Immunity, Innate: The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Receptors, Immunologic: Cell surface molecules on cells of the immune system that specifically bind surface molecules or messenger molecules and trigger changes in the behavior of cells. Although these receptors were first identified in the immune system, many have important functions elsewhere.Receptors, Pattern Recognition: A large family of cell surface receptors that bind conserved molecular structures (PAMPS) present in pathogens. They play important roles in host defense by mediating cellular responses to pathogens.Immune System: The body's defense mechanism against foreign organisms or substances and deviant native cells. It includes the humoral immune response and the cell-mediated response and consists of a complex of interrelated cellular, molecular, and genetic components.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Toll-Like Receptors: A family of pattern recognition receptors characterized by an extracellular leucine-rich domain and a cytoplasmic domain that share homology with the INTERLEUKIN 1 RECEPTOR and the DROSOPHILA toll protein. Following pathogen recognition, toll-like receptors recruit and activate a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCING ADAPTOR PROTEINS.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Mice, Inbred C57BLSignal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Nod Signaling Adaptor Proteins: Cytosolic signaling adaptor proteins that were initially discovered by their role in the innate immunity (IMMUNITY, INNATE) response of organisms that lack an adaptive immune system. This class of proteins contains three domains, a C-terminal ligand recognition domain, an N-terminal effector-binding domain, and a centrally located nuclear-binding oligomerization domain. Many members of this class contain a C-terminal leucine rich domain which binds to PEPTIDOGLYCAN on the surface of BACTERIA and plays a role in pathogen resistance.Disease Resistance: The capacity of an organism to defend itself against pathological processes or the agents of those processes. This most often involves innate immunity whereby the organism responds to pathogens in a generic way. The term disease resistance is used most frequently when referring to plants.Verticillium: A mitosporic fungal genus commonly isolated from soil. Some species are the cause of wilt diseases in many different plants.Plant Immunity: The inherent or induced capacity of plants to withstand or ward off biological attack by pathogens.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Immune Tolerance: The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.Toll-Like Receptor 2: A pattern recognition receptor that forms heterodimers with other TOLL-LIKE RECEPTORS. It interacts with multiple ligands including PEPTIDOGLYCAN, bacterial LIPOPROTEINS, lipoarabinomannan, and a variety of PORINS.Plant Diseases: Diseases of plants.Mice, Inbred BALB CToll-Like Receptor 4: A pattern recognition receptor that interacts with LYMPHOCYTE ANTIGEN 96 and LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES. It mediates cellular responses to GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA.Killer Cells, Natural: Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.Cladosporium: A mitosporic Loculoascomycetes fungal genus including some economically important plant parasites. Teleomorphs include Mycosphaerella and Venturia.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Adaptive Immunity: Protection from an infectious disease agent that is mediated by B- and T- LYMPHOCYTES following exposure to specific antigen, and characterized by IMMUNOLOGIC MEMORY. It can result from either previous infection with that agent or vaccination (IMMUNITY, ACTIVE), or transfer of antibody or lymphocytes from an immune donor (IMMUNIZATION, PASSIVE).Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Host-Pathogen Interactions: The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Toll-Like Receptor 3: A pattern recognition receptor that binds DOUBLE-STRANDED RNA. It mediates cellular responses to certain viral pathogens.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Nod1 Signaling Adaptor Protein: A NOD-signaling adaptor protein that contains a C-terminal leucine-rich domain which recognizes bacterial PEPTIDOGLYCAN. It signals via an N-terminal caspase recruitment domain that interacts with other CARD SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEINS such as RIP SERINE-THEONINE KINASES. It plays a role in the host defense response by signaling the activation of CASPASES and the MAP KINASE SIGNALING SYSTEM.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Pseudomonas syringae: A species of gram-negative, fluorescent, phytopathogenic bacteria in the genus PSEUDOMONAS. It is differentiated into approximately 50 pathovars with different plant pathogenicities and host specificities.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Myeloid Differentiation Factor 88: An intracellular signaling adaptor protein that plays a role in TOLL-LIKE RECEPTOR and INTERLEUKIN 1 RECEPTORS signal transduction. It forms a signaling complex with the activated cell surface receptors and members of the IRAK KINASES.Receptors, IgG: Specific molecular sites on the surface of various cells, including B-lymphocytes and macrophages, that combine with IMMUNOGLOBULIN Gs. Three subclasses exist: Fc gamma RI (the CD64 antigen, a low affinity receptor), Fc gamma RII (the CD32 antigen, a high affinity receptor), and Fc gamma RIII (the CD16 antigen, a low affinity receptor).Toll-Like Receptor 9: A pattern recognition receptor that binds unmethylated CPG CLUSTERS. It mediates cellular responses to bacterial pathogens by distinguishing between self and bacterial DNA.Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell: Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.Cytophagocytosis: The engulfment and degradation of cells by other cells.Immunological Synapses: The interfaces between T-CELLS and ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS. Supramolecular organization of proteins takes place at these synapses involving various types of immune cells. Immunological synapses can have several functions including LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION; enhancing, balancing, or terminating signaling; or directing cytokine secretion.Vaccines, DNA: Recombinant DNA vectors encoding antigens administered for the prevention or treatment of disease. The host cells take up the DNA, express the antigen, and present it to the immune system in a manner similar to that which would occur during natural infection. This induces humoral and cellular immune responses against the encoded antigens. The vector is called naked DNA because there is no need for complex formulations or delivery agents; the plasmid is injected in saline or other buffers.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.T-Lymphocyte Subsets: A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.Arabidopsis Proteins: Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.Receptors, KIR2DL1: A KIR receptor that has specificity for HLA-C ANTIGENS. It is an inhibitory receptor that contains D1 and D2 extracellular immunoglobulin-like domains and a long cytoplasmic tail. It is similar in structure and function to the KIR2DL2 RECEPTOR and the KIR2DL3 RECEPTORS.Nod2 Signaling Adaptor Protein: A NOD signaling adaptor protein that contains two C-terminal leucine-rich domains which recognize bacterial PEPTIDOGLYCAN. It signals via an N-terminal capase recruitment domain that interacts with other CARD SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEINS such as RIP SERINE-THEONINE KINASES. The protein plays a role in the host defense response by signaling the activation of CASPASES and the MAP KINASE SIGNALING SYSTEM. Mutations of the gene encoding the nucleotide oligomerization domain 2 protein have been associated with increased susceptibility to CROHN DISEASE.Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Adjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.Receptors, IgE: Specific molecular sites on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes which combine with IgEs. Two subclasses exist: low affinity receptors (Fc epsilon RII) and high affinity receptors (Fc epsilon RI).Toll-Like Receptor 5: A pattern recognition receptor that binds FLAGELLIN. It mediates cellular responses to certain bacterial pathogens.Toll-Like Receptor 7: A pattern recognition receptor that binds several forms of imidazo-quinoline including the antiviral compound Imiquimod.Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell: IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory: CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing: A broad category of carrier proteins that play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They generally contain several modular domains, each of which having its own binding activity, and act by forming complexes with other intracellular-signaling molecules. Signal-transducing adaptor proteins lack enzyme activity, however their activity can be modulated by other signal-transducing enzymesProtein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Cytotoxicity, Immunologic: The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.HLA-C Antigens: Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) antigens encoded by a small cluster of structural genes at the C locus on chromosome 6. They have significantly lower immunogenicity than the HLA-A and -B determinants and are therefore of minor importance in donor/recipient crossmatching. Their primary role is their high-risk association with certain disease manifestations (e.g., spondylarthritis, psoriasis, multiple myeloma).Lipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Th1 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.Receptors, Natural Killer Cell: Receptors that are specifically found on the surface of NATURAL KILLER CELLS. They play an important role in regulating the cellular component of INNATE IMMUNITY.Receptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.Lectins, C-Type: A class of animal lectins that bind to carbohydrate in a calcium-dependent manner. They share a common carbohydrate-binding domain that is structurally distinct from other classes of lectins.Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte: Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.Immune Evasion: Methods used by pathogenic organisms to evade a host's immune system.Th2 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.Vaccination: Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.Antigen-Antibody Complex: The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Lycopersicon esculentum: A plant species of the family SOLANACEAE, native of South America, widely cultivated for their edible, fleshy, usually red fruit.Tobacco: A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.Phagocytosis: The engulfing and degradation of microorganisms; other cells that are dead, dying, or pathogenic; and foreign particles by phagocytic cells (PHAGOCYTES).Immunologic Memory: The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer: Subpopulation of CD4+ lymphocytes that cooperate with other lymphocytes (either T or B) to initiate a variety of immune functions. For example, helper-inducer T-cells cooperate with B-cells to produce antibodies to thymus-dependent antigens and with other subpopulations of T-cells to initiate a variety of cell-mediated immune functions.Plants, Genetically Modified: PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Injections, Intradermal: The forcing into the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle, piercing the top skin layer.Antigen Presentation: The process by which antigen is presented to lymphocytes in a form they can recognize. This is performed by antigen presenting cells (APCs). Some antigens require processing before they can be recognized. Antigen processing consists of ingestion and partial digestion of the antigen by the APC, followed by presentation of fragments on the cell surface. (From Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)HEK293 Cells: A cell line generated from human embryonic kidney cells that were transformed with human adenovirus type 5.Interleukin-10: A cytokine produced by a variety of cell types, including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; DENDRITIC CELLS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS that exerts a variety of effects on immunoregulation and INFLAMMATION. Interleukin-10 combines with itself to form a homodimeric molecule that is the biologically active form of the protein.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic: Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Immunity: Nonsusceptibility to the invasive or pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or to the toxic effect of antigenic substances.Interleukin-2: A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.Ovalbumin: An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase, Non-Receptor Type 6: A Src-homology domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase found in the CYTOSOL of hematopoietic cells. It plays a role in signal transduction by dephosphorylating signaling proteins that are activated or inactivated by PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASES.Cancer Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines designed to prevent or treat cancer. Vaccines are produced using the patient's own whole tumor cells as the source of antigens, or using tumor-specific antigens, often recombinantly produced.Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Immune Complex Diseases: Group of diseases mediated by the deposition of large soluble complexes of antigen and antibody with resultant damage to tissue. Besides SERUM SICKNESS and the ARTHUS REACTION, evidence supports a pathogenic role for immune complexes in many other IMMUNE SYSTEM DISEASES including GLOMERULONEPHRITIS, systemic lupus erythematosus (LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS, SYSTEMIC) and POLYARTERITIS NODOSA.Immune System Diseases: Disorders caused by abnormal or absent immunologic mechanisms, whether humoral, cell-mediated, or both.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Immunization, Secondary: Any immunization following a primary immunization and involving exposure to the same or a closely related antigen.Amino Acid Motifs: Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.Gene Expression Regulation, Plant: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.Myeloid Cells: The classes of BONE MARROW-derived blood cells in the monocytic series (MONOCYTES and their precursors) and granulocytic series (GRANULOCYTES and their precursors).Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Interleukin-4: A soluble factor produced by activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that induces the expression of MHC CLASS II GENES and FC RECEPTORS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and causes their proliferation and differentiation. It also acts on T-lymphocytes, MAST CELLS, and several other hematopoietic lineage cells.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.NF-kappa B: Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.Adoptive Transfer: Form of passive immunization where previously sensitized immunologic agents (cells or serum) are transferred to non-immune recipients. When transfer of cells is used as a therapy for the treatment of neoplasms, it is called adoptive immunotherapy (IMMUNOTHERAPY, ADOPTIVE).Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Antigen-Presenting Cells: A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Cell SeparationHIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Histocompatibility Antigens Class I: Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.Leukocytes, Mononuclear: Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.CTLA-4 Antigen: An inhibitory T CELL receptor that is closely related to CD28 ANTIGEN. It has specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN and acts as a negative regulator of peripheral T cell function. CTLA-4 antigen is believed to play role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Antigens, CD80: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CD28 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD80 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a costimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Interleukin-12: A heterodimeric cytokine that plays a role in innate and adaptive immune responses. Interleukin-12 is a 70 kDa protein that is composed of covalently linked 40 kDa and 35 kDa subunits. It is produced by DENDRITIC CELLS; MACROPHAGES and a variety of other immune cells and plays a role in the stimulation of INTERFERON-GAMMA production by T-LYMPHOCYTES and NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Tyrosine: A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.Cytotoxicity Tests, Immunologic: The demonstration of the cytotoxic effect on a target cell of a lymphocyte, a mediator released by a sensitized lymphocyte, an antibody, or complement.Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus: The type species of ARENAVIRUS, part of the Old World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, OLD WORLD), producing a silent infection in house and laboratory mice. In humans, infection with LCMV can be inapparent, or can present with an influenza-like illness, a benign aseptic meningitis, or a severe meningoencephalomyelitis. The virus can also infect monkeys, dogs, field mice, guinea pigs, and hamsters, the latter an epidemiologically important host.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)HIV-1: The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Antigens, CD86: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CD28 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD86 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a stimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Antigens, CD28: Costimulatory T-LYMPHOCYTE receptors that have specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN. Activation of this receptor results in increased T-cell proliferation, cytokine production and promotion of T-cell survival.Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Blood Platelets: Non-nucleated disk-shaped cells formed in the megakaryocyte and found in the blood of all mammals. They are mainly involved in blood coagulation.Cell Communication: Any of several ways in which living cells of an organism communicate with one another, whether by direct contact between cells or by means of chemical signals carried by neurotransmitter substances, hormones, and cyclic AMP.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Coculture Techniques: A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Viral Load: The quantity of measurable virus in a body fluid. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is sometimes used as a SURROGATE MARKER in disease progression.Cell Line, Transformed: Eukaryotic cell line obtained in a quiescent or stationary phase which undergoes conversion to a state of unregulated growth in culture, resembling an in vitro tumor. It occurs spontaneously or through interaction with viruses, oncogenes, radiation, or drugs/chemicals.Clone Cells: A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Histocompatibility Antigens Class II: Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Immunity, Humoral: Antibody-mediated immune response. Humoral immunity is brought about by ANTIBODY FORMATION, resulting from TH2 CELLS activating B-LYMPHOCYTES, followed by COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Immune System Processes: Mechanisms of action and interactions of the components of the IMMUNE SYSTEM.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Models, Immunological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of immune system, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electrical equipment.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Immunity, Mucosal: Nonsusceptibility to the pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or antigenic substances as a result of antibody secretions of the mucous membranes. Mucosal epithelia in the gastrointestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts produce a form of IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) that serves to protect these ports of entry into the body.Hypersensitivity, Delayed: An increased reactivity to specific antigens mediated not by antibodies but by cells.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Immunoglobulin A: Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.Immunotherapy: Manipulation of the host's immune system in treatment of disease. It includes both active and passive immunization as well as immunosuppressive therapy to prevent graft rejection.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Immunoglobulins: Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.Autoimmune Diseases: Disorders that are characterized by the production of antibodies that react with host tissues or immune effector cells that are autoreactive to endogenous peptides.Immunity, Active: Resistance to a disease agent resulting from the production of specific antibodies by the host, either after exposure to the disease or after vaccination.Immunization, Passive: Transfer of immunity from immunized to non-immune host by administration of serum antibodies, or transplantation of lymphocytes (ADOPTIVE TRANSFER).Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Immunologic Factors: Biologically active substances whose activities affect or play a role in the functioning of the immune system.Immunosuppression: Deliberate prevention or diminution of the host's immune response. It may be nonspecific as in the administration of immunosuppressive agents (drugs or radiation) or by lymphocyte depletion or may be specific as in desensitization or the simultaneous administration of antigen and immunosuppressive drugs.Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome: Exuberant inflammatory response towards previously undiagnosed or incubating opportunistic pathogens. It is frequently seen in AIDS patients following HAART.Monocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.Immunomodulation: Alteration of the immune system or of an immune response by agents that activate or suppress its function. This can include IMMUNIZATION or administration of immunomodulatory drugs. Immunomodulation can also encompass non-therapeutic alteration of the immune system effected by endogenous or exogenous substances.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Autoimmunity: Process whereby the immune system reacts against the body's own tissues. Autoimmunity may produce or be caused by AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Complement System Proteins: Serum glycoproteins participating in the host defense mechanism of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION that creates the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Included are glycoproteins in the various pathways of complement activation (CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; and LECTIN COMPLEMENT PATHWAY).Mice, Inbred C3HAntibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Immunologic Surveillance: The theory that T-cells monitor cell surfaces and detect structural changes in the plasma membrane and/or surface antigens of virally or neoplastically transformed cells.Tumor Escape: The ability of tumors to evade destruction by the IMMUNE SYSTEM. Theories concerning possible mechanisms by which this takes place involve both cellular immunity (IMMUNITY, CELLULAR) and humoral immunity (ANTIBODY FORMATION), and also costimulatory pathways related to CD28 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD28) and CD80 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD80).Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic: A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.Immune Adherence Reaction: A method for the detection of very small quantities of antibody in which the antigen-antibody-complement complex adheres to indicator cells, usually primate erythrocytes or nonprimate blood platelets. The reaction is dependent on the number of bound C3 molecules on the C3b receptor sites of the indicator cell.Vaccines: Suspensions of killed or attenuated microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa), antigenic proteins, synthetic constructs, or other bio-molecular derivatives, administered for the prevention, amelioration, or treatment of infectious and other diseases.Viral Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.Vaccines, Synthetic: Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Autoantibodies: Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.Lymphocyte Count: The number of LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD.Leukocytes: White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).
"SAP couples Fyn to SLAM immune receptors". Nat. Cell Biol. 5 (2): 155-60. doi:10.1038/ncb920. PMID 12545174. Marie-Cardine A, ... interacts with nephrocystin and both proteins localize to cell-cell contacts of polarized epithelial cells". Exp. Cell Res. 256 ... Normal integrin is a cell surface receptor that interacts with the extracellular matrix to send signals influencing cell shape ... Fyn is located downstream of several cell surface receptors, commonly associated with neuronal development and T-cell signaling ...
"SAP couples Fyn to SLAM immune receptors". Nature Cell Biology. 5 (2): 155-60. doi:10.1038/ncb920. PMID 12545174. Howie D, ... Liu A, Klein G, Bandobashi K, Klein E, Nagy N (Mar 2002). "SH2D1A expression reflects activation of T and NK cells in cord ... a novel gene on the human chromosome Xq28 translocated to the T cell receptor alpha/delta locus in mature T cell proliferations ... Sayós J, Martín M, Chen A, Simarro M, Howie D, Morra M, Engel P, Terhorst C (Jun 2001). "Cell surface receptors Ly-9 and CD84 ...
Veillette A, Latour S (2004). "The SLAM family of immune-cell receptors". Curr. Opin. Immunol. 15 (3): 277-85. doi:10.1016/ ... "Structural basis for the interaction of the free SH2 domain EAT-2 with SLAM receptors in hematopoietic cells". EMBO J. 20 (21 ... EAT2 regulates signal transduction through receptors expressed on the surface of antigen-presenting cells (Morra et al., 2001 ... Tangye SG, van de Weerdt BC, Avery DT, Hodgkin PD (2002). "CD84 is up-regulated on a major population of human memory B cells ...
... autocrine and paracrine agents that bind receptors on the cell or its neighbors to alert the immune system of the cell damage. ... Many immune-system cells express multiple receptors that couple these apparently opposing pathways. Presumably, EPA-derived ... Each EP receptor in turn couples to a G protein. The EP2, EP4 and one isoform of the EP3 receptors couple to Gs. This increases ... and able to interact with membrane receptors on adjacent cells, would be ideally used to "synchronize" the activity of an ...
"Immune interferon induces the receptor for monomeric IgG1 on human monocytic and myeloid cells". J Exp Med. 158 (4): 1092-113. ... Structurally CD64 is composed of a signal peptide that allows its transport to the surface of a cell, three extracellular ... CD64 (Cluster of Differentiation 64) is a type of integral membrane glycoprotein known as an Fc receptor that binds monomeric ... Ernst L, van de Winkel J, Chiu I, Anderson C (1992). "Three genes for the human high affinity Fc receptor for IgG (Fc gamma RI ...
"Real-time Characterization of Antibody Binding to Receptors on Living Immune Cells". Frontiers in Immunology. 8. doi:10.3389/ ... The obtained signal is proportional to the number of ligands bound to a target structure, often a receptor, on the cell surface ... cells transfected with cloned receptors, and cells that are either in culture or isolated prior to analysis. Saturation binding ... "Detecting ligand interactions with G protein-coupled receptors in real-time on living cells". Biochemical and Biophysical ...
Cambi A, Figdor CG (2004). "Dual function of C-type lectin-like receptors in the immune system". Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 15 (5 ... van den Berg LM, Geijtenbeek TB (2013). "Antiviral immune responses by human langerhans cells and dendritic cells in HIV-1 ... a dendritic cell-specific HIV-1-binding protein that enhances trans-infection of T cells". Cell. 100 (5): 587-97. doi:10.1016/ ... DC-SIGN is a C-type lectin receptor present on the surface of both macrophages and dendritic cells. DC-SIGN on macrophages ...
"Immune Modulation of Stem Cells and Regeneration". Cell Stem Cell (dalam bahasa English). 15 (1): 14-25. doi:10.1016/j.stem. ... "Vitamin D controls T cell antigen receptor signaling and activation of human T cells". Nature Immunology. 11 (4): 344-9. doi: ... "Cell (dalam bahasa English). 155 (6): 1282-1295. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2013.10.054. ISSN 0092-8674. PMC 3894749 . PMID 24315098.. ... "Cell. 165 (4): 801-811. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2016.04.041. ISSN 1097-4172. PMC 4871617 . PMID 27153494.. ...
... including NK cells, T cells, and B cells. Inhibitory receptors regulate the immune response to prevent lysis of cells ... is differentially expressed during human B cell differentiation and inhibits B cell receptor-mediated signaling". Eur. J. ... "Leukocyte-associated Ig-like receptor-1 functions as an inhibitory receptor on cytotoxic T cells". J. Immunol. 162 (10): 5800-4 ... Meyaard L (1999). "LAIR-1, a widely distributed human ITIM-bearing receptor on hematopoietic cells". Curr. Top. Microbiol. ...
... carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 3". CEACAM3: an innate immune receptor directed against human- ... 2007). "Intercellular transfer of carcinoembryonic antigen from tumor cells to NK cells". J. Immunol. 179 (7): 4424-34. doi: ... 2004). "Granulocyte CEACAM3 is a phagocytic receptor of the innate immune system that mediates recognition and elimination of ... Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 3 (CEACAM3) also known as CD66d (Cluster of Differentiation 66d), is a ...
"Regulation of immune cell function and differentiation by the NKG2D receptor". Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences. 68 (21): ... T cells, γδ T cells, activated CD8+ αβ T cells and activated macrophages. In humans, it is expressed by NK cells, γδ T cells ... As cancerous cells are "stressed", NKG2D ligands become upregulated, rendering the cell susceptible to NK cell-mediated lysis. ... "Activation of NK cells and T cells by NKG2D, a receptor for stress-inducible MICA". Science. 285 (5428): 727-9. doi:10.1126/ ...
Innate immune system Allergy B cell Fc receptor Böhm I et al. Pilot study on basophil activation induced by contrast medium. ... There are receptors (FcεR) for the constant region of IgE, the Fc region, on several types of cells, including Mast cells and ... The inner cell surface of the granules becomes the outer cell surface of the basophile /mast cell during degranulation process ... As flow cytometry is a valuable tool for analyzing large numbers of cells and for identifying cell populations, even at low ...
This interaction negatively controls effector function of innate immune cells such as host cell phagocytosis. SIRPα diffuses ... This is analogous to the self signals provided by MHC class I molecules to NK cells via Ig-like or Ly49 receptors. NB. Protein ... Cell. Biol. 16 (12): 6887-99. PMC 231692 . PMID 8943344. Sano S, Ohnishi H, Omori A, et al. (1997). "BIT, an immune antigen ... "CD47: A Cell Surface Glycoprotein Which Regulates Multiple Functions of Hematopoietic Cells in Health and Disease". ISRN ...
... and various stromal cells; a given cytokine may be produced by more than one type of cell. They act through receptors, and are ... including immune cells like macrophages, B lymphocytes, T lymphocytes and mast cells, as well as endothelial cells, fibroblasts ... Each cytokine has a matching cell-surface receptor. Subsequent cascades of intracellular signalling then alter cell functions. ... the presence and abundance of the complementary receptor on the cell surface, and downstream signals activated by receptor ...
It is thought that these effects are mediated by opioid receptors expressed on the surface of these immune cells.[5] ... that prevents T-cell activation and proliferation by binding the T-cell receptor complex present on all differentiated T cells ... causing B cells to express smaller amounts of IL-2 and IL-2 receptors. This diminishes both B cell clone expansion and antibody ... T-cell receptor directed antibodies[edit]. Muromonab-CD3 is a murine anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody of the IgG2a type ...
... a novel human Toll-like receptor preferentially expressed in immune cells". Biochim Biophys Acta. 1518 (1-2): 157-61. doi: ... Hess NJ, Jiang S, Li X, Guan Y, Tapping RI (Jan 2017). "TLR10 Is a B Cell Intrinsic Suppressor of Adaptive Immune Responses". ... by over-expressing TLR10 in human cell lines and using antibody-mediated engagement of the receptor on primary human cells. ... "Entrez Gene: TLR10 toll-like receptor 10". Lien E, Ingalls RR (2002). "Toll-like receptors". Crit. Care Med. 30 (1 Suppl): S1- ...
Upon encountering invading bacteria the toll-like receptors on immune cells stimulate the synthesis and secretion of NGAL. ... Cell. 141 (6): 1006-17. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2010.04.040. PMC 2910436 . PMID 20550936. Bennett M, Dent CL, Ma Q, Dastrala S, ... Cell. 10 (5): 1045-56. doi:10.1016/S1097-2765(02)00710-4. PMID 12453413. Friedl A, Stoesz SP, Buckley P, Gould MN (July 1999 ... Mammalian cells lacking 2,5-DHBA accumulate abnormal intracellular levels of iron leading to high levels of reactive oxygen ...
... also prevents the interaction of immune cells with receptors on the cancer cell surface through steric hindrance. This ... This method would activate the immune system by training T-cells to search out and destroy cells that display a specific ... reticulum cell sarcoma Lung: type II pneumocyte lesions (type II cell hyperplasia, dysplastic type II cells, apical alveolar ... This allows cancer cells which produce a large amount of MUC1 to concentrate growth factors near their receptors, increasing ...
Hence, TRIM14 (Pub) is likely associated with the regulation of development of the immune cells. TRIM14 transfected HEK293 cell ... "TRIM14 Inhibits cGAS Degradation Mediated by Selective Autophagy Receptor p62 to Promote Innate Immune Responses". Molecular ... The mRNA for TRIM14 has been found found in many organs with a prevalence in those organs with a high number of immune cells ... TRIM14 acts in cell proliferation, differentiation, morphogenesis, autophagy and in the initiation of the anti-viral immune ...
SIGLECs are typically expressed on cells of the innate immune system, with the exception of the B-cell expressed SIGLEC6 (MIM ... Most SIGLECs have 1 or more cytoplasmic immune receptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motifs, or ITIMs. ... 2002). "Filamin A-interacting protein (FILIP) regulates cortical cell migration out of the ventricular zone". Nat. Cell Biol. 4 ... from human dendritic cells". J. Biol. Chem. 276 (30): 28106-12. doi:10.1074/jbc.M100467200. PMID 11358961. Yousef GM, Ordon MH ...
"Imiquimod upregulates the opioid growth factor receptor to inhibit cell proliferation independent of immune function". ... eradicate malignant T cells and enhance T cell effector functions in cutaneous T cell lymphoma". Blood. American Society of ... a new immune response modifier with potential as a vaccine adjuvant for Th1 immune responses". Antiviral Research. 64 (2): 79- ... Resiquimod (R-848) is a drug that acts as an immune response modifier, and has antiviral and antitumour activity. It is used as ...
The CB2 receptor is most abundantly found on cells of the immune system. Cannabinoids act as immunomodulators at CB2 receptors ... A signature of this type of receptor is the distinct pattern of how the receptor molecule spans the cell membrane seven times. ... but can also be found on polymorphonuclear neutrophil cells, T8 cells, and T4 cells. In the tonsils the CB2 receptors appear to ... CB2 receptors are most commonly prevalent on B-cells, natural killer cells, and monocytes, ...
... which activates leukocytes and other cell types by binding with these cells' formyl peptide receptor 1 (FPR1) and formyl ... In the human body, fMet is recognized by the immune system as foreign material, or as an alarm signal released by damaged cells ... Formyl peptide receptor 1 Formyl peptide receptor 2 Formyl peptide receptor 3 Sherman F, Stewart JW, Tsunasawa S (July 1985). " ... peptide receptor 2 (FPR2) G protein coupled receptors (see also formyl peptide receptor 3). Acting through these receptors, the ...
T-cells are part of the cell-mediated immune response and possess one receptor, i.e. T-cell receptor (TCR), and one co-receptor ... These receptors may only bind certain sequences or configurations of peptides from antigens, and so each T-cell is specific for ... Thus, out of all of the T-cells in a population, only few may be specific for a given peptide. Generally, if a person's immune ... In order for a T-cell to be activated, its CD co-receptor must bind to the appropriate major histocompatibility complex (MHC) ...
2007). "The adhesion receptor CD155 determines the magnitude of humoral immune responses against orally ingested antigens". ... on dendritic cells: relevance for natural killer-dendritic cell interaction". Blood. 107 (5): 2030-6. doi:10.1182/blood-2005-07 ... "Inhibition of cell movement and proliferation by cell-cell contact-induced interaction of Necl-5 with nectin-3". J. Cell Biol. ... 2005). "PVR (CD155) and Nectin-2 (CD112) as ligands of the human DNAM-1 (CD226) activating receptor: involvement in tumor cell ...
... the Interleukin-6 receptor and lack of expression of CD45. In humans, CD27 is a good marker for plasma cells, naive B cells are ... This prolific production of antibodies is an integral part of the humoral immune response. ... Plasma cells, also called plasma B cells, plasmocytes, plasmacytes, or effector B cells, are white blood cells that secrete ... Germinal center B cells may differentiate into memory B cells or plasma cells. Most of these B cells will become plasmablasts ( ...
Using Cd300f−/− cells and receptor cross-linking experiments, we established that CD300f amplified IL-4Rα-induced responses by ... CD300f associates with IL-4 receptor α and amplifies IL-4-induced immune cell responses. Itay Moshkovits, Danielle Karo-Atar, ... CD300f associates with IL-4 receptor α and amplifies IL-4-induced immune cell responses ... CD300f in IL-4-induced immune cell activation. Itay Moshkovits, Danielle Karo-Atar, Michal Itan, Hadar Reichman, Perri ...
In renal cell carcinoma, glioblastoma and ovarian carcinoma (IGROV-1) cell lines, both IL-13R alpha and alpha chains were ... Structure of IL-13 receptor: analysis of subunit composition in cancer and immune cells.. Murata T1, Obiri NI, Debinski W, Puri ... chain was faintly detected in human T cells. All cells expressed the IL-4Rp140 beta chain. These data provide a direct support ... We have examined various cancer and normal cell lines for the presence of mRNA for IL-13R alpha and alpha, as well as IL-4R ...
When it comes to the mechanics of the human immune system, we are all more alike than previously thought, according to a new ... The immune system operates through a process called clonal expansion. The set of T-cells with specific receptors that bind to ... First in-depth T-cell receptor study. The part of the human immune system responsible for protection against novel pathogens, ... T-cell receptors reveal immune system similarities. Finding may lead to new cancer detection, diagnostic and treatment methods ...
Immune-mediated killing of CRC cell lines in the presence of cetuximab and trastuzumab. (A) Cells with different levels of ... Direct and immune mediated antibody targeting of ERBB receptors in a colorectal cancer cell-line panel. Shazad Q. Ashraf, ... Direct and immune mediated antibody targeting of ERBB receptors in a colorectal cancer cell-line panel ... The sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay was used to measure cell growth. NK cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were ...
... in this process lies at the heart of a variety of immunodeficiency diseases and is also relevant to the decline in immune ... Brain cells protect muscles from wasting away University of California - Berkeley * New research challenges theory explaining ... Pick me! Pick me! How genes are selected to create diverse immune cell receptors Research provides insight to gene shuffling ... Pick me! Pick me! How genes are selected to create diverse immune cell receptors. Babraham Institute ...
However, the profile of immune microenvironment in AMI is still uncertain.... ... is characterized by an inflammatory process in which T cell plays a key role. ... αβ T cell) or γ and δ chain (γδ T cell). A majority of T cells in peripheral blood expresses is αβ T cells, while only 5-10% ... Liang Q, Liu Z, Zhu C, Wang B, Liu X, Yang Y, Lv X, Mu H, Wang K. Intrahepatic T cell receptor beta immune repertoire is ...
In this mini-review we discuss how the interactions of IAV with cell surface receptors on immune cells might be important for ... In this mini-review we discuss how the interactions of IAV with cell surface receptors on immune cells might be important for ... which is usually related with host and cell tropism. Nucleic acid recognizing receptors (mainly RIG-I and Toll-like receptors) ... which is usually related with host and cell tropism. Nucleic acid recognizing receptors (mainly RIG-I and Toll-like receptors) ...
TCR gene therapy allows for the mass redirection of T-cells against a defined antigen while high affinity TCR engineering ... TCR gene therapy allows for the mass redirection of T-cells against a defined antigen while high affinity TCR engineering ... T-cell receptor (TCR) therapy has arrived as a realistic treatment option for many human diseases. ... T-cell receptor (TCR) therapy has arrived as a realistic treatment option for many human diseases. ...
We previously identified a zebrafish mast cell (MC) lineage and now aim to determine if these cells function analogously in ... Zebrafish mast cells possess an FcɛRI-like receptor and participate in innate and adaptive immune responses.. Daas S1, Teh EM ... a toll-like receptor adaptor, and zebrafish FcɛRI subunit homologs. Zebrafish injected IP with matched dinitrophenyl-sensitized ... Cross-reactivity was observed in zebrafish to anti-human high-affinity IgE receptor gamma (FcɛRIγ) and IgE heavy chain-directed ...
... glucocorticoid receptor (GR) encoded by GR gene (NR3C1). We hypothesized that not only cancer cells, but even immune cells in ... It is well known that TNBC have more immune cell infiltration than ER-positive tumors [14]. Immune cells, including T-cells, B- ... higher GR expression was observed on immune cells (T-cells, B-cells and myeloid cells) compared to stromal or cancer cells (p ... immune cells; TCGA; METABRIC; CIBERSORT glucocorticoid receptor; breast cancer; NR3C1; immune cells; TCGA; METABRIC; CIBERSORT ...
Receptors on T-cells recognize antigens, or pieces of other cells that trigger an immune response, particularly antibodies. If ... "Once their immune system found the correct receptor, T-cells expressing those receptors multiplied, leading to an overall ... Their analysis showed that the diversity of T-cell receptors decreased among samples of T-cells taken closer to the tumor, ... The Johns Hopkins team tested ImmunoMaps ability to correlate immune responses on receptor sequencing data from T-cells in the ...
In immune cells, both T cell receptors and antibodies are built in an elaborate process of cutting and pasting pieces of DNA ... Blowing a Cover: What Is T Cell Receptor, Key Immune Operative, Doing in Neurons?. Quick Links. *Article ... In this study, the scientists searched for further MCH receptor components in brain. A typical T cell receptor for MHC1 ... Expression of T cell receptor beta locus in central nervous system neurons. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003 Oct 28;100(22):13048 ...
... biological response modifiers and the family of cell adhesion-promoting molecules. ... Y. Nishida, K. Murase, H. Isomoto et al., "Different distribution of mast cells and macrophages in colonic mucosa of patients ... C. H. Kim, "Chemokine-chemokine receptor network in immune cell trafficking," Current Drug Targets: Immune, Endocrine and ... Enhanced Levels of Chemokines and Their Receptors in the Colon of Microscopic Colitis Patients Indicate Mixed Immune Cell ...
These results suggest that oligomerization of chemokine receptor CCR5 and opioid receptors on the cell membrane of human or ... Interactions of opioid and chemokine receptors: oligomerization of mu, kappa, and delta with CCR5 on immune cells.. Suzuki S., ... Chemical crosslinking experiments using glutaraldehyde or BS(3) indicate that these receptors are closely situated on the cell ... Activation of opioid receptors by morphine was previously shown to specifically induce the expression of chemokine receptor ...
Innate immune cells are often described as the sentinel of the immune system because they are among the first cell types to ... 2015) Stimulation of Innate Immune Cells Induced by Probiotics: Participation of Toll-Like Receptors. J Clin Cell Immunol 6:283 ... Stimulation of Innate Immune Cells Induced by Probiotics: Participation of Toll-Like Receptors Maldonado GC1,2, Lemme-Dumit JM2 ... The cells that play a critical role in initiating the innate immune response are the macrophages and dendritic cells [2]. ...
T cell therapy represents the first U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved gene therapy and these engineered cells function ... To bolster the potency of CAR-T cells, modulation of the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment with immune-checkpoint ... efficacy to date has been variable due to tumor-evolved mechanisms that inhibit local immune cell activity. ... and in this review we discuss CAR-T cells and their synergy with immune-checkpoint blockade. ...
... immune pathology, immunodeficiency, autoimmune diseases, immune disorders, and immunotherapy. ... 3.1.2. Chemokine Receptors on Conventional NK-Cells. In contrast to NK-cells, the majority of the NK-cells are CXCR1/CXCR2− and ... NK-Cells. NK-cells do express CD56 at levels that are intermediate between those observed on and NK-cells (MFI of , , and , ... Chemokine Receptors on Blood and NK-Cells. Conventional and NK-cells present in the normal PB have different CKR repertoires ( ...
A microglial cell serves as a front-line sentry, monitoring its surroundings for suspicious activities and materials by probing ... Blocking receptor in brains immune cells counters Alzheimers in mice, study finds. ... Microglia, which constitute about 10-15 percent of all the cells in the brain, actually resemble immune cells considerably more ... But its easy to harvest large numbers of their close cousins, immune cells called macrophages. These cells circulate ...
... immune cells may rely on a receptor to signal a counterattack. The findings may lead to better drugs to fight infections. ... Wellcome Centre for Cell-Matrix Research, Medical Research Council, European Union, and National Institute of Health. ... Immune cells rely on receptor to signal counterattack on parasitic worms. HERSHEY, Pa. - Immune cells, called macrophages, may ... Virus inhibits immune response of caterpillars and plants. *BTN LiveBIG show Jan. 13 spotlights ability athletes, rain forest ...
Cell surface expression of the C3b/C4b receptor (CR1) protects Chinese hamster ovary cells from lysis by human complement. J ... Complement receptor 1 inhibitors for prevention of immune-mediated red cell destruction: potential use in transfusion therapy. ... Complement receptor 1 inhibitors for prevention of immune-mediated red cell destruction: potential use in transfusion therapy. ... Complement receptor 1 inhibitors for prevention of immune-mediated red cell destruction: potential use in transfusion therapy ...
Nitric oxide production in renal cells by immune complexes: role of kinases and nuclear factor-κB. Kidney Int. 62:2022. ... SOCS can also associate with different receptors, such as growth hormones, T cell and B cell Ag receptors (6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, ... Both kinases are implicated in signaling via T cell and B cell Ag receptors and IgG receptors (FcγR) (17, 18), thus suggesting ... Suppressors of Cytokine Signaling Regulate Fc Receptor Signaling and Cell Activation during Immune Renal Injury. Carmen Gómez- ...
... researchers finds that the immune cells of the brain called microglia play a crucial role in brain development during ... Immune cell pruning of dopamine receptors may modulate behavioral changes in adolescence. by Massachusetts General Hospital ... Immune cell pruning of dopamine receptors may modulate behavioral changes in adolescence. ... Citation: Immune cell pruning of dopamine receptors may modulate behavioral changes in adolescence (2018, September 25) ...
Cytotoxic T cells use mechanical force to potentiate target cell killing. Cell. 165:100-110. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2016.01.021. ... Characterization of dynamic actin associations with T-cell receptor microclusters in primary T cells. J. Cell Sci. 125:735-742. ... Dynein-driven transport of T cell receptor microclusters regulates immune synapse formation and T cell activation. Immunity. 34 ... Formin-generated actomyosin arcs propel T cell receptor microcluster movement at the immune synapse. View ORCID Profile ...
Retinoid-X-Receptors (RXRs)] in melanocytes to control UVR-induced skin immune responses and cell survival. Several of these ... This newly-discovered role of retinoid receptor signaling in immune surveillance can be studied in different types of cancer ... Our present study uses a tissue-specific gene ablation strategy to characterize a novel role of type II nuclear receptors [ ... such as signaling from other cell types, can influence melanoma progression. While several key genes in melanoma development ...
Naive T cell activation by dendritic cells is also particularly efficient because dendritic cells express relatively high basal ... Toll-Like Receptor 4 Is Required for Optimal Development of Th2 Immune Responses: Role of Dendritic Cells. Karim Dabbagh, ... Toll-Like Receptor 4 Is Required for Optimal Development of Th2 Immune Responses: Role of Dendritic Cells ... Toll-Like Receptor 4 Is Required for Optimal Development of Th2 Immune Responses: Role of Dendritic Cells ...
  • Lactobacillus casei CRL 431 and Lactobacillus paracasei CNCM I-1518 or a Probiotic Fermented Milk (PFM) through Toll-Like Receptors (TLRs), prior challenged with agonists or antagonists of TLRs. (omicsonline.org)
  • Mammalian Toll-like receptors (TLRs) 4 constitute a distinct and phylogenetically ancient class of the IL-1/TLR supergene family. (jimmunol.org)
  • 2006. Toll-like receptors as molecular switches. (riboxx.com)
  • Several studies have reported that toll-like receptors (TLRs) are involved in B cell proliferation, differentiation, and Ig class switch recombination (CSR). (bvsalud.org)
  • The present study was undertaken to determine whether these two structurally and functionally distinct G-protein-coupled receptors are in close proximity and form an oligomeric complex in the cell membrane so that the activation of one triggers the activity of the other. (uniprot.org)
  • They also work as garbage collectors, chewing up dead cells and molecular debris strewn among living cells - including clusters of a protein called A-beta, notorious for aggregating into gummy deposits called Alzheimer's plaques, the disease's hallmark anatomical feature. (healthcanal.com)
  • Previous work in Andreasson's lab and other labs has shown that this molecule, a receptor protein called EP2, has a strong potential to cause inflammation when activated by binding to a substance called prostaglandin E2, or PGE2. (healthcanal.com)
  • The researchers discovered that IL-4 helps the outer layer of lung cells to boost production of the defense protein SP-A. This protein binds macrophages and enhances their ability to multiply and activate against the parasite. (psu.edu)
  • Chroneos discovered that the SP-A protein binds at a receptor called myosin 18A. (psu.edu)
  • The researchers found that the receptor myosin 18 also allows macrophages to bind to a different defense protein called C1q in the abdomen of mice. (psu.edu)
  • We compared gene and protein expressions of different immune cell attracting chemokines and their receptors in colon biopsies from MC patients in active disease or histopathological remission (CC/LC-HR) with controls, using qRT-PCR and Luminex, respectively. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Enhanced chemokine/chemokine receptor gene and protein levels in LC-HR patients were similar to LC patients, whereas CC-HR patients demonstrated almost normalized levels. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Identification of a protein that appears to play an important role in the immune system's removal of amyloid beta (A-beta) protein from the brain could lead to a new treatment strategy for Alzheimer's disease. (medicalxpress.com)
  • We identified a receptor protein that mediates clearance from the brain of soluble A-beta by cells of the innate immune system ," says Joseph El Khoury, MD, of the Center for Immunology and Inflammatory Diseases in the MGH Division of Infectious Diseases, co-corresponding author of the report. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Application of Protollin to immune cells tripled their expression of Scara1 and also increased levels of a protein that attracts other immune cells . (medicalxpress.com)
  • Rituximab binds to CD20, a protein found on B cells, resulting in the killing of cancer cells. (lymphomacoalition.org)
  • To study effector and regulatory functions of autoreactive T cells in uveitis, we generated and analyzed transgenic (Tg) mice expressing a T cell receptor (TCR) specific to the uveitogenic retinal protein IRBP. (arvojournals.org)
  • Publications] Shimomura,R.: 'Phosphorylation sites of myelin basic protein by a catalytic fragment of non-receptor type protein-tyrosine kinase p72syk and comparison with those by insulin receptor kinase. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Publications] Yamada,T.: 'Association with B-cell-antigen receptor with protein-tyrosine kinase p72syk and activation by engagement of membrane IgM. (nii.ac.jp)
  • In addition, isolated myocytes from C57Bl/6 mice subsequently treated with LPS and serum for various times did not have reduced shortening, despite the presence of TLR4 mRNA and protein, as determined by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and fluorescent-activated cell sorting. (mysciencework.com)
  • Phosphorylation of a surface protein on endosomes is key to the organelles' uneven distribution in daughter cells. (the-scientist.com)
  • Now, he proposes a new estrogen receptor β protein network that promotes the growth of endometriosis. (eurekalert.org)
  • A receptor protein present in immune cells is a potential target for treating pulmonary hypertension (PH), according to a new study. (bionewsfeeds.com)
  • Immune checkpoint inhibitors targeting cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA4) and program death 1 (PD1) have revolutionized the oncology field. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Porter and his colleagues, including immunologist Carl June, engineered each patient's T cells to recognize a protein called CD19 that is displayed on the surface of cancerous cells as well as on normal immune cells called B cells. (scientificamerican.com)
  • We show here that the mitochondrial fission factor dynamin‐related protein 1 (Drp1) docks at mitochondria, regulating their positioning and activity near the actin‐rich ring of the peripheral supramolecular activation cluster (pSMAC) of the immune synapse. (embopress.org)
  • Chemokine action is mediated by a large super-family of G-protein coupled receptors, and the receptors are preferentially expressed on Th1/Th2 cells. (elsevier.com)
  • Based on our observation that cyclin D3 transcripts were observed in both follicular and GC B cells whereas cyclin D3 protein was only detected in GC cells and previous reports showing that cyclin D3 was regulated by pre-BCR mediated inhibition of proteosomal degradation (7) we hypothesized that GC-specific signaling events promote cyclin D3 protein stability. (stopvivisection.info)
  • We hypothesized that GSK3α/β is phosphorylated and inactive in GC B cells allowing for cyclin D3 protein accumulation. (stopvivisection.info)
  • Similarly treatment of non-GC B cells with LiCl resulted in enhanced cyclin D3 protein levels (Fig. (stopvivisection.info)
  • Therefore we conclude that GSK3α/β is active in follicular B cells leading to cyclin D3 degradation and that GSK3β is phosphorylated and thereby inactivated in GC B cells which is sufficient for cyclin D3 protein accumulation. (stopvivisection.info)
  • The protein encoded by this gene, a member of the G protein-coupled receptor family 1, is an integral plasma membrane protein which binds melanin-concentrating hormone. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although structurally similar to somatostatin receptors, this protein does not seem to bind somatostatin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Toll-like receptor 11 (TLR11) is a protein that in mice is encoded by the gene TLR11, whereas in humans it is represented by a pseudogene. (wikipedia.org)
  • But only some species' TLR 11 can successfully code for the functional protein that is able to play an active role in the innate immune response. (wikipedia.org)
  • Wild-type mice are able to produce an immune response, marked by IL-12 and IFN-gamma production that is unseen in humans, who lack a functional TLR 11 protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • In principle, a monoclonal antibody could be developed to target these T-cell clones and prevent the autoimmune attack. (fredhutch.org)
  • Activation of complement cascade via the antibody-mediated classical pathway can initiate red blood cell (RBC) destruction, causing transfusion reactions and hemolytic anemia. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Mirvetuximab soravtansine contains a monoclonal antibody designed to enable its binding to FRα-positive tumor cells with ImmunoGen's DM4, a maytansinoid cancer-killing agent, attached to kill these cells. (genengnews.com)
  • Porter's group is one the first to report results from a generation of chimeric receptors that include both an antibody to target the cancer and part of a receptor that amplifies the T-cell response. (scientificamerican.com)
  • To get more in depth, CARs are essentially modified T-cell receptors (TCR) consisting of an extracellular (outside of the cell) antigen binding domain, most commonly an antibody fragment known as an scFv, that binds to an antigen on a cancer cell. (dilworthip.com)
  • Furthermore, we observed up-regulation of immune exhaustion marker genes, indicating an immune suppressive microenvironment in these neuroblastomas. (cancer.gov)
  • Computational analysis unveiled a hitherto unknown role for ACVRL1 in relation to genes modulating the functionality of the immune cell compartment. (lu.se)
  • These studies revealed an unexpected role for immuno-regulatory genes in the maintenance of the most aggressive, drug-resistant cells in pancreatic cancer," said senior study author Tannishtha Reya, PhD, UC San Diego professor in the departments of Pharmacology and Medicine. (ucsd.edu)
  • In contrast, SOCS-3 binds to the cytokine receptor, but it can also interact with some target sequences present within JAKs and STATs, revealing the complexity of the SOCS-3 regulatory mechanism ( 7 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • They also induced less Th2 cytokine production by antigenically naive CD4 T cells in vitro and mediated diminished CD4 T cell Ag-specific pulmonary inflammation in vivo. (jimmunol.org)
  • Each cell subtype expresses a different receptor on its surface. (fredhutch.org)
  • The interaction of the hemagglutinin (HA) of the influenza A viruses (IAV) with the cell surface is a key factor for entry of the virus and productive infection of the cell. (frontiersin.org)
  • The main roles of the HA are to mediate the interaction of the viral particle with the cell components on the surface and to promote the fusion of the viral and endosomal membranes, leading to the release of the ribonucleoproteins (RNP) into the cytoplasm. (frontiersin.org)
  • The Stanford study provides strong evidence that this deterioration in microglial function is driven, in large part, by the heightened signaling activity of a single molecule that sits on the surface of microglial and nerve cells. (healthcanal.com)
  • 6 , 7 Through its C4b/C3b binding, it causes the displacement of the catalytic subunits of the C3 and C5 convertases (decay accelerating activity), thereby inhibiting complement activation at the cell surface. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Initially, activation of actin polymerization within the T cell at the periphery of its contact with the APC drives the spreading of the T cell across the surface of the APC. (rupress.org)
  • These cells are engineered to react against CD19 which is on the surface of B cells. (lymphomacoalition.org)
  • Cell-surface-opsonization and anaphylatoxin-formation triggered complement receptor 3 (CD11b/CD18)-mediated effector cell activation in blood. (diva-portal.org)
  • which has a distinct structural character, that is the presence of the second src homology region 2 (SH2) instead of SH3, from other members of this group of PTK.Our efforts have in large part focused on the relationship between Syk in the context of surface receptor-initiated signal transduction in B cell and platelet because of their abundant localization. (nii.ac.jp)
  • These immune receptor maps of fungal walls of in vitro grown cells therefore reveal remarkable spatial, temporal and chemical diversity, indicating that the triggering of immune recognition events originates from multiple physical origins at the fungal cell surface. (prolekare.cz)
  • Fas (CD95/Apo-1) is a cell surface death receptor belonging to the tumor necrosis factor receptor super family. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A clear population of Mo-MDSCs with the typical cell surface phenotype (human leukocyte antigen-antigen D related [HLA-DR]low/− CD11b+ CD33+ CD14+) increased significantly during disease progression. (bvsalud.org)
  • The T cells palpated all spots on a surface within about 1 min through rapid movements of their microvilli. (sciencemag.org)
  • The time it took to scan the surface matched the movement rate of cells through tissues. (sciencemag.org)
  • This detection is achieved by surface-bound T cell receptors (TCRs), binding to peptide-loaded major histocompatibility complexes (pMHCs). (sciencemag.org)
  • They can play a cytotoxic role against stressed transformed or infected cells by integrating several signals transduced by various activating and inhibitory surface receptors without prior sensitization . (researchreportone.com)
  • RESULTS: Patients with spondylarthritis expressed cell-surface HLA-B27 homodimers. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Using Madin-Darby canine kidney epithelial cells stably transfected with pIgR cDNA, we found that soluble immune complexes (ICs) of I-125-labeled rat monoclonal antidinitrophenyl (DNP) dIgA (I-125-dIgA) and DNP/biotin-bovine serum albumin were transported from the basolateral to the apical surface and then released. (uclouvain.be)
  • Given the high population density of mucosal IgA plasma cells and the enormous surface area of pIgR-expressing mucosal epithelium, it is likely that significant local transcytosis of IgA ICs occurs in vivo. (uclouvain.be)
  • express cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) with membrane-associated TGF-β on the cell surface, which suppresses multiplication of positive effector T cells by direct cytoadherence [33, (invitroscreeningblog.com)
  • When an infection of T. gondii or uropathogenic E. coli reaches a host cell expressing TLR 11 on its surface, the LRR region binds to the pathogen and activates the Toll pathway through the TIR domain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Such drug interactions with immune receptors may lead to T cell stimulation, resulting in clinical symptoms of delayed-type hypersensitivity. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Syk-deficient cells abolished the tyrosine phosphorylation phospholipase C (PLC) -gamma, resulting in no inositol, 1,4,5-tris … More phosphate (IP3) generation, as well as calcium moblization upon receptor stimulation. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Here, the authors identify a novel mechanism of host immune stimulation and highlight candidalysin and EGFR signalling components as potential targets for prophylactic and therapeutic intervention of mucosal candidiasis. (nature.com)
  • Upon LPS stimulation both NF-κB and p38 MAPK pathways were activated in OSCC cell lines, followed by the production of large quantities of IL-6, IL-8 and VEGF compared with human immortalized oral epithelia cells (HIOECs). (biomedcentral.com)
  • In the present study, we have assessed the ability of a human recombinant soluble form of complement receptor 1 (sCR1) to inhibit complement-mediated RBC destruction in vitro and in vivo. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Collectively, our data highlight a potential use of CR1-based inhibitors for prevention of complement-dependent immune hemolysis. (bloodjournal.org)
  • The complement system is an important mediator of the host immune response to infection and tissue damage, but may cause substantial injury when activated inappropriately. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Furthermore, complement activation can result in formation of opsonins (C3b), promoting the engulfment of target cells by phagocytes. (bloodjournal.org)
  • In immune destruction of red blood cells (RBCs), complement plays a critical role, being involved in both intravascular and extravascular hemolysis. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Indeed, as many as 50% of patients with immune hemolytic diseases have both IgG and complement on their red cells. (bloodjournal.org)
  • This study shows, that exposure of MSCs to blood type ABO-matched human blood activates the complement system, which triggers complement-mediated lymphoid and myeloid effector cell activation in blood. (diva-portal.org)
  • Our study demonstrates for the first time a major role of the complement system in governing the immunomodulatory activity of MSCs and elucidates how complement activation mediates the interaction with other immune cells. (diva-portal.org)
  • Natural killer- (NK-) cells were originally identified by their natural ability to kill target cells and are known for a long time as effector cells of the innate immune system, with an important role in controlling several types of tumors and infections [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Most fungi have mannosylated PAMPs in their cell walls and these are recognized by a range of C-type lectin receptors (CTLs). (prolekare.cz)
  • In their investigation of factors that may underlie the breakdown of the immune system's clearance of A-beta, El Khoury's team with the hypothesis that, in addition to recognizing and binding to the insoluble form of A-beta found in amyloid plaques , the brain's immune cells might also interact with soluble forms of A-beta that could begin accumulating in the brain before plaques appear. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Background Interactions between host immune cells and gut microbiota are crucial for the integrity and function of the intestine. (bmj.com)
  • Our previous studies revealed that the presence in lung fluids of anti-IL-8 autoantibody:IL-8 immune complexes is an important prognostic indicator for the development and outcome of acute lung injury (ALI)/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). (unthsc.edu)
  • Our current findings implicate that anti-chemokine autoantibody:chemokine immune complexes, such as IL-8:IL-8 complexes, may contribute to pathogenesis of lung inflammation by inducing activation of endothelial cells through engagement of IgG receptors. (unthsc.edu)
  • The findings - based on patient lung tissue and animal experiments - showed a link between low levels of Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) and the disease. (bionewsfeeds.com)
  • Despite the clinical successes of anti-human PD1 mAbs (pembrolizumab or nivolumab) in treating patients with melanoma, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), renal cell carcinoma, and other malignancies, the durability and efficacy of this therapy varies ( 1-6 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Our results indicate that SOCS may play a regulatory role in FcγR signaling, and implicate SOCS as important modulators of cell activation during renal inflammation. (jimmunol.org)
  • Johns Hopkins scientists have used a form of artificial intelligence to create a map that compares types of cellular receptors. (hopkinsmedicine.org)