Luciferases: Enzymes that oxidize certain LUMINESCENT AGENTS to emit light (PHYSICAL LUMINESCENCE). The luciferases from different organisms have evolved differently so have different structures and substrates.Luciferases, Firefly: Luciferases from FIREFLIES, usually Photinus, that oxidizes FIREFLY LUCIFERIN to cause emission of PHOTONS.Fireflies: The family Lampyidae, which are bioluminescent BEETLES. They contain FIREFLY LUCIFERIN and LUCIFERASES. Oxidation of firefly luciferin results in luminescence.Firefly Luciferin: A benzothaizole which is oxidized by LUCIFERASES, FIREFLY to cause emission of light (LUMINESCENCE).Genes, Reporter: Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.Luminescent Measurements: Techniques used for determining the values of photometric parameters of light resulting from LUMINESCENCE.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Beetles: INSECTS of the order Coleoptera, containing over 350,000 species in 150 families. They possess hard bodies and their mouthparts are adapted for chewing.Luciferases, Renilla: Luciferases from RENILLA that oxidizes certain LUMINESCENT AGENTS to cause emission of PHOTONS.Luminescence: Emission of LIGHT when ELECTRONS return to the electronic ground state from an excited state and lose the energy as PHOTONS. It is sometimes called cool light in contrast to INCANDESCENCE. LUMINESCENT MEASUREMENTS take advantage of this type of light emitted from LUMINESCENT AGENTS.Luciferases, Bacterial: Luciferases from BACTERIA such as PHOTOBACTERIUM; VIBRIO; and PHOTORHABDUS.Renilla: A genus of bioluminescent marine invertebrates in the family Renillidae, order Pennatulacea, class ANTHOZOA. It contains Renilla LUCIFERASE which oxidizes coelenterazine resulting in LUMINESCENCE.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Luminescent Agents: Compound such as LUMINESCENT PROTEINS that cause or emit light (PHYSICAL LUMINESCENCE).Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.3' Untranslated Regions: The sequence at the 3' end of messenger RNA that does not code for product. This region contains transcription and translation regulating sequences.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Response Elements: Nucleotide sequences, usually upstream, which are recognized by specific regulatory transcription factors, thereby causing gene response to various regulatory agents. These elements may be found in both promoter and enhancer regions.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.MicroRNAs: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs, 21-25 nucleotides in length generated from single-stranded microRNA gene transcripts by the same RIBONUCLEASE III, Dicer, that produces small interfering RNAs (RNA, SMALL INTERFERING). They become part of the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX and repress the translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) of target RNA by binding to homologous 3'UTR region as an imperfect match. The small temporal RNAs (stRNAs), let-7 and lin-4, from C. elegans, are the first 2 miRNAs discovered, and are from a class of miRNAs involved in developmental timing.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Photobacterium: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that are common in the marine environment and on the surfaces and in the intestinal contents of marine animals. Some species are bioluminescent and are found as symbionts in specialized luminous organs of fish.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Vibrio: A genus of VIBRIONACEAE, made up of short, slightly curved, motile, gram-negative rods. Various species produce cholera and other gastrointestinal disorders as well as abortion in sheep and cattle.Copepoda: A huge subclass of mostly marine CRUSTACEA, containing over 14,000 species. The 10 orders comprise both planktonic and benthic organisms, and include both free-living and parasitic forms. Planktonic copepods form the principle link between PHYTOPLANKTON and the higher trophic levels of the marine food chains.Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay: An electrophoretic technique for assaying the binding of one compound to another. Typically one compound is labeled to follow its mobility during electrophoresis. If the labeled compound is bound by the other compound, then the mobility of the labeled compound through the electrophoretic medium will be retarded.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.5' Flanking Region: The region of DNA which borders the 5' end of a transcription unit and where a variety of regulatory sequences are located.Sp1 Transcription Factor: Promoter-specific RNA polymerase II transcription factor that binds to the GC box, one of the upstream promoter elements, in mammalian cells. The binding of Sp1 is necessary for the initiation of transcription in the promoters of a variety of cellular and viral GENES.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Gene Transfer Techniques: The introduction of functional (usually cloned) GENES into cells. A variety of techniques and naturally occurring processes are used for the gene transfer such as cell hybridization, LIPOSOMES or microcell-mediated gene transfer, ELECTROPORATION, chromosome-mediated gene transfer, TRANSFECTION, and GENETIC TRANSDUCTION. Gene transfer may result in genetically transformed cells and individual organisms.Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.5' Untranslated Regions: The sequence at the 5' end of the messenger RNA that does not code for product. This sequence contains the ribosome binding site and other transcription and translation regulating sequences.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.NF-kappa B: Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.HEK293 Cells: A cell line generated from human embryonic kidney cells that were transformed with human adenovirus type 5.Transgenes: Genes that are introduced into an organism using GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Vibrionaceae: A family of gram-negative bacteria whose members predominate in the bacterial flora of PLANKTON; FISHES; and SEAWATER. Some members are important pathogens for humans and animals.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Flavin Mononucleotide: A coenzyme for a number of oxidative enzymes including NADH DEHYDROGENASE. It is the principal form in which RIBOFLAVIN is found in cells and tissues.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.Regulatory Sequences, Nucleic Acid: Nucleic acid sequences involved in regulating the expression of genes.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.Transcription Factor AP-1: A multiprotein complex composed of the products of c-jun and c-fos proto-oncogenes. These proteins must dimerize in order to bind to the AP-1 recognition site, also known as the TPA-responsive element (TRE). AP-1 controls both basal and inducible transcription of several genes.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Genetic Therapy: Techniques and strategies which include the use of coding sequences and other conventional or radical means to transform or modify cells for the purpose of treating or reversing disease conditions.Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.Dodecanol: A saturated 12-carbon fatty alcohol obtained from coconut oil fatty acids. It has a floral odor and is used in detergents, lubricating oils, and pharmaceuticals. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.HSP70 Heat-Shock Proteins: A class of MOLECULAR CHAPERONES found in both prokaryotes and in several compartments of eukaryotic cells. These proteins can interact with polypeptides during a variety of assembly processes in such a way as to prevent the formation of nonfunctional structures.Chromatin Immunoprecipitation: A technique for identifying specific DNA sequences that are bound, in vivo, to proteins of interest. It involves formaldehyde fixation of CHROMATIN to crosslink the DNA-BINDING PROTEINS to the DNA. After shearing the DNA into small fragments, specific DNA-protein complexes are isolated by immunoprecipitation with protein-specific ANTIBODIES. Then, the DNA isolated from the complex can be identified by PCR amplification and sequencing.Whole Body Imaging: The creation of a visual display of the inside of the entire body of a human or animal for the purposes of diagnostic evaluation. This is most commonly achieved by using MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING; or POSITRON EMISSION TOMOGRAPHY.Sequence Deletion: Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.Electroporation: A technique in which electric pulses of intensity in kilovolts per centimeter and of microsecond-to-millisecond duration cause a temporary loss of the semipermeability of CELL MEMBRANES, thus leading to ion leakage, escape of metabolites, and increased uptake by cells of drugs, molecular probes, and DNA.Luminescent Proteins: Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.Adenoviridae: A family of non-enveloped viruses infecting mammals (MASTADENOVIRUS) and birds (AVIADENOVIRUS) or both (ATADENOVIRUS). Infections may be asymptomatic or result in a variety of diseases.Hep G2 Cells: A human liver tumor cell line used to study a variety of liver-specific metabolic functions.Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Artificial Gene Fusion: The in vitro fusion of GENES by RECOMBINANT DNA techniques to analyze protein behavior or GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, or to merge protein functions for specific medical or industrial uses.Enhancer Elements, Genetic: Cis-acting DNA sequences which can increase transcription of genes. Enhancers can usually function in either orientation and at various distances from a promoter.Crustacea: A large subphylum of mostly marine ARTHROPODS containing over 42,000 species. They include familiar arthropods such as lobsters (NEPHROPIDAE), crabs (BRACHYURA), shrimp (PENAEIDAE), and barnacles (THORACICA).COS Cells: CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.HSP40 Heat-Shock Proteins: A family of heat-shock proteins that contain a 70 amino-acid consensus sequence known as the J domain. The J domain of HSP40 heat shock proteins interacts with HSP70 HEAT-SHOCK PROTEINS. HSP40 heat-shock proteins play a role in regulating the ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATASES activity of HSP70 heat-shock proteins.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Transcription Initiation Site: The first nucleotide of a transcribed DNA sequence where RNA polymerase (DNA-DIRECTED RNA POLYMERASE) begins synthesizing the RNA transcript.Period Circadian Proteins: Circadian rhythm signaling proteins that influence circadian clock by interacting with other circadian regulatory proteins and transporting them into the CELL NUCLEUS.Polyethyleneimine: Strongly cationic polymer that binds to certain proteins; used as a marker in immunology, to precipitate and purify enzymes and lipids. Synonyms: aziridine polymer; Epamine; Epomine; ethylenimine polymer; Montrek; PEI; Polymin(e).Biological Assay: A method of measuring the effects of a biologically active substance using an intermediate in vivo or in vitro tissue or cell model under controlled conditions. It includes virulence studies in animal fetuses in utero, mouse convulsion bioassay of insulin, quantitation of tumor-initiator systems in mouse skin, calculation of potentiating effects of a hormonal factor in an isolated strip of contracting stomach muscle, etc.Protein Refolding: Conformational transitions of a protein from unfolded states to a more folded state.beta-Galactosidase: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing beta-D-galactose residues in beta-galactosides. Deficiency of beta-Galactosidase A1 may cause GANGLIOSIDOSIS, GM1.Repressor Proteins: Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.Mice, Inbred C57BLNIH 3T3 Cells: A continuous cell line of high contact-inhibition established from NIH Swiss mouse embryo cultures. The cells are useful for DNA transfection and transformation studies. (From ATCC [Internet]. Virginia: American Type Culture Collection; c2002 [cited 2002 Sept 26]. Available from Silencing: Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Mice, Nude: Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.High-Throughput Screening Assays: Rapid methods of measuring the effects of an agent in a biological or chemical assay. The assay usually involves some form of automation or a way to conduct multiple assays at the same time using sample arrays.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein: A protein that has been shown to function as a calcium-regulated transcription factor as well as a substrate for depolarization-activated CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES. This protein functions to integrate both calcium and cAMP signals.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Scyphozoa: The class of true jellyfish, in the phylum CNIDARIA. They are mostly free-swimming marine organisms that go through five stages in their life cycle and exhibit two body forms: polyp and medusa.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Mycobacteriophages: Viruses whose host is one or more Mycobacterium species. They include both temperate and virulent types.RNA Stability: The extent to which an RNA molecule retains its structural integrity and resists degradation by RNASE, and base-catalyzed HYDROLYSIS, under changing in vivo or in vitro conditions.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Introns: Sequences of DNA in the genes that are located between the EXONS. They are transcribed along with the exons but are removed from the primary gene transcript by RNA SPLICING to leave mature RNA. Some introns code for separate genes.Immunoprecipitation: The aggregation of soluble ANTIGENS with ANTIBODIES, alone or with antibody binding factors such as ANTI-ANTIBODIES or STAPHYLOCOCCAL PROTEIN A, into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Consensus Sequence: A theoretical representative nucleotide or amino acid sequence in which each nucleotide or amino acid is the one which occurs most frequently at that site in the different sequences which occur in nature. The phrase also refers to an actual sequence which approximates the theoretical consensus. A known CONSERVED SEQUENCE set is represented by a consensus sequence. Commonly observed supersecondary protein structures (AMINO ACID MOTIFS) are often formed by conserved sequences.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Sp3 Transcription Factor: A specificity protein transcription factor that regulates expression of a variety of genes including VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P27.Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction: Methods used for detecting the amplified DNA products from the polymerase chain reaction as they accumulate instead of at the end of the reaction.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.Enzyme Induction: An increase in the rate of synthesis of an enzyme due to the presence of an inducer which acts to derepress the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.Mice, Inbred BALB CGene Expression Regulation, Viral: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.3T3 Cells: Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.Circadian Rhythm: The regular recurrence, in cycles of about 24 hours, of biological processes or activities, such as sensitivity to drugs and stimuli, hormone secretion, sleeping, and feeding.Gene Knockdown Techniques: The artificial induction of GENE SILENCING by the use of RNA INTERFERENCE to reduce the expression of a specific gene. It includes the use of DOUBLE-STRANDED RNA, such as SMALL INTERFERING RNA and RNA containing HAIRPIN LOOP SEQUENCE, and ANTI-SENSE OLIGONUCLEOTIDES.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Drug Evaluation, Preclinical: Preclinical testing of drugs in experimental animals or in vitro for their biological and toxic effects and potential clinical applications.Protein Folding: Processes involved in the formation of TERTIARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE.Cell Tracking: Non-invasive imaging of cells that have been labeled non-destructively, such as with nanoemulsions or reporter genes that can be detected by molecular imaging, to monitor their location, viability, cell lineage expansion, response to drugs, movement, or other behaviors in vivo.DNA Footprinting: A method for determining the sequence specificity of DNA-binding proteins. DNA footprinting utilizes a DNA damaging agent (either a chemical reagent or a nuclease) which cleaves DNA at every base pair. DNA cleavage is inhibited where the ligand binds to DNA. (from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Organ Specificity: Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.Hepatocytes: The main structural component of the LIVER. They are specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that are organized into interconnected plates called lobules.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Molecular Imaging: The use of molecularly targeted imaging probes to localize and/or monitor biochemical and cellular processes via various imaging modalities that include RADIONUCLIDE IMAGING; ULTRASONOGRAPHY; MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING; FLUORESCENCE IMAGING; and MICROSCOPY.Replicon: Any DNA sequence capable of independent replication or a molecule that possesses a REPLICATION ORIGIN and which is therefore potentially capable of being replicated in a suitable cell. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Photobiology: The branch of biology dealing with the effect of light on organisms.Exons: The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.Receptors, Aryl Hydrocarbon: Cytoplasmic proteins that bind certain aryl hydrocarbons, translocate to the nucleus, and activate transcription of particular DNA segments. AH receptors are identified by their high-affinity binding to several carcinogenic or teratogenic environmental chemicals including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons found in cigarette smoke and smog, heterocyclic amines found in cooked foods, and halogenated hydrocarbons including dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls. No endogenous ligand has been identified, but an unknown natural messenger with a role in cell differentiation and development is suspected.Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear: Intracellular receptors that can be found in the cytoplasm or in the nucleus. They bind to extracellular signaling molecules that migrate through or are transported across the CELL MEMBRANE. Many members of this class of receptors occur in the cytoplasm and are transported to the CELL NUCLEUS upon ligand-binding where they signal via DNA-binding and transcription regulation. Also included in this category are receptors found on INTRACELLULAR MEMBRANES that act via mechanisms similar to CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS.Homeodomain Proteins: Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Proteins: A class of proteins that were originally identified by their ability to bind the DNA sequence CCAAT. The typical CCAAT-enhancer binding protein forms dimers and consists of an activation domain, a DNA-binding basic region, and a leucine-rich dimerization domain (LEUCINE ZIPPERS). CCAAT-BINDING FACTOR is structurally distinct type of CCAAT-enhancer binding protein consisting of a trimer of three different subunits.Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit: Hypoxia-inducible factor 1, alpha subunit is a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that is regulated by OXYGEN availability and is targeted for degradation by VHL TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN.CHO Cells: CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Protein Renaturation: The reconstitution of a protein's activity following denaturation.Flavins: Derivatives of the dimethylisoalloxazine (7,8-dimethylbenzo[g]pteridine-2,4(3H,10H)-dione) skeleton. Flavin derivatives serve an electron transfer function as ENZYME COFACTORS in FLAVOPROTEINS.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Molecular Chaperones: A family of cellular proteins that mediate the correct assembly or disassembly of polypeptides and their associated ligands. Although they take part in the assembly process, molecular chaperones are not components of the final structures.Carcinoma, Hepatocellular: A primary malignant neoplasm of epithelial liver cells. It ranges from a well-differentiated tumor with EPITHELIAL CELLS indistinguishable from normal HEPATOCYTES to a poorly differentiated neoplasm. The cells may be uniform or markedly pleomorphic, or form GIANT CELLS. Several classification schemes have been suggested.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Dexamethasone: An anti-inflammatory 9-fluoro-glucocorticoid.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Enzyme Assays: Methods used to measure the relative activity of a specific enzyme or its concentration in solution. Typically an enzyme substrate is added to a buffer solution containing enzyme and the rate of conversion of substrate to product is measured under controlled conditions. Many classical enzymatic assay methods involve the use of synthetic colorimetric substrates and measuring the reaction rates using a spectrophotometer.E-Box Elements: DNA locations with the consensus sequence CANNTG. ENHANCER ELEMENTS may contain multiple copies of this element. E-boxes play a regulatory role in the control of transcription. They bind with basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) type TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS. Binding specificity is determined by the specific bHLH heterodimer or homodimer combination and by the specific nucleotides at the 3rd and 4th position of the E-box sequence.TATA Box: A conserved A-T rich sequence which is contained in promoters for RNA polymerase II. The segment is seven base pairs long and the nucleotides most commonly found are TATAAAA.Heat-Shock Proteins: Proteins which are synthesized in eukaryotic organisms and bacteria in response to hyperthermia and other environmental stresses. They increase thermal tolerance and perform functions essential to cell survival under these conditions.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Aldehydes: Organic compounds containing a carbonyl group in the form -CHO.Mutagenesis: Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1: A basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that plays a role in APOPTOSIS. It is composed of two subunits: ARYL HYDROCARBON RECEPTOR NUCLEAR TRANSLOCATOR and HYPOXIA-INDUCIBLE FACTOR 1, ALPHA SUBUNIT.CCAAT-Binding Factor: A heterotrimeric DNA-binding protein that binds to CCAAT motifs in the promoters of eukaryotic genes. It is composed of three subunits: A, B and C.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Suprachiasmatic Nucleus: An ovoid densely packed collection of small cells of the anterior hypothalamus lying close to the midline in a shallow impression of the OPTIC CHIASM.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Transforming Growth Factor beta: A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.Cell Hypoxia: A condition of decreased oxygen content at the cellular level.NFATC Transcription Factors: A family of transcription factors characterized by the presence of highly conserved calcineurin- and DNA-binding domains. NFAT proteins are activated in the CYTOPLASM by the calcium-dependent phosphatase CALCINEURIN. They transduce calcium signals to the nucleus where they can interact with TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1 or NF-KAPPA B and initiate GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of GENES involved in CELL DIFFERENTIATION and development. NFAT proteins stimulate T-CELL activation through the induction of IMMEDIATE-EARLY GENES such as INTERLEUKIN-2.Cnidaria: A phylum of radially symmetrical invertebrates characterized by possession of stinging cells called nematocysts. It includes the classes ANTHOZOA; CUBOZOA; HYDROZOA, and SCYPHOZOA. Members carry CNIDARIAN VENOMS.Proto-Oncogene Proteins: Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.Transduction, Genetic: The transfer of bacterial DNA by phages from an infected bacterium to another bacterium. This also refers to the transfer of genes into eukaryotic cells by viruses. This naturally occurring process is routinely employed as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-jun: Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-jun genes (GENES, JUN). They are involved in growth-related transcriptional control. There appear to be three distinct functions: dimerization (with c-fos), DNA-binding, and transcriptional activation. Oncogenic transformation can take place by constitutive expression of c-jun.Dioxins: Chlorinated hydrocarbons containing heteroatoms that are present as contaminants of herbicides. Dioxins are carcinogenic, teratogenic, and mutagenic. They have been banned from use by the FDA.Cell Line, Transformed: Eukaryotic cell line obtained in a quiescent or stationary phase which undergoes conversion to a state of unregulated growth in culture, resembling an in vitro tumor. It occurs spontaneously or through interaction with viruses, oncogenes, radiation, or drugs/chemicals.Estrogen Receptor alpha: One of the ESTROGEN RECEPTORS that has marked affinity for ESTRADIOL. Its expression and function differs from, and in some ways opposes, ESTROGEN RECEPTOR BETA.Protein Denaturation: Disruption of the non-covalent bonds and/or disulfide bonds responsible for maintaining the three-dimensional shape and activity of the native protein.Podophyllin: Caustic extract from the roots of Podophyllum peltatum and P. emodi. It contains PODOPHYLLOTOXIN and its congeners and is very irritating to mucous membranes and skin. Podophyllin is a violent purgative that may cause CNS damage and teratogenesis. It is used as a paint for warts, skin neoplasms, and senile keratoses.Benzothiazoles: Compounds with a benzene ring fused to a thiazole ring.RNA Processing, Post-Transcriptional: Post-transcriptional biological modification of messenger, transfer, or ribosomal RNAs or their precursors. It includes cleavage, methylation, thiolation, isopentenylation, pseudouridine formation, conformational changes, and association with ribosomal protein.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Gene Targeting: The integration of exogenous DNA into the genome of an organism at sites where its expression can be suitably controlled. This integration occurs as a result of homologous recombination.Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide: A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.PyrazinesSequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Early Growth Response Protein 1: An early growth response transcription factor that has been implicated in regulation of CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS.Protein Isoforms: Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A superfamily of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that are activated by diverse stimuli via protein kinase cascades. They are the final components of the cascades, activated by phosphorylation by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES, which in turn are activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES).Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Tumor Suppressor Protein p53: Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.Polylysine: A peptide which is a homopolymer of lysine.beta Catenin: A multi-functional catenin that participates in CELL ADHESION and nuclear signaling. Beta catenin binds CADHERINS and helps link their cytoplasmic tails to the ACTIN in the CYTOSKELETON via ALPHA CATENIN. It also serves as a transcriptional co-activator and downstream component of WNT PROTEIN-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS.
At low cell concentrations, V. fischeri did not express the luciferase gene. However, once the cultures had reached exponential ... During stationary growth phase when B. subtilis are at high cell density, approximately 10% of the cells in a population are ... Dunny, G.M.; Leonard, B.A. (1997). "Cell-cell communication in gram-positive bacteria". Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 51: 527-564. doi: ... 1999). "). Quinolone signaling in the cell-to-cell communication system of Pseudomonas aeruginosa". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA ...
The purpose of a vector which transfers genetic information to another cell is typically to isolate, multiply, or express the ... Other commonly used reporters include green fluorescent protein and luciferase. Targeting sequence: Expression vectors may ... It allows for antibody identification of cells expressing the target protein. Reporter genes: Some vectors may contain a ... Cells containing vector with an insert may be identified using blue/white selection by growing cells in media containing an ...
For example, it is abnormally expressed in breast epithelial cancer cells in which its expression is activated by HIF1A during ... as verified with chromatin immunoprecipitation and luciferase reporter assay. Since the expression of DDX3X is affected by the ... In HeLa cells DDX3X is reported to control cell cycle progression through Cyclin E1. More specifically, DDX3X was shown to ... Cell. 119 (3): 381-92. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2004.09.029. PMID 15507209. Dayton AI (October 2004). "Within you, without you: HIV-1 ...
This method is projected to be extremely useful for researchers dealing with live cell cultures, cell extracts and purified ... Prior to the late 1980s, most chronobiologists believed that bacteria were too "simple" to express circadian rhythms. Johnson ... Circadian rhythms in prokaryotes: luciferase as a reporter of circadian gene expression in cyanobacteria. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci ... Molecular Cell 15: 375-388. PMID 15304218 doi:10.1016/j.molcel.2004.07.013 Xu, Y., Piston, D. W., & Johnson, C. H. (1999). A ...
The rationality for the use of this cell line is that: It is a cell line of endocrine origin and is ER positive. Expresses ... These bioassays form a group of the so-called CALUX (Chemically Activated LUciferase eXpression) bioassays. These systems are ... The E-SCREEN cell proliferation assay is performed with the human MCF-7 breast cancer cell line, an established estrogenic cell ... is added to the cells. It is possible to generate an estrogen-responsive reporter cell line by introducing into a situable cell ...
... above 107 cells per mL), it induces the expression of luciferase and other enzymes involved in bioluminescence. Bacteria are ... For this reason, light emission is not constitutively expressed in bioluminescent bacteria; it is expressed only when ... Quorom sensing is a form of cell-to-cell communication that alters gene expression in response to cell density. Autoinducer is ... Cell-to-Cell Communication in Bacteria". Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology. 21 (1): 319-346. doi:10.1146/annurev. ...
The enzyme luciferase was utilized by Kay's lab to research clock gene expression in single culture cells and revealed that a ... As time went on, these rhythms became increasingly out of phase as local oscillators desynchronized and each cell expressed ... Using a cell-cased circadian phenotypic screen, Kay and a team of chronobiologist researchers identified a small molecule, ... He then developed Cab2:luc fusion, the fusion of luciferase open reading frame downstream of the Cab2 promoter region, as a ...
Toc1 gene is expressed in most plant structures and cells, and has its locus on chromosome 5. The toc1 gene was initially ... Millar developed an innovative forward genetic screen in which he linked a bioluminescent reporter, firefly (luciferase), to ... "Circadian clock mutants in Arabidopsis identified by luciferase imaging". Science. 267 (5201): 1161-3. Bibcode:1995Sci... ...
QUAS-GFP flies express GFP in all neurons). If a fly also expresses QS in some of the cells, the activity of QF will be ... It has been used to drive expression of luciferase, as a proof of principle, in cultured mammalian cells. In zebrafish the Q- ... Their progeny that had both a QF transgene and a QUAS transgene will be expressing a reporter gene in a subset of cells (e.g. ... Cell 141:536-548. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2010.02.025 Riabinina O, Luginbuhl D, Marr E, Liu S, Wu MN, Luo L, Potter CJ. (2015) ...
... which causes cells that express it to glow green under blue light, the enzyme luciferase, which catalyzes a reaction with ... Reporter genes are often used as an indication of whether a certain gene has been taken up by or expressed in the cell or ... It is important to use a reporter gene that is not natively expressed in the cell or organism under study, since the expression ... Only those cells that have successfully taken up the construct containing the CAT gene will survive and multiply under these ...
Different types of cells (e.g. bone marrow stem cells, T-cells) can be engineered to express a luciferase allowing their non- ... Luciferase can act as an ATP sensor protein through biotinylation. Biotinylation will immobilize luciferase on the cell-surface ... This allows luciferase to detect the efflux of ATP from the cell and will effectively display the real-time release of ATP ... Luciferase can also be used to detect the level of cellular ATP in cell viability assays or for kinase activity assays. ...
Relationship to cell divisionEdit. Despite predictions that circadian clocks would not be expressed by cells that are doubling ... The S. elongatus luciferase reporter system was used to screen for clock gene mutants, of which many were isolated.[17] These ... and even from single cyanobacterial cells.[7] The luminescence rhythms expressed by these transformed S. elongatus fulfilled ... cells.[5][6] This system allowed an exquisitely precise circadian rhythm of luminescence to be measured from cell populations[5 ...
... light mineral oil was developed and demonstrated to be functional in expressing luciferase and human telomerase. Once ... Emulsions of cell-like compartments were formed by adding in vitro transcription/translation reaction mixture to stirred ... Each expressed protein/polypeptide will be in fusion with Hae III DNA methyltransferase domain, which is able to bind ... When expressing eukaryote or complex proteins, it is desirable to use eukaryotic translation systems such as wheat germ extract ...
By using quorum sensing to limit the production of luciferase to situations when cell populations are large, V. fischeri cells ... Regulation by quorum sensing would allow the cells to express appropriate behavior only when it is effective, thus saving ... When cells were grown in pure culture were placed in an iron-limiting environment, populations of cells that secreted ... Programmed cell death (PCD) is another suggested form of microbial altruistic behavior. Although programmed cell death (also ...
"Transient and stable expression of the firefly luciferase gene in plant cells and transgenic plants". Science. 234 (4778). ... that have been genetically modified to express light-sensitive ion channels, and also see biophoton, a photon of non-thermal ... Luciferase}}][othercofactors]{oxy-L}+lightenergy}}} Instead of a luciferase, the jellyfish Aequorea victoria makes use of ... Generically, this reaction could be described as: L + O 2 → o t h e r c o f a c t o r s Luciferase oxy − L + lightenergy {\ ...
Despite predictions that circadian clocks would not be expressed by cells that are doubling faster than once per 24 hours, the ... The S. elongatus luciferase reporter system was used to screen for clock gene mutants, of which many were isolated. These ... cells. This system allowed an exquisitely precise circadian rhythm of luminescence to be measured from cell populations and ... Cell 15, 375-388. Xu, Y., Mori, T., Pattanayek, R., Pattanayek, S., Egli, M., and Johnson, C.H. (2004). Identification of key ...
... cells. This was measured with the IL-6 / Luc (Interleukin-6 luciferase) assay as a measurement tool. The study mentioned that ... At receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes (frog eggs) it was shown that only assemblies incorporating β2 or β3 subunits were ...
Instead, in P. berghei infection, mice are found to have an accumulation of immune cells in brain blood vessels. This has led ... A number of genetically modified P. berghei lines have been generated which express fluorescent reporter proteins such as Green ... Fluorescent Protein (GFP) and mCherry (red) or bioluminescent reporters such as Luciferase. These transgenic parasites are ... red blood cells). The multiplication of the parasite in the blood causes the pathology such as anaemia and damage of essential ...
It also was expressed at high levels in differentiating cells such as hair follicles, epidermis and sebaceous glands. Wei et al ... They also generated a mutation in the binding site and reported restoration of luciferase activity, as well as mutually ... MiR-203 is a microRNA that is specifically expressed in keratinocytes (the most abundant cell type in the epidermis) and in ... When miR-203 is expressed prematurely, basal cells diminish their proliferative potential; and when it is absent, proliferation ...
A cloning vector is a small piece of DNA, taken from a virus, a plasmid, or the cell of a higher organism, that can be stably ... Examples of fusion partners that may be used for screening are the green fluorescent protein (GFP) and luciferase. A cloning ... Some vectors are designed for transcription only with no heterologous protein expressed, for example for in vitro mRNA ... This may involve the use of a gene lethal to the host cells, such as barnase, Ccda, and the parD/parE toxins. This typically ...
SYK is found expressed in a variety of cells including fibroblasts, epithelial cells (where it controls cell division and acts ... Luciferase assays were then performed in MA-2 and/or MC-1 cells transfected with the miRNA. It was reported that luciferase ... which normally stop cell growth in the G1 phase of cell division. When this happens, there is no regulation in the cell and it ... "Melanoma Cells Express Elevated Levels of Phosphorylated Histone H2AX Foci". Journal of Investigative Dermatology. Vol 124, 807 ...
Genes for the production of cytokinins are also expressed. This stimulates cell proliferation and gall formation. The T-DNA ... This process has been performed using firefly luciferase gene to produce glowing plants. This luminescence has been a useful ... Jun 1977). "Stable incorporation of plasmid DNA into higher plant cells: the molecular basis of crown gall tumorigenesis". Cell ... The Ti plasmid integrates a segment of its DNA, known as T-DNA, into the chromosomal DNA of its host plant cells. A. ...
High luciferase activity was measured in the cells with mutant p53 and significantly lower luciferase levels were measured for ... Survivin is known to be highly expressed in most tumour cell types and absent in normal cells, making it a good target for ... Knowing that survivin is over-expressed specifically in cancer cells and absent in normal cells, one can imply that the ... as it is an antigen that is expressed mostly in cancer cells and absent in normal cells. This is because survivin is deemed to ...
TCF21 is expressed in mesodermal cells in the proepicardial organ that give rise to coronary artery smooth muscle cells (SMC) ... Luciferase reporter assays with constructs covering CGI3 sequences in sense and antisense orientation demonstrated that CGI3 ... TCF21 is expressed in mesodermal cells in the proepicardial organ that give rise to coronary artery smooth muscle cells (SMC) ... It is ubiquitously expressed in many tissues and cell types and highly significantly expressed in lung and placenta. TCF21 is ...
... and cultured cells. Cultured cells expressing the aequorin gene can effectively synthesize apoaequorin: however, recombinant ... apoaequorin acting as a pseudo-luciferase reports micromolar changes in the endoplasmic reticulum free Ca2+ of intact cells". ... "Measurement of intracellular calcium using bioluminescent aequorin expressed in human cells". Anal. Biochem. 209 (2): 343-47. ... Coelenterazine is a hydrophobic molecule, and therefore is easily taken up across plant and fungal cell walls, as well as the ...
50,000 per SMRT cell, or 500-1000 megabases[69][70]. 30 minutes to 4 hours[71]. $0.13-$0.60. Fast. Detects 4mC, 5mC, 6mA.[72]. ... Pyrosequencing uses luciferase to generate light for detection of the individual nucleotides added to the nascent DNA, and the ... Meanwhile, sequencing of human cDNA sequences called expressed sequence tags began in Craig Venter's lab, an attempt to capture ... ruled that individuals have no property rights to discarded cells or any profits made using these cells (for instance, as a ...
Agonist activity at human RXRalpha expressed in human COS7 cells by luciferase reporter gene assay. ...
Antimetastatic activity against luciferase-expressing human MDA-MB-231 cells xenografted in nude mouse assessed as suppression ...
... which is a subclone of the MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell line expressing luciferase, and established a new tumor cell line 5a-D ... We previously established luciferase-expressing MDA-MB-231-5a-D (5a-D-Luc), a highly metastatic breast cancer cell line derived ... Wang et al established MDA-MB-231 cells expressing both eGFP and luciferase for an orthotopic mammary tumor model, and assessed ... Establishment and evaluation of a new highly metastatic tumor cell line 5a-D-Luc-ZsGreen expressing both luciferase and green ...
Here we describe methods for the production of stable luciferase expressing tumor cell lines by lentiviral transduction. ... Methods of introducing bioluminescent genes, such as firefly luciferase, by viral transduction has allowed for the production ... of tumor cell lines that can be followed in vivo longitudinally over long periods of time. ... Cancer Biology , General technique , Tumor formation , Cell isolation and culture. Cell Biology , Cell imaging , Live-cell ...
Luciferase assay. Luciferase activity was measured using a luciferase reporter assay system (Promega). Lungs from each animal ... B16-F1 melanoma cells and B16-F10 cells were transduced as previously described (13) to yield CXCR4-B16 cells. ... CXCL122 induces calcium response in CXCR4-expressing B16 cells. We previously showed that CXCL122 induced CXCR4-mediated ... These effects on cell movement and shape may also explain the ability of the dimer to block local invasion of B16 cells into ...
Stable cell lines expressing firefly luciferase. LNCaP and PC-3 cells were transfected with pEF1a-Luc-Neo and selected with ... The EZC-prostate model in which prostate cancer cell lines (LNCaP-Luc and PC-3-Luc) stably expressing firefly luciferase enzyme ... Luciferase assays. Forty-eight hours after transient transfection, cells were lysed and assayed for luciferase activity using ... Cell lines. Androgen-responsive human prostate adenocarcinoma cell line LNCaP, castration-resistant prostate cancer cell lines ...
Gaussia Luciferase (GLuc) reporter gene offers bright bioluminescence, either as a standalone expression monitor or as a fusion ... Luciferases Expressed in CHO Cells.. Activity was determined from the conditional media or cell lysate.. Extreme Sensitivity of ... Naturally Secreted - Amenable to live cell assays. *Sensitivity - Brightest luciferases available; enables single cell ... and activity was measured from the cell supernatant (S) or cell lysate (L). Note that although Gaussia Luciferase is a secreted ...
... reporter genes ultrasensitive bioluminescence activity can be measured in mammalian living cells or lysates. ... Luciferases Expressed in CHO Cells.. Activity was determined from the conditional media or cell lysate.. References. *Kwon et ... Naturally Secreted - Amenable to live cell assays. *Sensitivity - Brightest luciferases available; enables single cell ... Cypridina Luciferase. Product Listing Application Overview Cypridina Luciferase (CLuc) is secreted from the marine ostracod, ...
... using primary cultures of cortical cells prepared from a transgenic mouse strain, specifically, Bdnf-Luciferase transgenic ( ... Here, we generated a screening assay to mine inducers of Bdnf transcription in neuronal cells, ... S4b), suggesting that luciferase protein was stably expressed in the cells. Therefore, reduced luciferase activity by these ... S4a, t1/2 = 5.21 h [Bdnf], 3.67 h [Luciferase]), in cultured Bdnf-Luc cortical cells. In contrast, luciferase activity did not ...
In this article we describe use of the pGL4-generation of luciferase reporter vectors for studying gene regulation in response ... HEK293 cells transiently expressing various luciferase reporters (CRE/luc2P, NFAT-RE/luc2P, SRE/luc2P, SRF-RE/luc2P) with or ... luc2CP is firefly luciferase plus the hCL1 (C) and hPEST destabilization sequences. HEK293 cells transiently expressing various ... HEK293 cells used either stably expressed D1 dopamine receptor and CRE-luc2P or m3 muscarinic receptor with NFAT-RE-luc2P ...
... vectors can be used to co-transfect with experimental firefly luciferase vectors when using the Nano-Glo Dual-Luciferase ... Relative luminescence for firefly and NanoLuc® luciferases expressed from constitutive promoters in multiple cell types.. ... Relative luminescence for firefly and NanoLuc® luciferases expressed from constitutive promoters in multiple cell types.. ... The pGL4.50 and pGL4.51 Vectors highly express firefly luciferase in stable cell lines for use in animal studies. ...
TELCeB6 rhabdomyosarcoma cells (7); XC, rat sarcoma cells (ATCC CCL-165); and XC-RDR cells, XC cells expressing the RDR ... A total of 0.7 μg of firefly luciferase LTR-ERV-W plasmid and 0.035 μg of Renilla luciferase pRL-TK plasmid (standardization) ... TELCeB6 cells expressing a nuclear β-galactosidase were transfected with plasmids expressing the five polymorphic forms of ... Cell Lines. The b30 BeWo cell line was grown in F-12K medium (Life Technologies) containing 10% FCS and fungizone. Other cell ...
Cells were left standing for 48 hours.. Luciferase Assays. Cells were harvested using the passive lysis method (Promega) and ... Mev-SM cells, expressing rat HMGCS2, were obtained as described previously (39). Mev-SMh cells, expressing human HMGCS2, were ... The percentage of HMGCS2-positive cells was expressed as a ratio of positive cells to the total number of cells counted. The ... plasmids to express Flag recombinant fusion proteins. After 48 hours, cells were harvested and whole-cell extracts were ...
Luciferase imaging showing in vivo trafficking of OFL-expressing pmel-1 T cells on day 5 after T-cell transfer. B, summary of ... Luciferase imaging showing in vivo trafficking of OFL-expressing pmel-1 T cells on day 5 after T-cell transfer. D, summary of ... Luciferase-expressing pmel-1 T cells were generated to monitor T-cell migration in vivo. The expression of VEGF was determined ... increased in a dose-dependent fashion in the 2 melanoma cell lines expressing BRAF(V600E) but not in the cell line expressing ...
Nontreated cells (statin concentration ) were the control. The data are expressed as % of control. Values are presented as the ... Luciferase Assay of PPAR. Promoter Activity. HepG2 cells were transfected using Lipofectamine 2000 (Invitrogen) according to ... HepG2 cells (. cells/dish) were seeded in 60 mm dishes (Falcon) and incubated for 18 hours. Then, the cells were incubated with ... The cells (. cells/well) were seeded in 24-well plates (Falcon) and incubated for 18 hours before transfection. The cells were ...
... pathway is involved in stem cell fate and contributes to transformation, expansion, and persistence of leukemic stem cells. ... One example is acute myeloid leukemia (AML), where an accumulation of immature cells is responsible for relapse following ... Intrinsically, the receptor BMPR1A transcript is increased in leukemic samples with more cells presenting this receptor at the ... These results highlight a new signaling cascade initiated by tumor environment alterations leading to stem-cell features and ...
Construction of luciferase-expressing plasmid vector containing the MALAT1 promoter region. Based on several computer ... Cell culture. Normal renal epithelial cells (HK-2; ATCC number: CRL-2190) and renal cancer cell lines (A-498, ATCC number: HTB- ... Cell viability, cell invasion, and apoptosis assay. Cell viability was measured 72 hours after transfection with MTS (CellTiter ... 2C) in si-MALAT1-transfected renal cancer cells compared with si-NC-transfected cells. The percentage of apoptotic cells was ...
Notch-Expressing Vectors/Luciferase Reporter Plasmids. Notch 3 IC expression vectors (cytomegalovirus X-Notch 3 IC) were a kind ... gene families are expressed in injured arteries and regulate cell phenotype via alterations in cell matrix and cell-cell ... Cell Culture. Rat vascular SMCs (R354-05) were purchased from Cell Applications Inc. For cyclic strain studies, cells were ... Cells were exposed to strain for 24 hours before cell counts were determined on days 1, 4, 6, and 10 after strain. b, Cyclic ...
Results are expressed as relative luciferase units. For analysis of PARP cleavage, RAW 264.7 macrophages were treated as ... Cell Lines.. HeLa cells were cultured in DMEM (Invitrogen) with 10% cosmic calf serum (HyClone). The GFP-LC3-stable HeLa cell ... Vibrio parahaemolyticus orchestrates a multifaceted host cell infection by induction of autophagy, cell rounding, and then cell ... Vibrio parahaemolyticus orchestrates a multifaceted host cell infection by induction of autophagy, cell rounding, and then cell ...
105 GFP-expressing Eμ-myc 299 tumor cells (A-C) or 1 × 105 luciferase-expressing Eμ-myc 4242 tumor cells (D-F) and 5 days later ... NK cells, CD8 T cells, CD4 T cells, and gamma/δ (γδ) T cells. Type I NKT cells were critical for vaccine efficacy in therapy ... NKT cells, NK cells, and CD8 T cells are critical for therapeutic effect of α-GalCer-loaded tumor cell vaccine. The therapeutic ... Both NKT cells and NK cells contribute to IFN-γ production after vaccination. Intracellular staining of NKT cells, NK cells, ...
HEK 293 STF cells expressing Renilla-luciferase-Pygopus (RLuc-Pygopus) and β-galactosidase were treated with pyrvinium pamoate ... HEK 293 STF (TOPflash) or constitutively expressing luciferase (CMV-Luc) reporter cells were treated as indicated. Graph ... SW480 cells expressing full-length APC (SW480APC) are more resistant to pyrvinium than SW480 cells transfected with empty ... A Jurkat cell line expressing inducible shRNA for CK1α (CK1αsh) was incubated with pyrvinium pamoate (30 nM) for 24 h. Lysates ...
At 24 hours post infection, luciferase activity in cells was measured by lysing cells using BrightGlo reagent (Promega) and ... Expression of luciferase by the recombinant HeV-Luc. Vero, HeLa, HEp2 and U373 human cells were infected with various amounts ... a GFP-expressing virus and a firefly luciferase-expressing virus. In vitro characterisation demonstrated expression of the ... Expression of GFP in Vero cells infected with HeV-GFP recombinant virus. Vero cells were infected at an MOI of 0.05 and imaged ...
This article presents a high-throughput luciferase expression-based method of titrating various RNA and DNA viruses using ... Samples containing unknown quantities of luciferase-expressing virus are transferred on to a permissive "plaquing" cell line in ... High-throughput Titration of Luciferase-expressing Recombinant Viruses. Vanessa Garcia1,2, Ramya Krishnan1,2, Colin Davis1,2, ... Obtain samples containing luciferase-expressing virus (herein VSV∆51-Fluc as an example) for titration and transfer into 96- ...
1A,B). In addition, Meis1 is also expressed in Sox9-positive cells (Fig. 1C-E). One population of Sox9-positive cells is ... Luciferase assay.. Neuro2a cells were grown in DMEM containing 10% FBS. Cells were transfected using Trans Fectin reagent (Bio- ... 4, A and H. n = 4 mice, 60 cells for each groups. J, Positions of GFP-positive cells in A, C, and E. n = 4 mice, 60 cells for ... avoiding other cell types such as the Sox9-positive cells, GABAergic interneurons (Pax2-positive cells), or Purkinje cells (Fig ...
... investigators must monitor individual cells if they want to follow the activity ... Because gene expression within a cell population fluctuates randomly, ... They engineered BL21 and XLU102 E. coli strains to express firefly luciferase. The first strain was otherwise normal, while the ... The investigators saw a clear difference in the two cell lines and were able to map the spatial distribution of luciferase ...
  • Here we describe methods for the production of stable luciferase expressing tumor cell lines by lentiviral transduction. (
  • Treatment of tumor cell lines with these agents results in the attenuation of a number of signaling pathways, including both the Ras/Raf/extracellular signal-related kinase (Erk) and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathways, and results in cell death. (
  • ATCC offers Tumor/Normal matched cell line pairs derived from the same donor, allowing researchers to compare the experimental results from tumor cell lines to that of their normal counterparts. (
  • The bacterial pathogen Vibrio parahaemolyticus utilizes a type III secretion system to cause death of host cells within hours of infection. (
  • As the density of quorum sensing bacterial cells increases so does the concentration of the autoinducer. (
  • The production of autoinducers generally increases as bacterial cell densities increase. (
  • Insertion of a vector into the target cell is usually called transformation for bacterial cells, transfection for eukaryotic cells, although insertion of a viral vector is often called transduction. (
  • In addition to its well-known role in bacterial antagonism during interspecies competition, H 2 O 2 causes cell death in about 10% of the S. sanguinis population. (
  • Since H 2 O 2 is directly involved in the release of eDNA and bacterial cell death, the presented data suggest that CcpA is a central control element in this important developmental process in S. sanguinis . (
  • ATP release colocalized with Panx1 channels in polarized cells, such as airway epithelia, where ATP is secreted exclusively at the air interface ( 4 ), or the apical membrane of kidney epithelial cells ( 6 ). (
  • We report that coculture of macrophages with ovarian or breast cancer cell lines led to TNF-α-dependent activation of JNK and NF-κB pathways in tumor cells, but not in benign immortalized epithelial cells. (
  • Urine samples from healthy control subjects ( n = 50) and type 2 diabetic patients ( n = 100) were collected and tested for excretion of CML and the presence of proximal tubular epithelial cells (pTECs). (
  • These AMPs are rapidly released by leukocytes and/or various epithelial cells through cellular degranulation, necrosis, or immediate induction and secretion in response to danger signals, such as infection, tissue injury, and inflammatory cytokines. (
  • Eosinophil-derived neurotoxin (EDN), a member of the RNase A superfamily, is a mediator produced by human eosinophils and placental epithelial cells ( 7 ). (
  • The nucleotide sequence of the luciferase gene from the firefly Photinus pyralis was determined from the analysis of cDNA and genomic clones. (
  • Although the luciferase cDNA clone lacked the six N-terminal codons of the open reading frame, we were able to reconstruct the equivalent of a full-length cDNA using the genomic clone as a source of the missing 5' sequence. (
  • This hybrid vector, AdLTR-luc, was created by adding two elements from Moloney murine leukemia virus (MoMLV) flanking the luciferase cDNA into an E1/E3-deleted, replication deficient serotype 5 adenovirus vector (Zheng et al. (
  • Nature Biotechnol, 2000), and demonstrated that the MoMLV element upstream of the luciferase cDNA was broken during the integration event. (
  • The purpose of the current study was to determine if the MoMLV element downstream of the luciferase cDNA was also broken when integration occurred. (
  • Southern hybridization indicated that the luciferase cDNA was intact in the cloned cells. (
  • Southern hybridizations after Nco I digestion suggested that there was a break in both MoMLV elements, upstream and downstream of the luciferase cDNA. (
  • Indeed, in our earlier study we demonstrated that a break occurred in the MoMLV element (5´ LTR) upstream of the luciferase cDNA during AdLTR-luc integration ( 3 ). (
  • Into these cells we transiently transfected human ECE-1a cDNA, either together with the human preproET-1 cDNA (as an endogenous source of bigET-1), or alone (in which case exogenous bigET-1 was added). (
  • Herein, we show that CXCL122 can not only inhibit implantation of lung metastasis of CXCR4-B16-F10 melanoma cells more effectively than AMD3100, but that CXCL122 also blocks the growth of established pulmonary tumors. (
  • In the Eμ-myc transgenic mouse model, single therapeutic vaccination of irradiated, α-GalCer-loaded autologous tumor cells was sufficient to significantly inhibit growth of established tumors and prolong survival. (
  • Hematologic malignancies typically express the necessary machinery for eliciting antitumor immunity, such as costimulatory molecules, yet many tumors are poorly immunogenic. (
  • Overall, our results reveal a promising approach for the targeting of PPM1D mutant tumors, and define a critical link between oncogenic driver mutations and NAD metabolism, which can be exploited for tumor-specific cell killing. (
  • In the metastatic growth step, solitary cells proliferate to form small tumors called micrometastases, and after persistent growth the tumors develop vascular networks to promote their development into macrometastases ( 3 ). (
  • The presence of immune cells in human tumors was first described in 1863, and researchers thought the cells reflected the onset of cancer at sites of previous chronic inflammation. (
  • The addition of the luciferase reporter to these cell lines increases their utility by allowing for real-time imaging of the tumors. (
  • Inhibition of the NF-κB pathway by TNF-α neutralizing Abs, an NF-κB inhibitor, RNAi to RelA, or overexpression of IκB inhibited tumor cell invasiveness. (
  • Inhibition of NF-κB activation in human melanoma cells enhanced radio-sensitivity, induced apoptosis and inhibited invasion ( 11 , 12 ). (
  • Percent inhibition of four adherent cell lines measured 48 hours after transfection with1 nM siRNA against GADPH, using the MISSION siRNA Transfection Reagent. (
  • Taken together, our data suggest that peripheral, tumor-associated lymphatic endothelium contributes to T-cell inhibition, by a mechanism similar to peripheral tolerance maintenance described for LN resident LECs. (
  • MC4R is expressed in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, and its activation results in the inhibition of food intake. (
  • Our results demonstrate that Antp and Tat PTDs were most effective for delivery of NBD for inhibition of NF-κB activation compared to other PTD-NBD in both Hela and 293 cells, however, at higher concentrations (100 µM), the Antp-NBD as well as the FGF-NBD peptide caused significant cellular toxicity. (
  • BHK-21 cells were infected with Rluc-WNV, immediately treated with inhibitors (mycophenolic acid, ribavirin, and glycyrrhizin), and assayed for Rluc inhibition at 24 h after infection and treatment. (
  • As explained above, detection of putative agonists by means of mammalian cell lines expressing apoaequorin and a GPCR requires the measurement of the emitted light to be performed just after placing the cells in contact with the supposed agonist. (
  • Euroscreen has developed a method1 for performing highthroughput screening of drugs binding to GPCR by the use of mammalian cell lines expressing apoaequorin and a GPCR and by the use of a conventional luminometer. (
  • Accordingly, transcriptional regulation of Luciferase is under the control of endogenous Bdnf transcription. (
  • Adrenomedullin was localized in the neoplastic epithelium of 90% (43 of 48) of human pancreatic adenocarcinomas analyzed by immunohistochemistry and was expressed by 100% (8 of 8) of pancreatic cancer cell lines analyzed by reverse transcription-PCR. (
  • Reverse transcription-PCR and Western blotting indicated that pancreatic cancer cells expressed only ADMR but not CRLR. (
  • Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) is a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily of ligand-activated transcription factors and is expressed in several types of tissue. (
  • NF-κB represents a family of inducible transcription factors involved in the maintenance of various cellular functions, such as cell cycle progression, apoptosis, inflammatory and immune responses ( 5 ). (
  • The graded distributions of these cell surface molecules are achieved by topographically expressed morphogens and transcription factors in the retina early on in development. (
  • The CXC chemokine receptor-4 (CXCR4) plays a critical role in cancer by positively regulating cancer cell metastasis and survival. (
  • Notch receptor-ligand interactions are a highly conserved mechanism, originally described in developmental studies using Drosophila , that regulate intercellular communication and direct individual vascular cell fate decisions. (
  • Small hairpin RNA silencing of ADMR in pancreatic cancer cells blocked adrenomedullin-induced growth and invasion, indicating that this receptor is involved in the autocrine actions of adrenomedullin. (
  • Pancreatic β-cells express receptors known to respond to adrenomedullin including the adrenomedullin receptor (ADMR, also known as L1-R) and the calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CRLR), supporting its role in endocrine function ( 9 - 11 ). (
  • Cell lines expressing recombinant aequorin and a G-protein coupled receptor for functional screening ( INTRODUCTION Man. (
  • After selection with antibiotics, recombinant cells were subjected to a limit dilution, and clones expressing the G-protein coupled receptor and apoaequorin at a high level were selected. (
  • For example, disclosed herein are genetically-modified cells comprising a chimeric antigen receptor or an inducible regulatory construct incorporating the co-stimulatory domains disclosed herein. (
  • To address this point, we have developed an integrated autocrine system that uses a recombinant Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) luciferase reporter cell line that permanently expresses the human ET A receptor. (
  • Vero, HeLa, HEp2 and U373 human cells were infected with various amounts of HeV-Luc. (
  • ATCC maintains nearly 4,000 cell lines that are invaluable for public health research, including cancer models such as HeLa, OVCAR-3 and LNCaP. (
  • Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotential adult progenitor cells that have the capacity to differentiate along several mesenchymal lineages, including cartilage, adipose, marrow stroma, and bone tissue [ 1 - 3 ]. (
  • Numb is found to be localized asymmetrically in dividing progenitor cells and may be involved in the process of satellite cell self-renewal. (
  • Mesenchymal progenitor cells can differentiate along either adipogenic or myogenic pathways. (
  • Cypridina Luciferase (CLuc) is secreted from the marine ostracod, Cyridina noctiluc a. (
  • Because many effectors are injected during a V. parahaemolyticus infection, it is not surprising that the presence of a sole PI3 kinase inhibitor does not prevent inevitable host-cell death. (
  • Our studies reveal an infection paradigm whereby an extracellular pathogen uses its type III secretion system to cause at least three parallel events that eventually result in the proinflammatory death of an infected host cell. (
  • However, infection with Δ tdh and Δ trh strains of V. parahaemolyticus results in rapid and acute cell death in a tissue culture model ( 3 ). (
  • Vero cells were infected at an MOI of 0.01 and samples collected for titration at 8, 24, 48 and 72 hours post infection. (
  • Vero cells were infected at an MOI of 0.05 and imaged using a AMG EVOS FL fluorescent inverted microscope with a monochrome camera at 24 and 48 hr post infection. (
  • Based on their rapid release in response to infection or tissue injury, their dual roles as both chemoattractants and activators of antigen-presenting cells, as well as their capacity to enhance antigen-specific immune responses, we have classified these structurally distinct AMPs as immune alarmins, which are defined as endogenous mediators that rapidly galvanize host defenses against exogenous danger signals ( 5 , 6 ). (
  • At 48 h after infection and treatment, the cells were lysed and assayed for Rluc activities. (
  • 1982). Further, retroviral vectors require cell division for genomic integration and can be inefficient at transducing highly differentiated cells such as neurons, dendritic cells, or resting lymphocytes. (
  • We have previously shown that EDN can induce the migration and maturation of dendritic cells (DCs). (
  • Similarly, dendritic cells and other antigen-presenting cells (APCs) use LVs to transport antigen taken up in the periphery to draining LNs, where they make contact with naive T- and B-lymphocytes to initiate adaptive immune responses. (
  • Wnt/β-catenin signaling is critically involved in metazoan development, stem cell maintenance and human disease. (
  • To receive news and publication updates for Stem Cells International, enter your email address in the box below. (
  • Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are currently being widely investigated both in the lab and in clinical trials for multiple disease states. (
  • We focus specifically on stem cells from skeletal muscle, but study comparable processes in stem cells other mesenchymal tissue (e.g. fat) and epithelia (e.g. skin, gut, and neuro-epithelia). (
  • Current studies are focused on the role of post-transcriptional regulation of stem cell quiescence and activation. (
  • Ongoing studies are also addressing the role of long, intergenic non-coding RNAs in regulating stem cell function. (
  • Our studies of stem cell aging have focused on two major areas. (
  • First, we are using microarray and next-generation high throughput sequencing to derive molecular signatures of young and old stem cells and the transcriptional and epigenetic levels. (
  • Second, we have pioneered the use of heterochronic parabiosis to study potential mechanisms of rejuvenation whereby an aged stem cell is reprogrammed to become a young stem cell. (
  • We have intriguing data that the impairment of regeneration and the development of these pathological changes may arise, at least in part, from the conversion of muscle stem cells from the myogenic lineage to other mesenchymal lineages. (
  • Besides providing a route for metastatic tumor cells, LVs might also contribute to tumor progression by providing a "niche" for cancer stem-like cells ( 7 ), which might facilitate the formation of "in-transit" melanoma metastases. (
  • Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) are capable of differentiating into multiple cell types and regulating immune cell response. (
  • Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSC) have therapeutic properties in immune disorders. (
  • The ATCC Cell Biology Collection is one of the largest bioresources in the world, and offers a complex array of human, animal, insect, fish and stem cell lines from which to choose. (
  • Skeletal muscle stem cell-derived myoblasts are mainly responsible for postnatal muscle growth and injury-induced muscle regeneration. (
  • While progress has been made in elucidating the key signal transduction pathways that mediate damage response in somatic cells, relatively little is known about whether these function similarly in pluripotent embryonic stem (ES) cells where ATM is also implicated in our understanding of adult stem cell ageing and in improvements in regenerative medicine. (
  • Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells ameliorate hepatic ischemia reperfusion injury in a rat model. (
  • Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are potential cell therapeutic targets for liver disease. (
  • ATM plays a central role in the coordinated activation of DNA damage response (DDR) signalling pathways that protect somatic cells from the deleterious effects of fixed mutations, forming a potent anti-cancer mechanism. (
  • Transduction of biomechanical stimuli leads to activation of cellular signaling mechanisms that ultimately lead to adaptive, and sometimes maladaptive, changes in cell and tissue fate. (
  • Whether systemically injected or injected directly into a tissue or organ, there is the issue of where the cells go and whether the cells can bind, engraft, and, in many instances, survive. (
  • 4 Further, cell-surface associated GRP78 has been speculated to serve a protective role in atheroprone environments by inhibiting tissue factor through direct binding to the endothelium overlying the plaque. (
  • RNA interference (RNAi) in tissue culture cells has emerged as an excellent methodology for identifying gene functions systematically and in an unbiased manner. (
  • Here, we focus on the application of RNAi to high-throughput screening (HTS) in Drosophila tissue culture cells. (
  • ATCC has designed tumor cell panels based on the tissue of tumor origin, each annotated with details regarding known mutations. (
  • In addition, PTDs identified by phage display are able to transduce cells in a cell type or tissue specific manner that are neither cationic nor hydrophobic, presumable entering cells through a novel mechanism. (
  • In this study, we report that the viral protein A238L interacts with the amino-terminal region of p300, inhibiting the acetylation and transcriptional activation of NF-ATc2, NF-κB, and c-Jun in stimulated human T cells. (
  • For the virus to replicate normally in p53-deficient tumor cells, all of the viral defects must be complemented by p53 loss. (
  • Classically, following MoMLV entry into a cell, the RNA genome is reverse transcribed into DNA and integration of this DNA copy into a host cell chromosome occurs as an essential step in viral replication ( 9 - 11 ). (
  • In contrast to the cell culture results, delivery of NBD using 8K (octalysine) and 6R (six arginine) were the most effect in blocking inflammation following local, footpad delivery in a KLH-induced DTH murine model of inflammatory arthritis. (
  • driven by an EMCV IRES in the 3′ UTR), resulting in Rluc-Neo-Rep. (B) Titration of Rluc-Neo-Rep cells in a 96-well plate. (
  • Cancer cells must complete five steps to metastasize to a secondary site: (1) detachment from the primary tumor, (2) intravasation into the circulation, (3) survival in the circulation, (4) extravasation into the distant organ, and (5) survival and growth at the secondary site (hereafter defined as metastatic growth ). (
  • Tubular cells are are not only affected secondary to glomerular injury but are also primary targets for pathological influences in diabetes ( 1 - 4 , 8 - 15 ). (
  • Lymphangiogenesis also occurs in the sentinel lymph node, sometimes even before the arrival of metastatic tumor cells, stimulated by lymphangiogenic factors drained from the primary tumor ( 4 - 6 ). (
  • The ATCC Primary Cell collection includes quality primary cells, along with the media, reagents, and relevant information needed to support the successful culture of primary cells. (
  • During development, retinal ganglion cell axons grow from the eye to the optic tectum [the primary visual center in lower vertebrates or the superior colliculus (SC) in mammals] and form a topographic map of visual space. (
  • The ability of retroviruses to integrate into the genome is a key attribute that favors their use in producing stable cell lines. (
  • To compound this, there are no isogenic glial cell lines that contain PPM1D-truncating mutations, limiting the ability to study the specific consequences of these genomic events in the formation of gliomas. (
  • Here we describe the creation and validation of PPM1D-truncated isogenic astrocyte cell lines for use in studying the role of these mutations in gliomagenesis. (
  • Pancreatic cancer cell lines also secreted adrenomedullin into the culture medium as determined by ELISA (5 of 5). (
  • One of the methods of choice (reviewed by Mottheakis and Ohler, 2000) for such measurements is the use of cell lines expressing a GPCR and aequorin, such as described by Sheu et al (1993) or Button et al. (
  • Several independent lines of evidence have demonstrated that Panx1 forms the major adenosine triphosphate (ATP) release channel in many cell types. (
  • The investigators saw a clear difference in the two cell lines and were able to map the spatial distribution of luciferase within a given cell. (
  • ATCC maintains luciferase-expressing reporter cell lines derived from the most commonly used cells in molecular imaging studies. (
  • Reporter-labeled cell lines are useful for monitoring various biological functions. (
  • ATCC is continually accessioning and creating new reporter cell lines to quicken the pace of your research. (
  • ATCC provides investigators with a comprehensive selection of animal cell lines from over 150 different species. (
  • ATCC offers isogenic cell lines created using gene editing tools such as CRISPR/Cas9 that are ideal for identifying novel, personalized treatment regimens. (
  • The Tcf-E2 and Tcf-E1B promoters are active in many, but not all, cell lines with activation of the wnt pathway. (
  • Adding a range of tau species to the biosensor cell lines, the researchers found that trimers were the smallest capable of seeding. (
  • Natural killer T (NKT) lymphocytes represent an immune regulatory population with recognized capacity for inducing innate (eg, NK cells) and adaptive (eg, CD8 T cell) antitumor immunity, 2 ⇓ - 4 by their unique ability to rapidly produce large quantities of cytokines on TCR ligation, in particular IFN-γ. (
  • By co-culturing T lymphocytes with breast cancer cells, we confirmed that T cells increase the ability of breast cancer cells to cross the BBB. (
  • No binding was detected to several hematopoietic lineages, including lymphocytes or monocytes (Fig. 1 A), transformed Jurkat or CEM T leukemias, or the HL-60 myelomonocytic or U-937 promonocytic leukemia cells ( 9 ). (
  • The purpose of a vector which transfers genetic information to another cell is typically to isolate, multiply, or express the insert in the target cell. (
  • Genetic ablation of enteric glia cells results in severe inflammation and fatal hemorrhagic necrosis of the gut, highlighting the critical role of the enteric glia in maintaining intestinal integrity ( 5 ). (
  • Normalization to cell health (viability), normalization to total protein content, or normalization to a co-transfected internal control reporter constitute the standard methods used for normalization of genetic reporter data. (