Drug Carriers: Forms to which substances are incorporated to improve the delivery and the effectiveness of drugs. Drug carriers are used in drug-delivery systems such as the controlled-release technology to prolong in vivo drug actions, decrease drug metabolism, and reduce drug toxicity. Carriers are also used in designs to increase the effectiveness of drug delivery to the target sites of pharmacological actions. Liposomes, albumin microspheres, soluble synthetic polymers, DNA complexes, protein-drug conjugates, and carrier erythrocytes among others have been employed as biodegradable drug carriers.Drug Delivery Systems: Systems for the delivery of drugs to target sites of pharmacological actions. Technologies employed include those concerning drug preparation, route of administration, site targeting, metabolism, and toxicity.Nanoparticles: Nanometer-sized particles that are nanoscale in three dimensions. They include nanocrystaline materials; NANOCAPSULES; METAL NANOPARTICLES; DENDRIMERS, and QUANTUM DOTS. The uses of nanoparticles include DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS and cancer targeting and imaging.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Particle Size: Relating to the size of solids.Mice, Nude: Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Colonic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON.Liposomes: Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Chitosan: Deacetylated CHITIN, a linear polysaccharide of deacetylated beta-1,4-D-glucosamine. It is used in HYDROGEL and to treat WOUNDS.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Chemistry, Pharmaceutical: Chemistry dealing with the composition and preparation of agents having PHARMACOLOGIC ACTIONS or diagnostic use.Neoplasm Invasiveness: Ability of neoplasms to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue.Polyethylene Glycols: Polymers of ETHYLENE OXIDE and water, and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid depending on the molecular weight indicated by a number following the name. They are used as SURFACTANTS, dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, and tablet excipients. Some specific groups are NONOXYNOLS, OCTOXYNOLS, and POLOXAMERS.Ovarian Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the OVARY. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. They are classified according to the tissue of origin, such as the surface EPITHELIUM, the stromal endocrine cells, and the totipotent GERM CELLS.Nanomedicine: The branch of medicine concerned with the application of NANOTECHNOLOGY to the prevention and treatment of disease. It involves the monitoring, repair, construction, and control of human biological systems at the molecular level, using engineered nanodevices and NANOSTRUCTURES. (From Freitas Jr., Nanomedicine, vol 1, 1999).Nanocapsules: Nanometer-sized, hollow, spherically-shaped objects that can be utilized to encapsulate small amounts of pharmaceuticals, enzymes, or other catalysts (Glossary of Biotechnology and Nanobiotechnology, 4th ed).Carrier State: The condition of harboring an infective organism without manifesting symptoms of infection. The organism must be readily transmissible to another susceptible host.Lung Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.Technology, Pharmaceutical: The application of scientific knowledge or technology to pharmacy and the pharmaceutical industry. It includes methods, techniques, and instrumentation in the manufacture, preparation, compounding, dispensing, packaging, and storing of drugs and other preparations used in diagnostic and determinative procedures, and in the treatment of patients.Fractionation, Field Flow: Separation of molecules and particles by a simultaneous action of carrier liquid flow and focusing field forces (electrical, sedimentation, or thermal), without a stationary phase.Polymers: Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).Aconitic AcidDrug Compounding: The preparation, mixing, and assembling of a drug. (From Remington, The Science and Practice of Pharmacy, 19th ed, p1814)Early Detection of Cancer: Methods to identify and characterize cancer in the early stages of disease and predict tumor behavior.Dendrimers: Tree-like, highly branched, polymeric compounds. They grow three-dimensionally by the addition of shells of branched molecules to a central core. The overall globular shape and presence of cavities gives potential as drug carriers and CONTRAST AGENTS.Pancreatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PANCREAS. Depending on the types of ISLET CELLS present in the tumors, various hormones can be secreted: GLUCAGON from PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS; INSULIN from PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and SOMATOSTATIN from the SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS. Most are malignant except the insulin-producing tumors (INSULINOMA).Drug Resistance, Neoplasm: Resistance or diminished response of a neoplasm to an antineoplastic agent in humans, animals, or cell or tissue cultures.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.Neoplasm Metastasis: The transfer of a neoplasm from one organ or part of the body to another remote from the primary site.Stomach Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the STOMACH.Neoplasm Proteins: Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.Polyglactin 910: A polyester used for absorbable sutures & surgical mesh, especially in ophthalmic surgery. 2-Hydroxy-propanoic acid polymer with polymerized hydroxyacetic acid, which forms 3,6-dimethyl-1,4-dioxane-dione polymer with 1,4-dioxane-2,5-dione copolymer of molecular weight about 80,000 daltons.Cellulose, Oxidized: A cellulose of varied carboxyl content retaining the fibrous structure. It is commonly used as a local hemostatic and as a matrix for normal blood coagulation.Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays: In vivo methods of screening investigative anticancer drugs, biologic response modifiers or radiotherapies. Human tumor tissue or cells are transplanted into mice or rats followed by tumor treatment regimens. A variety of outcomes are monitored to assess antitumor effectiveness.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Doxorubicin: Antineoplastic antibiotic obtained from Streptomyces peucetius. It is a hydroxy derivative of DAUNORUBICIN.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Poloxamer: A nonionic polyoxyethylene-polyoxypropylene block co-polymer with the general formula HO(C2H4O)a(-C3H6O)b(C2H4O)aH. It is available in different grades which vary from liquids to solids. It is used as an emulsifying agent, solubilizing agent, surfactant, and wetting agent for antibiotics. Poloxamer is also used in ointment and suppository bases and as a tablet binder or coater. (Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 31st ed)Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor: Methods of investigating the effectiveness of anticancer cytotoxic drugs and biologic inhibitors. These include in vitro cell-kill models and cytostatic dye exclusion tests as well as in vivo measurement of tumor growth parameters in laboratory animals.Nanotechnology: The development and use of techniques to study physical phenomena and construct structures in the nanoscale size range or smaller.Emulsions: Colloids formed by the combination of two immiscible liquids such as oil and water. Lipid-in-water emulsions are usually liquid, like milk or lotion. Water-in-lipid emulsions tend to be creams. The formation of emulsions may be aided by amphiphatic molecules that surround one component of the system to form MICELLES.Antibiotics, Antineoplastic: Chemical substances, produced by microorganisms, inhibiting or preventing the proliferation of neoplasms.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Delayed-Action Preparations: Dosage forms of a drug that act over a period of time by controlled-release processes or technology.Micelles: Particles consisting of aggregates of molecules held loosely together by secondary bonds. The surface of micelles are usually comprised of amphiphatic compounds that are oriented in a way that minimizes the energy of interaction between the micelle and its environment. Liquids that contain large numbers of suspended micelles are referred to as EMULSIONS.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Nanostructures: Materials which have structured components with at least one dimension in the range of 1 to 100 nanometers. These include NANOCOMPOSITES; NANOPARTICLES; NANOTUBES; and NANOWIRES.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Neoplasm Transplantation: Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.HCT116 Cells: Human COLORECTAL CARCINOMA cell line.MCF-7 Cells: An estrogen responsive cell line derived from a patient with metastatic human breast ADENOCARCINOMA (at the Michigan Cancer Foundation.)RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.Solubility: The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Transplantation, Heterologous: Transplantation between animals of different species.Prostatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE.HT29 Cells: Human colonic ADENOCARCINOMA cells that are able to express differentiation features characteristic of mature intestinal cells such as the GOBLET CELLS.Cell Growth Processes: Processes required for CELL ENLARGEMENT and CELL PROLIFERATION.Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic: Agents obtained from higher plants that have demonstrable cytostatic or antineoplastic activity.Polyesters: Polymers of organic acids and alcohols, with ester linkages--usually polyethylene terephthalate; can be cured into hard plastic, films or tapes, or fibers which can be woven into fabrics, meshes or velours.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Mice, Inbred BALB CTumor Suppressor Protein p53: Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.Colorectal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON or the RECTUM or both. Risk factors for colorectal cancer include chronic ULCERATIVE COLITIS; FAMILIAL POLYPOSIS COLI; exposure to ASBESTOS; and irradiation of the CERVIX UTERI.Carcinoma: A malignant neoplasm made up of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate the surrounding tissues and give rise to metastases. It is a histological type of neoplasm but is often wrongly used as a synonym for "cancer." (From Dorland, 27th ed)Adenocarcinoma: A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.Receptors, Estrogen: Cytoplasmic proteins that bind estrogens and migrate to the nucleus where they regulate DNA transcription. Evaluation of the state of estrogen receptors in breast cancer patients has become clinically important.Capsules: Hard or soft soluble containers used for the oral administration of medicine.Acrylamides: Colorless, odorless crystals that are used extensively in research laboratories for the preparation of polyacrylamide gels for electrophoresis and in organic synthesis, and polymerization. Some of its polymers are used in sewage and wastewater treatment, permanent press fabrics, and as soil conditioning agents.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Receptor, erbB-2: A cell surface protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is overexpressed in a variety of ADENOCARCINOMAS. It has extensive homology to and heterodimerizes with the EGF RECEPTOR, the ERBB-3 RECEPTOR, and the ERBB-4 RECEPTOR. Activation of the erbB-2 receptor occurs through heterodimer formation with a ligand-bound erbB receptor family member.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Urinary Bladder Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the URINARY BLADDER.Microspheres: Small uniformly-sized spherical particles, of micrometer dimensions, frequently labeled with radioisotopes or various reagents acting as tags or markers.Heterozygote: An individual having different alleles at one or more loci regarding a specific character.Tumor Markers, Biological: Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.Genetic Predisposition to Disease: A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.Gene Silencing: Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.Polyglycolic Acid: A biocompatible polymer used as a surgical suture material.Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung: A heterogeneous aggregate of at least three distinct histological types of lung cancer, including SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA; ADENOCARCINOMA; and LARGE CELL CARCINOMA. They are dealt with collectively because of their shared treatment strategy.Cell Transformation, Neoplastic: Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.Gene Knockdown Techniques: The artificial induction of GENE SILENCING by the use of RNA INTERFERENCE to reduce the expression of a specific gene. It includes the use of DOUBLE-STRANDED RNA, such as SMALL INTERFERING RNA and RNA containing HAIRPIN LOOP SEQUENCE, and ANTI-SENSE OLIGONUCLEOTIDES.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Uterine Cervical Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the UTERINE CERVIX.DNA, Neoplasm: DNA present in neoplastic tissue.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Heterozygote Detection: Identification of genetic carriers for a given trait.Poly I: A group of inosine ribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each inosine ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.Powder Diffraction: Method of using a polycrystalline powder and Rietveld refinement (LEAST SQUARES ANALYSIS) of X-RAY DIFFRACTION or NEUTRON DIFFRACTION. It circumvents the difficulties of producing single large crystals.Drug Synergism: The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Acyl Carrier Protein: Consists of a polypeptide chain and 4'-phosphopantetheine linked to a serine residue by a phosphodiester bond. Acyl groups are bound as thiol esters to the pantothenyl group. Acyl carrier protein is involved in every step of fatty acid synthesis by the cytoplasmic system.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt: A protein-serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION in response to GROWTH FACTORS or INSULIN. It plays a major role in cell metabolism, growth, and survival as a core component of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Three isoforms have been described in mammalian cells.Cancer Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines designed to prevent or treat cancer. Vaccines are produced using the patient's own whole tumor cells as the source of antigens, or using tumor-specific antigens, often recombinantly produced.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Surface-Active Agents: Agents that modify interfacial tension of water; usually substances that have one lipophilic and one hydrophilic group in the molecule; includes soaps, detergents, emulsifiers, dispersing and wetting agents, and several groups of antiseptics.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Carcinoma, Squamous Cell: A carcinoma derived from stratified SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. It may also occur in sites where glandular or columnar epithelium is normally present. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Tamoxifen: One of the SELECTIVE ESTROGEN RECEPTOR MODULATORS with tissue-specific activities. Tamoxifen acts as an anti-estrogen (inhibiting agent) in the mammary tissue, but as an estrogen (stimulating agent) in cholesterol metabolism, bone density, and cell proliferation in the ENDOMETRIUM.Metal Nanoparticles: Nanoparticles produced from metals whose uses include biosensors, optics, and catalysts. In biomedical applications the particles frequently involve the noble metals, especially gold and silver.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Cisplatin: An inorganic and water-soluble platinum complex. After undergoing hydrolysis, it reacts with DNA to produce both intra and interstrand crosslinks. These crosslinks appear to impair replication and transcription of DNA. The cytotoxicity of cisplatin correlates with cellular arrest in the G2 phase of the cell cycle.Calorimetry, Differential Scanning: Differential thermal analysis in which the sample compartment of the apparatus is a differential calorimeter, allowing an exact measure of the heat of transition independent of the specific heat, thermal conductivity, and other variables of the sample.Magnetics: The study of MAGNETIC PHENOMENA.Mice, SCID: Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols: The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor: A cell surface receptor involved in regulation of cell growth and differentiation. It is specific for EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR and EGF-related peptides including TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR ALPHA; AMPHIREGULIN; and HEPARIN-BINDING EGF-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR. The binding of ligand to the receptor causes activation of its intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity and rapid internalization of the receptor-ligand complex into the cell.Surface Properties: Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.Neoplastic Stem Cells: Highly proliferative, self-renewing, and colony-forming stem cells which give rise to NEOPLASMS.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Neoplasms, Hormone-Dependent: Certain tumors that 1, arise in organs that are normally dependent on specific hormones and 2, are stimulated or caused to regress by manipulation of the endocrine environment.Powders: Substances made up of an aggregation of small particles, as that obtained by grinding or trituration of a solid drug. In pharmacy it is a form in which substances are administered. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Genes, BRCA1: A tumor suppressor gene (GENES, TUMOR SUPPRESSOR) located on human CHROMOSOME 17 at locus 17q21. Mutations of this gene are associated with the formation of HEREDITARY BREAST AND OVARIAN CANCER SYNDROME. It encodes a large nuclear protein that is a component of DNA repair pathways.Receptors, Androgen: Proteins, generally found in the CYTOPLASM, that specifically bind ANDROGENS and mediate their cellular actions. The complex of the androgen and receptor migrates to the CELL NUCLEUS where it induces transcription of specific segments of DNA.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Biocompatible Materials: Synthetic or natural materials, other than DRUGS, that are used to replace or repair any body TISSUES or bodily function.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Tumor Burden: The total amount (cell number, weight, size or volume) of tumor cells or tissue in the body.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Paclitaxel: A cyclodecane isolated from the bark of the Pacific yew tree, TAXUS BREVIFOLIA. It stabilizes MICROTUBULES in their polymerized form leading to cell death.Survival Analysis: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.Anticarcinogenic Agents: Agents that reduce the frequency or rate of spontaneous or induced tumors independently of the mechanism involved.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Tumor Suppressor Proteins: Proteins that are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. Deficiencies or abnormalities in these proteins may lead to unregulated cell growth and tumor development.RNA, Neoplasm: RNA present in neoplastic tissue.Drug Stability: The chemical and physical integrity of a pharmaceutical product.MicroRNAs: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs, 21-25 nucleotides in length generated from single-stranded microRNA gene transcripts by the same RIBONUCLEASE III, Dicer, that produces small interfering RNAs (RNA, SMALL INTERFERING). They become part of the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX and repress the translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) of target RNA by binding to homologous 3'UTR region as an imperfect match. The small temporal RNAs (stRNAs), let-7 and lin-4, from C. elegans, are the first 2 miRNAs discovered, and are from a class of miRNAs involved in developmental timing.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Microscopy, Confocal: A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.Androgens: Compounds that interact with ANDROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of TESTOSTERONE. Depending on the target tissues, androgenic effects can be on SEX DIFFERENTIATION; male reproductive organs, SPERMATOGENESIS; secondary male SEX CHARACTERISTICS; LIBIDO; development of muscle mass, strength, and power.Inhibitory Concentration 50: The concentration of a compound needed to reduce population growth of organisms, including eukaryotic cells, by 50% in vitro. Though often expressed to denote in vitro antibacterial activity, it is also used as a benchmark for cytotoxicity to eukaryotic cells in culture.Survival Rate: The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.Excipients: Usually inert substances added to a prescription in order to provide suitable consistency to the dosage form. These include binders, matrix, base or diluent in pills, tablets, creams, salves, etc.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2: Membrane proteins encoded by the BCL-2 GENES and serving as potent inhibitors of cell death by APOPTOSIS. The proteins are found on mitochondrial, microsomal, and NUCLEAR MEMBRANE sites within many cell types. Overexpression of bcl-2 proteins, due to a translocation of the gene, is associated with follicular lymphoma.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Proto-Oncogene Proteins: Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.Endometrial Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of ENDOMETRIUM, the mucous lining of the UTERUS. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. Their classification and grading are based on the various cell types and the percent of undifferentiated cells.Reduced Folate Carrier Protein: A ubiquitously expressed folic acid transporter that functions via an antiporter mechanism which is coupled to the transport of organic phosphates.Estrogen Receptor alpha: One of the ESTROGEN RECEPTORS that has marked affinity for ESTRADIOL. Its expression and function differs from, and in some ways opposes, ESTROGEN RECEPTOR BETA.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Breast: In humans, one of the paired regions in the anterior portion of the THORAX. The breasts consist of the MAMMARY GLANDS, the SKIN, the MUSCLES, the ADIPOSE TISSUE, and the CONNECTIVE TISSUES.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Microbubbles: Small encapsulated gas bubbles (diameters of micrometers) that can be used as CONTRAST MEDIA, and in other diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Upon exposure to sufficiently intense ultrasound, microbubbles will cavitate, rupture, disappear, release gas content. Such characteristics of the microbubbles can be used to enhance diagnostic tests, dissolve blood clots, and deliver drugs or genes for therapy.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Molecular Targeted Therapy: Treatments with drugs which interact with or block synthesis of specific cellular components characteristic of the individual's disease in order to stop or interrupt the specific biochemical dysfunction involved in progression of the disease.Risk: The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.Neovascularization, Pathologic: A pathologic process consisting of the proliferation of blood vessels in abnormal tissues or in abnormal positions.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Serum Albumin: A major protein in the BLOOD. It is important in maintaining the colloidal osmotic pressure and transporting large organic molecules.Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition: Phenotypic changes of EPITHELIAL CELLS to MESENCHYME type, which increase cell mobility critical in many developmental processes such as NEURAL TUBE development. NEOPLASM METASTASIS and DISEASE PROGRESSION may also induce this transition.Neoplasm Staging: Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.Liver Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins: A large group of proteins that control APOPTOSIS. This family of proteins includes many ONCOGENE PROTEINS as well as a wide variety of classes of INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS such as CASPASES.National Cancer Institute (U.S.): Component of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH. Through basic and clinical biomedical research and training, it conducts and supports research with the objective of cancer prevention, early stage identification and elimination. This Institute was established in 1937.Prostate-Specific Antigen: A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.Biological Availability: The extent to which the active ingredient of a drug dosage form becomes available at the site of drug action or in a biological medium believed to reflect accessibility to a site of action.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Genes, Tumor Suppressor: Genes that inhibit expression of the tumorigenic phenotype. They are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. When tumor suppressor genes are inactivated or lost, a barrier to normal proliferation is removed and unregulated growth is possible.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Polymorphism, Genetic: The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.Caspase 3: A short pro-domain caspase that plays an effector role in APOPTOSIS. It is activated by INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 9. Isoforms of this protein exist due to multiple alternative splicing of its MESSENGER RNA.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic: Antimetabolites that are useful in cancer chemotherapy.Caspases: A family of intracellular CYSTEINE ENDOPEPTIDASES that play a role in regulating INFLAMMATION and APOPTOSIS. They specifically cleave peptides at a CYSTEINE amino acid that follows an ASPARTIC ACID residue. Caspases are activated by proteolytic cleavage of a precursor form to yield large and small subunits that form the enzyme. Since the cleavage site within precursors matches the specificity of caspases, sequential activation of precursors by activated caspases can occur.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Receptors, Progesterone: Specific proteins found in or on cells of progesterone target tissues that specifically combine with progesterone. The cytosol progesterone-receptor complex then associates with the nucleic acids to initiate protein synthesis. There are two kinds of progesterone receptors, A and B. Both are induced by estrogen and have short half-lives.Fluorouracil: A pyrimidine analog that is an antineoplastic antimetabolite. It interferes with DNA synthesis by blocking the THYMIDYLATE SYNTHETASE conversion of deoxyuridylic acid to thymidylic acid.Carcinoma, Small Cell: An anaplastic, highly malignant, and usually bronchogenic carcinoma composed of small ovoid cells with scanty neoplasm. It is characterized by a dominant, deeply basophilic nucleus, and absent or indistinct nucleoli. (From Stedman, 25th ed; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1286-7)Bone Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer located in bone tissue or specific BONES.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Protein Kinase Inhibitors: Agents that inhibit PROTEIN KINASES.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Lactic Acid: A normal intermediate in the fermentation (oxidation, metabolism) of sugar. The concentrated form is used internally to prevent gastrointestinal fermentation. (From Stedman, 26th ed)DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Tumor Stem Cell Assay: A cytologic technique for measuring the functional capacity of tumor stem cells by assaying their activity. It is used primarily for the in vitro testing of antineoplastic agents.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Silicon Dioxide: Transparent, tasteless crystals found in nature as agate, amethyst, chalcedony, cristobalite, flint, sand, QUARTZ, and tridymite. The compound is insoluble in water or acids except hydrofluoric acid.Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal: Antineoplastic agents that are used to treat hormone-sensitive tumors. Hormone-sensitive tumors may be hormone-dependent, hormone-responsive, or both. A hormone-dependent tumor regresses on removal of the hormonal stimulus, by surgery or pharmacological block. Hormone-responsive tumors may regress when pharmacologic amounts of hormones are administered regardless of whether previous signs of hormone sensitivity were observed. The major hormone-responsive cancers include carcinomas of the breast, prostate, and endometrium; lymphomas; and certain leukemias. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual 1994, p2079)
The use of dendrimers as drug carriers by encapsulating hydrophobic drugs is a potential method for delivering highly active ... The dendrimer enhances both the uptake and retention of compounds within cancer cells, a finding that was not anticipated at ... There are three methods for using dendrimers in drug delivery: first, the drug is covalently attached to the periphery of the ... in their way to explore dendrimer as drug delivery and target specific carrier. For dendrimers to be able to be used in ...
Kumar's work includes the design of fluorinated drug delivery systems using lipids as carriers, and potential cancer drugs and ... His laboratory has also invented methods for cell surface engineering and imaging of cancer cells with metastatic potential. ... Cancer Center, Tufts Medical Center Visiting Scientist, Center for Cancer Research, MIT (2004-2005) Adjunct Professor, ... 36-37; "Putting the "F" in peptides" by Randall C Willis; Drug Discovery News 2007, December. Montanari V.; Kumar, K. "Just Add ...
Unfortunately the effectiveness of this mechanism for drug nano-carriers remains inconsistent due to the heterogeneity of this ... indicating that the way cancer cells interact with and co-opt new blood vessel growth varies amongst cancer types and must be ... improve clinical design strategy and select for patients with tumors that are more likely to benefit from anti-angiogenic drugs ... Play media Tumor-associated endothelial cells or tumor endothelial cells (TECs) refers to cells lining the tumor-associated ...
In a methotrexate resistant breast cancer cell lines without drug uptake and folate carrier expression, giving DAC, a DNA ... Overexpression of the MDR1 gene in cancer cells is used to keep intracellular levels of antineoplastic drugs below cell-killing ... Such damage will trigger programmed cell death (e.g. apoptosis) in cancer cells. Cisplatin resistance occurs when cancer cells ... which is rooted in the concept of cancer cell heterogeneity and acquired resistance after drug exposure. Cancer cell ...
Effect on multi drug resistant cancer cells Poloxamers have been shown to preferentially target cancer cells, due to ... the MDR proteins are responsible for the efflux of drugs from the cells and hence increase the susceptibility of cancer cells ... These gels can be extruded easily, acting as a carrier for other particles, and used for robocasting.[8] ... Another effect of the polymers upon cancer cells is the inhibition of the production of ATP in multi-drug resistant (MDR) ...
Drug carriers[edit]. This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (August 2008) ... The anti-cancer drug Doxorubicin in liposome delivery system is formulated by extrusion, for example. Hot melt extrusion is ... Hot melt extrusion has been shown to molecularly disperse poorly soluble drugs in a polymer carrier increasing dissolution ... the lignin contained in the cells of plant wastes. The temperature during compression causes melting of the surface of bricks, ...
... testing and hence may become a viable treatment of endocrine-related cancers. A cocktail of pendant drugs could be delivered by ... The tendency of polymer drug conjugate to react with the proper type cell(s) needs to still be worked on, despite many current ... "The Journey of a Drug-carrier in the Body: An Anatomo-physiological Perspective". Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences. Chau, ... Many enzymes in the body decompose the drug if the drug is taken by other means. The polymer-drug N-(2-Hydroxypropyl) ...
The Kopeček Laboratory designed and developed HPMA copolymer-drug conjugates as a lysosomal delivery vehicle to cancer cells. ... Thus, it is frequently used as macromolecular carrier for low molecular weight drugs (especially anti-cancer chemotherapeutic ... "Structural and chemical aspects of HPMA copolymers as drug carriers", Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews, ScienceDirect, 62 (2), pp ... The development of pHPMA as anti-cancer drug delivery vehicles is initiated by Dr. Jindřich Kopeček and colleagues at the Czech ...
As a drug targetEdit. Several drugs target ROS1 fusions in cancer, with varying levels of success; most of the drugs to date ... "Identifying and targeting ROS1 gene fusions in non-small cell lung cancer". Clinical Cancer Research. 18 (17): 4570-9. doi: ... solute carrier family 34 (sodium phosphate), member 2; TPM3; tropomyosin 3 ... "Identifying and targeting ROS1 gene fusions in non-small cell lung cancer". Clinical Cancer Research. 18 (17): 4570-9. doi: ...
... solute carrier family 34 (sodium phosphate), member 2; TPM3; tropomyosin 3 Several drugs target ROS1 fusions in cancer, with ... "Management of ceritinib therapy and adverse events in patients with ALK-rearranged non-small cell lung cancer". Lung Cancer ( ... Cabozantinib preclinical data has shown the drug might overcome crizotinib resistance in ROS1+ cancer in early studies. However ... "Identifying and targeting ROS1 gene fusions in non-small cell lung cancer". Clinical Cancer Research. 18 (17): 4570-9. doi: ...
Chronic carriers are encouraged to avoid consuming alcohol as it increases their risk for cirrhosis and liver cancer. Hepatitis ... Immunosuppressive drugs favor increased HBV replication while inhibiting cytotoxic T cell function in the liver. The risk of ... In areas where the disease is rare, intravenous drug use and sexual intercourse are the most frequent routes of infection. ... Individuals who remain HBsAg positive for at least six months are considered to be hepatitis B carriers. Carriers of the virus ...
... and non-small-cell lung cancers, intrinsic and acquired drug resistance limit their anticancer properties. Unlike taxanes, ... One possibility is the encapsulation of a drug into a carrier molecule, which has been successfully done with several ... hydrophobic drugs, including paclitaxel. Finally, it is imperative to elucidate the mechanism of action of taccalonides to ... and lung cancer cell lines. Because they do not bind directly to tubulin, taccalonolides have shown efficacy in cell lines and ...
They have numerous applications in medicine as drug delivery agents in the treatment of different diseases including cancer and ... "A peptide carrier for the delivery of biologically active proteins into mammalian cells". Nature Biotechnology. 19 (12): 1173- ... unlike other small-molecular drugs, their development and applications are limited by high molecular weight and negative ... a TAT-fused protein was delivered into mitochondria of breast cancer cells and decreased the survival of breast cancer cells, ...
... filamentous cells. These results confirm that the drug's anticancer activity is exerted through interacting with cells' DNA. ... Apps MG, Choi EH, Wheate NJ (2015). "The state-of-play and future of platinum drugs". Endocrine-related Cancer. 22 (4): 219-233 ... Phenanthriplatin is thought to penetrate cell membranes in its ionised form by either passive diffusion or carrier-mediated ... This allows the drug to remain intact, facilitating its entry into the cell's nucleus to effectively exert its anticancer ...
... the carrier may be one that also does not elicit an immune response by itself). Antibodies are created against the protein-drug ... certain drugs will cause antibodies to be made against red blood cells which again leads to the same destructive sequence. It ... The Regional Cancer Center. 2001 Nowak-Wegrzyn A, King KE, Shirey RS, Chen AR, McDonough C, Lederman HM (May 2001). "Fatal warm ... These cells will pick off portions of the red cell membrane, almost as if they are taking a bite. The loss of membrane causes ...
Cancer science. 98 (6): 779-789. doi:10.1111/j.1349-7006.2007.00477.x. PMID 17441963. "New Drug for Colorectal Cancer Shows ... and tipiracil was transported by the solute carrier proteins SLC22A2 and SLC47A1. Drugs that interact with these transporters ... exhibits antitumor activity in FU-resistant human cancer cells through a mechanism involving FTD incorporation in DNA". Int J ... The drug is approved for use as a third- or fourth-line treatment in metastatic colorectal cancer patients which have already ...
"Mechanism of cell adaptation: when and how do cancer cells develop chemoresistance?". Cancer J. 17 (2): 89-95. doi:10.1097/PPO ... Researchers have explored the use of silver nanoparticles as carriers for delivering various payloads such as small drug ... A pitfall of the commonly used nano-drug delivery systems is that free drugs that are released from the nanocarriers into the ... For example, once the nanoparticle drug complex enters or is in the vicinity of the target tissue or cells, a glutathione ...
This later led to the development of a PARP inhibitor drug, olaparib, which targets the DNA repair pathways of cancer cells. A ... "Collaboration Yielded A New Class Of Cancer Drugs". Chemical and Engineering News. Retrieved 12 October 2011. "Drug discoveries ... polymerase in tumors from BRCA mutation carriers". New England Journal of Medicine. 361 (2): 123-34. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa0900212 ... The discovery is of fundamental significance in cancer research since cell motility is a key feature of cancer cell behaviour ...
It is also required for the uptake of metformin by cells. Solute carrier family Organic cation transport proteins GRCh38: ... Rosilio, C; Ben-Sahra, I; Bost, F; Peyron, JF (1 May 2014). "Metformin: a metabolic disruptor and anti-diabetic drug to target ... and other organs are critical for elimination of many endogenous small organic cations as well as a wide array of drugs and ... human leukemia". Cancer Letters. 346 (2): 188-96. doi:10.1016/j.canlet.2014.01.006. PMID 24462823. Berkhout B, Jeang KT ( ...
2008). "S1P differentially regulates migration of human ovarian cancer and human ovarian surface epithelial cells". Mol Cancer ... Therefore, a topical formulation based on specific drug carriers has been considered inevitable.[citation needed] Lpath Inc has ... Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 16 (3): 283-289. doi:10.1517/13543784.16.3.283. PMID 17302523. Kappos L, Radue EW, O'Connor P, et ... extracellular S1P could have an important role in cancer progression by promoting migration of epithelial ovarian cancer cells ...
They have numerous applications in medicine as drug delivery agents in the treatment of different diseases including cancer and ... virus inhibitors, as well as contrast agents for cell labeling. Examples of the latter include acting as a carrier for GFP, MRI ... However, unlike other small-molecular drugs, their development and applications are limited by high molecular weight and ... a TAT-fused protein was delivered into mitochondria of breast cancer cells and decreased the survival of breast cancer cells, ...
It increases the uptake and hence the cytotoxicity of doxorubicin in HCC cells (and also in hepatoblastoma cells). As a carrier ... notable are its uses as a carrier for oil paints and as a pharmaceutical grade carrier for medicinal iodine and drugs. ... Initial medical application of a membrane-emulsification technique". Cancer. 75 (6): 1245-54. doi:10.1002/1097-0142(19950315)75 ... Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews. 45 (1): 57-64. doi:10.1016/S0169-409X(00)00100-9. PMID 11104897. Marelli L, Stigliano R, ...
The inherent growth inhibitory properties of many anti-cancer agents make these drugs ideal candidates for the prevention of ... as the first cytostatic agent to be used solely for delivery from drug-eluting stents to prevent restenosis. Drug-eluting ... However, these same properties are often associated with cytotoxicity at doses which block cell proliferation. Therefore, the ... It was designed for use in stents with phosphorylcholine as a carrier. Coronary stents reduce early complications and improve ...
Currently, many drug companies are aiming to utilize the trajectory of intracellular transport mechanisms to deliver drugs to ... COG7 Sterol carrier protein Lodish, Harvey (2000). Molecular Cell Biology. New York: W.H. Freeman and Company. p. 634. Lodish, ... The potential for this type of treatment in anti-cancer drugs is an exciting, promising area of research. Transport by multiple ... Intracellular transport is the movement of vesicles and substances within the cell. Eukaryotic cells transport packets of ...
"CYP2C19*17 is associated with decreased breast cancer risk". Breast Cancer Research and Treatment. 115 (2): 391-6. doi:10.1007/ ... Scores of drugs have been shown to either inhibit or induce one or more of the CYP epoxygenases; The most studied substrate of ... Carriers of this SNP among a Uygur population in China had a higher risk of coronary artery disease.[unreliable source?] ... That is, they are toxic to leukocytes as well as many other cell types and when injected into rodents produce multiple organ ...
... is an American engineer, the founder of Spherix and the principal investigator of the Viking mission Labeled Release experiment. In 1997, Levin published his conclusion that a 1976 Viking lander had discovered living microorganisms on Mars. He is noted for still claiming that his experiment on board the 1976 Viking Mars landers to detect microscopic life on Mars rendered a true positive result. On 12 April 2012, an international team including Levin reported, based on mathematical speculation through cluster analysis of the Labeled Release experiments of the Viking program, that may suggest the detection of "extant microbial life on Mars." He is one of the scientific advisers of the International Committee Against Mars Sample Return. He also patented an inexpensive method to make tagatose, an artificial sweetener, in 1988. [1] Bianciardi, Giorgio; Miller, Joseph D.; Straat, Patricia Ann; Levin, Gilbert V. (March 2012). "Complexity Analysis of the Viking Labeled Release ...
... s are antibodies conjugated (joined) to a second molecule, usually a toxin, radioisotope or label. These conjugates are used in immunotherapy[citation needed] and to develop monoclonal antibody therapy as a targeted form of chemotherapy when they are often known as antibody-drug conjugates. When the conjugates include a radioisotope see radioimmunotherapy. When the conjugates include a toxin see immunotoxin. Goldenberg DM, Sharkey RM (2007). "Novel radiolabeled antibody conjugates". Oncogene. 26 (25): 3734-44. doi:10.1038/sj.onc.1210373. PMID 17530026. Khandare JJ, Minko T (2006). "Antibodies and peptides in cancer therapy". Critical reviews in therapeutic drug carrier systems. 23 (5): 401-35. PMID 17425513. Technology Insight: cytotoxic drug immunoconjugates for cancer therapy. 2007 looks useful from the abstract. Targeted Therapy of Cancer: New Prospects for Antibodies and Immunoconjugates. 2006 full ...
Each carrier (interexchange or local exchange) is assigned a four-digit identification code, the Carrier Identification Code (CIC) which was used with feature groups. The interexchange carrier to which calls from a subscriber line are routed by default is known as the Presubscribed Interexchange Carrier (PIC). To give telephone users the possibility of opting for a different carrier on a call-by-call basis, Carrier Access Codes (CAC) were devised. These consist of the digits 101 followed by the four-digit CIC. The CAC is dialed as a prefix immediately before dialing a long-distance phone number.. In popular usage, CACs are often referred to as dial-around codes (because they allow dialing around the PIC). Sometimes they are even called "PIC codes", though this term is inaccurate, since the code is being used to avoid the PIC, not to use its services.. When CICs were first introduced in 1983, they were only three digits long, and the CAC consisted of the digits 10 followed by the three-digit CIC. ...
In wet granulation, granules are formed by the addition of a granulation liquid onto a powder bed which is under the influence of an impeller (in a high-shear granulator), screws (in a twin screw granulator) [1] or air (in a fluidized bed granulator). The agitation resulting in the system along with the wetting of the components within the formulation results in the aggregation of the primary powder particles to produce wet granules.[1] The granulation liquid (fluid) contains a solvent or carrier material which must be volatile so that it can be removed by drying, and depending on the intended application, be non-toxic. Typical liquids include water, ethanol and isopropanol either alone or in combination. The liquid solution can be either aqueous based or solvent-based. Aqueous solutions have the advantage of being safer to deal with than other solvents. Water mixed into the powders can form bonds between powder particles that are strong enough to lock them together. However, once the water ...
... is a method for transporting drug molecules across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) using nanoparticles. These drugs cross the BBB and deliver pharmaceuticals to the brain for therapeutic treatment of neurological disorders. These disorders include Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, schizophrenia, depression, and brain tumors. Part of the difficulty in finding cures for these central nervous system (CNS) disorders is that there is yet no truly efficient delivery method for drugs to cross the BBB. Antibiotics, antineoplastic agents, and a variety of CNS-active drugs, especially neuropeptides, are a few examples of molecules that cannot pass the BBB alone. With the aid of nanoparticle delivery systems, however, studies have shown that some drugs can now cross the BBB, and even exhibit lower toxicity and decrease adverse effects throughout the body. ...
The replacement of Minas Gerais was first suggested in the early 1980s, as part of planned 15-year naval expansion program.[19] Two different carrier designs were proposed.[19] The first was for a 40,000 ton ship equipped with up to forty aircraft, including naval fighters.[12][19] To complement this proposal, a plan to expand the Brazilian fleet air arm by acquiring second-hand A-4 Skyhawks from Kuwait or Israel was submitted.[20] For this to happen, the 1965 ruling that prevented the MB from operating fixed-wing aircraft had to be overturned; a decision the FAB opposed.[19] To make the purchase worthwhile, Minas Gerais would have to operate the aircraft until the replacement carrier entered service, which in turn required the installation of a modified steam catapult and arresting gear.[20] As the ship had just emerged from a modernisation refit, this was an expensive proposition, and the Skyhawk acquisition plan was cancelled in October 1984.[20] The Skyhawk plan was successfully revisited in ...
It is one of the more advanced railway signalling systems in the world, although the implementation itself is still based on relays rather than solid state electronics.. There are two components to the TVM-430 system: one ground-based, the other on board the train. Both run using Motorola 68020 class processors, and are programmed in Ada, a computer language often used in safety critical systems. The system makes extensive use of redundancy; the mean time between dangerous failures is estimated to be over 1 million years.[citation needed]. The ground-based segment of TVM-430 resides in trackside boxes, which control stretches of track about 15 km (9.3 mi) long. Each one is linked to the line's centralized traffic control centre, and directly controls about ten blocks of track, each with its own track circuit. Signaling information is encoded in AC signals which are fed into the rails of each block. There are four different carrier frequencies available in TVM-430 and they are used alternately in ...
... (often styled pegylation) is the process of both covalent and non-covalent attachment or amalgamation of polyethylene glycol (PEG, in pharmacy called macrogol) polymer chains to molecules and macrostructures, such as a drug, therapeutic protein or vesicle, which is then described as PEGylated (pegylated). PEGylation is routinely achieved by incubation of a reactive derivative of PEG with the target molecule. The covalent attachment of PEG to a drug or therapeutic protein can "mask" the agent from the host's immune system (reduced immunogenicity and antigenicity), and increase the hydrodynamic size (size in solution) of the agent which prolongs its circulatory time by reducing renal clearance. PEGylation can also provide water solubility to hydrophobic drugs and proteins. Around 1970, Frank F. Davis, a professor of biochemistry at Rutgers University, became interested in developing a process to render usable bioactive proteins of ...
A self-microemulsifying drug delivery system (SMEDDS) is a drug delivery system that uses a microemulsion achieved by chemical rather than mechanical means. That is, by an intrinsic property of the drug formulation, rather than by special mixing and handling. It employs the familiar ouzo effect displayed by anethole in many anise-flavored liquors. Microemulsions have significant potential for use in drug delivery, and SMEDDS (including so-called "U-type" microemulsions) are the best of these systems identified to date. SMEDDS are of particular value in increasing the absorption of lipophilic drugs taken by mouth. SMEDDS in research or development include formulations of the drugs anethole trithione, oridonin, curcumin, vinpocetine, tacrolimus,Mitotane, berberine hydrochloride, nobiletin, piroxicam, anti-malaria drugs beta-Artemether and ...
... is a method for transporting drug molecules across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) using nanoparticles. These drugs cross the BBB and deliver pharmaceuticals to the brain for therapeutic treatment of neurological disorders. These disorders include Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, schizophrenia, depression, and brain tumors. Part of the difficulty in finding cures for these central nervous system (CNS) disorders is that there is yet no truly efficient delivery method for drugs to cross the BBB. Antibiotics, antineoplastic agents, and a variety of CNS-active drugs, especially neuropeptides, are a few examples of molecules that cannot pass the BBB alone. With the aid of nanoparticle delivery systems, however, studies have shown that some drugs can now cross the BBB, and even exhibit lower toxicity and decrease adverse effects throughout the body. ...
The development of new delivery systems raises the hope of vaccines that are safer and more efficient to deliver and administer. Lines of research include liposomes and ISCOM (immune stimulating complex).[92]. Notable developments in vaccine delivery technologies have included oral vaccines. Early attempts to apply oral vaccines showed varying degrees of promise, beginning early in the 20th century, at a time when the very possibility of an effective oral antibacterial vaccine was controversial.[93] By the 1930s there was increasing interest in the prophylactic value of an oral typhoid fever vaccine for example.[94]. An oral polio vaccine turned out to be effective when vaccinations were administered by volunteer staff without formal training; the results also demonstrated increased ease and efficiency of administering the vaccines. Effective oral vaccines have many advantages; for example, there is no risk of blood contamination. Vaccines intended for oral administration need not be liquid, and ...
... is a clinical and commercial company developing and marketing a range of respiratory and regenerative products. The first regenerative medicine product brought to the market by Avita Medical was ReCell spray-on skin for the treatment of burns. The two latest products are ReNovaCell, for Aesthetics and Plastic applications including skin trauma, and ReGenerCell for the treatment of chronic wounds. The Avita Medical regenerative product range is currently marketed in EMEA countries and Australia. Originally named "Clinical Cell Culture" and listed on the ASX under the symbol "C3", the company restructured under the name "Avita Medical" in June 2008. In 2015, the company conducted a strategic divestment of its respiratory business, including the Breath-a-Tech and Funhaler products, to support focus on its regenerative products. ReCell is a stand-alone, rapid, autologous cell harvesting, processing and delivery technology that enables clinicians to treat wounds and skin defects using ...
... is the reduction in effectiveness of a medication such as an antimicrobial or an antineoplastic in curing a disease or condition. The term is used in the context of resistance that pathogens or cancers have "acquired", that is, resistance has evolved. Antimicrobial resistance and antineoplastic resistance challenge clinical care and drive research. When an organism is resistant to more than one drug, it is said to be multidrug-resistant. Even the immune system of an organism is in essence a drug delivery system, albeit endogenous, and faces the same arms race problems as external drug delivery. The development of antibiotic resistance in particular stems from the drugs targeting only specific bacterial molecules (almost always proteins). Because the drug is so specific, any mutation in these molecules will interfere with or negate its destructive effect, resulting in ...
Metal-protein complexes are involved in many health studies such as metal-based drugs for cancer or diabetes treatments. ... Further the AF4 technique has been able to achieve this (in some cases) using non-denaturing carriers, which offers significant ... Postnova AF2000 Assists UCL in Developing Nanoscale Vehicles for Drug Delivery. *Quantifying Adeno-Associated Virus Aggregation ...
Chitosan nanoparticles were used as drug delivery carriers due to it offers many advantages. In addition, nano-sized particles ... checkpoint gene silencing using epidermal growth factor receptor-targeted chitosan nanoparticles in non-small cell lung cancer ... Mar drugs. 2014;12(1):300-16.. 6.Okamoto Y, Yano R, Miyatake K, Tomohiro I, Shigemasa Y, Minami S. Effects of chitin and ... In this study, slow rate of drug release arises from the stability of this carrier due to loaded antioxidant. ...
The journal serves researchers from academia and industry, and will publish articles ranging from basic biology of drug and ... Articles describing drug dosage forms will be considered. ... Journal of Drug Delivery is a peer-reviewed, Open Access ... Also the potential application of CNT in targeting metastatic cancer cells by entrapping biomolecules and anticancer drugs has ... Carbon Nanotubes: An Emerging Drug Carrier for Targeting Cancer Cells. Vaibhav Rastogi,1 Pragya Yadav,1 Shiv Sankar ...
The journal serves researchers from academia and industry, and will publish articles ranging from basic biology of drug and ... Articles describing drug dosage forms will be considered. ... Journal of Drug Delivery is a peer-reviewed, Open Access ... Also the potential application of CNT in targeting metastatic cancer cells by entrapping biomolecules and anticancer drugs has ... Prostate Cancer. Prostate cancer is a slow growing cancer and early propagation of cancer cells occurs before the disease ...
... development of MTX loaded nanoparticles alongside the inclusion of recent findings for the treatment of cancers. In this paper ... In this paper, we have made a coordinated effort to show the potential of novel drug delivery systems by achieving effective ... we have put coordinated efforts to show the potential of novel drug delivery systems (NDDS) by achieving the effective and ... the design and development of MTX-loaded nanoparticles alongside the inclusion of recent findings for the treatment of cancers ...
Deliver anti-cancer drugs for pinpoint targeted treatment of cancer cells, which should result in few drug side effects. ... diagnoses and drug-delivery treatment of cancer cells.. UC Develops Unique Nano Carrier to Target Drug Delivery to Cancer Cells ... Home , Press , UC Develops Unique Nano Carrier to Target Drug Delivery to Cancer Cells: University of Cincinnati researchers ... Currently, a cancer treatment like chemotherapy affects not only cancer cells but healthy cells as well, leading to serious and ...
Nanostructured lipid carriers have attracted expanding scientific and commercial vigilance in the last couple of years as ... In supplement, the function of NLC in cancer chemotherapy is presented and hotspots in research are emphasized. It is foreseen ... In this review the benefits, types, drug release modulations, steadiness and output techniques of NLCs are discussed. ... the polymer with esteem to the carrier scheme are anticipated to be overcome through use of the Nanostructured Lipid Carrier. ...
... and oxygen used for the treatment of cancer and other diseases. When PSs in cells are exposed to specific wavelengths of light ... In this review, we summarize several organic and inorganic PS carriers that have been studied to enhance the efficacy of ... which causes cellular damage that leads to tumor cell death through necrosis or apoptosis. The solubility, selectivity, and ... Drug Carrier for Photodynamic Cancer Therapy by Tilahun Ayane Debele 1, Sydney Peng 2 and Hsieh-Chih Tsai 1,* ...
AllBioprocessingCancerDrug DiscoveryOMICsTranslational MedicineGenome Editing. News Role of Gene Mutations in Kidney Disease ... The role of the carrier protein is to enhance immunogenicity by providing T-cell epitopes via MHC Class II presentation to T- ... helper cells. Carrier proteins both increase the magnitude of the immune response as well as engender B-cell "memory." ... Cellectis New Patent Supports CRISPR-Based T-Cell Immunotherapies. Top 15 Best-Selling Drugs of 2019. ...
To improve the safety and efficacy of cytotoxic drugs, several drug delivery systems have been explored. This review outlines ... non-small-cell lung, and head and neck cancers in combination with other anticancer agents. ... Lessons Learned from Gemcitabine: Impact of Therapeutic Carrier Systems and Gemcitabines Drug Conjugates on Cancer Therapy. ... Currently, drug delivery systems have a high impact in cancer therapy and are receiving more attention than conventional cancer ...
Antibodies and peptides play a variety of roles in cancer therapy: monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and peptides are directly used ... Various peptides, tumor necrosis factors (TNFs), and cell surface-targeted peptides have been identified using phage-display ... mAbs and peptides can significantly increase the toxicity of anticancer drugs to tumors and reduce their adverse side effects ... in Therapeutic Drug Carrier Systems , Volume 23, 2006 Edição 5 , Antibodies and Peptides in Cancer Therapy ...
... are individuals that carry a single gene mutation for sickle cell disease. Carriers do not tend to have any symptoms and ... also sometimes referred to as people with sickle cell trait, ... Improving cancer therapies by exploiting drug resistance in ... Professor David Thomas about his recent research identifying the mechanisms behind cancer cells developing resistance to drugs. ... patient.info/health/sickle-cell-trait-sickle-cell-carrier-and-sickle-cell-screening-tests ...
"Cell-derived Exosomes as Promising Carriers for Drug Delivery and Targeted Therapy", Current Cancer Drug Targets (2018) 18: 347 ... During recent years, novel carriers for the delivery of targeted drugs, chemotherapy drugs and RNAs are under development, ... Current Cancer Drug Targets. *Bonafide Targets of Deregulated microRNAs in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer as Tool to Identify Novel ... Multimodal Nanomedicine Strategies for Targeting Cancer Cells as well as Cancer Stem Cell Signalling Mechanisms. Mini-Reviews ...
Recognition of early changes in the Fallopian tube cells of BRCA gene mutation carriers may be key to new strategies for ... preventing ovarian cancer that could also reduce the need for invasive surgery. ... GET FULL LISTINGS OF TREATMENT Regimens and Drug INFORMATION. Bone Cancer. Regimens. Drugs. ... Ovarian Cancer , * Cell Changes in Fallopian Tubes of BRCA Mutation Carriers May Lead to Strategies for Preventing Ovarian ...
... a type of connective tissue cell, near to the cancer cells absorbed lesser concentration of the drug carrier and exhibited ... in Nature combining neutron scattering with other techniques strengthens understanding of the delivery of cancer drugs. ... COPENHAGEN-A new drug carrier, a bio-nanocomposite (bio-NCP), has the potential to target cancer cells with less harmful ... Generically, the new drug carrier is composed of anti-cancer drug Paclitaxel and (Mn-Zn) ferrite nanoparticles encapsulated ...
"The aim is to deliver the drug to the cancer cells in a selective and effective way with reduced pharmacological side effects ... development of the new bio-NCP holds promise to improve the efficacy and reduce the side effects of cancer drugs administered ... Using this knowledge, the researchers designed a new bio-NCP drug carrier, which consists of an anti-cancer drug encapsulated ... New Drug Carrier Aims to Treat Secondary Tumours of Breast Cancer. August 14, 2015. ...
The ability of lipid carriers to enhance solubility, absorption and thereby the bioavailability of poorly soluble molecules by ... Li B, Xu H, Li Z et al (2012) Bypassing multidrug resistance in human breast cancer cells with lipid/polymer particle ... Gregoriadis G, Ryman BE (1971) Liposomes as carriers of enzymes or drugs: a new approach to the treatment of storage diseases. ... and nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC): Their benefits as colloidal drug carrier systems. Pharmazie 61:375-386Google Scholar ...
G to I) Graphs depict the number of (G) CD45+CD8+CD3+ T cells, (H) CD45+CD4+CD3+ T cells, and (I) CD45+NK1.1+CD3− NK cells per ... Because small-molecule anticancer drugs broadly distribute to tissues and induce systemic side effects, modifications of drugs ... Engineered collagen-binding serum albumin as a drug conjugate carrier for cancer therapy - Science Advances. susan ward cbd ... Cell culture. MMTV-PyMT cells were obtained from spontaneously developed breast cancer in FVB-Tg (MMTV-PyMT) transgenic mice as ...
Unique nano carrier to target drug delivery to cancer cells. A unique nanostructure developed by a team of international ... A cost-effective way toward personalized cancer drugs. Before a cancer patient embarks on a course of treatment tests can be ... First Mouse Model for the Most Common Form of Infant Leukemia, Gene Deletion Allows Cancer Cells to Thrive in the Brain, Cancer ... at the University of Cincinnati promises improved all in one detection diagnoses and drug delivery treatment of cancer cells ...
In the absence of effective cancer screening and other preventative strategies, risk-reducing surgery in women who are known to ... Hereditary breast ovarian cancer and Lynch/hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer syndrome account for most hereditary ... Curr Cancer Drug Targets Source Type: research. Hydrogel formation by short D-peptide for cell-culture scaffolds ... and the anticancer effects of many candidate drugs have been linked to their ability to modulate the immune system. Marin... ...
As more targeted drugs displace traditional meds, it could stifle the so-called trickle-down effect that enables developing ... countries to obtain less expensive versions of these drugs. ... osimertinib in EGFR T790M positive non-small cell lung cancer ( ... Advances in Genetic Testing for IVF Research: PGT-A, PGT-M, and Carrier Screening. ... Home » Diagnostics » Will Growth of Targeted Cancer Drugs Thwart Access to Cheap Cancer Rxs in Poor Nations? ...
A genetic study of breast cancer patients suggests that existing drugs for treating rare breast and ovarian cancers may help ... A drug treatment for ovarian cancer has shown success against inherited breast cancer.... ... A common chemical found in household products could increase the risk of cancer by blocking the ability of cells to fix genetic ... They found that BRCA1 carriers were most likely to develop breast cancer in their 30s and BRCA2 carriers in their 40s. The ...
... it is possible to design drug delivery systems that specifically target anti-cancer drugs to tumors. Most of the conventional ... it is possible to design drug delivery systems that specifically target anti-cancer drugs to tumors. Most of the conventional ... nanocarriers allow active targeting by binding to the receptors overexpressed by cancer cells or angiogenic endothelial cells. ... To exploit the tumor microenvironment: Passive and active tumor targeting of nanocarriers for anti-cancer drug delivery J ...
This Quips episode is about autotaxins, physiologically important proteins that are pursued as anti-cancer drug targets. It was ... It is an essential component of the nervous system, a target of chemical weapons, snake venoms and also anti-dementia drugs. ... In order to expel toxic chemicals from the cell, Gram negative bacteria must export them across both the inner and outer ... Getting a good rate of exchange - the mitochondrial ADP-ATP carrier. June 2011 ...
7 Cell Culture Models for Drug Transport Studies 131. Irina Kalashnikova, Norah Albekairi, Shariq Ali, Sanaalarab Al Enazy, and ... 16.1.1 Cellular Barriers to Drug Delivery in the CNS 354. 16.1.2 General Approaches for Increasing Brain Penetration of Drugs ... 21.3 Influence of Physicochemical Characteristics of Drug Carriers on Lymphatic Uptake and Transport 509 ... 22 The Development of Cancer Theranostics: A New Emerging Tool Toward Personalized Medicine 549. Hongying Su, Yun Zeng, Gang ...
  • One of the aims of cancer therapy is to prevent the metastatic process as early as possible. (hindawi.com)
  • To double-check progress in drug therapy the development of new drugs solely is not sufficient. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a non-invasive combinatorial therapeutic modality using light, photosensitizer (PS), and oxygen used for the treatment of cancer and other diseases. (mdpi.com)
  • In this review, we summarize several organic and inorganic PS carriers that have been studied to enhance the efficacy of photodynamic therapy against cancer. (mdpi.com)
  • Tsai, H.-C. Drug Carrier for Photodynamic Cancer Therapy. (mdpi.com)
  • Currently, drug delivery systems have a high impact in cancer therapy and are receiving more attention than conventional cancer treatment modalities. (begellhouse.com)
  • It also provides insight into the design and development of gemcitabine conjugation for safe and effective cancer therapy. (begellhouse.com)
  • Antibodies and peptides play a variety of roles in cancer therapy: monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and peptides are directly used in anticancer therapy and also as targeting moieties. (begellhouse.com)
  • The present review summarizes some major applications of antibodies and peptides in cancer therapy. (begellhouse.com)
  • Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, National Clinical Research Center for Cancer, Tianjin's Clinical Research Center for Cancer, Key Laboratory of Cancer Prevention and Therapy, Tianjin 300060, China Yi Ba* . (eurekaselect.com)
  • This review presents the current patterns of drug-loaded into exosomes and discusses how exosomes were reconstructed for targeted therapy. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Therefore, exosomes could serve as an effective tool for drug delivery and targeted therapy. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Nano-liposomes are the newly developed delivery systems for cancer therapy that are finding a position particularly suitable as peptide and protein carriers. (eurekaselect.com)
  • The overall pharmacological properties of commonly used protein and peptide in cancer therapy can be improved by the incorporation of protein and peptide into the nano-liposome. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Furthermore, gene expression analysis revealed that the epithelium-specific ETS transcription factor-1 (ESE-1 or ELF3), known to regulate proliferation and differentiation, enhanced cell differentiation in response to EAD triple therapy. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a new modality of skin cancer treatment. (springer.com)
  • Photodynamic therapy of primary skin cancer: a review. (springer.com)
  • Photodynamic therapy by topical mete-tetraphenylporphinesulphonate tetrasodium salt administration in superficial basal cell carcinomas. (springer.com)
  • In Tumor Targeting in Cancer Therapy, Dr. Michel Pagé and a panel of authoritative experts from the drug industry, clinics, and academia introduce the principles and techniques of tumor targeting and critically survey their applications from laboratory to bedside. (springer.com)
  • By concisely synthesizing the many technical details, the authors illuminate this innovative technique, ranging from the fundamentals of drug targeting and in vivo and in vitro experimentation, to such emerging therapeutic uses as radioimmunotherapy, radioimmunodetection, therapy with cytotoxic antibodies, immunotoxins, enzyme prodrug immunotherapy, and immunotherapeutics with fusion proteins. (springer.com)
  • Comprehensive and practical, Tumor Targeting in Cancer Therapy summarizes the essentials of tumor targeting as it is practiced today and provides all those engaged in experimental and clinical cancer research the critically established information needed to evaluate new technologies, investigate novel therapeutic agents, and apply them in relevant clinical practice. (springer.com)
  • Emily Whitehead would be the world's first kid to try an experimental cancer therapy, called CAR-T. Researchers were offering to reprogram her immune cells into a clone army of cancer-targeting serial killers. (wired.com)
  • While this is an exciting early study for BRCA mutation carriers, more work and human clinical trials need to be done before this can be used as a prevention therapy in humans. (facingourrisk.org)
  • Knowledge about the specificity of CYP17A1 activities is of importance for the development of treatments for polycystic ovary syndrome and inhibitors for prostate cancer therapy. (mdpi.com)
  • Torque's preclinical studies of its own infused cell therapy showed that the drug acted on the tumor and did not have toxic effects throughout the body, Neilsen says. (xconomy.com)
  • The Torque therapy could be added to CAR T treatments approved for blood cancers, potentially producing a longer-lasting response with less toxicity, Henderson says. (xconomy.com)
  • It can be added to a cell therapy or a TCR (T cell receptor therapy) and go beyond what those technologies can do on their own," he says. (xconomy.com)
  • Chilkoti says this therapy would work well with breast cancer. (technologyreview.com)
  • PULSUS group cordially welcomes researchers, academicians, students and business professionals in the field of Cancer Science and Therapy from around the world to participate in the upcoming " 2nd World Congress on Advanced Cancer Science & Therapy " to be held at Dubai, UAE during January 28-29, 2019 . (medgadget.com)
  • The two-day meeting is going to be an event to look forward for its enlightening symposiums & workshops from established experts in cancer therapy, potential keynote talks from eminent speakers, informative oral sessions and innovative poster presentations. (medgadget.com)
  • Cancer Therapy 2019 is an extraordinary event that invites participants from different leading universities, clinical research institutions and various diagnostic companies to share their research experiences in all aspects of this rapidly expanding field and provides an opportunity to meet and communicate with leading doctors, surgeons, scientists, academic professionals from around the world and listen to top speakers on new developments that impact and advance future of cancer science. (medgadget.com)
  • It serves as a global platform to know about the current developments and new approaches in the field of cancer science and therapy. (medgadget.com)
  • National Science Council Deputy Director-General Hocheng Hong (賀陳弘) told a press conference yesterday in Taipei that while chemotherapy often causes side effects because the drugs used can damage healthy cells as well and targeted therapy is too expensive for many patients, the team's new method could provide a new option. (taipeitimes.com)
  • It's a cell therapy. (xconomy.com)
  • The sialic-acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectins (siglecs) include a family of receptors that are restrictedly expressed on one or a few immune cell types, making them attractive for targeted therapy ( 8, 9 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • At San Antonio this year, we had some interesting presentations both in early stage breast cancer related to endocrine therapy and in advanced or metastatic breast cancer. (cancer.net)
  • Her projects involve collaboration with the private sector to expedite validation of clinical diagnostic biomarkers and the development of new drug leads for targeted cancer therapy. (swansea.ac.uk)
  • Combination therapy, in which two or more agents are applied, is more effective than single therapies for combating cancer. (biologists.org)
  • On the basis of these results, we propose that Drosophila might be a useful model for unbiased screens through new molecule libraries to find cancer drugs for combination therapy. (biologists.org)
  • No single mode of therapy presents a cure for cancer. (biologists.org)
  • Multi-modal therapy, in which more than one anti-cancer agent is applied in combination, has more promise and is being assessed in multiple clinical trials ( www.clinicaltrials.gov ). (biologists.org)
  • Although the reasons for variability are unclear, discovery of additional novel drugs that synergize with an existing therapy, such as radiation, will allow multiple combinations to choose from, thereby increasing the likelihood of clinical success. (biologists.org)
  • How then can we identify drugs that work together with an existing agent to provide robust therapy against cancer? (biologists.org)
  • These results serve as proof-of-concept that Drosophila can be a useful screening model for anti-cancer agents that can be used in combination therapy with a standard agent (i.e. radiation). (biologists.org)
  • These photosensitizers have a very low (safe) toxicity until they are exposed to light and are already used in photodynamic therapy for cancer or skin disease treatments, or as agents in photodynamic-antimicrobial chemo-therapy. (uva.nl)
  • Thus, in this study we report the synthesis of polymer-drug conjugates of dapsone covalently bonded to macromolecular chains towards the development of new bioactive polymeric formulations with anti-inflammatory properties. (imperial.ac.uk)
  • Thus, the conjugation of dapsone to macromolecular systems provides a synthetic route to incorporate this drug into polymeric systems, facilitating their development into new anti-inflammatory therapies. (imperial.ac.uk)
  • When porous polymeric drug delivery system is placed in contact with appropriate dissolution medium, release of drug to medium must be preceded by the drug dissolution in the water filled pores or from surface and by diffusion through the water filled channels. (ijpsonline.com)
  • When a porous hydrophobic polymeric drug delivery system is placed in contact with the appropriate dissolution medium, release of drug to medium must be preceded by the drug dissolution in the water filled pores or from surface and by diffusion through the water filled channels [ 18 ]. (ijpsonline.com)
  • A 547 nucleotide (nt), noncoding, uncapped single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) containing several polyU-repeats complexed with a polymeric carrier formed by disulfide-crosslinked cationic peptides, with potential immunostimulating activity. (cancer.gov)
  • Monocyte-mediated delivery of polymeric backpacks to inflamed tissues: a generalized strategy to deliver drugs to treat inflammation. (stjohns.edu)
  • CRM 197 , which has a single amino acid substitution of glutamic acid for glycine, is a well-characterized carrier protein and is utilized in a number of approved conjugate vaccines for diseases such as meningitis and pneumococcal bacterial infection. (genengnews.com)
  • Antibody-drug conjugates (ADC) are an attractive approach for the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia and non-Hodgkin lymphomas, which in most cases, are inherently sensitive to cytotoxic agents. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Carrier proteins both increase the magnitude of the immune response as well as engender B-cell "memory. (genengnews.com)
  • In 2010, Emily Whitehead was diagnosed with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia, a cancer of certain cells in the immune system. (wired.com)
  • The answer to that question came in a series of breakthrough discoveries of how cancer uses tricks to turn off, hide from, and overwhelm our immune response. (wired.com)
  • Selective liposome targeting of folate receptor positive immune cells in inflammatory diseases. (purdue.edu)
  • Genetic engineering a patient's own immune cells to make them better cancer fighters is the latest tool in oncology, following FDA approvals of two such therapies this year. (xconomy.com)
  • These "CAR T" treatments involve removing a patient's T cells, the soldiers of the immune system, and engineering them to produce receptors on their surface (chimeric antigen receptors or CAR) that recognize and attach to antigens on the surface of cancer cells. (xconomy.com)
  • This initial wave of activity then triggers a second response by the body's innate immune system, which keeps fighting the cancer cells over time for a longer-lasting effect. (xconomy.com)
  • His work involved developing cell therapies that can overcome a tumor's mechanisms for suppressing an immune response. (xconomy.com)
  • Doing so would trigger the innate immune system to fight cancer cells. (xconomy.com)
  • Ulrik Neilsen, president and co-founder of Torque, says that an immunotherapy drug given as a pill could trigger an immune response throughout the body-which risks a broad toxic effect. (xconomy.com)
  • PFE ) executive who joined Rubius as its president in January, calls red blood cells a "potent and convenient" way to deliver a drug and likens them to engineered immune cells that are becoming cancer-fighting drugs in their own right. (xconomy.com)
  • It aims at the development of new tetrapyrrolic photosensitizers for various types of PDT - including anti-cancer, anti-bacterial, anti-inflammatory and immune-activating applications - improving their photophysical and biological properties. (uva.nl)
  • Their goals are to develop broad-spectrum antibiotics, elucidate the mechanism of the isoprenoid biosynthesis pathway intermediate-triggered human innate-immune responses, and unravel the time recording mechanism inside the cell and its relationship to both aging and development. (bu.edu)
  • Sickle cell disease carriers, also sometimes referred to as people with sickle cell trait, are individuals that carry a single gene mutation for sickle cell disease. (news-medical.net)
  • The main difference between sickle cell disease and trait is that people with the disease have two gene mutations, whereas people with the trait have one gene mutation. (news-medical.net)
  • The mutated gene affects the shape of the haemoglobin cells in the blood so that they become sickle-shaped rather than flat discs. (news-medical.net)
  • With one gene mutation (sickle cell trait) only a small proportion of the haemoglobin cells are affected and symptoms only become noticeable in extreme situations, such as extreme heat, dehydration, high altitudes and significant stress. (news-medical.net)
  • With two gene mutations (sickle cell disease), there is a greater proportion of affected haemoglobin cells and symptoms are much more prominent. (news-medical.net)
  • In the United Kingdom, approximately 240,000 people carry a defected sickle gene and 1 in 2,400 babies have sickle cell disease. (news-medical.net)
  • Sickle cell disease is inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern, which means that males and females are affected equally and both parents must carry a defected gene for a child to be diagnosed with the disease. (news-medical.net)
  • Radically altered subcellular activity was discovered in the fimbrial tubal cells in approximately 60% of the women carrying the BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene mutation. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations can increase the risk of breast cancer five-fold and ovarian cancer up to 30 fold, depending on the exact type of the mutation and its location within the gene. (bionews.org.uk)
  • An influential health group in the USA has concluded that more women could benefit from wider gene screening for hereditary breast or ovarian cancer. (bionews.org.uk)
  • The CYP17A1 gene regulates sex steroid biosynthesis in humans through 17α-hydroxylase/17,20 lyase activities and is a target of anti-prostate cancer drug abiraterone. (mdpi.com)
  • Deya's research focuses on gene expression and function in the uterus and its relationship to fertility and cancer. (swansea.ac.uk)
  • Global gene expression patterns and alterations of DNA copy numbers in the NCI60 collection have been assessed by a number of microarray-based technologies, and the resulting data sets have been pooled and analyzed together with pharmacological characteristics of the cell lines, providing a comprehensive interaction map between pharmacological and genetic characteristics of the cells ( 9 - 11 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Cancer Research UK has funded research into PARP inhibitors and their potential use in the clinic since the 1990s, and as well as supporting this trial, we are also funding a separate PARP inhibitor trial in seven UK centres, which involves treating women with advanced breast or ovarian cancer caused by BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene faults. (cancerresearchuk.org)
  • RNA interference (RNAi) technology can specifically silence the expression of a target gene and has emerged as a promising therapeutic method to treat cancer. (sciencemag.org)
  • Small interfering RNA (siRNA) has shown potential as a molecular approach to down-regulate specific gene expression in cancer cells ( 1 , 2 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • The energy transferred from T 1 to biological substrates and molecular oxygen, via type I and II reactions, generates reactive oxygen species, ( 1 O 2 , H 2 O 2 , O 2 *, HO*), which causes cellular damage that leads to tumor cell death through necrosis or apoptosis. (mdpi.com)
  • Neutron spectroscopy-inelastic and quasielastic-was used to study the molecular dynamics of an anti-cancer drug encapsulated into the bio-NCP," says Heloisa Bordallo, who supervised Murillo at NBI, where she is an associate professor of X-ray and neutron science. (europeanspallationsource.se)
  • An open label trial of folate receptor-targeted intraoperative molecular imaging to localize pulmonary squamous cell carcinomas. (purdue.edu)
  • The centre exploits the increasing availability of information about the genetic make-up of different cancer types, in order to design new "personalised" treatments that target cancers' specific molecular defects. (wikipedia.org)
  • The CMP also aims to develop molecular diagnostic techniques that will accurately predict who will benefit most from a treatment, ensuring a patient receives the optimum drug(s) for the best possible outcome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cell-penetrating peptides ( CPPs ) are short peptides that facilitate cellular intake/uptake of various molecular equipment (from nanosize particles to small chemical molecules and large fragments of DNA). (wikipedia.org)
  • Scientists from the University of Amsterdam's Van 't Hoff Institute for Molecular Sciences (HIMS) are involved in a new European research project for the optimized design of molecules to fight cancer and infections. (uva.nl)
  • Direct examination of the phosphorylated and unphosphorylated forms of signaling proteins should improve our understanding of the molecular and pharmacologic characteristics of the NCI60 cell lines. (aacrjournals.org)
  • They are currently developing new projects that will use the tools of chemical biology, including biophysical techniques, enzymology, microscopy, and molecular biology, to understand iron-sulfur cluster containing proteins and bacterial cell division. (bu.edu)
  • LOS ANGELES - The proliferation of targeted cancer therapies in Western markets may hurt the chances of patients in the developing world of obtaining affordable oncologics, a healthcare ethicist told the annual meeting of the American Association for Cancer Research here last week. (genomeweb.com)
  • Assessment of folate receptor alpha and beta expression in selection of lung and pancreatic cancer patients for receptor targeted therapies. (purdue.edu)
  • Elit L, Hirte H (2014) Novel Targeted Therapies in Ovarian Cancer. (omicsonline.org)
  • The technology could have applications in other enzyme replacement therapies, as well as in other diseases, such as cancer and autoimmune disorders, he says. (xconomy.com)
  • About 75% of breast cancers express the estrogen receptor and drugs that target the estrogen receptor are called endocrine or hormonal therapies. (cancer.net)
  • CombiPlex is a unique approach in the development of combination drug therapies used for treating cancer. (nanotech-now.com)
  • Extending patent protection of CombiPlex to the US strengthens our intellectual property portfolio as we advance our pipeline of cancer therapies and collaborative programs with other pharmaceutical companies," said Scott Jackson, CEO of Celator Pharmaceuticals. (nanotech-now.com)
  • Celator Pharmaceuticals, Inc., with locations in Princeton, NJ, and Vancouver, BC, is a privately held pharmaceutical company developing new and more effective therapies to treat cancer. (nanotech-now.com)
  • If a pregnant mother is found to be a genetic carrier, the father is usually tested as well to determine the baby's risk of being affected by the disease. (news-medical.net)
  • Widschwendter and his team are now further investigating their findings including whether these findings could benefit women who do not have a predisposing genetic mutation by facilitating the development of a noninvasive test that could potentially predict these cellular events in the tubal cells. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • A common chemical found in household products could increase the risk of cancer by blocking the ability of cells to fix genetic flaws which lead to the disease. (bionews.org.uk)
  • Luis A. Alcaraz, cofounder of Bioarray and Journey Genomics, accredited diagnostic and research labs based in Alicante, Spain, will review how his teams use advanced genomic techniques for carrier screening research as well as for preimplantation genetic testing (PGT) in embryos for both aneuploidies (PGT-A) and monogenic disorders (PGT-M). (genomeweb.com)
  • Genetic Counseling Visit with a genetics expert to determine cancer risk for you and your loved ones. (osu.edu)
  • The drug is also approved to treat acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in patients who have a certain genetic abnormality. (xconomy.com)
  • One such process is the separation of chromosomes, the carriers of genetic information. (psi.ch)
  • During the progression of cancer, many signaling proteins are activated through genetic, epigenetic, and post-translational events. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Lactic acid and pyruvate transport across plasma membranes is catalyzed by members of the proton-linked monocarboxylate transporter (MCT) family, which has been designated solute carrier family-16. (nih.gov)
  • solute carrier family 35 (UDP-galactose. (wikigenes.org)
  • Insulin is a peptide hormone, produced by beta cells of the pancreas, and is central to regulating carbohydrate and fat metabolism in the body. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • RYTM ), and is the former president of that Boston peptide drug developer. (xconomy.com)
  • The agent-polymer-peptide complex may be delivered to target cells by, for example, a pre-targeting technique utilizing bispecific or multispecific antibodies or fragments, having at least one binding arm that recognizes the hapten and at least a second binding arm that binds specifically to a disease or pathogen associated antigen, such as a tumor associated antigen. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Within the rapidly growing vaccine space, conjugate vaccines-polysaccharide antigens covalently linked to carrier proteins-have been shown to be effective against several bacterial pathogens. (genengnews.com)
  • Conjugate vaccines use carrier proteins to increase the immunogenicity of antigens (e.g., peptides, oligosaccharides, polysaccharides) and other haptens. (genengnews.com)
  • Access to clinically-proven, safe, and efficacious carrier proteins is critical for research in the field of conjugate vaccines. (genengnews.com)
  • Many approaches to discovering new antimicrobials, such as structure-based drug design and whole cell phenotypic screens followed by lead refinement, require high-resolution structures of proteins essential to the parasite. (rcsb.org)
  • Rubius is engineering red blood cells to carry disease-fighting proteins either inside the cell or on the cell's surface. (xconomy.com)
  • The functional status of those proteins was interrogated in a paclitaxel whole genome small interfering RNA (siRNA) library synthetic lethality screen and confirmed the predicted associations with drug sensitivity. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Previously RPPA was used to profile the expression of 94 proteins in the NCI60 cell line collection ( 14 , 18 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • The aim of achieving the utmost therapeutic efficacy with the fewest drug hazards is always a priority for any pharmaceutical researcher. (frontiersin.org)
  • From a societal standpoint, development of the new bio-NCP holds promise to improve the efficacy and reduce the side effects of cancer drugs administered to patients. (europeanspallationsource.se)
  • In these cases, the exceptionally long plasma half-life and/or hydrophilicity of SA contributes to improved pharmacokinetics, safety, and efficacy of the drugs ( 1 ). (cbdoilslegal.com)
  • However, superior antitumor efficacy of modified SA has been shown compared to free drugs but not to drugs associated with unmodified SA in either case. (cbdoilslegal.com)
  • Although Dox treatment prolongs survival of some populations of patients, antitumor efficacy is not notable partially due to acquired drug resistance. (cbdoilslegal.com)
  • Within cells, metal complexes can participate in reactions that are not possible with conventional organic substances, and most of them have promising efficacy as anticancer drugs. (begellhouse.com)
  • In December, we reported encouraging interim data from the first of two randomized Phase 2 clinical studies in patients with Acute Myeloid Leukemia treated with our lead drug, CPX-351, and we will report additional efficacy and safety data with CPX-351 later this year. (nanotech-now.com)
  • Dr Johann de Bono, an ICR scientist who led the phase I trial at the Royal Marsden Hospital and the Netherlands Cancer Institute, commented: "This drug showed very impressive results in shrinking patients' tumours. (cancerresearchuk.org)
  • In this manuscript, we review the use of various compounds including antibodies that target specific growth factors receptors or ligands for receptors as well as small molecule compounds that inhibit tyrosine kinase activities or regulate the DNA repair mechanism in the management of women with ovarian, fallopian tube and primary peritoneal cancers. (omicsonline.org)
  • One such drug that has been used clinically since the early nineties is called Taxol - found in the bark of the Pacific Yew tree from which it was first isolated in the early seventies. (psi.ch)
  • The Foscan photosensitizer, a reduced porphyrin compound (a so-called chlorin), is a clinically applied drug marketed by Biolitec, one of the companies involved in the project. (uva.nl)
  • To do this we need to track cancer development right back to its earliest development and understand how it begins. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • Interpreting the complex network of cell signaling involved in HCC development is impractical to study under single study. (medworm.com)
  • Parts II and III treat applications and measurements, and they explains the application of these properties and their influence and use for the development of new drugs. (elsevier.com)
  • Data supporting a role for RANKL signaling in mammographic density and breast cancer development has begun to emerge, but clinical trial data providing definitive evidence that would allow the adoption of RANKL inhibition in primary breast cancer prevention are not yet available. (facingourrisk.org)
  • Development of a Ligand-Targeted Therapeutic Agent for Neurokinin-1 Receptor Expressing Cancers. (purdue.edu)
  • Drug resistance has made development of new antimicrobials critical. (rcsb.org)
  • BMY ) saw enough potential in the approach to acquire IFM in August for $300 million up front, and potentially more than $1 billion for each of the company's two drugs, should those programs hit development and sales milestones. (xconomy.com)
  • As the drugs used in the trials have already been certified by the government, the team's method is likely to be approved for clinical trial and usage rather than in the development of totally new drugs, Chen said. (taipeitimes.com)
  • Although encouraging recent studies showed promising results with Zelboraf, a selective V600E B-Raf kinase inhibitor, development of drug resistance remains a problem ( 2 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • So in the post-menopausal setting where 5 years of a class of drugs called aromatase inhibitors are the standard, we saw some presentations looking at whether longer duration of aromatase inhibitors-more than 5 years-would be better. (cancer.net)