Asymmetric Cell Division: Unequal cell division that results in daughter cells of different sizes.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Cell Lineage: The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.Juvenile Hormones: Compounds, either natural or synthetic, which block development of the growing insect.Cell Polarity: Orientation of intracellular structures especially with respect to the apical and basolateral domains of the plasma membrane. Polarized cells must direct proteins from the Golgi apparatus to the appropriate domain since tight junctions prevent proteins from diffusing between the two domains.Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Receptors, Notch: A family of conserved cell surface receptors that contain EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR repeats in their extracellular domain and ANKYRIN repeats in their cytoplasmic domains. The cytoplasmic domain of notch receptors is released upon ligand binding and translocates to the CELL NUCLEUS where it acts as transcription factor.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Drosophila: A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.Caenorhabditis elegans Proteins: Proteins from the nematode species CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS. The proteins from this species are the subject of scientific interest in the area of multicellular organism MORPHOGENESIS.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Embryo, Nonmammalian: The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.Caenorhabditis elegans: A species of nematode that is widely used in biological, biochemical, and genetic studies.Spindle Apparatus: A microtubule structure that forms during CELL DIVISION. It consists of two SPINDLE POLES, and sets of MICROTUBULES that may include the astral microtubules, the polar microtubules, and the kinetochore microtubules.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Stem Cells: Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Miosis: Pupillary constriction. This may result from congenital absence of the dilatator pupillary muscle, defective sympathetic innervation, or irritation of the CONJUNCTIVA or CORNEA.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Sense Organs: Specialized organs adapted for the reception of stimuli by the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Mitosis: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.Receptor, Notch1: A notch receptor that interacts with a variety of ligands and regulates SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS for multiple cellular processes. It is widely expressed during EMBRYOGENESIS and is essential for EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT.Plant Stomata: Closable openings in the epidermis of plants on the underside of leaves. They allow the exchange of gases between the internal tissues of the plant and the outside atmosphere.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Body Patterning: The processes occurring in early development that direct morphogenesis. They specify the body plan ensuring that cells will proceed to differentiate, grow, and diversify in size and shape at the correct relative positions. Included are axial patterning, segmentation, compartment specification, limb position, organ boundary patterning, blood vessel patterning, etc.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Centrosome: The cell center, consisting of a pair of CENTRIOLES surrounded by a cloud of amorphous material called the pericentriolar region. During interphase, the centrosome nucleates microtubule outgrowth. The centrosome duplicates and, during mitosis, separates to form the two poles of the mitotic spindle (MITOTIC SPINDLE APPARATUS).Nuclear Matrix-Associated Proteins: A broad category of nuclear proteins that are components of or participate in the formation of the NUCLEAR MATRIX.Drosophila melanogaster: A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.Cell Cycle Proteins: Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Cytoskeletal Proteins: Major constituent of the cytoskeleton found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They form a flexible framework for the cell, provide attachment points for organelles and formed bodies, and make communication between parts of the cell possible.Animals, Genetically Modified: ANIMALS whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING, or their offspring.Helminth Proteins: Proteins found in any species of helminth.Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Nervous System: The entire nerve apparatus, composed of a central part, the brain and spinal cord, and a peripheral part, the cranial and spinal nerves, autonomic ganglia, and plexuses. (Stedman, 26th ed)Genes, Helminth: The functional hereditary units of HELMINTHS.Guanine Nucleotide Dissociation Inhibitors: Protein factors that inhibit the dissociation of GDP from GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Caulobacter crescentus: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that consist of slender vibroid cells.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.Neuropeptides: Peptides released by NEURONS as intercellular messengers. Many neuropeptides are also hormones released by non-neuronal cells.Plant Roots: The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Nerve Tissue ProteinsArabidopsis Proteins: Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.Microtubules: Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.Frizzled Receptors: A family of seven-pass transmembrane cell-surface proteins that combines with LOW DENSITY LIPROTEIN RECEPTOR-RELATED PROTEIN-5 or LOW DENSITY LIPROTEIN RECEPTOR-RELATED PROTEIN-5 to form receptors for WNT PROTEINS. Frizzled receptors often couple with HETEROTRIMERIC G PROTEINS and regulate the WNT SIGNALING PATHWAY.Homeodomain Proteins: Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).Zygote: The fertilized OVUM resulting from the fusion of a male and a female gamete.Wnt Proteins: Wnt proteins are a large family of secreted glycoproteins that play essential roles in EMBRYONIC AND FETAL DEVELOPMENT, and tissue maintenance. They bind to FRIZZLED RECEPTORS and act as PARACRINE PROTEIN FACTORS to initiate a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. The canonical Wnt signaling pathway stabilizes the transcriptional coactivator BETA CATENIN.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Insect Proteins: Proteins found in any species of insect.Chromosome Segregation: The orderly segregation of CHROMOSOMES during MEIOSIS or MITOSIS.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.Larva: Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Luminescent Proteins: Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Mice, Inbred C57BLGTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits: The GTPase-containing subunits of heterotrimeric GTP-binding proteins. When dissociated from the heterotrimeric complex these subunits interact with a variety of second messenger systems. Hydrolysis of GTP by the inherent GTPase activity of the subunit causes it to revert to its inactive (heterotrimeric) form. The GTP-Binding protein alpha subunits are grouped into families according to the type of action they have on second messenger systems.Dyneins: A family of multisubunit cytoskeletal motor proteins that use the energy of ATP hydrolysis to power a variety of cellular functions. Dyneins fall into two major classes based upon structural and functional criteria.Embryonic Development: Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS.Meiosis: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division, occurring during maturation of the GERM CELLS. Two successive cell nucleus divisions following a single chromosome duplication (S PHASE) result in daughter cells with half the number of CHROMOSOMES as the parent cells.Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.Gene Expression Regulation, Plant: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.Morphogenesis: The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.Spores, Bacterial: Heat and stain resistant, metabolically inactive bodies formed within the vegetative cells of bacteria of the genera Bacillus and Clostridium.Two-Hybrid System Techniques: Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Neuroglia: The non-neuronal cells of the nervous system. They not only provide physical support, but also respond to injury, regulate the ionic and chemical composition of the extracellular milieu, participate in the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER, form the myelin insulation of nervous pathways, guide neuronal migration during development, and exchange metabolites with neurons. Neuroglia have high-affinity transmitter uptake systems, voltage-dependent and transmitter-gated ion channels, and can release transmitters, but their role in signaling (as in many other functions) is unclear.Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Tumor Suppressor Proteins: Proteins that are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. Deficiencies or abnormalities in these proteins may lead to unregulated cell growth and tumor development.Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory: CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.beta Catenin: A multi-functional catenin that participates in CELL ADHESION and nuclear signaling. Beta catenin binds CADHERINS and helps link their cytoplasmic tails to the ACTIN in the CYTOSKELETON via ALPHA CATENIN. It also serves as a transcriptional co-activator and downstream component of WNT PROTEIN-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS.Bacillus subtilis: A species of gram-positive bacteria that is a common soil and water saprophyte.Cytokinesis: The process by which the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Actins: Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.Vulva: The external genitalia of the female. It includes the CLITORIS, the labia, the vestibule, and its glands.Oocytes: Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Forkhead Transcription Factors: A subclass of winged helix DNA-binding proteins that share homology with their founding member fork head protein, Drosophila.Protein Kinase C: An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Cell Communication: Any of several ways in which living cells of an organism communicate with one another, whether by direct contact between cells or by means of chemical signals carried by neurotransmitter substances, hormones, and cyclic AMP.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Adoptive Transfer: Form of passive immunization where previously sensitized immunologic agents (cells or serum) are transferred to non-immune recipients. When transfer of cells is used as a therapy for the treatment of neoplasms, it is called adoptive immunotherapy (IMMUNOTHERAPY, ADOPTIVE).Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Indoleacetic Acids: Acetic acid derivatives of the heterocyclic compound indole. (Merck Index, 11th ed)Meristem: A group of plant cells that are capable of dividing infinitely and whose main function is the production of new growth at the growing tip of a root or stem. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Cell Nucleus Division: The process by which the CELL NUCLEUS is divided.Receptors, CXCR5: CXCR receptors isolated initially from BURKITT LYMPHOMA cells. CXCR5 receptors are expressed on mature, recirculating B-LYMPHOCYTES and are specific for CHEMOKINE CXCL13.Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.Mice, Inbred BALB CDendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.DNA Replication: The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Epidermis: The external, nonvascular layer of the skin. It is made up, from within outward, of five layers of EPITHELIUM: (1) basal layer (stratum basale epidermidis); (2) spinous layer (stratum spinosum epidermidis); (3) granular layer (stratum granulosum epidermidis); (4) clear layer (stratum lucidum epidermidis); and (5) horny layer (stratum corneum epidermidis).Repressor Proteins: Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors: A family of DNA-binding transcription factors that contain a basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF.Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Blastomeres: Undifferentiated cells resulting from cleavage of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE). Inside the intact ZONA PELLUCIDA, each cleavage yields two blastomeres of about half size of the parent cell. Up to the 8-cell stage, all of the blastomeres are totipotent. The 16-cell MORULA contains outer cells and inner cells.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Cytoskeleton: The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Cell Size: The quantity of volume or surface area of CELLS.Killer Cells, Natural: Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.Interleukin-2 Receptor alpha Subunit: A low affinity interleukin-2 receptor subunit that combines with the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN to form a high affinity receptor for INTERLEUKIN-2.Mesoderm: The middle germ layer of an embryo derived from three paired mesenchymal aggregates along the neural tube.Zebrafish Proteins: Proteins obtained from the ZEBRAFISH. Many of the proteins in this species have been the subject of studies involving basic embryological development (EMBRYOLOGY).T-Lymphocyte Subsets: A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Escherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.Cell Enlargement: Growth processes that result in an increase in CELL SIZE.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Transforming Growth Factor beta: A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Lymphocyte Cooperation: T-cell enhancement of the B-cell response to thymic-dependent antigens.Lymphocyte Depletion: Immunosuppression by reduction of circulating lymphocytes or by T-cell depletion of bone marrow. The former may be accomplished in vivo by thoracic duct drainage or administration of antilymphocyte serum. The latter is performed ex vivo on bone marrow before its transplantation.Time-Lapse Imaging: Recording serial images of a process at regular intervals spaced out over a longer period of time than the time in which the recordings will be played back.Genes, Insect: The functional hereditary units of INSECTS.Mice, Inbred NOD: A strain of non-obese diabetic mice developed in Japan that has been widely studied as a model for T-cell-dependent autoimmune insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in which insulitis is a major histopathologic feature, and in which genetic susceptibility is strongly MHC-linked.Mice, SCID: Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.Embryo, Mammalian: The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.Receptors, Interleukin-2: Receptors present on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and B-LYMPHOCYTES that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-2 and play an important role in LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION. They are heterotrimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT, the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT, and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN.Microfilament Proteins: Monomeric subunits of primarily globular ACTIN and found in the cytoplasmic matrix of almost all cells. They are often associated with microtubules and may play a role in cytoskeletal function and/or mediate movement of the cell or the organelles within the cell.Plant Epidermis: A thin layer of cells forming the outer integument of seed plants and ferns. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Autoimmunity: Process whereby the immune system reacts against the body's own tissues. Autoimmunity may produce or be caused by AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer: Subpopulation of CD4+ lymphocytes that cooperate with other lymphocytes (either T or B) to initiate a variety of immune functions. For example, helper-inducer T-cells cooperate with B-cells to produce antibodies to thymus-dependent antigens and with other subpopulations of T-cells to initiate a variety of cell-mediated immune functions.Schizosaccharomyces: A genus of ascomycetous fungi of the family Schizosaccharomycetaceae, order Schizosaccharomycetales.Coculture Techniques: A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.Ectoderm: The outer of the three germ layers of an embryo.Bromodeoxyuridine: A nucleoside that substitutes for thymidine in DNA and thus acts as an antimetabolite. It causes breaks in chromosomes and has been proposed as an antiviral and antineoplastic agent. It has been given orphan drug status for use in the treatment of primary brain tumors.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Embryonic Induction: The complex processes of initiating CELL DIFFERENTIATION in the embryo. The precise regulation by cell interactions leads to diversity of cell types and specific pattern of organization (EMBRYOGENESIS).Zebrafish: An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.
Guo M, Jan LY, Jan YN (July 1996). "Control of daughter cell fates during asymmetric division: interaction of Numb and Notch". ... while the pIIb cell divides to produce a neuron and a glial cell. The asymmetric division of the SOP into daughter cells with ... This asymmetric division allows a daughter cell containing Numb to acquire a different fate than the other daughter cell. The ... The posterior daughter cell is called the pIIa cell and the anterior daughter cell is called the pIIb. The pIIa cell divides to ...
The temporal regulation of neuroblast asymmetric division is controlled by proteins Hunchback (Hb) and sevenup (svp). After ... The daughter cells of a neuroblast have two decidedly different neural fates. This is accomplished by neural fate determinants ... At a certain point, a neuroblast will undergo asymmetric cell division giving rise to a neuroblast and a ganglion mother cell. ... Ganglion mother cells (GMCs) are cells involved in neurogenesis that divide only once to give rise to two neurons, or one ...
An asymmetric cell division produces two daughter cells with different cellular fates. This is in contrast to symmetric cell ... Guo, M; Jan, LY; Jan, YN (1996). "Control of daughter cell fates during asymmetric division: interaction of Numb and Notch". ... In normal stem and progenitor cells, asymmetric cell division balances proliferation and self-renewal with cell-cycle exit and ... The single cell is now set up to undergo an asymmetric cell division, however the orientation in which the division occurs is ...
... asymmetric segregation (as needed for asymmetric cell division), differential splicing and/or translational control. The ... germ plasm organelle encapsulating the cytoplasmic face of the nuclear envelope of the cells destined to the germline fate. The ... The beta cells closely control the release, and use unusual mechanisms to do so. Immature insulin granules function as a ... Insulin granules are secretory granules, which can release their contents from the cell into the bloodstream. The beta cells in ...
... helps control the balance between differentiating and progenitor cells by localizing to a pole during progenitor cell division ... This asymmetric division of TRIM32 induces neuronal differentiation in daughter cells which contain high TRIM32 concentrations ... while cells with low TRIM32 concentrations retain progenitor cell fate. Proposed theories on how TRIM32 induces differentiation ... In the mouse neocortex, neural progenitor cells generate daughter cells which either differentiate into specific neurons or ...
... divisions that give rise to daughter cells with distinct developmental fates. Asymmetric cell divisions can occur because of ... "Control of Stem Cell Fate by Physical Interactions with the Extracellular Matrix". Cell Stem Cell. 5 (1): 17-26. doi:10.1016/j. ... this cell divides into identical cells. In humans, approximately four days after fertilization and after several cycles of cell ... fat cells, and types of bone cells Epithelial stem cells (progenitor cells) that give rise to the various types of skin cells ...
This asymmetric cell division usually occurs early in embryogenesis. Positive feedback can create asymmetry from homogeneity. ... Sonic Hedgehog signalling and the control of neural cell fate. In systems biology, cell-fate determination is predicted to ... cell interaction and cell movement. Each cell in the embryo receives and gives cues to its neighboring cells and retains a cell ... This technique of fate mapping is used to study cells as they differentiate into their final cell fates. Merely observing a ...
... asymmetric cell division, in which two daughter cells receive different amounts of cellular material (e.g. mRNA, proteins), 2) ... in which the receptor-expressing cell adopts one fate and its neighbors another. In addition to defining asymmetric axes in the ... study to elucidate the connection between cell cycle timing and Cdc42 accumulation in the bud site uses optogenetics to control ... Epithelial polarity Cell migration Embryogenesis Embryonic development Asymmetric cell division 3D cell culture Cell culture ...
... "identified a novel role for a key regulator in cell division in controlling the strength of neuronal connections," which "could ... Neural stem cells divide in a self-renewing manner, generating daughter cells that give rise to different types of neurons. The ... "Rotation and asymmetry of the mitotic spindle direct asymmetric cell division in the developing central nervous system". Nature ... "Targeted gene expression as a means of altering cell fates and generating dominant phenotypes". Development. 118 (2): 401-415. ...
... into JUNQ and IPOD inclusion bodies is a means by which mammalian cells can be rejuvenated through asymmetric division. Thus, ... "Live Cell Imaging". Live cell imaging enables in vivo tracking of proteins in space and time, in their natural endogenous ... JUNQ is the JUxta Nuclear Quality control compartment. To maintain cellular homeostasis, the cellular quality control system ... The fate of misfolded proteins and the process leading to the formation of aggregate inclusions, were initially studied using ...
... has also been implicated in regulation of cell fates through asymmetric cell division in the model organism C. ... Sawa H (2012). "Control of cell polarity and asymmetric division in C. elegans". Current Topics in Developmental Biology. 101: ... "A novel cell-cell junction system: the cortex adhaerens mosaic of lens fiber cells". Journal of Cell Science. 116 (Pt 24): 4985 ... These cell-cell adhesion complexes are necessary for the creation and maintenance of epithelial cell layers and barriers. As a ...
"Trnp1 regulates expansion and folding of the mammalian cerebral cortex by control of radial glial fate". Cell. 153 (3): 535-549 ... "Cortical neurons arise in symmetric and asymmetric division zones and migrate through specific phases". Nature Neuroscience. 7 ... "Expression Analysis Highlights AXL as a Candidate Zika Virus Entry Receptor in Neural Stem Cells". Cell Stem Cell. 18 (5): 591- ... Chenn, A; Walsh, CA (19 July 2002). "Regulation of cerebral cortical size by control of cell cycle exit in neural precursors". ...
... within the specific anatomic location where stem cells are found, which interacts with stem cells to regulate cell fate. The ... 2007). "Stem cell aging is controlled both intrinsically and extrinsically in the Drosophila ovary". Cell Stem Cell. 1 (4): 458 ... Xie, T.; Spradling, A. (1998). "Dpp Is Essential for the Maintenance and Division of Germline Stem Cells in the Ovary". Cell. ... "Dpp Signaling Silences bam Transcription Directly to Establish Asymmetric Divisions of Germline Stem Cells". Current Biology. ...
2009). "Control of stem cell fate by physical interactions with the extracellular matrix". Cell stem cell. 5 (1): 17-26. doi: ... Loss of CD47 permits sustained proliferation of primary murine endothelial cells, increases asymmetric division and enables ... human iPS cell-derived myeloid cell lines as unlimited cell source for dendritic cell-like antigen-presenting cells". Gene ... "Human Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer Using Adult Cells". Cell Stem Cell. 14 (6): 777-80. doi:10.1016/j.stem.2014.03.015. PMID ...
"Epigenetic control on cell fate choice in neural stem cells". Protein & Cell. 3 (4): 278-290. doi:10.1007/s13238-012-2916-6. ... Asymmetric division[edit]. The first divisions of the progenitor cells are symmetric, which duplicates the total number of ... At first, this zone contains neural stem cells, that transition to radial glial cells-progenitor cells, which divide to produce ... Then, some progenitor cells begin to divide asymmetrically, producing one postmitotic cell that migrates along the radial glial ...
Asymmetric division and cosegregation of template DNA strands in adult muscle satellite cells. Nature Cell Biology 8: 677-687. ... from the lab of James Sherley engineered mammalian cells with an inducible p53 gene that controls asymmetric divisions. BrdU ... 2007 High Incidence of Non-Random Template Strand Segregation and Asymmetric Fate Determination In Dividing Stem Cells and ... J. Cell Science 115: 2381-2388. Smith, G.H. 2005. Label-retaining epithelial cells in mouse mammary gland divide asymmetrically ...
The asymmetric cell division results in two different varieties of daughter cells (i.e. a neuroepithelial cell divides into a ... Many of the neuroepithelial cells also divide into radial glial cells, a similar, but more fate restricted cell. Being a more ... The symptoms of the tumor are dependent on its location, but most children experience seizures that cannot be controlled by ... During neuroepithelial cell division, interkinetic nuclear migration allows the cells to divide unrestricted while maintaining ...
... glia dedifferentiate and undergo a single asymmetric division to produce a neural progenitor cell and a new Muller glia cell. ... "β-catenin/Wnt signaling controls progenitor fate in the developing and regenerating zebrafish retina". Neural Development. 2012 ... Nagashima, M; Barthel, LK; Raymond, PA (2013). "A self-renewing division of zebrafish Müller glial cells generates neuronal ... which dedifferentiate into stem-like cells and proliferate into neural progenitor cells in response to retinal damage. While ...
... a type of cell-cell interaction. Specifically, during asymmetric cell division one daughter cell adopts a particular fate that ... "Independent control of reciprocal and lateral inhibition at the axon terminal of retinal bipolar cells". J Physiol. 591(16): ... amacrine cells, bipolar cells, and horizontal cells in order to reach the photoreceptors rod cells which absorb light. The rods ... be transmitted by the rod cells in the center of the Ganglion cell receptive field to ganglion cells because horizontal cells ...
"Yeast Cbk1 and Mob2 activate daughter-specific genetic programs to induce asymmetric cell fates". Cell. 107 (6): 739-50. doi: ... However, chitinases that have specialized functions, such as degrading exogenous chitin or participating in cell division, need ... chitinase to function dependent on the cell's stage in the cell cycle and at specific locations among the daughter cells.[30] ... there must be coordination with other networks controlling the different phases of the cell, such as Cdc14 Early Anaphase ...
... which is able to promote quiescent state and cell cycle activation in somatic stem cells. Asymmetric division is characteristic ... determining cell fates. In mouse embryonic stem cells, this pathway helps maintaining pluripotency. The WNT pathway allows β- ... Self-renewal process is highly regulated from cell cycle and genetic transcription control. There are some signaling pathways, ... As a result, either stem cells cannot enter the cell cycle, or cell division slows in many tissues. Extrinsic regulation is ...
I. Cell cycle kinetics and control of cell division". J Cell Biol. 50 (3): 652-668. doi:10.1083/jcb.50.3.652. Weintraub, H; ... "Expression of achaete-scute homolog 3 in Xenopus embryos converts ectodermal cells to a neural fate". Genes Dev. 8 (12): 1434- ... Seidman, MM; Levine, AJ; Weintraub, H (1979). "The asymmetric segregation of parental nucleosomes during chromosome replication ... and the control of cell division. The effects of bromodeoxyuridine on cell differentiation (conversion of a primitive cell into ...
A second cell division produces the ABp and ABa cells from the AB cell, and the EMS and P2 cells from the P1 cell. This ... the first cell division is highly asymmetric.[25] C. elegans embryogenesis is among the best understood examples of asymmetric ... The developmental fate of every single somatic cell (959 in the adult hermaphrodite; 1031 in the adult male) has been mapped.[ ... events controlled by heterochronic genes include the division and eventual syncitial fusion of the hypodermic seam cells, and ...
Cinalli RM, Rangan P, Lehmann R (February 2008). "Germ cells are forever". Cell. 132 (4): 559-62. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2008.02. ... cell behaviors driving cell fate choice and morphogenesis in the early mouse embryo". Genesis. 51 (4): 219-33. doi:10.1002/dvg. ... Mitotic germ stem cells, oogonia, divide by mitosis to produce primary oocytes committed to meiosis. Unlike sperm production, ... Meiosis is asymmetric producing polar bodies and oocytes with large amounts of material for embryonic development.[citation ...
Yusuf, Faisal (2006). "The eventful somite: Patterning, fate determination and cell division in the somite". Anatomy and ... Human embryonic stem cells for example have the potential to produce all of the cells in the body and they are able to self- ... Therefore, asymmetric somite formation correlates with a left-right desynchronization of the segmentation oscillations. Many ... So the retinoic acid is an endogenous signal that maintains the bilateral synchrony of mesoderm segmentation and controls ...
An asymmetric cell division produces two daughter cells with different cellular fates. This is in contrast to symmetric cell divisions which give rise to daughter cells of equivalent fates. Notably, stem cells divide asymmetrically to give rise to two distinct daughter cells: one copy of the original stem cell as well as a second daughter programmed to differentiate into a non-stem cell fate. (In times of growth or regeneration, stem cells can also divide symmetrically, to ...
An asymmetric cell division produces two daughter cells with different cellular fates. This is in contrast to symmetric cell divisions which give rise to daughter cells of equivalent fates. Notably, stem cells divide asymmetrically to give rise to two distinct daughter cells: one copy of the original stem cell as well as a second daughter programmed to differentiate into a non-stem cell fate. (In times of growth or regeneration, stem cells can also divide symmetrically, to ...
... is the process by which a parent cell divides into two or more daughter cells.[1] Cell division usually occurs as part of a larger cell cycle. In eukaryotes, there are two distinct types of cell division: a vegetative division, whereby each daughter cell is genetically identical to the parent cell (mitosis), and a reproductive cell division, whereby the number of chromosomes in the daughter cells is reduced by half to produce haploid gametes (meiosis).[2] Meiosis results in four haploid daughter cells by undergoing one round of DNA replication followed ...
Cancer is a disease characterized by uncontrolled cell growth and proliferation. For cancer to develop, genes regulating cell growth and differentiation must be altered; these mutations are then maintained through subsequent cell divisions and are thus present in all cancerous cells. Gene expression profiling is a technique used in molecular biology to query the expression of thousands of genes simultaneously. In the context of cancer, gene expression profiling has been used to more accurately classify tumors. The information derived from gene expression profiling often helps in predicting the patient's clinical outcome. Oncogenesis is the process by which normal cells acquire the properties of cancer cells leading to the formation of a ...
... or cytoplasmic inheritance is the transmission of genes that occur outside the nucleus. It is found in most eukaryotes and is commonly known to occur in cytoplasmic organelles such as mitochondria and chloroplasts or from cellular parasites like viruses or bacteria. Mitochondria are organelles which function to transform energy as a result of cellular respiration. Chloroplasts are organelles which function to produce sugars via photosynthesis in plants and algae. The genes located in mitochondria and chloroplasts are very important for proper cellular function, yet the genomes replicate independently of the DNA located in the nucleus, which is typically arranged in chromosomes that only replicate one time preceding cellular division. The extranuclear genomes of mitochondria and chloroplasts however replicate independently of ...
A synchronous or synchronized culture is a microbiological culture or a cell culture that contains cells that are all in the same growth stage. As numerous factors influence the cell cycle (some of them stochastic) normal cultures have cells in all stages of the cell cycle. Obtaining a culture with a unified cell-cycle stage is useful for biological research where a particular stage in the cell cycle is desired (such as the culturing of parasitized cells). Since cells are too small for certain research techniques, a synchronous culture can be treated as a single cell; the number of ...
A cyst is a closed sac, having a distinct membrane and division compared with the nearby tissue. Hence, it is a cluster of cells that has grouped together to form a sac (not unlike the manner in which water molecules group together, forming a bubble); however, the distinguishing aspect of a cyst is that the cells forming the "shell" of such a sac are distinctly abnormal (in both appearance and behaviour) when compared with all surrounding cells for that given location. It may contain air, fluids, or semi-solid material. A collection of pus is called an abscess, not a cyst. Once formed, sometimes a cyst may resolve on its own. When a cyst fails to resolve, it may need to be removed surgically, but that would depend upon its type and location. Cancer-related cysts are formed as a defense mechanism for the body, following the development of ...
Since chromosome segregation is driven by microtubules, colchicine is also used for inducing polyploidy in plant cells during cellular division by inhibiting chromosome segregation during meiosis; half the resulting gametes, therefore, contain no chromosomes, while the other half contains double the usual number of chromosomes (i.e., diploid instead of haploid, as gametes usually are), and lead to embryos with double the usual number of chromosomes (i.e., tetraploid instead of diploid). While this would be fatal in most higher animal cells, in plant cells it is not only usually well tolerated, but also frequently results in larger, hardier, faster-growing, and in general more desirable plants than the normally diploid parents; for this reason, this type of genetic manipulation is frequently used in breeding ...
Cell polarity factors positioned at the cell tips provide spatial cues to limit Cdr2 distribution to the cell middle. In fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe (S. Pombe), cells divide at a defined, reproducible size during mitosis because of the regulated activity of Cdk1.[8] The cell polarity protein kinase Pom1, a member of the dual-specificity tyrosine-phosphorylation regulated kinase (DYRK) family of kinases, localizes to cell ends. In Pom1 knockout cells, Cdr2 was no longer restricted to the cell middle, but was seen diffusely through half of the cell. From this data it becomes apparent that Pom1 provides inhibitory signals that confine Cdr2 to the middle of the ...
A liga foi fundada sob o nome de United States International Soccer League, após a mudança do nome da United States Interregional Soccer League (USISL). Seu primeiro compeão foi o Long Island Rough Riders, que derrotou o Minnesota Thunder na final.[3] Entre 1995 e 2010 a liga recebeu vários nomes, USISL D-3 Pro League, USL D3 Pro League, USL Pro Select League, USL Pro Soccer League e USL Second Division. Em 2010 o surgimento da nova North American Soccer League, a USL First Division ficaria com apenas três times.[4] Com isso a United States Soccer Federation (USSF) sancionou que nenhuma das duas ligas iria ser disputada em 2010 e ordenou que as duas entrassem em acordo. No dia 10 de janeiro de 2010, a USSF anunciou a extinção da USL-1 para a criação da USSF D2 Pro League.[5] No dia 8 de setembro de 2010 foi anunciada a criação da USL Pro, que seria a junção da USL First Division com a USL Second Division, iniciando em 2011.[6][7] ...
DNA damage is considered to be the primary cause of cancer.[9][10] More than 60,000 new naturally occurring DNA damages arise, on average, per human cell, per day, due to endogenous cellular processes (see article DNA damage (naturally occurring)). Additional DNA damages can arise from exposure to exogenous agents. As one example of an exogenous carcinogeneic agent, tobacco smoke causes increased DNA damage, and these DNA damages likely cause the increase of lung cancer due to smoking.[11] In other examples, UV light from solar radiation causes DNA damage that is important in melanoma,[12] helicobacter pylori infection produces high levels of reactive oxygen species that damage DNA and contributes to gastric cancer,[13] and the Aspergillus metabolite, aflatoxin, is a DNA damaging agent that is causative in liver cancer.[14] DNA damages can also be caused by endogenous (naturally occurring) agents. Macrophages and neutrophils in an inflamed ...
Odes, Edward J.; Randolph-Quinney, Patrick S.; Steyn, Maryna; Throckmorton, Zach; Smilg, Jacqueline S.; Zipfel, Bernhard; Augustine, Tanya N.; Beer, Frikkie de; Hoffman, Jakobus W.; Franklin, Ryan D.; Berger, Lee R.; Sciences, School of Anatomical; Witwatersrand, University of the; Africa, South; Institute, Evolutionary Studies; Geosciences, School of; Witwatersrand, University of the; Africa, South; Sciences, School of Anatomical; Witwatersrand, University of the; Africa, South; Institute, Evolutionary Studies; Geosciences, School of; Witwatersrand, University of the; Africa, South; Sciences, School of Forensic and Applied; Lancashire, University of Central; Kingdom, United; Sciences, School of Anatomical; Witwatersrand, University of the; Africa, South; Institute, Evolutionary Studies; Geosciences, School of; Witwatersrand, University of the; Africa, South; Medicine, De Busk College of Osteopathic; University, Lincoln Memorial; Institute, Evolutionary Studies; Geosciences, School of; ...
L'edizione 1896-97 della First Division è stato il nono campionato di calcio inglese, che vide la vittoria finale dell'Aston Villa. Capocannoniere del torneo fu Steve Bloomer (Derby County), con 22 reti. ...
... cells in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes frequently depends on asymmetric localization of regulatory factors prior to division ... A central component of any cell cycle is the initiation of chromosome replication coupled with strict controls to prevent ... The periodicity of DNA replication, cell division, and, in Caulobacter, cell cycle-dependent morphological and behavioral ... Microbial cells are able to monitor changes in their environment, detect changes in cell density, and communicate with each ...
... suggests a possible role for asymmetric cell division (ACD). We show that ACD of developing T cells controls cell fate through ... Asymmetric cell division during T cell development controls downstream fate. Kim Pham, Raz Shimoni, Mirren Charnley, Mandy J. ... Asymmetric cell division during T cell development controls downstream fate. Kim Pham, Raz Shimoni, Mirren Charnley, Mandy J. ... cells have a per cell death rate of μ. a. pre. ; (2) y. a. cells have a per cell death rate of μ. a. post. ; (3) x. b. cells ...
J Cell Sci. 2019 Oct 24;133(5). pii: jcs235358. doi: 10.1242/jcs.235358. ... Notch signalling frequently facilitates fate determination. Asymmetric cell division (ACD) often controls segregation of Notch ... A new role for Notch in the control of polarity and asymmetric cell division of developing T cells.. Charnley M1,2,3, Ludford- ... Contrary to prevailing models, we demonstrate that Notch signalling controls the distribution of Notch1 itself and cell fate ...
An asymmetric cell division produces two daughter cells with different cellular fates. This is in contrast to symmetric cell ... Guo, M; Jan, LY; Jan, YN (1996). "Control of daughter cell fates during asymmetric division: interaction of Numb and Notch". ... In normal stem and progenitor cells, asymmetric cell division balances proliferation and self-renewal with cell-cycle exit and ... The single cell is now set up to undergo an asymmetric cell division, however the orientation in which the division occurs is ...
2002). Asymmetric Numb distribution is critical for asymmetric cell division of mouse cerebral cortical stem cells and ... 1996). Control of daughter cell fates during asymmetric division: interaction of Numb and Notch. Neuron 17, 27-41. ... 1994). Asymmetric distribution of numb protein during division of the sensory organ precursor cell confers distinct fates to ... LGN, Insc and NuMA control spindle orientation, and Numb regulates the cell fate of lung epithelial cells in vitro depending on ...
... approaches for controlling spatial gradients of biomolecules in cells and differentiation of cells during cell division (aka, ... Immobilized Chemical Inducers of Differentiation (iCID) and asymmetric cell division: In living organisms, it is often the ... that determines the cell fate. My lab develops multiple ... Cell biology and cell-based high-throughput screening.. * ... asymmetric division). Specifically, we investigate the differentiation events that govern tumor development and control dynamic ...
1996) Control of daughter cell fates during asymmetric division; interaction of Numb and Notch. Neuron 17, 27-41. ... 1994) Expression of achaete-scute homologue 3 in Xenopus embryos converts ectodermal cells to a neural fate. Genes Dev 8, 1434- ... 1995) Neurogenic and proneural genes control cell fate specification in the Drosophila endoderm. Development 12, 393-405. ... 1993) Expression of an extracellular deletion of Xotch diverts cell fate in Xenopus embryos. Cell 73, 659-671. ...
Asymmetric cell division during T cell development controls downstream fate T cell precursors undergo asymmetric cell division ... Fredberg takes a physical approach to model mechanical properties of cells and tissues. ... The formation of ordered nanoclusters controls cadherin anchoring to actin and cell-cell contact fluidity Pierre-Olivier Strale ... after T cell receptor genomic recombination, with stromal cell cues controlling the differential inheritance of fate ...
Cells often divide by binary fission to form two identical daughter cells with similar developmental fates. However, a cell can ... Asymmetric cell division allows for better environmental adaptation and organismal complexity. ... How cells divide asymmetrically and how they enforce the differential fates of daughter cells remain unsolved, fundamental ... Phosphorylation-based control of cellular asymmetry and the cell cycle in Caulobacter crescentus. Author(s). Chen, Yiyin Erin ...
Guo M, Jan LY, Jan YN (July 1996). "Control of daughter cell fates during asymmetric division: interaction of Numb and Notch". ... while the pIIb cell divides to produce a neuron and a glial cell. The asymmetric division of the SOP into daughter cells with ... This asymmetric division allows a daughter cell containing Numb to acquire a different fate than the other daughter cell. The ... The posterior daughter cell is called the pIIa cell and the anterior daughter cell is called the pIIb. The pIIa cell divides to ...
... of integral components of mammalian cells seem to follow a general pattern of asymmetric inheritance throughout division, the ... safeguard the faithful inheritance of RNA content throughout cell division and that those mechanisms must be tightly controlled ... fate of RNA molecules largely remains a mystery. Herein, we will discuss current concepts of asymmetric inheritance in a wide ... Asymmetric Inheritance of Cell Fate Determinants: Focus on RNA by Yelyzaveta Shlyakhtina †, Katherine L. Moran † and ...
2010) Wnt signaling controls the stem cell-like asymmetric division of the epithelial seam cells during C. elegans larval ... These three cells descend from a single progenitor, the ray precursor cell, through several rounds of asymmetric division ... These cells undergo several rounds of division to generate one hypodermal cell (Rn.p) as well as the three cell types of each ... 2009) Linking asymmetric cell division to the terminal differentiation program of postmitotic neurons in C. elegans. Dev Cell ...
However, how cell shape is regulated in developing animals is not well understood. Here, we show that the onset of TGFbeta/Dpp ... Morphogenesis is largely driven by changes in the shape of individual cells. ... 16099639 - Molecular control of cell polarity and asymmetric cell division in drosophila neuroblasts.. 14551769 - Hematopoietic ... 22768929 - Self-organized cell motility from motor-filament interactions.. 19444309 - Sequoia regulates cell fate decisions in ...
... as self-renewal and their ability to generate cells that enter differentiation. One mechanism by which fate decisions can be ... Emerging evidence suggests that microRNAs can initiate asymmetric division, but whether microRNA and protein cell fate ... A miR-34a-Numb Feedforward Loop Triggered by Inflammation Regulates Asymmetric Stem Cell Division in Intestine and Colon Cancer ... Mitotic spindle orientation can be coupled with cell fate decisions to provide cellular diversity through asymmetric ... ...
Control of daughter cell fates during asymmetric division: interaction of Numb and Notch.Neuron 17 1996 27 41 ... is required for the asymmetric cell division of the neural precursor cells of the external sensory organ and acts through the ... which is required for the asymmetric cell division of sensory neural precursor cells (38). In Drosophila, genes that are ... cell fate determination, and cell polarity formation by controlling alternative splicing, mRNA stability, RNA transport, and/or ...
... is a central component in the control of lineage commitment during asymmetric cell division of SOP cells. This function is ... The Drosophila Seven in absentia (Sina) gene product originally was described as a protein that controls cell fate decisions ... Numb physically interacts with and inhibits the signaling of Notch1 (20-23), a cell-surface receptor that promotes cell fate ... EDTA-induced Notch1 nuclear translocation in U937 vector control cells (8-10). Cells were incubated with PBS containing 10 mM ...
Experimental Cell Research" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic ... Control of daughter cell fates during asymmetric division: Interaction of Numb and Notch ... distribution of numb protein during division of the sensory organ precursor cell confers distinct fates to daughter cells ... Role of inscuteable in orienting asymmetric cell divisions in Drosophila. Kraut, R.; Chia, W.; Jan, L.Y.; Jan, Y.N.; Knoblich, ...
Control of daughter cell fates during asymmetric division: interaction of Numb and Notch. Neuron. 1996;17:27-41. [PubMed] ... S2 cell lysates were prepared by harvesting transfected cells (~5×106) in 1 mL lysis buffer, followed by incubation on ice for ... Nat Cell Biol. 2002;4:416-424. [PubMed]. 65. Artavanis-Tsakonas S, Rand MD, Lake RJ. Notch signaling: cell fate control and ... Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2006;7:678-689. [PubMed]. 68. Cagan RL, Ready DF. Notch is required for successive cell decisions in the ...
TDIF enhanced random division of procambium cells. (Scale bars: A-D, F, M, N, and S-U, 100 μm; E, G, H, Q, and R, 20 μm; O and ... represses xylem development and promotes asymmetric cell division at the phloem side (15, 26). Therefore, the TDIF/TDR system ... non-cell-autonomous signal that controls stem cell fate in the procambium. Our results indicate that we have discovered a cell ... Non-cell-autonomous control of vascular stem cell fate by a CLE peptide/receptor system. Yuki Hirakawa, Hidefumi Shinohara, ...
Strikingly, MEK1 appeared to control the asymmetric inheritance of Ventx2 protein following cell division. Consistently, when ... MEK1 was required to make Xenopus pluripotent cells competent to respond to all cell fate inducers tested. Importantly, MEK1 ... MEK1 is required for Ventx2 clearance and asymmetric distribution during cell division. (A,B) Four-cell embryos were injected ... The pMEK1 signal was severely reduced or lost in cells injected with Mk-MO. (B) Four-cell embryos were injected in each cell ...
RBR silencing induces asymmetric cell division of the QC.. Expression patterns of cell-fate markers in stem cell niche of WT (A ... Quiescent long-term somatic stem cells reside in plant and animal stem cell niches. Within the Arabidopsis root stem cell ... QC, quiescent centre; CEI, cortex-endodermis initial; VSC, vascular stem cell; CSC, columella stem cell; SCD, stem cell ... as well as cell death in vascular and columella cells. (L) pRCH1::amiGORBR shows overproliferation of the QC and LRC and cell ...
... neural stem cell maintenance and the role of adult neurogenesis. ... Asymmetric cell division is an attractive means for stem cells ... cell cycle dynamically regulate Numb signaling and represent a novel mechanism for coupling cell-fate determination and cell- ... cell numbers are strictly controlled in vivo, and tumor suppressors likely play a key role in maintaining stem-cell homeostasis ... We propose that Numb-mediated asymmetric cell division is a mechanism used by stem cells in many tissues for their progeny to ...
These cells may have undergone asymmetric division, yielding one postmitotic neuron and one cell cycle-arrested radial ... 1D). Unlike control cells, there were essentially no detectable Dyrk1A+ cells in the VZ at both time points (Fig. 1C,D), ... 2003) Beyond laminar fate: toward a molecular classification of cortical projection/pyramidal neurons. Dev Neurosci 25:139-151. ... Normally, postmitotic neurons are produced by either the asymmetric division of radial glia cells or the symmetric division of ...
Asymmetric cell division during T cell development controls downstream fate. Pham, K., Shimoni, R., Ludford-Menting, M. J., ... The BAFF receptor TACI controls IL-10 production by regulatory B cells and CLL B cells. Saulep-Easton, D., Vincent, F. B., Quah ... Restricted cell cycle is essential for clonal evolution and therapeutic resistance of pre-leukemic stem cells. Tremblay, C., ... Asymmetric segregation and self-renewal of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells with endocytic Ap2a2. Ting, S. B. N., ...
... control asymmetric division may first require that cells polarize by segregating fate determinants unequally within the cell. ... Cells can divide asymmetrically by unequal segregation of cell fate determinants upon cell division. The intrinsic mechanisms ... The role of cell-cell and/or cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) adhesion. Cell adhesion between niche cells and stem cells has ... asymmetric partitioning of cell fate determinants in the mother cell can give rise to daughter cells that adopt different cell ...
  • One daughter cell, generally that receiving the Numb, is able to adopt a neuronal fate and innervate the developing nervous system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Polarity and guidance along the A/P axis appears to be regulated by the activity of several molecules that interact to orient neuronal polarity and guide migrating cells and growth cones. (berkeley.edu)
  • In this case the Notch ligand (Delta) does not have to be present in either dMP2 or vMP2, but can provide its function from adjacent non-neuronal cells (Spana, 1996). (sdbonline.org)
  • However, this is not the case in zebrafish and other vertebrates systems in which inheritance of the apical Par3 domain is in fact correlated with neuronal cell fates (see Figure 2) (Alexandre et al, 2010). (ucl.ac.uk)
  • Malatesta P, Hartfuss E, Gotz M (2000) Isolation of radial glial cells by fluorescent-activated cell sorting reveals a neuronal lineage. (springer.com)
  • Alteration of Rho1 or MRLC activity has a profound effect on apical-basal cell length. (biomedsearch.com)
  • At these stages, BCD mRNA also shows a perinuclear or apical distribution in nurse cells, and accumulates at the anterior cortex of the oocyte. (sdbonline.org)
  • The inheritance of apical domain was for a long time thought to be important for establishing and maintaining epithelial structure and was therefore predicted to be important for progenitor cell identity. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • The daughter cells that lose contact with the apical surface during cell division are able to re-attach apically. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • Epithelial cells require apical/basal polarity to establish their barrier function. (biologists.org)
  • For example, epithelial cells have apical membranes contacting the environment, lateral membranes sealing paracellular spaces, and basal membranes anchored to extracellular matrices. (biologists.org)
  • We report that Siah-1 interacts directly with and promotes the degradation of the cell fate regulator Numb. (pnas.org)
  • The sys-1 gene was discovered as a regulator of the asymmetric cell division of somatic gonadal precursor cells (SGPs) ( 7 ). (pnas.org)
  • Taken together, these results demonstrate that proteasome activity is an important regulator of CD8+ T cell fate and raise the possibility that increasing proteasome activity may be a useful therapeutic strategy to enhance the generation of memory lymphocytes. (jci.org)
  • Primary mammary epithelial cell cultures are generated from mammary glands without palpable tumor. (jove.com)
  • Glands are carefully resected with clear separation from adjacent muscle, lymph nodes are removed, and single-cell suspensions of enriched mammary epithelial cells are generated by mincing mammary tissue followed by enzymatic dissociation and filtration. (jove.com)
  • We still do not know which molecule or molecules act as the extrinsic signal from epithelial cells, Yoshiura says. (phys.org)
  • Dpp signaling directs cell motility and invasiveness during epithelial morphogenesis. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Cell guidance, cell matching, transitions from passive to migratory epithelia, cell growth and death, and extracellular matrix remodeling all impinge on epithelial spreading. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Loss of cell polarity influences epithelial cancers and supports tumorigenesis by altering cell-cell-matrix interactions. (forschung-sachsen-anhalt.de)
  • However the ispd guidelines state that it is important to have injuries requiring reconstructive surgery injuries to eyes dural tears with or without t bud stage kidneys fig in more developed epithelial cells a genetic linkage map for the induction and patterning events based on permeabilizingxation and prolonged incubation times sariola whole tissue staining is present warn families that it. (nationalnewstoday.com)
  • 2006). NBs that are still in contact with epithelial cells as they divide always produce GMCs opposite the site of epithelial-NB contact. (stembook.org)
  • 1993 ) Expression of an extracellular deletion of Xotch diverts cell fate in Xenopus embryos. (biologists.org)
  • Western blot analysis of blastula stage nine embryos injected with 25 ng per blastomere of either MO at the 4 cell stage revealed reduced MEK1 translation. (xenbase.org)
  • Control embryos were uninjected. (xenbase.org)
  • A) Four-cell embryos were injected in each blastomere with 50 pg GFP‐CAAX mRNA with or without 25 ng Mk-MO, fixed at blastula stage 9, cryosectioned and stained with anti-phospho- MEK1 antibody. (xenbase.org)
  • B) Four-cell embryos were injected in each cell with 25 ng Mk-MO, collected at early gastrula stage 10.5 and processed for RT-qPCR to quantify p53 expression levels. (xenbase.org)
  • D) Blastopore closure was scored by calculating the ratio of blastopore diameter of injected embryos to the mean of blastopore diameter of uninjected control embryos. (xenbase.org)
  • 1981). Establishment in culture of pluripotential cells from mouse embryos. (patentgenius.com)
  • These new findings were only made possible by using this cutting-edge live-imaging approach in zebrafish embryos, which we showed to offer unrivalled advantages in terms of optics and for analysis of dynamic subcellular events at an individual cell level. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • Oocytes then become embryos where polarized (asymmetric) cell division generates various precursors and stem cells (Figure 1). (ucdenver.edu)
  • The cell polarity established in early embryos prefigures the macroscopic anatomical asymmetries characteristic of adult animals. (biologists.org)
  • In this Cell Science at a glance review and the accompanying poster, we highlight how these complexes pattern early development of diverse animal embryos, and drive asymmetries in cell shape and division. (biologists.org)