Stem Cells: Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Adult Stem Cells: Cells with high proliferative and self renewal capacities derived from adults.Neoplastic Stem Cells: Highly proliferative, self-renewing, and colony-forming stem cells which give rise to NEOPLASMS.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Cell Lineage: The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Plant Cells: Basic functional unit of plants.Plants, Genetically Modified: PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Hematopoietic Stem Cells: Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.Stem Cell Transplantation: The transfer of STEM CELLS from one individual to another within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or between species (XENOTRANSPLANTATION), or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS). The source and location of the stem cells determines their potency or pluripotency to differentiate into various cell types.Embryonic Stem Cells: Cells derived from the BLASTOCYST INNER CELL MASS which forms before implantation in the uterine wall. They retain the ability to divide, proliferate and provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Plant Roots: The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Genes, Plant: The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.Pluripotent Stem Cells: Cells that can give rise to cells of the three different GERM LAYERS.Plant Stems: Parts of plants that usually grow vertically upwards towards the light and support the leaves, buds, and reproductive structures. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: Transfer of HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS from BONE MARROW or BLOOD between individuals within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS). Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has been used as an alternative to BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION in the treatment of a variety of neoplasms.Stem Cell Niche: A particular zone of tissue composed of a specialized microenvironment where stem cells are retained in a undifferentiated, self-renewable state.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Plant Shoots: New immature growth of a plant including stem, leaves, tips of branches, and SEEDLINGS.Neural Stem Cells: Self-renewing cells that generate the main phenotypes of the nervous system in both the embryo and adult. Neural stem cells are precursors to both NEURONS and NEUROGLIA.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells: Cells from adult organisms that have been reprogrammed into a pluripotential state similar to that of EMBRYONIC STEM CELLS.Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.Plant Development: Processes orchestrated or driven by a plethora of genes, plant hormones, and inherent biological timing mechanisms facilitated by secondary molecules, which result in the systematic transformation of plants and plant parts, from one stage of maturity to another.Plants, Toxic: Plants or plant parts which are harmful to man or other animals.DNA, Plant: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.Plants, Medicinal: Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.Multipotent Stem Cells: Specialized stem cells that are committed to give rise to cells that have a particular function; examples are MYOBLASTS; MYELOID PROGENITOR CELLS; and skin stem cells. (Stem Cells: A Primer [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Institutes of Health (US); 2000 May [cited 2002 Apr 5]. Available from: http://www.nih.gov/news/stemcell/primer.htm)Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation: Transfer of MESENCHYMAL STEM CELLS between individuals within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS).Tobacco: A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.Stem Cell Factor: A hematopoietic growth factor and the ligand of the cell surface c-kit protein (PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-KIT). It is expressed during embryogenesis and is a growth factor for a number of cell types including the MAST CELLS and the MELANOCYTES in addition to the HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS.Mesenchymal Stromal Cells: Bone-marrow-derived, non-hematopoietic cells that support HEMATOPOETIC STEM CELLS. They have also been isolated from other organs and tissues such as UMBILICAL CORD BLOOD, umbilical vein subendothelium, and WHARTON JELLY. These cells are considered to be a source of multipotent stem cells because they include subpopulations of mesenchymal stem cells.Arabidopsis Proteins: Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Stem Cell Research: Experimentation on STEM CELLS and on the use of stem cells.Genome, Plant: The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Plant Structures: The parts of plants, including SEEDS.Fetal Stem Cells: Cells derived from a FETUS that retain the ability to divide, proliferate and provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Plant Growth Regulators: Any of the hormones produced naturally in plants and active in controlling growth and other functions. There are three primary classes: auxins, cytokinins, and gibberellins.Plants, Edible: An organism of the vegetable kingdom suitable by nature for use as a food, especially by human beings. Not all parts of any given plant are edible but all parts of edible plants have been known to figure as raw or cooked food: leaves, roots, tubers, stems, seeds, buds, fruits, and flowers. The most commonly edible parts of plants are FRUIT, usually sweet, fleshy, and succulent. Most edible plants are commonly cultivated for their nutritional value and are referred to as VEGETABLES.Plant Epidermis: A thin layer of cells forming the outer integument of seed plants and ferns. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Cell Wall: The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.Hematopoietic Stem Cell Mobilization: The release of stem cells from the bone marrow into the peripheral blood circulation for the purpose of leukapheresis, prior to stem cell transplantation. Hematopoietic growth factors or chemotherapeutic agents often are used to stimulate the mobilization.Plant Immunity: The inherent or induced capacity of plants to withstand or ward off biological attack by pathogens.Protoplasts: The protoplasm and plasma membrane of plant, fungal, bacterial or archaeon cells without the CELL WALL.Agrobacterium tumefaciens: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria isolated from soil and the stems, leafs, and roots of plants. Some biotypes are pathogenic and cause the formation of PLANT TUMORS in a wide variety of higher plants. The species is a major research tool in biotechnology.Bone Marrow Cells: Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.Plant Tumors: A localized proliferation of plant tissue forming a swelling or outgrowth, commonly with a characteristic shape and unlike any organ of the normal plant. Plant tumors or galls usually form in response to the action of a pathogen or a pest. (Holliday, P., A Dictionary of Plant Pathology, 1989, p330)Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Regeneration: The physiological renewal, repair, or replacement of tissue.Cell Culture Techniques: Methods for maintaining or growing CELLS in vitro.Pectins: High molecular weight polysaccharides present in the cell walls of all plants. Pectins cement cell walls together. They are used as emulsifiers and stabilizers in the food industry. They have been tried for a variety of therapeutic uses including as antidiarrheals, where they are now generally considered ineffective, and in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Octamer Transcription Factor-3: An octamer transcription factor that is expressed primarily in totipotent embryonic STEM CELLS and GERM CELLS and is down-regulated during CELL DIFFERENTIATION.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Lycopersicon esculentum: A plant species of the family SOLANACEAE, native of South America, widely cultivated for their edible, fleshy, usually red fruit.Angiosperms: Members of the group of vascular plants which bear flowers. They are differentiated from GYMNOSPERMS by their production of seeds within a closed chamber (OVARY, PLANT). The Angiosperms division is composed of two classes, the monocotyledons (Liliopsida) and dicotyledons (Magnoliopsida). Angiosperms represent approximately 80% of all known living plants.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Cell SeparationRegenerative Medicine: A field of medicine concerned with developing and using strategies aimed at repair or replacement of damaged, diseased, or metabolically deficient organs, tissues, and cells via TISSUE ENGINEERING; CELL TRANSPLANTATION; and ARTIFICIAL ORGANS and BIOARTIFICIAL ORGANS and tissues.Transplantation, Autologous: Transplantation of an individual's own tissue from one site to another site.Hematopoiesis: The development and formation of various types of BLOOD CELLS. Hematopoiesis can take place in the BONE MARROW (medullary) or outside the bone marrow (HEMATOPOIESIS, EXTRAMEDULLARY).Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation: Transplantation of stem cells collected from the peripheral blood. It is a less invasive alternative to direct marrow harvesting of hematopoietic stem cells. Enrichment of stem cells in peripheral blood can be achieved by inducing mobilization of stem cells from the BONE MARROW.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Totipotent Stem Cells: Single cells that have the potential to form an entire organism. They have the capacity to specialize into extraembryonic membranes and tissues, the embryo, and all postembryonic tissues and organs. (Stem Cells: A Primer [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Institutes of Health (US); 2000 May [cited 2002 Apr 5]. Available from: http://www.nih.gov/news/stemcell/primer.htm)Seeds: The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.Antigens, CD34: Glycoproteins found on immature hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. They are the only molecules to date whose expression within the blood system is restricted to a small number of progenitor cells in the bone marrow.Rhizobium: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that activate PLANT ROOT NODULATION in leguminous plants. Members of this genus are nitrogen-fixing and common soil inhabitants.Xylans: Polysaccharides consisting of xylose units.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Plant Stomata: Closable openings in the epidermis of plants on the underside of leaves. They allow the exchange of gases between the internal tissues of the plant and the outside atmosphere.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Transplantation, Homologous: Transplantation between individuals of the same species. Usually refers to genetically disparate individuals in contradistinction to isogeneic transplantation for genetically identical individuals.Onions: Herbaceous biennial plants and their edible bulbs, belonging to the Liliaceae.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Mice, Inbred C57BLGene Expression Regulation, Plant: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.Meristem: A group of plant cells that are capable of dividing infinitely and whose main function is the production of new growth at the growing tip of a root or stem. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Embryo, Mammalian: The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.SOXB1 Transcription Factors: A subclass of SOX transcription factors that are expressed in neuronal tissue where they may play a role in the regulation of CELL DIFFERENTIATION. Members of this subclass are generally considered to be transcriptional activators.Fabaceae: The large family of plants characterized by pods. Some are edible and some cause LATHYRISM or FAVISM and other forms of poisoning. Other species yield useful materials like gums from ACACIA and various LECTINS like PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS from PHASEOLUS. Many of them harbor NITROGEN FIXATION bacteria on their roots. Many but not all species of "beans" belong to this family.Spermatogonia: Euploid male germ cells of an early stage of SPERMATOGENESIS, derived from prespermatogonia. With the onset of puberty, spermatogonia at the basement membrane of the seminiferous tubule proliferate by mitotic then meiotic divisions and give rise to the haploid SPERMATOCYTES.Zea mays: A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.Colony-Forming Units Assay: A cytologic technique for measuring the functional capacity of stem cells by assaying their activity.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Seedling: Very young plant after GERMINATION of SEEDS.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Indoleacetic Acids: Acetic acid derivatives of the heterocyclic compound indole. (Merck Index, 11th ed)Plant Physiological Phenomena: The physiological processes, properties, and states characteristic of plants.Flowers: The reproductive organs of plants.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Cell- and Tissue-Based Therapy: Therapies that involve the TRANSPLANTATION of CELLS or TISSUES developed for the purpose of restoring the function of diseased or dysfunctional cells or tissues.Mice, SCID: Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.Tissue Engineering: Generating tissue in vitro for clinical applications, such as replacing wounded tissues or impaired organs. The use of TISSUE SCAFFOLDING enables the generation of complex multi-layered tissues and tissue structures.Pseudomonas syringae: A species of gram-negative, fluorescent, phytopathogenic bacteria in the genus PSEUDOMONAS. It is differentiated into approximately 50 pathovars with different plant pathogenicities and host specificities.Cellulose: A polysaccharide with glucose units linked as in CELLOBIOSE. It is the chief constituent of plant fibers, cotton being the purest natural form of the substance. As a raw material, it forms the basis for many derivatives used in chromatography, ion exchange materials, explosives manufacturing, and pharmaceutical preparations.Plant Diseases: Diseases of plants.Cell Dedifferentiation: A reverse developmental process in which terminally differentiated cells with specialized functions revert back to a less differentiated stage within their own CELL LINEAGE.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit: A protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is specific for STEM CELL FACTOR. This interaction is crucial for the development of hematopoietic, gonadal, and pigment stem cells. Genetic mutations that disrupt the expression of PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-KIT are associated with PIEBALDISM, while overexpression or constitutive activation of the c-kit protein-tyrosine kinase is associated with tumorigenesis.Cord Blood Stem Cell Transplantation: Transplantation of STEM CELLS collected from the fetal blood remaining in the UMBILICAL CORD and the PLACENTA after delivery. Included are the HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS.Homeodomain Proteins: Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).Nestin: A type VI intermediate filament protein expressed mostly in nerve cells where it is associated with the survival, renewal and mitogen-stimulated proliferation of neural progenitor cells.Plant Components, Aerial: The above-ground plant without the roots.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Chromosomes, Plant: Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of PLANTS.Polygalacturonase: A cell wall-degrading enzyme found in microorganisms and higher plants. It catalyzes the random hydrolysis of 1,4-alpha-D-galactosiduronic linkages in pectate and other galacturonans. EC 3.2.1.15.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Symbiosis: The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.Solanum tuberosum: A plant species of the genus SOLANUM, family SOLANACEAE. The starchy roots are used as food. SOLANINE is found in green parts.Germ Cells: The reproductive cells in multicellular organisms at various stages during GAMETOGENESIS.Daucus carota: A plant species of the family APIACEAE that is widely cultivated for the edible yellow-orange root. The plant has finely divided leaves and flat clusters of small white flowers.Transformation, Genetic: Change brought about to an organisms genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (TRANSFECTION; TRANSDUCTION, GENETIC; CONJUGATION, GENETIC, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell's genome.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Soybeans: An annual legume. The SEEDS of this plant are edible and used to produce a variety of SOY FOODS.Chloroplasts: Plant cell inclusion bodies that contain the photosynthetic pigment CHLOROPHYLL, which is associated with the membrane of THYLAKOIDS. Chloroplasts occur in cells of leaves and young stems of plants. They are also found in some forms of PHYTOPLANKTON such as HAPTOPHYTA; DINOFLAGELLATES; DIATOMS; and CRYPTOPHYTA.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Hair Follicle: A tube-like invagination of the EPIDERMIS from which the hair shaft develops and into which SEBACEOUS GLANDS open. The hair follicle is lined by a cellular inner and outer root sheath of epidermal origin and is invested with a fibrous sheath derived from the dermis. (Stedman, 26th ed) Follicles of very long hairs extend into the subcutaneous layer of tissue under the SKIN.Plant Transpiration: The loss of water vapor by plants to the atmosphere. It occurs mainly from the leaves through pores (stomata) whose primary function is gas exchange. The water is replaced by a continuous column of water moving upwards from the roots within the xylem vessels. (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Brain Stem: The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.Peas: A variable annual leguminous vine (Pisum sativum) that is cultivated for its rounded smooth or wrinkled edible protein-rich seeds, the seed of the pea, and the immature pods with their included seeds. (From Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary, 1973)Plant Poisoning: Poisoning by the ingestion of plants or its leaves, berries, roots or stalks. The manifestations in both humans and animals vary in severity from mild to life threatening. In animals, especially domestic animals, it is usually the result of ingesting moldy or fermented forage.Biomass: Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.Embryo Research: Experimentation on, or using the organs or tissues from, a human or other mammalian conceptus during the prenatal stage of development that is characterized by rapid morphological changes and the differentiation of basic structures. In humans, this includes the period from the time of fertilization to the end of the eighth week after fertilization.Coculture Techniques: A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Glucans: Polysaccharides composed of repeating glucose units. They can consist of branched or unbranched chains in any linkages.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Bryopsida: A class of plants within the Bryophyta comprising the mosses, which are found in both damp (including freshwater) and drier situations. Mosses possess erect or prostrate leafless stems, which give rise to leafless stalks bearing capsules. Spores formed in the capsules are released and grow to produce new plants. (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990). Many small plants bearing the name moss are in fact not mosses. The "moss" found on the north side of trees is actually a green alga (CHLOROPHYTA). Irish moss is really a red alga (RHODOPHYTA). Beard lichen (beard moss), Iceland moss, oak moss, and reindeer moss are actually LICHENS. Spanish moss is a common name for both LICHENS and an air plant (TILLANDSIA usneoides) of the pineapple family. Club moss is an evergreen herb of the family LYCOPODIACEAE.Bone Marrow Transplantation: The transference of BONE MARROW from one human or animal to another for a variety of purposes including HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION or MESENCHYMAL STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION.Plastids: Self-replicating cytoplasmic organelles of plant and algal cells that contain pigments and may synthesize and accumulate various substances. PLASTID GENOMES are used in phylogenetic studies.Lignin: The most abundant natural aromatic organic polymer found in all vascular plants. Lignin together with cellulose and hemicellulose are the major cell wall components of the fibers of all wood and grass species. Lignin is composed of coniferyl, p-coumaryl, and sinapyl alcohols in varying ratios in different plant species. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Root Nodules, Plant: Knobbed structures formed from and attached to plant roots, especially of LEGUMES, which result from symbiotic infection by nitrogen fixing bacteria such as RHIZOBIUM or FRANKIA. Root nodules are structures related to MYCORRHIZAE formed by symbiotic associations with fungi.Pollen: The fertilizing element of plants that contains the male GAMETOPHYTES.Fetal Blood: Blood of the fetus. Exchange of nutrients and waste between the fetal and maternal blood occurs via the PLACENTA. The cord blood is blood contained in the umbilical vessels (UMBILICAL CORD) at the time of delivery.Luminescent Proteins: Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.Bone Marrow: The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.Transplantation Conditioning: Preparative treatment of transplant recipient with various conditioning regimens including radiation, immune sera, chemotherapy, and/or immunosuppressive agents, prior to transplantation. Transplantation conditioning is very common before bone marrow transplantation.Teratoma: A true neoplasm composed of a number of different types of tissue, none of which is native to the area in which it occurs. It is composed of tissues that are derived from three germinal layers, the endoderm, mesoderm, and ectoderm. They are classified histologically as mature (benign) or immature (malignant). (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1642)DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Hordeum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The EDIBLE GRAIN, barley, is widely used as food.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Oxylipins: Eighteen-carbon cyclopentyl polyunsaturated fatty acids derived from ALPHA-LINOLENIC ACID via an oxidative pathway analogous to the EICOSANOIDS in animals. Biosynthesis is inhibited by SALICYLATES. A key member, jasmonic acid of PLANTS, plays a similar role to ARACHIDONIC ACID in animals.Embryoid Bodies: Spontaneous aggregations of human embryonic stem cells that occur in vitro after culturing in a medium that lacks LEUKEMIC INHIBITORY FACTOR. The embryoid bodies can further differentiate into cells that represent different lineages.Plant Bark: The outer layer of the woody parts of plants.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Botany: The study of the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of plants.PolysaccharidesCell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Nuclear Reprogramming: The process that reverts CELL NUCLEI of fully differentiated somatic cells to a pluripotent or totipotent state. This process can be achieved to a certain extent by NUCLEAR TRANSFER TECHNIQUES, such as fusing somatic cell nuclei with enucleated pluripotent embryonic stem cells or enucleated totipotent oocytes. GENE EXPRESSION PROFILING of the fused hybrid cells is used to determine the degree of reprogramming. Dramatic results of nuclear reprogramming include the generation of cloned mammals, such as Dolly the sheep in 1997.Transgenes: Genes that are introduced into an organism using GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Cyclopentanes: A group of alicyclic hydrocarbons with the general formula R-C5H9.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Spheroids, Cellular: Spherical, heterogeneous aggregates of proliferating, quiescent, and necrotic cells in culture that retain three-dimensional architecture and tissue-specific functions. The ability to form spheroids is a characteristic trait of CULTURED TUMOR CELLS derived from solid TUMORS. Cells from normal tissues can also form spheroids. They represent an in-vitro model for studies of the biology of both normal and malignant cells. (From Bjerkvig, Spheroid Culture in Cancer Research, 1992, p4)Cell Transplantation: Transference of cells within an individual, between individuals of the same species, or between individuals of different species.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Plant Lectins: Protein or glycoprotein substances of plant origin that bind to sugar moieties in cell walls or membranes. Some carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) from PLANTS also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. Many plant lectins change the physiology of the membrane of BLOOD CELLS to cause agglutination, mitosis, or other biochemical changes. They may play a role in plant defense mechanisms.Neurogenesis: Formation of NEURONS which involves the differentiation and division of STEM CELLS in which one or both of the daughter cells become neurons.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Chondrogenesis: The formation of cartilage. This process is directed by CHONDROCYTES which continually divide and lay down matrix during development. It is sometimes a precursor to OSTEOGENESIS.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Lentivirus: A genus of the family RETROVIRIDAE consisting of non-oncogenic retroviruses that produce multi-organ diseases characterized by long incubation periods and persistent infection. Lentiviruses are unique in that they contain open reading frames (ORFs) between the pol and env genes and in the 3' env region. Five serogroups are recognized, reflecting the mammalian hosts with which they are associated. HIV-1 is the type species.Cell Shape: The quality of surface form or outline of CELLS.Graft vs Host Disease: The clinical entity characterized by anorexia, diarrhea, loss of hair, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, growth retardation, and eventual death brought about by the GRAFT VS HOST REACTION.Fungi: A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.Vacuoles: Any spaces or cavities within a cell. They may function in digestion, storage, secretion, or excretion.Triticum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE that is the source of EDIBLE GRAIN. A hybrid with rye (SECALE CEREALE) is called TRITICALE. The seed is ground into FLOUR and used to make BREAD, and is the source of WHEAT GERM AGGLUTININS.Salicylic Acid: A compound obtained from the bark of the white willow and wintergreen leaves. It has bacteriostatic, fungicidal, and keratolytic actions.Cytokinins: Plant hormones that promote the separation of daughter cells after mitotic division of a parent cell. Frequently they are purine derivatives.Plant Preparations: Material prepared from plants.Photosynthesis: The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Agrobacterium: A genus of gram negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria found in soil, plants, and marine mud.Mice, Inbred NOD: A strain of non-obese diabetic mice developed in Japan that has been widely studied as a model for T-cell-dependent autoimmune insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in which insulitis is a major histopathologic feature, and in which genetic susceptibility is strongly MHC-linked.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Cell Tracking: Non-invasive imaging of cells that have been labeled non-destructively, such as with nanoemulsions or reporter genes that can be detected by molecular imaging, to monitor their location, viability, cell lineage expansion, response to drugs, movement, or other behaviors in vivo.Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor: A glycoprotein of MW 25 kDa containing internal disulfide bonds. It induces the survival, proliferation, and differentiation of neutrophilic granulocyte precursor cells and functionally activates mature blood neutrophils. Among the family of colony-stimulating factors, G-CSF is the most potent inducer of terminal differentiation to granulocytes and macrophages of leukemic myeloid cell lines.Xylem: Plant tissue that carries water up the root and stem. Xylem cell walls derive most of their strength from LIGNIN. The vessels are similar to PHLOEM sieve tubes but lack companion cells and do not have perforated sides and pores.Antigens, CD24: A cell adhesion protein that was originally identified as a heat stable antigen in mice. It is involved in METASTASIS and is highly expressed in many NEOPLASMS.Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Microscopy, Confocal: A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.Tissue Scaffolds: Cell growth support structures composed of BIOCOMPATIBLE MATERIALS. They are specially designed solid support matrices for cell attachment in TISSUE ENGINEERING and GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION uses.Chimera: An individual that contains cell populations derived from different zygotes.
Narayanaswamy, S. (1994). Plant Cell and Tissue Culture. Tata McGraw-Hill Education. pp. vi. ISBN 9780074602775. Health, ... Embryonic stem cells incorporate the altered gene, which replaces the already present functional copy. These stem cells are ... As only a single cell is transformed with genetic material, the organism must be regenerated from that single cell. In plants ... Islam, Aparna (2008). "Fungus Resistant Transgenic Plants: Strategies, Progress and Lessons Learnt". Plant Tissue Culture and ...
Areas of research: tissue engineering, bioreactors, biophysical regulation, tissue development, stem cell research. Jian (Jane ... Columbia's Laboratory for Stem Cells and Tissue Engineering. ... Mary-Dell Chilton, Ph.D. (1939-), founder of modern plant ... "STEM Directory » Melendy Lovett - Texas Instruments". Archived from the original on 5 May 2013. Retrieved 28 April 2013. "The ... Hopkins, Katy (10 July 2012). "How to Encourage Women to Consider STEM Majors". U.S.News & World Report. Retrieved 3 May 2013 ...
Secondary growth Stem cell Thallus Tissues Galun, Esra (2007). Plant Patterning: Structural and Molecular Genetic Aspects. ... The shoot apical meristem consists of 4 distinct cell groups: Stem cells The immediate daughter cells of the stem cells A ... A meristem is the tissue in most plants containing undifferentiated cells (meristematic cells), found in zones of the plant ... In general, differentiated plant cells cannot divide or produce cells of a different type. Therefore, cell division in the ...
The meristem can be defined as the tissue or group of plant tissues that contain undifferentiated stem cells, which are capable ... This gene acts by inhibiting the possible differentiation of the stem cells but still allows cell division in the daughter ... Brand, U.; Fletcher, JC; Hobe, M; Meyerowitz, EM; Simon, R (2000). "Dependence of Stem Cell Fate in Arabidopsis on a Feedback ... This means that a number of genes will directly regulate, for example, the maintenance of the stem cell's characteristics (gene ...
The individual plants are usually composed of simple leaves that are generally only one cell thick, attached to a stem that may ... If the plant cannot repair DNA damage, e.g. double-strand breaks, in their somatic cells, the cells can lose normal functions ... these are generally poorly developed and structurally different from similar tissue found in vascular plants. Mosses do not ... Female plants emit more compounds than male plants. Springtails were found to choose female plants preferentially, and one ...
Evert, Ray Franklin and Esau, Katherine (2006) Esau's Plant anatomy: meristems, cells, and tissues of the plant body - their ... "the lower plants all consist of one cell, while the higher plants are composed of (many) individual cells" thus confirming and ... Flower anatomy Calyx Corolla Androecium Gynoecium Leaf anatomy Epidermis Palisade cells Stem anatomy Stem structure Fruit/Seed ... Chaffey, N. (2006). "(Book Review) Esau's Plant Anatomy, Meristems, Cells, and Tissues of the Plant Body: their Structure, ...
... most plant tissues can de-differentiate and form a mass of dividing totipotent stem cells called a callus. De novo ... Current Opinion in Cell Biology, 31, 23-28. doi:10.1016/j.ceb.2014.06.013. ... The coelom of the body forms from a split of the mesoderm along the somite axis.[citation needed] In plants, organogenesis, ... In the root, new lateral roots form from weakly differentiated internal tissue (e.g. the xylem-pole pericycle in the model ...
... is the capacity of plants to regulate, or achieve homeostasis of, cell and tissue water content. Homoiohydry ... to the chloroplasts takes place in intercellular spaces between chlorenchyma cells in the stem or in the mesophyll tissue of ... In vascular plants, water is acquired from the soil by roots and transported via the xylem to aerial portions of the plant. ... Water evaporation from the aerial surfaces of the plant is controlled by a waterproof covering of cuticle. Gas exchange with ...
Embryonic stem cells Ocular stem cells Haematopoietic stem cells Skin and tissue engineering Cell biology Plant engineering ... The symposium conducted in 2006 focused on Preventive and Predictive Molecular Diagnostics and Stem Cells and Regenerative ... Cell biology Molecular biology Upstream process engineering Downstream process engineering cGMP manufacturing Plant engineering ... commissioning and validating highly automated biopharmaceuticals manufacturing plants while complying with the regulations of ...
... induced pluripotent stem (IPS) cells. Now, theoretically, they are able to make sperm and egg cells with old skin cells. Stored ... Frozen Zoo at San Diego Zoo Conservation Research has been freezing biological materials from animals and plants in liquid ... The zoo also collects skin cell samples of endangered animals or extinct species. Scripps Research Center has successfully made ... embryos and live tissue) are gathered and thereafter stored at very low temperatures in tanks of liquid nitrogen waiting to be ...
... see stem cell).. In some tissues dividing cells are restricted to special areas, such as the growth plates of bones.[2]467-482 ... In plants, growth results in an adult organism that is strikingly different from the embryo. The dividing cells tend to be ... The formation of cell types like nerve cells occurs with a number of intermediary, less differentiated cell types. A cell stays ... Cell differentiation[change , change source]. Differentiation is the formation of cell types, from what is originally one cell ...
Hyperplasia is the enlargement of a plant tissue due to excessive increase in the number of plant cells produced. Hyperplasia ... Both streaks and stripes occur in grasses and are elongated areas having dead cells. Streaks occur along the stem and veins, ... Soft rots are those where the pathogen breaks down the host cell walls, resulting in the exudation of juices from the infected ... Hypoplasia results in plants or plant parts of sub-normal size. Atrophy is the reduction in the size of plant cells produced. ...
To target genes in mice, this construct is then inserted into mouse embryonic stem cells in culture. After cells with the ... "Targeted transgene integration in plant cells using designed zinc finger nucleases". Plant Molecular Biology. 69 (6): 699-709. ... After this step the entire body of the mouse is based on the previously selected embryonic stem cell. To target genes in moss, ... Conditions can be a specific time during development / life of the organism or limitation to a specific tissue, for example. ...
... hydroids form the innermost layer of cells in the stem. At maturity they are long, colourless, thin walled cells of small ... The hydroids are analogous to the tracheids of vascular plants but there is no lignin present in the cell walls to provide ... Collectively, hydroids function as a conducting tissue, known as the hydrome, transporting water and minerals drawn from the ... A hydroid is a type of vascular cell that occurs in certain bryophytes. In some mosses such as members of the Polytrichaceae ...
... in tobacco plants". The Plant Journal: For Cell and Molecular Biology. 28 (3): 257-270. doi:10.1046/j.1365-313x.2001.01140.x. ... Most CCR homologs are highly expressed during development, especially in stem, root, and xylem cells which require the enhanced ... an absolute requirement for any plant species with lignified tissues. ... "Engineering of plant cell walls for enhanced biofuel production". Current Opinion in Plant Biology. 25: 151-161. doi:10.1016/j. ...
... analogous to the stem cells of animals) to form the tissue structures of roots, stems, leaves, flowers, and reproductive ... Plant cells are eukaryotic cells that differ in several key aspects from the cells of other eukaryotic organisms. These ... Xylem cells are elongated cells with lignified secondary thickening of the cell walls. Xylem cells are specialised for ... Cells and Tissues. London: Edward Arnold. ISBN 0713126388. Roelofsen, PA (1959). The plant cell wall. Berlin: Gebrüder ...
... generating gametes from multipotent stem cell lineages that also give rise to ordinary somatic tissues. It is therefore likely ... cells that are not in the germline are called somatic cells. The term refers to all of the cells of body apart from the gametes ... from which all plants and animals descend. Plants and basal metazoans such as sponges (Porifera) and corals (Anthozoa) do not ... The cells of the germline commonly are called germ cells. For example, gametes such as the sperm or the egg are part of the ...
Production of new living tissue. The normal lifespan of plant cells is one to three years. Stems have cells called meristems ... Plant morphology. .mw-parser-output .nobold{font-weight:normal}. (glossary). Plant cells. *Cell wall ... Stem usually consist of three tissues, dermal tissue, ground tissue and vascular tissue. The dermal tissue covers the outer ... The phloem tissue consists of sieve tubes and their companion cells. The two tissues are separated by cambium which is a tissue ...
... which makes up the central cylinder of stem tissue. It consists of cells with a relatively wide diameter called hydroids, which ... These cells are smooth and brownish in colour and have relatively thick cell walls. The sheath cells measure 60 to 90 µm long ... This tissue is analogous to xylem in higher plants. The other tissue is called leptom, which surround the hadrom and contains ... Marginal lamina cells are 10 to 15 µm wide and are subquadrate (i.e. nearly square). The plants are sexually dioicous. The ...
These provide fine detail of the cell anatomy of the plant tissue. Morphological detail can also be determined by serial ... A subset of such fossils are pith casts, where the centre of a stem is either hollow or has delicate pith. After death, ... Plant morphology. .mw-parser-output .nobold{font-weight:normal}. (glossary). Plant cells. *Cell wall ... Plant fossils[edit]. A plant fossil is any preserved part of a plant that has long since died. Such fossils may be prehistoric ...
... is a form of cell injury which results in the premature death of cells in living tissue by autolysis.[1] ... In plants[edit]. If calcium is deficient, pectin cannot be synthesized, and therefore the cell walls cannot be bonded and thus ... This will lead to necrosis of stem and root tips and leaf edges.[21] For example, necrosis of tissue can occur in Arabidopsis ... Thus, untreated necrosis results in a build-up of decomposing dead tissue and cell debris at or near the site of the cell death ...
... the primary plant hormones responsible for cell elongation. Therefore, their effects are primarily on stem, petiole and flower ... which stabilize osmotic pressure in cells. Cycocel (chlormequat chloride) reduces plant height by inhibiting the production of ... stalk tissues. Lesser effects are seen in reductions of leaf expansion, resulting in thicker leaves with darker green color. ... quaternary ammonium compounds are believed to act by disrupting the cell membrane.[citation needed] Quaternary ammonium ...
Cells Cellular differentiation Dorothea Pertz Laser capture microdissection Plant stem cell Tissue microarray Tissue stress " ... Muscle cells form the active contractile tissue of the body known as muscle tissue or muscular tissue. Muscle tissue functions ... Plant tissues can also be divided differently into two types: Meristematic tissues Permanent tissues. Meristematic tissue ... Cells in these tissues are roughly spherical or polyhedral, to rectangular in shape, and have thin cell walls. New cells ...
Sclerenchyma is the supporting tissue in plants. Two types of sclerenchyma cells exist: fibers and sclereids. Their cell walls ... shapes of parenchyma 1= polyhedral[these cells are most poly hedral shape] 2=stellate (found in stem of plants and have well ... Sclerenchyma cells are the principal supporting cells in plant tissues that have ceased elongation. Sclerenchyma fibers are of ... Publisher: MacGraw-Hill 1960[page needed] Evert, Ray F; Eichhorn, Susan E. Esau's Plant Anatomy: Meristems, Cells, and Tissues ...
Thus failure to isolate plant stem cells from meristematic tissues prompted scientists to administer plant cell culture by ... Plant stem cells are innately undifferentiated cells located in the meristems of plants. Plant stem cells serve as the origin ... "Plant Stem Cells Carve Their Own Niche." Trends in Plant Science (2006). Detlef Weigel and Gerd Jürgens. "Stem cells that make ... callus and plant stem cell are fundamentally different from each other. Callus is similar to plant stem cell in its ability to ...
Stem cells cells of the body (somatic cells) which can divide and become differentiated.[1]. When an organism grows, stem cells specialize, and take specific functions. For instance, mature tissues like skin, muscle, blood, bone, liver, nerves, all have different types of cells. Because stem cells are not yet differentiated, they can change to become some kind of specialized cells. Organisms also use stem cells to replace damaged cells.. Stem cells are found in most, if not all, plants and animals. They divide and differentiate into a range of ...
... (DPSCs) are stem cells present in the dental pulp, the soft living tissue within teeth. They are multipotent, so they have the potential to differentiate into a variety of cell types. Other sources of dental stem cells are the dental follicle and the developed periodontal ligament. A subpopulation of dental pulp stem cells has been described as human immature dental pulp stem cells (IDPSC). There are various studies where the importance of these cells and their regenerative capacity has been demonstrated. Through the addition of tissue-specific cytokines, differentiated cells were obtained in vitro from these cells, not only of mesenchymal linage but ...
... treatments have been used for many years to successfully treat leukemia and related bone/blood cancers utilizing bone marrow transplants.[49] The use of adult stem cells in research and therapy is not considered as controversial as the use of embryonic stem cells, because the production of adult stem cells does not require the destruction of an embryo. Early regenerative applications of adult stem cells has focused on intravenous delivery of blood progenitors known as Hematopetic Stem Cells (HSC's). CD34+ hematopoietic Stem Cells have been clinically applied to treat various diseases including spinal cord injury,[50] liver cirrhosis [51] and Peripheral Vascular disease.[52] Research has ...
Endothelial stem cells (ESCs) are one of three types of stem cells found in bone marrow. They are multipotent, which describes the ability to give rise to many cell types, whereas a pluripotent stem cell can give rise to all types. ESCs have the characteristic properties of a stem cell: self-renewal and differentiation. These parent stem cells, ESCs, give rise to progenitor cells, which are intermediate stem cells that lose potency. Progenitor stem cells are committed to differentiating along a particular cell developmental pathway. ESCs will eventually produce endothelial cells (ECs), which ...
A spermatogonial stem cell (SSC) is a subtype of undifferentiated spermatogonium. During foetal development gonocytes develop from primordial germ cells and following this SSCs develop from gonocytes in the testis. SSCs are the early precursor for spermatozoa and are responsible for the continuation of spermatogenesis in adult mammals. The stem cells are capable of dividing into more SSCs which is vital for maintaining the stem cell pool. Alternatively they go on to differentiate into spermatocytes, spermatids and finally spermatozoa. One SSC is the precursor for multiple spermatozoa and therefore SSCs are much less numerous in the testes than cells undergoing spermatogenesis. In Humans Undifferentiated spermatogonia can be split into 2 groups; A Dark (Ad) and A Pale (Ap) Ad spermatogonia are reserve stem ...
The stem cell theory of aging postulates that the aging process is the result of the inability of various types of stem cells to continue to replenish the tissues of an organism with functional differentiated cells capable of maintaining that tissue's (or organ's) original function. Damage and error accumulation in genetic material is always a problem for systems regardless of the age. The number of stem cells in young people is very much higher than older people and this cause a better and more efficient replacement mechanism in the young contrary to the old. In other words, aging is not a matter of the increase of damage, but a matter of failure to replace it due to decreased number of stem cells. Stem ...
... in the brain is the ability of cells to engage in the repair and regeneration process. While the brain has a limited capacity for regeneration, endogenous neural stem cells, as well as numerous pro-regenerative molecules, can participate in replacing and repairing damaged or diseased neurons and glial cells. Another benefit that can be achieved by using endogenous regeneration could be avoiding an immune response from the host. During the early development of a human, neural stem cells lie in the germinal layer of the developing brain, ventricular and subventricular zones. In brain development, multipotent stem cells (those that can generate different types of cells) are present in these regions, and all of these cells ...
... s are genes and their protein products used by scientists to isolate and identify stem cells. Stem cells can also be identified by functional assays. Below is a list of genes/protein products that can be used to identify various types of stem cells, or functional assays that do the same. The initial version of the list below was obtained by mining the PubMed database as described in AA4 AA4.1 P-gp (CD243) ABCB5 ABCG2 (CDw338) ALDH alkaline phosphatase alpha6-integrin Anti-WNT2B monoclonal antibody antithrombin III (AT) asialo GM1 Bcl-2 Beta-galactosidase (β-gal) of ROSA26 mice beta1-integrin bromodeoxyuridine c-kit (CD117) c-Met C1qR(p) END (CD105) PROM1 (CD133) ALCAM (CD166) ITGB1 (CD29) TNFRSF8 (CD30) PECAM-1 (CD31) Siglec-3 (CD33) CD34 CD44 NCAM (CD56) CD73 CD9 CD90 CDCP1 Circulating anticoagulants protein C (PC) CK19 CLV3 cyclic CMP ECMA-7 EDR1 EEC ...
An asymmetric cell division produces two daughter cells with different cellular fates. This is in contrast to symmetric cell divisions which give rise to daughter cells of equivalent fates. Notably, stem cells divide asymmetrically to give rise to two distinct daughter cells: one copy of the original stem cell as well as a second daughter programmed to differentiate into a non-stem cell fate. (In times of growth or regeneration, stem cells can also divide symmetrically, to produce two identical copies of the original cell.) In principle, there are two mechanisms by which distinct properties may be conferred on the daughters of a dividing cell. In one, the ...
Neuroepithelial cells are the "stem cells" of the nervous system, deriving from actual stem cells in several different stages of neural development. These neural Stem cells differentiate further into multiple types of cells, like neurons, astrocytes and other glial cells. They appear during embryonic development of the neural tube as well as in adult neurogenesis in specific areas of the central nervous system. They are also associated with several neurodegenerative diseases. These cells have often been called neuroblasts in an effort to delineate them as precursors to neurons and glial cells. During the third week of embryonic growth the brain begins to ...
... is derived from the Latin root words "autos" and "inoculate" that mean "self implanting" or "self infection" or "implanting something from oneself". Autoinoculation can refer to both beneficial medical procedures (e.g. vaccination) as well as non-beneficial or harmful natural processes (e.g. infection or disease). One beneficial autoinoculation medical procedure is when cells are removed from a person's body, medically altered then reinserted ("implanted" or "infected") into the same organism or person again to achieve some diagnostic or treatment aim. For example, stem cell treatments involve the harvesting of stem cells from one's own bone marrow and reintroduction (autoinoculation) of those cells at a later date, sometimes after altering those stem ...
Growth is the enlargement of a tissue or organism. Growth continues after the embryonic stage, and occurs through cell division, enlargement of cells or accumulation of extracellular material. In plants, growth results in an adult organism that is strikingly different from the embryo. The dividing cells tend to be distinct from differentiated cells (see stem cell). In some tissues dividing cells are restricted to special areas, such as the growth plates of bones.[2]467-482 But some stem cells move to where they are needed, from the bone marrow to form muscle, bone or adipose (fat) tissue.[3]. ...
Stephens County je okres ve státě Texas v USA. K roku 2010 zde žilo 9 630 obyvatel. Správním městem okresu je Breckenridge. Celková rozloha okresu činí 9 630 km².. ...
Growing replacement tissues in the lab is currently assumed to require having a scaffolding system into which cells can be ... Scientists Use Plants and Stem Cells to Grow Human Tissues. March 28th, 2017 Editors Genetics ... The stem cells naturally orient themselves to fit the grain of the original plants structure and make it their home, ... So far the researchers have been able to keep cells living within the plant derived structures, but trying these tissues in ...
... and colleagues have developed a three-dimensional cell culture system in which floating clusters of mouse embryonic stem cells ... How plant alkaloids are made. * Jul 30. Conservation status of coral reef sharks caught on camera. ... This approach might have important implications for stem-cell therapy for retinal repair. ... on the orchestration of many cellular interactions to create the collective cell behaviours needed to shape developing tissues ...
In a boon to stem cell research and regenerative medicine, scientists at Boston Childrens Hospital, the Wyss Institute for ... Stem cells offer much promise for treating damaged organs and tissues, but with current transplantation approaches stem cell ... Bacterial biofilm cellulose found to differ from plant cellulose. January 19, 2018 A team of researchers with members from the ... Stem cell advance may increase efficiency of tissue regeneration. July 29, 2014 A new stem-cell discovery might one day lead to ...
Stem cell niche nourishment.(Report) by Townsend Letter; Health, general Ecosystems Proteins Resource partitioning (Ecology) ... History of plant tissue culture. Mol Biotechnol. 2007;37:169-180. (3.) Yamanaka S et al. Induction of pluripotent stem cells ... Stem cell regulation by the hematopoietic stem cell niche. Cell Cycle. 2005;4:1353-1355. (12.) Moore KA et al. Stem cells and ... The normal functioning of stem cells requires a nourished environment within the tissue--the stem cell niche--as an ...
Flow Cytometry with Plant Cells: Analysis of Genes, Chromosomes and Genomes - Author: Dolezel, Jaroslav - Price: 171,10€ ... Applications of Flow Cytometry in Stem Cell Research and Tissue Regeneration. Krishan, Awtar ... Flow Cytometry with Plant Cells: Analysis of Genes, Chromosomes and Genomes. 171,10€ ... Following a brief introduction that highlights general considerations when analyzing plant cells by flow cytometric methods, ...
Stem Cells and Pluripotency (11) Apply Stem Cells and Pluripotency filter *Symbiosis (1) Apply Symbiosis filter ... How Collective Cell Movements Lead to Tissue... Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center ... Plant Biology (4) Apply Plant Biology filter Research Areas. *Adaptive Immunity (1) Apply Adaptive Immunity filter ... Cell Cycle (4) Apply Cell Cycle filter *Cell Polarity (2) Apply Cell Polarity filter ...
... which cells divide to do the healing and how they manage to produce cells that match the cell type of the missing tissue has ... have now shown that to correctly replace dead cells, neighbors to the inside of the wound re-activate their stem cell programs. ... cells adjacent to the wound fill the gaps with their daughter cells. However, ... Specialized plant cells regain stem-cell features to heal wounds Already specified root cells are reprogrammed to correctly ...
... of this novel laser therapy on human stem cells and investigating the basis of its synergistic effect with plant stem cell ... extract and NAG will lead us to better understand stem cell activity. Non-ablative tissue regeneration is the next step in ... YAG 1,064-nm With Topical Plant Stem Cell Extract and N-Acetyl Glucosamine: Open Case Series.. Beri K, Milgraum SS. ... with a topical containing plant stem cell extract and N-acetyl glucosamine (NAG) that acts in the superficial dermis. ...
Tissue engineering and stem cell technology. A lecture, "Tissue engineering and stem cell technology" given by Prof ZhanFeng ... Cell Biology and Cancer. Cancers result when genes required for normal cell function are mutated and the resulting cells ... Tissue engineering and stem cell technology. A lecture, "Tissue engineering and stem cell technology" given by Prof ZhanFeng ... Episode 4: Stem Cell Research. Professor Loane Skene and Professor Peter Rathjen discuss the debate on stem cell research with ...
Stem Cell Research Stem Cell Research Explorable.com 1.6M reads 32 Comments Printer-friendly versionSend... ... the study of plant and animal tissue. Being the first to show that blood cells come from a common precursor cell, he is given ... Stem Cell Type Is Best?. 1264 Words , 6 Pages. Topic: Stem research, which stem cell type is best? Umbilical cord stem cells or ... Stem Cell Research What is Stem Cell Research? Stem cell research is used for investigation of basic cells which develop ...
New Porous Hydrogel Could Improve the Success of Stem Cell Tissue Regeneration ... March 22, 2018 , FDA-Approved Compound Prevents Breast Cancer Cells From Spreading ... Scientists Direct the Growth of Hydrogel to Mimic Plant and Animal Tissue Structure ... Be the first to comment on "Scientists Direct the Growth of Hydrogel to Mimic Plant Tissue Structure". ...
... entices human stem cells such as fibroblasts -- common connective tissue cells generated from stem cells -- to attach to and ... Further reports about: , Parsley , biomedical applications , human stem cells , plant species , scaffolds , stem cells ... It influences how cells grow and how well they grow.". That ability to align cells according to the structure of the plant ... Parsley and other plants lend form to human stem cell scaffolds. 21.03.2017 ...
... entices human stem cells such as fibroblasts - common connective tissue cells generated from stem cells - to attach to and grow ... stem cells, William Murphy. Human fibroblast cells, common connective tissue cells, growing on decellularized parsley. A team ... It influences how cells grow and how well they grow.". That ability to align cells according to the structure of the plant ... Parsley and other plants lend form to human stem cell scaffolds. March 20, 2017. ...
... which consists of a group of rarely dividing cells. The QC maintains the stem cells in a non-cell-autonomous manner and ... which consists of a group of rarely dividing cells. The QC maintains the stem cells in a non-cell-autonomous manner and ... The primary root of higher plants derives from a group of pluripotent, mitotically active stem cells residing in the root ... The primary root of higher plants derives from a group of pluripotent, mitotically active stem cells residing in the root ...
Plant Parts You Eat, in which students learn about consumers, producers, plants, and that people rely on different plants and ... Embryonic Stem Cells Can Become Any Tissue in the Body. Add to tray Remove ... plants, and that people rely on different plants and plant parts for food. ... Find out tips and learn techniques for teaching the lesson, Plant Parts You Eat, in which students learn about consumers, ...
Cells undergoing stress- or injury-induced apoptosis can stimulate tissue regeneration by promoting stem or progenitor cell ... Exotic plants get a little help from their friends. *. Working Life. You never know until you try ... Cells undergoing stress- or injury-induced apoptosis can stimulate tissue regeneration by promoting stem or progenitor cell ...
Apple Stem Cells with Collagen dikembangkan dari bahan bahan alami yang berkualitas serta aman. Bahan tambahan seperti telur ... unipotent stem cells * 6. Plant StemCells Formation of CallusTissue • If a plant is wounded, a callus tissue is formed (wound ... PhytoCellTecTMcontains plant stem cells to protect and maintain skin stem cells • The protection of skin stem cells is a ... Plant stem cells are extremely efficient but also safe to use • PhytoCellTecTMis based on real plant stem cells to trigger the ...
Stripping away everything except the cell walls from certain plants, scientists can create scaffolds for human cell cultures. ... Murine neural tubes, with each image highlighting a different embryonic tissue type (blue). The neural tube itself (left) grows ... New monoclonal antibodies kill both cancer-promoting immunosuppressive cells and tumor cells in culture. ... Making CAR T-Cell Therapy Safer. By Catherine Offord , April 1, 2017 ...
Skin cells can remember previous injuries and respond much more rapidly if the same patch tissue is injured again, a new study ... Inflammatory memory sensitizes skin epithelial stem cells to tissue damage - doi:10.1038/nature24271 ... An ingress of immune cells, a boost in blood flow to the injured area, and increased rates of cell growth together enable rapid ... Previous Plants light trick to look blue to bees * Next Chemical surgery to fix faulty genes ...
... cell membrane. Skins damaged skin cells are removed and replaced by fresh, clean, healthy plant stem cells. Some species ... DETERIORATION OF TISSUES. Just like all other tissues in our bodies, skins stem cells deteriorate with time. Age, sun dam-age ... Plant Origin stem cells nanoliposomes: promotes the production of epidermal stem cells and protects them against environmental ... Extra concentrated serum containing plant origin stem cell nanoliposomes. Powerful elixir for renewing and nourishing the stem ...
And these plants were not toxic for adipose tissue derived mesenchymal stem cells. These plants caused the inhibition of cell ... Du145 cancer cells and human adipose tissue derived mesenchymal stem cell were assessed for seven medical plants in culture ... In this study, we investigated whether these seven plants show any anticancer properties on prostat cancer cell line. ... proliferation and apoptosis in prostat cancer cells. Our results indicated that these plants may be potential agents in prostat ...
Researchers report on an exciting new way to reprogram cells so patients might one day grown their own cells to replace ... MORE: Stem-Cell Research: The Quest Resumes To prove that the cells were indeed reprogrammed, and not simply already embryonic ... Plant cells can do it, as a survival mechanism; during periods of drought, for example, carrot cells can reprogram themselves ... MORE: Scientists Report First Success in Cloning Human Stem Cells. First among them would be tests of human cells, to see if ...
Journal of Stem Cell Research & Therapy Open Access Journal. *Journal of Tissue Science & Engineering Open Access Journal ... Journal of Plant Genetics and Breeding * ... Insights in Stem Cells Open Access Journal. *Journal of Aging ... Journal of Fertilization: In Vitro - IVF-Worldwide, Reproductive Medicine, Genetics & Stem Cell Biology Open Access Journal ...
The data would be used to structure an informative debate on stem cells across Europe. The survey has been updated regularly in ... Cell Biology. Test your knowledge about cell differentiation, cell function and tissue culture.. Author(s): No creator set. ... Cell Lines and Tissue Cultures HG1-3. Biohazard Risk Assessment Form DP2 - Cell Lines and Tissue Cultures HG1-3 - Stewart Clark ... Stem Cell Therapies are no More Drugs Than Soufflés are Fast Food. Stemcell discoveries make great news stories, but their ...
... which produces the aerial portion of the plant, is composed of a central pool of stem cells surrounded by descendant cells that ... clv1 bam1 bam2 plants exhibit novel phenotypes in floral meristem and nonmeristem tissues. Rosettes of Ler (A), clv1-7 (B), ... Division of stem cells results in daughter cells that maintain the central stem cell population as well as daughter cells that ... regulates stem cell specification and organogenesis. Plant Cell 17: 691-704. ...
  • CellNet applies network biology to discover the complex network of genes that are turned on or off in an engineered cell, known as the cell's Gene Regulatory Network or GRN. (phys.org)
  • CellNet will also be a powerful tool to advance synthetic biology-to engineer cells for specific medical applications," says James Collins, PhD, Core Faculty member at the Wyss Institute and the William F. Warren Distinguished Professor at Boston University, co-senior investigator on one of the studies. (phys.org)
  • In a second study, they applied CellNet's teachings to a recurring question in stem cell biology: Is it feasible to directly convert one specialized cell type to another, bypassing the laborious process of first creating an iPS cell? (phys.org)
  • This is an introductory survey of cell and developmental biology. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • For the last decade, research on vascular development and SCW biosynthesis has seen rapid progress due to the importance of these processes to plant biology and to the biofuel industry. (frontiersin.org)
  • Paradoxically, this means that, in this system, stem cells don't immediately generate the plant's tissue, but, rather, tissues make stem cells," explains Kenneth Birnbaum, an associate professor in New York University's Department of Biology and the study's senior author. (nyu.edu)
  • This class is aimed at people interested in understanding the basic science of plant biology. (coursera.org)
  • In a paper published Sept. 17 in Current Biology , the researchers report that these asymmetrically distributed proteins act like a compass within the cell to instruct the nucleus where to go. (innovations-report.com)
  • When Andrew showed me the videos of the cells, it was so bizarre," said Bergmann, who is a professor of biology in the School of Humanities and Sciences and senior author of the paper. (innovations-report.com)
  • Recent advances in stem cell biology have raised considerable hopes for the development of therapeutic approaches for replacing cardiac tissue through cell transplantation ( 2 ). (pnas.org)
  • Nature Cell Biology, 20, 553-564. (ucla.edu)
  • In biology, tissue is a cellular organizational level between cells and a complete organ. (wikipedia.org)
  • Scientists from the Centre for Organismal Studies (Germany), Gregor Mendel Institute (Austria), Institute of Cytology and Genetics (Russia), Novosibirsk State University (Russia), Wageningen University (Netherlands) and Institute for Plant Molecular and Cellular Biology, Polytechnic University of Valencia (Spain) showed a key role of auxin response regulatory proteins in the cambium (the stem cell niche responsible for wood formation, and also for specified spatial coordination features of gene activity. (eurekalert.org)
  • Providing our customers with innovative bioanalytical solutions for protein and cell biology for over 30 years. (moleculardevices.com)
  • During the past several decades plant biology has been revolutionized first by molecular biology and then by the genomic era. (cshlpress.com)
  • The model organism Arabidopsis thaliana has proved an invaluable tool for investigation into fundamental processes in plant biology, many of which share commonalities with animal biology. (cshlpress.com)
  • With the genomes of more than thirty plant species now available and many more planned in the near future, the impact on our understanding of plant evolution and biology continues to grow. (cshlpress.com)
  • Reaction-diffusion systems are employed in biology to establish patterns associated with the formation of distinct tissues and organs at the multicellular scale. (cardiff.ac.uk)
  • Since the initial publication of our STEMBOOK chapter in 2008 [ 1 ], the field of stem biology has advanced rapidly as such regenerative medicine strategies move into clinical trials for a variety of health disorders [ 2 ]. (iospress.com)
  • The collaborative team also includes human stem cell and plant biology researchers at Wisconsin and Arkansas. (teknoscienze.com)
  • A major goal in plant biology is to understand the factors that regulate meristem activity. (biologists.org)
  • The researchers ruled out immune cells as a cause of the memory effect by repeating the experiments in mice unable to produce key populations of white blood cells. (thenakedscientists.com)
  • We used a cardiac tissue model, engineered heart tissue (EHT), and quantitative molecular and electrophysiological analyses, to test transplantation conditions and specific cell populations for their potential to functionally integrate with the host tissue. (pnas.org)
  • We hypothesized that analysis of the changes in the molecular and electrophysiological properties of EHT upon test cell injection could provide insight into the potential (or limitations) of different test cell populations and conditions for cardiac cell therapy. (pnas.org)
  • Here, we show that maintenance of two different populations of root stem cells is also dependent on TOP1α -specific developmental functions, which are exerted through two distinct novel mechanisms. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Cambium is a type of meristem with thin walls which minutely exist in small populations within a plant. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vocabulary: Transgenic plants are the ones, whose DNA is modified using genetic engineering techniques. (eurekalert.org)
  • Firstly, using transgenic plants the authors detected auxin response signal in the xylem-associated cambium. (eurekalert.org)
  • Insecticidal toxins produced by bacteria such as Bacillus thuringiensis and Lysinibacillus sphaericus are the active agents in these important biological pesticides and can also be exploited in the production of insect-resistant transgenic plants. (cardiff.ac.uk)
  • How a stem cell program--i.e. transcription factors and the corresponding genes guiding restorative cell division including the switch of the division plane orientation--in an already specialized cell is activated, remains unknown. (eurekalert.org)
  • Instead, skin stem cells, the team have found, appear to be able to harbour a genetic memory of an earlier insult, which primes and sensitises specific genes required to kickstart a rapid reaction to a subsequent injury. (thenakedscientists.com)
  • This is achieved by unwinding or "opening up" segments of the stem cell's DNA, exposing the genes in these regions of the genome so that they can respond quickly to any rise in inflammatory signals around the cell. (thenakedscientists.com)
  • And when a fresh injury was sustained, the majority of the first genes to be switched on in the affected cells were from these primed regions. (thenakedscientists.com)
  • It is surprising that the interactions between the handful of key genes that control the fate of each stem cell are so similar in both cases", says Carsten Peterson, professor at the Faculty of Science at Lund University. (phys.org)
  • Thus, we know that the simple cells of an egg are preformed in the sense that they contain a preformed instruction set for development which is encoded in their genes. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Quantitated (using microarrays and statistical analysis) the number of chewing insect-inducible genes that are regulated throught the jasmonate signal pathway (an estimated 67-84%) (Plant Cell 16, 3132) and shown that a specialist and a generalist insect activate this pathway almost equally. (unil.ch)
  • HEC1 represses the stem cell regulators WUS and CLAVATA3 (CLV3) and, like WUS, controls genes with functions in metabolism and hormone signaling. (nih.gov)
  • Each cell, whether stem cell or differentiated cell, has the same DNA-or genes-but a stem cell's characteristic depends on signals from the microenvironment, such as neighboring cells that form a function. (gcimagazine.com)
  • drl expression together with the more indeterminate mutant FMs suggest that the drl genes regulate FM activity and impose meristem determinacy non-cell-autonomously from differentiating cells in lateral floral organs. (biologists.org)
  • In both test cases, CellNet showed that the engineered cells hadn't completely converted, retaining some characteristics of their cells of origin-but pointed to specific genetic tweaks that could be done in the lab to fix the problem. (phys.org)
  • After cell division was complete, genetic marking showed that the resulting cell types matched those of the missing cells. (eurekalert.org)
  • The genetic material in the nucleus of cells that contains information for an organism's development. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Because most genetic mistakes are generated during mitosis, this is probably a mechanism to minimize the occurrence of genetic mistakes in the permanent cell population of the meristem. (iastate.edu)
  • Cambium activity has been tightly associated with the plant hormone auxin for a long time, but at the level of gene regulation (the «reading» of the genetic information), the process was studied with such a high accuracy for the first time. (eurekalert.org)
  • but genetic variation is inevitable in the process because the cells consist of somatic undifferentiated cells from an adult subject plant. (wikipedia.org)
  • We showed that the genetic architecture of the jasmonate pathway is different in roots and aerial tissues (PNAS 110, 15473). (unil.ch)
  • Speakers will examine: genetic and epigenetic changes, environmental influences, and host factors such as oxidative stress and cell death. (afar.org)
  • Xylem cells develop secondary cell walls (SCWs) that form the largest part of plant lignocellulosic biomass that serve as a renewable feedstock for biofuel production. (frontiersin.org)
  • In the stem apex, the uppermost part is the promeristem, below which is a zone of transversely oriented early cell walls, the file, or rib, meristem. (britannica.com)
  • This bundling may help build strong plant cell walls, but biofuel makers must use extra effort to break down and separate the bundles and the crystalline cellulose to extract the sugars used to ferment fuels. (nanowerk.com)
  • I. Prabasari, F. Pettolino, M. L. Liao, and A. Bacic, "Pectic polysaccharides from mature orange ( Citrus sinensis ) fruit albedo cell walls: sequential extraction and chemical characterization," Carbohydrate Polymers , vol. 84, no. 1, pp. 484-494, 2011. (hindawi.com)
  • P. Albersheim, A. G. Darvill, M. A. O'Neill, H. A. Schols, and A. G. J. Voragen, "An hypothesis: the same six polysaccharides are components of the primary cell walls of all higher plants," in Pectins and Pectinases , J. Visser and A. G. J. Voragen, Eds. (hindawi.com)
  • I. The macromolecular components of the walls of suspension-cultured sycamore cells with a detailed analysis of the pectic polysaccharides," Plant Physiology , vol. 51, no. 1, pp. 158-173, 1973. (hindawi.com)
  • W. S. York, A. G. Darvill, M. McNeil, and P. Albersheim, "3-deoxy-d- manno -2-octulosonic acid (KDO) is a component of rhamnogalacturonan II, a pectic polysaccharide in the primary cell walls of plants," Carbohydrate Research , vol. 138, no. (hindawi.com)
  • The systematic isolation of MSCs from different organs and tissues and the evaluation of their characteristics could represent an alternative approach. (biologists.org)
  • Following a brief introduction that highlights general considerations when analyzing plant cells by flow cytometric methods, the book goes on to discuss examples of application in plant genetics, genomic analysis, cell cycle analysis, marine organism analysis and breeding studies. (ellibs.com)
  • However, for Lukas Hörmayer, this study is only the beginning--not only as this paper is his first publication during his PhD program at IST Austria: "We are convinced that in further studies, molecular genetics, among other methods, will reveal not only a broader understanding of the underlying mechanisms of plant wound healing, but also, how plants establish and maintain their body patterns. (eurekalert.org)
  • Our research ranges across the biological sciences, from the understanding of precisely how neurons grow, to the mechanisms of cancer and other diseases, the molecular basis of animal and plant development and exploring the genetics of orang-utans, elephants, pandas and other endangered species. (cardiff.ac.uk)
  • Phot1 is expressed strongly in dividing and elongating cortical cells in the apical hook and in the root elongation zone in etiolated seedlings. (plantcell.org)
  • It is found at both apical and basal ends of these cortical cells. (plantcell.org)
  • It supports leaves, flowers and fruits, transports water and dissolved substances between the roots and the shoots in the xylem and phloem, stores nutrients, and produces new living tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • Identified cell-specific regulatory layers that prevent activation of the jasmonate pathway in healthy roots (PLoS Gen. 11(6) :e1005300). (unil.ch)
  • In addition to spinach leaves, the team successfully removed cells from parsley, Artemesia annua (sweet wormwood), and peanut hairy roots. (teknoscienze.com)
  • Although cell transplantation has modestly improved cardiac function, major challenges including increasing cell survival, engraftment, and functional integration with host tissue, remain. (pnas.org)
  • Our results support the use of EHT as a model system to accelerate development of cardiac cell therapy strategies. (pnas.org)
  • Importantly, although multiple CMs and CPs can be generated from pluripotent cells, it is not clear which specific cell types will be the most effective in treating cardiac disease, or what additional factor(s) may be important for functional cell integration. (pnas.org)
  • The stem cells naturally orient themselves to fit the grain of the original plant's structure and make it their home, differentiating into a target type and growing to fill the scaffold. (medgadget.com)
  • Different orientations of the plant's interior structure leads to different results, so finding a plant that works well for a certain application is key. (medgadget.com)
  • The plant has an amazing capacity to repair itself, but there are animal systems that bear some resemblance to the plant's way of recreating stem cells on the fly," explains Birnbaum. (nyu.edu)
  • The investigators first remove all cellular content from a piece of plant and then chemically treat it so that living human stem cells can survive within the empty scaffold. (medgadget.com)
  • That ability to align cells according to the structure of the plant scaffold, adds Murphy, suggests it might be possible to use the materials to control structure and alignment of developing human tissues, a feature critical for nerve and muscle tissues, which require alignment and patterning for their function. (innovations-report.com)
  • Next, we discuss natural and synthetic scaffold materials typically used when engineering tissues, along with their associated advantages and drawbacks and gives examples of target applications. (iospress.com)
  • However, compared to regular proliferative divisions, the cell cycle of these "healing cells" happened significantly faster and included a shift of division planes by 90 degrees, allowing the cells to arrange perpendicular to the root axis (for the root to grow in length, root tip cells usually arrange parallel to the root axis). (eurekalert.org)
  • Below this region, in the rib meristem, the proportion of divisions with the cell plate at right angles to the axis increases, so that the cells tend to be oriented in files. (britannica.com)
  • Cell interactions, however, are presumed to coordinate the distribution and orientation of the divisions. (britannica.com)
  • The corpus is the mass of cells in the central part of the meristem and cell divisions occur in all planes. (iastate.edu)
  • The pattern of WUS expression suggests that stem cells in the shoot meristem are specified by an underlying cell group which is established in the 16-cell embryo and becomes localized to its prospective domain of function by asymmetric cell divisions. (nih.gov)