Forms to which substances are incorporated to improve the delivery and the effectiveness of drugs. Drug carriers are used in drug-delivery systems such as the controlled-release technology to prolong in vivo drug actions, decrease drug metabolism, and reduce drug toxicity. Carriers are also used in designs to increase the effectiveness of drug delivery to the target sites of pharmacological actions. Liposomes, albumin microspheres, soluble synthetic polymers, DNA complexes, protein-drug conjugates, and carrier erythrocytes among others have been employed as biodegradable drug carriers.
Systems for the delivery of drugs to target sites of pharmacological actions. Technologies employed include those concerning drug preparation, route of administration, site targeting, metabolism, and toxicity.
Nanometer-sized particles that are nanoscale in three dimensions. They include nanocrystaline materials; NANOCAPSULES; METAL NANOPARTICLES; DENDRIMERS, and QUANTUM DOTS. The uses of nanoparticles include DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS and cancer targeting and imaging.
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.
Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.
Relating to the size of solids.
Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Tumors or cancer of the COLON.
Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Deacetylated CHITIN, a linear polysaccharide of deacetylated beta-1,4-D-glucosamine. It is used in HYDROGEL and to treat WOUNDS.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
Chemistry dealing with the composition and preparation of agents having PHARMACOLOGIC ACTIONS or diagnostic use.
Ability of neoplasms to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue.
Polymers of ETHYLENE OXIDE and water, and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid depending on the molecular weight indicated by a number following the name. They are used as SURFACTANTS, dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, and tablet excipients. Some specific groups are NONOXYNOLS, OCTOXYNOLS, and POLOXAMERS.
Tumors or cancer of the OVARY. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. They are classified according to the tissue of origin, such as the surface EPITHELIUM, the stromal endocrine cells, and the totipotent GERM CELLS.
The branch of medicine concerned with the application of NANOTECHNOLOGY to the prevention and treatment of disease. It involves the monitoring, repair, construction, and control of human biological systems at the molecular level, using engineered nanodevices and NANOSTRUCTURES. (From Freitas Jr., Nanomedicine, vol 1, 1999).
Nanometer-sized, hollow, spherically-shaped objects that can be utilized to encapsulate small amounts of pharmaceuticals, enzymes, or other catalysts (Glossary of Biotechnology and Nanobiotechnology, 4th ed).
The condition of harboring an infective organism without manifesting symptoms of infection. The organism must be readily transmissible to another susceptible host.
Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.
The application of scientific knowledge or technology to pharmacy and the pharmaceutical industry. It includes methods, techniques, and instrumentation in the manufacture, preparation, compounding, dispensing, packaging, and storing of drugs and other preparations used in diagnostic and determinative procedures, and in the treatment of patients.
Separation of molecules and particles by a simultaneous action of carrier liquid flow and focusing field forces (electrical, sedimentation, or thermal), without a stationary phase.
Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).
The preparation, mixing, and assembling of a drug. (From Remington, The Science and Practice of Pharmacy, 19th ed, p1814)
Methods to identify and characterize cancer in the early stages of disease and predict tumor behavior.
Tree-like, highly branched, polymeric compounds. They grow three-dimensionally by the addition of shells of branched molecules to a central core. The overall globular shape and presence of cavities gives potential as drug carriers and CONTRAST AGENTS.
Tumors or cancer of the PANCREAS. Depending on the types of ISLET CELLS present in the tumors, various hormones can be secreted: GLUCAGON from PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS; INSULIN from PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and SOMATOSTATIN from the SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS. Most are malignant except the insulin-producing tumors (INSULINOMA).
Resistance or diminished response of a neoplasm to an antineoplastic agent in humans, animals, or cell or tissue cultures.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
The transfer of a neoplasm from one organ or part of the body to another remote from the primary site.
Tumors or cancer of the STOMACH.
Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.
A polyester used for absorbable sutures & surgical mesh, especially in ophthalmic surgery. 2-Hydroxy-propanoic acid polymer with polymerized hydroxyacetic acid, which forms 3,6-dimethyl-1,4-dioxane-dione polymer with 1,4-dioxane-2,5-dione copolymer of molecular weight about 80,000 daltons.
A cellulose of varied carboxyl content retaining the fibrous structure. It is commonly used as a local hemostatic and as a matrix for normal blood coagulation.
In vivo methods of screening investigative anticancer drugs, biologic response modifiers or radiotherapies. Human tumor tissue or cells are transplanted into mice or rats followed by tumor treatment regimens. A variety of outcomes are monitored to assess antitumor effectiveness.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Antineoplastic antibiotic obtained from Streptomyces peucetius. It is a hydroxy derivative of DAUNORUBICIN.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
A nonionic polyoxyethylene-polyoxypropylene block co-polymer with the general formula HO(C2H4O)a(-C3H6O)b(C2H4O)aH. It is available in different grades which vary from liquids to solids. It is used as an emulsifying agent, solubilizing agent, surfactant, and wetting agent for antibiotics. Poloxamer is also used in ointment and suppository bases and as a tablet binder or coater. (Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 31st ed)
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Methods of investigating the effectiveness of anticancer cytotoxic drugs and biologic inhibitors. These include in vitro cell-kill models and cytostatic dye exclusion tests as well as in vivo measurement of tumor growth parameters in laboratory animals.
The development and use of techniques to study physical phenomena and construct structures in the nanoscale size range or smaller.
Colloids formed by the combination of two immiscible liquids such as oil and water. Lipid-in-water emulsions are usually liquid, like milk or lotion. Water-in-lipid emulsions tend to be creams. The formation of emulsions may be aided by amphiphatic molecules that surround one component of the system to form MICELLES.
Chemical substances, produced by microorganisms, inhibiting or preventing the proliferation of neoplasms.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Dosage forms of a drug that act over a period of time by controlled-release processes or technology.
Particles consisting of aggregates of molecules held loosely together by secondary bonds. The surface of micelles are usually comprised of amphiphatic compounds that are oriented in a way that minimizes the energy of interaction between the micelle and its environment. Liquids that contain large numbers of suspended micelles are referred to as EMULSIONS.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
Materials which have structured components with at least one dimension in the range of 1 to 100 nanometers. These include NANOCOMPOSITES; NANOPARTICLES; NANOTUBES; and NANOWIRES.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
An estrogen responsive cell line derived from a patient with metastatic human breast ADENOCARCINOMA (at the Michigan Cancer Foundation.)
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Transplantation between animals of different species.
Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE.
Human colonic ADENOCARCINOMA cells that are able to express differentiation features characteristic of mature intestinal cells such as the GOBLET CELLS.
Agents obtained from higher plants that have demonstrable cytostatic or antineoplastic activity.
Polymers of organic acids and alcohols, with ester linkages--usually polyethylene terephthalate; can be cured into hard plastic, films or tapes, or fibers which can be woven into fabrics, meshes or velours.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.
Tumors or cancer of the COLON or the RECTUM or both. Risk factors for colorectal cancer include chronic ULCERATIVE COLITIS; FAMILIAL POLYPOSIS COLI; exposure to ASBESTOS; and irradiation of the CERVIX UTERI.
A malignant neoplasm made up of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate the surrounding tissues and give rise to metastases. It is a histological type of neoplasm but is often wrongly used as a synonym for "cancer." (From Dorland, 27th ed)
A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.
Cytoplasmic proteins that bind estrogens and migrate to the nucleus where they regulate DNA transcription. Evaluation of the state of estrogen receptors in breast cancer patients has become clinically important.
Hard or soft soluble containers used for the oral administration of medicine.
Colorless, odorless crystals that are used extensively in research laboratories for the preparation of polyacrylamide gels for electrophoresis and in organic synthesis, and polymerization. Some of its polymers are used in sewage and wastewater treatment, permanent press fabrics, and as soil conditioning agents.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
A cell surface protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is overexpressed in a variety of ADENOCARCINOMAS. It has extensive homology to and heterodimerizes with the EGF RECEPTOR, the ERBB-3 RECEPTOR, and the ERBB-4 RECEPTOR. Activation of the erbB-2 receptor occurs through heterodimer formation with a ligand-bound erbB receptor family member.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Tumors or cancer of the URINARY BLADDER.
Small uniformly-sized spherical particles, of micrometer dimensions, frequently labeled with radioisotopes or various reagents acting as tags or markers.
An individual having different alleles at one or more loci regarding a specific character.
Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.
A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.
Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.
A biocompatible polymer used as a surgical suture material.
A heterogeneous aggregate of at least three distinct histological types of lung cancer, including SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA; ADENOCARCINOMA; and LARGE CELL CARCINOMA. They are dealt with collectively because of their shared treatment strategy.
Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.
The artificial induction of GENE SILENCING by the use of RNA INTERFERENCE to reduce the expression of a specific gene. It includes the use of DOUBLE-STRANDED RNA, such as SMALL INTERFERING RNA and RNA containing HAIRPIN LOOP SEQUENCE, and ANTI-SENSE OLIGONUCLEOTIDES.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Tumors or cancer of the UTERINE CERVIX.
DNA present in neoplastic tissue.
The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.
Identification of genetic carriers for a given trait.
A group of inosine ribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each inosine ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.
Method of using a polycrystalline powder and Rietveld refinement (LEAST SQUARES ANALYSIS) of X-RAY DIFFRACTION or NEUTRON DIFFRACTION. It circumvents the difficulties of producing single large crystals.
The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Consists of a polypeptide chain and 4'-phosphopantetheine linked to a serine residue by a phosphodiester bond. Acyl groups are bound as thiol esters to the pantothenyl group. Acyl carrier protein is involved in every step of fatty acid synthesis by the cytoplasmic system.
A protein-serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION in response to GROWTH FACTORS or INSULIN. It plays a major role in cell metabolism, growth, and survival as a core component of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Three isoforms have been described in mammalian cells.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines designed to prevent or treat cancer. Vaccines are produced using the patient's own whole tumor cells as the source of antigens, or using tumor-specific antigens, often recombinantly produced.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Agents that modify interfacial tension of water; usually substances that have one lipophilic and one hydrophilic group in the molecule; includes soaps, detergents, emulsifiers, dispersing and wetting agents, and several groups of antiseptics.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A carcinoma derived from stratified SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. It may also occur in sites where glandular or columnar epithelium is normally present. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
One of the SELECTIVE ESTROGEN RECEPTOR MODULATORS with tissue-specific activities. Tamoxifen acts as an anti-estrogen (inhibiting agent) in the mammary tissue, but as an estrogen (stimulating agent) in cholesterol metabolism, bone density, and cell proliferation in the ENDOMETRIUM.
Nanoparticles produced from metals whose uses include biosensors, optics, and catalysts. In biomedical applications the particles frequently involve the noble metals, especially gold and silver.
A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.
An inorganic and water-soluble platinum complex. After undergoing hydrolysis, it reacts with DNA to produce both intra and interstrand crosslinks. These crosslinks appear to impair replication and transcription of DNA. The cytotoxicity of cisplatin correlates with cellular arrest in the G2 phase of the cell cycle.
Differential thermal analysis in which the sample compartment of the apparatus is a differential calorimeter, allowing an exact measure of the heat of transition independent of the specific heat, thermal conductivity, and other variables of the sample.
Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.
The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.
A cell surface receptor involved in regulation of cell growth and differentiation. It is specific for EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR and EGF-related peptides including TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR ALPHA; AMPHIREGULIN; and HEPARIN-BINDING EGF-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR. The binding of ligand to the receptor causes activation of its intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity and rapid internalization of the receptor-ligand complex into the cell.
Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.
Highly proliferative, self-renewing, and colony-forming stem cells which give rise to NEOPLASMS.
Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.
Certain tumors that 1, arise in organs that are normally dependent on specific hormones and 2, are stimulated or caused to regress by manipulation of the endocrine environment.
Substances made up of an aggregation of small particles, as that obtained by grinding or trituration of a solid drug. In pharmacy it is a form in which substances are administered. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A tumor suppressor gene (GENES, TUMOR SUPPRESSOR) located on human CHROMOSOME 17 at locus 17q21. Mutations of this gene are associated with the formation of HEREDITARY BREAST AND OVARIAN CANCER SYNDROME. It encodes a large nuclear protein that is a component of DNA repair pathways.
Proteins, generally found in the CYTOPLASM, that specifically bind ANDROGENS and mediate their cellular actions. The complex of the androgen and receptor migrates to the CELL NUCLEUS where it induces transcription of specific segments of DNA.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Synthetic or natural materials, other than DRUGS, that are used to replace or repair any body TISSUES or bodily function.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
The total amount (cell number, weight, size or volume) of tumor cells or tissue in the body.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
A cyclodecane isolated from the bark of the Pacific yew tree, TAXUS BREVIFOLIA. It stabilizes MICROTUBULES in their polymerized form leading to cell death.
A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.
Agents that reduce the frequency or rate of spontaneous or induced tumors independently of the mechanism involved.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Proteins that are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. Deficiencies or abnormalities in these proteins may lead to unregulated cell growth and tumor development.
RNA present in neoplastic tissue.
The chemical and physical integrity of a pharmaceutical product.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs, 21-25 nucleotides in length generated from single-stranded microRNA gene transcripts by the same RIBONUCLEASE III, Dicer, that produces small interfering RNAs (RNA, SMALL INTERFERING). They become part of the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX and repress the translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) of target RNA by binding to homologous 3'UTR region as an imperfect match. The small temporal RNAs (stRNAs), let-7 and lin-4, from C. elegans, are the first 2 miRNAs discovered, and are from a class of miRNAs involved in developmental timing.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
Compounds that interact with ANDROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of TESTOSTERONE. Depending on the target tissues, androgenic effects can be on SEX DIFFERENTIATION; male reproductive organs, SPERMATOGENESIS; secondary male SEX CHARACTERISTICS; LIBIDO; development of muscle mass, strength, and power.
The concentration of a compound needed to reduce population growth of organisms, including eukaryotic cells, by 50% in vitro. Though often expressed to denote in vitro antibacterial activity, it is also used as a benchmark for cytotoxicity to eukaryotic cells in culture.
The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.
Usually inert substances added to a prescription in order to provide suitable consistency to the dosage form. These include binders, matrix, base or diluent in pills, tablets, creams, salves, etc.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Membrane proteins encoded by the BCL-2 GENES and serving as potent inhibitors of cell death by APOPTOSIS. The proteins are found on mitochondrial, microsomal, and NUCLEAR MEMBRANE sites within many cell types. Overexpression of bcl-2 proteins, due to a translocation of the gene, is associated with follicular lymphoma.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.
Tumors or cancer of ENDOMETRIUM, the mucous lining of the UTERUS. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. Their classification and grading are based on the various cell types and the percent of undifferentiated cells.
A ubiquitously expressed folic acid transporter that functions via an antiporter mechanism which is coupled to the transport of organic phosphates.
One of the ESTROGEN RECEPTORS that has marked affinity for ESTRADIOL. Its expression and function differs from, and in some ways opposes, ESTROGEN RECEPTOR BETA.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
In humans, one of the paired regions in the anterior portion of the THORAX. The breasts consist of the MAMMARY GLANDS, the SKIN, the MUSCLES, the ADIPOSE TISSUE, and the CONNECTIVE TISSUES.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
Small encapsulated gas bubbles (diameters of micrometers) that can be used as CONTRAST MEDIA, and in other diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Upon exposure to sufficiently intense ultrasound, microbubbles will cavitate, rupture, disappear, release gas content. Such characteristics of the microbubbles can be used to enhance diagnostic tests, dissolve blood clots, and deliver drugs or genes for therapy.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
Treatments with drugs which interact with or block synthesis of specific cellular components characteristic of the individual's disease in order to stop or interrupt the specific biochemical dysfunction involved in progression of the disease.
The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.
A pathologic process consisting of the proliferation of blood vessels in abnormal tissues or in abnormal positions.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
A major protein in the BLOOD. It is important in maintaining the colloidal osmotic pressure and transporting large organic molecules.
Phenotypic changes of EPITHELIAL CELLS to MESENCHYME type, which increase cell mobility critical in many developmental processes such as NEURAL TUBE development. NEOPLASM METASTASIS and DISEASE PROGRESSION may also induce this transition.
Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.
Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
A large group of proteins that control APOPTOSIS. This family of proteins includes many ONCOGENE PROTEINS as well as a wide variety of classes of INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS such as CASPASES.
Component of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH. Through basic and clinical biomedical research and training, it conducts and supports research with the objective of cancer prevention, early stage identification and elimination. This Institute was established in 1937.
A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.
The extent to which the active ingredient of a drug dosage form becomes available at the site of drug action or in a biological medium believed to reflect accessibility to a site of action.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
Genes that inhibit expression of the tumorigenic phenotype. They are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. When tumor suppressor genes are inactivated or lost, a barrier to normal proliferation is removed and unregulated growth is possible.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.
A short pro-domain caspase that plays an effector role in APOPTOSIS. It is activated by INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 9. Isoforms of this protein exist due to multiple alternative splicing of its MESSENGER RNA.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
Antimetabolites that are useful in cancer chemotherapy.
A family of intracellular CYSTEINE ENDOPEPTIDASES that play a role in regulating INFLAMMATION and APOPTOSIS. They specifically cleave peptides at a CYSTEINE amino acid that follows an ASPARTIC ACID residue. Caspases are activated by proteolytic cleavage of a precursor form to yield large and small subunits that form the enzyme. Since the cleavage site within precursors matches the specificity of caspases, sequential activation of precursors by activated caspases can occur.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Specific proteins found in or on cells of progesterone target tissues that specifically combine with progesterone. The cytosol progesterone-receptor complex then associates with the nucleic acids to initiate protein synthesis. There are two kinds of progesterone receptors, A and B. Both are induced by estrogen and have short half-lives.
A pyrimidine analog that is an antineoplastic antimetabolite. It interferes with DNA synthesis by blocking the THYMIDYLATE SYNTHETASE conversion of deoxyuridylic acid to thymidylic acid.
An anaplastic, highly malignant, and usually bronchogenic carcinoma composed of small ovoid cells with scanty neoplasm. It is characterized by a dominant, deeply basophilic nucleus, and absent or indistinct nucleoli. (From Stedman, 25th ed; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1286-7)
Tumors or cancer located in bone tissue or specific BONES.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Agents that inhibit PROTEIN KINASES.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A normal intermediate in the fermentation (oxidation, metabolism) of sugar. The concentrated form is used internally to prevent gastrointestinal fermentation. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
A cytologic technique for measuring the functional capacity of tumor stem cells by assaying their activity. It is used primarily for the in vitro testing of antineoplastic agents.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Transparent, tasteless crystals found in nature as agate, amethyst, chalcedony, cristobalite, flint, sand, QUARTZ, and tridymite. The compound is insoluble in water or acids except hydrofluoric acid.
Antineoplastic agents that are used to treat hormone-sensitive tumors. Hormone-sensitive tumors may be hormone-dependent, hormone-responsive, or both. A hormone-dependent tumor regresses on removal of the hormonal stimulus, by surgery or pharmacological block. Hormone-responsive tumors may regress when pharmacologic amounts of hormones are administered regardless of whether previous signs of hormone sensitivity were observed. The major hormone-responsive cancers include carcinomas of the breast, prostate, and endometrium; lymphomas; and certain leukemias. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual 1994, p2079)
The termination of the cell's ability to carry out vital functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, responsiveness, and adaptability.
They were used as a drug carrier mechanism for experimental cancer therapies. The benefits of virosomes are that the specific ... The size and surface molecules presented on of the virosome can be modified so that it can target different types of cells. ... and drugs. On the surface of the virosome, there can be different types of glycoproteins. Glycoproteins are a type of protein ... "A Multipurpose and Novel Carrier for Drug Delivery and Targeting - Virosomes". Journal of Drug Delivery and Therapeutics. 3 (5 ...
"Maurocalcine as a non toxic drug carrier overcomes doxorubicin resistance in the cancer cell line MDA-MB 231". Pharmaceutical ... This could prove useful if drugs that cannot usually cross a biological membrane could be paired with MCa and carried across ... Doxorubicin, a common cancer therapeutic, has been covalently coupled to an analogue of maurocalcine on drug-sensitive or drug- ... MCa has the ability to act as a molecular carrier and to cross cell membranes in a rapid manner (1-2 min), making this toxin ...
Kumar's work includes the design of fluorinated drug delivery systems using lipids as carriers, and potential cancer drugs and ... His laboratory has also invented methods for cell surface engineering and imaging of cancer cells with metastatic potential. ... Cancer Center, Tufts Medical Center Visiting Scientist, Center for Cancer Research, MIT (2004-2005) Adjunct Professor, ... 36-37; "Putting the "F" in peptides" by Randall C Willis; Drug Discovery News 2007, December. Montanari V.; Kumar, K. "Just Add ...
... cancer treatment, fungal infections, and pain management. NanoLiposomes are small, complex, spontaneously-forming drug carriers ... Leptomeningeal metastases (LM) are a rare but typically fatal complication of advanced cancer in which cancer cells spread to ... Plus Therapeutics is developing nanoliposome-encapsulated BMEDA-chelated radioisotope drugs to treat various types of cancer. ... Rhenium NanoLiposome has been evaluated in preclinical studies for breast cancer, ovarian cancer, and head/neck cancer. "Home ...
Unfortunately the effectiveness of this mechanism for drug nano-carriers remains inconsistent due to the heterogeneity of this ... indicating that the way cancer cells interact with and co-opt new blood vessel growth varies amongst cancer types and must be ... improve clinical design strategy and select for patients with tumors that are more likely to benefit from anti-angiogenic drugs ... Tumor-associated endothelial cells or tumor endothelial cells (TECs) refers to cells lining the tumor-associated blood vessels ...
In a methotrexate resistant breast cancer cell lines without drug uptake and folate carrier expression, giving DAC, a DNA ... Overexpression of the MDR1 gene in cancer cells is used to keep intracellular levels of antineoplastic drugs below cell-killing ... Such damage will trigger programmed cell death (e.g. apoptosis) in cancer cells. Cisplatin resistance occurs when cancer cells ... giving cancer cells their resistance and acquired resistance after drug exposure, which is rooted in the concept of cancer cell ...
Additionally, the polystyrene region may also be used as a carrier for drugs and other chemicals by surface hydrophobic ... was demonstrated by functionalizing the polystyrene region with antibodies that specifically attached to breast cancer cells. ... These hybrid plasmonic-magnetic nanoparticles bear properties that are applicable in bioimaging, targeted drug delivery, in ... The purpose of the nanothin SiO2 shell was to reduce the release of toxic Ag+ ions from the nanoparticle surface to live cells ...
AuNSs size 1.4 nm were found to be toxic in human skin cancer cells (SK-Mel-28), human cervical cancer cells (HeLa), mouse ... Gold nanoparticles are being investigated as carriers for drugs such as Paclitaxel. The administration of hydrophobic drugs ... Nanoparticle-mediated drug delivery is feasible only if the drug distribution is otherwise inadequate. These cases include drug ... cell health, cell stress, how many cells are taken into a cell), and the capping ligands in solution. In vivo assessments can ...
performed a large in vitro study testing SDT on seventeen different cancer cell lines. The types of cancers included were ... These drug carriers can encapsulate hydrophobic and lipophilic molecules within their lipid bilayer and can be made naturally ... Compared to the common cancer treatment chemotherapy, drugs loaded into liposomes allow for decreased systemic toxicity and a ... The most successful treatment was that of lung cancer with 23.4% cell viability post-therapy. Qu et al. aimed to develop an " ...
In terms of treatment, the use of nanoemulgel is against cancer cells and useful in skin cancer. Also, the formulation of ... For chemical agents, carriers like liposomes and nanotechnologies are used to enhance the absorption of topical drugs. On the ... For example, a drug like amphotericin B, is used to treat fungal infections. The drug is loaded into liposome and this carrier ... When drugs are applied to skin topically, the drug molecules will undergo passive diffusion. This process occurs down the ...
Many drug delivery systems carrying large molecule drugs, such as antisense oligonucleotides, siRNA, peptides, and therapeutic ... decreases in cancer compared with normal and dysplastic human colon tissue and acts significantly on human colon cancer cell ... February 2019). "Gal8 Visualization of Endosome Disruption Predicts Carrier-Mediated Biologic Drug Intracellular ... The galectins have been implicated in many essential functions including development, differentiation, cell-cell adhesion, cell ...
"Cell penetrating peptides fused to a thermally targeted biopolymer drug carrier improve the delivery and antitumor efficacy of ... Antineoplastic and immunomodulating drugs, Experimental cancer drugs, Anthracyclines, Maleimides). ... for metastatic small cell lung cancer Treatment of advanced or metastatic pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma Comparison of ... "Efficacy and Safety of Aldoxorubicin Compared to Topotecan in Subjects With Metastatic Small Cell Lung Cancer" at ...
Microbubbles can also serve as effective drug carriers. Drugs can be adhered to the surface of microbubbles, encapsulated ... Hyperthermia Sensitizes Glioma Stem-like Cells to Radiation by Inhibiting AKT Signaling. Cancer Research, 75(8), 1760-1769. ... FUS for intracranial drug delivery has many potential benefits for both cancer and non-cancer applications. Examples of studies ... This method achieves local drug release while limiting off-target toxicities. Drug-loaded microbubbles with FUS has been shown ...
... in particular their use in targeting cancer due to the increased levels of GSH in cancerous cells. Redox-responsive drug ... or effective penetration of the tissue by the drug carrier.ref name=":5" />. Biocompatibility and toxicity of the drug carrier ... These coatings were used on drugs delivered to the stomach, so that they would protonate and dissolve at low pH to release drug ... which lead to conformational changes that cause the drug carrier to breakdown or degrade. As a result, the drug is released ...
... and drug release occurs in the cytosol and cell nucleus. Furthermore, drug release in the cytosol and cell nucleus has shown ... Ovarian Cancer, Cervical Cancer, Subcutaneous EAT, Pancreatic Cancer, Colon Cancer, Prostate Cancer, etc. The development of ... Following the activation process, the degradation of the drug carrier results in the drug release. These linkages are commonly ... Drug delivery systems using RSNP can be loaded with different drugs that are designed to be released within a concentrated ...
The Kopeček Laboratory designed and developed HPMA copolymer-drug conjugates as a lysosomal delivery vehicle to cancer cells. ... Thus, it is frequently used as macromolecular carrier for low molecular weight drugs (especially anti-cancer chemotherapeutic ... Cancer Research Campaign Phase I/II Committee". Clin. Cancer Res. 5 (1): 83-94. PMID 9918206. Polymer-drug conjugates (Articles ... Ulbrich K, Subr V (February 2010). "Structural and chemical aspects of HPMA copolymers as drug carriers". Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev ...
Novel nano-carriers for targeted delivery of encapsulated therapeutic agents (siRNA/drug of interest) for improved treatment of ... can be delivered to the target cells including antigen-presenting cells, resulting in both the endo/lysosomal and cytosolic ... It was further demonstrated that the entrapment of anti-malarial drugs like chloroquine (chq), in the antibody-coated liposomes ... Later, he joined National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, USA as Fogarty Post Doctoral Fellow, where ...
Nanoparticle-Based Drug Delivery: Case Studies for Cancer and Cardiovascular Applications. Cell. Mol. Life Sci. [Online] 2011, ... lipoprotein-based drug carriers, nano-particle drug carriers, dendrimers, etc. An ideal drug delivery vehicle must be non-toxic ... the drug properties, side-effects of the drugs, the route taken for the delivery of the drug, the targeted site, and the ... Alley, Stephen C; Okeley, Nicole M; Senter, Peter D (August 2010). "Antibody-drug conjugates: targeted drug delivery for cancer ...
The great benefit of a biodegradable drug delivery system is the ability of the drug carrier to target the release of its ... have been used to carry anti-cancer drugs. Encapsulating the therapeutic in a polymer and adding targeting agents decreases the ... toxicity of the drug to healthy cells. Biodegradable polymers and biomaterials are also of significant interest for tissue ... These are important as biodegradable polymers are used for drug delivery where it is critical to slowly release the drug into ...
Due to this functionality, it is theorized that nanoparticles acting as drug carriers bound to transferrin glycoproteins can ... The retained iron in Hereditary hemochromatosis is primarily deposited in parenchymal cells, with reticuloendothelial cell ... Many drugs are hindered when providing treatment when crossing the blood-brain barrier yielding poor uptake into areas of the ... Transferrin is an acute phase protein and is seen to decrease in inflammation, cancers, and certain diseases (in contrast to ...
PSS NPs can not only serve as PTAs but also as a drug carrier to load various types of drugs, such as SN38, chemotherapy drugs ... After incubation of SKBr3 cancer cells with the gold nanoshells, an 820 nm laser was used to irradiate the cells. Only the ... The authors reported successful destruction of the malignant cancer cells, while nonmalignant cells were unharmed. When AuNRs ... "Near-Infrared Absorbing Polymeric Nanoparticles as a Versatile Drug Carrier for Cancer Combination Therapy". Advanced ...
... testing and hence may become a viable treatment for endocrine-related cancers. A cocktail of pendant drugs could be delivered ... The tendency of polymer drug conjugate to react with the proper type cell(s) needs to still be worked on, despite many current ... Bertrand, Nicolas; Leroux, Jean-Christope (2012). "The Journey of a Drug-carrier in the Body: An Anatomo-physiological ... Polymer-drug conjugates are drug molecules held in polymer molecules, which act as the delivery system for the drug. Polymer ...
... solute carrier family 34 (sodium phosphate), member 2; TPM3; tropomyosin 3 Several drugs target ROS1 fusions in cancer, with ... "Management of ceritinib therapy and adverse events in patients with ALK-rearranged non-small cell lung cancer". Lung Cancer ( ... Cabozantinib preclinical data has shown the drug might overcome crizotinib resistance in ROS1+ cancer in early studies. However ... "Identifying and targeting ROS1 gene fusions in non-small cell lung cancer". Clinical Cancer Research. 18 (17): 4570-9. doi: ...
... resulting in cell death. Cells that are most rapidly dividing - most typically cancer cells - are preferentially affected. The ... BRCA1 and BRCA2, two important genes whose mutations confer a hugely increased risk of breast cancer on carriers,[75] are both ... Many other drugs for use against other residual DNA repair mechanisms commonly found in cancer are currently under ... which was approved by the Food and Drug Administration in 2015 for the treatment in women of BRCA-defective ovarian cancer. ...
Cancer cell interactions[edit]. Because lipocalins are extracellular proteins, their intracellular effects are not obvious, and ... Lipocalins have been detected as carrier proteins of important pheromones in the nasal mucus of rodents. Major urinary proteins ... Kremer JM, Wilting J, Janssen LH (March 1988). "Drug binding to human alpha-1-acid glycoprotein in health and disease". ... drugs, or food) that, in most people, result in no symptoms. A nomenclature system has been established for antigens (allergens ...
"The endogenous cannabinoid anandamide inhibits human breast cancer cell proliferation". Proceedings of the National Academy of ... "CNS Drug Reviews. 12 (3-4): 250-275. doi:10.1111/j.1527-3458.2006.00250.x. PMC 6506194. PMID 17227290.. ... "The endocannabinoid system as a target for novel anxiolytic and antidepressant drugs". International Review of Neurobiology. 85 ... "Identification of intracellular carriers for the endocannabinoid anandamide". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences ...
Studies focusing on human breast cancer cell lines have further demonstrated that these cancerous cells display an increased ... Vassar R (December 2002). "Beta-secretase (BACE) as a drug target for Alzheimer's disease". Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews. 54 ... While the mechanism is poorly understood it appears that cholesterol-lowering drugs have a direct effect on APP processing.[89] ... "Prominent amyloid plaque pathology and cerebral amyloid angiopathy in APP V717I (London) carrier - phenotypic variability in ...
Ravina E (2011). The Evolution of Drug Discovery: From Traditional Medicines to Modern Drugs. John Wiley & Sons. p. 24. ISBN ... "Aspirin inhibits camptothecin-induced p21CIP1 levels and potentiates apoptosis in human breast cancer cells". International ... by diffusing from the inner membrane space as a proton carrier back into the mitochondrial matrix, where it ionizes once again ... Cancer preventionEdit. Aspirin may reduce the overall risk of both getting cancer and dying from cancer.[116] There is ...
Consumer Reports; Drug Effectiveness Review Project (Maio de 2012). «Evaluating Prescription Drugs Used to Treat: Alzheimer's ... While scientists know Alzheimer's disease involves progressive brain cell failure, the reason cells fail isn't clear.. ... Bapineuzumab in Patients with Mild to Moderate Alzheimer's Disease/ Apo_e4 Non-carriers». US National Institutes of Health. 29 ... 3 neat ways to participate in crowdsourced cancer and Alzheimer's disease research 3 jeitos ...
Henry Miller's Tropic of Cancer (1934) created a comparable US scandal. Transgressive fiction from Vladimir Nabokov's Lolita ( ... Paper as the essential carrier: Murasaki Shikibu writing her The Tale of Genji in the early 11th century, 17th-century ... See also: Cell phone novel, Visual novel, Hypertext fiction, and Interactive fiction ... and did this mostly by dragging them into the low realm of the burlesque. Don Quixote modified the satire of romances: its hero ...
Nanostructured lipid carriers have attracted expanding scientific and commercial vigilance in the last couple of years as ... In supplement, the function of NLC in cancer chemotherapy is presented and hotspots in research are emphasized. It is foreseen ... In this review the benefits, types, drug release modulations, steadiness and output techniques of NLCs are discussed. ... the polymer with esteem to the carrier scheme are anticipated to be overcome through use of the Nanostructured Lipid Carrier. ...
DNA Origami Trojan horse was used delivered a dose of the drug that proved lethal to human breast-cancer cells, even though ... New Scientist - DNA Origami Trojan horse was used delivered a dose of the drug that proved lethal to human breast-cancer cells ... Although a multitude of promising anti-cancer drugs have been developed over the past 50 years, effective delivery of the drugs ... biocompatible drug carrier and delivery vehicle in the treatment of cancer. ...
Yoo, J.-W., et al., Bio-inspired, bioengineered and biomimetic drug delivery carriers. Nature Reviews Drug Discovery, 2011. 10 ... "Application of Drug Nanocrystal Technologies on Oral Drug Delivery of Poorly Soluble Drugs". Pharmaceutical Research. 30 (2): ... Yu, S., et al., Inorganic Nanovehicle for Potential Targeted Drug Delivery to Tumor Cells, Tumor Optical Imaging. ACS Applied ... Malam, Y., M. Loizidou, and A.M. Seifalian, Liposomes and nanoparticles: nanosized vehicles for drug delivery in cancer. Trends ...
... along with its capabilities in conserving the pharmacological properties of the conjugated renal protective drugs, supports its ... This study evaluates PG as a selective renal drug carrier.Experimental approach: 3H-deoxycytidine-labeled PGs (17 or 41 kDa) ... Keywords: carboxylated polymers, carboxylated polypeptides, carrier, diabetes, renal drug delivery, acute kidney injury, ... role as a potential renal targeting drug carrier. ... has been used widely as a carrier to deliver anticancer ...
Chemotherapeutic drugs can be packaged by T-MPs for cancer treatment [11]. Once drug-carrying MPs gain access to the tumor ... Mechanisms by which dendritic cells present tumor microparticle antigens to CD8+ T cells. Cancer Immunol Res. 2018;6:1057-68. ... A typical trait of MPs lies in their carrier function. ... Delivery of chemotherapeutic drugs in tumour cell-derived ... Cells have evolved the cytochrome P450 system to detoxify toxins, including chemotherapeutic drugs [12]. As heme-containing ...
... where the cancer includes elevated levels of glycogen. ... A method of treating cancer is provided. The method includes ... 239000003937 drug carrier Substances 0.000 claims description 4 * 230000004927 fusion Effects 0.000 claims description 4 ... 208000002154 Non-Small-Cell Lung Carcinoma Diseases 0.000 claims description 46 * 108009000071 Non-small cell lung cancer ... 229940088598 Enzyme Drugs 0.000 description 4 * JKMHFZQWWAIEOD-UHFFFAOYSA-N HEPES Chemical compound data:image/svg+xml;base64, ...
Browse liver cancer news, research and analysis from The Conversation ... 150m carriers, and rising Jarun Ontakrai Oktober 28, 2015 Hepatitis C: behind new wonder drugs lies a terrible dilemma. Hamish ... A model of the hepatitis B virus in a blood vessel with red blood cells. Shutterstock Juli 31, 2016 The risk of early liver ... New drug combination cures over 95% of cases but the cost would swallow the entire health budget. Pity the politicians that ...
Fallopian tube organoids hold the potential for predicting the development of ovarian cancer years in advance, researchers say. ... "The study provides a path towards being able to generate fallopian tube cell lines from BRCA1/2 mutation carriers," he said. " ... Pleasedo not use this form to submit personal or patient medical information or to report adverse drug events. You are ... then test a variety of drugs to see which are effective in both the model and the patient." ...
Many studies have focused on modifying exosome surface proteins to allow drugs to specifically target cancer cells.Methods: In ... have great potential in the field of drug delivery. Many studies have focused on modifying exosome surface proteins to allow ... drugs to specifically target cancer cells. Methods: In this study, human cord blood mesenchymal stromal cell-derived exosomes ... Results: The AMO-loaded exosomes (AMO-Exos) effectively inhibited the proliferation and clonal formation of colon cancer cells ...
Enhanced uptake of nanoparticle drug carriers via a thermoresponsive shell enhances cytotoxicity in a cancer cell line ... Bacterial and Fungal Infection; Synthesis of Complex Drugs; Research Project. Research Summary. My research activities are ... Modulation of pRB/E2F functions in the regulation of cell cycle and in cancer. Current Cancer Drug Targets. 5(3), 159-70 ... Thermoresponsive polymer colloids for drug delivery and cancer therapy Macromolecular Bioscience. 11(12), 1722-1734 ...
The use of polylactic acid with methotrexate or an anti-cancer drug (PLA/MTX) made it possible to print a frame that releases ... Cell viability, bonding, proliferation, and differentiation assays using MG-63 osteosarcoma cells have shown that PLA/GO frames ... the PLA polymer can be used in implants as a carrier of medical substances released only after implantation in the patients ... Devi, L.; Gaba, P.; Chopra, H. Tailormade Drug Delivery System: A Novel Trio Concept of 3DP+ Hydrogel+ SLA. J. Drug Deliv. Ther ...
Now we know 5 other genes associated with a high risk for triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). ... Weve known that mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes are linked with an increased risk for breast cancer. ... Drugs for treatment of people who have gene mutations (called mutation carriers) and for those who have been diagnosed with ... Triple-negative breast cancers grow and spread more quickly than most other types of breast cancer. Since the cancer cells ...
Cancer Therapy: Preclinical, Author Choice, May 31 2017 Drug-Repositioning Screens Identify Triamterene as a Selective Drug for ... Cells were seeded onto poly-lysine coated coverslips and treated with drugs as indicated. After 48-hour treatment, cells were ... Inhibition of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase in tumors from BRCA mutation carriers ... Cells were seeded at various densities in 6‐well plates and exposed to the drug at the indicated concentrations. Cells were ...
AbCD133 Modified aCT1 Loaded Target Magnetic Mesoporous Silica Nano-Drugcarriers Can Sensitizes Glioma Cancer Stem Cells to TMZ ... Bioinspired Drug Delivery Carrier for Enhanced Tumor-Targeting in Melanoma Mice Model Xu Wang, Gao-Feng Liang, Xue-Qin Hao, Shu ... HPMA Polymeric Nanocarriers for Anticancer Drugs with Tumor Microenvironment-. Responsive Extracellular Biodegradation and ... Long-Term Tracking of Cancer Cell Nucleus and Identification of Colorectal Cancer with an Aggregation-Induced Emission-Based ...
Cancer-derived supermeres increase lactate secretion, transfer cetuximab resistance and decrease hepatic lipids and glycogen in ... Supermeres are highly enriched with cargo involved in multiple cancers (glycolytic enzymes, TGFBI, miR-1246, MET, GPC1 and AGO2 ... Lactate secretion has been linked to resistance to drugs targeting EGFR and MET17. We demonstrated that cancer cell-derived ... 3 Supermeres increase lactate release and transfer drug resistance.. a, Lactate release from CC cells treated with PBS (CTL), ...
An advanced mode of drug delivery system has been developed to overcome the major drawbacks associated with conventional drug ... Nanoemulsions are a colloidal particulate system in the submicron size range acting as carriers of drug molecules. Their size ... Nowadays, nanoemulsions are used for targeted drug delivery of various anticancer drugs, photo sensitizers or therapeutic ... It provides better uptake of oil-soluble supplements in cell culture technology. ...
... as the search for a medical treatment that can distinguish between healthy rapidly dividing cells and abnormal cancerous cells ... The treatment of cancer is a great challenge to medical professionals ... Using liposomes as a carrier for drugs used in the treatment of cancer is beneficial because the liposomes promote passive ... Specific drug delivery systems, such as those with liposome carriers, can be employed to improve the therapeutic index of ...
Hence, these platforms have a broad applicability in cancer treatment. In this study, Pluronic F127 was used to fabricate ... Amphiphilic block copolymers used as nanomicelle drug carriers can effectively overcome poor drug solubility and specificity ... Pendant HDAC Inhibitor SAHA Derivatized Polymer as a Novel Prodrug Micellar Carrier for Anticancer Drugs. Journal of Drug ... P21WAF1 modulates drug-induced apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Cell Cycle ...
Modulation of human ovarian tumor cell sensitivity to N-(phosphonacetyl)-L-aspartate (PALA) by liposome drug carriers. Pharm ... Our research program involves the application of drug carriers for the treatment of infectious diseases and cancer. Recent past ... Methods of improving the delivery and efficacy of anticancer drugs such as taxol. ... "Tumour priming strategies to enhance cancer chemotherapy with nanoparticulate drug carriers" E.T.S. Walton Visiting Professor ...
Polymers Functionalized with Short Ethoxy-Containing Moieties Exhibit Enhanced Uptake in Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Cells ... Impact of Star Polymers on Cell Viability. As drug carriers, nanoparticles must be biocompatible. Jurkat and Nalm-6 cells were ... Translational studies of glutathione in bladder cancer cell lines and human specimens. Clin Cancer Res. 1997;3(5):793-798. ... Register your specific details and specific drugs of interest and we will match the information you provide to articles from ...
A drug carrier that uses the energy molecule inside a cancer cell to trigger release of drugs at the tumour site is reported ... Nanoparticles can deliver drugs to tumours but improvements in selectively targeting tumour cells are required. Cancer cells ... They find that this approach enhanced doxorubicin-induced cancer cell death in the laboratory in cultured cells and in mice. ... In the presence of ATP the carrier can undergo a change in shape resulting in the release of the drug. ...
... have developed biodegradable nanoparticles from renewable resources which can release both hydrophilic and hydrophobic drugs ... as drug carriers for both curcumin and doxorubicin (hydrophilic) drug delivery targeting colorectal cancer. This approach of ... combining anticancer drugs having a different mode of anticancer action allows for the development of systems for cancer ... are stable under physiological conditions and degrade at the tumour site in the presence of redox stimuli of cancer cells. ...
Purchase Advances and Avenues in the Development of Novel Carriers for Bioactives and Biological Agents - 1st Edition. Print ... Inorganic-based drug delivery systems of bioactives for cancer therapy. 11. Novel perspectives for treatment of brain diseases ... of Novel Carriers for Bioactives and Biological Agents provides sound data on the utility of biological and plant-based drugs ... He is an immunologist, molecular biologist and cell biologist. He has extensive training and expertise in studying the ...
... of the cancer-associated TASK 3 channels by magnetically induced thermal release of Tetrandrine from a polymeric drug carrier. ... Polyester-idarubicin nanoparticles and a polymer-photosensitizer complex as potential drug formulations for cell-mediated drug ... Design and Characterization of Surface-Crosslinked Gelatin Nanoparticles for the Delivery of Hydrophilic Macromolecular Drugs. ... Surface-modified yeast cells: A novel eukaryotic carrier for oral application. J Control Release, 2016, 224, 1-7 ...
The present invention relates to micelle drug carriers and methods of using the micelles to deliver drugs to target cells. The ... and methods for targeting pre-cancer cells, early cancer cells and/or cancer cells using the peptide reagents. ... for carrying and targeting drugs for the treatment of cancer to cancer cells. As one example, the disclosure provides pegylated ... early cancer and/or cancer using the peptide reagents, and methods for targeting pre-cancerous (dysplastic) cells, and/or ...
Researchers at The Wistar Institute created a drug candid... ... A drug candidate for cancers that are associated with Epstein- ... Cell-free expression (CFE) is the practice of making a protein without using a living cell. In contrast with cell line-based ... Nanostructures: Emerging as Effective Carriers for Drug Delivery. Article , July 14, 2022 ... Whether developing new drugs, medication, or therapies; conducting life science research; or studying the latest clinical trial ...
... and cancer treatment. Furthermore, hybrid cell membrane-coated nanoparticles enhance the beneficial effects of monotypic cell ... In such a nanosystem, manganese dioxide albumin ([email protected]) was used as the drug carrier, Butformin (Bu) as mitochondria- ... Therefore, the mitochondria are promising targets for the development of novel anticancer drugs. In this review, we summarize ... Cell membrane-coated nanoparticles: a novel multifunctional biomimetic drug delivery system. Liu, Hui; Su, Yu-Yan; Jiang, Xin- ...
Leukocytes as carriers for targeted cancer drug delivery. Expert Opin Drug Deliv. 2015 Mar; 12(3):375-92. ... T cell response and protection against cancer. Nano Lett. 2014 Sep 10; 14(9):5458-70. ... Chemicals and Drugs [D]. *Inorganic Chemicals [D01]. *Elements [D01.268]. *Carbon [D01.268.150] ... capture of invasive CTCs with high purity using preferential adherence in breast cancer patients. Lab Chip. 2019 06 07; 19(11): ...
... to construct synthetic bio-inspired pores which will improve the way drugs are delivered and help advance the field of ... Many therapeutics including anti-cancer drugs can be ferried around the body in tiny carriers called vesicles which are ... researchers plan on testing the synthetic pores in a variety of scenarios including the release of anti-cancer drugs to cells ... By building these pores into drug carriers, we think it will allow for much more precise targeting of therapeutics." ...
  • Due to the chaotic nature of the tumor microenvironment, tumor cells release a large number of MPs (tumor cell-derived MPs or T-MPs). (
  • Despite their impact on tumor cells themselves, T-MPs can profoundly influence tumor-infiltrating immune cells, especially macrophages, due to their highly efficient uptake of T-MPs. (
  • In this study, human cord blood mesenchymal stromal cell-derived exosomes were used in the delivery of anti-miRNA oligonucleotides so as to be specifically ingested by tumor cells to perform anti-tumor functions. (
  • The AMO-loaded exosomes (AMO-Exos) effectively inhibited the proliferation and clonal formation of colon cancer cells in vitro , and it was further found that AMO-Exos was taken up by tumor cells through interaction with the NRP-1 protein. (
  • We have identified the potassium-sparing diuretic drug triamterene, as a novel sensitizing agent in MMR-deficient tumor cells, in vitro and in vivo . (
  • Unlike the blood vessel cells in healthy humans, tumor cells have an enhanced permeability and retention effect, allowing the passage of larger molecules. (
  • As a result, the drug molecules are targeted to the tumor cells rather than other healthy tissues in the body, known as passive targeting. (
  • The long-term goal of the project is development of superior anti-breast cancer drugs that are delivered to he tumor cells by specifically targeted nanoparticles. (
  • Bioselective binding properties of the phage protein-targeted drug carriers will be studied by optical, electron and fluorescent microscopy, flow cytometry and protein microarrays, and their cytotoxic effects on the target tumor cells will be evaluated in comparison with nontargeted drug-loaded vesicles using healthy cells as control. (
  • We believe that accomplishment of this program would allow to futher enhance performance of existing anticancer preparations by their targeting to the specific surface markers of the patient's tumor cells and tumor-surrounding vasculature. (
  • Many researchers [22] found that the killing of cancer cell lines by arginine deprivation is also selective because deprived normal cells will have become quiescent but soon recover on restitution of the missing nutrient, whereas tumor cells in cycle can be hit by low doses of cycle-dependent cytotoxic drugs. (
  • Superparamagnetic particles of iron oxide (SPIOs) represent an attractive platform as carriers in drug delivery systems (DDS) because they can present greater specificity to tumor cells than normal cells. (
  • Thus, magnetic nanoparticles represent an attractive platform as carriers in Rh 2 (H 2 cit) 4 delivery systems, since they can act preferentially in tumor cells. (
  • PDT represents a concerted action of light, with a sensitizers and an oxygen active specie singlet oxygen which preferentially actions on tumor cells and not on healthy cells. (
  • The MB-Lipo system was applied to specifically deliver anti-cancer drug and genes to tumor cells, which showed enhanced therapeutic effect. (
  • These enzymes are thought to be critically involved in the events that lead to metastasis, since they are capable of degrading the basement membranes and extracellular matrices around tumor tissues, allowing the tumor cells to migrate and invade into the surrounding stroma and endothelium. (
  • Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are a small heterogeneous population present within the tumor cells exhibiting self-renewal properties. (
  • ABC transporters are also central to multidrug resistance in many pathogenic bacteria and in tumor cells. (
  • RESULTS: The use of nanocarriers has been resolute about the adverse effects of chemotherapeutic drugs such as poor solubility and less penetrability in tumor cells. (
  • Apart from killing the primary tumor, under the right conditions PTT can induce an anti-tumor immunological effect that can prevent or treat metastasis and/or reduce recurrence through the release of tumor-associated antigens by the ablated tumor cells [ 4 ]. (
  • Using amino acid or oligopeptide as carrier and introducing it into drug molecules to modify the structure of anti-tumor drugs can improve the targeting of tumor cells, enhance drug solubility and alleviate the toxicity of drugs to normal cells. (
  • At present, amino acids are mainly used as carriers of anti-tumor drugs, analogues of amino acids needed by tumor cells, and enzyme inhibitors.Omizzur supplies a series of natural amino acid derivatives, including but not limited to the following products. (
  • Their capacity to selectively accumulate in tumor cells has been confirmed in melanoma treatment with some encouraging results. (
  • These adverse effects might be bypassed by immunotherapy in the form of antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) relying on the ability of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to target specific tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) and to be used as carriers to specifically deliver cytotoxic warheads into corresponding tumor cells. (
  • SLN have been presented as an alternate carrier scheme to emulsions, liposomes and polymeric nanoparticles. (
  • Recently, nanoparticles have been used as drug delivery vehicles due to their high delivery efficiencies and the possibility to circumvent cellular drug resistance. (
  • Nanoparticle drug delivery systems are engineered technologies that use nanoparticles for the targeted delivery and controlled release of therapeutic agents. (
  • Recently, nanoparticles have aroused attention due to their potential application for effective drug delivery. (
  • Some important advantages of nanoparticles are their high surface-area-to-volume ratio, chemical and geometric tunability, and their ability to interact with biomolecules to facilitate uptake across the cell membrane. (
  • Current nanoparticle drug delivery systems can be cataloged based on their platform composition into several groups: polymeric nanoparticles, inorganic nanoparticles, viral nanoparticles, lipid-based nanoparticles, and nanoparticle albumin-bound (nab) technology. (
  • Nanoparticles can deliver drugs to tumours but improvements in selectively targeting tumour cells are required. (
  • Researchers have developed biodegradable nanoparticles from renewable resources which can release both hydrophilic and hydrophobic drugs having different anticancer mechanisms, thus reducing the dependency on petroleum-based polymers. (
  • The Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Mandi researchers have used natural polymer-based smart nanoparticles to treat colorectal cancer. (
  • Explaining the research, Dr Garima Agrawal, said, "One of the driving interests among the material science and healthcare community performing interdisciplinary work is the development of biodegradable nanoparticles from renewable resources and designing them in such a way that they can release the drug in response to stimuli which are specific to cancer site only. (
  • IIT Mandi researchers have developed redox-responsive chitosan or stearic acid nanoparticles (CSSA NPs) as drug carriers for both curcumin and doxorubicin (hydrophilic) drug delivery targeting colorectal cancer. (
  • The presence of disulfide bonds allows the degradation of these smart nanoparticles at the tumour site owing to higher glutathione amount in cancer cells. (
  • These smart nanoparticles are stable under physiological conditions and degrade at the tumour site in the presence of redox stimuli of cancer cells. (
  • These nanoparticles can be used to successfully load and release both hydrophilic and hydrophobic drugs having a different anticancer mechanisms which can help to improve the treatment efficiency. (
  • Directing nanoparticles to cancer cells without using antibodies is of great interest. (
  • Subtle changes to the surface chemistry of nanoparticles can significantly affect their biological fate, including their propensity to associate with different cell populations. (
  • For instance, nanoparticles functionalized with thiol-reactive groups can potentially enhance association with cells that over-express cell-surface thiol groups. (
  • Dehouck, M. P., Interaction of surfactant coated PLGA nanoparticles with in vitro human brain-like endothelial cells. (
  • Schneider, M., Cylindrical Microparticles Composed of Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles for the Targeted Delivery of a Small Molecule and a Macromolecular Drug to the Lungs: Exemplified with Curcumin and siRNA. (
  • Brock, R., A comparison of acyl-moieties for noncovalent functionalization of PLGA and PEG-PLGA nanoparticles with a cell-penetrating peptide. (
  • Soft" organic nanoparticles are the best drug-delivery carriers for tumour treatment, due to their biocompatibility, ability to be chemically modified and their drug-loading capacity. (
  • Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) Nanoparticles for Drug Delivery is a comprehensive guide to PLGA nanoparticles for targeting various diseases, covering principles, formation, characterization, applications, regulations and the latest advances. (
  • Sections introduce the fundamental aspects of PLGA nanoparticles for drug delivery, including properties, preparation methods, characterization, drug loading methods, and drug release mechanisms, along with a focus on applications. (
  • This book is a valuable resource for researchers and advanced students across nanomedicine, polymer science, bio-based materials, chemistry, biomedicine, biotechnology, and materials engineering, as well as for industrial scientists and R&D professionals with an interest in nanoparticles for drug delivery, pharmaceutical formulations and regulations, and development of innovative biodegradable materials. (
  • In this work, we report the cytotoxicity of free rhodium (II) citrate (Rh 2 (H 2 cit) 4 ) and rhodium (II) citrate-loaded maghemite nanoparticles or magnetoliposomes, used as drug delivery systems, on both normal and carcinoma breast cell cultures. (
  • The treatment with rhodium (II) citrate-loaded maghemite nanoparticles and magnetoliposomes induced more specific cytotoxicity on breast carcinoma cells than on breast normal cells, which is the opposite of the results observed with free Rh 2 (H 2 cit) 4 treatment. (
  • The concept of the nanoparticles which permits higher absorption of the drugs in a specific tissue, and this concept has been applied for hyperthermia, radiation therapy, photodynamic therapy, etc. (
  • Meanwhile, the nanoparticles opened new horizons for drug delivery and bringing the term nanomedicines. (
  • Dr. Chen is also working on nanochemoprevention using nanoparticles as a novel approach for cancer control. (
  • Protein Nanoparticles as Drug Delivery Carriers for Cancer Therapy. (
  • Multifunctional mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) have aroused much attention during the past decades for drug delivery and bioimaging applications because of their intrinsic properties including extremely high surface area, large pore volume, tunable pore diameter, easy surface modification, and high biocompatibility. (
  • More than a hundred attempts to develop transporter-utilizing (pro)drugs and nanoparticles/liposomes (hereinafter referred as nanocarriers) have been made to improve the uptake of CNS drugs into the brain. (
  • CONCLUSION: The present review is focused on recent developments regarding polymeric nanocarriers, such as polymeric micelles, polymeric nanoparticles, dendrimers, liposomes, nanoshells, fullerenes, carbon nanotubes (CNT) and quantum dots, etc. for their recent advancements in breast cancer therapy. (
  • To maximize the success of photothermal therapy, light-responsive nanoparticles can be camouflaged with cell membranes to endow them with unique biointerfacing capabilities that reduce opsonization, prolong systemic circulation, and improve tumor delivery through enhanced passive accumulation or homotypic targeting. (
  • This review summarizes the state-of-the-art in cell membrane camouflaged nanoparticles for photothermal cancer therapy and provides insights to the path forward for clinical translation. (
  • In 2016, there were an estimated 1,685,210 new human cancer cases diagnosed and 595,690 cancer deaths in the United States alone (Cancer Statistics 2016 - American Cancer Society, Inc.). Nanoparticles (NPs) have been considered a promising carrier of chemotherapeutic drugs, but are limited in delivery to tumors due to the diverse nature of the disease. (
  • Researchers at Purdue University have developed a method for preparing polyol-modified nanoparticles for targeted delivery to cancerous cells and tissues via transcytosis across the peritumoral endothelium. (
  • As a drug delivery system they enhance the therapeutic efficacy of the drug and minimize adverse effect and toxic reactions. (
  • Specific drug delivery systems, such as those with liposome carriers, can be employed to improve the therapeutic index of anticancer agents with serious side effects. (
  • Therefore, it is necessary to develop a new DDS to increase the drug solubility and enhance the therapeutic effects. (
  • Also provided are uses of these proteins in therapeutic applications, such as in the treatment of cancer. (
  • As a result, a significant rise in demand for more effective therapeutic drugs and bionics is being witnessed, leading to a swift increase in the number of clinical trials. (
  • MTT assay results proved that LM-PEG-LA/DOX displayed a significant higher therapeutic efficacy in inhibiting the growth of hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HepG2 cells) than untargeted ones at the same DOX concentration. (
  • Drug delivery as an opportunity to extend product life cycles has indeed proved its place in the market with significant advantages of therapeutic gains as well as commercial success. (
  • Maintenance of optimum therapeutic drug concentration in the blood with minimum fluctuations. (
  • Approximately, 40% of drugs in the pipeline and 70% of synthetic therapeutic molecules are plagued with poor solubility, oral bioavailability, and delivery. (
  • Potential therapeutic efficiencies of the targeted drug-loaded vesicles will be determined using immunosupressed mice with ingrafted human breast tumor xenografts. (
  • Researchers Rosario Nuñez and Gerard Tobias: "The therapeutic approach proposed here has the potential to be the basis of a more efficient, less aggressive and less toxic cancer treatment. (
  • It has also been reported that graphene oxide surface can improve the therapeutic effect of drugs. (
  • This is because of the challenges with use of large size materials in drug delivery, some of which include poor bioavailability, in vivo stability, solubility, intestinal absorption, sustained and targeted delivery to site of action, therapeutic effectiveness, generalized side effects, and plasma fluctuations of drugs. (
  • Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) is one of the most successful polymers used for producing therapeutic devices, such as drug carriers (DC). (
  • They are also used for different therapeutic applications, such as in vaccinations, cancer treatment, neurological disorder treatment, and as anti-inflammatory agents. (
  • The authors explore the principles and practices that are applied to the ever-expanding array of such new areas as gene-therapy delivery, biosensor design, and the development of improved therapeutic compounds, imaging agents, and drug delivery vehicles. (
  • The MB components are used to generate high echo signals in US imaging, while the Lipos serve as a versatile carrier of therapeutic materials. (
  • The approach could overcome intrinsic mismatch of key metrics (e.g., pharmacokinetics, selectivity, biodistribution) between imaging and therapeutic agents, thereby allowing for precise, imaging-guided drug delivery. (
  • Duo to their biocompatibility, efficiency in material exchange and bioavailability exosomes have gained much attention in therapeutic approaches for treatment of various diseases including cancer therapy. (
  • 12. Miles, B., H.P. Safran, and B.J. Monk, Therapeutic options for treatment of human papillomavirus-associated cancers-novel immunologic vaccines: ADXS11-001. (
  • With the increasing understanding of exosome biology and function, the pharma/biotech industry is getting closer to harnessing their therapeutic properties to fight or deliver drugs that will fight diseases and viruses. (
  • 3 Large-scale production of exosomes is also influenced by the specific therapeutic application, so it will be important to produce a therapeutic exosome composition that reflects the expression pattern of the parent cells. (
  • The team had also discovered in earlier studies that these vesicles are ideal therapeutic carriers with a natural ability to deliver bioactive molecules to many cell types. (
  • Dr Tam Wai Leong, Group Leader and Associate Director at GIS, one of the collaborators of the study, added, "The promising results highlight two key strengths of this innovative platform-the capacity for efficient delivery of different therapeutic cargoes, as well as the possibility for genetic modifications to enhance targeting to more cancer types. (
  • We hope to expand the therapeutic value of the RBCEV platform to more cancer types and increase the reach of such novel forms of therapy to benefit more cancer patients," said Asst Prof Minh Le, who is also one of the co-founders of the company. (
  • In the field of CNT‑based drug delivery system, both single‑walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and multi‑walled nanotubes (MWCNTs) can be used for targeting anticancer drugs in tissues and organs, where the high therapeutic effect is necessary. (
  • The therapeutic areas covered under the alliance weren't specified, but Arrakis CEO Michael Gilman says they encompass the scope of Roche's research and development work, which includes cancer, infectious disease, neuroscience, and more. (
  • There is an urgent demand for development of biocompatible drug carriers to improve the therapeutic profile of hydrophobic anticancer drugs. (
  • These features of PEG have enabled the development of PEGprotein conjugates as therapeutic drugs [3-6]. (
  • The availability of multiple peripheral functional groups and tunable surface engineering enable the facile modification of the dendrimer surface with different therapeutic drugs, diagnostic agents and targeting ligands. (
  • Drug encapsulation, and solubilizing and passive targeting also equally contribute to the therapeutic use of dendrimers. (
  • Dr Livia Sima of the Institute of Biochemistry of the Romanian Academy and Dr Emanuel Axente of the National Institute for Laser, Plasma, and Radiation Physics in Romania are developing novel platforms for screening of therapeutic drug combinations for patients with metastatic melanoma. (
  • Of late, the continued refinement of ADC therapeutic efficacy has given rise to photoimmunotherapy (PIT) (a light-sensitive compound conjugated to mAbs), which by virtue of requiring light activation only exerts its toxic effect on light-irradiated cells. (
  • Conventional cancer therapies (e.g., surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy) have shown limited therapeutic benefits in patients with metastatic disease [ 16 ] [ 17 ] . (
  • The large surface area also has a large affinity for drugs and small molecules, like ligands or antibodies, for targeting and controlled release purposes. (
  • Drug molecules can be incorporated either during or after polymerization. (
  • Cells deliver messages to their surroundings or distant cells by secreting signaling molecules or releasing extracellular microvesicles (EVs) [ 1 , 2 ]. (
  • Nanoemulsions are a colloidal particulate system in the submicron size range acting as carriers of drug molecules. (
  • A number of drug delivery platform technologies currently exist that may be adapted to various drug molecules to yield superior medicines. (
  • Researchers have tried to circumvent this problem by inserting the drugs into carrier molecules that resist breakdown in the stomach but have had difficulty finding a suitable carrier compound. (
  • Using electrophysiology techniques, the researchers verified that the pore vertically spanned the surface of the membrane and was stable with an internal width of 2 nm, which is an appropriate size for small drugs molecules to fit through. (
  • In the bottom-up approach, artificial cells are built mainly by assembling biological cell-derived molecules (e.g. cell-free extracts) and/or synthetic molecules (e.g. lipid vesicles). (
  • Most nanocarriers are composed of layers of lipid molecules made up of fatty substances, similar to a cell membrane, with spaces into which drugs can be packaged. (
  • In recent years, DC produced with PLGA has gained enormous attention for its versatility in transporting different type of drugs, e.g., hydrophilic or hydrophobic small molecules, or macromolecules with a controlled drug release without modifying the physiochemical properties of the drugs. (
  • Furthermore, they present the possibility to be conjugated with specific target molecules to reach specific tissues or cells. (
  • The team found that high levels of midkine secretion by melanoma cells create an inflamed microenvironment enriched in cytokines (proinflammatory proteins) and other tumorigenic molecules. (
  • New images of Wnt, a signaling protein mutated in some cancers, in complex with its specific carrier, reveals atomic-level details of the molecules and a potential new drug target. (
  • A study demonstrated that vesicles released by red blood cells are a viable platform for delivering immunotherapeutic RNA molecules to suppress breast cancer growth and metastasis. (
  • For the study, two novel RNA molecules were developed at LKCMedicine, and packaged into RBCEVs to activate the RIG-I pathway, induce cell death in breast cancer cell cultures, and suppress tumour growth in laboratory models with breast cancer. (
  • Much of drug discovery is oriented toward identifying small molecules that bind to proteins. (
  • The BBB, composed of brain capillary endothelial cells with their tight junctions, multiple transporters, receptors and metabolizing enzymes, strictly regulates the passage of the molecules in order to avoid the entrance of harmful xenobiotics to the brain. (
  • Further towards the middle, inside the aqueous core, the liposomes encapsulate water soluble chemotherapeutic drug molecules (DOX). (
  • Nanoparticle drug delivery focuses on maximizing drug efficacy and minimizing cytotoxicity. (
  • Fine-tuning nanoparticle properties for effective drug delivery involves addressing the following factors. (
  • Minimizing dosage or dosage frequency also lowers the mass of nanoparticle per mass of drug, thus achieving greater efficiency. (
  • By functionalizing nanoparticle surfaces with ligands that enhance drug binding, suppress immune response, or provide targeting/controlled release capabilities, both a greater efficacy and lower toxicity are achieved. (
  • Zhen Gu and colleagues describe a nanoparticle carrier that relies on high levels of ATP to trigger the release of the chemotherapeutic agent doxorubicin. (
  • Specifically, we examined how the inclusion of shorter diethylene glycol brush moieties into the nanoparticle corona could be used to further influence cell association. (
  • Promising progress is being made in the development of a multi-purpose anti-tumour nanoparticle called "nanoporphyrin" that can help diagnose and treat cancers. (
  • One such nanoparticle-based application is the development of precise cancer diagnostic technology and safe, efficient tumour treatment. (
  • It is a promising tool for theranostics with many appealing properties, thanks in part to the nanoparticle chosen as a carrier. (
  • Researchers at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) have created a nanoparticle diagnostic tool that can detect cancer cells in urine. (
  • According to the researchers, the nanoparticle tool, once approved for human use, could be incorporated into routine medical urine tests to screen for traces of cancer cells. (
  • If cancer is found, the patient could be given the nanoparticle to ingest before undergoing a Positron Emission Tomography (PET) imaging scan to find the source of the disease. (
  • His scientific interests lie mostly in Mesoporous silica, Nanoparticle, Nanotechnology, Drug delivery and Chemical engineering. (
  • Nanoparticle-mediated photothermal therapy is a minimally invasive treatment for solid-tumor cancers that has immense promise as a standalone therapy or adjuvant to other treatments like chemotherapy, immunotherapy, or radiotherapy. (
  • Nanoparticle-mediated photothermal therapy (PTT) is a non-invasive treatment method with immense promise as a standalone or adjuvant therapy for solid-tumor cancers. (
  • These human FTE organoids from BRCA1mut carriers provide a faithful physiological in vitro model of FTE lesion generation and early carcinogenesis," the authors state. (
  • In addition, [email protected] exhibited improved anti-tumor effects in vitro and in vivo, indicating great potential as a carrier for insoluble anti-tumor drugs. (
  • Drug loading, in vitro release profile, cell-uptake study and in vitro cytotoxicity of [email protected] were tested. (
  • Development of liposome-based therapy for ovarian cancer using in vitro and in vivo systems. (
  • Hittinger, M., Inflammatory bowel disease addressed by Caco-2 and monocyte-derived macrophages: an opportunity for an in vitro drug screening assay. (
  • In vitro release studies showed that LM-PEG-LA/DOX could release drugs in a sustained manner with a higher speed under acidic conditions than that under physiological ones. (
  • Knockout of survivin reduced the tumorigenic properties of OSCC cells in vitro and in vivo. (
  • His work deals with themes such as Camptothecin, In vitro and Two-photon excitation microscopy, which intersect with Drug delivery. (
  • His research in Drug delivery intersects with topics in In vitro, Cancer cell, Biocompatibility, Camptothecin and Colloidal gold. (
  • Nevertheless, upon prolonged exposure to PEG-OVA, OVA-specific Th cells became anergic, showing a markedly reduced capacity to respond, and to produce IL-2 and other cytokines when stimulated with antigenic OVA323-339 peptide in vitro. (
  • In vitro drug release in PBS (0.01M, pH 7.4) showed rapid colchicine release up to similar to83% (at t = 92 h) for microspheres with low GTA (0.05% v/v), whereas a slower release profile (only similar to39%) was obtained for microspheres with high GTA (0.50% v/v) content, for the same period. (
  • Lehr, C.-M., Testing of aerosolized ciprofloxacin nanocarriers on cystic fibrosis airway cells infected with P. aeruginosa biofilms. (
  • The researchers' double-loaded nanocarrier was more effective at shrinking tumors and preventing cancer metastasis in mice than either irinotecan without a nanocarrier or nanocarriers that delivered the two drugs independently. (
  • While lipid-based nanocarriers are leading the way, the silica-based carrier decorated with lipid layers stands a good chance of speeding up the rate of discovery and improving cancer immunotherapy. (
  • The large pore MSNs (LPMSNs) were studied as the nanocarriers to load a large drug molecule, Docetaxel. (
  • Although many transporter-utilizing (pro)drugs and nanocarriers have been developed to improve the uptake of drugs to the brain, their success rate of translation from preclinical development to humans is negligible. (
  • In the present review, we provide a systematic summary of the current progress in development of transporter-utilizing (pro)drugs and nanocarriers for delivery of drugs to the brain. (
  • In addition, we applied CNS pharmacokinetic concepts for evaluation of the limitations and gaps in investigation of the developed transporter-utilizing (pro)drugs and nanocarriers. (
  • However, the majority of the (pro)drugs and nanocarriers has not reached clinical trials. (
  • In the present review, we provide a systematic summary of the current progress in development of transporter-utilizing (pro)drugs and nanocarriers for delivery of drugs into the brain. (
  • His Mesoporous silica research integrates issues from Supramolecular chemistry, Molecular biology, Nanopore, Drug carrier and Nanocarriers. (
  • His Nanocarriers research is multidisciplinary, incorporating elements of Combinatorial chemistry and Drug carrier. (
  • METHODS: Polymeric nanocarriers are among one of the effective delivery systems, which has given promising results in the treatment of breast cancers. (
  • To double-check progress in drug therapy the development of new drugs solely is not sufficient. (
  • Major application includes treatment of infection of the reticuloendothelial system (RES), enzyme replacement therapy in the liver, treatment of cancer, and vaccination. (
  • This fact explains the harsh treatments commonly used in cancer therapy and the non-selective nature of their effects. (
  • With these techniques, we examine the effects of treatment upon tumor vascular permeability and drug deposition, the localization of the carrier-delivered drug within the tumor, and the molecular mechanisms involved when tumor blood vessels or tumor stroma are attacked during therapy. (
  • Research interests center on the use of drug carriers such as liposomes to improve the therapy of diseases that include ovarian cancer and opportunistic infections associated with AIDS. (
  • This approach of combining anticancer drugs having a different mode of anticancer action allows for the development of systems for cancer therapy with enhanced efficacy. (
  • Sadee W. Protein drugs: A revolution in therapy. (
  • Given that the neoadjuvant therapy has delayed the operation time and there is a potential risk of cancer progression, more data are needed to perform evaluation. (
  • In hopes of turning the tide, UCLA researchers have developed a technology that delivers a combination therapy to pancreatic tumors using nanoscale particles loaded with irinotecan, a chemotherapy drug approved as part of a drug regimen for pancreatic cancer, and 3M-052, an investigational drug that can boost immune activity and help overcome tumors' resistance. (
  • The combination therapy also attracted more cancer-killing immune cells to tumor sites and maintained drug levels in the blood for longer. (
  • PHILADELPHIA-Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapy, which uses engineered T cells to treat certain types of cancers, has often been a challenging approach to treating solid tumors. (
  • Newswise - Researchers at Wake Forest School of Medicine have shown that a targeted therapy using non-thermal radio waves is safe to use in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the most common type of liver cancer. (
  • Photodynamic therapy PDT as a part of photochemotherapy, is a concerted method where, in addition to light and an administered drug, oxygen is required. (
  • Under such circumstances, this chapter offers the most up-to-date coverage of photodynamic therapy including information on how nanosensitizers, have evolved within the field of cancer therapy and more recently for drugs controlled release in this field, by using personal data correlated aggressive cancer death literature reports. (
  • A certain proportion of melanoma patients do not respond to immune checkpoint blockade therapy, suggesting that their immune system may be hijacked by melanoma cells. (
  • Drug Design, Development and Therapy is an international, peer-reviewed, open access journal that spans the spectrum of drug design, discovery and development through to clinical applications. (
  • EVs-based therapy is a novel yet promising method for cancer therapy. (
  • Since exosomes have shown more advantages in comparison with other nano-sized particles, they could be the solution to our desired cancer therapy procedure. (
  • In this review, exosome-based cancer therapy has been analyzed as a plausible method for treatment of HPV related cancers. (
  • Novel strategies to effectively de-escalate curative-intent therapy for patients with HPV-associated oropharyngeal cancer: current and future directions. (
  • Graphene nano-ribbon based high potential and efficiency for DNA, cancer therapy and drug delivery applications. (
  • Vitamin C is considered an adjunctive therapy by the Cancer Cure Foundation, as it helps to balance nutrition and remove toxins from your body. (
  • Peripheral eosinophil counts predict efficacy of anti-CD19 CAR-T cell therapy against B-lineage non-Hodgkin lymphoma. (
  • Concurrently, RBCEV technologies are under intensive research at Carmine Therapeutics , an EVX Ventures company which aims to develop the next generation of gene therapy based on RBCEVs for treatments of rare diseases and cancer. (
  • IMSEAR at SEARO: Single‑walled and multi‑walled carbon nanotubes based drug delivery system: Cancer therapy: A review. (
  • Dineshkumar B, Krishnakumar K, Bhatt A R, Paul D, Cherian J, John A, Suresh S. Single‑walled and multi‑walled carbon nanotubes based drug delivery system: Cancer therapy: A review. (
  • 2015. Broad targeting of angiogenesis for cancer prevention and therapy. (
  • The identification of cancer stem cells, or tumor initiating cells, has focused renewed attention on the role of ABC transporters in drug resistance, and as cancer therapy targets. (
  • Gene therapy has become an essential tool as a result of recent advancements in cancer molecular biology and gene engineering research. (
  • Various gene therapy approaches, pro-drug activating suicide gene therapy, anti-angiogenic gene therapy, oncolytic virotherapy, and gene therapy immunological regulation, and genetic modification of apoptotic and tumor invasion pathways, have been implicated in cancer treatment. (
  • The development of more stable and nontoxic gene carriers that encase and transmit foreign genetic elements into malignant cells is known as gene therapy. (
  • The purpose of this research is to fill in the gaps in our knowledge about the advantages of cancer gene therapy over chemotherapy in the treatment of breast and prostate cancer. (
  • A Photothermal therapy involves the delivery of NPs into tumors, followed by laser irradiation to induce NP heating leading to cancer cell death. (
  • The above achievement provides a theoretical basis for implementing cancer precision therapy and individualized therapy. (
  • Treating cancer by injecting bacteria in proximity is known as bacteria mediated tumor therapy. (
  • Genome-wide interaction analysis of menopausal hormone therapy use and breast cancer risk among 62,370 women. (
  • A promising new immunotherapy to treat liver cancer has been discovered. (
  • However, if given the right tools, they can kickstart the body's own immune system and give them help against the cancer cells missed with CAR T cells alone," said co-lead author Andy J. Minn, MD, PhD, a professor of Radiation Oncology in the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania and director of the Mark Foundation Center for Immunotherapy, Immune Signaling, and Radiation at Penn. (
  • A new study conducted at Columbia and other centers found that 80% of patients with a type of slow-growing lymphoma achieved a complete remission with a single infusion of CAR T-cell immunotherapy. (
  • T cell immunotherapy enhanced by designer biomaterials. (
  • Sequential administration of immunotherapy following radiotherapy (immunoRT) has attracted much attention in cancer research. (
  • Both exosomes and exomeres are released by most cells and tissues under both physiological and pathological conditions. (
  • For this reason, drugs encapsulated with liposomes up to the size of 400nm can enter tumor sites easily but are restricted from the healthy tissues by the endothelial wall. (
  • Many therapeutics including anti-cancer drugs can be ferried around the body in tiny carriers called vesicles which are targeted to different tissues using biological markers. (
  • They kill only those cells, while being harmless to surrounding healthy cells and tissues. (
  • Estrogens enter the cells of responsive tissues (e.g. female organs, breasts, hypothalamus, pituitary) where they interact with estrogen receptors. (
  • Filled with illustrative case studies, this important resource examines such important work as methods of growing human cells and tissues outside the body in order to repair or replace damaged tissues. (
  • Survivin is highly expressed in OSCC patient-derived tissues and cell lines. (
  • As RNAs are unstable and fragile by nature, RNA-based drugs must be packaged in suitable carriers to prevent degradation, and promote efficient uptake by target cancer tissues. (
  • Drug in tissues Metabolites Distribution Metabolism Metabolism Excretion Absorption Drug elimination distribution The process by which a drug is carried to sites of action throughout the body by the blood-stream. (
  • For those tissues said to possess "barriers," cells tend to form tight intercellular junctions that limit rapid paracellular diffusion of proteins and polar compounds. (
  • CONTACT We're your ally for specialty product access Vd is most usefully thought of as a measure of the relative affinity of the compound for tissues over the sampled blood or plasma, and hence the ratio of the total amount of drug in the body to the concentration in the blood. (
  • Conventional treatments for solid-tumor cancers are unsatisfactory because they cause unintended harm to healthy tissues and are susceptible to cancer cell resistance. (
  • Metastatic melanoma occurs when cancer that originated in the skin spreads to other tissues of the body. (
  • Although a multitude of promising anti-cancer drugs have been developed over the past 50 years, effective delivery of the drugs to diseased cells remains a challenge. (
  • With the DNA origami drug delivery vehicles, the cellular internalization of doxorubicin was increased, which contributed to the significant enhancement of cell-killing activity to doxorubicin-resistant MCF 7 cells. (
  • Our results suggest that DNA origami has immense potential as an efficient, biocompatible drug carrier and delivery vehicle in the treatment of cancer. (
  • The modern form of a drug delivery system should minimize side-effects and reduce both dosage and dosage frequency. (
  • Nanomaterials exhibit different chemical and physical properties or biological effects compared to larger-scale counterparts that can be beneficial for drug delivery systems. (
  • Exosomes, as natural intercellular information carriers, have great potential in the field of drug delivery. (
  • An advanced mode of drug delivery system has been developed to overcome the major drawbacks associated with conventional drug delivery systems. (
  • Utilizes liposomes and other carrier techniques to improve the solubility and delivery of taxol and other poorly-soluble anticancer agents. (
  • Methods of improving the delivery and efficacy of anticancer drugs such as taxol. (
  • The potential of such an approach for enhancing drug delivery for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) cells has not been investigated. (
  • In this study, we covalently conjugated polyethylene glycol-linked lactobionic acid (PEG-LA) onto the surface of laponite (LAP) nanodisks for the targeted delivery of doxorubicin (DOX) to liver cancer cells. (
  • The developed LA-modified LAP nanodisks could serve as a targeted carrier for efficient loading and specific delivery of different anticancer drugs to liver cancer cells. (
  • Targeted and controlled drug delivery, Novel carrier system, CBS publishers and distributors, New Delhi. (
  • Intranasal drug delivery for systemic medication. (
  • The application of modern technology in the field of drugs administered via oral, parenteral, pulmonary and intra-ocular finds a newer, better than the conventional dosage forms is an important era in the drug delivery. (
  • The health scenario in India demands Novel Drug Delivery Systems (NDDS) for more than 20 diseases and conditions for which rationale for such system is established. (
  • Although the drug delivery concept is not new, a great progress has recently been done in the treatment of variety of diseases. (
  • Targeting delivery of the drugs to the lesions and controlling the release rate at the site of action is the most important aspect of Drug Delivery System. (
  • Above all the prominence of drug delivery systems can be understood by the variety that out of the $250 billion worldwide value of pharmaceuticals, 10% is attributed to it 4 . (
  • In this context controlled drug delivery along with targeted drug delivery forms the essence of modern and future drug delivery systems. (
  • Drug delivery to the colon is an ongoing challenge to physicians. (
  • Researchers have known for some time that fructans, which are polymers of fructose, are resistant to acid degradation and theorized that they might be a useful drug delivery vehicle. (
  • The researchers then prepared microspheres of the compounds and filled them with ibuprofen as a model of drug delivery to the colon. (
  • Mitchell MJ, King MR. Leukocytes as carriers for targeted cancer drug delivery. (
  • Oxidized multiwalled carbon nanotubes as antigen delivery system to promote superior CD8(+) T cell response and protection against cancer. (
  • To increase body fluid saturation solubility of poorly soluble drug, new delivery methods need to be developed using natural dietary plant metabolites. (
  • We've not only developed a new way to design highly specific pores but also an automated method to test their properties in situ, which will be important for testing pores being used for targeted drug delivery in the future. (
  • We have demonstrated such precise control over the behaviour of the pore, both in terms of selectivity and in terms of responsiveness that we believe that the method paves the way for a wide range of applications from drug delivery to nanosensing. (
  • Nanomedicine, however, offers new opportunities to facilitate drug delivery in PDAC. (
  • Our previous work has shown that poly(ethylene glycol)-functionalized nanodiamond (ND) mediated drug delivery offered a considerable improvement over free drug in PDAC. (
  • Development of new drug delivery carriers is crucial for treatment of numerous deceases, including cancer," comments Fedor Jelezko , director of the Institute of Quantum Optics at Ulm University in Germany. (
  • This allows monitoring of drug delivery and release of drugs in the cells with unprecedented details," he adds. (
  • For example, when a tumour-recognition module is installed in a delivery nano-robot (organic particle), the armed drug-loaded nano-robot particles can target and deliver the drug into tumour tissue. (
  • Although, the initial properties of nanomaterials studied were for its physical, mechanical, electrical, magnetic, chemical and biological applications, recently, attention has been geared towards its pharmaceutical application, especially in the area of drug delivery. (
  • It has been reported that, nanostructures have the ability to protect drugs from the degradation in the gastrointestinal tract, the technology can allow target delivery of drugs to various areas of the body. (
  • With the advantage of their customised design, artificial cells are being studied in biosensing, drug delivery, anti-cancer therapeutics or artificial photosynthesis type fields. (
  • Only one dual-delivery nanocarrier for chemotherapy has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration. (
  • However, over the past seven years, the Nel lab has developed an approach for simultaneous delivery, and the current findings provide further evidence that their innovative nanocarrier design enables the drugs to work in tandem more effectively than if they were delivered separately. (
  • Researchers at Mayo Clinic have demonstrated in a mouse model that their recently developed synthetic peptide carrier is a potential delivery vehicle for brain cancer chemotherapy drugs and other neurological medications. (
  • Their research also investigates novel drug delivery systems that may enable them to deliver medications directly to the stomach tissue (perhaps annually at the time of routine surveillance endoscopy), minimizing the risk of treatment side effects. (
  • These drug delivery systems have the possibility/potential to modify their surface properties with functional groups, peptides, or other coatings to improve the interactions with biological materials. (
  • scaffolds for tissue engineering and hydrogels for drug delivery of anti-cancer drugs. (
  • It is also observed that the drug release from micelles of COPY-DOX is significantly accelerated at a mildly acidic pH of 5.5-6, compared to the physiological pH of 7.4, suggesting the pH-responsive feature of the drug delivery system with hydrazone linkages. (
  • All of these results demonstrate that these polymeric micelles that self-assembled from COPY-DOX block copolymers have great scope in the world of medicine, and they also symbolize promising carriers for the pH-triggered intracellular delivery of hydrophobic anticancer drugs. (
  • My research in the area of computational multiphase flows, rheology and micro- and nano bubbles and particles for ultrasound facilitated imaging, drug delivery and tissue engineering, supported by NIH and NSF, has resulted in 12 PhDs and more than 80 journal publications. (
  • The invention is in the field of pharmaceuticals, and provides drug conjugates as prodrugs for the delivery of drugs to cell populations, where the prodrugs are metabolized and activated by endogenous enzymes to provide active drugs. (
  • Guan, S. Drug Delivery Systems Employing 1,4- or 1,6-Elimination: Poly(ethylene glycol) Prodrugs of Amine-Containing Compounds. (
  • The challenge of drug delivery is especially pertinent for RNA therapeutics which target an important immuno-modulatory receptor, RIG-I. When activated by certain types of RNAs, the receptor can initiate immune responses to kill cancer cells. (
  • Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are advanced nano‑carrier for delivery of drugs especially anti‑cancer drugs. (
  • Targeting Transporters for Drug Delivery to the Brain: Can We Do Better? (
  • Limited drug delivery to the brain is one of the major reasons for high failure rates of central nervous system (CNS) drug candidates. (
  • The blood-brain barrier (BBB) with its tight junctions, membrane transporters, receptors and metabolizing enzymes is a main player in drug delivery to the brain, restricting the entrance of the drugs and other xenobiotics. (
  • Current knowledge about the uptake transporters expressed at the BBB and brain parenchymal cells has been used for delivery of CNS drugs to the brain via targeting transporters. (
  • Finally, we give recommendations for a rational development of transporter-utilizing drug delivery systems targeting the brain based on CNS pharmacokinetic principles. (
  • The high defensive properties and complex physiology of the BBB make the brain the most inaccessible organ in terms of drug delivery. (
  • Knowledge about transporters expressed at the BBB and structural requirements for substrate binding and translocation via the transporters have been used for development of transporter-mediated drug delivery systems targeting the brain via specific transporter proteins. (
  • As a member of one scientific family, he mostly works in the field of Drug delivery, focusing on Cancer cell and, on occasion, Endocytosis. (
  • His work in Mesoporous silica tackles topics such as Drug delivery which are related to areas like Cancer cell. (
  • 3Nano Medical Engineering Laboratory, RIKEN Cluster for Pioneering Research, Wako, Saitama 351-0198, Japan Purpose: An efficient drug-delivery system was prepared based on graphene oxide using a facile and one-step strategy for controlling the release of anticancer drugs. (
  • Conclusion: A combination of the unique properties of GO and the biodegradable polymer polyglycerol revealed high drug-loading capacity, pH-dependent drug release, and cytocompatibility with HPG-GO, thus introducing it as a promising nanocarrier for anticancer drug delivery. (
  • Drug-delivery systems based on nanomaterials can enhance the efficiency of free hydrophobic drugs by reducing systemic toxicity and increasing drug solubility and cellular uptake. (
  • High drug-loading capacity and triggering of drug release near cancer cells are two important issues in introducing a nanocarrier as a proper drug-delivery system. (
  • In this review, we highlight recent advances in the delivery of anticancer drugs using dendrimers, as well as other biomedical and diagnostic applications. (
  • Taken together, the immense potential and utility of dendrimers are envisaged to have a significant positive impact on the growing arena of drug delivery and targeting. (
  • to overcome this barrier, intranasal delivery is an excellent strategy to deliver the drug directly to brain via olfactory and trigeminal nerve pathways that originate as olfactory neuro-epithelium in the nasal cavity and terminate in brain. (
  • In this review, we have outlined the anatomy and physiological aspect of nasal mucosa, certain hurdles, various strategies including importance of muco-adhesive polymers to increase the drug delivery and possible clinical prospects that partly contribute in intranasal drug delivery. (
  • RESULTS: Exhaustive literature survey related to intranasal drug delivery system revealed the new strategy that circumvents the BBB, based on non-invasive concept for treating various CNS disorders. (
  • CONCLUSION: Recently few reports have proven that nasal to brain drug delivery system bypasses the BBB. (
  • BACKGROUND: Delivery of chemotherapeutic drugs for the diagnosis and treatment of cancer is becoming advanced day by day. (
  • Upon release, exosomes act as a new vehicle for cell-to-cell communication to play an important role in various biological processes, including intercellular signal transduction, substance delivery, gene expression, and biochemical metabolism. (
  • Any system of controlled drug delivery that would reduce the total amount of drug required, and thus reduce the side effects, would potentially help to improve chemotherapy. (
  • Indeed, the results suggested the potential application of gelatin microspheres crosslinked with GTA as a sustained drug-delivery system for anticancer drugs for local chemotherapy administrations. (
  • These findings imply potential roles for T-MPs in cancer treatment. (
  • There are new induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technologies coming that will allow clinicians to know if a patient is highly likely to get certain types of cancer, enabling drug treatment very early - just like (a statin) to prevent plaque build-up and heart disease," Dr. Clive Svendsen of Cedars-Sinai Medical Center in Los Angeles told Reuters Health. (
  • Here you'll find in-depth information on specific cancer types - including risk factors, early detection, diagnosis, and treatment options. (
  • The American Cancer Society offers programs and services to help you during and after cancer treatment. (
  • One approach researchers are using to identify women at risk for TNBC and possible treatment options for TNBC is by studying inherited changes (mutations) in cancer genes. (
  • The treatment of cancer is a great challenge to medical professionals as the search for a medical treatment that can distinguish between healthy rapidly dividing cells and abnormal cancerous cells is difficult. (
  • As cancer cells originate from healthy cells in the body that have some mutations to alter their properties and lead to uncontrolled growth in the body, it can be difficult to distinguish them from other cells in treatment. (
  • A common characteristic con cancer cells of frequent cell division has been noted and treatment therefore aim to target cells in the process of division. (
  • Using liposomes as a carrier for drugs used in the treatment of cancer is beneficial because the liposomes promote passive targeting for the cancer cells. (
  • Our research program involves the application of drug carriers for the treatment of infectious diseases and cancer. (
  • Cancer cells often have high levels of ATP that provides energy for metabolism and this could be exploited for treatment. (
  • These results highlight the potential use of such nano-carriers in the treatment of patients with pancreatic cancer. (
  • Chemotherapy, mostly with a combination of drugs, is the treatment of pre-eminent after children with Hodgkin disease. (
  • A few "soft" organic nanomedicines including Genexol-PM (paclitaxel-loaded polymeric micelles), Doxil (liposomal doxorubicin) and Abraxane (paclitaxel-loaded human serum albumin nanoaggregate) have been approved or are in clinical trials for the treatment of human cancers. (
  • University of Houston biomedical researcher Sheeren Majd is reporting the development and testing of a new nano-carrier as a potential treatment to deliver highly toxic medicine to glioblastomas, the most common and aggressive form of primary brain tumors. (
  • Nanomaterials contain a lot of potential when it comes to theranostics , thanks to some physicochemical properties that allow for the incorporation and biodistribution of contrast agents, necessary in the detection and diagnosis of tumoral cells, as well as the integration of a drug cargo that could be used for the treatment of said cells. (
  • In addition, its elevate boron content (18 B atoms) makes COSAN and its derivatives considered as a source of boron for BNCT treatment of cancer tumors. (
  • Purified arginine deiminase from Enterococcus faecium M1 isolate is the strongest cancer treatment enzyme due to its activity and stability in different environmental conditions. (
  • Only 1 in 9 people survive five years after diagnosis, in part because this cancer is protected by biological factors that help it resist treatment. (
  • This allowed them to upgrade the diagnosis of 458 cancers to aggressive and in need of more full treatment. (
  • and some drugs used for the treatment of cancer. (
  • ONE of the most challenging aspects of cancer treatment is the huge variety of different tumours that can occur with each one potentially requiring a different solution because unfortunately, one drug does NOT fit all. (
  • Currently, there are limited treatment options for patients with this advanced liver cancer. (
  • Donations to No Stomach For Cancer help to advance awareness and education about stomach cancer, provide a support network for affected families and support research for screening, early detection, treatment, and prevention of stomach cancer. (
  • We support research efforts for screening, early detection, treatment, and prevention of stomach cancer. (
  • Bexarotene has been approved for the treatment of cancer by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for more than a decade. (
  • Treatment with free Rh 2 (H 2 cit) 4 induced cytotoxicity that was dependent on dose, time, and cell line. (
  • For the treatment of cancer various methods have already been discovered and many others are in the process of discovery e. (
  • Nonetheless, BRCAmut women additionally show a higher benefit of platinum-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) plus interval debulking surgery compared with BRCAwt women in terms of clinical and pathological responses, suggesting that BRCA mutational status might be used as a molecular tool to personalize treatment in high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC) patients. (
  • Theranostic agents present a promising clinical approach for cancer detection and treatment. (
  • Both imaging and drug release could thus be achieved by a single US modality, enabling in situ treatment guided by real-time imaging. (
  • Theranostic particles, which have a dual capacity for imaging and therapeutics, have emerged as a novel concept for cancer detection and treatment [ 1 , 2 ]. (
  • Thus, a better understanding of the mechanisms of OSCC oncogenesis and development of novel anti-tumor targets and drugs, are still the urgent demand for OSCC treatment. (
  • Thus, as an oncoprotein that is both essential for mitosis and apoptosis inhibition, survivin seemed a promising novel target for anti-cancer treatment. (
  • It is one of the oldest chemotherapy drugs on the market, well known for treatment of malignant tumors. (
  • Various methods have been adopted to treat HPV related cancer but the search for proper cancer treatment method with the least side effect and most efficiency has not yet ended. (
  • An implantable pump that has the potential to transform brain cancer treatment was found safe and effective in people in a study at Columbia University. (
  • Ghosh was elected for his elected for his pioneering studies of the immune system and establishing strategies for the treatment of inflammatory diseases and cancer. (
  • 1]J. Vega Baudrit, "Nanocarrier Applied in The Distribution of Drugs in the Assistance for the Cancer Treatment," American Journal of Biomedical Science & Research, vol. 5, no. 6, pp. 469-480, Oct. 2019. (
  • There are a number of alternative treatment options and natural cures that are effective for reducing the size of a brain tumor as well as treating the symptoms of brain cancer. (
  • This treatment is focused on removing toxins from your body that may be causing the abnormal cell growth. (
  • Assistant Professor Minh Le from the Institute for Digital Medicine (WisDM) and Department of Pharmacology at NUS Medicine, who led the study, explained, "With the discovery of these vesicles' ability to deliver therapeutics effectively to targeted receptors, we hope that our research can lead to better treatment outcomes for cancer patients. (
  • 2015. Designing a broad-spectrum integrative approach for cancer prevention and treatment. (
  • In recent years, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved several new oral drug treatments, which are dramatically improving outcomes and cure rates with shorter treatment times. (
  • DNA demethylation by treatment with 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine increased MATE1 mRNA expression in MATE1-negative cell lines. (
  • Interindividual variability in drug responses is a major clinical issue for effective drug treatment. (
  • Nanotechnology has opened a new area in the effective treatment of breast cancer due to the several benefits offered by this technology. (
  • Chemotherapy is a treatment that employs powerful chemicals to kill malignant cells in the body that are quickly developing and can harm healthy cells. (
  • Cancer is a global health problem that needs effective treatment strategies. (
  • Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop new drug combinations that can be used as part of the cancer treatment toolkit. (
  • The drug of choice for treatment and chemoprophylaxis of PCP is trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX). (
  • Investigators have demonstrated an association between exposure to sulfa drugs and mutations in the dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS) gene of P. jirovecii , but the relationship between these mutations and treatment (or prophylaxis) failure is unclear. (
  • We hope that these articles will stimulate interest in exploring the relationship between DHPS mutations and resistance of P. jirovecii to sulfa-containing drugs and in assessing DHPS mutations as possible causes of treatment failure in patients with PCP. (
  • Both genomic and proteomic analysis approaches are utilized in this work, but an approach of increasing importance to our research is the implementation of comprehensive proteomic investigations in order to understand in detail how tumors respond to standard-of-care drugs and new molecularly-targeted drugs. (
  • We believe that the accomplishment of this project would create strong basis for expansion of the landscape phage technology for preparation of the drug carriers targeted to the breast tumors and other pathologies. (
  • This may help improve efforts to treat solid tumors, which represent most human cancers. (
  • Lomustine is a chemotherapy drug commonly used in patients experiencing recurrent brain tumors. (
  • Tumors grow thanks to angiogenesis, which is the new vascularization created to supply oxygen to cancer cells. (
  • This remedy helps reduce the size of tumors as it binds to and eliminates cancerous cells. (
  • Poor water solubility and insufficient bioavailability of the new drug substances are very widespread issues encountered. (
  • As a carrier, CD-MOF improved the solubility and bioavailability of TPL. (
  • Drugs with poor water-solubility such as oleanolic acid, curcumin, ibuprofen and honokiol have been encapsulated in CD-MOF. (
  • We hypothesized that after encapsulating TPL into CD-MOF, the solubility and bioavailability of the drug could be improved. (
  • Further, Dr Agrawal, mentioned, "The designed system should be capable of supporting drugs having different solubility in water. (
  • Drugs with poor solubility encounter limited transport during oral administration because of low concentration gradient between the gut and the blood vessels. (
  • additionally, they show solubility in both water and biological medium and also have the important tendency of rendering acid-triggered drug release. (
  • However, an inverse correlation between HDL-C and cancer has not been established in all types of cancers, and there have been few studies on thyroid cancer and HDL-C levels. (
  • In various types of cancers, breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer among women. (
  • Drug metabolism reviews, 2019. (
  • Cancer and the risk of coronavirus disease 2019 diagnosis, hospitalisation and death: A population-based multistate cohort study including 4 618 377 adults in Catalonia, Spain. (
  • This carrier scheme should be free of toxicity, have an adequate pharmaceutical loading capability and the possibility of pharmaceutical targeting and controlled release characteristics. (
  • The structural design of the carrier, which is so small that it would take 1,000 of them to span the width of a human hair, helps prevent drug leakage and toxicity while the device enters a formidable ropelike barrier protecting the pancreatic cancer and travels to the tumor site. (
  • In addition, another major issue of many current drugs is their poor selectivity towards cancers resulting in problems such as normal tissue toxicity, severe side effects and the development of drug resistance. (
  • Although toxic to normal cells, its lower toxicity when compared to carboxylate analogues of rhodium (II) indicates Rh 2 (H 2 cit) 4 as a promising agent for chemotherapy. (
  • The correct homing of the therapeutics to diseased cells is also critical in minimising off-target effects that can result in toxicity. (
  • However, when these T-MPs are taken up by dendritic cells (DCs), they also triggering activation of the cGAS-STING-TBK1 axis, resulting in an immune activation phenotype with the upregulation of CD80, CD86 and MHCII. (
  • It can also be caused by an overactive immune system, and from drugs, alcohol, chemicals, and environmental toxins. (
  • Certain cancers can take control of elements of the body's immune system, tricking immune cells into favouring the growth of cancer cells rather than attacking and destroying them. (
  • Now, María Soengas and her colleagues at the Spanish National Cancer Research Center (CNIO) in Madrid, Spain, have shown that a growth factor protein called midkine (MDK), which is secreted by melanoma cells, manipulates the immune system microenvironment. (
  • This causes immune cells to ignore the cancer threat and allow melanoma to spread. (
  • This environment makes immune cells such as macrophages and T cells ignore the cancer cells, creating a suppressed immune microenvironment that favours metastasis. (
  • Hepatitis can also result from an autoimmune condition, in which abnormally targeted immune factors attack the body's own liver cells. (
  • It has long been known that protein antigen conjugated with polyethylene glycol (PEG), a nonimmunogenic artificial polymer, induces immune tolerance of antigen-specific Th cells. (
  • In these pioneering studies, it was demonstrated that immune tolerance was established on carrier (OVA)-specific Th cells. (
  • We studied the response and differentiation of OVA-specific naïve Th cells upon exposure to tolerogenic PEG-OVA with the hope that such knowledge may lead to practical application of PEG-protein antigen conjugates to induce immune tolerance. (
  • Now, not only is the immune system triggered to wake up, but the additional drugs also help destroy the tumor,' says Birgül Akolpoglu, a Ph.D. student in the Physical Intelligence Department at MPI-IS. (
  • 2022 is almost over, but improving the lives of people with cancer is more urgent than ever. (
  • Retrieved on November 28, 2022 from (
  • It is the second leading cause of death in the United States where over 600,000 people are expected to die from cancer in 2022 [ 1 ]. (
  • This study was initially designed to provide a comprehensive proteomic and RNA analysis of clinically relevant cargo unique to exosomes and exomeres in a human colorectal cancer (CRC) cell line, DiFi, using an optimized strategy to purify sEVs 1 and a simplified method to isolate exomeres 3 . (
  • The present disclosure relates to Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor 2-specific peptide reagents, methods for detecting epithelial-derived cancer cells such as esophageal, colorectal, gastric, pancreatic or breast carcinoma cells using the peptide reagents, and methods for targeting such cells using the peptide reagents. (
  • Dinamo has focused on the context of breast cancer and colorectal cancer, but there is no reason why the technique could not be applied to a wide range of other cancers ," he tells CommNet. (
  • Risk Stratification for Early-Onset Colorectal Cancer Using a Combination of Genetic and Environmental Risk Scores: An International Multi-Center Study. (
  • Adiposity and breast, endometrial, and colorectal cancer risk in postmenopausal women: Quantification of the mediating effects of leptin, C-reactive protein, fasting insulin, and estradiol. (
  • Genome-wide association study identifies tumor anatomical site-specific risk variants for colorectal cancer survival. (
  • A Prospective Diet-Wide Association Study for Risk of Colorectal Cancer in EPIC. (
  • Metabolic Signatures of Healthy Lifestyle Patterns and Colorectal Cancer Risk in a European Cohort. (
  • The team had previously shown that midkine plays multiple roles in metastasis, not just in melanoma but also in other tumours, including gastric and liver cancer. (
  • CSCs have been demonstrated to elicit an important role in cancer recurrence, metastasis and drug resistance. (
  • SLUG is required for SOX9 stabilization and functions to promote cancer stem cells and metastasis in human lung carcinoma. (
  • NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - Fallopian tube organoids hold the potential for predicting the development of ovarian cancer years in advance, researchers say. (
  • For the current study, published in Cell Reports, Dr. Svendsen and colleagues generated iPSCs from healthy individuals and young ovarian cancer patients with germline pathogenic BRCA1 mutations (BRCA1mut). (
  • Following transplantation in mice, the BRCA1mut organoids showed an increased production of cancer-specific proteins, with organoids from women with the most aggressive ovarian cancer showing the greatest pathology. (
  • Dr. Elizabeth Swisher, Director, Division of Gynecologic Oncology at UW Medicine and Co-Leader, Breast and Ovarian Cancer Research Program at Seattle Cancer Care Alliance, called the preclinical models "promising. (
  • However," she told Reuters Health by email, "all of the BRCA1 mutated samples come from younger women with ovarian cancer and all were derived from lymphoblasts. (
  • or from other differences between the groups, such as the different starting cell type or because the BRCA1 mutated cells came from patients with ovarian cancer or from younger patients. (
  • Dr. Ronny Drapkin, Director of the Ovarian Cancer Research Center and of the Gynecologic Cancer Research, Basser Center for BRCA, at Penn Medicine in Philadelphia, also commented in an email to Reuters Health. (
  • Around 15-25% of ovarian cancer (OC) patients carry germ-line mutation in BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes. (
  • In a recent phase Ib/II study, olaparib plus weekly carboplatin and paclitaxel in relapsed ovarian cancer patients was shown to be safe, well tolerated and effective, especially in germline BRCA mutated (gBRCAmut) patients. (
  • 2016. Inhibitory Effects of the Four Main Theaflavin Derivatives Found in Black Tea on Ovarian Cancer Cells. (
  • 2016. Gallic acid, a phenolic compound, exerts anti-angiogenesis effects via PTEN-AKT- HIF-1α-VEGF signaling pathway in ovarian cancer cells. (
  • 2015. Dietary compounds galangin and myricetin suppress ovarian cancer cell angiogenesis. (
  • 2015. Selecting bioactive phenolic compounds as potential agents to inhibit proliferation and VEGF expression in human ovarian cancer cells. (
  • 2015. Chaetoglobosin K induces apoptosis and G2 cell cycle arrest through p53-dependent 1 pathway in cisplatin-resistant ovarian cancer cells. (
  • Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of gynecologic cancer death in the U.S. (
  • Many studies have focused on modifying exosome surface proteins to allow drugs to specifically target cancer cells. (
  • Lead author, Dr Stefan Howorka (UCL Chemistry), said: "Natural biological pores made of proteins are essential for transporting cargo into and out of biological cells but they are hard to design from scratch. (
  • We propose a new approach which relies on the use of the stripped landscape phage?the composition of the phage coat proteins?as the targeting ligands of he drug-loaded liposomes and micelles. (
  • In our approach the phage specific for the target organ, tissue or cell is selected from the rnultibillion landscape phage libraries and converted to the liposome and micelles xploring intrinsic amphiphilic properties of the phage proteins. (
  • We demonstrated that the specific combination of NDP-properties make them a highly suitable material for the construction of probes capable of sensing biomolecules ranging from proteins to DNA," says team coordinator Milos Nesladek , who is also principle scientist at the Institute for Material Research, Imec , based in Leuven, Belgium, "such probes could be used to study molecular processes in cells at nanoscale. (
  • In 2008 Case Western Reserve researcher Gary Landreth, PhD, professor of neurosciences, discovered that the main cholesterol carrier in the brain, Apolipoprotein E (ApoE), facilitated the clearance of the amyloid beta proteins. (
  • Columbia researchers created a new technology using synthetic llama antibodies to protect endangered proteins inside cells. (
  • Exosomes often function as "communication vehicles," transferring bioactive proteins and genetic material between cells. (
  • The origin of cancer is due to a mutation of the proto-oncogenes that encode the proteins involved in cell proliferation and differentiation, as well as the genes that encode the proteins that inhibit cell growth and stimulate apoptosis [ 3 ]. (
  • Some diseases have proven difficult to address using conventional tools of drug discovery that target disease-causing proteins. (
  • Roche is placing a $190 million bet on Arrakis Therapeutics, a startup whose technology aims for RNA-carriers of the genetic instructions that make these proteins in the first place. (
  • Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1 (HIV-1) can transmit using cell-cell adhesive junctions called virological synapses (VS). When an infected T lymphocyte donor cell comes in contact with a CD4+ T lymphocyte target cell, a VS can form which leads to a local point of adhesion between the cells and is characterized by an enrichment of viral proteins and adhesion complexes. (
  • By building these pores into drug carriers, we think it will allow for much more precise targeting of therapeutics. (
  • To further examine the function of RBCEVs in carrying a broader range of therapeutics to more cancer cell types, the team plans to conduct further research in collaboration with the National University Cancer Institute and Cancer Science Institute of Singapore . (
  • METHOD: Kind of therapeutics like low molecular weight drugs can be delivered to the CNS via this route. (
  • Efficacy is increased as more drug is delivered to the target site, and toxic side effects are lowered by minimizing the total level of drug in the body. (
  • In addition, the effects of first-line therapies with sorafenib or lenvatinib and second-line therapies with regorafenib, cabozantinib or ramucirumab are not so satisfactory, which reminds us to develop new chemotherapy drugs to improve the efficacy of HCC. (
  • The identified drug candidate has shown efficacy in preclinical models. (
  • MTT assays against HeLa and 4T cancer cells showing COPY-DOX micelles have a high anticancer efficacy. (
  • Preclinical data suggest that olaparib might also potentiate the efficacy of DNA-damaging chemotherapies, including platinum-containing drugs such as carboplatin. (
  • C Coating photoresponsive NPs with cell-derived membranes enhances their tumor accumulation, increasing the efficacy of PTT upon light irradiation. (
  • Using a nanomaterial called graphene oxide and a technique called matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation, they are able to trap anti-cancer drugs within a thin film while maintaining the targeting efficacy of the drugs. (
  • Pancreatic cancer, however, has remained difficult to treat. (
  • In a study recently published in the journal ACS Nano , the research team showed that the simultaneously delivered combination outperformed the sum of its parts in a mouse model of pancreatic cancer. (
  • But because dendritic cells are often functionally impaired in patients with pancreatic cancer, 3M-052 provides extra assistance, helping them better marshal killer T cells both at the cancer site and in nearby lymph nodes. (
  • Other studies have demonstrated that COSAN derivatives have an outstanding ability to spontaneously cross the lipid bilayer cell membrane and accumulate within different type of living cells. (
  • These cytotoxic effects, induced by free Rh 2 (H 2 cit) 4 , were evidenced by morphological alterations such as nuclear fragmentation, membrane blebbing and phosphatidylserine exposure, reduction of actin filaments, mitochondrial condensation and an increase in number of vacuoles, suggesting that Rh 2 (H 2 cit) 4 induces cell death by apoptosis. (
  • To further define the pharmacological properties of pemetrexed that might underlie its activity, studies were undertaken to explore the mechanism of membrane transport of this agent in human mesothelioma cell lines. (
  • Polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) metabolism is currently a focus in cancer research due to PUFAs functioning as structural components of the membrane matrix, as fuel sources for energy production, and as sources of secondary messengers, so called ox. (
  • Published in the Journal of Extracellular Vesicles, the study successfully delivered RIG-I-activating RNAs using small, lipid membrane-bound particles released by red blood cells, called red blood cell extracellular vesicles (RBCEVs), to suppress cancer progression. (
  • Many essential compounds such as glucose and amino acids can enter the brain via transporters expressed at the membrane of the brain endothelial cells ( 2 ). (
  • Model of cell differentiation on a basement membrane (or support structure) depicting polarization to reflect distinct apical and basolateral function. (
  • good guys online An ABC transporter (ATP-binding cassette transporter) is a 'member of a large family of membrane transporters with sequences that make up ATP-binding cassettes'.Feb 18, 2009 · ABC Transporters in Cancer Stem Cells. (
  • It is generally recognized that exosomes are derived from early endosomes formed by cell membrane invagination. (
  • The 3 main categories in which they can be classified are (1) alterations in the function of the carriers that transport substances across the luminal membrane, (2) disturbances in cellular energy metabolism, and (3) changes in permeability characteristics of the tubular membranes. (
  • Numerous symporters and antiporters affect the transport of solutes across the apical membrane of proximal tubule cells. (
  • The energy required for the function of these carriers is provided by the sodium-potassium (Na + /K + )-adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) pump, which is located at the basolateral membrane. (
  • The application of drugs encapsulated in liposomes has the potential to reduce side effects by increasing specificity for cancer cells. (
  • To solve this issue, anthracyclines have been encapsulated in liposomes enabling changes to the properties of the drug vessel and allowing the active component to target specific sites. (
  • As a result of this formulation utilizing liposomes, the drug may exist in the systemic circulation for longer than the free drug. (
  • The development of these drugs is based on in-depth descriptions of the biological pathogenesis between target miRNA and diseases ( Li and Rana, 2014 ). (
  • The development could lead to improved treatments for ulcerative colitis, irritable bowel syndrome, cancer, Crohn's disease and other colon diseases, they say. (
  • The tequila compounds, a class of polysaccharides known as fructans, were developed by the scientists in Mexico into tiny microspheres that are capable of carrying existing drugs that are used to treat colon diseases. (
  • In this research laboratory, bioengineers collaborate with chemists, immunologists, computer scientists, and system biologists to directly address problems in translational immunology and develop and optimize innovative approaches to improve lives of patients suffering from cancer and infectious diseases. (
  • That alliance is focused on cancer and neurological diseases. (
  • Central nervous system (CNS) diseases including neurological disorders and brain cancers, remain to be one of the major causes of disability and death worldwide ( 1 ). (
  • Breast cancer is a combination of different diseases. (
  • Once perceived as an unimportant occurrence in living organisms, cell degeneration was reconfigured as an important biological phenomenon in development, aging, health, and diseases in the twentieth century. (
  • Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth. (
  • A series of articles in this issue of Emerging Infectious Diseases highlights the continuing importance of PCP, the potential for drug resistance, and laboratory techniques that can be used to study the problem. (
  • Immediate versus delayed pal- liative thoracic radiotherapy in patients with unresectable locally advanced non-small stall lung cancer and minimal thoracic symp- toms: randomised controlled trial. (
  • Caveolin-1 regulates lung cancer stem-like cell induction and p53 inactivation in carbon nanotube-driven tumorigenesis. (
  • An association between low HDL-C levels and the risk of cancer has also been reported in solid cancers, such as breast [ 7 ] and lung cancer [ 8 ]. (
  • Lung cancer risk after exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: a review and meta-analysis. (
  • 2003. Screening for lung cancer: a review of the current literature. (
  • Screening for lung cancer: the guidelines. (
  • 1998. Diesel exhaust exposure and lung cancer. (
  • 1990. Case-control study on occupational exposure to diesel exhaust and lung cancer risk. (
  • New Scientist - DNA Origami Trojan horse was used delivered a dose of the drug that proved lethal to human breast-cancer cells, even though they had developed resistance to doxorubicin. (
  • This is the first study to demonstrate that DNA origami can be used to circumvent drug resistance," says Hao Yan at Arizona State University in Tempe, who jointly led the work. (
  • A high level of drug loading efficiency was achieved, and the complex exhibited prominent cytotoxicity not only to regular human breast adenocarcinoma cancer cells (MCF 7), but more importantly to doxorubicin-resistant cancer cells, inducing a remarkable reversal of phenotype resistance. (
  • Cancer-derived supermeres increase lactate secretion, transfer cetuximab resistance and decrease hepatic lipids and glycogen in vivo. (
  • We identified three functional properties of cancer-derived supermeres: increased lactate secretion in recipient cells (a hallmark of the Warburg effect), transfer of cetuximab resistance to cetuximab-sensitive cells and altered liver metabolism following systemic injection. (
  • At the same time, cancer cells possess replicative immortality and resistance to death, so that over time it spreads to other parts of the body and eventually causes death [ 2 ]. (
  • However, in some cases, chemotherapy can lead to the development of resistance, where the cancer cells evolve to avoid the lethal effects of the chemotherapy drugs. (
  • resistance to antimicrobial drugs. (
  • Use additional code (U85) , if desired, to identify resistance, non-responsiveness and refractive properties of the neoplasm to antineoplastic drugs. (
  • In recent years, antimicrobial drug resistance has emerged as a possible cause of failure of patients to respond to TMP-SMX. (
  • Understanding whether DHPS mutations cause antimicrobial drug resistance is important in guiding clinicians who care for patients with PCP. (
  • Researchers at The Wistar Institute created a drug candidate for cancer associated with EBV, describing inhibitors of the protein EBNA1, Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen 1. (
  • EBNA1 is a DNA-binding protein that is critical for virus replication and for the continuous proliferation of infected cells. (
  • Genotype for patients with thrombophilia revealed that 10 (76.9%) protein C deficiency patients were PROC sequence variant carriers, 4 (21.1%) protein S deficiency were PROS1 sequence variant carriers, and 2 (50.0%) antithrombin III deficiency were SERPINC1 sequence variant carriers. (
  • Peptide and protein drugs. (
  • Cohen P. Protein kinases-the major drug targets of the twenty-firstcentury. (
  • As a result, the targeting probe?the tumor- specific peptide fused to the major coat protein?is exposed on the shell of the drug-loaded vesicle. (
  • The selected landscape phages displaying breast cancer cell- Dinding peptides will be stripped and recombinant major coat protein pVIII will be introduced into the doxorubicin- or paclitaxel-loaded vesicles. (
  • Retromer plays a vital role in neurons, steering amyloid precursor protein (APP) away from a region of the cell where APP is cleaved, creating the potentially toxic byproduct amyloid-beta, which is thought to contribute to the development of Alzheimer's. (
  • For example, the OATP1B3 protein transports bilirubin, which is a yellowish substance that is produced when red blood cells are broken down. (
  • The OATP1B3 protein also transports certain hormones, toxins, and drugs into the liver for removal from the body. (
  • With a natural compound screening, we identified that xanthohumol inhibited OSCC cells by reducing survivin protein level and activating mitochondrial apoptotic signaling. (
  • Survivin is an evolutionarily conserved eukaryotic protein that plays a critical role in cell cycle G2/M transition and apoptosis inhibition [ 10 ]. (
  • As was emphasized in Chapter 3, protein binding may influence drug distribution. (
  • Multidrug and toxin extrusion protein 1 (MATE1), which is encoded by solute carrier 47A1 ( SLC47A1 ), mediates the excretion of organic cations into bile and urine. (
  • 11 ] revealed that genetic materials can be delivered via exosomes in certain cells in order to reciprocally regulate gene expression by protein and miRNA. (
  • These non protein amino acids have unique biological functions, such as participating in hormone, antibiotic synthesis, anti-cancer, antibacterial, anti tuberculosis, lowering blood pressure and so on. (
  • Obtain CBCs (w. differential), serum creatinine, urinalysis with urine cell counts prior to initiation and at monthly intervals, urine protein to creatinine ratio (at baseline), thyroid function tests (at baseline, every 3 months, then clinically indicated), and serum transaminases, total bilirubin (at baseline then periodically) until 48 months after last dose. (
  • BRAFV600E induces constitutive kinase activity (e.g., mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway activation known as MAPK) which drives the uncontrolled growth of melanoma cells and pro-tumorigenic angiogenesis leading to disease metastases [ 6 ] [ 7 ] . (
  • Relative to the substantial study of exosomes, knowledge of MPs is severely lacking, especially in cancer research. (
  • Mesenchymal stem cells modified by the fusion gene iRGD-Lamp2b were constructed to separate and purify exosomes, and the anti-miRNA-221 oligonucleotide (AMO) was loaded into the exosomes by electroporation. (
  • Exosomes are emerging as a promising new drug/drug carrier modality and there is widespread excitement around their potential. (
  • Exosomes' natural functions in the body make them a potentially powerful drug and drug carrier. (
  • As every cell in the body produces unique exosomes with their own unique characteristics and contents, those unique and distinct signals can be distributed throughout the body. (
  • For example, exosomes produced from cancer cells may support cancer spread and development. (
  • On the other hand, exosomes produced from stem cells may promote anti-inflammatory and regenerative activity, like their originating cell. (
  • Isolation and purification of exosomes from the cell debris is complex, and it is even more difficult to isolate a particular subpopulation of exosomes. (
  • As exosomes are products of cells, their manufacture depends on the ability to produce large quantities of cells in ways that do not alter certain cell behaviors and characteristics. (
  • Alteration in any number of characteristics of the cell culture platform might alter the production, composition, attributes or function of the exosomes. (
  • The latest research shows that radiation can affect the abundance and composition of exosomes as well as cell-to-cell communication. (
  • Exosomes may directly bind to target cell receptor via their surface ligands to stimulate target cells, or function in horizontal transfer of bioactive components into target cells through fusing with target cells and endocytosis, thus affecting cell function (Fig. 1 ). (
  • An anticancer drug, quercetin (Qu), was loaded into modified GO via noncovalent interactions. (
  • ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters constitute the largest family of primary active transporters, responsible for many physiological processes and human maladies.However, various drug transporters, including solute carrier (SLC) transporters and ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters located in the single layer of polarized syncytiotrophoblasts in placenta. (
  • Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 9:3-28. (
  • Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. (
  • The homing ability of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) endows them with global positioning system navigation. (
  • He concludes that another future aim is to explore the possibility of using NDP probes to detect cancer stem cells. (
  • BCSCdb: a database of biomarkers of cancer stem cells. (
  • The study provides a path towards being able to generate fallopian tube cell lines from BRCA1/2 mutation carriers," he said. (
  • The ability to circumvent this barrier by using iPSCs from BRCA mutation carriers is a significant breakthrough. (
  • Like Dr. Swisher, he noted that the authors could have considered controls from BRCA 1/2 mutation carriers without cancer. (
  • Further, he noted, "Unexpectedly, the fallopian tube organoids from the BRCA1 mutation carriers formed structures that resemble early tubal precursors, namely STICs, after long-term culture (four months). (
  • If Entinostat performs well in the mouse studies, the next step will be to validate the drug in CDH1 mutation carriers as part of a clinical trial. (
  • OLAPARIB in BRCA mutation carriers Olaparib is a potent oral poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitor that causes synthetic lethality in BRCA1/2-deficient tumour cells. (
  • A conceptual review of rhodanine: current applications of antiviral drugs, anticancer and antimicrobial activities. (
  • Overall, cancer is an uncontrolled proliferation of cells that generate tumor masses, with the exception of hematologic cancers that spread through the lymphatic, blood and bone marrow systems. (
  • 2015. Myricetin inhibits proliferation of cisplatin-resistant cancer cells through a p53-dependent apoptotic pathway. (
  • This damage can lead to uncontrolled proliferation of cells, ultimately resulting in cancer. (
  • Staining of triggered T cells for the proliferation marker Ki-67 also showed an association between IMPDH filament formation and proliferation. (
  • In general, IMPDH1 is definitely constitutively indicated at low levels in most cells, but is high in retina, spleen, and resting peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), while IMPDH2 is definitely upregulated during proliferation and transformation (17C19). (
  • Until now, this was very difficult because pathologists needed to examine that tissue for evidence of early cancers. (
  • The disclosure also provides methods of detecting dysplastic cells and tissue, e.g., in the colon, providing early identification of precancerous and cancerous tissue. (
  • on the micelle level, nanoporphyrin can be loaded with anti-tumour drugs to kill malignant tissue. (
  • The 12-point biopsy blindly samples tissue from across the prostate gland, but it can miss a cancer by not probing in the right places. (
  • CoQ10 is also considered a "tissue-protecting antioxidant," so it helps prevent damage and can even reverse the effects of damage in your cells. (
  • Distribution is generally uneven because of differences in blood perfusion, tissue binding (eg, because of lipid content), regional pH, and permeability of cell membranes. (
  • Cells spread from the original tumour into surrounding tissue, and from here they are able to pass into blood vessels. (
  • Once enough microrobots surround the tumor, we point a laser at the tissue and by that trigger the drug release. (
  • We've invested more than $5 billion in cancer research since 1946, all to find more - and better - treatments, uncover factors that may cause cancer, and improve cancer patients' quality of life. (
  • Quantum dots are slated to drastically improve cancer cell targeting and other focused medical treatments because of their optical properties. (
  • Cancer is the disease that takes more human lives worldwide, currently the treatments available for this disease are very aggressive, among which chemotherapy stands out. (
  • Conventional treatments for solid-tumor cancers include surgical resection, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy, which are often used in combination. (
  • There is an urgent clinical need for potent and precise treatments that can destroy solid-tumor cancers while minimizing off-target effects. (
  • 2016. Theaflavin-3,3'-digallate decreases human ovarian carcinoma OVCAR-3 cell-induced angiogenesis via Akt and NOTCH-1 pathways, not via MAPK pathways. (
  • 2014. Nobiletin suppresses cell viability through AKT pathways in PC-3 and DU-145 prostate cancer cells. (
  • I did not find it convincing that the nodules in mice contained cancers based on the supplemental data shown," she noted. (
  • A drug carrier that uses the 'energy molecule' inside a cancer cell to trigger release of drugs at the tumour site is reported to be successful in treating cancer in mice. (
  • They find that this approach enhanced doxorubicin-induced cancer cell death in the laboratory in cultured cells and in mice. (
  • Although there have been numerous convincing experiments showing that nanodiamonds can carry active anti-cancer drugs in culture cells and even in mice, it is very unlikely that it will be ever used in humans, mostly because diamond is so inert that it cannot be degraded and therefore cannot be easily eliminated by the body ', comments François Treussart , physics professor at the ENS . (
  • The researchers' findings, published in the journal Science , show that use of a drug in mice appears to quickly reverse the pathological, cognitive and memory deficits caused by the onset of Alzheimer's. (
  • Naï- ve OVA-specific Th cells from OT-II mice were labeled with carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester (CFSE), transferred into histocompatible C57BL/6 mice, and then subsequently stimulated with either tolerogenic PEG-OVA or with OVA. (
  • There was also a significant reduction of the frequency of clonotypic TCR Vα2 + CD4 + T cells in the spleens of OT-II mice treated with PEG-OVA. (
  • These features of response of naïve OVA-specific Th cells upon sustained exposure to PEG-OVA were quite analogous to those reported for the same cells transferred into mice with systemic expression of the transgenic OVA gene. (
  • We found out considerable IMPDH filament formation in adult T BMS-740808 cells, B cells, and additional proliferating splenocytes of normal, adult B6 mice. (
  • Additionally, we transferred ovalbumin-specific BMS-740808 CD4+ T cells from B6.OT-II mice into B6.Ly5a recipient mice, challenged these mice with ovalbumin, and harvested spleens 6 days later. (
  • 1986. Immunomodulation by polyaromatic hydrocarbons in mice and murine cells. (
  • Following differentiation into fallopian tube epithelial (FTE) organoids, compared to controls, the BRCA1mut lines exhibited cellular abnormalities consistent with cancer development. (
  • During the past two decades, Drug development technology in Pharmaceutical Industry with innovations in formulation development have received a lot of attention. (
  • The researchers plan on testing the synthetic pores in a variety of scenarios including the release of anti-cancer drugs to cells and the development of pores that release pharmaceutically active biomolecules. (
  • Although it aims to reconstitute living cell features and address 'origin of life' related questions, rapid development over the years has transformed artificial cells into an engineering tool with huge potential in applied biotechnology. (
  • Through a cooperative research-and-development agreement, NIH and the now- Florida-based Philips Healthcare created an office-based, outpatient prostate biopsy device, called UroNav, that was later approved by the Food and Drug Administration. (
  • Therefore, these nanopaticulate systems may be explored as a potential tool for chemotherapy drug development. (
  • This fact demands a continuous development of drugs that may effectively treat breast cancer patients. (
  • A new study has found that up to 20% of aggressive brain cancers are fueled by overactive mitochondria and new drugs in development may be able to starve the cancers. (
  • Several investigators have explored the possibility of exploiting tumor-associated proteases for the development of new cancer chemotherapeutics. (
  • One of the reasons for high failure rates in CNS drug development is limited access of drugs to the target site in the brain. (
  • According to a previous study on the effects of HDL-C on cancer development, an inverse association between HDL-C and cancer was found to be particularly strong in hematologic malignancies [ 6 ]. (
  • In "Cell Deaths," Glücksmann summarizes observations about cell death in normal vertebrate development that he had compiled from literature published during the first half of the twentieth century. (
  • In the past, researchers weren't able to find other breast cancer risk genes, because the technology was too complicated to check the genes in large numbers of people, Couch says. (
  • Because the compounds resist destruction in the stomach, they could allow more of the drugs to reach the colon intact and improve their effectiveness, the researchers say. (
  • In a study of more than 2,000 men, NIH researchers and their colleagues recently found that combining the 12-point biopsy with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-targeted biopsy during the same session more accurately diagnoses prostate cancer than either technique alone [2]. (
  • By carefully analyzing the 404 removed prostates and comparing them to the biopsy results, the researchers found the 12-point biopsy missed the most aggressive cancers about 40 percent of the time. (
  • Mayo Clinic researchers have demonstrated in a mouse model that they can move small-molecule drugs through the blood-brain barrier. (
  • For the study researchers used a device called TheraBionic P1, invented by Pasche and Alexandre Barbault of TheraBionic GmbH in Ettlingen, Germany, that works by delivering cancer-specific, amplitude-modulated radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (AM RF EMF) programmed specifically for HCC. (
  • Case Western Reserve researchers discover FDA-approved drug rapidly clears amyloid from the brain and reverses cognitive defects. (
  • It provides better uptake of oil-soluble supplements in cell culture technology. (
  • Transfection of cells with an early endosomal marker and imaging with correlative light and electron microscopy confirmed cellular uptake. (
  • Organic anion transporting polypeptide 1B1: a genetically polymorphic transporter of major importance for hepatic drug uptake. (
  • Uptake and entrance of HPG-GO into the cells were verified by determining the intracellular amount of Qu by high-performance liquid chromatography. (
  • Anthracyclines are a potent class of anticancer drugs that have significant restrictions on their use due to problematic systemic toxicities, particularly for the myocardium and bone marrow cells. (
  • The results described in (table 4) showed that the ADI enzyme had very low cytotoxicity for REF cell line which increased with increasing /ml of ADI used, the apoptosis ratio of the amount of enzyme. (
  • The ability of ADI to produce intrinsic mitochondrial apoptosis effect on ANG and REF cell lines was investigated, the results showed that the main reason of cell cytotoxicity was the induction of apoptosis process by ADI enzyme and they were compatible to the results of cytotoxicity test. (
  • His research has focused on the inhibition of anti-cancer drugs, especially natural compounds, on cancer growth with emphasis on angiogenesis and apoptosis. (
  • It is foreseen that, in the beside future, nanostructured lipid carriers will be further advanced to consign cytotoxic anticancer compounds in a more efficient, exact and protected manner. (
  • Contrasted to SLN, NLC show a higher loading capability for hardworking compounds by conceiving a less organized solid lipid matrix, i.e. by blending a fluid lipid with the solid lipid, a higher element drug stacking can be achieved. (
  • To evaluate the potential of PGs in ferrying renal protective anti-oxidative stress compounds, the model drug 4-(2-aminoethyl)benzenesulfonyl fluoride hydrochloride (AEBSF) was conjugated to 41 kDa PG to form PG-AEBSF. (
  • CHICAGO, March 27 - Compounds derived from the blue agave, a fruit used to make tequila, shows promise in early laboratory studies as a natural, more effective way to deliver drugs to the colon than conventional drug-carriers, according to chemists at the University of Guadalajara in Mexico. (
  • The paper on this research, CELL 152 , will be presented at 5:00 p.m., Tuesday, March 27, at the McCormick Place Lakeside, Room E267, Level 2, during the symposium, "Functionalization of Renewable Materials: Lignin and Other Natural Compounds. (
  • In addition, drugs derived from natural compounds work better for patients than do drugs manufactured synthetically. (
  • Disclosed are compounds and their pharmaceutically acceptable salts that possess inhibitory activity against APEX, and methods of using the compounds and salts to treat cancer and precancerous conditions. (
  • or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, and a therapeutically effective amount of an additional anti-cancer agent to a subject in need thereof, wherein the co-administering results in a greater anti-cancer effect than the effect of the additional anti-cancer agent when administered alone as a sole active agent, without any of compounds 1-9. (
  • 18. The method of claim 17, wherein the virus-induced cancer is induced by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), Hepatitis B virus (HBV), Hepatitis C virus (HCV), Human immunodeficiency' virus (HIV), Human herpes virus 8 (HHV-8), Human papillomavirus (HPV), or Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1). (
  • As a proof of the concept, we will select filamentous phages specifically binding surface receptors of human and mouse breast cancer cells and/or penetrating into these cells. (
  • A federally approved heart medication shows significant effectiveness in interfering with SARS-CoV-2 entry into the human cell host, according to a new study by a research team from Texas A&M University and The University of Texas Medical Branch (UTMB). (
  • Lin HY, TsaiLK, Cheng YC, Lu HE, Huang CY, Hsieh PC, Lin CH. Generation of a human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) line (IBMS-iPSC-048-05) from a patient with ALS and parkinsonism having a hexanucleotide repeat expansion mutation in C9orf72 gene . (
  • PLGA is one of the few polymers that the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved for human administration due to its biocompatibility and biodegradability. (
  • Besides its impact on the transport of pemetrexed, this high-affinity route may represent another pathway by which physiological folates are transported into human cells. (
  • Pemetrexed is transported into murine and human leukemia cells by the RFC, with transport kinetics similar to MTX, and binds to FR-α with an affinity similar to that of folic acid (6, 7) . (
  • These studies revealed the presence of a high-affinity transport system with properties distinct from any other folate/antifolate transporter previously described in human cells. (
  • Although overexpression of survivin is positively correlated with poor prognosis in multiple human cancers, the function of survivin in human OSCC remains undefined. (
  • In this study, we investigate the biological function of survivin in human OSCC cells. (
  • Human papilloma virus related cancer has become a trend over the past few decades. (
  • Mechanisms of cell entry by human papillomaviruses: an overview. (
  • Cells used to study the human blood-brain barrier in the lab aren't what they seem, a new study has found, throwing nearly a decade's worth of research into question. (
  • Inhibition of nucleotide synthesis promotes replicative senescence of human mammary epithelial cells. (
  • 2013. Multipotent Flavonoid Kaempferol: Molecular Targets and Mechanism of Action and Nanotechnology applications in Cancer and Human Health. (
  • However, cancer remains a significant public issue threatening the human health. (
  • We then stimulated primary human being peripheral blood BMS-740808 mononuclear cells with T cell mitogens phytohemagglutinin (PHA), concanavalin A (ConA), or antibodies to CD3 and CD28 for 72 h. (
  • Currently there are more than 100 types of identified cancer that affect human beings as well as animals. (
  • Transformation of human breast epithelial cells by chemical carcinogens. (
  • The human body is made up of a hundred million cells of various types. (
  • The cancer cells may not recognise the DNA origami as a threat in the way that free doxorubicin is, he suggests. (
  • Doxorubicin, a well-known anti-cancer drug, was non-covalently attached to DNA origami nanostructures through intercalation. (
  • Presumably, the activity of doxorubicin-loaded DNA origami inhibits lysosomal acidification, resulting in cellular redistribution of the drug to action sites. (
  • Doxorubicin and daunorubicin are examples of drugs in this class. (
  • 2. Models of Anticancer Drugs Paclitaxel (Taxol), Mitomycin C and Doxorubicin. (
  • This route is highly specific for pemetrexed, with a substrate specificity pattern quite different from that of the reduced folate carrier and folate receptors. (
  • This transport system exhibits a high degree of structural specificity that favors pemetrexed over many other antifolates and results in its very rapid transport and accumulation in mesothelioma cells. (
  • In situ Redirection of T cell Specificity and Imaging of Targeted CAR Expression. (
  • The team also engineered RBCEVs to improve their specificity of homing towards metastatic cells that took hold in the lungs. (
  • Because they stay in cycle, they continue to be suitable targets for cell cycle-dependent cytotoxic agents [26], where as normal cells become quiescent and relatively resistant. (
  • Walker, M. A. Receptor-Mediated and Enzyme-Dependent Targeting of Cytotoxic anticancer Drugs. (
  • GLOBOCAN 2018 estimated 18.1 million cases per year worldwide, which is expected to increase to 29.5 million cases of cancer per year by 2040 [ 1 ]. (
  • Daggins admitted to using a phone to further a drug distribution operation in April 2018 in Monongalia County. (
  • The selective tumor cell cytotoxicity of triamterene occurs through its antifolate activity and depends on the activity of the folate synthesis enzyme thymidylate synthase. (
  • The cytotoxicity of ADI to glioblastoma multiforme (ANG) cancer cell line and rat embryo fibroblast(REF) normal cell line for (24, 48 and 72h) were estimated, the inhibition rate(IR) increased with raising of ADI concentration and incubation period for ANG cell line but these results were opposite for REF cell line that IR decreased with increment of incubation period. (
  • HPG-GO did not show any cytotoxicity on the MCF7 cell line in different concentrations during 72 hours' incubation. (
  • Cytotoxicity tests with MCF-7, HeLa and H-82 cancer cell lines showed that free colchicine was very toxic, showing an similar to100% lethal effect in both HeLa and H-82 cell lines and more than 50% decrease in viability in MCF-7 cells in 4 days. (
  • The drug release profile suggests the importance of having the hydrazone linker that helps to release the drug exactly at the mild acidic conditions resembling the pH of the cancerous cells. (
  • A research study identified new genes that may be associated with a higher risk for triple-negative breast cancer. (
  • These genes are known by several names: breast-cancer-risk genes, cancer-predisposition genes, and cancer-susceptibility genes. (
  • Unsurprisingly, mutations in MMR genes occur in a wide range of different cancers. (
  • Hormone-bound estrogen receptors dimerize, translocate to the nucleus of cells and bind to estrogen response elements (ERE) of genes. (
  • Genetic polymorphism of CYP genes, alone or in combination, as a risk modifier of tobacco-related cancers. (
  • Previously, releasing the drugs from inside the vesicles was triggered with temperature-induced leaky vesicle walls or with inserted peptide channels, which are less rigid and predictable than DNA. (
  • The administered drug is generally a substance which can efficiently photosensitize aggressive cancer death formation of singlet oxygen or other reactive species derived from oxygenand such species react with different biological targets, and cause cellular damage and finally, the cellular death. (
  • Oral cancer is one of the most common cancers worldwide, accounting for 2% of all cancer cases. (
  • Prostate and breast cancer are two of the most common cancers in Western countries. (
  • Delivered precisely to the target cell, these biomolecules can measure, monitor or alter biological components within the cell. (
  • Artificial cells are non-living system that includes no prerequisite designing modules for their formation and therefore allow freedom of assembling desired biological machinery within a physical boundary devoid of complex contemporary living-cell counterparts. (
  • They are not essentially natural cell substitutes but non-living biological tools designed to understand cellular complexity and reconstitute cellular metabolic functions within them [ 1 , 4-6 ]. (
  • In contrast, an artificial cell is a synthetic system built to fulfil some of the signature functions of biological cells in a minimalistic way [ 4-6 ]. (
  • In addition, as a hydrophilic polymer, HPG improved the stability and dispersion of GO sheets in biological solutions and endowed extra drug-loading capacity for the sheets. (
  • The review article "Cell Deaths in Normal Vertebrate Ontogeny" (abbreviated as "Cell Deaths") was published in Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophy Society in 1951. (
  • TNBC tends to be more aggressive than other common types of breast cancer. (
  • The study results , published in 2015, found that the MRI-targeted approach was indeed superior to the 12-point biopsy at detecting aggressive prostate cancers [3]. (
  • Of that total, 404 men had evidence of aggressive cancer, and had their prostates surgically removed. (
  • Adding the MRI-targeted biopsy also helped doctors find and sample the more aggressive cancers. (
  • That's compared to misses of about 17 percent for the most-aggressive cancers for the 12-point biopsy alone and about 9 percent for MRI-targeted biopsy alone. (
  • The ex vivo profile of J 1 suggests that further evaluation of J1 as the alkylating agent in for example aggressive breast cancer might be of particular interest, preferentially in combination with DNA-topoisomerase II inhibitors like etoposide. (
  • Melanoma represents the most aggressive, malignant phenotype resulting from a genetic and/or environmental-induced change to epidermal skin melanocytes and accounts for more than 75% of skin cancer-related deaths [ 1 ] [ 2 ] . (
  • The favorable accumulation property of 41 kDa PG in normal and oxidative stress-induced kidneys, along with its capabilities in conserving the pharmacological properties of the conjugated renal protective drugs, supports its role as a potential renal targeting drug carrier. (
  • Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) accounts for the majority of primary liver cancers. (
  • HCC accounts for nearly 90% of all liver cancers, and current survival rates are between six and 20 months," said Boris Pasche, M.D., Ph.D. , chair of cancer biology and director of Wake Forest Baptist's Comprehensive Cancer Center. (
  • About 10 to 15% of triple-negative breast cancers in Caucasians test positive for mutations in the BRCA1 gene. (
  • Nanowerk News ) DNA has been used as a 'molecular building block' to construct synthetic bio-inspired pores which will improve the way drugs are delivered and help advance the field of synthetic biology, according to scientists from UCL and Nanion Technologies. (
  • Far beyond the [project] goals, nanodiamond future in medical applications is more as a diagnostic device in personal medicine or as a monitoring tool for example to track stem cell engraftment in regenerative medicine, as recently demonstrated by the biomedical applications of fluorescent ND-team at the Institute of Atomic and Molecular Science , at the Academia Sinica inTaiwan," he concludes. (
  • Minimum components of an artificial living cell might be (i) a boundary that separates cell components from surroundings, (ii) self-sustaining metabolic functions to be carried out inside it, (iii) cell-cell communication and molecular exchange and (iv) cellular growth and division [ 4 , 5 ]. (
  • Dr. Chen is currently working on molecular biology of cancer research. (
  • We propose that T cell activation will be a useful model for long term experiments probing the molecular mechanisms that travel IMPDH polymerization, as well as how IMPDH filament formation affects cell function. (
  • In supplement, the function of NLC in cancer chemotherapy is presented and hotspots in research are emphasized. (
  • Post Doctoral Fellow, Cancer Research Inst. (
  • Our key challenge was to replace fluorescent bimolecular dyes that are currently used as luminescence markers in cancer cell research," explains Nesladek. (
  • But research in Nature Communications today from the University of California Davis Cancer Centre shows the prospect of that being a realistic scenario may not be far off. (
  • Stem Cell Research. (
  • Now, a team of scientists at the University of Huddersfield is researching how to combat these challenges by using "self-assembled" drugs and although the research is in its very early stages, they've already had a breakthrough. (
  • Through a grant funded by No Stomach For Cancer, principal investigators Lyvianne Decourtye-Espiard and Parry Guilford from the Centre for Translational Cancer Research, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand , have identified the drug Entinostat as a promising candidate for the chemoprevention of Hereditary Diffuse Gastric Cancer. (
  • This research on Entinostat is part of a broader program of work being carried out by the laboratory that currently involves approximately nine promising candidate drugs for the chemoprevention of Hereditary Diffuse Gastric Cancer (HDGC). (
  • Leading cell biologists, immunologists, medicinal chemists, oncologists, and surgeons collaborating to address very specific clinical needs in cancer research. (
  • The cash, an upfront payment to Waltham, MA-based Arrakis, kicks off a research partnership set up to feed new drug candidates into the Roche pipeline. (
  • Microspheres were loaded with colchicine, a model antimitotic drug, which was frequently used as an antimitotic agent in cancer research involving cell cultures. (
  • When the team blocked midkine expression, macrophages and T cells began to function normally again, attacking and killing the melanoma cells and reducing cancer spread. (
  • Melanoma is a type of skin cancer which can spread to other organs in the body. (
  • In the UK, melanoma is the fifth most common cancer, with around 16,000 people diagnosed each year. (
  • Melanoma develops from cells in the skin called melanocytes, which are the cells responsible for producing melanin, the chemical responsible for skin pigmentation and which helps protect the body from UV radiation. (
  • Melanoma is the least common form of skin cancer and is associated with the highest mortality. (