Cells: Subset of helper-effector T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete IL-17, IL-17F, and IL-22. These cytokines are involved in host defenses and tissue inflammation in autoimmune diseases.T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer: Subpopulation of CD4+ lymphocytes that cooperate with other lymphocytes (either T or B) to initiate a variety of immune functions. For example, helper-inducer T-cells cooperate with B-cells to produce antibodies to thymus-dependent antigens and with other subpopulations of T-cells to initiate a variety of cell-mediated immune functions.Interleukin-4: A soluble factor produced by activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that induces the expression of MHC CLASS II GENES and FC RECEPTORS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and causes their proliferation and differentiation. It also acts on T-lymphocytes, MAST CELLS, and several other hematopoietic lineage cells.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Th1-Th2 Balance: Homeostatic control of the immune system by secretion of different cytokines by the Th1 and Th2 cells. The concentration dependent binding of the various cytokines to specific receptors determines the balance (or imbalance leading to disease).Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Mice, Inbred BALB CCD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Interleukin-17: A proinflammatory cytokine produced primarily by T-LYMPHOCYTES or their precursors. Several subtypes of interleukin-17 have been identified, each of which is a product of a unique gene.Mice, Inbred C57BLB-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory: CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Helping Behavior: Behaviors associated with the giving of assistance or aid to individuals.GATA3 Transcription Factor: A GATA transcription factor that is found predominately in LYMPHOID CELL precursors and has been implicated in the CELL DIFFERENTIATION of HELPER T-CELLS. Haploinsufficiency of GATA3 is associated with HYPOPARATHYROIDISM; SENSORINEURAL HEARING LOSS; and renal anomalies syndrome.T-Lymphocyte Subsets: A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.Interleukins: Soluble factors which stimulate growth-related activities of leukocytes as well as other cell types. They enhance cell proliferation and differentiation, DNA synthesis, secretion of other biologically active molecules and responses to immune and inflammatory stimuli.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Receptors, CXCR5: CXCR receptors isolated initially from BURKITT LYMPHOMA cells. CXCR5 receptors are expressed on mature, recirculating B-LYMPHOCYTES and are specific for CHEMOKINE CXCL13.Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Nuclear Receptor Subfamily 1, Group F, Member 3: An orphan nuclear receptor found in the THYMUS where it plays a role in regulating the development and maturation of thymocytes. An isoform of this protein, referred to as RORgammaT, is produced by an alternatively transcribed mRNA.Interleukin-2: A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.Clone Cells: A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Antibody-Producing Cells: Cells of the lymphoid series that can react with antigen to produce specific cell products called antibodies. Various cell subpopulations, often B-lymphocytes, can be defined, based on the different classes of immunoglobulins that they synthesize.Defective Viruses: Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.Ovalbumin: An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Interleukin-10: A cytokine produced by a variety of cell types, including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; DENDRITIC CELLS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS that exerts a variety of effects on immunoregulation and INFLAMMATION. Interleukin-10 combines with itself to form a homodimeric molecule that is the biologically active form of the protein.Interleukin-5: A cytokine that promotes differentiation and activation of EOSINOPHILS. It also triggers activated B-LYMPHOCYTES to differentiate into IMMUNOGLOBULIN-secreting cells.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.HemocyaninAntigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Immunoglobulin E: An immunoglobulin associated with MAST CELLS. Overexpression has been associated with allergic hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).Satellite Viruses: Defective viruses which can multiply only by association with a helper virus which complements the defective gene. Satellite viruses may be associated with certain plant viruses, animal viruses, or bacteriophages. They differ from satellite RNA; (RNA, SATELLITE) in that satellite viruses encode their own coat protein.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.Immunologic Memory: The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.STAT6 Transcription Factor: A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to INTERLEUKIN-4. Stat6 has been shown to partner with NF-KAPPA B and CCAAT-ENHANCER-BINDING PROTEINS to regulate GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of interleukin-4 responsive GENES.Interleukin-13: A cytokine synthesized by T-LYMPHOCYTES that produces proliferation, immunoglobulin isotype switching, and immunoglobulin production by immature B-LYMPHOCYTES. It appears to play a role in regulating inflammatory and immune responses.T-Box Domain Proteins: Proteins containing a region of conserved sequence, about 200 amino acids long, which encodes a particular sequence specific DNA binding domain (the T-box domain). These proteins are transcription factors that control developmental pathways. The prototype of this family is the mouse Brachyury (or T) gene product.Histocompatibility Antigens Class II: Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.Hemolytic Plaque Technique: A method to identify and enumerate cells that are synthesizing ANTIBODIES against ANTIGENS or HAPTENS conjugated to sheep RED BLOOD CELLS. The sheep red blood cells surrounding cells secreting antibody are lysed by added COMPLEMENT producing a clear zone of HEMOLYSIS. (From Illustrated Dictionary of Immunology, 3rd ed)Germinal Center: The activated center of a lymphoid follicle in secondary lymphoid tissue where B-LYMPHOCYTES are stimulated by antigens and helper T cells (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER) are stimulated to generate memory cells.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Inducible T-Cell Co-Stimulator Protein: A costimulatory receptor that is specific for INDUCIBLE T-CELL CO-STIMULATOR LIGAND. The receptor is associated with a diverse array of immunologically-related effects including the increased synthesis of INTERLEUKIN 10 in REGULATORY T-LYMPHOCYTES and the induction of PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Antigen-Presenting Cells: A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte: Antigens expressed on the cell membrane of T-lymphocytes during differentiation, activation, and normal and neoplastic transformation. Their phenotypic characterization is important in differential diagnosis and studies of thymic ontogeny and T-cell function.T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic: Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Interleukin-23: A heterodimeric cytokine that plays a role in innate and adaptive immune responses. Interleukin-23 is comprised of a unique 19 kDa subunit and 40 kDa subunit that is shared with INTERLEUKIN-12. It is produced by DENDRITIC CELLS; MACROPHAGES and a variety of other immune cellsTrinitrobenzenes: Benzene derivatives which are substituted with three nitro groups in any position.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell: Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Haptens: Small antigenic determinants capable of eliciting an immune response only when coupled to a carrier. Haptens bind to antibodies but by themselves cannot elicit an antibody response.STAT4 Transcription Factor: A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to INTERLEUKIN-12 in T-LYMPHOCYTES. Stat4 is an important signaling molecule for differentiation in TH1 CELLS.Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte: Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.Adjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Immune Tolerance: The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Allergens: Antigen-type substances that produce immediate hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).Antigens, CD4: 55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.Hypersensitivity: Altered reactivity to an antigen, which can result in pathologic reactions upon subsequent exposure to that particular antigen.Adoptive Transfer: Form of passive immunization where previously sensitized immunologic agents (cells or serum) are transferred to non-immune recipients. When transfer of cells is used as a therapy for the treatment of neoplasms, it is called adoptive immunotherapy (IMMUNOTHERAPY, ADOPTIVE).History, 19th Century: Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Interleukin-9: A multifunctional cytokine secreted by primarily by activated TH2 CELLS that may play a role as a regulator of allergic INFLAMMATION. It has been shown to enhance the growth and CELL DIFFERENTIATION of MAST CELLS, and can act on a variety of other immune cells.Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Herpestidae: The family of agile, keen-sighted mongooses of Asia and Africa that feed on RODENTS and SNAKES.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Autoimmune Diseases: Disorders that are characterized by the production of antibodies that react with host tissues or immune effector cells that are autoreactive to endogenous peptides.Immunophenotyping: Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.RNA, Satellite: Small, linear single-stranded RNA molecules functionally acting as molecular parasites of certain RNA plant viruses. Satellite RNAs exhibit four characteristic traits: (1) they require helper viruses to replicate; (2) they are unnecessary for the replication of helper viruses; (3) they are encapsidated in the coat protein of the helper virus; (4) they have no extensive sequence homology to the helper virus. Thus they differ from SATELLITE VIRUSES which encode their own coat protein, and from the genomic RNA; (=RNA, VIRAL); of satellite viruses. (From Maramorosch, Viroids and Satellites, 1991, p143)Pokeweed Mitogens: Proteins isolated from the roots of the pokeweed, Phytolacca americana, that agglutinate some erythrocytes, stimulate mitosis and antibody synthesis in lymphocytes, and induce activation of plasma cells.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.HLA-DR7 Antigen: A HLA-DR antigen that is associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS encoded by DRB1*07 alleles.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Cytotoxicity, Immunologic: The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Major Histocompatibility Complex: The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.Encephalomyelitis, Autoimmune, Experimental: An experimental animal model for central nervous system demyelinating disease. Inoculation with a white matter emulsion combined with FREUND'S ADJUVANT, myelin basic protein, or purified central myelin triggers a T cell-mediated immune response directed towards central myelin. The pathologic features are similar to MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, including perivascular and periventricular foci of inflammation and demyelination. Subpial demyelination underlying meningeal infiltrations also occurs, which is also a feature of ENCEPHALOMYELITIS, ACUTE DISSEMINATED. Passive immunization with T-cells from an afflicted animal to a normal animal also induces this condition. (From Immunol Res 1998;17(1-2):217-27; Raine CS, Textbook of Neuropathology, 2nd ed, p604-5)Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic: A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.Mice, Inbred CBADependovirus: A genus of the family PARVOVIRIDAE, subfamily PARVOVIRINAE, which are dependent on a coinfection with helper adenoviruses or herpesviruses for their efficient replication. The type species is Adeno-associated virus 2.Concanavalin A: A MANNOSE/GLUCOSE binding lectin isolated from the jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis). It is a potent mitogen used to stimulate cell proliferation in lymphocytes, primarily T-lymphocyte, cultures.Mice, Inbred C3HLeishmaniasis, Cutaneous: An endemic disease that is characterized by the development of single or multiple localized lesions on exposed areas of skin that typically ulcerate. The disease has been divided into Old and New World forms. Old World leishmaniasis is separated into three distinct types according to epidemiology and clinical manifestations and is caused by species of the L. tropica and L. aethiopica complexes as well as by species of the L. major genus. New World leishmaniasis, also called American leishmaniasis, occurs in South and Central America and is caused by species of the L. mexicana or L. braziliensis complexes.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Genes, MHC Class II: Genetic loci in the vertebrate major histocompatibility complex that encode polymorphic products which control the immune response to specific antigens. The genes are found in the HLA-D region in humans and in the I region in mice.Receptors, Interleukin: Cell surface proteins that bind interleukins and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.Cell SeparationLeukocyte Count: The number of WHITE BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in venous BLOOD. A differential leukocyte count measures the relative numbers of the different types of white cells.Receptors, Interleukin-12: Cell surface receptors for INTERLEUKIN-12. They exist as dimers of beta 1 and beta 2 subunits. Signaling from interleukin-12 receptors occurs through their interaction with JANUS KINASES.History, 17th Century: Time period from 1601 through 1700 of the common era.Immunoglobulins: Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Antigens, CD3: Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).Potyvirus: A large genus of plant viruses of the family POTYVIRIDAE which infect mainly plants of the Solanaceae. Transmission is primarily by aphids in a non-persistent manner. The type species is potato virus Y.Antigen Presentation: The process by which antigen is presented to lymphocytes in a form they can recognize. This is performed by antigen presenting cells (APCs). Some antigens require processing before they can be recognized. Antigen processing consists of ingestion and partial digestion of the antigen by the APC, followed by presentation of fragments on the cell surface. (From Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Lymphocyte Culture Test, Mixed: Measure of histocompatibility at the HL-A locus. Peripheral blood lymphocytes from two individuals are mixed together in tissue culture for several days. Lymphocytes from incompatible individuals will stimulate each other to proliferate significantly (measured by tritiated thymidine uptake) whereas those from compatible individuals will not. In the one-way MLC test, the lymphocytes from one of the individuals are inactivated (usually by treatment with MITOMYCIN or radiation) thereby allowing only the untreated remaining population of cells to proliferate in response to foreign histocompatibility antigens.H-2 Antigens: The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-maf: Maf proto-oncogene protein is the major cellular homolog of the V-MAF ONCOGENE PROTEIN. It was the first of the mammalian MAF TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS identified, and it is induced in activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and regulates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of INTERLEUKIN-4. c-maf is frequently translocated to an immunoglobulin locus in MULTIPLE MYELOMA.HLA-DR Antigens: A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Hypersensitivity, Delayed: An increased reactivity to specific antigens mediated not by antibodies but by cells.History, 18th Century: Time period from 1701 through 1800 of the common era.Interleukin-18: A cytokine which resembles IL-1 structurally and IL-12 functionally. It enhances the cytotoxic activity of NK CELLS and CYTOTOXIC T-LYMPHOCYTES, and appears to play a role both as neuroimmunomodulator and in the induction of mucosal immunity.Autoimmunity: Process whereby the immune system reacts against the body's own tissues. Autoimmunity may produce or be caused by AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Leukocytes, Mononuclear: Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Histocompatibility Antigens: A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.CD40 Ligand: A membrane glycoprotein and differentiation antigen expressed on the surface of T-cells that binds to CD40 ANTIGENS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and induces their proliferation. Mutation of the gene for CD40 ligand is a cause of HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 1.Forkhead Transcription Factors: A subclass of winged helix DNA-binding proteins that share homology with their founding member fork head protein, Drosophila.Lymphocyte Count: The number of LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD.Mice, Inbred DBAModels, Immunological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of immune system, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electrical equipment.Antigens, CD8: Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Coculture Techniques: A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.Cell Communication: Any of several ways in which living cells of an organism communicate with one another, whether by direct contact between cells or by means of chemical signals carried by neurotransmitter substances, hormones, and cyclic AMP.Asthma: A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).Immunoglobulin Idiotypes: Unique genetically-controlled determinants present on ANTIBODIES whose specificity is limited to a single group of proteins (e.g., another antibody molecule or an individual myeloma protein). The idiotype appears to represent the antigenicity of the antigen-binding site of the antibody and to be genetically codetermined with it. The idiotypic determinants have been precisely located to the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION of both immunoglobin polypeptide chains.Immunity, Innate: The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Isoantigens: Antigens that exist in alternative (allelic) forms in a single species. When an isoantigen is encountered by species members who lack it, an immune response is induced. Typical isoantigens are the BLOOD GROUP ANTIGENS.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Cell Lineage: The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.Killer Cells, Natural: Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)History, 15th Century: Time period from 1401 through 1500 of the common era.Antigens, Helminth: Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.Immunosuppression: Deliberate prevention or diminution of the host's immune response. It may be nonspecific as in the administration of immunosuppressive agents (drugs or radiation) or by lymphocyte depletion or may be specific as in desensitization or the simultaneous administration of antigen and immunosuppressive drugs.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Receptors, Interleukin-4: Receptors present on a wide variety of hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cell types that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-4. They are involved in signaling a variety of immunological responses related to allergic INFLAMMATION including the differentiation of TH2 CELLS and the regulation of IMMUNOGLOBULIN E production. Two subtypes of receptors exist and are referred to as the TYPE I INTERLEUKIN-4 RECEPTOR and the TYPE II INTERLEUKIN-4 RECEPTOR. Each receptor subtype is defined by its unique subunit composition.Eosinophils: Granular leukocytes with a nucleus that usually has two lobes connected by a slender thread of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing coarse, round granules that are uniform in size and stainable by eosin.Retroviridae: Family of RNA viruses that infects birds and mammals and encodes the enzyme reverse transcriptase. The family contains seven genera: DELTARETROVIRUS; LENTIVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE B, MAMMALIAN; ALPHARETROVIRUS; GAMMARETROVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE D; and SPUMAVIRUS. A key feature of retrovirus biology is the synthesis of a DNA copy of the genome which is integrated into cellular DNA. After integration it is sometimes not expressed but maintained in a latent state (PROVIRUSES).Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Friend murine leukemia virus: A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) producing leukemia of the reticulum-cell type with massive infiltration of liver, spleen, and bone marrow. It infects DBA/2 and Swiss mice.Thymus Gland: A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.Lymphocyte Subsets: A classification of lymphocytes based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.Respiratory Hypersensitivity: A form of hypersensitivity affecting the respiratory tract. It includes ASTHMA and RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.History, 16th Century: Time period from 1501 through 1600 of the common era.Nesting Behavior: Animal behavior associated with the nest; includes construction, effects of size and material; behavior of the adult during the nesting period and the effect of the nest on the behavior of the young.Dermatitis, Atopic: A chronic inflammatory genetically determined disease of the skin marked by increased ability to form reagin (IgE), with increased susceptibility to allergic rhinitis and asthma, and hereditary disposition to a lowered threshold for pruritus. It is manifested by lichenification, excoriation, and crusting, mainly on the flexural surfaces of the elbow and knee. In infants it is known as infantile eczema.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Genes, Viral: The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.Strongylida Infections: Infections with nematodes of the order STRONGYLIDA.Vaccines, DNA: Recombinant DNA vectors encoding antigens administered for the prevention or treatment of disease. The host cells take up the DNA, express the antigen, and present it to the immune system in a manner similar to that which would occur during natural infection. This induces humoral and cellular immune responses against the encoded antigens. The vector is called naked DNA because there is no need for complex formulations or delivery agents; the plasmid is injected in saline or other buffers.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Immunity: Nonsusceptibility to the invasive or pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or to the toxic effect of antigenic substances.Immunoglobulin Isotypes: The classes of immunoglobulins found in any species of animal. In man there are nine classes that migrate in five different groups in electrophoresis; they each consist of two light and two heavy protein chains, and each group has distinguishing structural and functional properties.Mice, Inbred AKRMice, Inbred AReceptors, CCR4: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL17 and CHEMOKINE CCL22. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; MAST CELLS; DENDRITIC CELLS; and NK CELLS.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Interleukin-6: A cytokine that stimulates the growth and differentiation of B-LYMPHOCYTES and is also a growth factor for HYBRIDOMAS and plasmacytomas. It is produced by many different cells including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.Interleukin-12: A heterodimeric cytokine that plays a role in innate and adaptive immune responses. Interleukin-12 is a 70 kDa protein that is composed of covalently linked 40 kDa and 35 kDa subunits. It is produced by DENDRITIC CELLS; MACROPHAGES and a variety of other immune cells and plays a role in the stimulation of INTERFERON-GAMMA production by T-LYMPHOCYTES and NATURAL KILLER CELLS.gamma-Globulins: Serum globulins that migrate to the gamma region (most positively charged) upon ELECTROPHORESIS. At one time, gamma-globulins came to be used as a synonym for immunoglobulins since most immunoglobulins are gamma globulins and conversely most gamma globulins are immunoglobulins. But since some immunoglobulins exhibit an alpha or beta electrophoretic mobility, that usage is in decline.Adaptive Immunity: Protection from an infectious disease agent that is mediated by B- and T- LYMPHOCYTES following exposure to specific antigen, and characterized by IMMUNOLOGIC MEMORY. It can result from either previous infection with that agent or vaccination (IMMUNITY, ACTIVE), or transfer of antibody or lymphocytes from an immune donor (IMMUNIZATION, PASSIVE).Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Lymphokines: Soluble protein factors generated by activated lymphocytes that affect other cells, primarily those involved in cellular immunity.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Antigens, CD40: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Antigens, CD45: High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Immunity, Mucosal: Nonsusceptibility to the pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or antigenic substances as a result of antibody secretions of the mucous membranes. Mucosal epithelia in the gastrointestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts produce a form of IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) that serves to protect these ports of entry into the body.Leukemia Virus, Murine: Species of GAMMARETROVIRUS, containing many well-defined strains, producing leukemia in mice. Disease is commonly induced by injecting filtrates of propagable tumors into newborn mice.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Antigens, Ly: A group of lymphocyte surface antigens located on mouse LYMPHOCYTES. Specific Ly antigens are useful markers for distinguishing subpopulations of lymphocytes.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, alpha-beta: T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.Viral Interference: A phenomenon in which infection by a first virus results in resistance of cells or tissues to infection by a second, unrelated virus.Mice, Mutant Strains: Mice bearing mutant genes which are phenotypically expressed in the animals.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Tetanus ToxoidReticuloendotheliosis virus: A species in the group RETICULOENDOTHELIOSIS VIRUSES, AVIAN of the genus GAMMARETROVIRUS that causes a chronic neoplastic and a more acute immunosuppressive disease in fowl.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Hybridomas: Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Lymphoid Tissue: Specialized tissues that are components of the lymphatic system. They provide fixed locations within the body where a variety of LYMPHOCYTES can form, mature and multiply. The lymphoid tissues are connected by a network of LYMPHATIC VESSELS.
  • CD40 -/- mice on the C57BL/6 background ( 26 ) were provided by S. Schoenberger (La Jolla Institute for Allergy and Immunology). (pnas.org)
  • In 1986, Tim Mosmann, Ph.D., now director of the David H. Smith Center for Vaccine Biology and Immunology at the University of Rochester Medical Center, led a team that first described a new concept for how the immune system might make such choices: the Th1/Th2 Model. (emaxhealth.com)
  • In addition, HIV-1 glycoprotein (gp)160 can directly cause dysfunction of antigenpresenting cells, and HIV-1 can infect CD4 + T cells, which cripples the key elements required to initiate the adaptive immune response to viral pathogens. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The initial characterisation of both mouse and human T cells described distinct and sharply defined cytokine patterns that were relatively stable and were functionally specialised for successfully attacking different pathogens. (els.net)
  • I am working to understand how APC recognise and respond to material from different pathogens and allergens, and ultimately, regulate the function of effector immune cells. (malaghan.org.nz)
  • As part of an international collaboration, we have sequenced the genetic information of more than 13,000 individual cells to uncover the early signals APC receive from pathogens and the tissue environment. (malaghan.org.nz)
  • We are also applying our tools for deep analysis of pregnancy-induced immune state changes in T cells specific for pathogens, and for paternal antigens expressed on the fetus. (rochester.edu)
  • In addition, HDME (3~30 μmol/kg, p.o.) dose-dependently and significantly suppressed total and ovalbumin-specific immunoglobulin (Ig)E levels in the BALF and serum, and enhanced IgG2a level in the serum of these mice. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Because T cells consist of a variety of subpopulations, numerous studies have attempted to associate an impaired balance between each T cell subset and periodontal tissue destruction in periodontitis patients. (springer.com)
  • LTi (lymphoid tissue inducer) cells are a subset of group 3 ILCs primarily involved with secondary lymphoid organ formation during embryogenesis. (biolegend.com)
  • However, we wondered if we transferred Th2 cells before transfer of Th1 cells, we might amplify the protective influence of Th2 cells, and thereby control the subsequent Th1 T cell response. (rupress.org)
  • Despite this finding, in vivo priming of mice with the glycolipid antigen recognized by Vα14 i NKT cells resulted in a more Th2-oriented response upon antigen re-exposure. (pnas.org)
  • The results from studies of animal models of autoimmune diseases ( 4 - 7 ), as well as in human autoimmune disease patients ( 8 - 11 ), support the hypothesis that Vα14 i T cells and their human homologs may regulate the immune response. (pnas.org)
  • However, other mice experiments indicate that an immune response towards xeno-fetuses does not belong to classical cytotoxic T lymphocyte or natural killer cell pathways. (wikipedia.org)
  • This study is carried out to investigate the effect of gamma rays on the interplay between Th1/Th2 response, splenocyte lymphoproliferative response to polyclonal mitogenic activators and lymphocytic capacity to produce IL-12 and IL-10 in mice. (frontiersin.org)
  • For example, when retrovirally transduced with a fusion construct encoding IgG heavy chain and factor VIII (fVIII) immunodominant domain C2 or A2, B cells are tolerogenic in both naïve and fVIII-primed hemophilic mice (E16, fVIII −/− ) as measured by specific cellular response and inhibitory antibody titers ( Lei and Scott, 2005 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • They tested their hypothesis with genetically modified newborn mice that lack the ability to mount a Th1-modulated immune response. (redorbit.com)
  • This activation set off a cascade of hyperactive immune response in the newborn mice, worsening the disease. (redorbit.com)
  • This occurs as a result of a skewed immune response from immune cells called T helper 2 (Th2). (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Using mice in which Notch signaling could be induced to turn off in mature T cells, the researchers showed that Notch signaling is an important determinant of whether an organism can mount an effective Th2 response. (news-medical.net)
  • This orchestration of host response can be applied to a variety of clinical scenarios not only through cell-cell interactions but also through production of bioactive secreted factors. (hindawi.com)
  • After cells are infected, there are virus-specific mechanisms that disrupt the normal regulation of immune activation, and HIV-1 can also become latent or infect immunoprivileged sites and remain hidden from the immune response. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • In vivo activation of a T helper 2-driven innate immune response in lung fibrosis induced by multi-walled carbon nanotubes. (cdc.gov)
  • In particular, a T helper 2 (Th2)-driven innate immune response was significantly enriched. (cdc.gov)
  • The second study found that an imbalance of T helper cells causes an exaggerated immune response that may also contribute to transplant rejection. (harvard.edu)
  • OX40, a membrane-bound molecule of the tumor-necrosis-factor-receptor superfamily, is a critical costimulatory receptor during the immune response, especially to T cells, but studies described their presence of OX-40 on neutrophils and monocytes, suggesting a potential role in the activation of immune response. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Considered major players in the immune response to infectious organisms, CD4 + T helper (Th) cells also promote systemic and organ-specific autoimmune diseases. (arvojournals.org)
  • Although there is some evidence for complete conversion, for example Th1 to Th2, these experiments are normally less conclusive because T cells do not synthesise their entire cytokine repertoire in response to each stimulation. (els.net)
  • We also considered the possibility that clearance mechanisms may be redundant and that either a humoral response or a Th2 cellular response could reduce bacterial load. (asm.org)
  • Susceptibility of both IL-12p35 −/− and IL-12p40 −/− mice was associated with marginal production of gamma interferon and elevated levels of IL-4 from CD4 + T cells, which indicates Th2 polarization in the absence of IL-12, whereas wild-type mice developed a Th1 response. (asm.org)
  • Phagocytic cells are most important in defeating invading cryptococci after opsonization primarily by complement, as the response takes place without prior contact to the pathogen. (asm.org)
  • These results suggest that endogenous IL-10 may be a homeostatic regulator of hemodynamic parameters, leukocyte-endothelial cell interactions, and microvascular dysfunction in response to endotoxin and provide potential mechanisms to explain the protective effect of IL-10 against LPS-induced mortality. (ahajournals.org)
  • In particular, I am fascinated by a population of innate immune cells, known as antigen-presenting cells (APC), that play an important role in dictating the outcome of an immune response. (malaghan.org.nz)
  • LPS-specific antibody-secreting cells (ASC) of both the immunoglobulin A1 (IgA1) and IgA2 subclasses were seen, with the IgA1 ASC response predominating in both V. cholerae O1- and O139-infected patients. (asm.org)
  • Adoptive transfer of naive CD4 + T cells in Rag1 −/− mice led to a predominant Th1 response in adipose tissue. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • IL-12 chimeric mice showed no attenuation of their systemic cognate immune response to the nephritogenic antigen (sheep globulin), indicated by antigen-specific circulating antibody and cutaneous delayed-type hypersensitivity. (asnjournals.org)
  • Why it is that atopic indiviuals react with a TH2 cell dominated immune response upon allergen contact is still not fully understood, but it is believed to be caused by a combination of genetic, epigenetic, and posttranscriptional regulation. (uni-marburg.de)
  • A wide array of cells and proteins influences every immune response to a pathogen. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • The key findings are that the Th2 response has secondary, potent acute wound-healing effects and that worms can trigger it. (jagran.com)
  • T cells are central players in determining a successful outcome in response to such organisms, and therefore the ability to manipulate and even enhance their activation has a wide spread application in the field of medicine. (technologynetworks.com)
  • The immune response of humans, mice and other vertebrates consists of two fundamental components. (ucsd.edu)
  • In vivo, HDME (3~30 μmol/kg, orally (p.o.)) dose-dependently and significantly attenuated the airway resistance (RL) and increased lung dynamic compliance (Cdyn), and decreased enhanced pause (Penh) values induced by methacholine in sensitized and challenged mice. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • LPS inhalation with OVA resulted in exacerbated airway infiltration, which was not evident in mast cell-deficient mice. (ovid.com)
  • To unravel the cause and possible prevention of breast cancer, five potential polysaccharides from guava seed (GSPS), common buckwheat (CBPS), bitter buckwheat (BBPS), red Formosa lambsquarters (RFLPS) and yellow Formosa lambsquarters (YFLPS) were selected to treat human breast cancer MCF-7 cells with direct action or indirect tumor immunotherapy using polysaccharide-treated splenocyte-conditioned media (SCM). (omicsonline.org)
  • Lymphodepletion before ACT enhances IFNγ + CD8 + T cell (Tc0)-mediated tumor regression. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The adoptive cell transfer (ACT) of ex vivo expanded tumor-reactive T cells is one of the most promising approaches for the treatment of patients with advanced malignancies, such as melanoma and leukemia. (aacrjournals.org)
  • We have focused our studies on defining the role of Ikaros in T cell development and function as well as on how Ikaros acts as a tumor suppressor. (bu.edu)
  • Ikaros is a tumor suppressor for the lymphocyte lineage in mice. (bu.edu)
  • We have shown that Ikaros is required for transcriptional repression of Notch target genes in developing thymocytes and leukemia cells, and hypothesized that this may contribute to Ikaros' mechanistic role as a tumor suppressor. (bu.edu)
  • In vitro , renal tubular epithelial cells produce IL-12 mRNA and low levels of IL-12 protein ( 18 ), and mesangial cells produce IL-12 mRNA and protein after lipopolysaccharide or tumor necrosis factor-α stimulation ( 19 ). (asnjournals.org)
  • These findings indicate that under certain conditions Th2 T cells may not produce a benign or protective insulitis but rather acute pathology and disease. (rupress.org)
  • This, coupled with the current study findings, demonstrate "a compatibility between Th2 and the onset of biliary atresia, and suggest that patient subgrouping in future clinical trials should account for differences in Th2 status," he said. (redorbit.com)
  • Our findings establish a direct link between lamin A and PcG epigenetic silencing and indicate that lamin A-dependent muscular dystrophy can be ascribed to intrinsic epigenetic dysfunctions of muscle stem cells. (jci.org)
  • These findings show that miRNA-15b targets IFN γ and that it seems to have an effect on IFN-γ expression in T helper cells in atopic asthma. (uni-marburg.de)
  • Their findings highlight a variety of genes involved in regulating Th2 development, both verifying the role of those recognized in previous work, and identifying novel factors, such as Pparg and Bhlhe40 . (technologynetworks.com)
  • These findings claim that in individuals with RA, TSLP may are likely involved in ACPA creation by B cells. (acmbcb.org)
  • We have previously shown that Th2 T cells bearing the same T cell receptor (TCR) as the diabetogenic Th1 T cells invade islets in neonatal nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice but fail to cause disease. (rupress.org)
  • These cells express an invariant T cell antigen receptor (TCR) α chain comprised of a Vα14-Jα18 rearrangement and they recognize a nonpolymorphic class I antigen-presenting molecule, CD1d. (pnas.org)
  • Moreover, we demonstrated that the tolerogenic effect of peptide-IgG B cells was completely abrogated in anti-IL-10 receptor antibody treated recipients. (frontiersin.org)
  • 2000) Follicular B helper T cells express CXC chemokine receptor 5, localize to B cell follicles, and support immunoglobulin production. (els.net)
  • The Notch receptor is a transmembrane protein that, like Ikaros, plays an important role in T cell development in the thymus. (bu.edu)
  • T cells belong to either the alpha beta+ or gamma delta+ lineage as defined by their antigen receptor. (epfl.ch)
  • Several labs simultaneously reported a population of mouse cells expressing NKp46 (also known as a natural cytotoxicity receptor or NCR) that did not resemble normal NK cells. (biolegend.com)
  • Researchers in Germany have examined samples from non-virus infected patients and determined that the receptor for SARS-CoV-2 is primarily expressed in certain progenitor cells in the bronchi. (technologynetworks.com)
  • Dectin-1:Immune Cell Receptor - Ambati S, Ferarro A, et al, "Dectin-1-Targeted Antifungal Liposomes Exhibit Enhanced Efficacy," MSphere 4(2): e00121-19, PMIC 30760610, March 6 2019. (betaglucan.org)
  • containing (7A beta-glucan receptor) in mice and humans. (betaglucan.org)
  • Dectin-1:Immune Cell Receptor - Takano T, Motozono C, et al, "Dectin-1 Intracellular domain determines species-specific ligand spectrum by modulating receptor sensitivity," JBC Papers in Press, Manuscrit M117.800847, Aug 28, 2017. (betaglucan.org)
  • Titers reached maximum levels at 3-4 weeks post-primary immunization (PPI) and declined gradually through 24 weeks PPI in all groups of mice. (jove.com)
  • Bordmann G, Rudin W, Favre N. Immunization of mice with phosphatidylcholine drastically reduces the parasitaemia of subsequent Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi blood-stage infections. (southernbiotech.com)
  • The only clue they had was that excess IL-17 molecules are found in arthritic joints, in lungs swollen by asthma and in brain cells that lead to nerve degeneration and the onset of MS. "But we didn t know which T cells were responsible for secreting IL-17," Dong says. (innovations-report.com)
  • The scientists don t know what initially sets off activation of the newly discovered T helper cell in diseases such as arthritis and asthma, Dong says. (innovations-report.com)
  • They are suitable for use in applications related to T cell development, Th2-mediated disease, asthma, and diabetes. (jax.org)
  • This mutant may be suitable for use in studies related to T cell proliferation/signal transduction/immunodeficiency, Th2-mediated disease, asthma, and diabetes. (jax.org)
  • Even though T cell plasticity is becoming more important in the context of atopic asthma, TH2 cells still count as one of the main contributing factors in the pathophysiology of the disease. (uni-marburg.de)
  • miRNA expression arrays of T helper cells isolated from lungs of mice with acute asthma phenotype showed higher miRNA-15b levels in TH2 cells compared to TH1 and naïve T helper cells. (uni-marburg.de)
  • Similar inhibition of Tyk2 activation by kaempferol was observed in OVA-induced mice. (hindawi.com)
  • Surprisingly, although cytokine protein was detected only after activation, resting Vα14 i NKT cells contained IL-4 and IFN-γ mRNAs. (pnas.org)
  • While exposure of splenocytes suspension to different doses of γ-rays (5, 10, 20 Gy) showed activation in splenocytes stimulated by PWM at 5 Gy then a state of conventional immune suppression that is characterized by being dose-dependent and is manifested by decreased cell proliferation and IL-12 release accompanied by increase in IL-10 production (i.e. (frontiersin.org)
  • In order to be transduced, B cells require activation with mitogens such as LPS. (frontiersin.org)
  • Using the novel genome editing technique, CRISPR, a team of researchers at the Wellcome Sanger Institute have isolated the genes involved in regulating T helper cell activation. (technologynetworks.com)
  • Secondary outcomes include, besides clinical endpoints, amyloid PET scanning with Piramar Imaging's tracer Neuroceq (formerly Bayer's florbetaben), as well as biomarker measures such as MRI volumetry, tau, phospho-tau and Aβ levels in CSF, and measures of T-cell activation. (alzforum.org)
  • An involvement of mast cells has been suggested, as lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-induced cytokine production from mast cells in vitro. (ovid.com)
  • It seems likely that pulmonary NH cells may play a role in the occurrence, since mice first infected at 1 wk of age developed an additional increase in the number of NH cells as well as IL-5- and IL-13-producing NH cells in the lungs than those first infected as young adults. (ovid.com)
  • In fact, an elevated expression of mRNAs for IL-5 and IL-13 in pulmonary NH cells was detected in mice first infected as neonates. (ovid.com)
  • All mice were maintained under specific pathogen-free conditions. (pnas.org)
  • Mice were specific pathogen free, housed in autoclaved static microisolator cages, and provided with water and sterile Teclad chow ad libitum. (asm.org)
  • To examine the mechanism, mice deficient in apoptosis-inducing genes were tested. (nsbri.org)
  • The effect essentially depends on expression of viral immediate early and/or early genes, as binding of ultraviolet light-inactivated virus to the cells had no effect on EGF-R expression. (jove.com)
  • CRISPR technology enables scientists to target and cut a cell's genome at a desired location, providing the unique opportunity to remove and explore the role of all the specific genes within one cell. (technologynetworks.com)
  • The research team created a genome-wide CRISPR library of 88,000 guides, enabling them to effectively regulate each of the 20,000 genes in mouse Th2 cells. (technologynetworks.com)
  • RMD suppressed IL-4 and IL-10 production from splenocytes but not cells from mesenteric lymph nodes. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Although the frequency of nucleoprotein-specific CD8 T-cells in the pancreatic draining lymph node was comparable with the frequency of islet-specific glucose-6-phosphatase catalytic subunit-related protein (IGRP)-specific T-cells, more IGRP-specific CD8 T-cells were found both systemically and in the islets where there was a fourfold increase. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In contrast, CD4 + T-cell depletion was gradual in peripheral lymph nodes and blood. (asm.org)
  • The time course and severity of CD4 + T-cell depletion in intestinal mucosa compared to peripheral blood or peripheral lymph nodes are not known. (asm.org)
  • investigated the evolution of breast cancer spread to lymph nodes by sequencing laser-captured single cells from morphologically distinct areas of primary breast tumors and metastases, revealing that metastatic capability correlated with copy number variations in specific genomic regions. (jci.org)
  • Concise review: Immunomodulatory properties of mesenchymal stem cells in cellular transplantation: Update, controversies, and unknowns. (springer.com)