ENDOPEPTIDASES which have a cysteine involved in the catalytic process. This group of enzymes is inactivated by CYSTEINE PROTEINASE INHIBITORS such as CYSTATINS and SULFHYDRYL REAGENTS.
A lysosomal cysteine proteinase with a specificity similar to that of PAPAIN. The enzyme is present in a variety of tissues and is important in many physiological and pathological processes. In pathology, cathepsin B has been found to be involved in DEMYELINATION; EMPHYSEMA; RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS, and NEOPLASM INVASIVENESS.
A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A subclass of PEPTIDE HYDROLASES that catalyze the internal cleavage of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS.
Enzyme that is a major constituent of kidney brush-border membranes and is also present to a lesser degree in the brain and other tissues. It preferentially catalyzes cleavage at the amino group of hydrophobic residues of the B-chain of insulin as well as opioid peptides and other biologically active peptides. The enzyme is inhibited primarily by EDTA, phosphoramidon, and thiorphan and is reactivated by zinc. Neprilysin is identical to common acute lymphoblastic leukemia antigen (CALLA Antigen), an important marker in the diagnosis of human acute lymphocytic leukemia. There is no relationship with CALLA PLANT.
Any member of the group of ENDOPEPTIDASES containing at the active site a serine residue involved in catalysis.
A potent inhibitor of membrane metalloendopeptidase (ENKEPHALINASE). Thiorphan potentiates morphine-induced ANALGESIA and attenuates naloxone-precipitated withdrawal symptoms.
A membrane-bound metalloendopeptidase that may play a role in the degradation or activation of a variety of PEPTIDE HORMONES and INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS. Genetic mutations that result in loss of function of this protein are a cause of HYPOPHOSPHATEMIC RICKETS, X-LINKED DOMINANT.
Compounds which inhibit or antagonize biosynthesis or actions of proteases (ENDOPEPTIDASES).
A subclass of peptide hydrolases that depend on a CYSTEINE residue for their activity.
ENDOPEPTIDASES which use a metal such as ZINC in the catalytic mechanism.
Exogenous and endogenous compounds which inhibit CYSTEINE ENDOPEPTIDASES.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-CYSTEINE to 3-sulfinoalanine (3-sulfino-L-alanine) in the CYSTEINE metabolism and TAURINE and hypotaurine metabolic pathways.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
An enzyme that catalyzes the biosynthesis of cysteine in microorganisms and plants from O-acetyl-L-serine and hydrogen sulfide. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 4.2.99.8.
Proteins which contain carbohydrate groups attached covalently to the polypeptide chain. The protein moiety is the predominant group with the carbohydrate making up only a small percentage of the total weight.
Chemical groups containing the covalent disulfide bonds -S-S-. The sulfur atoms can be bound to inorganic or organic moieties.
A biologically active tridecapeptide isolated from the hypothalamus. It has been shown to induce hypotension in the rat, to stimulate contraction of guinea pig ileum and rat uterus, and to cause relaxation of rat duodenum. There is also evidence that it acts as both a peripheral and a central nervous system neurotransmitter.
Exogenous or endogenous compounds which inhibit SERINE ENDOPEPTIDASES.
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Peptides composed of two amino acid units.
A 25-kDa peptidase produced by Staphylococcus simulans which cleaves a glycine-glcyine bond unique to an inter-peptide cross-bridge of the STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS cell wall. EC 3.4.24.75.
A sub-subclass of endopeptidases that depend on an ASPARTIC ACID residue for their activity.
A group of lysosomal proteinases or endopeptidases found in aqueous extracts of a variety of animal tissues. They function optimally within an acidic pH range. The cathepsins occur as a variety of enzyme subtypes including SERINE PROTEASES; ASPARTIC PROTEINASES; and CYSTEINE PROTEASES.
Compounds containing the -SH radical.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
Databases devoted to knowledge about specific chemicals.
Databases devoted to knowledge about PHARMACEUTICAL PRODUCTS.
A serine-threonine protein kinase family whose members are components in protein kinase cascades activated by diverse stimuli. These MAPK kinases phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES and are themselves phosphorylated by MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES. JNK kinases (also known as SAPK kinases) are a subfamily.
The process of finding chemicals for potential therapeutic use.
A superfamily of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that are activated by diverse stimuli via protein kinase cascades. They are the final components of the cascades, activated by phosphorylation by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES, which in turn are activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES).
A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that regulates a variety of cellular processes including CELL GROWTH PROCESSES; CELL DIFFERENTIATION; APOPTOSIS; and cellular responses to INFLAMMATION. The P38 MAP kinases are regulated by CYTOKINE RECEPTORS and can be activated in response to bacterial pathogens.
A proline-directed serine/threonine protein kinase which mediates signal transduction from the cell surface to the nucleus. Activation of the enzyme by phosphorylation leads to its translocation into the nucleus where it acts upon specific transcription factors. p40 MAPK and p41 MAPK are isoforms.
A set of protein subcomplexes involved in PROTEIN SORTING of UBIQUITINATED PROTEINS into intraluminal vesicles of MULTIVESICULAR BODIES and in membrane scission during formation of intraluminal vesicles, during the final step of CYTOKINESIS, and during the budding of enveloped viruses. The ESCRT machinery is comprised of the protein products of Class E vacuolar protein sorting genes.
A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
TRANSPORT VESICLES formed when cell-membrane coated pits (COATED PITS, CELL-MEMBRANE) invaginate and pinch off. The outer surface of these vesicles is covered with a lattice-like network of COP (coat protein complex) proteins, either COPI or COPII. COPI coated vesicles transport backwards from the cisternae of the GOLGI APPARATUS to the rough endoplasmic reticulum (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH), while COPII coated vesicles transport forward from the rough endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi apparatus.
A broad category of proteins involved in the formation, transport and dissolution of TRANSPORT VESICLES. They play a role in the intracellular transport of molecules contained within membrane vesicles. Vesicular transport proteins are distinguished from MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS, which move molecules across membranes, by the mode in which the molecules are transported.
A large group of proteins that control APOPTOSIS. This family of proteins includes many ONCOGENE PROTEINS as well as a wide variety of classes of INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS such as CASPASES.
Substances used to destroy or inhibit the action of rats, mice, or other rodents.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
One of two salivary glands in the neck, located in the space bound by the two bellies of the digastric muscle and the angle of the mandible. It discharges through the submandibular duct. The secretory units are predominantly serous although a few mucous alveoli, some with serous demilunes, occur. (Stedman, 25th ed)
A family of cell surface receptors that signal via a conserved domain that extends into the cell CYTOPLASM. The conserved domain is referred to as a death domain due to the fact that many of these receptors are involved in signaling APOPTOSIS. Several DEATH DOMAIN RECEPTOR SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEINS can bind to the death domains of the activated receptors and through a complex series of interactions activate apoptotic mediators such as CASPASES.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
An inducibly-expressed subtype of prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase. It plays an important role in many cellular processes and INFLAMMATION. It is the target of COX2 INHIBITORS.
Enzyme complexes that catalyze the formation of PROSTAGLANDINS from the appropriate unsaturated FATTY ACIDS, molecular OXYGEN, and a reduced acceptor.
A constitutively-expressed subtype of prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase. It plays an important role in many cellular processes.
The most common and most biologically active of the mammalian prostaglandins. It exhibits most biological activities characteristic of prostaglandins and has been used extensively as an oxytocic agent. The compound also displays a protective effect on the intestinal mucosa.
A group of compounds derived from unsaturated 20-carbon fatty acids, primarily arachidonic acid, via the cyclooxygenase pathway. They are extremely potent mediators of a diverse group of physiological processes.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Family of the suborder HAPLORHINI (Anthropoidea) comprising bipedal primate MAMMALS. It includes modern man (HOMO SAPIENS) and the great apes: gorillas (GORILLA GORILLA), chimpanzees (PAN PANISCUS and PAN TROGLODYTES), and orangutans (PONGO PYGMAEUS).
This cysteine endopeptidase is coded by adenoviruses. Webster A, Hay RT, Kemp G (January 1993). "The adenovirus protease is ... This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reaction Cleaves proteins of the adenovirus and its host cell at two consensus ... activated by a virus-coded disulphide-linked peptide". Cell. 72 (1): 97-104. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(93)90053-s. PMID 8422686. ...
... is also known to play a role in axon regeneration and has an additional DISC1-modulated function as a cysteine endopeptidase. ... and cell-to-cell adhesion. Several studies have shown that unregulated expression or altered protein structure of DISC1 may ... In coordination with a wide array of interacting partners, DISC1 has been shown to participate in the regulation of cell ... Levels of the protein in cycling neural progenitor cells affects whether they differentiate into neurons or remain as ...
... is synthesized as an inactive zymogen. AEP and other cysteine peptidase are activated when pH changes ... The reduction of proinflammatory cytokines by stimulating TLR9 was found in myeloid cells and plasmacytoid dendritic cells ... Legumain is a cysteine protease from the C13 family of the CD clan of proteases (MEROPS). It uses a catalytic triad of Cysteine ... hence also called cysteine protease). It is also known as asparaginyl endopeptidase, citvac, proteinase B, hemoglobinase, PRSC1 ...
Kos J, Jevnikar Z, Obermajer N (April-June 2009). "The role of cathepsin X in cell signaling". Cell Adhesion & Migration. 3 (2 ... a cysteine protease with the proregion covalently linked to the active site cysteine". Journal of Molecular Biology. 295 (4): ... It is an exopeptidase with strict carboxypeptidase activity, while most other cathepsins are endopeptidases. Cathepsin Z has an ... Santamaría I, Velasco G, Pendás AM, Fueyo A, López-Otín C (July 1998). "Cathepsin Z, a novel human cysteine proteinase with a ...
Redirected from Cysteine endopeptidase) Cysteine proteases, also known as thiol proteases, are enzymes that degrade proteins. ... The ability of macrophages and other cells to mobilize elastolytic cysteine proteases to their surfaces under specialized ... The MEROPS online database for peptidases and their inhibitors: Cysteine Peptidases. *Cysteine+endopeptidases at the US ... Cysteine Peptidase. Crystal structure of the cysteine peptidase papain in complex with its covalent inhibitor E-64. Rendered ...
... cysteine; G, glutamic acid; M, metallo; S, serine; T, threonine; and U, unknown. The serine, threonine and cysteine peptidases ... An example of this would be ADAM12 which plays a significant role in the fusion of muscle cells during embryo development, in a ... These endopeptidases include CAAX prenyl protease 1, which proteolytically removes the C-terminal three residues of ... There are two subgroups of metalloproteinases: Exopeptidases, metalloexopeptidases (EC number: 3.4.17). Endopeptidases, ...
cell differentiation. • negative regulation of cysteine-type endopeptidase activity involved in apoptotic process. • positive ... cell fate determination. • negative regulation of programmed cell death. • vestibulocochlear nerve formation. • camera-type eye ... Pax2 expression in these diseases appears fuel cell cycling, inhibit cell death, and confer resistance to chemotherapy.[13] Due ... cell nucleus. • macromolecular complex. Biological process. • cellular response to hydrogen peroxide. • cellular response to ...
cysteine-type endopeptidase activity involved in execution phase of apoptosis. Cellular component. • cell body. • cytosol. • ... T cell activation. • suppression by virus of host cysteine-type endopeptidase activity involved in apoptotic process. • ... cysteine-type endopeptidase activity involved in apoptotic process. • tumor necrosis factor receptor binding. • cysteine-type ... cysteine-type peptidase activity. • cysteine-type endopeptidase activity involved in apoptotic signaling pathway. • protein ...
negative regulation of cell cycle arrest. • positive regulation of cysteine-type endopeptidase activity involved in apoptotic ... cell nucleus. • cell projection. • mitochondrial membrane. • keratin filament. • dendritic shaft. • dendritic spine head. • ... cell differentiation. • immune system process. • negative regulation of cell cycle process. • positive regulation of release of ... negative regulation of vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation. • positive regulation of cell migration. • positive ...
activation of cysteine-type endopeptidase activity involved in apoptotic signaling pathway. • cell-cell signaling. • cell ... activation of cysteine-type endopeptidase activity involved in apoptotic process. • signal transduction. • apoptotic process. • ... positive regulation of cysteine-type endopeptidase activity involved in apoptotic process. • immune response. • positive ... may allow selective targeting of cancer cells by controlling activation of Type 1/Type 2 pathways of cell death and single cell ...
cell nucleus. • serine-type endopeptidase complex. Biological process. • cellular response to retinoic acid. • cellular ... negative regulation of cell cycle. • neuron development. • protein autoprocessing. • positive regulation of cysteine-type ... positive regulation of cysteine-type endopeptidase activity involved in apoptotic process. • protein homotrimerization. ... inducing cell death". Molecular Cell. 8 (3): 613-21. doi:10.1016/S1097-2765(01)00341-0. PMID 11583623.. ...
... paired-basic endopeptidase, yeast cysteine proteinase F, paired-basic endopeptidase, andrenorphin-Gly-generating enzyme, ... Cell. 37 (3): 1075-89. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(84)90442-2. PMID 6430565. S2CID 37772545. Achstetter T, Wolf DH (January 1985). " ... Mizuno K, Nakamura T, Ohshima T, Tanaka S, Matsuo H (October 1988). "Yeast KEX2 genes encodes an endopeptidase homologous to ... Mizuno K, Nakamura T, Ohshima T, Tanaka S, Matsuo H (February 1989). "Characterization of KEX2-encoded endopeptidase from yeast ...
cell-cell signaling. • negative regulation of apoptotic process. • regulation of cysteine-type endopeptidase activity involved ... negative regulation of cysteine-type endopeptidase activity involved in apoptotic process. • microtubule-based movement. • ... activation of cysteine-type endopeptidase activity involved in apoptotic process. • positive regulation of Ras protein signal ... Proliferation of pancreatic beta cells[edit]. There is evidence that pancreatic beta cells express both the TrkA and p75NTR ...
negative regulation of cysteine-type endopeptidase activity involved in apoptotic process. • negative regulation of hydrogen ... It is secreted by mesenchymal cells and targets and acts primarily upon epithelial cells and endothelial cells, but also acts ... endothelial cells and haemopoietic progenitor cells, HGF also regulates the chemotaxis of T cells into heart tissue. Binding of ... cell morphogenesis. • positive regulation of cell proliferation. • hyaluronan metabolic process. • positive regulation of DNA ...
Serine, threonine and cysteine proteases use a nucleophilic residue (usually in a catalytic triad). That residue performs a ... Here, it is released by mast cells and causes activation of complement and kinins. This group includes the calpains. Basic ... endopeptidases, such as trypsin, chymotrypsin, pepsin, papain, elastase). Catalysis is achieved by one of two mechanisms: ... One way to make a nucleophile is by a catalytic triad, where a histidine residue is used to activate serine, cysteine, or ...
activation of cysteine-type endopeptidase activity involved in apoptotic process. • cell cycle arrest. • Ras protein signal ... cell cycle checkpoint. • G1 phase of mitotic cell cycle. • G1/S transition of mitotic cell cycle. • protein polyubiquitination ... regulation of G2/M transition of mitotic cell cycle. • negative regulation of cell growth. • negative regulation of B cell ... mitotic cell cycle. • negative regulation of cell-matrix adhesion. • apoptotic DNA fragmentation. • transcription, DNA- ...
Birktoft, Jens J.; Breddam, Klaus (1994). "[8] Glutamyl endopeptidases". Proteolytic Enzymes: Serine and Cysteine Peptidases. ... Koziel, Joanna; Potempa, Jan (2013-02-01). "Protease-armed bacteria in the skin". Cell and Tissue Research. 351 (2): 325-337. ... subtilis glutamyl endopeptidase GluBS Enterococcus E. faecalis glutamyl endopeptidase SprE Glutamyl endopeptidase is in at ... S. epidermidis glutamyl endopeptidase GluSE Also called S. epidermidis serine protease (Esp). S. warneri glutamyl endopeptidase ...
negative regulation of cysteine-type endopeptidase activity involved in apoptotic process. • regulation of axon regeneration. • ... regulation of cell differentiation. • mesodermal cell fate determination. • negative regulation of heterotypic cell-cell ... "Induction of pluripotent stem cells from adult human fibroblasts by defined factors". Cell. 131 (5): 861-72. doi:10.1016/j.cell ... cell nucleus. Biological process. • negative regulation of chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 2 production. • epidermal cell ...
cell-cell signaling. • negative regulation of apoptotic process. • regulation of cysteine-type endopeptidase activity involved ... negative regulation of cysteine-type endopeptidase activity involved in apoptotic process. • microtubule-based movement. • ... activation of cysteine-type endopeptidase activity involved in apoptotic process. • positive regulation of Ras protein signal ... In acquired immunity, NGF is produced by the Thymus as well as CD4+ T cell clones, inducing a cascade of maturation of T cells ...
cell projection. Biological process. • negative regulation of cysteine-type endopeptidase activity involved in apoptotic ... The CD44 antigen is a cell-surface glycoprotein involved in cell-cell interactions, cell adhesion and migration. In humans, the ... CD44 is a multistructural and multifunctional cell surface molecule involved in cell proliferation, cell differentiation, cell ... wound healing, spreading of cells. • regulation of lamellipodium morphogenesis. • cell-cell adhesion. • positive regulation of ...
positive regulation of cysteine-type endopeptidase activity involved in apoptotic process. • positive regulation of interleukin ... cell nucleus. • NLRP3 inflammasome complex. • Golgi membrane. • Golgi apparatus. • membrane. Biological process. • defense ... activation of cysteine-type endopeptidase activity involved in apoptotic process. • negative regulation of inflammatory ... Immunology and Cell Biology. 88 (1): 20-3. doi:10.1038/icb.2009.93. PMC 4337950. PMID 19935768.. ...
negative regulation of cysteine-type endopeptidase activity involved in apoptotic process. • negative regulation of hydrogen ... cell morphogenesis. • positive regulation of cell proliferation. • hyaluronan metabolic process. • positive regulation of DNA ... mitotic cell cycle. • regulation of receptor activity. • positive regulation of protein kinase B signaling. • positive ... serine-type endopeptidase activity. • protein tyrosine kinase activity. • Ras guanyl-nucleotide exchange factor activity. • ...
Activated c-kit is then able to recruit hematopoietic, endothelial and mast cell progenitor cells, these cells are then ... In humans, the group of cathepsin cysteine proteases or cysteine cathepsins comprises 11 family members, cathepsins B, C, F, H ... MMPs are a large multigene family of zinc-dependent endopeptidases. The collective MMP family is capable of degrading all known ... Cathepsins also can be secreted by cells, associate with the cell surface, and degrade the ECM. A study of all 11 members of ...
Caspase stands for cysteine-aspartic acid protease and play an essential role in the apoptotic pathway of the cell. Protease 2A ... Picornain 3C's endopeptidase activity is primarily responsible for the catalytic process of selectively cleaving Gln-Gly bonds ... Picornain 3C are cysteine proteases related by amino acid sequence to trypsin-like serine proteases. Picornain 3C is encoded by ... Rhinovirus uses protease 3C and 3D to induce cytopathetic effects in the host cell. 3C and 3D act similarly in rhinovirus as ...
Franco SJ, Huttenlocher A (September 2005). "Regulating cell migration: calpains make the cut". Journal of Cell Science. 118 ( ... This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reaction Broad endopeptidase specificity This enzyme belongs to the peptidase ... is an intracellular heterodimeric calcium-activated cysteine protease. ... There is evidence suggesting that the mechanism of action is through cleavage of substrates involved in cell migration, ...
... is cleaved by several proteases including Separase and Calcium-dependent cysteine endopeptidase Calpain-1 during mitosis ... August 2013). "Transcription factor binding in human cells occurs in dense clusters formed around cohesin anchor sites". Cell. ... November 2010). "Sororin mediates sister chromatid cohesion by antagonizing Wapl". Cell. 143 (5): 737-49. doi:10.1016/j.cell. ... Cell Stem Cell. 13 (1): 30-5. doi:10.1016/j.stem.2013.05.012. PMID 23747202. Fay A, Misulovin Z, Li J, Schaaf CA, Gause M, ...
... can be used to dissociate cells in the first step of cell culture preparations. A ten-minute treatment of small tissue ... including endopeptidases, aminopeptidases, dipeptidyl peptidases and enzymes with both exo- and endopeptidase activity. Members ... "Novel cysteine proteinase inhibitors homologous to the proregions of cysteine proteinases". Current Protein & Peptide Science. ... This cysteine then performs a nucleophilic attack on the carbonyl carbon of a peptide backbone. This forms a covalent acyl- ...
... a family of cysteine proteinases potentially implicated in cell degradation by autophagy". The Journal of Biological Chemistry ... This gene belongs to the autophagy-related protein 4 (Atg4) family of C54 endopeptidases. Members of this family encode ... Autophagy is postulated to be essential for cell homeostasis and cell remodeling during differentiation, metamorphosis, non- ... "Entrez Gene: Autophagy related 4D, cysteine peptidase". Betin VM, MacVicar TD, Parsons SF, Anstee DJ, Lane JD (April 2012). "A ...
positive regulation of cysteine-type endopeptidase activity involved in apoptotic process. • branching involved in ureteric bud ... cell cycle arrest. • positive regulation of response to DNA damage stimulus. • positive regulation of cell proliferation. • ... "Cell. 142 (3): 480-93. PMC 2923036 . PMID 20691906. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2010.06.037.. ... "Cell. 151 (1): 68-79. PMC 3471363 . PMID 23021216. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2012.08.033.. ...
cell-cell adhesion. • negative regulation of cysteine-type endopeptidase activity involved in apoptotic process. • MAPK cascade ... cell-cell adherens junction. • cell nucleus. • plasma membrane. • synapse. • central region of growth cone. • glutamatergic ... cadherin binding involved in cell-cell adhesion. • RNA binding. • calcium channel regulator activity. • Rab guanyl-nucleotide ... such as cell division and regulation of insulin sensitivity. It has also been implicated in the pathogenesis of small cell lung ...
"Cell. 137 (1): 133-45. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2009.01.041. PMC 2668214. PMID 19345192.. ... This is then transferred to E1's active-site cysteine residue in concert with the adenylylation of a second ubiquitin.[48] This ... Wilk S, Orlowski M (November 1980). "Cation-sensitive neutral endopeptidase: isolation and specificity of the bovine pituitary ... Cell cycle controlEdit. Cell cycle progression is controlled by ordered action of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs), activated by ...
positive regulation of cysteine-type endopeptidase activity involved in apoptotic process. • negative regulation of viral ... positive regulation of heterotypic cell-cell adhesion. • negative regulation of mitotic cell cycle. • endothelial cell ... but it is produced also by a broad variety of cell types including lymphoid cells, mast cells, endothelial cells, cardiac ... activation of cysteine-type endopeptidase activity involved in apoptotic process. • tumor necrosis factor-mediated signaling ...
activation of cysteine-type endopeptidase activity involved in apoptotic process by cytochrome c. • cellular respiration. • ... Cytochrome c also has an intermediate role in apoptosis, a controlled form of cell death used to kill cells in the process of ... Waterhouse NJ, Trapani JA (Jul 2003). "A new quantitative assay for cytochrome c release in apoptotic cells". Cell Death and ... All cytochrome c proteins contain a characteristic CXXCH (cysteine-any-any-cysteine-histidine) amino acid motif that binds heme ...
... prolyl endopeptidase and a barley glutamine-specific cysteine endopeptidase (EP-B2)) that degrade the putative 33-mer peptide ... α-gliadin stimulates membrane cells, enterocytes, of the intestine to allow larger molecules around the sealant between cells. ... Dewar D, Pereira SP, Ciclitira PJ (2004). "The pathogenesis of coeliac disease". Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 36 (1): 17-24. doi: ... This increases the likelihood that the DQ2 isoform will bind and stay bound to peptide when recognised by T-cells.[75] Gliadin ...
"Cell. 159 (2): 295-305. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2014.09.020. PMC 4206218 . PMID 25303526. Lay summary - SciGuru Science News.. ... in the sequence cysteine-tyrosine-isoleucine-glutamine-asparagine-cysteine-proline-leucine-glycine-amide (Cys - Tyr - Ile - Gln ... role of aminopeptidases and endopeptidases". Peptides. 12 (5): 1119-25. doi:10.1016/0196-9781(91)90068-z. PMID 1800950.. ... The magnocellular neurosecretory cells that make oxytocin are adjacent to magnocellular neurosecretory cells that make ...
cysteine-type endopeptidase activity. • cysteine-type peptidase activity. • hydrolase activity. Cellular component. • lysosome ... 1998). "Lymphopain, a cytotoxic T and natural killer cell-associated cysteine proteinase". Leukemia. 12 (11): 1771-81. doi: ... 2001). "Human cathepsin W, a cysteine protease predominantly expressed in NK cells, is mainly localized in the endoplasmic ... a cysteine proteinase from cytotoxic T lymphocytes". Int. J. Biochem. Cell Biol. 32 (3): 373-84. doi:10.1016/S1357-2725(99) ...
serine-type endopeptidase activity. • cysteine-type endopeptidase activity. • aspartic-type endopeptidase activity. ... Conner GE, Udey JA (1990). "Expression and refolding of recombinant human fibroblast procathepsin D". DNA and Cell Biology. 9 ( ... Atkins KB, Troen BR (July 1995). "Regulation of cathepsin D gene expression in HL-60 cells by retinoic acid and calcitriol". ... Lenarcic B, Kos J, Dolenc I, Lucovnik P, Krizaj I, Turk V (July 1988). "Cathepsin D inactivates cysteine proteinase inhibitors ...
activation of cysteine-type endopeptidase activity involved in apoptotic process. • response to drug. • signal transduction. • ... positive regulation of cell migration. • neuron cell-cell adhesion. • nervous system development. • neuron maturation. • ... regulation of cell adhesion. • lymphocyte migration into lymphoid organs. • cell adhesion. • positive regulation of gene ... neural crest cell migration. • neuron differentiation. • positive regulation of cell size. • positive regulation of neuron ...
negative regulation of cysteine-type endopeptidase activity involved in apoptotic process. • cellular response to mercury ion. ... cnewyllyn cell. • apical plasma membrane. • integral component of membrane. • Cellbilen. • apical part of cell. • basal plasma ... positive regulation of cell migration. • secretion by cell. • secretory granule organization. • wound healing. • hyperosmotic ... "Red blood cell aquaporin-1 expression is decreased in hereditary spherocytosis. ". Ann Hematol. 2016. PMID 27465156. ...
Cysteine HS-CH2- Serine → Cystathionine → α-ketobutyrate → Cysteine Asparagine H2N-CO-CH2- Aspartic Acid → Asparagine ( ... EndopeptidasesEdit. Endopeptidases are enzymes that add water to an internal peptide bond in a peptide chain and break that ... Alberts B, Johnson A, Lewis J, Raff M, Roberts K, Walter P. Molecular biology of the cell (4th ed.). New York. ISBN 978- ... Cooper GM (2000). The Cell: A Molecular Approach (2nd ed.). Washington, D.C.: ASM Press. ISBN 978-0878931194. . OCLC 43708665. ...
cysteine-type endopeptidase inhibitor activity involved in apoptotic process. Component cel·lular. • extracellular region. • ... cell-cell signaling. • negative regulation of female receptivity. • circadian rhythm. • grooming behavior. • locomotory ... negative regulation of cysteine-type endopeptidase activity involved in apoptotic process. • sodium-independent organic anion ... positive regulation of cell growth. • positive regulation of cAMP biosynthetic process. • positive regulation of prostaglandin ...
negative regulation of cysteine-type endopeptidase activity involved in apoptotic process. • cellular response to mercury ion. ... positive regulation of cell migration. • secretion by cell. • secretory granule organization. • wound healing. • hyperosmotic ... apical part of cell. • basal plasma membrane. • integral component of plasma membrane. • brush border membrane. • basolateral ... cell volume homeostasis. • cellular response to UV. • establishment or maintenance of actin cytoskeleton polarity. • negative ...
It is released into the synapse between nerve cells and binds to receptors in the postsynaptic cell. Then an action potential ... Chymotrypsin is a serine endopeptidase that is present in pancreatic juice and helps the hydrolysis of proteins and peptide.[1] ... It then attacks the disulphide bond formed between 2 cysteine residues, forming one SH bond and a single S− group. This S− ... so new cell wall monomer can be integrated into the cell wall. Penicillin works by inhibiting the transpeptidase which is ...
Cysteine protease. *Aspartic acid protease. *Metalloendopeptidase. *Threonine endopeptidase *Proteasome endopeptidase complex. ... endothelial cell migration. • positive regulation of cell proliferation. • T cell activation. • cell adhesion. • Viral entry. • ... cell projection. • cell junction. • lamellipodium. • apical plasma membrane. • membrane. • focal adhesion. • cell surface. • ... regulation of cell-cell adhesion mediated by integrin. • locomotory exploration behavior. • ...
Cysteine protease. *Aspartic acid protease. *Metalloendopeptidase. *Threonine endopeptidase *Proteasome endopeptidase complex. ... Here, it is released by mast cells and causes activation of complement and kinins.[5] This group includes the calpains. ... One way to make a nucleophile is by a catalytic triad, where a histidine residue is used to activate serine, cysteine, or ... Serine, threonine and cysteine proteases use a nucleophilic residue (usually in a catalytic triad). That residue performs a ...
RI has a surprisingly high cysteine content (~6.5%, cf. 1.7% in typical proteins) and is sensitive to oxidation. RI is also ... escape mammalian RI and have been noted to have differential cytotoxicity against cancer cells.[6] ...
cysteine-type endopeptidase activity. • hydrolase activity. • identical protein binding. Cellular component. • cytoplasm. • ... T cell proliferation. • B cell activation. • response to fungus. • positive regulation of T cell activation. • positive ... helper T cells regulates immune activation". Cell. 153 (5): 1036-49. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2013.04.034. PMID 23706741.. ... Cells expressing an uncleavable A20 mutant is however still capable to activate NF-κB, but cells expressing the C-terminal or ...
negative regulation of cysteine-type endopeptidase activity involved in apoptotic process. • positive regulation of proteasomal ... traversing start control point of mitotic cell cycle. • negative regulation of cell cycle arrest. • protein ubiquitination. • ... "Molecular analysis and chromosomal mapping of amplified genes isolated from a transformed mouse 3T3 cell line". Somatic Cell ... cell nucleus. • nucleoplasm. • nucleolus. • macromolecular complex. Biological process. • negative regulation of signal ...
activation of cysteine-type endopeptidase activity involved in apoptotic process. • positive regulation of positive chemotaxis ... Another cell type that expresses TF on the cell surface in inflammatory conditions is the monocyte (a white blood cell). ... The F3 gene encodes coagulation factor III which is a cell surface glycoprotein. This factor enables cells to initiate the ... TF is expressed by cells which are normally not exposed to flowing blood such as sub-endothelial cells (e.g. smooth muscle ...
One way to make a nucleophile is by a catalytic triad, where a histidine residue is used to activate serine, cysteine, or ... Here, it is released by mast cells and causes activation of complement and kinins.[8] This group includes the calpains. ... endopeptidases, such as trypsin, chymotrypsin, pepsin, papain, elastase). ... Serine, threonine and cysteine proteases use a nucleophilic residue (usually in a catalytic triad). That residue performs a ...
negative regulation of cysteine-type endopeptidase activity involved in apoptotic process. • regulation of blood vessel size. • ... cell-cell signaling. • negative regulation of apoptotic process. • protein kinase C signaling. • generation of precursor ... cysteine-type endopeptidase inhibitor activity involved in apoptotic process. • neurohypophyseal hormone activity. • receptor ... positive regulation of cell proliferation. • positive regulation of glutamate secretion. • response to organic cyclic compound ...
Cysteine Proteases and Cell Differentiation: Excystment of the Ciliated Protist Sterkiella histriomuscorum Eduardo Villalobo, ... Blastocystis ratti Contains Cysteine Proteases That Mediate Interleukin-8 Response from Human Intestinal Epithelial Cells in an ... Use of Recombinant Entamoeba histolytica Cysteine Proteinase 1 To Identify a Potent Inhibitor of Amebic Invasion in a Human ... The Intestinal Protozoan Parasite Entamoeba histolytica Contains 20 Cysteine Protease Genes, of Which Only a Small Subset Is ...
... mucosal immune cells and intestinal epithelial cells (IECs). Epithelial barrier disruption is considered to be a potential ... Cysteine Endopeptidases / metabolism * Enteritis / enzymology * Enteritis / metabolism * Enteritis / pathology* * Epithelial ... spontaneously developed epithelial cell necrosis, loss of Paneth cells, enteritis and severe erosive colitis. Genetic ... mucosal immune cells and intestinal epithelial cells (IECs). Epithelial barrier disruption is considered to be a potential ...
Cysteine Endopeptidases / physiology* * Dendritic Cells / metabolism * Membrane Glycoproteins / metabolism * Mice * Mice, ... Nucleic acid recognition by Toll-like receptors is coupled to stepwise processing by cathepsins and asparagine endopeptidase J ... This dual requirement for AEP and cathepsins is observed in all cell types that we have analyzed, including mouse macrophages ... The first step removes the majority of the ectodomain and can be performed by asparagine endopeptidase (AEP) or cathepsin ...
... which is required for maintaining the balance between germ cells and supporting Sertoli cells. However, the signaling mechanism ... Spermatogenesis involves an early wave of germ cell apoptosis, ... Cysteine Endopeptidases / genetics, physiology*. GTPase- ... Title: Developmental cell Volume: 13 ISSN: 1534-5807 ISO Abbreviation: Dev. Cell Publication Date: 2007 Nov ... Spermatogenesis involves an early wave of germ cell apoptosis, which is required for maintaining the balance between germ cells ...
... a proliferating pool of cells in proliferation centers might be involved in disease progression. We have previously described ... Although peripheral blood B-CLL cells are arrested in G0 phase of the cell cycle, ... Cell Division / drug effects. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27. Cyclins / drug effects. Cysteine Endopeptidases. Cysteine ... OBJECTIVE: Although peripheral blood B-CLL cells are arrested in G0 phase of the cell cycle, a proliferating pool of cells in ...
Cellular Microbiology: Pathogen-Host Cell Molecular Interactions. Overexpression of the Natural Inhibitor of Cysteine ... Cellular Microbiology: Pathogen-Host Cell Molecular Interactions. Translocation of Porphyromonas gingivalis Gingipain Adhesin ... Cellular Microbiology: Pathogen-Host Cell Molecular Interactions. Anaplasma phagocytophilum Increases Cathepsin L Activity, ... Cellular Microbiology: Pathogen-Host Cell Molecular Interactions. Yersinia pseudotuberculosis Virulence Determinants Invasin, ...
... negative regulation of heterotypic cell-cell adhesion). GO:0043154 (negative regulation of cysteine-type endopeptidase activity ... GO:0030307 (positive regulation of cell growth). GO:0032088 (negative regulation of NF-kappaB transcription factor activity). ... GO:0090051 (negative regulation of cell migration involved in sprouting angiogenesis). GO:2000342 (negative regulation of ... GO:0050679 (positive regulation of epithelial cell proliferation). GO:0051247 (positive regulation of protein metabolic process ...
negative regulation of cell growth Source: UniProtKB. *negative regulation of cysteine-type endopeptidase activity Source: ... cysteine-type endopeptidase inhibitor activity involved in apoptotic process Source: UniProtKB. *drug binding Source: UniProtKB ... negative regulation of cysteine-type endopeptidase activity involved in apoptotic process Source: UniProtKB ... p>This section provides information on the location and the topology of the mature protein in the cell.,p>,a href=/help/ ...
Required for T-cell receptor-, Fas-, and glucocorticoid-induced apoptosis (By similarity). May mediate Ca(2+)-regulated signals ... along the death pathway: interaction with DAPK1 can accelerate apoptotic cell death by increasing caspase-3 activity (By ... activation of cysteine-type endopeptidase activity involved in apoptotic process Source: RGDInferred from sequence orthologyi* ... calcium-dependent cysteine-type endopeptidase activity Source: GO_Central. *calcium-dependent protein binding Source: RGD ...
Exhibits cysteine-type endopeptidase activator activity involved in apoptotic process; identical protein binding activity; and ... Is expressed in several structures, including brain ventricular layer; incisor; inner cell mass; renal calyx; and submandibular ... Involved in activation of cysteine-type endopeptidase activity involved in apoptotic process and extrinsic apoptotic signaling ...
Nutrition · Amino Acid Sequence · Apoptosis · Blotting, Western · Cysteine Endopeptidases · Cytoplasm · Endo-1,4-beta Xylanases ... Cell death in the small cell domain showed typical features of plant programmed cell death. Chromatin condensation and DNA ... Cell differentiation · Chromatin condensation · Microspores · Plant cell culture · apoptosis · cell differentiation · cytology ... Chemicals/CAS: alpha-Amylase, EC 3.2.1.1; Cysteine Endopeptidases, EC 3.4.22.-; Endo-1,4-beta Xylanases, EC 3.2.1.8; Green ...
Involved in binding activity of sperm to zona pellucida; negative regulation of cysteine-type endopeptidase activity involved ... Localizes to the cell body; mitochondrion; and zona pellucida receptor complex. Predicted to colocalize with the COP9 ...
2011) A cysteine endopeptidase ("dionain") is involved in the digestive fluid of Dionaea muscipula (Venuss fly-trap). Biosci ... What kind of redox moiety does Dionaeas secretory gland cells release? To gain and maintain functional integrity of cysteine- ... 2014) Abundance of cysteine endopeptidase dionain in digestive fluid of Venus flytrap (Dionaea muscipula Ellis) is regulated by ... S1B). Head cells of nonstimulated glands only occasionally showed exocytotic vesicles (1.5 ± 0.4 per cell; Fig. 1 A and C), but ...
The 2.0 A crystal structure of the KDEL-tailed cysteine endopeptidase functioning in programmed cell death of Ricinus communis ... The 2.0 A crystal structure of the KDEL-tailed cysteine endopeptidase functioning in programmed cell death of Ricinus communis ... cysteine endopeptidase. Oligo-state. monomer. SMTL ID. 1s4v.2. Ligands. DVA-LEU-LYS-0QE peptide. Polypeptides. cysteine ...
MF] cysteine-type endopeptidase activity *[MF] ligase activity *[MF] omega peptidase activity *[MF] protein binding *[MF] ... stem cell, stomach, t-cell, testis, uncharacterized tissue, uterus, vascular. *SAGE Anatomic Viewer *Tissues only *Cell lines ... BP] cell death *[BP] cell proliferation *[BP] eating behavior *[BP] negative regulation of MAP kinase activity *[BP] ... CC] neuronal cell body *[CC] nucleolus *[CC] nucleus *[CC] plasma membrane *[MF] alpha-2A adrenergic receptor binding *[ ...
3T3 Cells; Cysteine Endopeptidases/*metabolism; G0 Phase; Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex; Multigene Family; Amino Acid Motifs ... c-Fos proto-oncoprotein is rapidly and transiently expressed in cells undergoing the G(0)-to-S phase transition in response to ... Using site-directed mutagenesis and an expression system reproducing c-fos gene transient expression in transfected cells, we ...
negative regulation of cysteine-type endopeptidase activity involved in apoptotic process IEA Inferred from Electronic ... Small cell lung cancer, conserved biosystem (from KEGG) Small cell lung cancer, conserved biosystemLung cancer is a leading ... Small cell lung cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG) Small cell lung cancer, organism-specific biosystemLung cancer ... Quercetin and Nf-kB/ AP-1 Induced Cell Apoptosis, organism-specific biosystem. Quercetin and Nf-kB/ AP-1 Induced Cell Apoptosis ...
activation of cysteine-type endopeptidase activity involved in apoptotic process. IEA,ISS. --. ... FLASH links the CD95 signaling pathway to the cell nucleus and nuclear bodies. (PMID: 17245429) Milovic-Holm K … Hofmann TG ( ... Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, MaxQB, and MOPED for CASP8AP2 ... No data available for mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery , mRNA differential expression ...
This gene encodes a BH3-like motif containing protein involved in cell death. The encoded protein may induce apoptosis in a ... BH3-like motif containing, cell death inducer. Description:. Involved in positive regulation of cysteine-type endopeptidase ... BH3-like motif-containing cell death inducer; BRCC2; breast cancer cell 2; breast cancer cell protein 2; MGC163233; MGC163235. ... positive regulation of cysteine-type endopeptidase activity involved in apoptotic process IMP. 2290271. (PMID:15069058). ...
MF] cysteine-type endopeptidase activator activity involved in apoptotic process *[MF] metal ion binding *[MF] protein binding ... Cell lines only *Tissues and cell lines *SAGE Digital Northern *Monochromatic SAGE/cDNA Virtual Northern *Two-dimensional array ... BP] activation of cysteine-type endopeptidase activity involved in apoptotic process *[BP] intrinsic apoptotic signaling ... stem cell, stomach, synovium, t-cell, testis, thymus, thyroid, uncharacterized tissue, uterus, vascular. *SAGE Anatomic Viewer ...
Papain-type cysteine endopeptidases are expressed in root epidermis cells that are separated for lateral root emergence. Loss ... Like other extracellular enzymes, extracellular proteases may diffuse from the cell wall of their mother cell to the ... regulating cell growth and development, occurring mostly in the cell wall [18]. ... Because nitrogen is an essential element for nucleic acids, proteins and diverse vital molecules from phytohormones to cell ...
... with gingipain preparations was associated with increased levels of phosphorylated p38α MAPK suggesting its involvement in cell ... and Lys-gingipain cysteine proteinases. In this study, we investigated the capacity of P. gingivalis gingipains to trigger a ... and Lys-gingipain cysteine proteinases are the main endopeptidases produced by P. gingivalis and are both extracellular and ... The cells were seeded at 2 × 105 cells/mL and split approximately three times per week to maintain the cell concentration ...
GO:0006919 [activation of cysteine-type endopeptidase activity involved in apoptotic process]. GO:0006928 [movement of cell or ... Cell cycle intensity correlation. Cell cycle spatial correlation. Cell cycle biologically. Custom data cell cycle dependant. - ... GO:0022408 [negative regulation of cell-cell adhesion]. GO:0030041 [actin filament polymerization]. GO:0030154 [cell ... Cell category (RNA). Cancer category (RNA). Tissue detectable (RNA). Cell line detectable (RNA). Cancer detectable (RNA). ...
Cell atlas. Showing subcellular location of CDKN2A (ARF, CDK4I, CDKN2, CMM2, INK4, INK4a, MLM, MTS1, p14, p14ARF, p16, p16INK4a ... activation of cysteine-type endopeptidase activity involved in apoptotic process]. GO:0007049 [cell cycle]. GO:0007050 [cell ... Cell cycle intensity correlation. Cell cycle spatial correlation. Cell cycle biologically. Custom data cell cycle dependant. - ... As the images in the Cell Atlas provide single cell resolution, variations in protein expression patterns from cell to cell can ...
These homologous endopeptidases belong to the large family of proteins called caspases (cysteine-dependent aspartate-specific ... and induces cell death in -dependent tumour cells. To further advance in the clinical development of selective -inhibitors, ... cells can die by apoptosis, a form of programmed cell death, or after acute injury by necrosis and cell lysis, which initiates ... Cells express multiple pro- and antiapoptotic BCL2-proteins, and their interactions regulate cell survival or cell death. ...
positive regulation of cysteine-type endopeptidase activity involved in apoptotic process IEA Inferred from Electronic ... Alox12 overexpression was sufficient to stimulate growth in normal breast cells but not breast cancer cells. Alox12 depletion ... positive regulation of blood vessel endothelial cell migration IEA Inferred from Electronic Annotation. more info ... negative regulation of muscle cell apoptotic process IMP Inferred from Mutant Phenotype. more info ...
activation of cysteine-type endopeptidase activity involved in apoptotic process. TAS. --. GO:0007166. cell surface receptor ... Cell Line Products. * Browse ESI BIO Cell Lines and PureStem Progenitors for CASP8 ... Selectively induces tumor cell apoptosis. 79183-19-0. Cisplatin. Potent pro-apoptotic anticancer agent; activates caspase-3. ... mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery. *span" data-trigger="SectionLoaded"> Testis ( ...
cell differentiation - convergent extension - cysteine-type endopeptidase regulator activity involved in apoptotic process - ... proliferation of pLB cells in mixed-cell 3D colonies in vitro and that pLUM cells suppress growth of pLB cells in mixed-cell ... cell viability and apoptosis in ovarian granulosa cell tumor cells.. PLoS One. 2014; 9(1):e85545 [PubMed] Article available ... positive regulation of cysteine-type endopeptidase activity involved in apoptotic process - positive regulation of ...
Programmed cell death; Suspensor; Seed development; Vasculature; KDEL-tailed cysteine endopeptidases; Arabidopsis. ... Plant-specific papain-type KDEL-tailed cysteine endopeptidases (KDEL-CysEPs or CEPs) have been shown to be involved in PCD ... Plant-specific papain-type KDEL-tailed cysteine endopeptidases (KDEL-CysEPs or CEPs) have been shown to be involved in PCD ... After fertilization, AtCEP1 marks integument cell layers of the seeds coat as well as suspensor and columella cells of the ...
Recombinant Human PTTG1 293 Cell Lysate can be used for research. ... Purified Recombinant Human PTTG1 293 Cell Lysate from Creative ... Cell Cycle, Mitotic, organism-specific biosystem;. Function:. SH3 domain binding; cysteine-type endopeptidase inhibitor ... This product includes 3 vials: 1 vial of gene-specific cell lysate, 1 vial of control vector cell lysate, and 1 vial of loading ... Products > Epigenetics Proteins > Cell Cycle Proteins > Cell division Proteins > Chromatid Cohesion Proteins ...
  • In focus of this study are proteases, hydrolytic enzymes cleaving peptide bonds which can be found in all cells and organelles of a plant body [ 10 ]. (intechopen.com)
  • Most of the morphological changes associated with apoptosis are caused by a set of proteases that are specifically activated in apoptotic cells [ 6 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Metalloproteinases, serine proteases, and cysteine proteases were blocked to measure their relative implication in elastin degradation. (ahajournals.org)
  • Cysteine proteases , also known as thiol proteases , are enzymes that degrade proteins . (wikipedia.org)
  • These proteases share a common catalytic mechanism that involves a nucleophilic cysteine thiol in a catalytic triad or dyad. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cysteine proteases are commonly encountered in fruits including the papaya , pineapple , fig and kiwifruit . (wikipedia.org)
  • In fact, dozens of latices of different plant families are known to contain cysteine proteases. (wikipedia.org)
  • [1] Cysteine proteases are used as an ingredient in meat tenderizers . (wikipedia.org)
  • For superfamilies , P = superfamily containing a mixture of nucleophile class families, C = purely cysteine proteases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Within each superfamily, families are designated by their catalytic nucleophile (C = cysteine proteases). (wikipedia.org)
  • The first step in the reaction mechanism by which cysteine proteases catalyze the hydrolysis of peptide bonds is de protonation of a thiol in the enzyme 's active site by an adjacent amino acid with a basic side chain , usually a histidine residue. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cysteine proteases play multi-faceted roles, virtually in every aspect of physiology and development. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ability of macrophages and other cells to mobilize elastolytic cysteine proteases to their surfaces under specialized conditions may also lead to accelerated collagen and elastin degradation at sites of inflammation in diseases such as atherosclerosis and emphysema . (wikipedia.org)
  • Though cytokines and phagocyte, as host factors, have been shown to participate in defence against Aspergillus species yet the role of cysteine proteases, that is cathepsins, a lysosomal enzymes of phagocytes, remains unknown in fungal infection. (ijpsonline.com)
  • Studies are available which shows that cytokines regulate the cysteine proteases processed immune molecules for their further action but their relationship with each other under fungal infection is not clear. (ijpsonline.com)
  • Cathepsins are cysteine proteases, act as endopeptidases and are mainly involved in intracellular protein degradation and involved in large number of diseases [ 11 , 12 ]. (ijpsonline.com)
  • After evaluating many fluorescent substrates, we chose assay substrates for cysteine proteases (papain) and serine proteases (trypsin) and used mouse pancreatic extract (1mg/mL) as the positive control. (thermofisher.com)
  • Since treatment of cells with E64, an inhibitor of cysteine-containing proteases, blocks reovirus disassembly, we used immunoblot analysis to assess the expression of cathepsin L, a lysosomal cysteine protease. (asm.org)
  • Many viruses, including reovirus, require endocytic uptake and exposure to acidic pH or acid-dependent proteases to productively infect host cells. (asm.org)
  • This gene is located in the cystatin locus and encodes the most abundant extracellular inhibitor of cysteine proteases, which is found in high concentrations in biological fluids and is expressed in virtually all organs of the body. (mybiosource.com)
  • Incorporation of active proteases into the phagosome of the macrophage cell line J774 indicates that phagosome maturation involves progressive fusion with early and late endocytic compartments. (rupress.org)
  • The cysteine proteases cathepsin (Cat) * S and CatL are implicated in this process ( 4 - 6 ). (rupress.org)
  • Among these enzymes are the γ-interferon-inducible lysosomal thiol reductase ( 9 , 10 ), and several cysteine proteases including CatB, CatS, CatL, and asparaginyl endopeptidase ( 4 - 8 ). (rupress.org)
  • Recently, analysis of the crystal structure of the zymogen showed that the catalytic domain of SpeB is structurally similar to the papain superfamily of cysteine proteases but differs in the propeptide region ( 30 ). (asm.org)
  • Here, we now report that 2 lysosomal cysteine proteases present in lymphoblasts are able to degrade l-asparaginase. (jci.org)
  • S. aureus serine proteases were identified to modulate chemokine synthesis and activate NF-κB in nasal epithelial cells, and may therefore be relevant for the pathophysiology of chronic rhinosinusitis. (jimmunol.org)
  • Besides a broad range of exotoxins, adhesins, and other virulence factors affecting the host, S. aureus produces 10 proteolytic enzymes comprising a metalloproteinase (aureolysin), two related cysteine proteases ScpA and SspB, a serine glutamyl endopeptidase SspA, and six other serine proteases (splABCDEF) ( 9 , 10 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Therefore, this study was undertaken as follows: 1) to determine S. aureus supernatant modulation of cytokine generation and cytokine signaling in an in vitro cell culture system of primary nasal epithelial cells, and 2) to elucidate the role of S. aureus -derived serine proteases in initiating and maintaining inflammatory mechanisms in nasal epithelial cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • Introduction to Protease Enzymes There are five families of proteases in which serine (eg: proteinase K/protease K/endopeptidase K), threonine, cysteine, aspartic or metallic groups play a primary catalytic role. (agscientific.com)
  • Immunoblots were performed to evaluate expression of proteins involved in cell cycle and apoptosis regulation. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Conserved 14-3-3 proteins have been shown to play regulatory roles in eukaryotic cells, including cell cycle control and differentiation. (tudelft.nl)
  • These homologous endopeptidases belong to the large family of proteins called caspases (cysteine-dependent aspartate-specific protease). (hindawi.com)
  • 3 Moreover, it involves phenotypic changes of vascular smooth muscle cells with the expression of bone-related proteins. (ahajournals.org)
  • This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reaction Cleaves proteins of the adenovirus and its host cell at two consensus sites: -Yaa-Xaa-Gly-Gly-Xaa- and -Yaa-Xaa-Gly-Xaa-Gly- (in which Yaa is Met, Ile or Leu, and Xaa is any amino acid) This cysteine endopeptidase is coded by adenoviruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the mid to late 1960s, the discovery that eukaryotic secreted proteins are first segregated in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) before traveling within membranous structures to reach the cell surface placed the ER at the start point of a newly recognized metabolic pathway now known as the secretory pathway ( Palade, 1975 ). (plantcell.org)
  • In the secretory pathway, proteins travel from the ER through the Golgi apparatus to arrive at the cell surface or at vacuoles. (plantcell.org)
  • The lumens of the ER, Golgi complex, and vacuole are topologically equivalent to the cell exterior, and extracellular domains of plasma membrane proteins are thus lumenal when they start their journey in the ER. (plantcell.org)
  • Bromelain (enzyme classification 3.4.22.32) is a combination of sulfur-containing cysteine endopeptidases that have a broad specificity for the cleavage of proteins. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The preservation of proteins from protease and phosphatase activities after cell or tissue lysis is essential for many research applications. (thermofisher.com)
  • Mutant cells support reovirus growth when infection is initiated with infectious subvirion particles (ISVPs), which are intermediates in reovirus disassembly formed following proteolysis of viral outer-capsid proteins. (asm.org)
  • Within 2 h after adsorption to parental cells, proteolysis of viral outer-capsid proteins was observed, consistent with formation of ISVPs. (asm.org)
  • However, in mutant cells, no proteolysis of viral proteins was detected up to 8 h postadsorption. (asm.org)
  • This group of proteins belong to the cysteine peptidase family C1, sub-family C1A (papain family, clan CA). (embl.de)
  • The type 2 cystatin proteins are a class of cysteine proteinase inhibitors found in a variety of human fluids and secretions, where they appear to provide protective functions. (mybiosource.com)
  • β-lactam antibiotics target the penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) - a group of enzymes found attached in the cell membrane, which are involved in the cross-linking of the bacterial cell wall. (agscientific.com)
  • Here we show that mice with IEC-specific knockout of FADD (FADD(IEC-KO)), an adaptor protein required for death-receptor-induced apoptosis, spontaneously developed epithelial cell necrosis, loss of Paneth cells, enteritis and severe erosive colitis. (nih.gov)
  • This protein is involved in the programmed cell death induced by Fas and various apoptotic stimuli. (genecards.org)
  • This enzyme is a lysosomal cysteine protease with both endopeptidase and exopeptidase activity that may play a role in protein turnover. (cancerindex.org)
  • An important gene associated with Squamous Cell Papilloma is CNTROB (Centrobin, Centriole Duplication And Spindle Assembly Protein), and among its related pathways/superpathways are DNA Damage and Senescence and Autophagy in Cancer . (malacards.org)
  • Here, we show that NGR, a plasma membrane protein specifically expressed in root columella and lateral root cap cells, controls the positive root gravitropic response by regulating auxin efflux carrier localization in columella cells and the direction of lateral auxin flow in response to gravity. (scoop.it)
  • We analyzed the mitochondria-targeting signal of rat Tom20 (rTom20) in COS-7 cells, using green fluorescent protein (GFP) as the reporter by systematically introducing deletions or mutations into the TMD or the flanking regions. (nih.gov)
  • During seed maturation endosperm cells undergo a rapid sequence of developmental changes, including extensive reorganization and rearrangement of the endomembrane system and protein transport via several developmentally regulated trafficking routes. (frontiersin.org)
  • At the peak of storage protein production, programmed cell death occurs in the inner endosperm to generate a starchy endosperm core. (frontiersin.org)
  • Asparaginyl endopeptidase (AEP or legumain) is a lysosomal cysteine protease that cleaves protein substrates on the C-terminal side of asparagine. (pnas.org)
  • Despite a drop in Separase protein levels an up to 5.4-fold increase of Separase activity under imatinib treatment was observed exclusively in b3a2 but not in b2a2 cell lines. (jove.com)
  • F) The N-cadherin protein levels in the stable cell lines SGC7901-MOCK and SGC7901-SENP3 that were transiently transfected with FOXC2. (nih.gov)
  • however, upon cell lysis, the once compartmentally contained enzymes are capable of mass protein degradation and dephosphorylation. (thermofisher.com)
  • The Thermo Scientific Pierce Protease, Phosphatase, and combination Protease and Phosphatase Inhibitor Tablets are broad-spectrum formulations ideal for preventing proteolytic degradation and dephosphorylation during cell lysis and protein extraction. (thermofisher.com)
  • Protein phosphatases generally target serine, threonine and tyrosine phosphorylation during cell signaling. (thermofisher.com)
  • Several studies on cysteine endopeptidase (CP) Cat B in gliomas agreed that transcript abundance, protein level and activity of Cat B increased in high-grade astrocytoma cultures compared with low-grade astrocytoma cultures and normal brain. (springer.com)
  • Here, we show that in response to cell death stimulation, survivin, a member of the inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) gene family, associates with another IAP protein, XIAP, via conserved baculovirus IAP repeats. (umassmed.edu)
  • As an inhibitor of cysteine proteinases, this protein is thought to serve an important physiological role as a local regulator of this enzyme activity. (mybiosource.com)
  • Expression of this protein in vascular wall smooth muscle cells is severely reduced in both atherosclerotic and aneurysmal aortic lesions, establishing its role in vascular disease. (mybiosource.com)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is a lysosomal cysteine proteinase that plays a major role in intracellular protein catabolism. (cancer-genetics.org)
  • To investigate the expression and role of Cathepsin L (CTSL) in Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tissue and cell line (MHCC-97H), and to evaluate the clinical and prognostic significance of CTSL protein in patients with HCC. (cancer-genetics.org)
  • Advances in light-sheet and confocal microscopy now allow imaging of cleared large biological tissue samples and enable the 3D appreciation of cell and protein localization in their native organ environment. (sebbm.es)
  • Viral control of programmed cell death relies in part on the expression of viral analogs of the B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl2) protein known as viral Bcl2s (vBcl2s). (sebbm.es)
  • Chan, SL, Yee, KS, Tan, KM and Yu, VC (2000) The Caenorhabditis elegans sex determination protein FEM-1 is a CED-3 substrate that associates with CED-4 and mediates apoptosis in mammalian cells. (tamu.edu)
  • Maturation of SpeB to a proteolytically active form was suggested to be dependent on cell-wall-anchored M1 protein, the major surface protein of GAS (M. Collin and A. Olsén, Mol. (asm.org)
  • Alternatively, we hypothesized that a truncated M protein may interfere with processing of this secreted protease, and therefore we tested cysteine protease activity in genetically defined mutant strains that express either no M protein or membrane-anchored M protein with an in-frame deletion of the AB repeat region. (asm.org)
  • Therefore, we conclude that M protein is not required for maturation of the streptococcal cysteine protease SpeB. (asm.org)
  • Among these, M protein which is anchored to the cell wall by an LPXTG motif ( 23 ) plays key roles in bacterial resistance to phagocytosis ( 28 ), adherence, invasion of human epithelial cells ( 13 ), and microcolony formation in tonsillar tissue ( 6 ). (asm.org)
  • The hypervariable NH2-terminal region of M1 protein, containing unique A and B repeat domains, has been shown to be important for both adherence and entry into epithelial cells ( 13 ). (asm.org)
  • Protein expression occurs after monocytes differentiate into dendritic cells. (lsbio.com)
  • Consistent with this, stimulation of cultured nasal epithelial cells with either PAR2-activating peptide or trypsin induced G i protein- and NF-κB-dependent expression of the neutrophil chemoattractants IL-8/CXCL8 and growth-related oncogene (GRO)-αCXCL1, but not the eosinophil and T cell chemoattractants eotaxin/CCL11, CCL5, or CCL17 ( 12 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • The protein encoded by PREP is a cytosolic prolyl endopeptidase that cleaves peptide bonds on the C-terminal side of prolyl residues within peptides that are up to approximately 30 amino acids long. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • Zusätzlich bieten wir Ihnen Prolyl Endopeptidase Kits (9) und Prolyl Endopeptidase Proteine (9) und viele weitere Produktgruppen zu diesem Protein an. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • Regulation of early wave of germ cell apoptosis and spermatogenesis by deubiquitinating enzyme CYLD. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Spermatogenesis involves an early wave of germ cell apoptosis, which is required for maintaining the balance between germ cells and supporting Sertoli cells. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Here we show that genetic deficiency of Cyld, a recently identified deubiquitinating enzyme, attenuates the early wave of germ cell apoptosis and causes impaired spermatogenesis in mice. (biomedsearch.com)
  • These findings establish CYLD as a pivotal deubiquitinating enzyme (DUB) that regulates germ cell apoptosis and spermatogenesis and suggest an essential role for CYLD in controlling the RIP1/NF-kappaB signaling axis in testis. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Lactacystin is a specific inhibitor of the proteasome and is a potent apoptosis inductor in resting peripheral B-CLL cells. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Activated B-CLL cells were more susceptible to apoptosis induction as compared to resting B-CLL cells. (biomedsearch.com)
  • CONCLUSION: Proteasome inhibition is highly effective in proliferating B-CLL cells and induces apoptosis using a caspase-dependent and -independent pathway. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Required for T-cell receptor-, Fas-, and glucocorticoid-induced apoptosis (By similarity). (uniprot.org)
  • Sequential activation of caspases plays a central role in the execution-phase of cell apoptosis. (genecards.org)
  • Evasion of cell death or apoptosis is a key hallmark of cancer [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Generally, cells can die by apoptosis, a form of programmed cell death, or after acute injury by necrosis and cell lysis, which initiates an inflammatory response. (hindawi.com)
  • In addition, apoptosis represents a major barrier to cancer cells that must be circumvented. (hindawi.com)
  • Upon activation, apoptosis unfolds in a precisely organised series of steps, resulting in characteristic cellular changes, including chromatin condensation, nuclear fragmentation, breakdown of the cytoskeleton, and cell shrinkage. (hindawi.com)
  • [5] In humans and other animals, they are responsible for senescence and apoptosis (programmed cell death), MHC class II immune responses , prohormone processing, and extracellular matrix remodeling important to bone development. (wikipedia.org)
  • The balance of phosphorylation/dephosphorylation is vital to many cellular signaling pathways, including signal transduction, cell division and apoptosis. (thermofisher.com)
  • Formation of a survivin-XIAP complex promotes increased XIAP stability against ubiquitination/proteasomal destruction and synergistic inhibition of apoptosis, which is abolished in XIAP(-/-) cells. (umassmed.edu)
  • In this paper, we attempt to broaden the discussion of these peptidases to biological functions beyond apoptosis and cell death. (rupress.org)
  • Sex-specific elimination of cells by apoptosis plays a role in sex determination in Caenorhabditis elegans. (tamu.edu)
  • Overexpression of FEM-1 induces caspase-dependent apoptosis in mammalian cells. (tamu.edu)
  • Furthermore, CED-4 associates with FEM-1 in vitro and in vivo in mammalian cells and potentiates FEM-1-mediated apoptosis. (tamu.edu)
  • It is involved in various cellular processes, including cell cycle control, apoptosis, and circadian rhythm. (innatedb.com)
  • Involved in activation of cysteine-type endopeptidase activity involved in apoptotic process and extrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway via death domain receptors. (jax.org)
  • A papain-like cysteine proteinase is typically synthesised as an inactive precursor (or zymogen) with an N-terminal propeptide. (embl.de)
  • Interestingly, the loss of CYLD in testicular cells leads to activation of the transcription factor NF-kappaB and aberrant expression of antiapoptotic genes. (biomedsearch.com)
  • During pollen development, uninucleate microspores were characterized by the expression of cell division-related genes and transcripts involved in lipid biosynthesis. (tudelft.nl)
  • Further expression analysis revealed that the induction of genes encoding alcohol dehydrogenase 3, metalloprotease FtsH, cysteine protease 1 precursor, phytepsin precursor (aspartic protease), and a 26S proteasome regulatory subunit was associated with the androgenic potential of microspores, whereas the induction of transcripts involved in signaling and cytoprotection was associated with stress responses. (tudelft.nl)
  • Thus, a number of genes that encode components of the apoptotic machinery are directly targeted by activating or inactivating genetic lesions in cancer cells. (hindawi.com)
  • Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) has crucial role in adapting cells to hypoxia through expression regulation of many genes. (cancerindex.org)
  • We demonstrate that the expression of mesenchymal marker genes and cell migration ability are enhanced in SENP3-overexpressing gastric cancer cells and attenuated in SENP3-knockdown cells. (nih.gov)
  • Divergent regulation of expression for the 92- and 72-kilodalton enzyme genes in HT-1080 cells. (drugbank.ca)
  • rather, many genes that encode typical metazoan features, such as cell adhesion and immunity, are upregulated. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The tiled microarrays identified numerous additional genes that were upregulated in milk versus MRS. Collectively, array data showed the growth of CNRZ32 in milk-induced genes encoding cell-envelope proteinases, oligopeptide transporters, and endopeptidases as well as enzymes for lactose and cysteine pathways, de novo synthesis, and/or salvage pathways for purines and pyrimidines and other functions. (asm.org)
  • The defect in cathepsin L maturation was not associated with mutations in procathepsin L mRNA, was not complemented by procathepsin L overexpression, and did not affect the maturation of cathepsin B, another lysosomal cysteine protease. (asm.org)
  • Conversely, activation of calpains by calcium ionophore led to a reduction of p53 in mammalian cells, and the effect was blocked by cell-permeant calpain inhibitors. (cnrs.fr)
  • In meningioma, Cat L was a less-significant marker of invasion than Cat B. In contrast to cathepsins, the activities of endogenous cysteine peptidase inhibitors (CPIs), including stefins, cystatins and kininogens, were significantly higher in benign and atypical meningioma cell extracts than in malignant meningioma, and low-grade compared to high-grade astrocytoma. (springer.com)
  • Some of the members are active cysteine protease inhibitors, while others have lost or perhaps never acquired this inhibitory activity. (mybiosource.com)
  • For these purposes, two well-characterized S. aureus strains with normal phenotype as well as corresponding site-directed hemB mutants displaying a stable SCV phenotype were used to assess modulation of cytokine synthesis by cysteine and serine protease inhibitors as well as by a glucocorticoid. (jimmunol.org)
  • This entry represents the NLPC/P60 domain, which is a primitive, papain-like peptidase in the CA clan of cysteine peptidases with a Cys126/His176/His188 catalytic triad and a conserved catalytic core [ PMID: 19217401 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • In only one family of cysteine peptidases, is the role of the general base assigned to a residue other than a histidine: in peptidases from family C89 (acid ceramidase) an arginine is the general base. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Cysteine peptidases can be grouped into fourteen different clans, with members of each clan possessing a tertiary fold unique to the clan. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Four clans of cysteine peptidases share structural similarities with serine and threonine peptidases and asparagine lyases. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • From sequence similarities, cysteine peptidases can be clustered into over 80 different families [ PMID: 11517925 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Cysteine peptidases are often active at acidic pH and are therefore confined to acidic environments, such as the animal lysosome or plant vacuole. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Peptidases in clan CA are usually sensitive to the small molecule inhibitor E64, which is ineffective against peptidases from other clans of cysteine peptidases [ PMID: 7044372 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Peptidases in the clan hydrolyse and transfer bacterial cell wall peptides. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Cysteine peptidases with a chymotrypsin-like fold are included in clan PA, which also includes serine peptidases. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Cysteine peptidases that are N-terminal nucleophile hydrolases are included in clan PB. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Cysteine peptidases with a tertiary structure similar to that of the serine-type aspartyl dipeptidase are included in clan PC. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Cysteine peptidases with an intein-like fold are included in clan PD, which also includes asparagine lyases. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Previous studies have focused on individual enzymes in particular species and identified mainly cysteine peptidases (e.g. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Peptidases of other classes are also expressed in the tick gut, e.g. a leucine metallo-aminopeptidase and a hemolytic serine endopeptidase found in cytoplasm and lumen, respectively (e.g. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The identification of caspases as major regulators of apoptotic cell death in animals initiated a quest for homologous peptidases in other kingdoms. (rupress.org)
  • We further suggest that metacaspases and paracaspases, although sharing structural and mechanistic features with the metazoan caspases, form a distinct family of clan CD cysteine peptidases. (rupress.org)
  • Plant peptidases such as papain (EC 3.4.22.2), ficin (EC 3.4.22.3), chymopapain (EC 3.4.22.6), asclepain A (EC 3.4.22.7), actinidin (EC 3.4.22.14), glycyl endopeptidase (EC 3.4.22.25), caricain (EC 3.4.22.30), ananain (EC 3.4.22.31), stem bromelain (EC 3.4.22.32 and fruit bromelain (EC 3.4.22.33). (embl.de)
  • Trapped peptidases are still active except against very large substrates, so inhibition potentially prevents damage of large cell envelope components, but not host digestion. (sebbm.es)
  • Further studies on the expression levels and balance between cysteine endopeptidases (CPs) and CPIs would improve the clinical application of cathepsins in prognosis, which would lead to more-informed therapeutic strategies. (springer.com)
  • The degradation pathway is initiated by endopeptidases of aspartic and cysteine class (cathepsin D supported by cathepsin L and legumain) and continued by cysteine amino- and carboxy-dipeptidases (cathepsins C and B). The identified enzymes are potential targets to developing novel anti-tick vaccines. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • It was found that the human keratinocyte cell line HaCaT exhibits activities of all three cathepsins investigated. (edu.kz)
  • In contrast to this, in syngeneic Epstein-Barr virus-transformed B cells the level of cathepsin B activity was found to be 10% of that in the corresponding keratinocytes, whereas the activities for cathepsins L and S were in a similar range. (edu.kz)
  • The mammalian legumain, also called asparaginyl endopeptidase (AEP), is critically involved in the processing of bacterial antigens for MHC class II presentation. (edu.kz)
  • Asparaginyl endopeptidase (AEP), which is overexpressed predominantly in high-risk subsets of ALL, specifically degraded ASNase. (jci.org)
  • The physiological significance of the squamous cell carcinoma antigens 1 (SCCA1) and SCCA2, members of the ovalbumin serpin family, remains unresolved. (edu.au)
  • Specific Cat L antibodies and antisense Cat L RNA transfection significantly lowered glioblastoma cell invasion. (springer.com)
  • In addition, these enzymes all have γ-d-Glu-A 2 pm (A 2 pm is diaminopimelic acid) cysteine amidase (ordl-endopeptidase) activities but with different substrate specificities. (osti.gov)
  • One enzyme is a cell wall lysin that cleaves peptidoglycan (PG), while the other two are cell wall recycling enzymes that only cleave stem peptides with an N-terminall-Ala. Their crystal structures revealed a highly conserved structure consisting of two SH3b domains and a C-terminal NlpC/P60 catalytic domain, despite very low sequence identity. (osti.gov)
  • Two amino acid differences at the domain interface alter the substrate binding specificity in favor of stem peptides in recycling enzymes, whereas the SH3b domain may extend the peptidoglycan binding surface in the cell wall lysins. (osti.gov)
  • Cell wall lysins and recycling enzymes are part of a set of lytic enzymes that target covalent bonds connecting the amino acid and amino sugar building blocks of the PG network. (osti.gov)
  • In cereals, the endosperm occupies the major part of the seed and consists of starchy inner endosperm cells, which are dead at the time of full maturation, and one or several outer layers of living aleurone cells, which secrete the enzymes needed to break down reserves following germination ( Young and Gallie, 2000 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • In coordination with a wide array of interacting partners, DISC1 has been shown to participate in the regulation of cell proliferation, differentiation, migration, neuronal axon and dendrite outgrowth, mitochondrial transport, fission and/or fusion, and cell-to-cell adhesion. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1989) CD25 mAb: epitopes recognised, effect on lymphocyte activation, mediation of ADCC in Leucocyte Typing IV: White Cell Differentiation Antigens Eds Knapp, W. et al. (avivasysbio.com)
  • This gene encodes a member of the cysteine-aspartic acid protease (caspase) family. (genecards.org)
  • Hydrolysis involves usually a catalytic triad consisting of the thiol group of the cysteine, the imidazolium ring of a histidine, and a third residue, usually asparagine or aspartic acid, to orientate and activate the imidazolium ring. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • endopeptidases (serine, aspartic, cysteine and metalloproteinases) cleave the peptide distal to the terminus. (thermofisher.com)
  • Aspartic endopeptidase cathepsin (Cat) D levels were found to be elevated in high-grade astrocytoma and partial inhibition of glioblastoma cell invasion by anti-Cat D antibody suggests that the enzyme activity is involved in the invasion process. (springer.com)
  • OBJECTIVE--To localise the cysteine endopeptidase cathepsin B in chondrocytes and cartilage from normal and osteoarthritic (OA) human femoral heads in order to provide qualitative information on its cellular expression and distribution at possible sites of action. (bmj.com)
  • RESULTS--Chondrocytes from normal cartilage contained very few lysosomes and only a minor cell population was cathepsin B positive. (bmj.com)
  • While other stimuli may also be responsible for cathepsin B expression in OA chondrocytes, the similarity with artificially modulated cells indicates fibroblastic metaplasia as a plausible mechanism. (bmj.com)
  • In contrast, phagosome biogenesis in bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages preferentially involves endocytic compartments enriched in cathepsin S. Kinetics of phagosomal maturation is faster in macrophages than in DCs. (rupress.org)
  • Interferon-gamma stimulation of primary keratinocytes and HaCaT cells resulted in a selective upregulation of the cathepsin S activity, the extent of which was very similar. (edu.kz)
  • Cathepsin B (CTSB), which is produced constitutively by normal and leukemic cells, degraded asparaginase produced by Escherichia coli (ASNase) and Erwinia chrysanthemi. (jci.org)
  • Porphyromonas gingivalis , the major etiologic agent of chronic periodontitis, produces a broad spectrum of virulence factors, including Arg- and Lys-gingipain cysteine proteinases. (mdpi.com)
  • Arg- and Lys-gingipain cysteine proteinases are the main endopeptidases produced by P. gingivalis and are both extracellular and cell-bound [ 5 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Most upstream protease of the activation cascade of caspases responsible for the TNFRSF6/FAS mediated and TNFRSF1A induced cell death. (genecards.org)
  • In this step, a fragment of the substrate is released with an amine terminus, the histidine residue in the protease is restored to its deprotonated form, and a thioester intermediate linking the new carboxy-terminus of the substrate to the cysteine thiol is formed. (wikipedia.org)
  • A cysteine peptidase is a proteolytic enzyme that hydrolyses a peptide bond using the thiol group of a cysteine residue as a nucleophile. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Crystal structure of the cysteine peptidase papain in complex with its covalent inhibitor E-64. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a review based mainly on observations of plant cells, Morré and Mollenhauer ( 1974 ) posited the endomembrane system as the functional integration of the ER, Golgi complex, secretory vesicles, plasma membrane, and hydrolytic compartments (vacuoles in plants and lysosomes in animals). (plantcell.org)
  • Keratinocytes are an integral component of the skin immune system and function as nonprofessional antigen-presenting cells in pathophysiologic conditions when they express major histocompatibility complex class II molecules, e.g., in psoriasis. (edu.kz)
  • On T cells, CD8 is the coreceptor for the T cell receptor (TCR), and these two distinct structures recognize the Antigen-Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC). (cellsignal.com)
  • OBJECTIVE: Although peripheral blood B-CLL cells are arrested in G0 phase of the cell cycle, a proliferating pool of cells in proliferation centers might be involved in disease progression. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Cyclooxygenase-2 Inhibition Enhances Proliferation of NKT Cells Derived from Patients with Laryngeal Cancer. (nih.gov)
  • Cell growth curve assay and colony formation assay were used to verify the effect of CTSL on the proliferation and tumor progression ability of MHCC-97H cells. (cancer-genetics.org)
  • LGMN / Legumain is a cysteine protease that has a strict specificity for hydrolysis of asparaginyl bonds. (lsbio.com)
  • CD8 ensures specificity of the TCR-antigen interaction, prolongs the contact between the T cell and the antigen presenting cell, and the α chain recruits the tyrosine kinase Lck, which is essential for T cell activation (1). (cellsignal.com)
  • May mediate Ca 2+ -regulated signals along the death pathway: interaction with DAPK1 can accelerate apoptotic cell death by increasing caspase-3 activity (By similarity). (uniprot.org)
  • To understand how the modular architecture of SH3b and NlpC/P60 affects the activity of the catalytic domain, three putative NlpC/P60 cell wall hydrolases were biochemically and structurally characterized. (osti.gov)
  • Cotransfection of p53-null cell lines with p53 and calpastatin expression vectors resulted in an increase in p53-dependent transcription activity. (cnrs.fr)
  • Further, AEP-null mice display lower natural killer cell activity, but none of the major cytokines is substantially abnormal. (pnas.org)
  • Bromelain, a widely used pineapple extract with cysteine protease activity, has been shown to have immunomodulatory effects in a variety of immune system models. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • One mechanism of action proposed to account for bromelain's therapeutic activity is the cleavage of lymphocyte cell surface receptors such as CD4, CD8, CD44 and CD62L. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The relative abundances of these pore types depend on membrane composition suggesting that the physicochemical properties of the lipid bilayers present in the cell endomembrane system modulate viroporin activity. (tcdb.org)
  • PURPOSE: To develop a system for continuous evaluation of proteolytic activity in human lens epithelium and to characterize factors of importance for the regulation of proteolytic activity in lens epithelial cells. (gu.se)
  • Mimicking the influence of imatinib on BV-173 and LAMA-84 cells by ESPL1 silencing stimulated Separase proteolytic activity in both b3a2 and b2a2 cell lines. (jove.com)
  • In conclusion, SENP3, which is increased in gastric cancer cells, potentiates the transcriptional activity of FOXC2 through de-SUMOylation, in favor of the induction of specific mesenchymal gene expression in gastric cancer metastasis. (nih.gov)
  • 90% of papain activity in different cell lines and tissues lysates (Figure 2). (thermofisher.com)
  • Elevated ERK-MAP kinase activity protects the FOS family member FRA-1 against proteasomal degradation in colon carcinoma cells. (icr.ac.uk)
  • However, there is compelling evidence that metacaspases lack caspase activity and that they are not responsible for the caspaselike activities detected during plant and fungal cell death. (rupress.org)
  • Here, we describe a new approach designed to monitor the proteolytic activity of maturing phagosomes in live antigen-presenting cells. (rupress.org)
  • Maximum AEP activity was found in lysosomal fractions of different types of antigen presenting cells (APC). (edu.kz)
  • The streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin B (SpeB) is an important virulence factor of group A streptococci (GAS) with cysteine protease activity. (asm.org)
  • Momeni, Nordström, Horstmann, Avarseji, Sivberg: Alterations of prolyl endopeptidase activity in the plasma of children with autistic spectrum disorders. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • Reaction mechanism of the cysteine protease mediated cleavage of a peptide bond. (wikipedia.org)
  • Receptor cleavage can result in altered cell communication, cell trafficking and cell signaling pathways leading to the modulation of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-2, IL-4, IL-6 and TNF-α ( 18-22 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Cleavage of the cysteine protease substrate results in fluorescence at 460nm, and cleavage of the serine protease results in fluorescence at 520nm. (thermofisher.com)
  • Cycling B-CLL cells are highly susceptible to inhibition of the proteasome: involvement of p27, early D-type cyclins, Bax, and caspase-dependent and -independent pathways. (biomedsearch.com)
  • However, a broad-spectrum caspase inhibitor (z-VAD.fmk) only partially inhibited cell death although DNA degradation was completely inhibited. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Phagocytosis is probably a dominant mode of antigen uptake in vivo for professional APCs such as dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages ( 11 ). (rupress.org)
  • Antigen standard for pituitary tumor-transforming 1 (PTTG1) is a lysate prepared from HEK293T cells transiently transfected with a TrueORF gene-carrying pCMV plasmid and then lysed in RIPA Buffer. (creativebiomart.net)
  • p53 is a short-lived transcription factor that is frequently mutated in tumor cells. (cnrs.fr)
  • Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Cell Biology, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Tumor Microenvironment and Inflammation, Institutes of Medical Sciences, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China. (nih.gov)
  • Tumor formation assay in nude mice was used to analyze the effect of CTSL on the tumorigenicity of MHCC-97H cells. (cancer-genetics.org)
  • The ER is therefore unique among the compartments of the eukaryotic cell. (plantcell.org)
  • Inhibition of cytokine synthesis was performed using a glucocorticoid, a serine protease inhibitor, and a cysteine protease inhibitor. (jimmunol.org)
  • In contrast, steroids and the cysteine protease inhibitor had little effect. (jimmunol.org)
  • Activation of NF-κB was observed after cell treatment with trypsin and bacterial supernatants, and was inhibited by BAY11-7085 and the serine protease inhibitor. (jimmunol.org)
  • Intestinal immune homeostasis depends on a tightly regulated cross talk between commensal bacteria, mucosal immune cells and intestinal epithelial cells (IECs). (nih.gov)
  • Epithelial-specific inhibition of CYLD, a deubiquitinase that regulates cellular necrosis, prevented colitis development in FADD(IEC-KO) but not in NEMO(IEC-KO) mice, showing that different mechanisms mediated death of colonic epithelial cells in these two models. (nih.gov)
  • Collectively, these results show that mechanisms preventing RIP3-mediated epithelial cell death are critical for the maintenance of intestinal homeostasis and indicate that programmed necrosis of IECs might be implicated in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease, in which Paneth cell and barrier defects are thought to contribute to intestinal inflammation. (nih.gov)
  • METHODS: Human lens epithelial cells were obtained during cataract surgery. (gu.se)
  • De-SUMOylation of FOXC2 by SENP3 promotes the epithelial-mesenchymal transition in gastric cancer cells. (nih.gov)
  • Therefore, we investigated primary human nasal epithelial cell cultures for their ability to produce IL-8, growth-related oncogene-α, and IL-6 via stimulation with trypsin and culture supernatants of different S. aureus strains and phenotypes. (jimmunol.org)
  • Cytokine signaling pathways (p38, the ERK 1/2, and the PI3K) as well as the involvement of NF-κB during cytokine synthesis were examined in nasal epithelial cells by means of NF-κB-DNA-binding assays and quantifying phosphorylation of different kinases. (jimmunol.org)
  • TLR4 (zeige TLR4 Antikörper ) activation releases prolyl endopeptidase containing exosomes from airway epithelial cells. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • Plant-specific papain-type KDEL-tailed cysteine endopeptidases (KDEL-CysEPs or CEPs) have been shown to be involved in PCD during vegetative development as executors for the last step in the process. (uni-regensburg.de)
  • Bacterial SH3 (SH3b) domains are commonly fused with papain-like Nlp/P60 cell wall hydrolase domains. (osti.gov)
  • The sample, with the cell-permeable substrate Suc-Leu-Leu-Val-Tyr-7-amino-4-methylcoumarin, was placed in a chamber, which was placed in a thermostat-controlled aluminum block. (gu.se)
  • 3. An inhibitor of claim 2 wherein the cysteine protease binding moiety comprises (i) amino acids, (ii) amino acids and amino acid mimetics, or (iii) amino acid mimetics, wherein the moiety corresponds to a peptide of 5 amino acid residues. (patentgenius.com)
  • RESULTS: After administration of substrate to the medium overlying the cells, the substrate was degraded at a relatively slow rate. (gu.se)
  • This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to FITC and tested in-house for direct flow cytometry analysis in human cells. (cellsignal.com)
  • The induction of androgenesis by stress was marked by the upregulation of transcripts involved in sugar and starch hydrolysis, proteolysis, stress response, inhibition of programmed cell death, and signaling. (tudelft.nl)
  • The capacity of parental and mutant cells to support proteolysis of reovirus virions was assessed by monitoring the appearance of disassembly intermediates following adsorption of radiolabeled viral particles. (asm.org)
  • Limited proteolysis rather than total breakdown of antigens is the rule, because MHC class II molecules present peptides of 9 to 16 residues to CD4 + T cells ( 2 ). (rupress.org)
  • Proteolysis lab es un grupo de investigación liderado por el Prof. F.X. Gomis-Rüth y establecido en el Instituto de Biología Molecular de Barcelona (IBMB-CSIC). (sebbm.es)
  • Lysosomes were visualised by fluorescence microscopy after staining of living cells with acridine orange. (bmj.com)
  • RESULTS: Lactacystin blocked cell cycle progression in activated B-CLL cells and inhibited degradation of p27. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Moreover, in glioma biopsies Cat B levels correlated with evidence of clinical invasion and it has been demonstrated that Cat B both in tumour cells and in endothelial cells can serve as a new biological marker for prognosis in glioblastoma patients. (springer.com)
  • C) Flag ChIP assay using the antibody against Flag and the primer of the N-cadherin promoter region −428/−209 in HEK293T cells that were transfected with the Flag-tagged vector (F-vector) / Flag-tagged wild-type FOXC2 (F-FOXC2). (nih.gov)
  • Antigen presentation by resting b cells. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Our observations support the concept of keratinocytes functioning as nonprofessional antigen-presenting cells in states of inflammation. (edu.kz)