Unequal cell division that results in daughter cells of different sizes.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.
Compounds, either natural or synthetic, which block development of the growing insect.
Orientation of intracellular structures especially with respect to the apical and basolateral domains of the plasma membrane. Polarized cells must direct proteins from the Golgi apparatus to the appropriate domain since tight junctions prevent proteins from diffusing between the two domains.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
A family of conserved cell surface receptors that contain EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR repeats in their extracellular domain and ANKYRIN repeats in their cytoplasmic domains. The cytoplasmic domain of notch receptors is released upon ligand binding and translocates to the CELL NUCLEUS where it acts as transcription factor.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
Proteins from the nematode species CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS. The proteins from this species are the subject of scientific interest in the area of multicellular organism MORPHOGENESIS.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.
A species of nematode that is widely used in biological, biochemical, and genetic studies.
A microtubule structure that forms during CELL DIVISION. It consists of two SPINDLE POLES, and sets of MICROTUBULES that may include the astral microtubules, the polar microtubules, and the kinetochore microtubules.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Pupillary constriction. This may result from congenital absence of the dilatator pupillary muscle, defective sympathetic innervation, or irritation of the CONJUNCTIVA or CORNEA.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Specialized organs adapted for the reception of stimuli by the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.
A notch receptor that interacts with a variety of ligands and regulates SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS for multiple cellular processes. It is widely expressed during EMBRYOGENESIS and is essential for EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT.
Closable openings in the epidermis of plants on the underside of leaves. They allow the exchange of gases between the internal tissues of the plant and the outside atmosphere.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The processes occurring in early development that direct morphogenesis. They specify the body plan ensuring that cells will proceed to differentiate, grow, and diversify in size and shape at the correct relative positions. Included are axial patterning, segmentation, compartment specification, limb position, organ boundary patterning, blood vessel patterning, etc.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The cell center, consisting of a pair of CENTRIOLES surrounded by a cloud of amorphous material called the pericentriolar region. During interphase, the centrosome nucleates microtubule outgrowth. The centrosome duplicates and, during mitosis, separates to form the two poles of the mitotic spindle (MITOTIC SPINDLE APPARATUS).
A broad category of nuclear proteins that are components of or participate in the formation of the NUCLEAR MATRIX.
A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.
Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Major constituent of the cytoskeleton found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They form a flexible framework for the cell, provide attachment points for organelles and formed bodies, and make communication between parts of the cell possible.
ANIMALS whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING, or their offspring.
Proteins found in any species of helminth.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
The entire nerve apparatus, composed of a central part, the brain and spinal cord, and a peripheral part, the cranial and spinal nerves, autonomic ganglia, and plexuses. (Stedman, 26th ed)
The functional hereditary units of HELMINTHS.
Protein factors that inhibit the dissociation of GDP from GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that consist of slender vibroid cells.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
Peptides released by NEURONS as intercellular messengers. Many neuropeptides are also hormones released by non-neuronal cells.
The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.
Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.
A family of seven-pass transmembrane cell-surface proteins that combines with LOW DENSITY LIPROTEIN RECEPTOR-RELATED PROTEIN-5 or LOW DENSITY LIPROTEIN RECEPTOR-RELATED PROTEIN-5 to form receptors for WNT PROTEINS. Frizzled receptors often couple with HETEROTRIMERIC G PROTEINS and regulate the WNT SIGNALING PATHWAY.
Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).
The fertilized OVUM resulting from the fusion of a male and a female gamete.
Wnt proteins are a large family of secreted glycoproteins that play essential roles in EMBRYONIC AND FETAL DEVELOPMENT, and tissue maintenance. They bind to FRIZZLED RECEPTORS and act as PARACRINE PROTEIN FACTORS to initiate a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. The canonical Wnt signaling pathway stabilizes the transcriptional coactivator BETA CATENIN.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
Proteins found in any species of insect.
The orderly segregation of CHROMOSOMES during MEIOSIS or MITOSIS.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
The GTPase-containing subunits of heterotrimeric GTP-binding proteins. When dissociated from the heterotrimeric complex these subunits interact with a variety of second messenger systems. Hydrolysis of GTP by the inherent GTPase activity of the subunit causes it to revert to its inactive (heterotrimeric) form. The GTP-Binding protein alpha subunits are grouped into families according to the type of action they have on second messenger systems.
A family of multisubunit cytoskeletal motor proteins that use the energy of ATP hydrolysis to power a variety of cellular functions. Dyneins fall into two major classes based upon structural and functional criteria.
Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS.
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division, occurring during maturation of the GERM CELLS. Two successive cell nucleus divisions following a single chromosome duplication (S PHASE) result in daughter cells with half the number of CHROMOSOMES as the parent cells.
Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.
The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.
Heat and stain resistant, metabolically inactive bodies formed within the vegetative cells of bacteria of the genera Bacillus and Clostridium.
Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
The non-neuronal cells of the nervous system. They not only provide physical support, but also respond to injury, regulate the ionic and chemical composition of the extracellular milieu, participate in the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER, form the myelin insulation of nervous pathways, guide neuronal migration during development, and exchange metabolites with neurons. Neuroglia have high-affinity transmitter uptake systems, voltage-dependent and transmitter-gated ion channels, and can release transmitters, but their role in signaling (as in many other functions) is unclear.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Proteins that are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. Deficiencies or abnormalities in these proteins may lead to unregulated cell growth and tumor development.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.
A multi-functional catenin that participates in CELL ADHESION and nuclear signaling. Beta catenin binds CADHERINS and helps link their cytoplasmic tails to the ACTIN in the CYTOSKELETON via ALPHA CATENIN. It also serves as a transcriptional co-activator and downstream component of WNT PROTEIN-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS.
A species of gram-positive bacteria that is a common soil and water saprophyte.
The process by which the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.
The external genitalia of the female. It includes the CLITORIS, the labia, the vestibule, and its glands.
Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
A subclass of winged helix DNA-binding proteins that share homology with their founding member fork head protein, Drosophila.
An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
Any of several ways in which living cells of an organism communicate with one another, whether by direct contact between cells or by means of chemical signals carried by neurotransmitter substances, hormones, and cyclic AMP.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Form of passive immunization where previously sensitized immunologic agents (cells or serum) are transferred to non-immune recipients. When transfer of cells is used as a therapy for the treatment of neoplasms, it is called adoptive immunotherapy (IMMUNOTHERAPY, ADOPTIVE).
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
Acetic acid derivatives of the heterocyclic compound indole. (Merck Index, 11th ed)
A group of plant cells that are capable of dividing infinitely and whose main function is the production of new growth at the growing tip of a root or stem. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
The process by which the CELL NUCLEUS is divided.
CXCR receptors isolated initially from BURKITT LYMPHOMA cells. CXCR5 receptors are expressed on mature, recirculating B-LYMPHOCYTES and are specific for CHEMOKINE CXCL13.
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
The external, nonvascular layer of the skin. It is made up, from within outward, of five layers of EPITHELIUM: (1) basal layer (stratum basale epidermidis); (2) spinous layer (stratum spinosum epidermidis); (3) granular layer (stratum granulosum epidermidis); (4) clear layer (stratum lucidum epidermidis); and (5) horny layer (stratum corneum epidermidis).
Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.
A family of DNA-binding transcription factors that contain a basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
Undifferentiated cells resulting from cleavage of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE). Inside the intact ZONA PELLUCIDA, each cleavage yields two blastomeres of about half size of the parent cell. Up to the 8-cell stage, all of the blastomeres are totipotent. The 16-cell MORULA contains outer cells and inner cells.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
The quantity of volume or surface area of CELLS.
Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.
A low affinity interleukin-2 receptor subunit that combines with the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN to form a high affinity receptor for INTERLEUKIN-2.
The middle germ layer of an embryo derived from three paired mesenchymal aggregates along the neural tube.
Proteins obtained from the ZEBRAFISH. Many of the proteins in this species have been the subject of studies involving basic embryological development (EMBRYOLOGY).
A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
Growth processes that result in an increase in CELL SIZE.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
T-cell enhancement of the B-cell response to thymic-dependent antigens.
Immunosuppression by reduction of circulating lymphocytes or by T-cell depletion of bone marrow. The former may be accomplished in vivo by thoracic duct drainage or administration of antilymphocyte serum. The latter is performed ex vivo on bone marrow before its transplantation.
Recording serial images of a process at regular intervals spaced out over a longer period of time than the time in which the recordings will be played back.
The functional hereditary units of INSECTS.
A strain of non-obese diabetic mice developed in Japan that has been widely studied as a model for T-cell-dependent autoimmune insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in which insulitis is a major histopathologic feature, and in which genetic susceptibility is strongly MHC-linked.
Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.
The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.
Receptors present on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and B-LYMPHOCYTES that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-2 and play an important role in LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION. They are heterotrimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT, the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT, and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN.
Monomeric subunits of primarily globular ACTIN and found in the cytoplasmic matrix of almost all cells. They are often associated with microtubules and may play a role in cytoskeletal function and/or mediate movement of the cell or the organelles within the cell.
A thin layer of cells forming the outer integument of seed plants and ferns. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Process whereby the immune system reacts against the body's own tissues. Autoimmunity may produce or be caused by AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
Subpopulation of CD4+ lymphocytes that cooperate with other lymphocytes (either T or B) to initiate a variety of immune functions. For example, helper-inducer T-cells cooperate with B-cells to produce antibodies to thymus-dependent antigens and with other subpopulations of T-cells to initiate a variety of cell-mediated immune functions.
A genus of ascomycetous fungi of the family Schizosaccharomycetaceae, order Schizosaccharomycetales.
A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.
The outer of the three germ layers of an embryo.
A nucleoside that substitutes for thymidine in DNA and thus acts as an antimetabolite. It causes breaks in chromosomes and has been proposed as an antiviral and antineoplastic agent. It has been given orphan drug status for use in the treatment of primary brain tumors.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
The complex processes of initiating CELL DIFFERENTIATION in the embryo. The precise regulation by cell interactions leads to diversity of cell types and specific pattern of organization (EMBRYOGENESIS).
An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.
Guo M, Jan LY, Jan YN (July 1996). "Control of daughter cell fates during asymmetric division: interaction of Numb and Notch". ... while the pIIb cell divides to produce a neuron and a glial cell. The asymmetric division of the SOP into daughter cells with ... This asymmetric division allows a daughter cell containing Numb to acquire a different fate than the other daughter cell. The ... The posterior daughter cell is called the pIIa cell and the anterior daughter cell is called the pIIb. The pIIa cell divides to ...
The temporal regulation of neuroblast asymmetric division is controlled by proteins Hunchback (Hb) and sevenup (svp). After ... The daughter cells of a neuroblast have two decidedly different neural fates. This is accomplished by neural fate determinants ... At a certain point, a neuroblast will undergo asymmetric cell division giving rise to a neuroblast and a ganglion mother cell. ... Ganglion mother cells (GMCs) are cells involved in neurogenesis, in non-mammals, that divide only once to give rise to two ...
An asymmetric cell division produces two daughter cells with different cellular fates. This is in contrast to symmetric cell ... Guo, M; Jan, LY; Jan, YN (1996). "Control of daughter cell fates during asymmetric division: interaction of Numb and Notch". ... The term asymmetric cell division usually refers to such intrinsic asymmetric divisions. In order for asymmetric division to ... In normal stem and progenitor cells, asymmetric cell division balances proliferation and self-renewal with cell-cycle exit and ...
... to asymmetric cell division that results in the designation of large cells that develop into gonidia and small cells that ... gls specifies cell fate based on size lag genes facilitate gonidial development in large cells reg genes facilitate somatic ... Determination of somatic cells is controlled by the transcription factor regA. The regA geneencodes a single 80 amino acid-long ... develop into somatic cells. Gls mutants do not experience asymmetric division, a key component for creating gonidia, and thus ...
... asymmetric segregation (as needed for asymmetric cell division), differential splicing and/or translational control. The ... germ plasm organelle encapsulating the cytoplasmic face of the nuclear envelope of the cells destined to the germline fate. The ... cell organelle of plant cell (the others-vacuole and nucleoplasm). It serves as small container of starch in plant cell. In ... The beta cells closely control the release, and use unusual mechanisms to do so. Immature insulin granules function as a ...
2010). Polarity in stem cell division: asymmetric stem cell division in tissue homeostasis. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol 2: ... In males, the fusome is necessary for ensuring quality control in individual cysts. DNA damage in one cell leads to all cells ... 2.2 Differences in male vs female fusomes In females, the fusome plays a role in cell fate and differentiation. Asymmetric ... 2006) Fusome as a Cell-Cell Communication Channel of Drosophila Ovarian Cyst. In: Cell-Cell Channels. Springer, New York, ...
... helps control the balance between differentiating and progenitor cells by localizing to a pole during progenitor cell division ... This asymmetric division of TRIM32 induces neuronal differentiation in daughter cells which contain high TRIM32 concentrations ... while cells with low TRIM32 concentrations retain progenitor cell fate. Proposed theories on how TRIM32 induces differentiation ... In the mouse neocortex, neural progenitor cells generate daughter cells which either differentiate into specific neurons or ...
This asymmetric cell division usually occurs early in embryogenesis. Positive feedback can create asymmetry from homogeneity. ... resolution microscopy allow visualization of molecular changes in experimentally manipulated cells as compared to controls. ... two of which are by the combination of transcription factors the cells have and by the cell-cell interaction. Cells' fate ... Sonic Hedgehog signalling and the control of neural cell fate. In systems biology, cell-fate determination is predicted to ...
... result leads to cytokinesis producing unequal daughter cells containing completely different amounts or concentrations of fate- ... After the cell proceeds successfully through the M phase, it may then undergo cell division through cytokinesis. The control of ... This is due to there being the possibility of an asymmetric division. This as a ... Cell division is the process by which a parent cell divides into two or more daughter cells. Cell division usually occurs as ...
... divisions that give rise to daughter cells with distinct developmental fates. Asymmetric cell divisions can occur because of ... "Control of Stem Cell Fate by Physical Interactions with the Extracellular Matrix". Cell Stem Cell. 5 (1): 17-26. doi:10.1016/j. ... a precursor cell formerly capable of cell division, permanently leaves the cell cycle, dismantles the cell cycle machinery and ... fat cells, and types of bone cells Epithelial stem cells (progenitor cells) that give rise to the various types of skin cells ...
... and migrating cells. Furthermore, cell polarity is important during many types of asymmetric cell division to set up functional ... in which the receptor-expressing cell adopts one fate and its neighbors another. In addition to defining asymmetric axes in the ... study to elucidate the connection between cell cycle timing and Cdc42 accumulation in the bud site uses optogenetics to control ... Biology portal Epithelial polarity Cell migration Embryogenesis Embryonic development Asymmetric cell division 3D cell culture ...
... asymmetric neurogenic division; and symmetric neurogenic division. Out of all the three cell types, neuroepithelial cells that ... In Drosophila, Notch signaling was first described, controlling a cell-to-cell signaling process called lateral inhibition, in ... These modifications are critical for cell fate determination in the developing and adult mammalian brain. DNA cytosine ... these dormant cells, or B cells, go through a series of stages, first producing proliferating cells, or C cells. The C cells ...
... into JUNQ and IPOD inclusion bodies is a means by which mammalian cells can be rejuvenated through asymmetric division. Thus, ... "Live Cell Imaging". Live cell imaging enables in vivo tracking of proteins in space and time, in their natural endogenous ... JUNQ is the JUxta Nuclear Quality control compartment. To maintain cellular homeostasis, the cellular quality control system ... The fate of misfolded proteins and the process leading to the formation of aggregate inclusions, were initially studied using ...
Symmetric division gives rise to two identical daughter cells both endowed with stem cell properties. Asymmetric division, on ... Chen X, Hartman A, Guo S (2015-09-01). "Choosing Cell Fate Through a Dynamic Cell Cycle". Current Stem Cell Reports. 1 (3): 129 ... When a stem cell self-renews, it divides and does not disrupt the undifferentiated state. This self-renewal demands control of ... Asymmetric cell division: a stem cell divides into one mother cell, which is identical to the original stem cell, and another ...
Sawa H (2012). "Control of cell polarity and asymmetric division in C. elegans". Planar Cell Polarity During Development. ... Beta-catenin has also been implicated in regulation of cell fates through asymmetric cell division in the model organism C. ... "A novel cell-cell junction system: the cortex adhaerens mosaic of lens fiber cells". Journal of Cell Science. 116 (Pt 24): 4985 ... These cell-cell adhesion complexes are necessary for the creation and maintenance of epithelial cell layers and barriers. As a ...
Asymmetric cell division has also been described in polyploid giant cancer cells and low eukaryotic cells and reported to occur ... Intriguing phenomena including controlled autophagic degradation of some DNA as well as production of nuclear envelope-limited ... all involving mitotic chromosomes and classified by the fate of the nuclear envelope. O'Huallachain, M.; Karczewski, K. J.; ... "Asymmetric cell division in polyploid giant cancer cells and low eukaryotic cells". BioMed Research International. 2014: 432652 ...
"Trnp1 regulates expansion and folding of the mammalian cerebral cortex by control of radial glial fate". Cell. 153 (3): 535-549 ... "Cortical neurons arise in symmetric and asymmetric division zones and migrate through specific phases". Nature Neuroscience. 7 ... "Expression Analysis Highlights AXL as a Candidate Zika Virus Entry Receptor in Neural Stem Cells". Cell Stem Cell. 18 (5): 591- ... Chenn, A; Walsh, CA (19 July 2002). "Regulation of cerebral cortical size by control of cell cycle exit in neural precursors". ...
C. elegans embryogenesis is among the best understood examples of asymmetric cell division. All cells of the germline arise ... The developmental fate of every single somatic cell (959 in the adult hermaphrodite; 1031 in the adult male) has been mapped. ... Important developmental events controlled by heterochronic genes include the division and eventual syncitial fusion of the ... A second cell division produces the ABp and ABa cells from the AB cell, and the EMS and P2 cells from the P1 cell. This ...
"Epigenetic control on cell fate choice in neural stem cells". Protein & Cell. 3 (4): 278-290. doi:10.1007/s13238-012-2916-6. ... Asymmetric division[edit]. The first divisions of the progenitor cells are symmetric, which duplicates the total number of ... At first, this zone contains neural stem cells, that transition to radial glial cells-progenitor cells, which divide to produce ... Then, some progenitor cells begin to divide asymmetrically, producing one postmitotic cell that migrates along the radial glial ...
... within the specific anatomic location where stem cells are found, which interacts with stem cells to regulate cell fate. The ... 2007). "Stem cell aging is controlled both intrinsically and extrinsically in the Drosophila ovary". Cell Stem Cell. 1 (4): 458 ... Xie, T.; Spradling, A. (1998). "Dpp Is Essential for the Maintenance and Division of Germline Stem Cells in the Ovary". Cell. ... "Dpp Signaling Silences bam Transcription Directly to Establish Asymmetric Divisions of Germline Stem Cells". Current Biology. ...
"Yeast Cbk1 and Mob2 activate daughter-specific genetic programs to induce asymmetric cell fates". Cell. 107 (6): 739-50. doi: ... And to do this, there must be coordination with other networks controlling the different phases of the cell, such as Cdc14 ... As these types of chitinases are important in cell division, there must be tight regulation and activation. Specifically, Cts1 ... chitinase to function dependent on the cell's stage in the cell cycle and at specific locations among the daughter cells. ...
2009). "Control of stem cell fate by physical interactions with the extracellular matrix". Cell Stem Cell. 5 (1): 17-26. doi: ... Loss of CD47 permits sustained proliferation of primary murine endothelial cells, increases asymmetric division, and enables ... human iPS cell-derived myeloid cell lines as unlimited cell source for dendritic cell-like antigen-presenting cells". Gene ... "Human Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer Using Adult Cells". Cell Stem Cell. 14 (6): 777-780. doi:10.1016/j.stem.2014.03.015. PMID ...
"Yeast Cbk1 and Mob2 activate daughter-specific genetic programs to induce asymmetric cell fates". Cell. 107 (6): 739-50. doi: ... However, chitinases that have specialized functions, such as degrading exogenous chitin or participating in cell division, need ... chitinase to function dependent on the cell's stage in the cell cycle and at specific locations among the daughter cells.[30] ... there must be coordination with other networks controlling the different phases of the cell, such as Cdc14 Early Anaphase ...
The asymmetric cell division results in two different varieties of daughter cells (i.e. a neuroepithelial cell divides into a ... Many of the neuroepithelial cells also divide into radial glial cells, a similar, but more fate restricted cell. Being a more ... The symptoms of the tumor are dependent on its location, but most children experience seizures that cannot be controlled by ... During neuroepithelial cell division, interkinetic nuclear migration allows the cells to divide unrestricted while maintaining ...
... which is able to promote quiescent state and cell cycle activation in somatic stem cells. Asymmetric division is characteristic ... determining cell fates. In mouse embryonic stem cells, this pathway helps maintaining pluripotency. The WNT pathway allows β- ... Self-renewal process is highly regulated from cell cycle and genetic transcription control. There are some signaling pathways, ... As a result, either stem cells cannot enter the cell cycle, or cell division slows in many tissues. Extrinsic regulation is ...
... glia dedifferentiate and undergo a single asymmetric division to produce a neural progenitor cell and a new Muller glia cell. ... "β-catenin/Wnt signaling controls progenitor fate in the developing and regenerating zebrafish retina". Neural Development. 7: ... Nagashima, M; Barthel, LK; Raymond, PA (2013). "A self-renewing division of zebrafish Müller glial cells generates neuronal ... which dedifferentiate into stem-like cells and proliferate into neural progenitor cells in response to retinal damage. While ...
"Asymmetric division and cosegregation of template DNA strands in adult muscle satellite cells". Nature Cell Biology. 8 (7): 677 ... from the lab of James Sherley engineered mammalian cells with an inducible p53 gene that controls asymmetric divisions. BrdU ... "High Incidence of Non-Random Template Strand Segregation and Asymmetric Fate Determination in Dividing Stem Cells and their ... label-retaining cells as adult stem cells, these cells are difficult to identify unequivocally as adult stem cells. While the ...
... a type of cell-cell interaction. Specifically, during asymmetric cell division one daughter cell adopts a particular fate that ... "Independent control of reciprocal and lateral inhibition at the axon terminal of retinal bipolar cells". J Physiol. 591 (16): ... amacrine cells, bipolar cells, and horizontal cells in order to reach the photoreceptors rod cells which absorb light. The rods ... be transmitted by the rod cells in the center of the ganglion cell receptive field to ganglion cells because horizontal cells ...
"Polarized Myosin Produces Unequal-Size Daughters During Asymmetric Cell Division". Science. 330 (6004): 677-680. Bibcode: ... The spindle positioning within symmetrically and asymmetrically dividing cells in the early embryo is controlled by mechanical ... This cell fate switching is regulated by the mechanosensitive hippo pathway The effectiveness of many of the mechanical ... During the division of the fertilized oocyte, cells aggregate and the compactness between cells increases with the help of ...
... cell undergoes rounds of asymmetric divisions to generate four distinct cells of a sensory organ. Numb, a membrane-associated ... protein, is asymmetrically segregated into one daughter cell during SOP divisi … ... Control of daughter cell fates during asymmetric division: interaction of Numb and Notch Neuron. 1996 Jul;17(1):27-41. doi: ... Here, we show that Notch, a transmembrane receptor mediated cell-cell communication, functions as a binary switch in cell fate ...
... suggests a possible role for asymmetric cell division (ACD). We show that ACD of developing T cells controls cell fate through ... Asymmetric cell division during T cell development controls downstream fate. Kim Pham, Raz Shimoni, Mirren Charnley, Mandy J. ... Asymmetric cell division during T cell development controls downstream fate. Kim Pham, Raz Shimoni, Mirren Charnley, Mandy J. ... cells have a per cell death rate of μ. a. pre. ; (2) y. a. cells have a per cell death rate of μ. a. post. ; (3) x. b. cells ...
J Cell Sci. 2019 Oct 24;133(5). pii: jcs235358. doi: 10.1242/jcs.235358. ... Notch signalling frequently facilitates fate determination. Asymmetric cell division (ACD) often controls segregation of Notch ... A new role for Notch in the control of polarity and asymmetric cell division of developing T cells.. Charnley M1,2,3, Ludford- ... Contrary to prevailing models, we demonstrate that Notch signalling controls the distribution of Notch1 itself and cell fate ...
2002). Asymmetric Numb distribution is critical for asymmetric cell division of mouse cerebral cortical stem cells and ... 1996). Control of daughter cell fates during asymmetric division: interaction of Numb and Notch. Neuron 17, 27-41. ... 1994). Asymmetric distribution of numb protein during division of the sensory organ precursor cell confers distinct fates to ... LGN, Insc and NuMA control spindle orientation, and Numb regulates the cell fate of lung epithelial cells in vitro depending on ...
In both cases, sister-cell fates could be controlled by mechanisms that are independent of division. Here we demonstrate that ... In asymmetric cell division, asymmetric fates of future daughter cells are prospectively determined by a mechanism that is ... Asymmetric cell division has previously been suspected to be a regulator of haematopoietic-stem-cell fate, but its existence ... Observations of asymmetric inheritance or of asymmetric daughter-cell fates alone are not sufficient to demonstrate asymmetric ...
... approaches for controlling spatial gradients of biomolecules in cells and differentiation of cells during cell division (aka, ... Immobilized Chemical Inducers of Differentiation (iCID) and asymmetric cell division: In living organisms, it is often the ... that determines the cell fate. My lab develops multiple ... Cell biology and cell-based high-throughput screening.. * ... asymmetric division). Specifically, we investigate the differentiation events that govern tumor development and control dynamic ...
1996 Control of daughter cell fates during asymmetric division: interaction of Numb and Notch. Neuron 17: 27-41. ... The SOP then undergoes three rounds of differentiation via asymmetric cell division (each division generates two distinct ... Overall, there were 36.9 ± 20.3 pH3 cells (n = 15), 18.1 ± 11.7 pH3/Sens cells, and 88.0 ± 47.5 Sens cells. Two Sens cells (one ... Overall, there were 37.9 ± 15.7 pH3 cells (n = 8), 14.3 ± 6.6 pH3/Sens cells, and 91.4 ± 34.2 Sens cells. Four Sens cells ( ...
An asymmetric cell division produces two daughter cells with different cellular fates. This is in contrast to symmetric cell ... Guo, M; Jan, LY; Jan, YN (1996). "Control of daughter cell fates during asymmetric division: interaction of Numb and Notch". ... The term asymmetric cell division usually refers to such intrinsic asymmetric divisions. In order for asymmetric division to ... In normal stem and progenitor cells, asymmetric cell division balances proliferation and self-renewal with cell-cycle exit and ...
1996) Control of daughter cell fates during asymmetric division; interaction of Numb and Notch. Neuron 17, 27-41. ... 1994) Expression of achaete-scute homologue 3 in Xenopus embryos converts ectodermal cells to a neural fate. Genes Dev 8, 1434- ... 1995) Neurogenic and proneural genes control cell fate specification in the Drosophila endoderm. Development 12, 393-405. ... 1993) Expression of an extracellular deletion of Xotch diverts cell fate in Xenopus embryos. Cell 73, 659-671. ...
Cells often divide by binary fission to form two identical daughter cells with similar developmental fates. However, a cell can ... Asymmetric cell division allows for better environmental adaptation and organismal complexity. ... How cells divide asymmetrically and how they enforce the differential fates of daughter cells remain unsolved, fundamental ... Phosphorylation-based control of cellular asymmetry and the cell cycle in Caulobacter crescentus. Author(s). Chen, Yiyin Erin ...
Asymmetric cell division during T cell development controls downstream fate T cell precursors undergo asymmetric cell division ... Fredberg takes a physical approach to model mechanical properties of cells and tissues. ... The formation of ordered nanoclusters controls cadherin anchoring to actin and cell-cell contact fluidity Pierre-Olivier Strale ... after T cell receptor genomic recombination, with stromal cell cues controlling the differential inheritance of fate ...
However, how cell shape is regulated in developing animals is not well understood. Here, we show that the onset of TGFbeta/Dpp ... Morphogenesis is largely driven by changes in the shape of individual cells. ... 16099639 - Molecular control of cell polarity and asymmetric cell division in drosophila neuroblasts.. 14551769 - Hematopoietic ... 22768929 - Self-organized cell motility from motor-filament interactions.. 19444309 - Sequoia regulates cell fate decisions in ...
... as self-renewal and their ability to generate cells that enter differentiation. One mechanism by which fate decisions can be ... Emerging evidence suggests that microRNAs can initiate asymmetric division, but whether microRNA and protein cell fate ... A miR-34a-Numb Feedforward Loop Triggered by Inflammation Regulates Asymmetric Stem Cell Division in Intestine and Colon Cancer ... Mitotic spindle orientation can be coupled with cell fate decisions to provide cellular diversity through asymmetric ... ...
2010) Wnt signaling controls the stem cell-like asymmetric division of the epithelial seam cells during C. elegans larval ... These three cells descend from a single progenitor, the ray precursor cell, through several rounds of asymmetric division ... These cells undergo several rounds of division to generate one hypodermal cell (Rn.p) as well as the three cell types of each ... 2009) Linking asymmetric cell division to the terminal differentiation program of postmitotic neurons in C. elegans. Dev Cell ...
Control of daughter cell fates during asymmetric division: interaction of Numb and Notch.Neuron 17 1996 27 41 ... is required for the asymmetric cell division of the neural precursor cells of the external sensory organ and acts through the ... which is required for the asymmetric cell division of sensory neural precursor cells (38). In Drosophila, genes that are ... cell fate determination, and cell polarity formation by controlling alternative splicing, mRNA stability, RNA transport, and/or ...
... is a central component in the control of lineage commitment during asymmetric cell division of SOP cells. This function is ... The Drosophila Seven in absentia (Sina) gene product originally was described as a protein that controls cell fate decisions ... Numb physically interacts with and inhibits the signaling of Notch1 (20-23), a cell-surface receptor that promotes cell fate ... EDTA-induced Notch1 nuclear translocation in U937 vector control cells (8-10). Cells were incubated with PBS containing 10 mM ...
... are regulated by cortical ER and mediated by distinct pools of cortical anchor that are differentially localized along the cell ... the daughters of stem cells can have different fates. This is due to a precise asymmetric division which dynein partly controls ... 2014) Asymmetric cell division of stem and progenitor cells during homeostasis and cancer Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences ... 2009) Spindle orientation during asymmetric cell division Nature Cell Biology 11:365-374. ...
Experimental Cell Research" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic ... Control of daughter cell fates during asymmetric division: Interaction of Numb and Notch ... distribution of numb protein during division of the sensory organ precursor cell confers distinct fates to daughter cells ... Role of inscuteable in orienting asymmetric cell divisions in Drosophila. Kraut, R.; Chia, W.; Jan, L.Y.; Jan, Y.N.; Knoblich, ...
Control of daughter cell fates during asymmetric division: interaction of Numb and Notch. Neuron. 1996;17:27-41. [PubMed] ... S2 cell lysates were prepared by harvesting transfected cells (~5×106) in 1 mL lysis buffer, followed by incubation on ice for ... Nat Cell Biol. 2002;4:416-424. [PubMed]. 65. Artavanis-Tsakonas S, Rand MD, Lake RJ. Notch signaling: cell fate control and ... Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2006;7:678-689. [PubMed]. 68. Cagan RL, Ready DF. Notch is required for successive cell decisions in the ...
The sys-1 gene was discovered as a regulator of the asymmetric cell division of somatic gonadal precursor cells (SGPs) (7). ... whereas zebrafish NLK affects cell fates (47). Therefore, a broader role for a Wnt/MAPK-like pathway in controlling asymmetric ... SYS-1/β-Catenin Broadly Controls Asymmetric Cell Divisions.. Asymmetric cell divisions occur throughout C. elegans development ... Both SYS-1/β-catenin and POP-1/TCF control the SGP asymmetric cell division (7, 9). In pop-1 mutants, as in sys-1 mutants, the ...
Strikingly, MEK1 appeared to control the asymmetric inheritance of Ventx2 protein following cell division. Consistently, when ... MEK1 was required to make Xenopus pluripotent cells competent to respond to all cell fate inducers tested. Importantly, MEK1 ... MEK1 is required for Ventx2 clearance and asymmetric distribution during cell division. (A,B) Four-cell embryos were injected ... The pMEK1 signal was severely reduced or lost in cells injected with Mk-MO. (B) Four-cell embryos were injected in each cell ...
... of integral components of mammalian cells seem to follow a general pattern of asymmetric inheritance throughout division, the ... safeguard the faithful inheritance of RNA content throughout cell division and that those mechanisms must be tightly controlled ... fate of RNA molecules largely remains a mystery. Herein, we will discuss current concepts of asymmetric inheritance in a wide ... Asymmetric Inheritance of Cell Fate Determinants: Focus on RNA by Yelyzaveta Shlyakhtina †, Katherine L. Moran † and ...
Guo M, Jan LY, Jan YN (July 1996). "Control of daughter cell fates during asymmetric division: interaction of Numb and Notch". ... while the pIIb cell divides to produce a neuron and a glial cell. The asymmetric division of the SOP into daughter cells with ... This asymmetric division allows a daughter cell containing Numb to acquire a different fate than the other daughter cell. The ... The posterior daughter cell is called the pIIa cell and the anterior daughter cell is called the pIIb. The pIIa cell divides to ...
RBR silencing induces asymmetric cell division of the QC.. Expression patterns of cell-fate markers in stem cell niche of WT (A ... Quiescent long-term somatic stem cells reside in plant and animal stem cell niches. Within the Arabidopsis root stem cell ... QC, quiescent centre; CEI, cortex-endodermis initial; VSC, vascular stem cell; CSC, columella stem cell; SCD, stem cell ... as well as cell death in vascular and columella cells. (L) pRCH1::amiGORBR shows overproliferation of the QC and LRC and cell ...
PDK1 Regulates Transition Period of Apical Progenitors to Basal Progenitors by Controlling Asymmetric Cell Division. Cereb ... Sample (Species/Tissue/Cell Type/Cell Line etc.) HPAF-II cells for ICC, pancreatic adenocarcinoma with normal areas for IHC ... Dinh Duong TA et al. FGF Signaling Directs the Cell Fate Switch from Neurons to Astrocytes in the Developing Mouse Cerebral ... Cell lines and Lysates. Multiplex miRNA assays. Multiplex Assays. By research area. Cancer. Cardiovascular. Cell Biology. ...
... neural stem cell maintenance and the role of adult neurogenesis. ... Asymmetric cell division is an attractive means for stem cells ... cell cycle dynamically regulate Numb signaling and represent a novel mechanism for coupling cell-fate determination and cell- ... cell numbers are strictly controlled in vivo, and tumor suppressors likely play a key role in maintaining stem-cell homeostasis ... We propose that Numb-mediated asymmetric cell division is a mechanism used by stem cells in many tissues for their progeny to ...
... that the interactions of ECM components with cell surface receptors and secreted factors are key determinants of cell fate. In ... These cells continually undergo a process of centripetal displacement and differentiation which is orchestrated by several ... These cells continually undergo a process of centripetal displacement and differentiation which is orchestrated by several ... Studies have shown that the adrenocortical cells descend from a pool of progenitors that are localized in the subcapsular ...
Asymmetric cell division during T cell development controls downstream fate. Pham, K., Shimoni, R., Ludford-Menting, M. J., ... The BAFF receptor TACI controls IL-10 production by regulatory B cells and CLL B cells. Saulep-Easton, D., Vincent, F. B., Quah ... Restricted cell cycle is essential for clonal evolution and therapeutic resistance of pre-leukemic stem cells. Tremblay, C., ... Asymmetric segregation and self-renewal of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells with endocytic Ap2a2. Ting, S. B. N., ...
These cells may have undergone asymmetric division, yielding one postmitotic neuron and one cell cycle-arrested radial ... 1D). Unlike control cells, there were essentially no detectable Dyrk1A+ cells in the VZ at both time points (Fig. 1C,D), ... 2003) Beyond laminar fate: toward a molecular classification of cortical projection/pyramidal neurons. Dev Neurosci 25:139-151. ... Normally, postmitotic neurons are produced by either the asymmetric division of radial glia cells or the symmetric division of ...
... understanding self-organization and spatially controlled differentiation leading to daughter cells with different cell fates. ... model that includes all essential cellular processes to gain a deeper understanding of asymmetric cell division and cell ... She seeks to understand how to control the innate immune response mediated by natural-killer and other cells to eliminate ... as exemplified by his correction of the mutation in sickle cell disease in hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. He is now ...
  • We show that ACD of developing T cells controls cell fate through differential inheritance of cell fate determinants Numb and α-Adaptin. (rupress.org)
  • The disruption of polarity by deletion of the polarity regulator, Scribble, or the altered inheritance of fate determinants impacts subsequent fate decisions to influence the numbers of DN4 cells arising after the β-selection checkpoint. (rupress.org)
  • Contrary to prevailing models, we demonstrate that Notch signalling controls the distribution of Notch1 itself and cell fate determinants, α-adaptin and Numb. (nih.gov)
  • This can be mediated by asymmetric inheritance of cell-extrinsic niche signals by, for example, orienting the divisional plane, or by the asymmetric inheritance of cell-intrinsic fate determinants. (nature.com)
  • The mitotic spindle must be oriented correctly to ensure that the proper cell fate determinants are distributed appropriately to the daughter cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • T cell precursors undergo asymmetric cell division after T cell receptor genomic recombination, with stromal cell cues controlling the differential inheritance of fate determinants Numb and α-Adaptin by the daughters of a dividing DN3a T cell precursor. (rupress.org)
  • Emerging evidence suggests that microRNAs can initiate asymmetric division, but whether microRNA and protein cell fate determinants coordinate with each other remains unclear. (duke.edu)
  • This "ray sublineage" is executed synchronously by 18 progenitors during the third and fourth larval stages ( Fig. 1 C ). Although the patterning of ray cell fates is thought to occur through the segregation of determinants and/or the influence of extracellular signals, these mechanisms remain uncharacterized. (jneurosci.org)
  • Portal, M.M. Asymmetric Inheritance of Cell Fate Determinants: Focus on RNA. (mdpi.com)
  • Shlyakhtina Y, Moran KL, Portal MM. Asymmetric Inheritance of Cell Fate Determinants: Focus on RNA. (mdpi.com)
  • New data from other organ systems and different experimental paradigms strongly support the conclusion that the interactions of ECM components with cell-surface receptors and secreted factors are key determinants of cell fate. (frontiersin.org)
  • Alternatively, asymmetric partitioning of cell fate determinants in the mother cell can give rise to daughter cells that adopt different cell fates ( Watt and Hogan, 2000 ). (biologists.org)
  • PAR polarity cues create a cytoplasmic gradient of the polarity mediators MEX‐5 and MEX‐6, which act together with other polarity mediators to generate the asymmetric localisation of cell fate determinants. (els.net)
  • Asymmetric localisation of cell fate determinants is accomplished mainly through protein degradation and translational regulation. (els.net)
  • The localisation of cell fate determinants combined with cell-cell signalling events leads to specification of different developmental programmes in cells of the early embryo. (els.net)
  • Localisation of polarity mediators, cell fate determinants and signalling pathways in the early embryo. (els.net)
  • Cell fate determinants, such as RNA-binding proteins or polarity regulators have been recently described as effectors in stem cell biology. (forschung-sachsen-anhalt.de)
  • As a consequence, the asymmetrically localized proteins often include determinants of cell fate. (forschung-sachsen-anhalt.de)
  • We investigate different pathways and cell fate determinants involved in self-renewal capacity in vivo using gene-specific knockout mouse models. (forschung-sachsen-anhalt.de)
  • These data suggest that some DN3 thymocytes polarize fate determinants during division, prompting further efforts to quantify polarity. (kvik.top)
  • Our results support the hypothesis that altered pollen cell fate in gem1 results from abnormal inheritance of cell fate determinants as a result of disturbed cytokinesis. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Specification of the Cell Lineages: Determinants of Cell and Positional Fate in Ascidian Embryos, W.R. Jeffery. (bookdepository.com)
  • We discuss recent views on intrinsic and extrinsic molecular determinants, including the role of epigenetic chromatin modifiers and microRNA, in the control of neuronal output in developing cortex and in the establishment of normal cortical architecture. (springer.com)
  • Asymmetric localization of cell-cell junctions and/or intrinsic cell fate determinants and position within specific environment ("niche") are examples of mechanisms used to specify cell polarity and direct asymmetric divisions. (stembook.org)
  • In some cases, factors within the dividing mother cell lead to the differential segregation of cell fate determinants to give two distinct daughters upon division. (stembook.org)
  • 1. Cell fate determinants are segregated to the basal cortex of the dividing NB, resulting in a disruption of the symmetry of the mother cell prior to division. (stembook.org)
  • 2. The mitotic spindle is aligned along the apical-basal axis to ensure accurate segregation of these cell fate determinants to the appropriate daughter cell. (stembook.org)
  • however, some studies suggest that extrinsic signals from the overlying epithelium also facilitate proper spatio-temporal localization of cell fate determinants (Lee et al. (stembook.org)
  • These data indicate that embryonic NBs respond to signals from the adjacent epithelium to specify correct spindle orientation and localization of cortical cell fate determinants. (stembook.org)
  • Segregation of cell fate determinants to the daughter GMC is regulated by the reciprocal localization of four protein complexes: two complexes are localized to the apical cortex and two to the basal cortex (see Figure 1 ). (stembook.org)
  • The basal complexes, which will segregate to the GMC, asymmetrically localize three major cell fate determinants: Prospero, Brat, and Numb, which inhibit self-renewal and promote differentiation (Bowman et al. (stembook.org)
  • Cell polarity, mitotic spindle orientation and asymmetric division play a crucial role in the self-renewal/differentiation of epithelial cells, yet little is known about these processes and the molecular programs that control them in embryonic lung distal epithelium. (biologists.org)
  • As Notch signaling promotes progenitor cell identity at the expense of differentiated cell phenotypes, we test whether genetic activation of Notch could rescue the Eya1 −/− lung phenotype, which is characterized by loss of epithelial progenitors, increased epithelial differentiation but reduced branching. (biologists.org)
  • We conclude that the phosphorylation of Mad by Zw3 functions to prevent the self-renewal of Sens SOP, perhaps facilitating their differentiation via asymmetric division. (genetics.org)
  • 2) Our lab uses genetically-encoded libraries to develop materials that control differentiation of cells (see iCID). (ualberta.ca)
  • My lab develops multiple approaches for controlling spatial gradients of biomolecules in cells and differentiation of cells during cell division (aka, asymmetric division). (ualberta.ca)
  • Specifically, we investigate the differentiation events that govern tumor development and control dynamic equilibrium between tumor-initiating cancer stem cells (CSC) and non-stem cancer cells (NSCC). (ualberta.ca)
  • We hypothesise that Dll1 is involved in the release of cells from the precursor population and that Dll3 is required later to divert neurons along a specific differentiation pathway. (biologists.org)
  • 1995 ) Xotch inhibits cell differentiation in the Xenopus retina. (biologists.org)
  • Stem cells are defined by their ability to make more stem cells, a property known as self-renewal and their ability to generate cells that enter differentiation. (duke.edu)
  • Numb's primary function in cell differentiation is as an inhibitor of Notch signaling which is essential for maintaining self-renewal potential in stem and progenitor cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • in addition, the success of cell-based therapies will depend on understanding mechanisms that control precursor cell proliferation, cell-fate specification, and differentiation. (jneurosci.org)
  • C , The three cells of each ray are derived through a stereotyped pattern of division and differentiation called the ray sublineage. (jneurosci.org)
  • The degradation of Tramtrack, a potent repressor of neuronal cell fate, is necessary for R7 differentiation in the developing eye. (pnas.org)
  • We found that Dyrk1A overexpression inhibits neural cell proliferation and promotes premature neuronal differentiation in the developing cerebral cortex without affecting cell fate and layer positioning. (jneurosci.org)
  • Members of the Dyrk family of protein kinases play a role in proliferation and differentiation in a variety of cell types. (jneurosci.org)
  • mnb and Dyrk1B have both been shown to affect proliferation and/or differentiation of progenitor cells. (jneurosci.org)
  • In mammals, Dyrk1B controls cell cycle progression, differentiation, and the survival of myoblasts through the regulation of the cell cycle proteins p27 and cyclin D1 ( Mercer and Friedman, 2006 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • Here we demonstrate that Dyrk1A overexpression inhibits proliferation and induces premature neuronal differentiation of neural progenitor cells in the developing mouse cerebral cortex through a cyclin D1-mediated mechanism. (jneurosci.org)
  • Depicted are the principles of molecular mechanisms controlling asymmetric cell division, stem cell differentiation, developmental and regenerative biology, epigenetic and genetic control as well as mathematical modelling for cell fate prediction. (springer.com)
  • These cells continually undergo a process of centripetal displacement and differentiation, which is orchestrated by several paracrine and endocrine cues, including the pituitary-derived adrenocorticotrophic hormone, and angiotensin II. (frontiersin.org)
  • Particularly, the composition of the ECM, which exhibits substantial differences within each of the three histologically distinct concentric zones, has been shown to influence the differentiation status of adrenocortical cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • Stem cells are cells that, upon division, can produce new stem cells as well as daughter cells that initiate differentiation along a specific lineage. (biologists.org)
  • Surrounding support cells secrete growth factors that activate signaling within adjacent stem cells to specify stem cell self-renewal and block differentiation. (biologists.org)
  • The ability of stem cells to contribute to these processes depends on their ability to divide and generate both new stem cells (self-renewal) and specialized cell types (differentiation). (biologists.org)
  • The crucial decision between stem cell self-renewal and differentiation must be tightly controlled. (biologists.org)
  • Understanding how the choice between stem cell self-renewal and the onset of differentiation is made might facilitate the expansion of adult stem cells in culture while maintaining essential stem cell characteristics - a crucial first step in the use of adult stem cells for tissue replacement and gene therapy. (biologists.org)
  • Ultimately, stem cell number, division, self-renewal and differentiation are likely to be regulated by the integration of intrinsic factors with extrinsic cues provided by the surrounding microenvironment. (biologists.org)
  • Lucy Shapiro , PhD, professor of developmental biology: She has established the bacterium Caulobacter cresentus as a powerful model organism for understanding self-organization and spatially controlled differentiation leading to daughter cells with different cell fates. (stanford.edu)
  • Gametes are highly specialized cell types produced by a complex differentiation process. (frontiersin.org)
  • Normal stem cells often divide asymmetrically to produce one daughter cell like itself for self-renewal and another daughter cell unlike itself to go down a path of differentiation ( Neumuller and Knoblich, 2009 ). (elifesciences.org)
  • Several genes and signaling pathways control the fine balance between self-renewal and differentiation in HSC and potentially also in leukemic stem cells (LSC). (forschung-sachsen-anhalt.de)
  • When a stem cell divides, one daughter cell follows a genetic program inducing proliferation and differentiation, while the second daughter cell stays under a program, inducing quiescence and the capacity for longevity. (forschung-sachsen-anhalt.de)
  • however, its de novo synthesis is also required during the differentiation of the EE cell. (sdbonline.org)
  • The up-regulated genes were significantly enriched in Gene Ontology terms and pathways involved in cell proliferation and differentiation. (g3journal.org)
  • The results suggest that gga-mir-135a-5p may involve in proliferation and differentiation in chicken ovarian follicular theca cells by targeting KLF4, ATP8A1, and CPLX1. (g3journal.org)
  • Conceptually, such divisions are an attractive means for stem cells to balance the needs of self-renewal and differentiation during organogenesis and tissue maintenance, by producing one. (ebscohost.com)
  • The reduction in ACD correlated with decreased cell numbers, increased thymocyte death, and decreased differentiation to the double-positive DP stage Fig. If large agglomerates were to have lower effective densities than of the smaller agglomerates, then overestimation of the f D function would occur. (kvik.top)
  • Pharmacologic reduction of proteasome activity in CD8+ T cells early during differentiation resulted in acquisition of terminal effector cell characteristics, whereas enhancement of proteasome activity conferred attributes of memory lymphocytes. (jci.org)
  • 2004) "c-Myc Controls the Balance Between Hematopoietic Stem Cell Self-Renewal and Differentiation", Genes a& Development, 25(24): 2747-63. (patentgenius.com)
  • The B cell may exemplify how other complex cell differentiation systems are controlled. (rian.ie)
  • Faithful cell cycle progression in the dimorphic bacterium Caulobacter crescentus requires spatiotemporal regulation of gene expression and cell pole differentiation. (stanford.edu)
  • Thus, correct spindle positioning is needed for maintaining the integrity of epithelia, creating cell diversity, and coordinating proliferation and differentiation of stem cell-like progenitors. (rupress.org)
  • Control of stem cell formation and differentiation by mRNA/protein complexes. (ucdenver.edu)
  • These complexes regulate germ cell differentiation and stem cell development in the embryo. (ucdenver.edu)
  • Exercises that increase cardiac function such as chloramphenicol uk or gentamicin are given for every mmol la with a ventricular response ratemin should be provided by the glomerulus suggesting that the differentiation of intercalated cells of cell life and longevity. (nationalnewstoday.com)
  • Articles address structure and control of gene expression, nucleocytoplasmic interactions, control of cell development and differentiation, and cell transformation and growth. (bookdepository.com)
  • Understanding the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying brain cells behavior, proliferation and differentiation will be a major advance in our understanding of vertebrate brain development, regeneration, and diseases such as brain cancer and neurological conditions in humans. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • Our lab is now currently investigating the different molecular mechanisms that may regulate self-renewal and differentiation in stem cell niches and developing brain. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • Gotz M, Stoykova A, Gruss P (1998) Pax6 controls radial glia differentiation in the cerebral cortex. (springer.com)
  • High-level Ac and Sc expressions in the presumptive sensory organ precursors (SOPs) activate genetic programs for further specification and differentiation, leading to the generation of sensory bristles comprising neuron, sheath, hair, and socket cells [1] , [2] . (prolekare.cz)
  • Isoform p78: Has an essential role in control of cell proliferation and differentiation during development and could act as a tumor suppressor. (uniprot.org)
  • Isoform p127: Has an accessory function in control of cell proliferation and differentiation during development. (uniprot.org)
  • We propose that FLP and MYB88 together integrate patterning with the control of cell cycle progression and terminal differentiation through multiple and direct cell cycle targets. (plantcell.org)
  • Stomatal number and distribution depend upon a balance between cell proliferation and differentiation. (plantcell.org)
  • This gene codes for a protein that sits on the surface of cells and binds another protein - called epidermal growth factor - known to stimulate growth, proliferation, and differentiation in other cell types. (phys.org)
  • During development of the Drosophila peripheral nervous system, a sensory organ precursor (SOP) cell undergoes rounds of asymmetric divisions to generate four distinct cells of a sensory organ. (nih.gov)
  • Here, we show that Notch, a transmembrane receptor mediated cell-cell communication, functions as a binary switch in cell fate specification during asymmetric divisions of the SOP and its daughter cells in embryogenesis. (nih.gov)
  • ACD occurs specifically during the β-selection stage of T cell development, and subsequent divisions are predominantly symmetric. (rupress.org)
  • Herein, we provide the first evidence that embryonic lung distal epithelium is polarized with characteristic perpendicular cell divisions. (biologists.org)
  • Fig. 3: Lysosomes, autophagosomes and mitophagosomes are co-inherited during asymmetric HSC divisions and predict upregulation of CD71. (nature.com)
  • This is in contrast to symmetric cell divisions which give rise to daughter cells of equivalent fates. (wikipedia.org)
  • The term asymmetric cell division usually refers to such intrinsic asymmetric divisions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Play media In C. elegans, a series of asymmetric cell divisions in the early embryo are critical in setting up the anterior/posterior, dorsal/ventral, and left/right axes of the body plan. (wikipedia.org)
  • During development, oriented cell divisions are crucial for correctly organizing and shaping a tissue. (duke.edu)
  • Numb protein signaling plays a key role in binary cell fate decisions following asymmetric cell divisions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here we show that the distribution of LIN-32 during the ray sublineage is markedly asymmetric, localizing to anterior daughter cells in two successive cell divisions. (jneurosci.org)
  • In Caenorhabditis elegans , SYS-1/β-catenin and POP-1/TCF regulate several asymmetric divisions, including that of the somatic gonadal precursor cell (SGP). (pnas.org)
  • In addition, SYS-1 asymmetry is seen in many other tissues, consistent with the idea that SYS-1 regulates asymmetric divisions broadly during C. elegans development. (pnas.org)
  • A variant Wnt signaling pathway controls asymmetric cell divisions in Caenorhabditis elegans ( 4 , 5 ). (pnas.org)
  • Disruption of this interaction by point mutation in SCR or RBR promotes asymmetric divisions in the QC that renew short-term stem cells. (nih.gov)
  • Furthermore, a combination of localized signaling and autonomously acting proteins might polarize stem cells in such a way as to ensure asymmetric stem cell divisions. (biologists.org)
  • Cysts are surrounded by and receive signals from somatic cells which promote germ cell divisions and shape oocyte morphology. (frontiersin.org)
  • Asymmetric neuroblast divisions. (berkeley.edu)
  • Our current focus is to understand how Frizzleds, cell surface receptors for Wnt glycoproteins, orient these divisions and how membrane trafficking events regulate the function of Frizzled receptors. (berkeley.edu)
  • The C. elegans MELK ortholog PIG-1 kinase regulates cell size asymmetry and daughter cell fate in asymmetric neuroblast divisions. (berkeley.edu)
  • While asymmetric division of T cells has been shown to be an important mechanism for the generation of lymphocyte fate diversity during immune responses, key factors that influence whether T cells will undergo symmetric or asymmetric divisions are not completely understood. (jove.com)
  • By varying the size and the distance between the activation sites and measuring the incidence of asymmetric cell divisions, we found that the distance between activation sites is an important regulator of asymmetric division. (jove.com)
  • Further analysis revealed that more symmetric divisions occurred when two nascent daughter cells stably interacted with two distinct activation sites throughout and following cytokinesis. (jove.com)
  • In contrast, more asymmetric divisions occurred when only one daughter cell remained anchored on an activation site while the other daughter became motile and moved away following cytokinesis. (jove.com)
  • For example, time between cell divisions (cell lifetimes), apoptotic cell numbers, evolution of morphological changes, and mechanism of colony formation can be quantified and compared in cells carrying specific genetic lesions. (jove.com)
  • Technology Center, LLC, USA cell divisions (ACDs). (scribd.com)
  • Notwithstanding, uncov- sive injury, normal stem cells can also be exponentially expanded ering the mechanisms regulating normal stem cell self-renewing through a series of symmetric divisions. (scribd.com)
  • Thus, both asymmetric divisions could provide insights into how those mechanisms are and symmetric cell divisions can lead to stem cell self-renewal. (scribd.com)
  • It was long believed that tissues were hierarchically organized symmetric and asymmetric stem cell divisions in order to preserve in which the tissue-specific stem cells reside at the apex and dif- an optimal number of stem cells within a tissue or organ. (scribd.com)
  • The frequencies of symmetric vs. asymmetric divisions are associated with cancer proliferation and progression. (elifesciences.org)
  • Tre1 GPCR signaling orients stem cell divisions in the Drosophila central nervous system. (phys.org)
  • During the next few divisions, anterior/posterior asymmetries and cell-cell signalling events establish the dorsal/ventral and left-right axes of the embryo and further refine cell fates. (els.net)
  • The C. elegans embryo exhibits an invariant pattern of asymmetric cell divisions that generates diverse cell types. (els.net)
  • Asymmetric divisions are regulated by the conserved PAR proteins, which become localised in anterior and posterior cortical domains during polarity establishment after fertilisation. (els.net)
  • A conserved G protein pathway functions with the microtubule motor dynein to position the mitotic spindle on the polarity axis during asymmetric divisions. (els.net)
  • Asymmetric cell divisions produce blastomeres with distinct fates. (els.net)
  • Horizontal lines indicate cell divisions, and the lengths of the vertical lines indicate relative differences in cell cycle rates of each blastomere. (els.net)
  • MacAlister, C. A., Ohashi-Ito, K. & Bergmann, D. C. Transcription factor control of asymmetric cell divisions that establish the stomatal lineage. (nature.com)
  • Frizzled signalling controls orientation of asymmetric sense organ precursor cell divisions in Drosophila. (ebscohost.com)
  • Asymmetric cell divisions are concentrated in the dermomyotome dorsomedial lip during epaxial primary myotome morphogenesis. (ebscohost.com)
  • Concise Review: Asymmetric Cell Divisions in Stem Cell Biology. (ebscohost.com)
  • Often this process involves establishing self-renewing populations via asymmetric cell divisions. (cam.ac.uk)
  • stomata guard cells are created via a stereotyped set of asymmetric cell divisions whose number and orientation are dictated by the interplay of cell-type specific transcription factors and local cell-cell interactions. (cam.ac.uk)
  • The control over asymmetric divisions and cell morphogenesis, however, involves primarily plant-specific elements. (cam.ac.uk)
  • The nature of aberrant gametophytic cell divisions and altered pollen cell fate in the gemini pollen1 ( gem1 ) mutant was investigated through ultrastructural analysis. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Asymmetric divisions generate cell fate diversity and epithelial stratification, whereas symmetric divisions contribute to tissue growth, spreading, and elongation. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Here, we describe a mechanism for positioning the spindle in symmetric cell divisions of an embryonic epithelium. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • We propose that this dynamic mechanism maintains symmetric divisions while allowing the quick adjustment of division plane to facilitate even tissue spreading. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Symmetric divisions create identical daughter cells, a process needed to exponentially expand cell populations. (rupress.org)
  • Asymmetric cell divisions, in contrast, generate daughter cells that differ in inherited components and developmental fate ( Fig. 1 ). (rupress.org)
  • Cytoplasmic mRNA regulation is very important during early embryogenesis and during stem cell divisions that occur throughout development. (ucdenver.edu)
  • By using live-imaging approach in zebrafish, we demonstrated for the first time that asymmetric inheritance of apical domain correlates with asymmetric divisions. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • We are now testing whether the regain of apical attachment could be a new mechanism of self-renewal, essential for maintaining the progenitor and stem cell populations.We also observed that basal process can be symmetrically and asymmetrically inherited during cell division (movie 1 and 2) ( Kosodo et al, 2008) and that progenitor daughter inherits the basal process during asymmetric divisions (Alexandre et al, 2010). (ucl.ac.uk)
  • In development of the epidermis in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, the specification and distribution of stomatal guard cells also requires oriented cell divisions. (stanford.edu)
  • By studying stomatal development, one can explore how cells choose to initiate asymmetric divisions, how cells establish an internal polarity that can be translated into an asymmetric cell division, and how cells interpret external cues to align their divisions relative to the polarity of the whole tissue. (stanford.edu)
  • SOL1 and SOL2 regulate fate transition and cell divisions in the Arabidopsis stomatal lineage. (stanford.edu)
  • In the terminal division of the stomatal lineage, however, these two proteins appear to act in opposition to their closest paralogue, TSO1, revealing complexity in the gene family that may enable customization of cell divisions in coordination with development. (stanford.edu)
  • here, asymmetric and self-renewing divisions of the stomatal lineage create two essential cell types-pavement cells and guard cells-in proportions reflecting inputs from local, systemic, and environmental cues. (stanford.edu)
  • Mutant analysis revealed that aur1-2 aur2-2 lateral root primordia are built from randomly oriented cell divisions instead of distinct cell layers. (plantcell.org)
  • This phenotype could be traced back to cytokinesis defects and misoriented cell plates during the initial anticlinal pericycle cell divisions that give rise to lateral root primordia. (plantcell.org)
  • In addition to defective lateral root patterning, aur1-2 aur2-2 plants also show defects in orienting formative divisions during embryogenesis, divisions surrounding the main root stem cell niche, and divisions surrounding stomata formation. (plantcell.org)
  • Animal cells achieve asymmetrical divisions by translating polarizing cues into an asymmetric distribution of polarity regulators like the partitioning defective complex ( Gönczy, 2008 ). (plantcell.org)
  • The number of epidermal cells produced, including stomata, depends upon the number of unequal divisions. (plantcell.org)
  • In contrast with the extensive cell proliferation via asymmetric divisions that occurs earlier in the stomatal cell lineage, each GMC divides only once, dividing symmetrically to produce two cells of equal size and fate. (plantcell.org)
  • During development, asymmetric divisions provide the basis for establishment of the body axis and cell fate determination in a range of processes. (stembook.org)
  • Subsequently, asymmetric cell divisions play a critical role in maintaining adult stem cell populations, while at the same time generating an adequate number of differentiating daughter cells to maintain tissue homeostasis and repair. (stembook.org)
  • Loss of cell polarity, and consequently the potential for asymmetric divisions, is often linked to excessive stem cell self-renewal and tumorigenesis. (stembook.org)
  • Here we will discuss multiple factors and mechanisms that imbue cells with polarity to facilitate an asymmetric outcome to stem cell divisions, assuring self-renewal and maintenance of the stem cell pool. (stembook.org)
  • Ultimately, asymmetric divisions are regulated directly by genes that control the process of asymmetric cell division itself or determine the distinct cell fates of the two daughter cells. (stembook.org)
  • As a researcher, She received her Ph.D. from Dr. Yuh Nung Jan's laboratory at the University of California San Francisco, Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI) for her work on neuronal stem cell development during asymmetric cell divisions. (ucla.edu)
  • The cell biology of these events has been most studied in three animal models: the mouse, the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, and the fruitfly Drosophila melanogaster. (wikipedia.org)
  • In Drosophila melanogaster, asymmetric cell division plays an important role in neural development. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here, we show that the onset of TGFbeta/Dpp signaling activity correlates with the transition from cuboidal to columnar cell shape in developing Drosophila melanogaster wing disc epithelia. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The Drosophila Seven in absentia ( Sina ) gene product originally was described as a protein that controls cell fate decisions during eye development. (pnas.org)
  • Numb is another gene involved in Drosophila development that is a key determinant of cell fate ( 16 ). (pnas.org)
  • One of the targets of Drosophila Numb is Notch, a single-pass transmembrane protein that is also important for cell fate determination ( 18 , 19 ). (pnas.org)
  • Studies using the Drosophila germline as a model system have demonstrated that signaling from the stem cell niche plays a crucial role in controlling stem cell behavior. (biologists.org)
  • Recent results describing stem cell niches in other adult stem cells, including hematopoietic and neural stem cells, have demonstrated that the features characteristic of stem cell niches in Drosophila gonads might be conserved. (biologists.org)
  • Here, we review the cellular mechanisms that function within the stem cell niche to influence stem cell behavior in Drosophila . (biologists.org)
  • We are interested in the control of asymmetry in Drosophila neuroblast, the stem cells that generate the adult CNS during larval life. (cam.ac.uk)
  • The fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster , has long been at the forefront as a model system for genetics and cell biology research. (frontiersin.org)
  • The adult Drosophila ovary continuously produces germ cells throughout the organism's lifetime, and many of the cellular processes that occur to establish oocyte fate are conserved with mammalian gamete development. (frontiersin.org)
  • Here, we review recent discoveries from Drosophila that advance our understanding of how early germ cells balance mitotic exit with meiotic initiation. (frontiersin.org)
  • Canonical wingless signaling regulates cone cell specification in the Drosophila retina. (biomedsearch.com)
  • During dorsal closure in Drosophila, signaling events in the dorsalmost row of epidermal cells (DME cells) direct the migration of lateral epidermal sheets towards the dorsal midline where they fuse to enclose the embryo. (biomedsearch.com)
  • This study used steady state and pulse labeling techniques to follow Notch receptors in sensory organ precursor cells (SOP) in Drosophila. (sdbonline.org)
  • These data therefore suggest that Numb controls the balance between Notch receptor recycling and receptor targeting to late endosomes to regulate signaling output following asymmetric cell division in Drosophila neural progenitors. (sdbonline.org)
  • This study explored terminal cell fate establishment during homeostasis using the enteroendocrine cells (EEs) of the adult Drosophila midgut as a paradigm. (sdbonline.org)
  • Thus, this work identifies Numb as a crucial factor for cell fate choice in the adult Drosophila intestine. (sdbonline.org)
  • Here, I will review how fate asymmetry is regulated in the sensory bristle lineage in Drosophila and focus on the molecular mechanisms underlying ACD of the sensory organ precursor cells (SOPs). (wiley.com)
  • Reports that in Drosophila cell division the orientation of the mitotic spindles and the localization of the Numb crescent follow a stereotyped pattern. (ebscohost.com)
  • Presents research which studied the mechanisms underlying asymmetric cell division in the Drosophila nervous system. (ebscohost.com)
  • In most metazoan cells, contractile ring placement is regulated by the mitotic spindle through the centralspindlin complex, and potentially also the chromosomal passenger complex (CPC).Drosophila neuroblasts, asymmetrically dividing neural stem cells, but also other cells utilize both spindle-dependent and spindle-independent cleavage furrow positioning pathways.However, the relative contribution of each pathway towards cytokinesis is currently unclear. (nih.gov)
  • Drosophila neuroblasts, asymmetrically dividing neural stem cells, but also other cells utilize both spindle-dependent and spindle-independent cleavage furrow positioning pathways. (nih.gov)
  • Here we report that in Drosophila neuroblasts, the mitotic spindle, but not polarity cues, controls the localization of the CPC component Survivin. (nih.gov)
  • In particular, studies of the one-cell Caenorhabditis elegans embryo, as well as neuroblasts and sensory organ precursor cells in Drosophila melanogaster , have revealed much insight in spindle positioning ( Knoblich, 2010 ). (rupress.org)
  • Niche-associated activation of rac promotes the asymmetric division of Drosophila female germline stem cells. (babraham.ac.uk)
  • Drosophila female germline stem cells (GSCs) reside adjacent to a cellular niche that secretes Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) ligands and anchors the GSCs through adherens junctions. (babraham.ac.uk)
  • Asymmetric Germ Cell Division and Oocyte Determination during Drosophila Oogenesis, W. Deng and H. Lin. (bookdepository.com)
  • Studies of the underlying mechanisms regulating asymmetric division of Drosophila neuroblasts (NBs) have contributed to the establishment of paradigms and identification of molecular components that control asymmetric division in more complex stem cell systems (Reviewed in Chia et al. (stembook.org)
  • Consistently, when Ventx2 lacked a functional PEST-destruction motif, it was stabilized, displayed symmetric distribution during cell division and could efficiently maintain pluripotency gene expression over time. (xenbase.org)
  • Using advection-reaction-diffusion PDE models we show how modulation of ATP-ase reaction rates can affect the spatial location of several proteins and transition the cell from a symmetric to an asymmetric division program. (umn.edu)
  • We show that during the early stages of epiboly, spindles in the epithelium display dynamic behavior within the plane of the epithelium but are kept firmly within this plane to give a symmetric division. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • By dictating the plane of cell cleavage, the position of the spindle controls the relative size and location of daughter cells and determines whether cell division is symmetric or asymmetric. (rupress.org)
  • Deletion of Ppard or Pml as well as inhibition of FAO results in the symmetric commitment of HSC daughter cells, whereas PPAR-δ activation increased asymmetric cell division. (elsevier.com)
  • 2018) Lineage and stage-specific expressed CYCD7;1 coordinates the single symmetric division that creates stomatal guard cells. (stanford.edu)
  • As in most plants, Arabidopsis thaliana stomata differentiate after at least one asymmetric and one final symmetric division ( Figure 1A ). (plantcell.org)
  • (A) Stomata form via asymmetric division(s) and one symmetric division. (plantcell.org)
  • The uneven distribution of EGFR-3 suggested that the protein might be involved in a phenomenon known as asymmetric cell division , which along with symmetric cell division constitute the two ways that cells make copies of themselves. (phys.org)
  • In symmetric cell division, the mother cell divides into two daughter cells that share all the same attributes. (phys.org)
  • He showed that when EGFR-3 was functioning normally, irradiated neoblasts divided by asymmetric cell division half of the time and by symmetric cell division the other half of the time. (phys.org)
  • Cell polarity, the asymmetry in distribution of cellular constituents within a single cell, is fundamental to cellular functions and essential for generating cell diversity. (biologists.org)
  • Because this latter mechanism does not depend on interactions of cells with each other or with their environment, it must rely on intrinsic asymmetry. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this work, I use the model organism Caulobacter crescentus to investigate how intracellular asymmetry within the mother cell is translated into the formation of two developmentally distinct daughter cells. (mit.edu)
  • This spatial gradient of CtrA phosphorylation enforces replicative asymmetry and couples it to the asymmetric morphogenesis of the daughter cells. (mit.edu)
  • I then investigate how CtrA's control of replicative asymmetry relates to the control of replication periodicity. (mit.edu)
  • The genetic separability of the spatial and temporal controls of replication in Caulobacter suggests that DnaA comprises an ancient and phylogenetically widespread control module for replication in almost all bacteria while CtrA developed later in c-proteobacteria and was recruited to enforce replicative asymmetry in daughter cells. (mit.edu)
  • This work provides a foundation for understanding cellular asymmetry and evolution of the cell cycle in bacteria. (mit.edu)
  • In neuroblasts, both complexes are localized to the apical cortex, causing apical/basal cell division and daughter cells exhibiting strong size asymmetry. (wikipedia.org)
  • The anterior-posterior patterning of LIN-32 expression and of differentiated ray neuroglial fates is brought about by the Wnt/β-catenin asymmetry pathway, including the Wnt ligand LIN-44, its receptor LIN-17, and downstream components LIT-1 (NLK), SYS-1 (β-catenin), and POP-1 (TCF). (jneurosci.org)
  • LIN-32 asymmetry itself has an important role in patterning ray cell fates, because the failure to silence lin-32 expression in posterior cells disrupts development of this branch of the ray sublineage. (jneurosci.org)
  • Moreover, they reveal a central role for the Wnt/β-catenin asymmetry pathway in patterning neural and glial fates in a simple sensory lineage. (jneurosci.org)
  • In all cases, SYS-1 is reciprocal to POP-1 asymmetry: cells with higher SYS-1 have lower POP-1, and vice versa. (pnas.org)
  • SYS-1 asymmetry is controlled posttranslationally and relies on frizzled and dishevelled homologs, which also control POP-1 asymmetry. (pnas.org)
  • In Caenorhabditis elegans , asymmetry is established in the one‐cell embryo in response to the position of the sperm provided centrosome. (els.net)
  • PAR‐2 and PAR‐1 are initially present around the entire P 1 cortex, but as the cell cycle progresses, PAR protein asymmetry and cellular polarity are reestablished. (els.net)
  • Here we identify the plant-specific protein POLAR as a stomatal lineage scaffold for a subset of GSK3-like kinases that confines them to the cytosol and subsequently transiently polarizes them within the cell, together with BREAKING OF ASYMMETRY IN THE STOMATAL LINEAGE (BASL), before ACD. (nature.com)
  • Fate asymmetry may result from the unequal segregation of molecules and/or organelles between the two daughter cells. (wiley.com)
  • a) The lineage of numb mutant SOPs: defective fate asymmetry results in the specification of two pIIa‐like cells that generate socket‐like cells. (wiley.com)
  • Fate asymmetry is regulated by Notch. (wiley.com)
  • a) The lineage of Notch mutant SOPs: defective fate asymmetry results in the specification of two pIIb‐like cells that generate neuron‐like cells. (wiley.com)
  • We propose that the DNA double helical structure itself causes the development of sister cells' gene regulation asymmetry. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • However, given that the BMP signal can be diffusible, it remains unclear how a local extracellular asymmetry is sufficient to result in a robust pattern of asymmetric division. (babraham.ac.uk)
  • Hence, Eya1 promotes both perpendicular division as well as Numb asymmetric segregation to one daughter in mitotic distal lung epithelium, probably by controlling aPKCζ phosphorylation. (biologists.org)
  • Thus, epithelial cell polarity and mitotic spindle orientation are defective after interfering with Eya1 function in vivo or in vitro. (biologists.org)
  • In addition, in Eya1 −/− lungs, perpendicular division is not maintained and Numb is segregated to both daughter cells in mitotic epithelial cells, leading to inactivation of Notch signaling. (biologists.org)
  • In order for asymmetric division to take place the mother cell must be polarized, and the mitotic spindle must be aligned with the axis of polarity. (wikipedia.org)
  • It states that a complex phosphorylation cascade enables aPKC to phosphorylate Numb in the pre-mitotic cell, decreasing its affinity for the plasma membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • A molecular machine known as the mitotic spindle then moves each set of genetic material to where it will be needed when the daughter cells form. (elifesciences.org)
  • The RETINOBLASTOMA-RELATED (RBR) protein cell-autonomously reinforces mitotic quiescence in the QC. (nih.gov)
  • Orienting the mitotic spindle is paramount to controlling the outcome of asymmetric cell division, which is critical for determining daughter-cell size, fate and location. (biologists.org)
  • To determine if somitic stem cell pools could be identified by an intrinsic difference in mitotic behaviour, the orientation of mitoses in the dermomyotome epithelium was analysed. (ebscohost.com)
  • To achieve asymmetric division, the microspore undergoes several unique cellular events, including the establishment of cell polarity through nuclear migration, development of an asymmetric mitotic spindle, and an unusual process of cytokinesis to form a hemispherical cell plate. (plantphysiol.org)
  • In most metazoan cells, contractile ring placement is regulated by the mitotic spindle through the centralspindlin complex, and potentially also the chromosomal passenger complex (CPC). (nih.gov)
  • The position of the mitotic spindle determines the cleavage plane in animal cells, but what controls spindle positioning? (rupress.org)
  • The mitotic spindle is a complex molecular machine that rapidly remodels a mother cell to create two daughter cells during cell division. (rupress.org)
  • Asymmetric cell division (ACD) often controls segregation of Notch signalling by imposing unequal inheritance of regulators of Notch. (nih.gov)
  • Asymmetric segregation and self-renewal of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells with endocytic Ap2a2. (nature.com)
  • Numb is a suppressor of Notch, therefore the asymmetric segregation of Numb to the basal cortex biases the response of the daughter cells to Notch signaling, resulting in two distinct cell fates. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, it is logical to suggest that there must exist a series of molecular systems that safeguard the faithful inheritance of RNA content throughout cell division and that those mechanisms must be tightly controlled to ensure the successful segregation of key molecules to the progeny. (mdpi.com)
  • 08903, USA co-segregation of template DNA strands and the stem-cell pathways associated with it in e-mail: [email protected] normal and CSCs. (scribd.com)
  • ACD leads to asymmetric segregation of self-renewal to one daughter cell in HSC. (forschung-sachsen-anhalt.de)
  • Later on, lineage segregation and likely commitment are completed with the sequestration of PrE cells to the surface of the ICM, which lies at the blastocyst cavity roof. (springer.com)
  • It is composed of a monochromatid gene expression phenomenon that we discovered in two fission yeasts with the selective chromosome copy segregation phenomenon that we discovered in mouse cells. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Precise cleavage furrow positioning is required for faithful chromosome segregation and cell fate determinant distribution. (nih.gov)
  • These results support the model that two spatially and temporally separate pathways control different key aspects during asymmetric cell division, ensuring correct cell fate determinant segregation and neuroblast self-renewal. (nih.gov)
  • The importance of these processes is evident: proper chromosome segregation is critical for the genetic stability and survival of all cells, whereas the regulation of the cell-cleavage plane is essential for normal development and maintenance of tissue homeostasis. (rupress.org)
  • We further show that Eya1 protein regulates cell polarity, spindle orientation and the localization of Numb, which inhibits Notch signaling. (biologists.org)
  • Lis1 regulates asymmetric division in hematopoietic stem cells and in leukemia. (nature.com)
  • A miR-34a-Numb Feedforward Loop Triggered by Inflammation Regulates Asymmetric Stem Cell Division in Intestine and Colon Cancer. (duke.edu)
  • ACD regulates the induction and maintenance of polarity during cell division, resulting in the generation of two daughter cells with different genetic properties. (forschung-sachsen-anhalt.de)
  • How N regulates stem cell behavior in health and disease is not well understood. (sdbonline.org)
  • This study shows that Notch regulates bantam (ban) microRNA to impact cell growth, a process key to NSC maintenance and particularly relied upon by tumor-forming cancer stem cells. (sdbonline.org)
  • Here, we report that the E2Fa transcription factor of Arabidopsis thaliana is an essential component that regulates the asymmetric cell division marking lateral root initiation. (ugent.be)
  • Bultje RS, Castaneda-Castellanos DR, Jan LY, Jan YN, Kriegstein AR, Shi SH (2009) Mammalian Par3 regulates progenitor cell asymmetric division via notch signaling in the developing neocortex. (springer.com)
  • identify a role for the Mdm1 orthologue, Snx14, as an ER-LD tether that regulates lipid metabolism in human cells. (mef.hr)
  • Other proteins present in the neuroblast mediate the asymmetric localization of Numb and Prospero. (wikipedia.org)
  • The localization of PON is controlled by either Insc or the Frizzled-Wnt signaling pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • I will report on a surprising localization pattern of one transcript during the larval neuroblasts cell cycle, its connection to centrosomes and what we learned so far about the molecular mechanism behind this, which we uncovered in great part by tracing mRNAs in neuroblasts by live microscopy. (cam.ac.uk)
  • First, we start with the simple single cell bacteria, Caulobacter Crescentus and show how a single cell might employ spatio-temporal protein localization patterns to estimate the location of the division site. (umn.edu)
  • In the embryo, cell polarity factors control the localization of translational regulators. (wormbook.org)
  • Early development of C. elegans embryos requires the localization of maternal gene products to specific cells at specific times. (wormbook.org)
  • A subcellular structure in nurse cells and oocytes is described which may function as an intracellular compartment for assembly and transport of maternal products involved in RNA localization. (sdbonline.org)
  • However, many critical mRNAs are tightly controlled in the cytoplasm after they leave the nucleus, leading to specific patterns of protein translation and localization. (ucdenver.edu)
  • This volume brings together current information on the localization and roles of RNAs in cell-lineage determination and subsequent patterning in embryonic development. (bookdepository.com)
  • RNA Localization and Germ Cell Determination in Xenopus, M. Kloc, S. Bilinski, A. P-Y. Chan, L.H. Allen, N.R. Zearfoss, and L.D. Etkin. (bookdepository.com)
  • Mechanisms to Establish Polarity and Initiate Cell Fate Determination: Defining Cis-Acting Elements and Trans-Acting Factors in RNA Localization, K. Yaniv and J.K. Yisraeli. (bookdepository.com)
  • Lampard, G. R., MacAlister, C. A. & Bergmann, D. C. Arabidopsis stomatal initiation is controlled by MAPK-mediated regulation of the bHLH SPEECHLESS. (nature.com)
  • Additionally, regulation of cell polarity is essential for asymmetric cell division (ACD). (forschung-sachsen-anhalt.de)
  • Intrinsic regulation of enteroendocrine fate by Numb. (sdbonline.org)
  • Moreover, this study shows that a Numb- Myc axis mediates the effects of ban on nucleolar and cellular growth independently or downstream of N. These results highlight intricate transcriptional as well as translational control mechanisms and feedback regulation in the N signaling network, with important implications for NSC biology and cancer biology. (sdbonline.org)
  • embryo, maternal mRNA regulation is crucial to the patterning of early cell fates. (wormbook.org)
  • This chapter reviews the translational regulation of maternal mRNAs that encode key regulators of early embryonic cell fates. (wormbook.org)
  • We define "translational control" loosely, as control of protein accumulation by elements within the mRNA, even though the translation process itself may not be the primary target of regulation. (wormbook.org)
  • Shaping a developing organ or embryo relies on the spatial regulation of cell division and shape. (ebscohost.com)
  • Regulation of T-cell progenitor survival and cell-cycle entry by the pre-T-cell receptor. (kvik.top)
  • Current larger-scale projects are to capture cell growth, division and targeted gene expression patterns in stomatal lineage cells as a whole leaf develops and to obtain cell-type-specific gene regulation trends. (cam.ac.uk)
  • I will discuss how these approaches interface with focused projects on the targets and regulation of two transcription factors, SPEECHLESS and FAMA , and the generation of cell polarity preceding and following asymmetric cell division and the themes that emerge when cell fate and developmental flexibility in this lineage relative to other self-renewing populations in the plant. (cam.ac.uk)
  • In response to stimulation, B lymphocytes pursue a large number of distinct fates important for immune regulation. (rian.ie)
  • Little was known about the regulation of asymmetric mode of division in vertebrates brain. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • Persistent cell migration plays a crucial role in physiological processes, but its underlying mechanisms of regulation remain unclear. (mef.hr)
  • Clarke investigates the molecular regulation of stem cell regeneration (self-renewal) in normal and diseased tissue. (czbiohub.org)
  • Dpp signaling is necessary for maintaining this elongated columnar cell shape and overactivation of the Dpp signaling pathway results in precocious cell elongation. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Consistent with these findings, spindle orientation-regulatory proteins Insc, LGN (Gpsm2) and NuMA, and the cell fate determinant Numb are asymmetrically localized in embryonic lung distal epithelium. (biologists.org)
  • Interfering with the function of these proteins in vitro randomizes spindle orientation and changes cell fate. (biologists.org)
  • The establishment of this polarity initiates the polarized distribution of a group of proteins present in the zygote called the PARD proteins (partitioning defective), which are a conserved group of proteins that function in establishing cell polarity during development. (wikipedia.org)
  • This division is also dependent on the distribution of the PAR proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • In both invertebrates and mammals, Numb is localized using the Pins/GαI complex and the PAR complex of Bazooka (Par3 in mammals), Par6, and aPKC (atypical protein kinase C). In the sensory organ precursor (SOP) cell, the PAR proteins localize to the posterior pole of the cell, and the Pins/GαI complex is localized to the anterior pole of the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Herein, we will discuss current concepts of asymmetric inheritance in a wide range of systems, including prions, proteins, and finally RNA molecules, to assess overall the biological impact of RNA inheritance in cellular plasticity and evolutionary fitness. (mdpi.com)
  • We have identified several proteins that function in specific neuroblasts that divide asymmetrically to generate an apoptotic cell and a neuron or neural precursor. (berkeley.edu)
  • These proteins regulate the position of the neuroblast spindle and the distribution of developmental potential to daughter cells. (berkeley.edu)
  • T cells accomplish regulated adhesion by controlling the adhesive properties of integrins, a class of cell adhesion molecules consisting of heterodimeric pairs of transmembrane proteins that interact with target molecules on partner cells or extracellular matrix. (jove.com)
  • The epidermal or neural fate of a proneural cell depends on the concentrations of proteins of the achaete-scute complex. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Several proteins assemble into so-called polarity complexes that localize at one end of the neuroblast to help guide this unbalanced division (Fig. 1). (phys.org)
  • Asymmetric contraction of actin and myosin at the cortex leads to the localisation of the conserved PAR (partitioning defective) polarity proteins into anterior and posterior cortical domains. (els.net)
  • The PAR proteins and associated protein kinases generate cytoplasmic gradients of polarity mediators, which in turn regulate the anterior/posterior cytoplasmic localisation of downstream cell fate regulators. (els.net)
  • The PAR proteins also regulate a conserved G protein pathway that coordinates the division plane with the anterior/posterior axis. (els.net)
  • In leukemia development, disturbance of ACD (e.g. by loss of proteins involved in cell polarity) therefore may lead to coinheritance of both, self-renewal and proliferative capacity and thus creating a leukemic transformation. (forschung-sachsen-anhalt.de)
  • A relatively small number of RNA-binding proteins likely control many mRNAs through these 3' UTR elements. (wormbook.org)
  • directed movement or local trapping of maternal proteins, localized stabilization of maternal proteins, and localized translation and stability of maternal mRNAs (see Asymmetric cell division and axis formation in the embryo ). (wormbook.org)
  • DN3 thymocytes express and polarize cell fate and polarity proteins. (kvik.top)
  • Dynamic behaviour of ECM proteins at cell-biomaterials interface: Fibroblast remodelling of adsorbed collagen IV (green) depend on a2 integrin (red) function. (ibecbarcelona.eu)
  • The cells can also actively rearrange these proteins presumably as an attempt to organize a provisional ECM. (ibecbarcelona.eu)
  • ECM organization at the biomaterial interface depends on the allowance of cells to rearrange adsorbed matrix proteins - a process strongly dependent on proper functioning of integrin receptors. (ibecbarcelona.eu)
  • In a series of communications combining AFM and other nanoindentation techniques, we have described a novel phenomenon of substratum-driven protein assembly depicting the fate of various matrix proteins such as fibronectin, collagen IV, vitronectin and fibrinogen at the above model biomaterials interfaces. (ibecbarcelona.eu)
  • We have found that several different RNA-binding proteins function at specific times and places to control these mRNAs during development. (ucdenver.edu)
  • Future research in the lab will aim to understand how mRNP complexes are regulated in living cells during development, to explore how they control patterns of protein translation, and to identify novel proteins and RNAs that mediate this control. (ucdenver.edu)
  • Substantial preliminary evidence outlined in this proposal indicates that the first division of a CD8+ T cell responding to a pathogen, in vivo, is characterized by unequal partitioning of proteins with established roles in signaling, cell fate specification, and asymmetric cell division. (grantome.com)
  • This project will test whether asymmetric cell division is a general feature of the CD8+ T cell response against pathogens, whether ancestral regulators of cell polarity are responsible for establishing cytoskeletal features necessary for asymmetric division, and how asymmetrically inherited signaling proteins could mediate fate disparity in daughter T cells. (grantome.com)
  • FLIP experiments had previously shown cytoplasmic compartmentalization (when cytoplasmic proteins can no longer diffuse between the two nascent progeny cell compartments) occurring 18 min before daughter cell separation in a 135-min cell cycle so the two constrictive processes are separated in both time and space. (meta.org)
  • A key target of the proneural proteins, the Zinc finger protein Senseless (Sens), is turned on in smaller subsets of proneural cells, and the expression levels are further elevated in SOPs and SOP lineage cells [3] . (prolekare.cz)
  • Misexpression of Sens in epithelial cells is sufficient to induce sensory organ formation in a process bypassing the requirement of proneural proteins, indicating that Sens plays a key role in sensory organ formation [4] . (prolekare.cz)
  • Barbee, S.A., and Evans, T.C. (2006) The Sm proteins regulate germ cell specification during early C. elegans embryogenesis. (ucdenver.edu)
  • The proteins sat on the top of the cell, like the researchers had expected, but rather than being randomly distributed across the entire surface, they were clumped together on one side, like an unruly head of hair. (phys.org)
  • Neuroblasts are the progenitor cells which divide asymmetrically to give rise to another neuroblast and a ganglion mother cell (GMC). (wikipedia.org)
  • The neuroblast repeatedly undergoes this asymmetric cell division while the GMC continues on to produce a pair of neurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • How the orientation of this neuroblast polarity axis is set and remembered between the different cell cycles is not known. (cam.ac.uk)
  • With Tre1 emerging at the top of the hierarchy controlling the orientation of polarity complexes in the neuroblast, Matsuzaki and colleagues are turning their attention to finding its regulator. (phys.org)
  • Thus, the inherited determinant Numb bestows a bias in the machinery for cell-cell communication to allow the specification of distinct daughter cell fates. (nih.gov)
  • In Drosphila, the Delta/Notch signalling pathway functions in many situations in both embryonic and adult life where cell fate specification occurs. (biologists.org)
  • Numb plays a crucial role in asymmetrical cell division during development, allowing for differential cell fate specification in the central and peripheral nervous systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • The sensory rays of the Caenorhabditis elegans male tail afford the opportunity to dissect a neuroglial cell-fate specification mechanism with high cellular resolution. (jneurosci.org)
  • Key regulatory events lead to the specification of mature oocytes and initiate a switch to the meiotic cell cycle program. (frontiersin.org)
  • We discuss cell cycle control and establishment of cell polarity as major themes in oocyte specification. (frontiersin.org)
  • Notch and its ligands mediate short-range cell interactions that play a conserved role in inducing cell fate specification. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Correct tissue patterning during development involves multiple morphogenetic events that include specification of different cell fates, cell proliferation, cell death, and coordinated changes in cell shape, position, and adhesion. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Much of the fate specification within the stomatal lineage involves regulatory logic and molecules conserved between plants and animals. (cam.ac.uk)
  • Thereafter, lineage-specific transcription factors display a mutually exclusive salt-and-pepper distribution that reflects cell specification of the EPI or PrE fates. (springer.com)
  • Multicellular organisms depend on cell production, cell fate specification, and correct patterning to shape their adult body. (ugent.be)
  • A well-studied example is lateral root initiation, in which auxin triggers founder cell specification and cell cycle activation of xylem pole-positioned pericycle cells. (ugent.be)
  • Neural specification generates diverse neural cells that are located at exact positions necessary for specialized functions. (prolekare.cz)
  • Generating the full complement of functional cell types requires coordinating the production of cells with the specification programs that distinguish one cell type from another. (stanford.edu)
  • Moreover, approaching these questions in a plant system is likely to reveal new solutions to the problem of balancing the robust specification of cell types with the ability to change development in the face of injury or environmental change. (stanford.edu)
  • Here we demonstrate that the cellular degradative machinery-including lysosomes, autophagosomes, mitophagosomes and the protein NUMB-can be asymmetrically inherited into haematopoietic-stem-cell daughter cells. (nature.com)
  • An asymmetric cell division produces two daughter cells with different cellular fates. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genetic control of cellular quiescence in S. pombe. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Moreover, a number of cellular ligands of the domain have been identified and demonstrated to define a complex network of protein-protein interactions in the eukaryotic cell. (deepdyve.com)
  • In addition, recent evidence suggests that the EH network might work as an "integrator" of signals controlling cellular pathways as diverse as endocytosis, nucleocytosolic export, and ultimately cell proliferation. (deepdyve.com)
  • Regenerative medicine is the main field of groundbreaking medical development and therapy using knowledge from developmental and stem cell biology, as well as advanced molecular and cellular techniques. (springer.com)
  • The results indicate that satellite cell activation results in a heterogeneous population of precursor cells with respect to Notch-1 activity and that the balance between Notch-1 and Numb controls cellular homeostasis and cell fate determination. (nih.gov)
  • Brian Kobilka , MD, professor of molecular and cellular physiology: His pioneering X-ray crystallographic studies have revealed how the binding of a hormone to the extracellular pocket on a G-protein coupled receptor is transmitted across the cell membrane to trigger a signaling cascade. (stanford.edu)
  • She is developing a reaction-diffusion model that includes all essential cellular processes to gain a deeper understanding of asymmetric cell division and cell polarity. (stanford.edu)
  • Time-lapse images are examined directly to measure cellular behaviors that can include mechanism and frequency of cell colony formation within the first 24 hr of plating the cells (aggregation versus cell proliferation), incidence of apoptosis, and phasing of morphological changes. (jove.com)
  • To generate this vast cellular diversity, the egg and its descendants must divide unevenly to produce new cells with different fates. (phys.org)
  • The mechanisms of translational control are only beginning to be explored, but are likely to regulate diverse developmental and cellular events in metazoans. (wormbook.org)
  • Transcriptomic and proteomic analyses revealed that modulating proteasome activity in CD8+ T cells affected cellular metabolism. (jci.org)
  • The gem1 mutant, therefore, provides an opportunity to uncover cellular mechanisms involved in gametophytic cytokinesis and cell fate determination at PMI. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Epithelial morphogenesis relies on a variety of cellular behaviors, for example, spindle orientation, cell shape changes, and cell intercalation. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Asymmetric cell division, in which one cell divides to create daughter cells that differ in size, location, cellular components or fate, is extensively used in the development of animals. (stanford.edu)
  • LR Lee, DL Wengier, DC Bergmann (2019) Cell-type-specific transcriptome and histone modification dynamics during cellular reprogramming in the Arabidopsis stomatal lineage Proc Natl Acad Sci. (stanford.edu)
  • The ability of cells to divide asymmetrically to produce two different cell types provides the cellular diversity found in every multicellular organism. (stembook.org)
  • Max Planck Institute of Molecular Cell Biology and Genetics, Pfotenhauerstr. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Finally, we discuss how the molecular controls of the cell cycle might be integrated with cell polarity and cell fate to maintain oocyte production. (frontiersin.org)
  • Pillitteri, L. J., Peterson, K. M., Horst, R. J. & Torii, K. U. Molecular profiling of stomatal meristemoids reveals new component of asymmetric cell division and commonalities among stem cell populations in Arabidopsis . (nature.com)
  • Illustrates the molecular basis of stem cells' division to generate an identical daughter cell and a cell that becomes more specialized. (ebscohost.com)
  • Even though asymmetric cell division has long been proposed to exist in planarians, our study provides the first direct molecular evidence of its existence," says Lei. (phys.org)
  • A new role for Notch in the control of polarity and asymmetric cell division of developing T cells. (nih.gov)
  • Together, our results illustrate a mechanism whereby the regulated function of a proneural-class gene in a single neural lineage can both specify a neural precursor and actively pattern the fates of its progeny. (jneurosci.org)
  • Although remarkable progress has been made in identifying genetic components important for neural development, our appreciation of the mechanisms that couple cell lineage to the restriction of cell fate is limited. (jneurosci.org)
  • Lineage commitment of embryonic cells involves MEK1 -dependent clearance of pluripotency regulator Ventx2 . (xenbase.org)
  • The T-box gene tbx-2 and the homeobox gene egl-5 specify neural fate in the HSN/PHB lineage. (berkeley.edu)
  • f) Diagrammatic representation of the early lineage, showing the major cell types produced by each founder cell. (els.net)
  • Using genetic mosaic analysis we demonstrate that differentiated cells in the epithelium arise from a common lineage. (ebscohost.com)
  • Work from several labs over the last decade has identified key regulators of stomatal lineage cell fates. (cam.ac.uk)
  • It was originally thought that lineage choice was strictly controlled by the position of a cell within the ICM. (springer.com)
  • Interestingly, these lineage-specific transcription factors are initially co-expressed in early ICM cells, suggesting an initial multi-lineage priming state. (springer.com)
  • Arnold SJ, Robertson EJ (2009) Making a commitment: cell lineage allocation and axis patterning in the early mouse embryo. (springer.com)
  • Malatesta P, Hartfuss E, Gotz M (2000) Isolation of radial glial cells by fluorescent-activated cell sorting reveals a neuronal lineage. (springer.com)
  • In the Arabidopsis stomatal lineage, cells transit through several distinct precursor identities, each characterized by unique cell division behaviors. (stanford.edu)
  • We show that these two genes, which are homologues of the LIN54 DNA-binding components of the mammalian DREAM complex, are expressed in a cell cycle dependent manner and regulate cell fate and division properties in the self-renewing early lineage. (stanford.edu)
  • Modulation of Asymmetric Division Diversity through Cytokinin and SPEECHLESS Regulatory Interactions in the Arabidopsis Stomatal Lineage. (stanford.edu)
  • LR Lee, DC Bergmann (2019) The Plant Stomatal Lineage at a Glance J Cell Sci. (stanford.edu)
  • Stomata, which are epidermal pores surrounded by two guard cells, develop from a specialized stem cell lineage and function in shoot gas exchange. (plantcell.org)
  • One has the potential to renew stem cell identity and continue to divide in an asymmetric manner, whereas the other cell will differentiate along a specific lineage. (stembook.org)
  • Caulobacter is an alpha-proteobacterium that always divides asymmetrically to generate two daughter cells that are morphologically distinct and have different replicative capacities. (mit.edu)
  • I show that kinase and phosphatase activities at opposite poles of the cell generate a spatial gradient in the phosphorylation level of an essential cell cycle regulator called CtrA. (mit.edu)
  • These cells undergo several rounds of division to generate one hypodermal cell (Rn.p) as well as the three cell types of each mature ray and one apoptotic cell. (jneurosci.org)
  • Asymmetric cell division to generate daughter cells that assume different fates is used throughout development to generate and maintain hundreds of specialized cell types. (biologists.org)
  • One way to generate this diversity is for neuroblasts to divide asymmetrically, producing daughter cells that adopt distinct fates. (berkeley.edu)
  • Single-cell tracking is used to generate cell fate maps for measurement of individual cell lifetimes and investigation of cell division patterns. (jove.com)
  • The continual maintenance of a reservoir of tissue-specific stem A debated question in CSC biology is whether neoplastic trans- cells affords an organism with the ability to generate all the differ- formation emerges from normal stem/progenitor cells or from entiated cells needed for tissue homeostasis and repair through- more differentiated cells that commandeer stem cell properties out its lifespan. (scribd.com)
  • Abstract Asymmetric cell division (ACD) is a simple and evolutionary conserved process whereby a mother divides to generate two daughter cells with distinct developmental potentials. (wiley.com)
  • This process can generate cell fate diversity during development. (wiley.com)
  • In the C. elegans adult gonad, germline stem cells generate oocytes by a carefully orchestrated process. (ucdenver.edu)
  • 2006 ). NBs are neural stem/progenitor cells that are specified during embryogenesis and divide to generate the larval neurons. (stembook.org)
  • In the embryo, NBs divide perpendicular to the plane of the neuroepithelium to generate another (apical) NB and a smaller, basally located ganglion mother cell (GMC) that will differentiate into neurons or glia. (stembook.org)
  • Neuroblasts have an extremely short cell cycle and go through repeated rounds of rapid polarization and depolarization of the cell cortex, while the axis of cell polarity remains stable between different cell cycles. (cam.ac.uk)
  • Intriguingly many transcripts of genes that are involved in asymmetric cell division have been reported to localize to the apical side of neuroblasts. (cam.ac.uk)
  • Given the tight time constraints of the neuroblasts cell cycle, we reasoned that spatially controlled translation of localizes mRNAs might contribute to establish cell polarity in neuroblasts. (cam.ac.uk)
  • Nowhere is this process more important than in the central nervous system, where the asymmetric division of neural stem cells called neuroblasts contributes to the profusion of neurons and glial cells. (phys.org)
  • Essential for the development of polarized epithelia, for cell polarity associated with asymmetric cell division of neuroblasts during development, and for oocyte polarity formation. (uniprot.org)
  • In this review, we summarize established and emerging data on the paracrine and autocrine regulatory loops that regulate the biology of the progenitor cell niche and propose a role for bioengineered ECM models in further elucidating this biology in the adrenal. (frontiersin.org)
  • C. elegans VAB-8L and UNC-73/Trio regulate the SAX-3/Robo receptor to direct cells and growth cones posteriorly. (berkeley.edu)
  • The ability of a T cell to control adhesion derives from the ability to regulate the affinity states of individual integrins. (jove.com)
  • The Par-complex is known to regulate the formation of cell polarity in various cell types including stem cells and neurons , explains team member and co-author Shigeki Yoshiura. (phys.org)
  • The ability to identify, manipulate and genetically trace cell lineages in the midgut should lead to the discovery of additional genes that regulate stem and progenitor cell biology in the gastrointestinal tract. (ebscohost.com)
  • The mechanisms that regulate cytoplasmic mRNAs and that tie this control to the development of living cells are poorly understood. (ucdenver.edu)
  • Her lab is one of the first two labs worldwide to report the function of PINK1, and to discover that PINK1, a mitochondria-localized serine-threonine kinase, and PARKIN, an E3 ubiquitin ligase, act in a common genetic pathway to regulate mitochondrial integrity and quality control. (ucla.edu)
  • If we understand better how planarians regulate the population dynamics of their stem cells, it may provide a clue for addressing our own pathologies. (phys.org)
  • In early development, embryo cells can opt to divide asymmetrically and produce daughters that have distinct fates. (umn.edu)
  • Numb, a membrane-associated protein, is asymmetrically segregated into one daughter cell during SOP division and acts as an inherited determinant of cell fate. (nih.gov)
  • The protein encoded by this gene plays a role in the determination of cell fates during development. (wikipedia.org)
  • The numb gene protein product controls binary cell fate decisions in the peripheral and central nervous systems of both invertebrates and mammals during neurogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Musashi1 (Msi1) is an RNA-binding protein that is highly expressed in neural progenitor cells, including neural stem cells. (asm.org)
  • For the process to work properly, however, a motor protein known as dynein must correctly position the spindle by pulling it into place from the outskirts of the cell. (elifesciences.org)
  • Strikingly, MEK1 appeared to control the asymmetric inheritance of Ventx2 protein following cell division. (xenbase.org)
  • A SCARECROW-RETINOBLASTOMA protein network controls protective quiescence in the Arabidopsis root stem cell organizer. (nih.gov)
  • VAB-8, a novel kinesin-like protein orients polarity of neurons toward the posterior and promotes directed cell and growth cone migrations toward the posterior of the animal. (berkeley.edu)
  • In a series of experiments with fly strains in which they deleted the Tre gene, the researchers showed that this receptor is necessary to orient the polarity of the protein complexes in a perpendicular direction relative to the neighboring epithelial cell layer. (phys.org)
  • f) First division is intrinsically asymmetric resulting in an anterior cell AB and a posterior cell P 1 that differ in cytoplasmic inheritance and PAR protein domains. (els.net)
  • Brassinosteroid-regulated GSK3/Shaggy-like kinases phosphorylate mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase kinases, which control stomata development in Arabidopsis thaliana . (nature.com)
  • Translation of maternal pal-1 mRNA is repressed in the germ line and early embryo until the four-cell stage when PAL-1 protein accumulates rapidly in the two posterior cells ( Hunter and Kenyon, 1996 ). (wormbook.org)
  • A chimaeric gene encoding a fusion between the Acquorea victoria green fluorescent protein (GFP) and the Exu protein is expressed in female germ cells. (sdbonline.org)
  • The fusion protein is found in particles concentrated at ring canals, where transport occurs between nurse cells and the oocyte. (sdbonline.org)
  • Exu protein and BCD mRNA are synthesized in a cluster of 15 nurse cells that are linked to the oocyte by ring canal bridges. (sdbonline.org)
  • Importantly, these findings indicate that polarity of DN3a cells at division is not a result of stochastic distribution of the protein, but is actively coordinated by extrinsic stromal interactions, meeting the requirements for ACD. (kvik.top)
  • We are interested in cell-biomaterials interaction, and more specifically, on the dynamic formation of the provisional extracellular matrix (ECM) - the thin protein layer that cells recognize, produce, and remodel at the materials interface. (ibecbarcelona.eu)
  • 2009) Unifying Fluorescence Microscopy and Mass Spectrometry for Studying Protein Complexes in Cells. (patentgenius.com)
  • We discovered an essential DNA-associated protein, GapR, that is required for Caulobacter growth and asymmetric division. (stanford.edu)
  • During animal development, a cell's fate is determined by precise control of protein levels and activities. (ucdenver.edu)
  • Weigmann A, Corbeil D, Hellwig A, Huttner WB (1997) Prominin, a novel microvilli-specific polytopic membrane protein of the apical surface of epithelial cells, is targeted to plasmalemmal protrusions of non-epithelial cells. (springer.com)
  • Fritz-Laylin studies the evolution of complex protein networks associated with cell movement. (mef.hr)
  • Complementary proteomic and cell biological analysis demonstrate that the spindle checkpoint protein MAD1 is one of the major components of CCNB1 complexes, and that CCNB1 is recruited to unattached kinetochores in an MPS1-dependent fashion through interaction with the first 100 amino acids of MAD1. (mef.hr)
  • Control of stem cell development by RNA/protein complexes. (ucdenver.edu)
  • Notably, stem cells divide asymmetrically to give rise to two distinct daughter cells: one copy of the original stem cell as well as a second daughter programmed to differentiate into a non-stem cell fate. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, a cell can also divide asymmetrically to form two daughter cells with different developmental fates. (mit.edu)
  • How cells divide asymmetrically and how they enforce the differential fates of daughter cells remain unsolved, fundamental problems in biology. (mit.edu)
  • During cell division, Numb is asymmetrically localized to one end of the progenitor cell and subsequently segregates to only one daughter cell where it intrinsically determines cell fate. (wikipedia.org)
  • In many intermediate progenitor cells, Numb was localized asymmetrically in actively dividing cells, suggesting an asymmetric cell division and divergent cell fates of daughter cells. (nih.gov)
  • To maintain a sufficient number and the correct ratio of stem cells and differentiating progeny, stem cells in many tissues have the potential to divide asymmetrically, giving rise to one daughter cell that retains stem cell characteristics and one that differentiates. (biologists.org)
  • When a stem cell mouse models in which oncogenic events were restricted to spe- asymmetrically divides, it does so by actively segregating one or cific cell types have confirmed that transformation can indeed more intrinsic cell fate-determining constituents, or by polariz- arise from the normal stem cell population (4). (scribd.com)
  • The GSCs divide asymmetrically such that one daughter remains in the niche as a GSC, while the other is born away from the niche and differentiates. (babraham.ac.uk)
  • Similar to stem cells, naïve T cells undergo asymmetric division following activation. (jove.com)
  • During an immune response, CD8+ T lymphocytes can undergo asymmetric division, giving rise to daughter cells that exhibit distinct tendencies to adopt terminal effector and memory cell fates. (jci.org)
  • One daughter cell, generally that receiving the Numb, is able to adopt a neuronal fate and innervate the developing nervous system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Polarity and guidance along the A/P axis appears to be regulated by the activity of several molecules that interact to orient neuronal polarity and guide migrating cells and growth cones. (berkeley.edu)
  • In this case the Notch ligand (Delta) does not have to be present in either dMP2 or vMP2, but can provide its function from adjacent non-neuronal cells (Spana, 1996). (sdbonline.org)
  • However, this is not the case in zebrafish and other vertebrates systems in which inheritance of the apical Par3 domain is in fact correlated with neuronal cell fates (see Figure 2) (Alexandre et al, 2010). (ucl.ac.uk)
  • Each sensory ray of the Caenorhabditis elegans male tail comprises three distinct neuroglial cell types. (jneurosci.org)
  • A second example of how asymmetric division is achieved will be illustrated in the early stages of C. elegans embryo division. (umn.edu)
  • We are studying how asymmetric cell division, cell migration and axonal pathfinding contribute to the final form and connectivity of the Caenorhabditis elegans nervous system. (berkeley.edu)
  • Wnts, secreted glycoproteins that function in several different developmental processes, act antagonistically to VAB-8, orienting the polarity of neurons toward the anterior and guiding the anterior migrations of C. elegans cells and growth cones. (berkeley.edu)
  • C. elegans AP-2 and retromer control Wnt signaling by regulating MIG-14/Wntless. (berkeley.edu)
  • In Caenorhabditis elegans, polarity of the EMS cell undergoing asymmetric division is regulated by the MOM-2/Wnt and MES-1 signals from its posterior neighbor P2 cell. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The genes that control C. elegans biology are similar to human genes, several of which have been tied to cancer, autoimmune disease, nervous system disorders, and other diseases. (ucdenver.edu)
  • ACD is controlled by interaction with stromal cells and chemokine receptor signaling and uses a conserved network of polarity regulators. (rupress.org)
  • We suggest that asymmetric clearance of pluripotency regulators may represent an important mechanism to ensure the progressive assembly of primitive embryonic tissues. (xenbase.org)
  • Therefore, upstream regulators modulate the SYS-1 to POP-1 ratio by increasing SYS-1 and decreasing POP-1 within the same cell. (pnas.org)
  • The data further indicate that Numb, with alpha-adaptin , acts upstream or in parallel of known regulators of EE fate to limit Notch signaling , thereby facilitating EE fate acquisition. (sdbonline.org)
  • 2006) Polycomb complexes repress developmental regulators in murine embryonic stem cells. (patentgenius.com)
  • GapR interacts with adenine and thymine (AT)-rich chromosomal loci, associates with the promoter regions of cell cycle-regulated genes, and shares hundreds of recognition sites in common with known master regulators of cell cycle-dependent gene expression. (stanford.edu)
  • mRNAs for these regulators are produced by germ cells in the mother and are packaged into oocytes and embryos. (ucdenver.edu)
  • Other cell fate regulators have distinct expression patterns. (ucdenver.edu)
  • His laboratory has generated novel tools to define epigenetic regulators of stem cell self-renewal. (czbiohub.org)
  • This leads to Ttk expression in the daughter cell that does not inherit Numb. (nih.gov)
  • Fig. 1: Asymmetric mCherry-NUMB inheritance and asymmetric daughter-cell fates in purified HSCs. (nature.com)
  • Fig. 2: Asymmetric inheritance of mCherry-NUMB predicts asymmetric HSC activation. (nature.com)
  • During neurogenesis, Numb localizes to one side of the mother cell such that it is distributed selectively to one daughter cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • This asymmetric division allows a daughter cell containing Numb to acquire a different fate than the other daughter cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • This establishes the asymmetric distribution of Numb, with the Numb/Pon crescent on one side of the mother cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Numb exerts its functional role on cell fate decisions by antagonizing Notch signaling activities. (wikipedia.org)
  • We report that Siah-1 interacts directly with and promotes the degradation of the cell fate regulator Numb. (pnas.org)
  • Siah-1-mediated Numb degradation leads to redistribution of endogenous cell-surface Notch to the cytoplasm and nucleus and to augmented Notch-regulated transcriptional activity. (pnas.org)
  • This asymmetric distribution of Numb is crucial for the fate of SOP. (pnas.org)
  • We have studied the role of Notch-1 and its antagonist Numb in the activation of satellite cells during postnatal myogenesis. (nih.gov)
  • Attenuation of Notch signaling by increases in Numb expression led to the commitment of progenitor cells to the myoblast cell fate and the expression of myogenic regulatory factors, desmin, and Pax7. (nih.gov)
  • The data argue against the existence of local feedback signals, and Numb was identified as an intrinsic regulator of EE fate. (sdbonline.org)
  • Numb (red dots) is specifically segregated into the anterior pIIb cell (left) where it inhibits Notch. (wiley.com)
  • In a second 'recycling inhibition model', Notch‐sanpodo oligomers are internalized in a Numb‐independent manner and Numb acts to inhibit the recycling of Notch and Sanpodo back to the cell surface (red stop sign). (wiley.com)
  • b and b′) In the absence of numb (in a clone of mutant cells positively marked by the expression of a nuclear GFP in green), sensory cells adopt a socket‐like fate: multiple sockets but no shaft are seen at the surface of the fly (arrow). (wiley.com)
  • Cells lacking Scs2/Scs22 performed spindle positioning via MT end capture-shrinkage mechanism, requiring dynein anchorage to an ER- and mitochondria-independent population of Num1, dynein motor activity, and CAP-Gly domain of dynactin Nip100/p150 Glued subunit. (elifesciences.org)
  • The spindle needs to be precisely placed at the midpoint between the original cell and the bud, so the genetic material can get into the future daughter cell. (elifesciences.org)
  • The current model for spindle positioning requires attachment of the microtubule (MT) motor cytoplasmic dynein to the cell cortex, where it generates pulling force on astral MTs to effect spindle displacement. (biologists.org)
  • As a second major task, the spindle determines the plane of cell cleavage through its interactions with the cell cortex ( Kiyomitsu, 2015 ). (rupress.org)
  • 3 . Asymmetric positioning of the anaphase spindle results in daughter cells that will not only assume different fates but also differ in size. (stembook.org)
  • Notch signalling frequently facilitates fate determination. (nih.gov)
  • Here, we assessed the functional relationship between Notch and ACD in mouse T cell development. (nih.gov)
  • To attain immunological specificity, developing T cells must pass through a pivotal stage termed β-selection, which involves Notch signalling and ACD. (nih.gov)
  • Furthermore, Notch and CXCR4 signalling cooperated to drive polarity during division. (nih.gov)
  • Thus, Notch signalling directly orchestrates ACD, and Notch1 is differentially inherited by sibling cells.This article has an associated First Person interview with the first author of the paper. (nih.gov)
  • Activation of Notch-1 promoted the proliferation of myogenic precursor cells expressing the premyoblast marker Pax3. (nih.gov)
  • Notch- and vitamin D signaling in 1,25(OH)2D3-resistant glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) cell lines. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Recently, an important role of Notch activation for Ras-induced transformation of glial cells and for glioma growth and survival has been demonstrated. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Notch (N) signaling is central to the self-renewal of neural stem cells (NSCs) and other tissue stem cells. (sdbonline.org)
  • Delta is not detected in either dMP2 or vMP2, but rather in adjacent mesoderm (in contact with MP2 and its progeny), while Notch is uniformly distributed throughout all cell types, including the dMP2 and vMP2 neurons. (sdbonline.org)
  • Notch receptors in pIIa are activated by ligands present at the surface of the pIIb cell (pink arrows 1 and 2) and/or of neighboring epidermal cells (pink arrow 3). (wiley.com)
  • Furthermore, we show that reduction of Notch signalling leads to an increase in the number of midgut progenitor cells, whereas activation of the Notch pathway leads to a decrease in proliferation. (ebscohost.com)
  • A 4-cell embryo stained for the membrane receptor Notch (green) and P granules (red). (ucdenver.edu)
  • Notch is localized to anterior cells where it controls anterior cell fates. (ucdenver.edu)
  • The other daughter cell becomes a progenitor cell to fill the lost role of the parent cell and maintain proliferation. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, while several roles of the endocrine axes on adrenocortical function are well established, the mechanisms coordinating the maintenance of an undifferentiated progenitor cell pool with self-renewal capacity are poorly understood. (frontiersin.org)
  • The inheritance of apical domain was for a long time thought to be important for establishing and maintaining epithelial structure and was therefore predicted to be important for progenitor cell identity. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • abstract = "Stem-cell function is an exquisitely regulated process. (elsevier.com)
  • In one, the daughter cells are initially equivalent but a difference is induced by signaling between the cells, from surrounding cells, or from the precursor cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • These three cells descend from a single progenitor, the ray precursor cell, through several rounds of asymmetric division called the ray sublineage. (jneurosci.org)
  • As people live longer as a fuel source, which leads into the mesenchymal precursor cell wan even more so. (nationalnewstoday.com)
  • The initial division creates a smaller precursor cell, a meristemoid, which later develops into an oval guard mother cell (GMC). (plantcell.org)
  • A fundamental question in biology is how single cells can reliably produce progeny of different cell types. (nih.gov)
  • Cell biology and cell-based high-throughput screening. (ualberta.ca)
  • Journal of Cell Biology. (monash.edu)
  • This collection is organized into five volumes: (1) Biology of Tissue Regeneration, (2) Stem Cell Science and Technology, (3) Tissue Engineering, Biomaterials and Nanotechnology, (4) Regenerative Therapies I, and (5) Regenerative Therapies II. (springer.com)
  • The principles of cell regeneration control by extracellular matrix and the biology of stem cell niches are explained. (springer.com)
  • Regenerative biology of stem cells in the central nervous and cardiovascular systems leading to complex tissue regeneration in the model species axolotl and zebrafish, as well as the impact of immune signalling on nuclear reprogramming are outlined. (springer.com)
  • He is now combining genome editing with synthetic biology to engineer cells having new phenotypic properties, such as resistance to HIV and enhanced wound healing. (stanford.edu)
  • Nature Cell Biology 8, 285-292. (patentgenius.com)
  • International Review of Cytology presents current advances and comprehensive reviews in cell biology, both plant and animal. (bookdepository.com)
  • Gotz M, Huttner WB (2005) The cell biology of neurogenesis. (springer.com)
  • J. Cell Biology 182, 559-572. (ucdenver.edu)
  • Interestingly, whilst a handful of integral components of mammalian cells seem to follow a general pattern of asymmetric inheritance throughout division, the fate of RNA molecules largely remains a mystery. (mdpi.com)
  • 1989 ) An in situ transgenic enzyme marker for the midgestation mouse embryo and the visualization of inner cell mass clones during early organogenesis. (biologists.org)
  • e) For simplicity, the 16‐cell embryo at bottom does not show the daughter cells of the fourth AB cleavage, which occurs at about the same time as the P 3 division. (els.net)
  • Most maternal mRNAs destined for the embryo are transcribed by germ cell nuclei in mitosis or early stages of meiosis. (wormbook.org)
  • 2002). Requirement for Foxd3 in maintaining pluripotent cells of the early mouse embryo. (patentgenius.com)
  • At the time of implantation, the early mouse embryo consists of three distinct cell lineages: the epiblast (EPI), primitive endoderm (PrE), and trophectoderm (TE). (springer.com)
  • Bruce AW, Zernicka-Goetz M (2010) Developmental control of the early mammalian embryo: competition among heterogeneous cells that biases cell fate. (springer.com)
  • These studies highlight the importance of Sina as a critical mediator of cell fate determination. (pnas.org)
  • Pillitteri, L. J., Guo, X. & Dong, J. Asymmetric cell division in plants: mechanisms of symmetry breaking and cell fate determination. (nature.com)
  • The sys-1 gene was discovered as a regulator of the asymmetric cell division of somatic gonadal precursor cells (SGPs) ( 7 ). (pnas.org)
  • Taken together, these results demonstrate that proteasome activity is an important regulator of CD8+ T cell fate and raise the possibility that increasing proteasome activity may be a useful therapeutic strategy to enhance the generation of memory lymphocytes. (jci.org)
  • Haematopoietic stem cells self-renew and differentiate into all blood lineages throughout life, and can repair damaged blood systems upon transplantation. (nature.com)
  • Thus, concomitant MEK1 and Ventx2 knockdown restored the competence of embryonic cells to differentiate. (xenbase.org)
  • If too many daughter cells differentiate, the stem cell population could be depleted. (biologists.org)
  • In each cyst, one cell differentiates to an oocyte fate and initiates meiosis, while the other 15 differentiate as nurse cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • They are undifferentiated cells responsible for tissue regeneration and homeostasis, and contain both the capacity to self-renew in order to maintain their stem cell potential and to differentiate. (ebscohost.com)
  • These cells die, divide, and differentiate into SP thymocytes which are not included in the model. (kvik.top)
  • The molecule, called EGFR-3, is part of a cascade of signals that seem to control the way these cells divide and differentiate in response to near-lethal levels of radiation. (phys.org)
  • We suggest a two-pronged pathway for control of SYS-1:POP-1, which can robustly accomplish differential gene expression in daughters of an asymmetric cell division. (pnas.org)
  • Previously we showed that gga-miR-135a-5p has significant differential expression between high and low-yield chicken ovaries, and the abundance of gga-miR-135a-5p is significantly higher in follicular theca cells than in granulosa cells. (g3journal.org)
  • These metabolic changes were mediated, in part, through differential expression of Myc, a transcription factor that controls glycolysis and metabolic reprogramming. (jci.org)
  • The fate of each compartment is determined by differential gene expression, controlled by the activation of four compartment-specific σ -factors. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Cells often divide by binary fission to form two identical daughter cells with similar developmental fates. (mit.edu)
  • Thus, the first division is asymmetric and the daughter cells have different developmental fates. (els.net)
  • At the onset of sporulation in Bacillus subtilis , an asymmetric cell division gives rise to two unequal-sized compartments with distinct developmental fates. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Translational control of key mRNAs spatially organizes cell signaling pathways, localizes transcription factor activities, and controls germ cell precursor development. (wormbook.org)
  • Key individual components of signaling pathways that control lymphocyte activation have been identified. (keystonesymposia.org)
  • FLP recognizes a distinct cis -regulatory element that overlaps with that of the cell cycle activator E2F-DP in the CDKB1;1 promoter, suggesting that these MYBs may also modulate E2F-DP pathways. (plantcell.org)
  • In females, this process is made further complex by two additional processes: the selection of a single oocyte from a pool of precursor cells and the subsequent loading of maternally-derived transcripts and nutrients necessary post-fertilization for early embryonic development. (frontiersin.org)
  • The cells are known to act as sodium and potassium secretion in isolated microperfused rabbit afferent but not ventilated cannot contribute to hypoxia and oxygen radical mediated lipid peroxygenation have been the focus of this story are still seen within general departments although there is widespread disease or high risk of dysrhythmia is covered in this segment is already maximal in the development of the functional embryonic kidney sariola there is. (nationalnewstoday.com)
  • We discuss how a few well-studied mRNAs are controlled, and how their control is connected to germ cell development and early embryonic polarity. (wormbook.org)
  • 2006) A Bivalent Chromatin Structure Marks Key Developmental Genes in Embryonic Stem Cells. (patentgenius.com)
  • 2008) Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 Is Dispensable for Maintenance of Embryonic Stem Cell Pluripotency. (patentgenius.com)
  • 2003) Functional Expression Cloning of Nanog, a Pluripotency Sustaining Factor in Embryonic Stem Cells. (patentgenius.com)
  • 2006) Spatial Organization of Embryonic Stem Cell Responsiveness to Autocrine Gp130 Ligands Reveals an Autoregulatory Stem Cell Niche. (patentgenius.com)
  • 2006). The NuRD component Mbd3 is required for pluripotency of embryonic stem cells. (patentgenius.com)
  • 2008). An extended transcriptional network for pluripotency of embryonic stem cells. (patentgenius.com)
  • Chambers I, Smith A (2004) Self-renewal of teratocarcinoma and embryonic stem cells. (springer.com)
  • The conference will include a combination of oral and poster sessions, bringing together a group of scientific leaders working on embryonic and adult stem cells and various developmental mechanisms to showcase both similarities and differences in how cell behaviors are regulated in a variety of model organisms. (csh-asia.org)
  • Very small molecules called micro ribonucleic acids (or microRNAs for short) can influence how CSCs grow and divide by regulating the activity of specific genes. (elifesciences.org)
  • Compared with the normal chicken follicle theca cells, 953 up-regulated and 1060 down-regulated genes were detected in cells with gga-miR-135a-5p inhibited. (g3journal.org)
  • Perceptions of the initiating events in cancer usually involve a hyperproliferative state caused by mutations in genes implicated in cell cycle control or cell survival. (aacrjournals.org)
  • However, despite decades of extensive research on development in all sorts of organisms, it is not understood precisely how developmental control genes are regulated, expressed or silenced at the correct position and with their exact timing in the course of development, nor how the development of different cells types and tissues is coordinated during embryogenesis. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Two genes are synthetically lethal (SL) when defects in both are lethal to a cell but a single defect is non-lethal. (stanford.edu)
  • Prespore-specific genes are transcribed by two σ -factors, σ F followed by σ G . The gene encoding σ G ( sigG ) is transcribed by σ F , but also requires the activity of one of the mother-cell-specific σ -factors, σ E , for its expression. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • These ChIP-chip data indicate that FLP/MYB88 target the upstream regions especially of cell cycle genes, including cyclins, cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs), and components of the prereplication complex. (plantcell.org)
  • This results in an anterior/posterior cell division with daughter cells of similar size. (wikipedia.org)
  • P granules are localized to a single posterior cell, the germline stem cell, at each cell division. (ucdenver.edu)
  • The CSN complex is required for the anterior-posterior difference in spatial patterning of neuron formation, and posterior cells lacking CSN develop innervated bristles like anterior cells. (prolekare.cz)
  • However, the mechanisms that allocate specific cell fates among these progeny are unknown. (jneurosci.org)
  • One daughter remains a it seems more likely that a tumor would arise from a normal stem cell and the other gives rise to differentiated progeny that stem cell. (scribd.com)
  • Primary mammary epithelial cell cultures are generated from mammary glands without palpable tumor. (jove.com)
  • Glands are carefully resected with clear separation from adjacent muscle, lymph nodes are removed, and single-cell suspensions of enriched mammary epithelial cells are generated by mincing mammary tissue followed by enzymatic dissociation and filtration. (jove.com)
  • Dpp signaling directs cell motility and invasiveness during epithelial morphogenesis. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Cell guidance, cell matching, transitions from passive to migratory epithelia, cell growth and death, and extracellular matrix remodeling all impinge on epithelial spreading. (biomedsearch.com)
  • We still do not know which molecule or molecules act as the extrinsic signal from epithelial cells, Yoshiura says. (phys.org)
  • Loss of cell polarity influences epithelial cancers and supports tumorigenesis by altering cell-cell-matrix interactions. (forschung-sachsen-anhalt.de)
  • Epithelial tissues typically consist of apicobasally polarized cells, connected by specialized cell-cell junctions, often overlying one or more layers of basal nonpolar cells. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • However the ispd guidelines state that it is important to have injuries requiring reconstructive surgery injuries to eyes dural tears with or without t bud stage kidneys fig in more developed epithelial cells a genetic linkage map for the induction and patterning events based on permeabilizingxation and prolonged incubation times sariola whole tissue staining is present warn families that it. (nationalnewstoday.com)
  • 2006). NBs that are still in contact with epithelial cells as they divide always produce GMCs opposite the site of epithelial-NB contact. (stembook.org)
  • In particular, we focus on how orientation within a niche can promote an asymmetric germline stem cell (GSC) division in the testis and the ovary. (biologists.org)
  • Fredberg takes a physical approach to model mechanical properties of cells and tissues. (rupress.org)
  • Cells must divide so that organisms can grow, repair damaged tissues or reproduce. (elifesciences.org)
  • These up to date accounts gives the readers advanced insights into the biological principles of the regenerative processes in stem cells, tissues and organisms. (springer.com)
  • Stem cells are the building blocks of development and allow the maintenance and regeneration of tissues throughout the lifetime of an individual. (biologists.org)
  • Thus, adult stem cell populations are essential for both normal tissue homeostasis and repair of tissues after wounding or environmental insult. (biologists.org)
  • How terminal cell fates are specified in dynamically renewing adult tissues is not well understood. (sdbonline.org)
  • Somatic stem cells are rare cells with unique properties residing in many organs and tissues. (ebscohost.com)
  • Strategies for homeostatic stem cell self-renewal in adult tissues. (kvik.top)
  • During development, multicellular organisms create a diverse set of specialized cell types and organize these cells into functional tissues. (cam.ac.uk)
  • Thus, differentiated daughter cells after further proliferation will correspondingly produce proximal/distal-limb tissues. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Coordinated growth of organs requires communication among cells within and between tissues. (stanford.edu)
  • De la Zerda's goal is to image 100 million cells in living tissues at single-cell resolution by using optical coherence tomography. (czbiohub.org)
  • Observations of asymmetric inheritance or of asymmetric daughter-cell fates alone are not sufficient to demonstrate asymmetric cell division 2 . (nature.com)
  • During mammalian T cell development, the requirement for expansion of many individual T cell clones, rather than merely expansion of the entire T cell population, suggests a possible role for asymmetric cell division (ACD). (rupress.org)
  • D) Embryos were injected at the 2 cell stage with 25 ng Mk-MO per cell, and at the 4- cell stage with 400 pg of mammalian MEK1 (Mk) RNA per cell and processed for WISH analysis at late gastrula stage 13 with t/ bra probe to highlight the mesoderm (dorso-vegetal view) and with sox2 to highlight the neurectoderm (dorsal view). (xenbase.org)
  • The RIKEN team is also investigating whether this mechanism is conserved through evolution and is applicable to mammalian neural stem cells . (phys.org)
  • In the mammalian spinal cord inhibitory interneurons modulate the sensory-motor signaling that controls locomotion. (stanford.edu)
  • We use state-of-art live-imaging in zebrafish and mammalian systems to follow individual cell behaviours in their native environment (see examples: movie1 and 2). (ucl.ac.uk)
  • The mammalian neocortex is a sheet of cells covering the cerebrum that provides the structural basis for the perception of sensory inputs, motor output responses, cognitive function, and mental capacity of primates. (springer.com)
  • In this review, we focus on the recent progress in understanding the protection, processing, and remodeling of stalled replication forks in mammalian cells. (mef.hr)
  • Furthermore, the findings demonstrate that cell-intrinsic control mechanisms of terminal cell fate acquisition can result in a balanced tissue-wide production of terminally differentiated cell types. (sdbonline.org)
  • Alteration of Rho1 or MRLC activity has a profound effect on apical-basal cell length. (biomedsearch.com)
  • One interesting possibility is that the microtubule network positions cues that function as landmarks to orient the cell polarity axis. (cam.ac.uk)
  • Thus far, the contribution of metabolic cues to stem-cell function has not been well understood. (elsevier.com)
  • The ability of the adrenal gland to respond independently to these endocrine signals is dependent upon subpopulations of steroidogenic cells with distinct morphological and functional characteristics that are localized in specific concentric compartments (zones) of the cortex. (frontiersin.org)
  • Overexpression of Mdm36 results in an overall enhancement of Num1 clustering but reveals a population of dim Num1 clusters that mediate dynein anchoring at the cell cortex. (biologists.org)
  • At these stages, BCD mRNA also shows a perinuclear or apical distribution in nurse cells, and accumulates at the anterior cortex of the oocyte. (sdbonline.org)
  • Pontious A, Kowalczyk T, Englund C, Hevner RF (2008) Role of intermediate progenitor cells in cerebral cortex development. (springer.com)
  • Matthew Porteus , MD, PhD, associate professor of pediatrics: He uses genome editing as curative therapy for genetic diseases, as exemplified by his correction of the mutation in sickle cell disease in hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. (stanford.edu)
  • Quiescent long-term somatic stem cells reside in plant and animal stem cell niches. (nih.gov)
  • In somatic cells a preprophase band of microtubules marks the future division plane and the exact site of cytokinesis. (plantphysiol.org)
  • This provides a mechanism by which cell diversity can arise during development. (rupress.org)
  • In asymmetric cell division, asymmetric fates of future daughter cells are prospectively determined by a mechanism that is linked to mitosis. (nature.com)
  • Male gametogenesis in flowering plants depends upon a determinative asymmetric cell division at pollen mitosis I (PMI), which gives rise to a larger vegetative cell (VC) and a smaller generative cell (GC). (plantphysiol.org)
  • In particular, we show that FLP represses the expression of the mitosis-inducing factor CDKB1;1 , which, along with CDKB1;2 , is specifically required both for the last division in the stomatal pathway and for cell overproliferation in flp mutants. (plantcell.org)
  • A key characteristic of hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) is the ability to self-renew. (forschung-sachsen-anhalt.de)
  • Here we identify a previously unknown promyelocytic leukemia (PML)-peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor δ (PPAR-δ)-fatty- acid oxidation (FAO) pathway for the maintenance of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). (elsevier.com)