Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Asymmetric Cell Division: Unequal cell division that results in daughter cells of different sizes.Mitosis: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Cytokinesis: The process by which the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided.Spindle Apparatus: A microtubule structure that forms during CELL DIVISION. It consists of two SPINDLE POLES, and sets of MICROTUBULES that may include the astral microtubules, the polar microtubules, and the kinetochore microtubules.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Cell Cycle Proteins: Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Cell Polarity: Orientation of intracellular structures especially with respect to the apical and basolateral domains of the plasma membrane. Polarized cells must direct proteins from the Golgi apparatus to the appropriate domain since tight junctions prevent proteins from diffusing between the two domains.Cell Nucleus Division: The process by which the CELL NUCLEUS is divided.Cytoskeletal Proteins: Major constituent of the cytoskeleton found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They form a flexible framework for the cell, provide attachment points for organelles and formed bodies, and make communication between parts of the cell possible.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Chromosome Segregation: The orderly segregation of CHROMOSOMES during MEIOSIS or MITOSIS.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Centrosome: The cell center, consisting of a pair of CENTRIOLES surrounded by a cloud of amorphous material called the pericentriolar region. During interphase, the centrosome nucleates microtubule outgrowth. The centrosome duplicates and, during mitosis, separates to form the two poles of the mitotic spindle (MITOTIC SPINDLE APPARATUS).DNA Replication: The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.Microtubules: Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.Meristem: A group of plant cells that are capable of dividing infinitely and whose main function is the production of new growth at the growing tip of a root or stem. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Caulobacter crescentus: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that consist of slender vibroid cells.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Arabidopsis Proteins: Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.Escherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.Meiosis: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division, occurring during maturation of the GERM CELLS. Two successive cell nucleus divisions following a single chromosome duplication (S PHASE) result in daughter cells with half the number of CHROMOSOMES as the parent cells.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Embryo, Nonmammalian: The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.Caenorhabditis elegans: A species of nematode that is widely used in biological, biochemical, and genetic studies.Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Schizosaccharomyces: A genus of ascomycetous fungi of the family Schizosaccharomycetaceae, order Schizosaccharomycetales.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Caenorhabditis elegans Proteins: Proteins from the nematode species CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS. The proteins from this species are the subject of scientific interest in the area of multicellular organism MORPHOGENESIS.Stem Cells: Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Cell Enlargement: Growth processes that result in an increase in CELL SIZE.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Cell Wall: The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.Plant Roots: The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Peptidoglycan Glycosyltransferase: A hexosyltransferase involved in the transfer of disaccharide molecules to the peptidoglycan structure of the CELL WALL SKELETON. It plays an important role in the genesis of the bacterial CELL WALL.Gene Expression Regulation, Plant: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.Chromosomes, Bacterial: Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.Time-Lapse Imaging: Recording serial images of a process at regular intervals spaced out over a longer period of time than the time in which the recordings will be played back.Drosophila: A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Cell Lineage: The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Juvenile Hormones: Compounds, either natural or synthetic, which block development of the growing insect.Morphogenesis: The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Microscopy, Phase-Contrast: A form of interference microscopy in which variations of the refracting index in the object are converted into variations of intensity in the image. This is achieved by the action of a phase plate.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Microtubule-Associated Proteins: High molecular weight proteins found in the MICROTUBULES of the cytoskeletal system. Under certain conditions they are required for TUBULIN assembly into the microtubules and stabilize the assembled microtubules.Interphase: The interval between two successive CELL DIVISIONS during which the CHROMOSOMES are not individually distinguishable. It is composed of the G phases (G1 PHASE; G0 PHASE; G2 PHASE) and S PHASE (when DNA replication occurs).Tubulin: A microtubule subunit protein found in large quantities in mammalian brain. It has also been isolated from SPERM FLAGELLUM; CILIA; and other sources. Structurally, the protein is a dimer with a molecular weight of approximately 120,000 and a sedimentation coefficient of 5.8S. It binds to COLCHICINE; VINCRISTINE; and VINBLASTINE.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Plant Cells: Basic functional unit of plants.Cell Size: The quantity of volume or surface area of CELLS.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Caulobacter: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod- or vibroid-shaped or fusiform bacteria that commonly produce a stalk. They are found in fresh water and soil and divide by binary transverse fission.ThymidineBacillus subtilis: A species of gram-positive bacteria that is a common soil and water saprophyte.Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Indoleacetic Acids: Acetic acid derivatives of the heterocyclic compound indole. (Merck Index, 11th ed)Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Schizosaccharomyces pombe Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species Schizosaccharomyces pombe. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.CDC2 Protein Kinase: Phosphoprotein with protein kinase activity that functions in the G2/M phase transition of the CELL CYCLE. It is the catalytic subunit of the MATURATION-PROMOTING FACTOR and complexes with both CYCLIN A and CYCLIN B in mammalian cells. The maximal activity of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 is achieved when it is fully dephosphorylated.Luminescent Proteins: Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Drosophila melanogaster: A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Nalidixic Acid: A synthetic 1,8-naphthyridine antimicrobial agent with a limited bacteriocidal spectrum. It is an inhibitor of the A subunit of bacterial DNA GYRASE.Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Bromodeoxyuridine: A nucleoside that substitutes for thymidine in DNA and thus acts as an antimetabolite. It causes breaks in chromosomes and has been proposed as an antiviral and antineoplastic agent. It has been given orphan drug status for use in the treatment of primary brain tumors.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Plant Epidermis: A thin layer of cells forming the outer integument of seed plants and ferns. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Zygote: The fertilized OVUM resulting from the fusion of a male and a female gamete.Cytokinins: Plant hormones that promote the separation of daughter cells after mitotic division of a parent cell. Frequently they are purine derivatives.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Aurora Kinases: A family of highly conserved serine-threonine kinases that are involved in the regulation of MITOSIS. They are involved in many aspects of cell division, including centrosome duplication, SPINDLE APPARATUS formation, chromosome alignment, attachment to the spindle, checkpoint activation, and CYTOKINESIS.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Metaphase: The phase of cell nucleus division following PROMETAPHASE, in which the CHROMOSOMES line up across the equatorial plane of the SPINDLE APPARATUS prior to separation.Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Blastomeres: Undifferentiated cells resulting from cleavage of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE). Inside the intact ZONA PELLUCIDA, each cleavage yields two blastomeres of about half size of the parent cell. Up to the 8-cell stage, all of the blastomeres are totipotent. The 16-cell MORULA contains outer cells and inner cells.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Cleavage Stage, Ovum: The earliest developmental stage of a fertilized ovum (ZYGOTE) during which there are several mitotic divisions within the ZONA PELLUCIDA. Each cleavage or segmentation yields two BLASTOMERES of about half size of the parent cell. This cleavage stage generally covers the period up to 16-cell MORULA.Plants, Genetically Modified: PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.Genes, Plant: The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.S Phase: Phase of the CELL CYCLE following G1 and preceding G2 when the entire DNA content of the nucleus is replicated. It is achieved by bidirectional replication at multiple sites along each chromosome.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.Chromosomes: In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Penicillin-Binding Proteins: Bacterial proteins that share the property of binding irreversibly to PENICILLINS and other ANTIBACTERIAL AGENTS derived from LACTAMS. The penicillin-binding proteins are primarily enzymes involved in CELL WALL biosynthesis including MURAMOYLPENTAPEPTIDE CARBOXYPEPTIDASE; PEPTIDE SYNTHASES; TRANSPEPTIDASES; and HEXOSYLTRANSFERASES.Kinetochores: Large multiprotein complexes that bind the centromeres of the chromosomes to the microtubules of the mitotic spindle during metaphase in the cell cycle.Centrioles: Self-replicating, short, fibrous, rod-shaped organelles. Each centriole is a short cylinder containing nine pairs of peripheral microtubules, arranged so as to form the wall of the cylinder.Animals, Genetically Modified: ANIMALS whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING, or their offspring.Telophase: The final phase of cell nucleus division following ANAPHASE, in which two daughter nuclei are formed, the CYTOPLASM completes division, and the CHROMOSOMES lose their distinctness and are transformed into CHROMATIN threads.Cyclin-Dependent Kinases: Protein kinases that control cell cycle progression in all eukaryotes and require physical association with CYCLINS to achieve full enzymatic activity. Cyclin-dependent kinases are regulated by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation events.cdc25 Phosphatases: A subclass of dual specificity phosphatases that play a role in the progression of the CELL CYCLE. They dephosphorylate and activate CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Cell Count: The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.Protein Kinases: A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.Body Patterning: The processes occurring in early development that direct morphogenesis. They specify the body plan ensuring that cells will proceed to differentiate, grow, and diversify in size and shape at the correct relative positions. Included are axial patterning, segmentation, compartment specification, limb position, organ boundary patterning, blood vessel patterning, etc.Genes, cdc: Genes that code for proteins that regulate the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. These genes form a regulatory network that culminates in the onset of MITOSIS by activating the p34cdc2 protein (PROTEIN P34CDC2).Kinesin: A microtubule-associated mechanical adenosine triphosphatase, that uses the energy of ATP hydrolysis to move organelles along microtubules toward the plus end of the microtubule. The protein is found in squid axoplasm, optic lobes, and in bovine brain. Bovine kinesin is a heterotetramer composed of two heavy (120 kDa) and two light (62 kDa) chains. EC 3.6.1.-.Embryonic Development: Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Microscopy, Video: Microscopy in which television cameras are used to brighten magnified images that are otherwise too dark to be seen with the naked eye. It is used frequently in TELEPATHOLOGY.Cyclins: A large family of regulatory proteins that function as accessory subunits to a variety of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES. They generally function as ENZYME ACTIVATORS that drive the CELL CYCLE through transitions between phases. A subset of cyclins may also function as transcriptional regulators.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Microscopy, Confocal: A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Spores, Bacterial: Heat and stain resistant, metabolically inactive bodies formed within the vegetative cells of bacteria of the genera Bacillus and Clostridium.Adenosine Triphosphatases: A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Cyclin B: A cyclin subtype that is transported into the CELL NUCLEUS at the end of the G2 PHASE. It stimulates the G2/M phase transition by activating CDC2 PROTEIN KINASE.Chloramphenicol: An antibiotic first isolated from cultures of Streptomyces venequelae in 1947 but now produced synthetically. It has a relatively simple structure and was the first broad-spectrum antibiotic to be discovered. It acts by interfering with bacterial protein synthesis and is mainly bacteriostatic. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 29th ed, p106)RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone: Nucleoproteins, which in contrast to HISTONES, are acid insoluble. They are involved in chromosomal functions; e.g. they bind selectively to DNA, stimulate transcription resulting in tissue-specific RNA synthesis and undergo specific changes in response to various hormones or phytomitogens.Plant Growth Regulators: Any of the hormones produced naturally in plants and active in controlling growth and other functions. There are three primary classes: auxins, cytokinins, and gibberellins.G1 Phase: The period of the CELL CYCLE preceding DNA REPLICATION in S PHASE. Subphases of G1 include "competence" (to respond to growth factors), G1a (entry into G1), G1b (progression), and G1c (assembly). Progression through the G1 subphases is effected by limiting growth factors, nutrients, or inhibitors.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Two-Hybrid System Techniques: Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.Centromere: The clear constricted portion of the chromosome at which the chromatids are joined and by which the chromosome is attached to the spindle during cell division.Genes, Fungal: The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Amdinocillin: An amidinopenicillanic acid derivative with broad spectrum antibacterial action.Actins: Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.Seeds: The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.Plant Shoots: New immature growth of a plant including stem, leaves, tips of branches, and SEEDLINGS.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.PeptidoglycanCytoskeleton: The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.Kinetin: A furanyl adenine found in PLANTS and FUNGI. It has plant growth regulation effects.Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Oocytes: Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).Neuroepithelial Cells: Cells of epithelial origin possessing specialized sensory functions. They include cells that are found in the TASTE BUDS; OLFACTORY MUCOSA; COCHLEA; and NEUROEPITHELIAL BODIES.Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Saccharomycetales: An order of fungi in the phylum Ascomycota that multiply by budding. They include the telomorphic ascomycetous yeasts which are found in a very wide range of habitats.GTP Phosphohydrolases: Enzymes that hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.Genes, Helminth: The functional hereditary units of HELMINTHS.Suppression, Genetic: Mutation process that restores the wild-type PHENOTYPE in an organism possessing a mutationally altered GENOTYPE. The second "suppressor" mutation may be on a different gene, on the same gene but located at a distance from the site of the primary mutation, or in extrachromosomal genes (EXTRACHROMOSOMAL INHERITANCE).Polyploidy: The chromosomal constitution of a cell containing multiples of the normal number of CHROMOSOMES; includes triploidy (symbol: 3N), tetraploidy (symbol: 4N), etc.Hypocotyl: The region of the stem beneath the stalks of the seed leaves (cotyledons) and directly above the young root of the embryo plant. It grows rapidly in seedlings showing epigeal germination and lifts the cotyledons above the soil surface. In this region (the transition zone) the arrangement of vascular bundles in the root changes to that of the stem. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.TritiumSOS Response (Genetics): An error-prone mechanism or set of functions for repairing damaged microbial DNA. SOS functions (a concept reputedly derived from the SOS of the international distress signal) are involved in DNA repair and mutagenesis, in cell division inhibition, in recovery of normal physiological conditions after DNA repair, and possibly in cell death when DNA damage is extensive.Ovum: A mature haploid female germ cell extruded from the OVARY at OVULATION.Germ Cells: The reproductive cells in multicellular organisms at various stages during GAMETOGENESIS.Blastoderm: A layer of cells lining the fluid-filled cavity (blastocele) of a BLASTULA, usually developed from a fertilized insect, reptilian, or avian egg.Genes, Essential: Those genes found in an organism which are necessary for its viability and normal function.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Cambium: A layer of living cells between the bark and hardwood that each year produces additional wood and bark cells, forming concentric growth rings.Telomere: A terminal section of a chromosome which has a specialized structure and which is involved in chromosomal replication and stability. Its length is believed to be a few hundred base pairs.Nuclear Matrix-Associated Proteins: A broad category of nuclear proteins that are components of or participate in the formation of the NUCLEAR MATRIX.Hexosyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of hexose groups. EC 2.4.1.-.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Tobacco: A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.Peptidyl Transferases: Acyltransferases that use AMINO ACYL TRNA as the amino acid donor in formation of a peptide bond. There are ribosomal and non-ribosomal peptidyltransferases.N-Acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine Amidase: An autolytic enzyme bound to the surface of bacterial cell walls. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of the link between N-acetylmuramoyl residues and L-amino acid residues in certain cell wall glycopeptides, particularly peptidoglycan. EC 188.8.131.52.Spores, Fungal: Reproductive bodies produced by fungi.Histones: Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.Anaphase: The phase of cell nucleus division following METAPHASE, in which the CHROMATIDS separate and migrate to opposite poles of the spindle.Muramoylpentapeptide Carboxypeptidase: Enzyme which catalyzes the peptide cross-linking of nascent CELL WALL; PEPTIDOGLYCAN.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Larva: Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.Mutagenesis, Insertional: Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.Succinimides: A subclass of IMIDES with the general structure of pyrrolidinedione. They are prepared by the distillation of ammonium succinate. They are sweet-tasting compounds that are used as chemical intermediates and plant growth stimulants.Cell Aging: The decrease in the cell's ability to proliferate with the passing of time. Each cell is programmed for a certain number of cell divisions and at the end of that time proliferation halts. The cell enters a quiescent state after which it experiences CELL DEATH via the process of APOPTOSIS.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.G2 Phase: The period of the CELL CYCLE following DNA synthesis (S PHASE) and preceding M PHASE (cell division phase). The CHROMOSOMES are tetraploid in this point.Aurora Kinase B: An aurora kinase that is a component of the chromosomal passenger protein complex and is involved in the regulation of MITOSIS. It mediates proper CHROMOSOME SEGREGATION and contractile ring function during CYTOKINESIS.Ubiquitin-Protein Ligase Complexes: Complexes of enzymes that catalyze the covalent attachment of UBIQUITIN to other proteins by forming a peptide bond between the C-terminal GLYCINE of UBIQUITIN and the alpha-amino groups of LYSINE residues in the protein. The complexes play an important role in mediating the selective-degradation of short-lived and abnormal proteins. The complex of enzymes can be broken down into three components that involve activation of ubiquitin (UBIQUITIN-ACTIVATING ENZYMES), conjugation of ubiquitin to the ligase complex (UBIQUITIN-CONJUGATING ENZYMES), and ligation of ubiquitin to the substrate protein (UBIQUITIN-PROTEIN LIGASES).Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Prophase: The first phase of cell nucleus division, in which the CHROMOSOMES become visible, the CELL NUCLEUS starts to lose its identity, the SPINDLE APPARATUS appears, and the CENTRIOLES migrate toward opposite poles.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Nocodazole: Nocodazole is an antineoplastic agent which exerts its effect by depolymerizing microtubules.Mitotic Index: An expression of the number of mitoses found in a stated number of cells.Hydroxyurea: An antineoplastic agent that inhibits DNA synthesis through the inhibition of ribonucleoside diphosphate reductase.Mutagenesis: Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.Chromatin: The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.
... the epidermis is maintained by cell division within the stratum basale. Differentiating cells delaminate from the basement ... of its cells, but also contains melanocytes, Langerhans cells, Merkel cells,:2-3 and inflammatory cells. Epidermal ... The cells in the stratum granulosum do not divide, but instead form skin cells called keratinocytes from the granules of ... where the cells become flattened sacks with their nuclei located at one end of the cell. After birth these outermost cells are ...
... the type of cell division used by eukaryotes to divide one cell into two identical daughter cells. In some plants, fungi, and ... Cytokinesis, the pinching of the cell membrane in animal cells or the formation of the cell wall in plant cells, occurs, ... In meiosis, DNA replication is followed by two rounds of cell division to produce four daughter cells, each with half the ... The first division produces a daughter cell, and a much smaller polar body which may or may not undergo a second division. In ...
Tumours form in cells when mutations in genes involved in cell cycle control and apoptosis accumulate over time. Most tumours ... Levine, A. (1997). "P53, the Cellular Gatekeeper for Growth and Division". Cell. 88 (3): 323-331. doi:10.1016/S0092-8674(00) ... This allows the virus to replicate, package its genome, lyse the cell and spread to new cells. This gave rise to the idea that ... Many viruses replicate by altering the cell cycle and exploiting the same pathways that are altered in cancer cells. E1B ...
As with other cell cycle proteins or genes such as Cdc2 and Cdc4, the "cdc" in its name refers to "cell division cycle". Dual- ... "Normal Cell Cycle and Checkpoint Responses in Mice and Cells Lacking Cdc25B and Cdc25C Protein Phosphatases". Mol. Cell. Biol. ... Edgar BA, O'Farrell PH (April 1989). "Genetic Control of Cell Division Patterns in the Drosophila Embryo". Cell. 57 (1): 177-87 ... The Cdc25 family appears to have expanded in relation to the complexity of the cell-cycle and life-cycle of higher animals. ...
Normal cell division distributes the genome equally between two daughter cells, with each chromosome attaching to an ovoid ... Successful cell division requires identification and correction of any dangerous errors before the cell splits in two. If the ... "Molecular forces are key to proper cell division". www.sciencedaily.com. University of Massachusetts Amherst. January 21, 2013 ... During the division process, errors commonly occur in attaching the chromosomes to the spindle, estimated to affect 86 to 90 ...
The centrosome cycle is important to ensure that daughter cells receive a centrosome after cell division. As the cell cycle ... Each daughter cell inherits two centrioles (one centrosome) surrounded by pericentriolar material as a result of cell division ... Vorobjev, IA; Chentsov, YuS (June 1982). "Centrioles in the cell cycle. I. Epithelial cells". The Journal of Cell Biology. 93 ( ... Cell Cycle Regulation of Centrosome Duplication Centrosome duplication is heavily regulated by cell cycle controls. This link ...
Aurora A kinase
If the cell begins mitosis, duplicates its DNA, but is then not able to divide into two separate cells it becomes an aneuploid ... Nigg EA (2001). "Mitotic kinases as regulators of cell division and its checkpoints". Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. 2 (1): 21-32. ... the process by which the cytoplasm of the parent cell is split into two daughter cells. During citokinesis the mother centriole ... "Interaction and feedback regulation between STK15/BTAK/Aurora-A kinase and protein phosphatase 1 through mitotic cell division ...
van de Weerdt BC, Medema RH (April 2006). "Polo-like kinases: a team in control of the division". Cell Cycle. 5 (8): 853-64. ... Supporting evidence comes from the overexpression studies of PLK1 in NIH3T3 cell line. These cells become capable of forming ... S. cerevisiae polo kinase CDC5 is required to phosphorylate and remove meiotic cohesion during the first cell division. In CDC5 ... When PLK1 expression was silenced with RNA interference in cell culture, K-RAS cells were selectively killed, without harming ...
Light sheet fluorescence microscopy
"Live cell division dynamics monitoring in 3D large spheroid tumor models using light sheet microscopy". Cell Division. 6 (1): ... Adherent cells can be grown on small glass plates that are hanging in the sample chamber. Plants can be grown in clear gels ... Cell. 163 (7): 1796-1806. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2015.11.061. ISSN 0092-8674. PMC 4775738 . PMID 26687363. A. H. Voie; D. H. Burns ... Play media HeLa cells expressing tetramers of the green fluorescent protein. On the left a transmission illumination image and ...
John Graham White
"Determination of cell division axes in the early embryogenesis of Caenorhabditis elegans". The Journal of Cell Biology. 105 (5 ... Hird, S. N.; White, J. G. (1993). "Cortical and cytoplasmic flow polarity in early embryonic cells of Caenorhabditis elegans". ... White's research investigates cell division in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. With collaborators Sydney Brenner, John ... O'Connell, K. F.; Leys, C. M.; White, J. G. (1998). "A genetic screen for temperature-sensitive cell-division mutants of ...
"CELL DIVISION: EFFECTS OF PRESSURE ON THE MITOTIC MECHANISMS OF MARINE EGGS (ARBACIA PUNCTULATA)". Exp. Cell Res. 35 (2): 293- ... Sea urchin studies provided the first evidence of actin in nonmuscle cells. Arbacia punctulata is also a model organism of ... FAILLA PM (June 1965). "RECOVERY FROM DIVISION DELAY IN IRRADIATED GAMETES OF ARBACIA PUNCTULATA". Radiat. Res. 25 (2): 331-40 ... Cell Biol. 47 (1): 140-58. doi:10.1083/jcb.47.1.140. PMC 2108410 . PMID 4327513. Kite GL (October 1912). "THE NATURE OF THE ...
Notably, early in the gestational period, there is a high rate of cell division. Additionally, the cells exhibit ... "at all sites of direct cell-to-cell contact, maternal tissues (decidua and blood) are juxtaposed to extraembryonic cells ( ... Notably, tumors are arrived at via proliferating cells. In the event that proliferating cells become uncontrolled, by any ... Transplacental carcinogenesis is a series of genotypic and/or phenotypic changes in the cells of a fetus due to in utero ...
"Unequal division in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and its implications for the control of cell division". The Journal of Cell ... Seminal work in 1977 found that yeast cells maintain a constant size by delaying their entry into the cell cycle (as assayed by ... Polymenis, M; Schmidt, EV (1997-10-01). "Coupling of cell division to cell growth by translational control of the G1 cyclin ... Nurse, P (1975-08-14). "Genetic control of cell size at cell division in yeast". Nature. 256 (5518): 547-51. doi:10.1038/ ...
... orientation of cell divisions was random and there is no evidence that increased cell death or zones of non-proliferating cells ... Martin AC, Wieschaus EF (2010). "Tensions divide". Nat Cell Biol. 12 (1): 5-7. doi:10.1038/ncb0110-5. PMID 20027198. ... Parameters used to measure cell bond tension are based cell-cell adhesion and cortical tension input. It has also been ... This boundary prevents cell movement from cells from different lineages across this barrier, restricting them to their ...
"Arabidopsis WPP-domain proteins are developmentally associated with the nuclear envelope and promote cell division". The Plant ... first proline residues into alanine in the Arabidopsis thaliana protein RanGAP1 leads to mis-targeting in the majority of cells ... Cell. 16 (12): 3260-73. doi:10.1105/tpc.104.026740. PMC 535872 . PMID 15548735. ...
Depletion of POLD1 can halt cell cycle at G1 and G2/M phases in human cells. Cell cycle block in these phases typically ... Nick McElhinny SA, Gordenin DA, Stith CM, Burgers PM, Kunkel TA (April 2008). "Division of labor at the eukaryotic replication ... Another regulatory element, the cell cycle element/cell cycle genes homology region (CDE/CHR), located downstream of the start ... is degraded by ubiquitin ligases in response to DNA damage and during cell cycle progression". Cell Cycle. 13 (1): 23-31. doi: ...
It is these cells that are of interest because of the challenges they face in cell division and growth due to their size. ... "Asynchronous nuclear division cycles in multinucleated cells". The Journal of Cell Biology. 172: 347-362. doi:10.1083/jcb. ... This discovery came in Ashbya gossypii cells, where nuclei that shared the same cytoplasm were found to go through the cell ... During her work, she has discovered that multinucleated cells can undergo the cell cycle asynchronously. Additionally, she has ...
Breast cancer classification
Cell division becomes uncontrolled. Cell nuclei become less uniform. Pathologists describe cells as well differentiated (low- ... One of the hallmarks of cancer is that cells divide uncontrollably. The more cells that are dividing, the worse the cancer. ... The closer the appearance of the cancer cells to normal cells, the slower their growth and the better the prognosis. If cells ... which are small clusters of cells not greater than 0.2 mm, or single tumor cells, or a cluster of fewer than 200 cells in a ...
Fetal tissue in vaccines
Wadman, Meredith (2013-06-27). "Medical research: Cell division". Nature. pp. 422-426. doi:10.1038/498422a. Retrieved 2018-01- ... The same fibroblast cells from these pregnancies that were originally used to grow vaccine viruses have been growing in labs ... For example, in the 1950s, scientists at the Karolinska Institute in Sweden propagated a polio virus in fetal cells to make ... "Human Cell Strains in Vaccine Development". History of Vaccines. Retrieved 2018-01-26. Wadman, Meredith (2017-03-02). " ...
APC/C activator protein CDH1
Cdh1 plays a pivotal role in controlling cell division at the end of mitosis (telophase) and in the subsequent G1 phase of cell ... In healthy cells Cdh1 stays inactive from late G1 to early mitosis. It stays inactive in early mitosis and only becomes active ... Li M, Zhang P (2009). "The function of APC/CCdh1 in cell cycle and beyond". Cell Div. 4: 2. doi:10.1186/1747-1028-4-2. PMC ... "APCcdh1 activity in mouse oocytes prevents entry into the first meiotic division". Nat. Cell Biol. 8 (5): 539-40. doi:10.1038/ ...
SV40 large T antigen
Figge J, Smith TF (14 July 1988). "Cell division sequence motif". Nature. 334 (6178): 109. doi:10.1038/334109a0. PMID 3290690. ... T-antigen also binds and inactivates tumor suppressor proteins (p53, p105-Rb). This causes the cells to leave G1 phase and ... After entering the cell, the viral genes are transcribed by host cell RNA polymerase II to produce early mRNAs. Because of the ... Therefore, it is essential for the host cell to enter S phase, when cell DNA and the viral genome are replicated together. ...
Cytostatics inhibit cell division. In immunotherapy, they are used in smaller doses than in the treatment of malignant diseases ... In a similar manner, Sirolimus prevents B cell differentiation into plasma cells, reducing production of IgM, IgG, and IgA ... In this way, it prevents the cell from transitioning from the G0 into G1 phase of the cell cycle. Tacrolimus is more potent ... This lowers the number of available T-cells, perhaps by sensitizing them for the uptake by the epithelial reticular cells. The ...
Szent-Gyoergyi A (Jul 1965). "CELL DIVISION AND CANCER". Science. 149 (3679): 34-7. doi:10.1126/science.149.3679.34. PMID ... Ayoub FM, Allen RE, Thornalley PJ (May 1993). "Inhibition of proliferation of human leukaemia 60 cells by methylglyoxal in ... This reaction occurs spontaneously in the cell, without the involvement of the enzyme. This hemithioacetal is then bound by the ... Allen RE, Lo TW, Thornalley PJ (1993). "A simplified method for the purification of human red blood cell glyoxalase I. ...
Neuron - Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
They do not do not undergo cell division. In most cases, neurons are generated by special types of stem cells. A type of glial ... Cell division[change , change source]. Mature neurons never divide: that is the general rule. ... A neuron (also known as a neurone or nerve cell) is a cell that carries electrical impulses. Neurons are the basic units of ... Synapses are microscopic voids between cells where chemicals are released from the axon terminal of one cell to specialized ...
Carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester
"High-resolution tracking of cell division suggests similar cell cycle kinetics of hematopoietic stem cells stimulated in vitro ... due to the progressive halving of CFSE fluorescence within daughter cells following each cell division. The only limitation ... "Cell division regulates the T cell cytokine repertoire, revealing a mechanism underlying immune class regulation". Proceedings ... December 1997). "Insulin has a limited effect on the cell cycle progression in 3T3 L1 fibroblasts". Molecules and Cells. 7 (6 ...
Oncogenes are genes that promote cell growth and reproduction. Tumor suppressor genes are genes that inhibit cell division and ... Traditional chemotherapeutic agents act by killing cells that divide rapidly, a critical property of most cancer cells. ... In order for a normal cell to transform into a cancer cell, the genes that regulate cell growth and differentiation must be ... Germ cell tumor: Cancers derived from pluripotent cells, most often presenting in the testicle or the ovary (seminoma and ...
... but differ in that in cell division the daughter nuclei are separated by a phragmoplast. They are eukaryotic, with a cell ... The tiny gametophyte inside the pollen grain then produces sperm cells which move to the egg cell and fertilize it. Seed ... Pickett-Heaps, J. (1976). "Cell division in eucaryotic algae". BioScience. 26 (7): 445-450. doi:10.2307/1297481.. ... In all land plants a disc-like structure called a phragmoplast forms where the cell will divide, a trait only found in the land ...
They divide rapidly and are still capable of internalizing antigens and presenting them to T cells. A cell may stay in this ... Plasma cells, also called plasma B cells, plasmocytes, plasmacytes, or effector B cells, are white blood cells that secrete ... In humans, CD27 is a good marker for plasma cells, naive B cells are CD27-, memory B-cells are CD27+ and plasma cells are ... Germinal center B cells may differentiate into memory B cells or plasma cells. Most of these B cells will become plasmablasts ( ...
The cells met to read Marxist texts and hold self-criticism sessions. Sâr joined a cell that met on the rue Lacepède; his ... the basic societal division remained between the "base" people and the "new" people. It was never Pol Pot and the party's ... They established party cells, emphasising the recruitment of small numbers of dedicated members, and organized political ... a Marxist-Leninist organisation arranged in a clandestine cell system. ...
The] clave pattern has two opposing rhythm cells: the first cell consists of three strokes, or the rhythm cell, which is called ... 4; L=low bell, H=high bell, O = open surdo hit, X = muffled surdo hit, and , divides the measure: *Style: Samba 3:2; LL.L.H.H,L ... The second cell has two strokes and is called the two-side of the weak part of the clave. . . The different accent types in the ... Clave is the basic period, composed of two rhythmically opposed cells, one antecedent and the other consequent.[d][e] Clave was ...
Elastina - Wikipédia, a enciclopédia livre
Bax DV, Rodgers UR, Bilek MM, Weiss AS (2009). «Cell adhesion to tropoelastin is mediated via the C-terminal GRKRK motif and ... Bertram C, Hass R (2009). «Cellular senescence of human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) is associated with an altered MMP-7/HB- ... cell proliferation. •organ morphogenesis. •extracellular matrix organization. •regulation of actin filament polymerization. • ...
They are a class of cell cycle-specific cytotoxic drugs that work by inhibiting the ability of cancer cells to divide: Acting ... The newer semi-synthetic chemotherapeutic agent vinorelbine is used in the treatment of non-small-cell lung cancer and is ... "Safety and efficacy of vinorelbine in the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer". Clinical Medicine Insights: Oncology. 5 ... upon tubulin, they prevent it from forming into microtubules, a necessary component for cellular division. The vinca ...
Group 3 element
IUPAC's Inorganic Chemistry Division Commission on Atomic Weights and Isotopic Abundances. 70 (1): 237-257. doi:10.1351/ ... The element is known to damage cell membranes of water animals, causing several negative influences on reproduction and on the ... The high radioactivity of lawrencium would make it highly toxic to living cells, causing radiation poisoning. The same is true ... The radioactivity of the actinides generally makes them highly toxic to living cells, causing radiation poisoning. ...
The epidermis tissue includes several differentiated cell types; epidermal cells, epidermal hair cells (trichomes), cells in ... However, these simplified systems allow for further division into multiple subtypes. Simpson, (and others) divides ... Cylindrical cells, with the chloroplasts close to the walls of the cell, can take optimal advantage of light. The slight ... Cells that bring water and minerals from the roots into the leaf.. Phloem. Cells that usually move sap, with dissolved sucrose( ...
... and this infection results in programmed cell death. Other types of white blood cells, such as lymphocytes, also undergo ... Clark DV, Jahrling PB, Lawler JV (September 2012). "Clinical management of filovirus-infected patients". Viruses. 4 (9): 1668- ... dendritic cells and other cells including liver cells, fibroblasts, and adrenal gland cells. Viral replication triggers ... doi:10.1016/j.cell.2014.10.006. PMC 4243531. PMID 25417101.. *^ a b c d e f g h Kühl A, Pöhlmann S (September 2012). "How Ebola ...
... and Th1 cells. IL-1α stimulates increased skin cell activity and reproduction, which, in turn, fuels comedo development.[45 ... Division. p. 2. ISBN 978-0071440196. .. *^ Hoeger PH, Irvine AD, Yan AC (2011). "Chapter 79: Acne". Harper's Textbook of ... the increased production of oily sebum causes the dead skin cells to stick together. The accumulation of dead skin cell ... The retinoids appear to influence the cell life cycle in the follicle lining. This helps prevent the accumulation of skin cells ...
The skin consists of a thin outer epidermis with mucous cells and sensory cells, and a connective tissue dermis consisting ... The eggs have large yolks; cleavage (division) is superficial and a germinal disc develops at the pole. During gastrulation, ... Cell. 169 (2): 191-202. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2017.03.025.. ... Other colour-changing cells are reflective iridophores and ... The lens is suspended behind the pupil and photoreceptive retinal cells cover the back of the eye. The pupil can be adjusted in ...
Swarmer cells differentiate into stalked cells after a short period of motility. Chromosome replication and cell division only ... TipN localizes to the new pole in both daughter cells after division and relocalizes to the cell division site in the late ... Caulobacter is an important model organism for studying the regulation of the cell cycle, asymmetric cell division, and ... The formation of new cell poles at division implies that cell polarity must be re-established in the stalked progeny and ...
Tüvirakud - Vikipeedia, vaba entsüklopeedia
... "decapentaplegic is essential for the maintenance and division of germline stem cells in the Drosophila ovary". Cell 94 (2): 251 ... Lindvall O (2003). "Stem cells for cell therapy in Parkinson's disease". Pharmacol Res 47 (4): 279-87. PMID 12644384. ... California Institute for Regenerative Medicine, Tumor Cells Become Drug Resistant by Reverting to a Stem Cell-Like State, New ... "Researchers find new method for turning adult cells into stem cells". Amherst Daily News. Canadian Press. 2009-01-03. Vaadatud ...
Cultured neuronal network
They saw bursts throughout the lifetime of the cell cultures, beginning at 4-7 days in vitro (DIV) and continuing until culture ... One study, however, did make use of human neural stem cells grown into a network to control a robotic actuator. These cells ... Harvesting neural stem cells requires sacrificing the developing fetus, a process considered too costly to perform on many ... Like most cell cultures, neuron cultures are highly susceptible to infection. They are also susceptible to hyperosmolality from ...
Multiple tornadoes produced by the same storm cell are referred to as a "tornado family". Several tornadoes are sometimes ... "Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory, Hurricane Research Division. National Oceanic and Atmospheric ... Tornadic storms do not contain more lightning than other storms and some tornadic cells never produce lightning at all. More ... Climate Services and Monitoring Division (2006-08-17). "Tornado Myths, Facts, and Safety". National Climatic Data Center. ...
The generative cell in the pollen grain divides into two haploid sperm cells by mitosis leading to the development of the ... Then, the first tracheids of the transition zone are formed, where the radial size of cells and thickness of their cell walls ... At fertilization, one of the sperm cells unites its haploid nucleus with the haploid nucleus of an egg cell. The female cone ... The division name Pinophyta conforms to the rules of the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICN) ...
Potassium is the major cation (positive ion) inside animal cells, while sodium is the major cation outside animal cells.[ ... The balance between potassium and sodium is maintained by ion transporter proteins in the cell membrane. The cell membrane ... NIST Ionizing Radiation Division 2001 - Technical Highlights. physics.nist.gov *^ Emery, N.; et al. (2008). "Review: Synthesis ... Unit cell ball-and-stick model of lithium nitride. On the basis of size a tetrahedral structure would be expected, but ...
... division of cells. As such, neoplasia is not problematic but its consequences are: the uncontrolled division of cells means ... Anaplastic cells have lost total control of their normal functions and many have deteriorated cell structures. Anaplastic cells ... uncontrolled mitosis (growth by division beyond the normal limits). *anaplasia: the cells in the neoplasm have an obviously ... Necrotic cells send the wrong chemical signals which prevent phagocytes from disposing of the dead cells, leading to a buildup ...
... stimulating cell division and tissue growth. In accordance, therapeutic modalities that reduce androgen signaling in the ... cells in culture". Journal of Steroid Biochemistry. 31 (5): 845-52. doi:10.1016/0022-4731(88)90295-6. PMID 2462135.. ... Cell Biol. 42 (6): 813-27. doi:10.1016/j.biocel.2009.11.013. PMID 19931639.. ... Bennett NC, Gardiner RA, Hooper JD, Johnson DW, Gobe GC (2010). "Molecular cell biology of androgen receptor signalling". Int. ...
... contain glucosinolates as well as myrosinases inside their cells. When the cell is damaged, the myrosinases ... It initially consists of only one cavity but during its further development a thin wall grows that divides the cavity, both ... Hairs consist of one cell and occur in many forms: from simple to forked, star-, tree- or T-shaped, rarely taking the form of a ... less than 3.425 million base pairs per cell), varying from 150 Mbp in Arabidopsis thaliana and Sphaerocardamum spp., to 2375 ...
Electrolysis cells can be either open cell or closed cell. In open cell systems, the electrolysis products, which are gaseous, ... "Cornell cold fusion archive" (PDF), collection n°4451, Division of Rare and Manuscript Collections, Cornell University Library ... the power input to the cell was equal to the calculated power leaving the cell within measurement accuracy, and the cell ... Groups that did report successes found that some of their cells were producing the effect, while other cells that were built ...
These M cells then alert the underlying B cells and T cells in the tonsil that a pathogen is present and an immune response is ... Division of Otolaryngology, Nemours-AI duPont Hospital for Children ... or tumors such as lymphoma or squamous cell carcinoma. ... "Tonsils Make T-Cells, Too, Ohio State Study Shows". Ohio State ... The tonsils have on their surface specialized antigen capture cells called M cells that allow for the uptake of antigens ...
Test subjects included the crew, Japanese koi fish (carp), cultured animal and plant cells, chicken embryos, fruit flies, fungi ... Life sciences included experiments on human health, cell separation and biology, developmental biology, animal and human ... sponsored by the Boy Scouts of America's Exploring Division in cooperation with the TRW Systems Integration Group, Fairfax, VA ...
The g1 phase, or Gap 1 phase, is the first of four phases of the cell cycle that takes place in eukaryotic cell division. In ... In human somatic cells, the cell cycle lasts about 18 hours, and the G1 phase takes up about 1/3 of that time. However, in ... is particularly important in the cell cycle because it determines whether a cell commits to division or to leaving the cell ... but it changes the course of the cell. After a vertebrate cell has been in the G1 phase for about three hours, the cell enters ...
Prokaryotic DNA replication
All cells must finish DNA replication before they can proceed for cell division. Media conditions that support fast growth in ... it is possible that in fast growth conditions the grandmother cells starts replicating its DNA for grand daughter cell. For the ... They bind to DnaA-ADP and DnaA-ATP with equal affinities and are bound by DnaA throughout most of the cell cycle and forms a ... The rate of DNA replication in a living cell was first measured as the rate of phage T4 DNA elongation in phage-infected E. ...
He is currently Professor of Cell Biology at the Scripps Research Institute. Nigel Unwin was born in New Zealand. He earned his ... O'Brien J, Unwin N (2006), "Organization of spines on the dendrites of Purkinje cells" Proceedings of the National Academy of ... Peter Nigel Tripp Unwin FRS is a British neuroscientist, Emeritus Scientist, and was Joint Head of Neurobiology Division, ... He was Professor of Cell Biology at Stanford University, from 1980 to 1988. ...
Papillary tumors of the pineal region
... for the pineal region these are ependymal cells, and the cells divide into millions. As these cells divide, their genetic ... Vacuolated, or clear cells are common.Necrosis or cell death is normally observed to some extent in most of these tumors cells ... If the abnormal cells continue to grow, divide, and produce more abnormal cells, the mass of abnormal cells may eventually ... The papilla is meant to be surface cells. The ependymal cells line the inside of the ventricles of the brain. These cells have ...
A virus-infected cell releases viral particles that can infect nearby cells. However, the infected cell can prepare neighboring ... Gray PW, Goeddel DV (August 1982). "Structure of the human immune interferon gene". Nature. 298 (5877): 859-63. Bibcode: ... and also tumor cells. In a typical scenario, a virus-infected cell will release interferons causing nearby cells to heighten ... and its expression is restricted to immune cells such as T cells and NK cells. All interferons share several common effects: ...
"Entrez Gene: CDC25C cell division cycle 25 homolog C (S. pombe)". Bulavin, D V; Higashimoto Y; Popoff I J; Gaarde W A; Basrur V ... 1994). "Activation of p34cdc2 protein kinase by microinjection of human cdc25C into mammalian cells. Requirement for prior ... This gene is highly conserved during evolution and it plays a key role in the regulation of cell division. The encoded protein ... Amini S, Khalili K, Sawaya BE (2004). "Effect of HIV-1 Vpr on cell cycle regulators". DNA Cell Biol. 23 (4): 249-60. doi: ...
... cell division, cell adhesion, and stress response. Activity of ABL1 protein is negatively regulated by its SH3 domain, and ... Era T (2002). "Bcr-Abl is a "molecular switch" for the decision for growth and differentiation in hematopoietic stem cells". ... Cell. 6 (6): 1413-23. doi:10.1016/S1097-2765(00)00138-6. PMID 11163214. Yoshida K, Komatsu K, Wang HG, Kufe D (May 2002). "c- ... Cell. Biol. 22 (12): 4020-32. doi:10.1128/MCB.22.12.4020-4032.2002. PMC 133860 . PMID 12024016. Cao C, Leng Y, Kufe D (August ...
This blocks the cancer cells' division without distorting its DNA helix, thus potentially avoiding the common phenomenon of ... they can induce cell death in both dividing and non-dividing cells. Fully synthetic PBD dimers are suited for the role of ... In vitro, pyrrolobenzodiazepines typically demonstrate IC50 values in the low to mid picomolar range in a variety of cell types ... As DNA minor groove binding agents, pyrrolobenzodiazepines bind and cross-link specific sites of DNA of the cancer cell. ...
Cell Division | Encyclopedia.com
When cells divide, two daughter cells are produced from one mother cell. Each new cell has exactly the same genetic material ( ... Cell Division Cell division is the basis of life itself; it is how animals grow and reproduce. ... Cell division. Cell division is the process by which a single living cell splits to become two cells. All cells divide at some ... Cell division is the process where a single living cell splits to become two or more distinct new cells. All cells divide at ...
... everything you need for studying or teaching Cell division. ... Immediately download the Cell division summary, chapter-by- ... Cell Division Cell division is the basis of life itself; it is how animals grow and reproduce. When cells divide, two daughter ... Cell Division Cell division is the process where a single living cell splits to become two or more distinct new cells. All ... Cell Division Cell division is the process by which an organism grows or replaces damaged tissue. The growth of a fertilized ...
Category:Cell division - Wikimedia Commons
cell division The process resulting in division and partitioning of components of a cell to form more cells; may or may not be ... Abnormal-number-cell-division-of-human-thyroid-anaplastic-carcinoma-cell-line-SW-1736-mmc1.ogv 15 s, 512 × 512; 1.24 MB. ... The process resulting in division and partitioning of components of a cell to form more cells; may or may not be accompanied by ... A-distributed-cell-division-counter-reveals-growth-dynamics-in-the-gut-microbiota-ncomms10039-s2.ogv 6.2 s, 623 × 623; 5.62 MB ...
How do cells divide?: MedlinePlus Genetics
Learn more about what happens to cells during each of these processes. ... There are two types of cell division: mitosis and meiosis. ... is the type of cell division that creates egg and sperm cells. ... There are two types of cell division: mitosis and meiosis. Most of the time when people refer to "cell division," they mean ... For more information about cell division:. North Dakota State Universitys Virtual Cell Animation Collection offers videos that ...
Unraveling cell division | EurekAlert! Science News
... an enzyme that disentangles DNA molecules and is essential for proper cell division. ... The study published in the Journal of Cell Biology describes how Topo 2, ... However, they have found that in cells with chromosomes that are longer than normal, Topo2 needs an extra amount of "help" to ... Unraveling cell division. Center for Genomic Regulation. Journal. Journal of Cell Biology. Funder. European Comission, European ...
Cell division discoveries get Nobel prize | New Scientist
... fundamental discoveries that have a great impact on all aspects of cell growth and may open new ways to treat cancer ... duplicates the DNA in its nucleus and then divides, leaving two new cells to begin the cycle again. ... This protein is formed and broken down during the course of the cell cycle and is a key overall control mechanism of the cell ... Hartwell was recognized for his discovery of more than 100 genes that regulate the cell cycle in which a single cell grows, ...
Newly Discovered Mechanism in Cell Division - Redorbit
... phase of how cells divide. Errors in cell division can cause mutations that lead to cancer, and this study could shed light on ... equal division of genetic material between two daughter cells of cell division. They also found that this interaction is ... In cell division "" the creation of two daughter cells from one -- it is the doubled chromosomes that are piled in the middle ... The cell condenses the chromosomes, arranges them at the midpoint of the dividing cell, sends half to either end of the cell, ...
Centrosome misorientation reduces stem cell division during ageing | Nature
This paper shows that changes in stem cell orientation within the niche during ageing contribute to the decline in spermatog… ... Asymmetric division of adult stem cells generates one self-renewing stem cell and one differentiating cell, thereby maintaining ... Asymmetric division of adult stem cells generates one self-renewing stem cell and one differentiating cell, thereby maintaining ... Normally, germ-cell centrosomes are precisely oriented within their niche and asymmetric stem cell division is assured. The ...
Concerted control of Escherichia coli cell division | PNAS
... the division rate increases steeply with cell size for small cells, and saturates for larger cells. Importantly, (iv) the ... 4A) indicates that cells of equal size modulate their division rate hd based on the time t spent in the cell cycle, and this ... the relevant properties of cell division control are all contained in the division rate hd. The model assumes that at cell ... Assuming that cells must reach a certain size threshold to divide or proceed to the next cell cycle stage would lead to ...
Why do cells divide? | Reference.com
Cells can only reach a certain size due to a lack of balanced growth between their parts, so they have to divide once they... ... Cells divide as a way of reproducing or growing or to create sex cells. ... Cell division is a form of reproduction, but each resulting cell in normal cell division is identical to the original. Normal ... This is the type of division for most cells.. The other type of cell division is called meiosis, and it is how the body ...
Cell Division Gizmo : ExploreLearning
The length of the cell cycle can be controlled, and data related to the number of cells present and their current phase can be ... The cells will go through the steps of interphase, prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase, and cytokinesis. ... Begin with a single cell and watch as mitosis and cell division occurs. ... Begin with a single cell and watch as mitosis and cell division occurs. The cells will go through the steps of interphase, ...
We all learned in our Biology classes about mitosis and meiosis and chromosomes and the way cells change from one thing to the ... Cell Division by ramyb https://shirt.woot.com/offers/cell-division $19.00 In Stock Apparel & Accessories $19.00 USD false 1 ... Well, wheat does, and oats, but does that look like an oat cell? We figure and oat cell would have a big whiskery Wilford ... A wolverine has 42 chromosomes, but if this was supposed to be a wolverine cell, do you really think one of our artists could ...
laughalot shows his nerdy, Cells are the only things that can divide and multiply at the same time!" ... Cell Division by ramyb https://shirt.woot.com/offers/cell-division $19.00 In Stock Apparel & Accessories $19.00 USD false 1 ... laughalot shows his nerdy, Cells are the only things that can divide and multiply at the same time!" ... Well, wheat does, and oats, but does that look like an oat cell? We figure and oat cell would have a big whiskery Wilford ...
How molecular muscles help cells divide | EurekAlert! Science News
... of how a cell flexes tiny muscle-like structures to pinch itself into two daughter cells at the end of each cell division, ... Living cells divide into two daughter cells to reproduce themselves. In one-celled organisms like yeast, each cell division ... "Since other cells, including human cells, depend on similar proteins for cytokinesis [cell division], it is entirely possible ... of how a cell flexes tiny muscle-like structures to pinch itself into two daughter cells at the end of each cell division, ...
Biologists Unravel Key Events of Cell Division - The New York Times
... at least a trillion cells divide. White blood cells proliferate into fresh legions of T cells, B cells, macrophages and other ... Cell division is synonymous with life.. The mystery of how a cell knows when to divide and when to cease division is one of the ... The hormones would prompt a cell to divide by linking to receptors, proteins studding the surface of the cell that are designed ... How then could it know the difference between a quiet cell, a dividing cell, or a cell somewhere in between? Two Proteins Must ...
Sugar Helps Control Cell Division
Johns Hopkins scientists have discovered that a deceptively simple sugar is in fact a critical regulator of cells natural life ... and found at locations important for various steps in cell division to figure out why an imbalance of O-GlcNAc on the cells ... The comings and goings of the sugar on proteins seem to be important controllers of cell division, say the researchers. ... this process could contribute to cancer or other diseases by failing to properly control the steps and timing of cell division ...
cell division | Journal of Bacteriology
Escherichia coli cells divide using a cytokinetic ring composed of polymers of the tubulin-like FtsZ. To function properly, ... encoding the central organizer of cell division that directs cell wall synthesis in the division septum. These Gram-negative ... Division without Binary Fission: Cell Division in the FtsZ-Less Chlamydia Chlamydia is an obligate intracellular bacterial ... Regulation of Cell Division in Bacteria by Monitoring Genome Integrity and DNA Replication Status All organisms regulate cell ...
Proteins strangle cell during division
Cell division is the process whereby the two daughter cells are separated. It is striking that these cell division proteins are ... Archaea »Division »ESCRT »HIV »NWO »PNAS »Protein »Sulfolobus acidocaldarius »acidocaldarius »cell division »discovered » ... not related to other proteins known to be involved in cell division. Some of the proteins in the new type of cell division are ... The band then squeezes the cell into two so that two new daughter cells are formed. At first it looks like mitosis, as ...
Cell Division Charts | Carolina.com
Two 18 x 24 charts detail mitotic and meiotic cell division in both plants and animals. Mitosis features color illustrations ... of lily pollen and color diagrams of centrioles and asters found only in animal cells. Both charts are laminated. ... Two 18 x 24" charts detail mitotic and meiotic cell division in both plants and animals. Mitosis features color illustrations ... Two 18 x 24" charts detail mitotic and meiotic cell division in both plants and animals. Mitosis features color illustrations ...
The Art of Cell Division
... multi-national research effort that aims to deepen our understanding of how cells divide. To make this project more accessible ... cell division , cellular mechanism , communication process , human cell , synthetic biology , systems biology of mitosis ... He has received a number of awards for his research on cell division, including the EMBO Young Investigator Award, the Novartis ... Further reports about: , IMP , Merit Award , MitoSys , Mitocheck , Molecular Target , Molecular machines , Pathology , cell ...
cell division Archives - Discoblog : Discoblog
Cell division - Wikipedia
Cell division is the process by which a parent cell divides into two or more daughter cells. Cell division usually occurs as ... Also, the pattern of cell division that transforms eukaryotic stem cells into gametes (sperm cells in males or egg cells in ... Multicellular organisms replace worn-out cells through cell division. In some animals, however, cell division eventually halts ... How Cells Divide: Mitosis vs. Meiosis. *The Mitosis and Cell Cycle Control Section from the Landmark Papers in Cell Biology ( ...
Cell division - Wikipedia
Cell division is the process by which a parent cell divides into two or more daughter cells. Cell division usually occurs as ... Also, the pattern of cell division that transforms eukaryotic stem cells into gametes (sperm cells in males or egg cells in ... ISBN 0-674-30692-9 Cell division: binary fission and mitosis How Cells Divide: Mitosis vs. Meiosis The Mitosis and Cell Cycle ... Multicellular organisms replace worn-out cells through cell division. In some animals, however, cell division eventually halts ...
IP, IT and life sciences: The great cell divide | LegalWeek
The patentability of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) is a subject that has been taxing patent authorities and practitioners ... IP, IT and life sciences: The great cell divide. The patentability of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) is a subject that has ... Stem cells are animal cells that remain undifferentiated (i.e. not developed into a cell of a particular organ or structure in ... even after many cell-division cycles. They only differentiate into mature cells of a particular type after exposure to ...
Flatworms Defy Aging Through Cell Division Tricks - Slashdot
... allowing stem cells to maintain their telomeres as they divide to replace missing tissues." ... Flatworms Defy Aging Through Cell Division Tricks 106 Posted by Unknown Lamer on Tuesday February 28, 2012 @12:06AM. from the ... I am wondering now how Humans survive for more than 50 generations, since gametes are also fomred by cell division. ... Research Council and may shed light on the possibilities of alleviating aging and age-related characteristics in human cells." ...
Flatworms Defy Aging Through Cell Division Tricks - Slashdot
In general, fatal mutations dont matter, the stem cell will just divide again (or be dead), and cells are specialized so only ... Flatworms Defy Aging Through Cell Division Tricks 106 Posted by Unknown Lamer on Tuesday February 28, 2012 @12:06AM. from the ... Still, you dont want too many errors in your cell replication control genes (i.e. protooncogenes ==, cancer), nor can cells ... Furthermore, cells work together, so if two nearby cells have different lineages then they have different errors, and can ...
html - How to merge div cells - Stack Overflow
... div, ,div id=D_Cell_3 class=dcell,Application Deadline,/div, ,div id=D_Cell_4 class=dcell,22.04.2012,/div, ,/div, ,/div ... div id=control_panel_wrapper class=drow, ,div id=D_Cell_1 class=dcell,Title,/div, ,div id=D_Cell_2 class=dcell, ... div class=dtable, ,div id=bottom_wrapper class=drow, ,div id=Description class=dcell,Description,/div, ,div id=Des_ ... Sed consequat, leo eget bibendum sodales, augue velit cursus nunc,,/div, ,/div, ,/div,. ...
Cell division | Biology | Science | Khan Academy
Cell division orientation - Wikipedia
Cell division orientation is the direction along which the new daughter cells are formed. Cell division orientation is ... Along with cell shape changes, cell rearrangements, apoptosis and growth, oriented cell division modifies the geometry and ... Factors that influence cell division orientation are cell shape , anisotropic localization of specific proteins and mechanical ... More than a century ago Oskar Hertwig proposed that the cell division orientation is determined by the shape of the cell (1884 ...
TumorAsymmetric stem cell divisionSymmetric cell divisionCytokinesisChromosomeMembraneAsymmetric cell divReplicationMeiosisGeneticGrowthDaughter cellsCell'sCytoplasmAnaphaseEukaryotic cellMolecularScientistsYeastCleavage furrowOrganismsResearchersProcessReplicateDifferentiationMicrotubulesProphaseMechanismEukaryotesBacteriaProcessesAbnormalRegulateMeiotic cell divisionMitotic cell divisionSpermMutationsStem cell transplantBinary FissionOrganellesOpposite poles of the cellMoleculesTelomeresEmbryoChromatidsStructuresMitosis in human cellsEnzymesIdentical cellsProgenitor cellsCancer
- Although a number of molecules have been implicated in regulation of asymmetric stem cell division, here, we highlight known tumor suppressors with established roles in this process. (elsevier.com)
- Mutations in tumor suppressors involved in asymmetric stem cell division provide mechanisms by which cancer stem cells can hyperproliferate and offer an intriguing new focus for understanding cancer biology. (elsevier.com)
Asymmetric stem cell division1
Symmetric cell division1
- The cell is actually split in two in a process called cytokinesis, in which the cellular membrane is pinched in the middle like a balloon squeezed in the center. (encyclopedia.com)
- Cytokinesis then divides the rest of the cell, and two identical cells result. (encyclopedia.com)
- And this is what the cell does using Topo 2", explains Manuel Mendoza, head of the Coordination of Cytokinesis with Chromosome Segregation group at the CRG. (eurekalert.org)
- Since other cells, including human cells, depend on similar proteins for cytokinesis [cell division], it is entirely possible that they use the same strategy. (eurekalert.org)
- Bacterial cell division is essential and requires the recruitment and regulation of a complex network of proteins needed to initiate and guide constriction and cytokinesis. (asm.org)
- Interphase is the process a cell must go through before mitosis, meiosis, and cytokinesis . (wikipedia.org)
- After the cell proceeds successfully through the M phase, it may then undergo cell division through cytokinesis. (wikipedia.org)
- At the peak of the cyclin attached to the cyclin dependent kinases this system pushes the cell out of interphase and into the M phase, where mitosis, meiosis, and cytokinesis occur. (wikipedia.org)
- Mitosis is specifically the division happening of the nucleus whereas cytokinesis follows to do the actual splitting of the cell (mentioned at 7:30 ). (youtube.com)
- Both the cell-free egg extract system and embryos recruit critical signaling molecules necessary for cytokinesis signaling. (phys.org)
- The name given to this process by those early biologists, cytokinesis, translates as "cell movement" and captures the sense of a highly active and organized series of events. (phys.org)
- Now Harvard Medical School systems biologists report in Science that they have reconstituted cytokinesis-complete with signals that direct molecular traffic-without the cell. (phys.org)
- Quickly removing and returning proteins to see how changes in the molecular players affect cytokinesis is impossible when the cell is whole, but easy when the cellular innards are spread out on a microscope slide. (phys.org)
- The key challenge, though, was that the behavior of cytokinesis is entirely dependent on having a membrane to furrow-and membranes are exactly what have to be removed to make the system cell-free. (phys.org)
- To really prove that we reconstituted the cytokinesis signal, we needed to add the bilayer membrane and then see if it could recruit the proteins that would be on the cortex of the cell," Field said about the specialized layer beneath the cell membrane. (phys.org)
- Mitosis and cytokinesis, the period of active cell division, is followed by a period of non-division known as interphase. (abpischools.org.uk)
- Along with cytokinesis (the division of the rest of a cell), mitosis results in a parent cell dividing into two daughter cells. (pbs.org)
- Nuclear division divides the genetic material in the nucleus, while cytokinesis divides the cytoplasm. (cliffsnotes.com)
- Simultaneously, cytokinesis occurs, dividing the cytoplasm into two cells. (cliffsnotes.com)
- This led Flemming to discover the cell process that we call mitosis: division of the eukaryotic cell nucleus that occurs just prior to cytokinesis , which is the division of the cell itself. (visionlearning.com)
- This occurs at a precise stage cytokinesis when the cell splits into two new daughter cells. (nanowerk.com)
- Division is a complex and robust process that is generally performed flawlessly, but when an error occurs in DNA separation or during cytokinesis, it can be a source for triggering cancer, for example, said Hickson. (nanowerk.com)
- When DNA is replicated before the cell divides, each chromosome has two identical copies of DNA called sister chromatids. (encyclopedia.com)
- It is a two-step process that reduces the chromosome number by half-from 46 to 23-to form sperm and egg cells. (medlineplus.gov)
- Errors in cell division can cause mutations that lead to cancer, and this study could shed light on the role of chromosome abnormalities in uncontrolled cell replication. (redorbit.com)
- Once the whole chromosome has been replicated, these three proteins form a band-like structure over the cell equator. (innovations-report.com)
- 2) Our video is intended to focus on animal cells (as drawn) - specifically human cells - as we use human chromosome numbers. (youtube.com)
- During meiosis, the genetic material replicates and is divided between daughter cells so that each gamete contains a single copy of each chromosome instead of two copies. (reference.com)
- Most eukaryotic cells have 2 copies of every chromosome. (prezi.com)
- Early during cell division, each chromosome is duplicated and split into two identical copies known as chromatids, which must be sorted and organized to ensure that new cells receive a single copy of each chromosome. (news-medical.net)
- by the end of this phase each chromosome in the cell consists of two chromatids attached at the centromere. (flashcardmachine.com)
- In order to replicate its entire DNA, that is to say nearly 6.4 billion pairs of nucleotides in just a few hours, the cell organizes the preparation of this process at thousands of sites on each chromosome simultaneously. (eurasiareview.com)
- A complete chromosome set must be apportioned to each daughter cell during cell division. (sciencemag.org)
- Phosphorylation of the chromatin protein histone H2A plays a critical role in chromosome segregation during cell division. (sciencemag.org)
- It appears that cells lacking pericentrin have abnormal chromosome segregation, which leads, in some fraction of cells, to arrest of the cell cycle and possibly cell death. (gnxp.com)
- Now researchers from the European Molecular Biology Laboratory for the first time tracked chromosome condensation in mammalian cells over the entire course of cell division. (brightsurf.com)
- In this week's advanced online publication of Nature Cell Biology they report crucial new insights into timing, function and molecular basis of chromosome condensation. (brightsurf.com)
- In Drosophila and also in humans impairment of chromosome segregation during cell division may contribute to disease and birth defects. (healthcanal.com)
- Thus, errors in centromere function can lead to chromosome instability and aberrant cell division, both of which are often observed in cancer cells. (healthcanal.com)
- Several other proteins are involved in different steps of the cell division process such as site selection (Min proteins, Noc, SlmA) and chromosome segregation (Smc proteins) (for review see Goehring and Beckwith, 2005). (scielo.br)
- Somatic cells (all body cells except eggs and sperm) are diploid cells because each cell contains two copies of every chromosome. (cliffsnotes.com)
- It is a huge challenge to divide these long tangled chromosome strands correctly. (ed.ac.uk)
- In biochemical experiments where you look at an average of what is going on in all cells of a population, that synchrony meant we could see every step along the pathway of chromosome formation. (ed.ac.uk)
- may or may not be accompanied by the physical separation of a cell into distinct, individually membrane-bounded daughter cells. (wikimedia.org)
- It constricts the cell membrane into a cleavage furrow that eventually pinches the cell in two. (eurekalert.org)
- Time-lapse imaging and computer modeling demonstrated that cells undergoing mitosis set up small clusters of proteins, or nodes, on the inside of the cell membrane around the equator of the cell. (eurekalert.org)
- What kind of molecules pass through a cell membrane most easily? (reference.com)
- The type of molecules that pass most readily through a cell membrane are nonpolar molecules, such as water, oxygen, carbon dioxide and fatty substrates. (reference.com)
- Combining frog-egg extracts with lipid membranes that mimic the membrane of the cell, they built a cell-free system that recapitulates how the cleavage furrow is assembled. (phys.org)
- What made this work possible was the realization that a controlled, flat membrane-made from two layers of artificial lipid supported on glass-could substitute for the curved, constantly moving and complex membrane of the cell. (phys.org)
- The final component was the model of the cell membrane. (phys.org)
- The outer membrane furrows and seems to pinch in, but ultimately does not close itself off to form two complete cells. (wisconline.com)
- The red outer membrane is complete around each new cell, while the green midbody still remains between them. (wisconline.com)
- published recently in the electronic journal eLife, has revealed that in the sea squirt embryo, the orientation of the cell division machinery in epithelial cells is controlled by a unique cell membrane structure, which we call an 'invagination. (brightsurf.com)
- This protein polymerizes to form the Z-ring, a structure associated to the cytosolic face of the inner membrane at midcell and essential for recruitment of other proteins to the division site. (scielo.br)
- As the microfilaments shorten, they act like purse strings to pull the plasma membrane into the center, dividing the cell into two daughter cells. (cliffsnotes.com)
- During such a division process, the outer cell membrane has to undergo a series of morphological transformations that ultimately lead to membrane fission. (mpg.de)
- Division process of an artificial cell (red), which is controlled by the protein concentration (green) in the outer aqueous solution: (I) Low protein concentrations induce a prolate or dumbbell shape of the cell with a wide membrane neck. (mpg.de)
- A further increase in the protein concentration leads to a closed membrane neck in (II) and to a curvature-induced constriction force that cleaves this neck in (III), thereby creating two separate daughter cells. (mpg.de)
- These cells are provided by giant lipid vesicles, which have the size of a typical animal cell and are bounded by a single lipid membrane, which provides a robust and stable barrier between the interior and exterior aqueous solution. (mpg.de)
- On the one hand, artificial cells with a wide membrane neck remain stable for days and weeks. (mpg.de)
- On the other hand, as soon as the neck has closed down the membrane generates a constriction force onto this neck that cleaves the neck and divides the artificial cell into two daughter cells. (mpg.de)
- Furthermore, once a closed membrane neck has been formed, the spontaneous curvature generates a local constriction force that leads to the division of these cells. (mpg.de)
- Thus, quite surprisingly, the complete division of the artificial cells is driven by the mechanical properties of the membranes: the force that divides the membrane neck arises directly from the asymmetry of the bilayer membranes. (mpg.de)
- Furthermore, the used density of the membrane-bound proteins was rather low which leaves ample space for other proteins to be accommodated on the artificial cell membranes. (mpg.de)
- DHODH also binds a lipid in the cell's mitochondrial respiratory chain complex, suggesting the enzyme might use special lipids to locate the correct binding site on the cell membrane, Landreh said. (fiercebiotech.com)
Asymmetric cell div5
- In Drosophila, this process has been analyzed in great detail and several of the key players that control asymmetric cell division in the developing nervous system have been identified over the past years. (nih.gov)
- Asymmetric cell division in vertebrate neurogenesis has been studied mostly at a descriptive level and so far little is known about the molecular mechanisms that control this process. (nih.gov)
- In this review we will focus on recent findings dealing with asymmetric cell division during neurogenesis in Drosophila and vertebrates and will discuss common principles and apparent differences between both systems. (nih.gov)
- Hawkins ED, Russell SM (2008) Upsides and downsides to polarity and asymmetric cell division in leukemia. (springer.com)
- Pham K, Sacirbegovic F, Russell SM (2014) Polarized cells, polarized views: asymmetric cell division in hematopoietic cells. (springer.com)
- All organisms regulate cell cycle progression by coordinating cell division with DNA replication status. (asm.org)
- In eukaryotes, DNA damage or problems with replication fork progression induce the DNA damage response (DDR), causing cyclin-dependent kinases to remain active, preventing further cell cycle progression until replication and repair are complete. (asm.org)
- Meiosis results in four haploid daughter cells by undergoing one round of DNA replication followed by two divisions. (wikipedia.org)
- All cell divisions, regardless of organism, are preceded by a single round of DNA replication . (wikipedia.org)
- G 1 is a time of growth for the cell where specialized cellular functions occur in order to prepare the cell for DNA Replication. (wikipedia.org)
- In humans, telomeres limit cells to ~50 divisions, which is probably related to how DNA replication is only 99.9998% accurate. (slashdot.org)
- Human DNA replication (in normal cells with no damage) is 99.99999999% accurate (i.e. about 1 mutation per 10^-10 base pairs). (slashdot.org)
- This consists of isolating and sequencing the newly synthesized DNA from cells that have just entered the replication phase, in order to map on the genome the sites where replication has begun. (eurasiareview.com)
- Initially, the cell identifies all potential replication origins with a molecular marker. (eurasiareview.com)
- We have discovered that in normal cells, the aberrant replication origins are subsequently eliminated. (eurasiareview.com)
- The activation of the oncogenes Cyclin E or Myc, on the other hand, induces the cells to begin replication of their DNA prematurely, without having had time to eliminate all the replication origins present in the genes. (eurasiareview.com)
- Our earlier data showed that cancer cells utilize this unusual form of DNA replication far more often than normal cells, because cancer cells have a lot of 'replication stress' in S-phase due to the cell division cycle being perturbed by the over-activity of cancer-causing genes called oncogenes,' says Ian Hickson. (news-medical.net)
- MiDAS helps cells to finish DNA replication that is not completed in S-phase. (news-medical.net)
- Cell division and replication are fundamental biological processes that occur in all organisms. (alison.com)
- And without DNA replication, cell division would not occur. (icr.org)
- Meiosis is the process of cellular division that produces the gametes which take part in sexual reproduction. (encyclopedia.com)
- Where mitosis produces two daughter cells from one mother cell, meiosis produces four daughter cells from one mother cell. (encyclopedia.com)
- Meiosis II is similar to mitosis - sister chromatids split apart into new cells - and the same steps occur in the same order. (encyclopedia.com)
- There are two types of cell division: mitosis and meiosis. (medlineplus.gov)
- Meiosis is the type of cell division that creates egg and sperm cells. (medlineplus.gov)
- Meiosis also allows genetic variation through a process of DNA shuffling while the cells are dividing. (medlineplus.gov)
- Mitosis and meiosis, the two types of cell division. (medlineplus.gov)
- North Dakota State University's Virtual Cell Animation Collection offers videos that illustrate the processes of mitosis and meiosis . (medlineplus.gov)
- The other type of cell division is called meiosis, and it is how the body produces eggs or sperm. (reference.com)
- Meiosis features color photomicrographs (2,400x) of lily pollen and color diagrams of centrioles and asters found only in animal cells. (carolina.com)
- The M phase, can be either mitosis or meiosis depending on the type of cell. (wikipedia.org)
- Germ cells , or gametes, undergo meiosis, while somatic cells will undergo mitosis. (wikipedia.org)
- 10) is parent cell pat of meiosis? (smore.com)
- Meiosis is the type of cell division that produces gametes, the reproductive cells of a sexually reproducing organism. (reference.com)
- Meiosis only occurs in primordial germ cells in the reproductive organs and not in somatic cells, which make up the majority of the cells in the body. (reference.com)
- In males, meiosis is called spermatogenesis because it produces sperm cells. (reference.com)
- Maternal age and environmental factors may contribute to meiosis errors, although in some cases errors occur simply as a result of natural inefficiencies in the process of cell division. (reference.com)
- Meiosis produces four gamete cells. (reference.com)
- In contrast, meiosis is a reduction division, producing daughter cells that contain half the genetic information of the parent cell. (cliffsnotes.com)
- Each new cell has exactly the same genetic material (DNA) as the cell that produced it. (encyclopedia.com)
- Because each gamete has half the genetic material of the mother cell, this fusion results in a zygote with the correct amount of genetic material. (encyclopedia.com)
- It involves a fairly complex process known as "mitosis", during which the cell duplicates its genetic material and separates it into two identical halves, which are then split apart. (eurekalert.org)
- Prokaryotes ( bacteria ) undergo a vegetative cell division known as binary fission , where their genetic material is segregated equally into two daughter cells. (wikipedia.org)
- A change in the arrangement or amount of genetic material in a cell. (abpischools.org.uk)
- Recent genetic studies have shown that the function of Cdc42 in regulating cell polarity appears highly conserved from budding yeast to humans. (springer.com)
- The genetic information within each of these daughter cells is identical. (pbs.org)
- Two is important," Megraw said, "because you divide your genetic material into two equal sets. (scienceblog.com)
- Human cells use a timer to divide: each cell gets at least 30 minutes to divide its genetic material between the nuclei of two daughter cells. (brightsurf.com)
- In doing so, cells have to produce a copy of their genetic material (DNA) and separate it into two identical sets, one for each daughter cell. (healthcanal.com)
- Given the essential roles of the centromeric CenH3 during cell division and the similarities in centromeric structure and function observed among all eukaryotes, the insights into Drosophila centromere stability provided by Azorín's group may contribute to our understanding of the genetic basis of cancer. (healthcanal.com)
- When trying to divide and produce two daughters, one problem the cell has is there is such a huge length of DNA encoding our genetic blueprint. (ed.ac.uk)
- These must be duplicated prior to division so that each of the daughter cells can receive a full complement of identical genetic material. (ed.ac.uk)
- Cellular division has three main functions: (1) the reproduction of an entire unicellular organism, (2) the growth and repair of tissues in multicellular animals, and (3) the formation of gametes (eggs and sperm) for sexual reproduction in multicellular animals. (encyclopedia.com)
- The growth of a fertilized embryo is accomplished through the division and differentiation of cells, a. (bookrags.com)
- These fundamental discoveries have a great impact on all aspects of cell growth" and "may in the long term open new possibilities for cancer treatment," said the prize citation. (newscientist.com)
- Focusing on Escherichia coli in steady growth, we quantify cell division control using a stochastic model, by inferring the division rate as a function of the observable parameters from large empirical datasets of dividing cells. (pnas.org)
- Cell division control couples growth and division, influencing most aspects of cellular physiology ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
- Cells can only reach a certain size due to a lack of balanced growth between their parts, so they have to divide once they reach a certain point. (reference.com)
- By combining discoveries about the growth signals that bombard the cell from the outside with knowledge of the internal machinery that orchestrates growth, scientists hope to form a complete and finely detailed portrait of the dividing cell. (nytimes.com)
- After growth, cell division by mitosis allows for continual construction and repair of the organism. (wikipedia.org)
- During G 2 , the cell undergoes the final stages of growth before it enters the M phase, where spindles are synthesized. (wikipedia.org)
- G1 is a time of growth for the cell. (wikipedia.org)
- During G2, the cell undergoes the final stages of growth before it enters the M phase. (wikipedia.org)
- Along with cell shape changes, cell rearrangements, apoptosis and growth, oriented cell division modifies the geometry and topology of live tissue in order to create new organs and shape the organisms. (wikipedia.org)
- Cell division has three purposes for an organism: reproduction, growth and maintenance. (reference.com)
- Microbial population growth is typically measured when cells can be directly observed, or when death is rare. (mendeley.com)
- Here we introduce a new method (distributed cell division counting, DCDC) that uses the accurate segregation at cell division of genetically encoded fluorescent particles to measure microbial growth rates. (mendeley.com)
- Each component of the telomerase complex was studied during cell growth and division in yeast used to make wine and bread. (ibtimes.co.uk)
- In this stem cell from bone marrow are injected into a recipient after treating them with growth factor. (medindia.net)
- As the number of cycles increases, the number of cells jumps drastically, making it hard to visualize the growth rate. (dummies.com)
- During the G 2 period of growth, materials for the next mitotic division are prepared. (cliffsnotes.com)
- The researchers say their findings, described in a pair of papers published in the journals eLife (" Biochemical reconstitution of branching microtubule nucleation ") and Nature Communications (" Phase separation of TPX2 enhances and spatially coordinates microtubule nucleation "), are a key step toward recreating the entire cell division machinery and could lead to new therapies aimed at preventing the growth of cancer cells. (genengnews.com)
- Furthermore, the proliferation and growth of these organisms is based on the ability of each cell to divide into two daughter cells. (mpg.de)
- Cells carry on the many functions needed to sustain life, including cell growth and development. (nsta.org)
- The Cell Division and Differentiation Enhanced E-boo*k explores these cellular processes for growth and development, including the selective expression of specific genes, which allow for the differentiation and specialization of cells. (nsta.org)
- We use Drosophila to unveil the basic principles that govern cell proliferation and malignant growth. (irbbarcelona.org)
- The molecular basis of the contribution of germline functions to malignant growth in Drosophila somatic cells " (ONCOGERM), cofinanciado por el Ministerio de Economía, Industria y Competitividad - Agencia Estatal de Investigación y el Fondo Europeo de Desarrollo Regional (FEDER) de la Unión Europea. (irbbarcelona.org)
- Targeting cell division is an attractive approach to slowing or preventing cancer growth. (fiercebiotech.com)
- Researchers from Sweden and the U.K. have devised a new method to curb cancer growth by shutting down a single enzyme and stopping cells from dividing. (fiercebiotech.com)
- Attacking cell division to slow cancer growth is a popular idea, for the simple reason that the abnormal growth of cells is the very definition of cancer. (fiercebiotech.com)
- In cooperation with various institutes for material research we are investigating how biomaterials, surface topography, and elasticity impact on growth and differentiation of stem cells. (ukaachen.de)
- When cells divide, two daughter cells are produced from one mother cell. (encyclopedia.com)
- Mitosis is the process of cellular division that produces identical daughter cells from one mother cell. (encyclopedia.com)
- Cells reproduce by splitting and passing on their genes (hereditary information) to Daughter cells. (bookrags.com)
- New Haven, Conn. -- Time-lapse videos and computer simulations provide the first concrete molecular explanation of how a cell flexes tiny muscle-like structures to pinch itself into two daughter cells at the end of each cell division, according to a report in Science Express. (eurekalert.org)
- Living cells divide into two daughter cells to reproduce themselves. (eurekalert.org)
- The band then squeezes the cell into two so that two new daughter cells are formed. (innovations-report.com)
- Cell division is the process whereby the two daughter cells are separated. (innovations-report.com)
- Cell division is the process by which a parent cell divides into two or more daughter cells. (wikipedia.org)
- 7) is 2 daughter cells part of phase? (smore.com)
- Cell division orientation is the direction along which the new daughter cells are formed. (wikipedia.org)
- The enzyme was previously known only for its involvement in cell division, or mitosis, a process that involves the creation of two daughter cells from one parental cell. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- A cleavage furrow begins to separate a dividing cell into daughter cells. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
- In eukaryotic organisms, mitosis results in two daughter cells with identical copies of the parent cell DNA. (abpischools.org.uk)
- in animal cells the cleavage furrow continure pinching together and eventually drawing together completely separating the cell into two distinct daughter cells. (flashcardmachine.com)
- When a cell divides into two daughter cells, it must replicate its entire genome and transcribe part of it to make new proteins. (eurasiareview.com)
- The two most important are S-phase when the cell's DNA is duplicated or replicated, and mitosis when the duplicated DNA is divided equally between the two daughter cells. (news-medical.net)
- From bacteria to humans, all forms of life are based on the capacity of one cell to divide into two or more identical daughter cells. (healthcanal.com)
- One cell replicates itself and splits into two daughter cells, enabling an organism to develop, grow, and replace cells in its body. (icr.org)
- Max Planck scientists uncover a novel and generic mechanism for the division of artificial cells into two daughter cells. (mpg.de)
- The success of life on earth is based on the amazing ability of living cells to divide themselves into two daughter cells. (mpg.de)
- The primary concern of cell division is the maintenance of the original cell's genome . (wikipedia.org)
- In the long run, a full overview of all the cell's proteins will allow us to see how different important processes of life, like cell division and cell death for example, are linked to one another. (europa.eu)
- Second, the cytoplasm (the rest of the content of the cell) is divided. (encyclopedia.com)
- African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis) egg-extract preparation involves collecting unfertilized eggs, crushing them, and separating out fractions of the cytoplasm through centrifugation, a process that divides membranes, organelles and cytoplasm by density. (phys.org)
- To maintain a healthy balance of cells in the body, it is important that before cells divide they are the right size with plenty of cytoplasm and replicated organelles, that the DNA has replicated and is error free (or any errors have been repaired) and that once mitosis gets under way, the pairs of chromatids are attached to the spindle in the correct positions by the centromere. (abpischools.org.uk)
- Anaphase B is just one part of the complex molecular choreography that is cell division. (redorbit.com)
- He wanted to understand what happens during Anaphase B. So his team, led by postdoctoral fellow Chuanhai Fu, PhD, began systematically mutating molecular motors in the fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe and then clocking each mutant's cell division. (redorbit.com)
- Only in cells containing mutant Klp9p was Anaphase B significantly slower. (redorbit.com)
- Now, however, "we have a very detailed and complete description of four molecules" -- Klp9p, Ase1p, Cdc2p, and Clp1p "" each playing a role in one aspect of cellular division, Anaphase B. (redorbit.com)
- The 2001 Nobel prize for physiology or medicine has been awarded for research on the molecular elements that control cell division. (newscientist.com)
- And lately, through an extraordinary convergence of research from a broad spectrum of disciplines, scientists have made enormous progress in unraveling the pivotal molecular events that control cell division. (nytimes.com)
- Working in yeast, the C. elegans worm and human cells, Cheeseman has helped to identify dozens of the kinetochore's molecular components and their specific roles. (news-medical.net)
- Through its research, CohesinMolMech (Molecular mechanisms of cohesin-mediated sister chromatid cohesion and chromatin organization) aims to advance our understanding of cell division, chromatin structure and gene regulation. (europa.eu)
- In addition, vesicle and cell membranes have essentially the same molecular architecture and consist of molecular bilayers with two molecular leaflets that define the two sides of the membranes: the inner leaflet is exposed to the interior, the outer leaflet to the exterior solution. (mpg.de)
- We have been watching cells divide for more than 100 years, but we continue to seek to understand the molecular mechanisms involved. (nanowerk.com)
- For example, stem cells divide asymmetrically, while most other cells divide symmetrically, and we still do not understand these differences in molecular terms. (nanowerk.com)
- Our research focusses on molecular mechanisms that regulate human stem cells, particularly hematopoietic stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells, and induced pluripotent stem cells. (ukaachen.de)
- We are working on optimized culture conditions and definition of molecular markers for quality control of mesenchymal stem cells. (ukaachen.de)
- Aging of the organism as well as replicative senescence during culture expansion of stem cells is associated with various functional and molecular changes. (ukaachen.de)
- Scientists have long studied aspects of how cells actually make this division -- the structure of the cellular machinery, how it assembles and how the machine works. (eurekalert.org)
- The paired proteins seem to work by altering the shapes and duties of a string of other proteins in the cell, and scientists have identified many of those target proteins. (nytimes.com)
- Scientists have now learned much more about the proteins involved and their behavior, and yet a central mystery remains: How does the cell signal where the furrow should be? (phys.org)
- The latest cell research engaged in by scientists has helped immensely in finding a possible cure for cancer. (i4u.com)
- Cell structure has aided scientists in finding the ins and outs of cancer and cancerous growths in humans. (i4u.com)
- Scientists have been looking at cells since the 17th Century and so to find something that no-one has seen before is amazing. (i4u.com)
- The scientists published their study in the journal Developmental Cell . (brightsurf.com)
- By controlling the enzyme telomerase which directs the division, scientists now hope to be able to delay or trigger cell division. (ibtimes.co.uk)
- Scientists at Salk Institute have found a cellular switch that could be controlled to encourage cells to divide and generate in old age, while preventing some others like cancer cells from dividing. (ibtimes.co.uk)
- Scientists at the Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation have discovered a way in which cells duplicate themselves accurately and completely. (journalrecord.com)
- The Indian Council of Medical Research and the Department of Biotechnology have jointly formulated guidelines for stem cell research and therapy to help experts and scientists working in the field conduct research responsibly and ethically sensitive manner. (medindia.net)
- While up to now most research laboratories have focused on single proteins in living cells, scientists working on the EU-funded iNEXT and CohesinMolMech projects have taken a more comprehensive approach. (europa.eu)
- Scientists at the Max Planck Institute of Colloids and Interfaces, Potsdam, and at the Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research, Mainz, have now achieved unprecedented control over these shape transformations and the resulting division process by anchoring low densities of proteins to the artificial cell membranes. (mpg.de)
- Scientists in the preceding years had already been seeing faint structures in cells , but their dyes were not good enough to reveal what any of these structures did. (visionlearning.com)
- Throughout the 19th century, as microscopes developed, scientists had been seeing clues of structures in dividing cells of eukaryotes . (visionlearning.com)
- Scientists at the Oxford Institute for Radiation Oncology and Cancer Research UK created radiation-carrying gold nanoparticles that target cell division by entering cells and shutting down telomerase. (fiercebiotech.com)
- In one-celled organisms like yeast, each cell division yields a new creature. (eurekalert.org)
- We found that fission yeast cells assemble their contractile ring using a 'search, capture, pull and release' mechanism," said Pollard. (eurekalert.org)
- Future work will involve testing the concepts learned from fission yeast in other cells to learn if the mechanism is universal," said Pollard. (eurekalert.org)
- This link between Bub1, histone H2A phosphorylation, and shugoshin is conserved in budding yeast and mammalian cells. (sciencemag.org)
- Some bacteria and fungi, like yeast, form new cells through budding. (dummies.com)
- In single-cell organisms like protists, mitosis produces two whole organisms. (encyclopedia.com)
- Why are cells important for living organisms? (reference.com)
- Cells are important for living organisms because cells are the basic building blocks from which all organisms are created. (reference.com)
- On a larger scale, mitotic cell division can create progeny from multicellular organisms, such as plants that grow from cuttings. (wikipedia.org)
- Mitotic cell division enables sexually reproducing organisms to develop from the one-celled zygote , which itself was produced by meiotic cell division from gametes . (wikipedia.org)
- Whenever multicellular organisms grow, more cells are required. (abpischools.org.uk)
- A novel connection between primordial organisms and complex life has been discovered, as new evidence sheds light on the evolutionary origins of the cell division process that is fundamental to complex life on Earth. (brightsurf.com)
- Observing the cell in its native state: Imaging subcellular dynamics in multicellular organisms," bioRxiv , doi:10.1101/243352, 2018. (the-scientist.com)
- All living organisms on earth are built up from individual cells. (mpg.de)
- The discovery reveals that, when disturbed, this process could contribute to cancer or other diseases by failing to properly control the steps and timing of cell division, the researchers say. (medindia.net)
- The comings and goings of the sugar on proteins seem to be important controllers of cell division, say the researchers. (medindia.net)
- The researchers' next steps are to examine select proteins modified by O-GlcNAc and found at locations important for various steps in cell division to figure out why an imbalance of O-GlcNAc on the cells' proteins has such a dramatic effect on the process. (medindia.net)
- With the use of immunofluorescence the researchers determined the location of these proteins in the cell and in doing so discovered that three proteins play a crucial role in the cell division of Sulfolobus acidocaldarius. (innovations-report.com)
- UT Southwestern Medical Center and California researchers provide the first report that an enzyme previously known solely for its role in cell division also acts as an on-off switch in the innate immune system -- the body's first defense against infection. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Researchers are in desperate need of single-cell analysis techniques and those that allow the isolation of high-value T-cells for research and development. (news-medical.net)
- This cell-free system has two huge advantages: It expands the scale of the furrow-building events, making them easier to see, and it gives the researchers an easy way to manipulate the proteins involved. (phys.org)
- However, when researchers at California Institute of Technology observed this step using their new technique, what they saw was not the usual cell division. (photonics.com)
- The researchers are now using the same method to try to image human cells. (photonics.com)
- In the new study, which is a continuation of the previous findings in the CCS, the researchers have primarily done tests on different types of cancer cells including bone, cervical and colon cancer. (news-medical.net)
- Researchers from the Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research at the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine, have uncovered a remarkable property of the contractile ring, a structure required for cell division. (brightsurf.com)
- Researchers at the University of Liverpool have resolved the debate over the mechanisms involved in the shut-down process during cell division in the body. (brightsurf.com)
- Researchers report in bioRxiv that they combined lattice light sheet microscopy, which increases the speed of image acquisition and reduces phototoxic damage to cells, with two-channel adaptive optics to image multiple cellular processes in vivo. (the-scientist.com)
- As the project's researchers explain in a paper published in the journal 'Nature', the model can also be used to study the role that proteins play in other cellular functions, such as cell death or the metastasis of cancer cells. (europa.eu)
- Reporting in the journal Cell , researchers found that a particular enzyme called Cdk operates as a master oscillator, undergoing rhythmic periods of activity. (icr.org)
- It turns out, however, that controlled division can be achieved in a much simpler way, as researchers at the Max Planck Institute of Colloids and Interfaces, Potsdam, and at the Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research, Mainz, have recently demonstrated for artificial cells. (mpg.de)
- In addition to demonstrating the division of artificial cells, the researchers around Reinhard Lipowsky also identified the novel mechanism, by which this constriction force can be controlled in a systematic manner. (mpg.de)
- Cell Division Cell division is the process by which an organism grows or replaces damaged tissue. (bookrags.com)
- Cell Division Cell division is the process where a single living cell splits to become two or more distinct new cells. (bookrags.com)
- Most of the time when people refer to "cell division," they mean mitosis, the process of making new body cells. (medlineplus.gov)
- The "help" which Topo2 receives comes from the microtubules, a type of tiny wire that makes up part of the mitotic spindle, a structure similar to a rugby ball that is created when the cell begins the process of duplication and division. (eurekalert.org)
- The process is akin to two children dividing up their Halloween candy: collect your candy, pile it in the middle, and divide it into two equal portions. (redorbit.com)
- Chlamydiae divide by a unique MreB-dependent polarized cell division process. (asm.org)
- Studying the process of cell division in Sulfolobus acidocaldarius could therefore lead to new insights into the processes involving ESCRT proteins, such as HIV particle release. (innovations-report.com)
- Mitosis: The Amazing Cell Process that Uses Division to Multiply! (youtube.com)
- In females, the process is called oogenesis because it produces egg cells, also known as ova. (reference.com)
- The majority of cells that build the nervous system of animals are generated early in embryonic development in a process called neurogenesis. (nih.gov)
- The cell has to monitor and control its activities to coordinate with the cell division process. (news-medical.net)
- Phys.org) -The process of cell division is central to life. (phys.org)
- They then mimicked fertilization and added labeled antibodies or proteins to visualize the self-organization of structures required for the cell division process, using fluorescence microscopy in ways that aren't possible with actual living cells in tissue cultures. (phys.org)
- Now, Professor Carl-Philipp Heisenberg and his team at the Institute of Science and Technology Austria discovered how mechanical tension from surrounding tissue influences the division process. (brightsurf.com)
- A study led by the Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona has determined the three-dimensional structure of certain proteins linked to the correct functioning of the cell division process: The LC8 and Nek9 pair. (brightsurf.com)
- She will grow and develop as new cells are formed by the process of mitosis (cell division). (abpischools.org.uk)
- Bacterial cell division has been studied mainly in model systems such as Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis , where it is described as a complex process with the participation of a group of proteins which assemble into a multiprotein complex called the septal ring. (scielo.br)
- Cell division in bacteria is a complex process involving the coordinated participation of a group of proteins which assemble at the division site into a multiprotein complex called the septal ring (for reviews see Errington et al . (scielo.br)
- Binary fission, which is used by many bacteria, is a process in which the growing cell first replicates its DNA and then the cell wall constricts, dividing the cell into two. (dummies.com)
- Their role in cell division is also especially important, since they control all parts of the process, from beginning to end. (europa.eu)
- By entering any combination of up to seven proteins, users will be able to see the relevant cell division process in real time. (europa.eu)
- How do cells keep all of this straight, and how do they continually repeat the process with such precision? (icr.org)
- The success of the process is crucial for any dividing cell, which includes all cells and therefore all living systems. (icr.org)
- 1 Cdk activates a host of subsidiary oscillators, each one in charge of activating a separate but necessary process at a distinct phase of cell division. (icr.org)
- We have found that neural stem cells originate tumours when the delicately balanced process of self-renewing asymmetric division is disrupted. (irbbarcelona.org)
- They were part of the life process of the cells . (visionlearning.com)
- It's important to remember that the process of cell division is cyclical, with one phase feeding into the next. (visionlearning.com)
- The discovery of this mechanism is a significant breakthrough in advancing knowledge about the cell division process. (nanowerk.com)
- Dexamethasone suppresses HMBA-mediated MELC differentiation, but MELC retain a memory for their exposure to HMBA since, on transfer from culture with HMBA and dexamethasone to medium without additions, a portion of the cells express characteristics of terminal differentiation. (pnas.org)
- We characterize how epigenetic changes are acquired during differentiation and how cell fate is regulated by external stimuli. (ukaachen.de)
- Cellular differentiation is governed by epigenetic changes - and hence the epigenetic makeup is ideally suited to characterize cells. (ukaachen.de)
- Pairs of sister chromatids split and are pulled to opposite sides of the cell by the microtubules. (encyclopedia.com)
- Microtubules pull each homologue to opposite sides of the cell. (encyclopedia.com)
- He also has started to define how the attachments between kinetochores and spindle microtubules are regulated throughout cell division. (news-medical.net)
- The microtubules that are part and parcel of the inner "bone-work" of the cell seem to be involved here. (i4u.com)
- Centrosomes organize microtubules, which are structures in the cell that many important anti-cancer drugs target. (scienceblog.com)
- A decline in stem cell function has been proposed to contribute to tissue ageing, although the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. (nature.com)
- The simulations show that cells use reaction rates that are nearly ideal to make this mechanism work on the time scale of the events in the cells. (eurekalert.org)
- A Swedish research group, partly financed by NWO, has discovered a new mechanism for cell division in a microorganism found in extremely hot and acidic conditions. (innovations-report.com)
- The new mechanism for cell division was discovered in Sulfolobus acidocaldarius, a microorganism found in hot springs in Yellowstone National Park. (innovations-report.com)
- And this is just one mechanism, tightly linked with many other major cell processes, that ensures cell division is properly regulated. (icr.org)
- In this way, a simple and generic mechanism for the division of artificial cells has been identified. (mpg.de)
- How does cell division provide for continuity of life processes in an individual and in a species? (prezi.com)
- FtsH and FtsY, even if they were initially identified by mutants that showed a filamentation phenotype, they are in fact involved in general processes that have pleiotropic effects on cell division (Tomoyasu et al . (scielo.br)
- Learn more about the biological processes of cell division. (alison.com)
- This course about cell division will explain the complex processes of cell division in detail. (alison.com)
- To make this possible, hundreds of different proteins work together in a single cell, driving its various processes. (europa.eu)
- Such evolutionary conservation from flies to humans is expected for processes as fundamental as cell division, he explained. (nanowerk.com)
- In fact, all cancers are characterised by unchecked cell division, and the underpinning processes are potential targets for therapeutic interventions that prevent cancer onset and spread. (nanowerk.com)
- But before we get there, we must continue to expand our knowledge about the basic processes and signals involved in normal cell division to understand how they can go awry, or how they can be exploited. (nanowerk.com)
- A mass of abnormal cells which keep multiplying in an uncontrolled way. (abpischools.org.uk)
- This abnormal cell division causes a tumor to develop. (eurasiareview.com)
- The health span of supercentenarians might be partly explained by the expansion of T cells that kill infected or abnormal cells. (pnas.org)
- In the case of cancer, this means that the cancer cell has the potential to become even more abnormal due to the new mutations,' Ying Liu explains. (news-medical.net)
Meiotic cell division1
Mitotic cell division2
- The 10 million Euro, five-year scientific project is a joint research effort, bringing together the expertise of thirteen European institutions and companies to generate a comprehensive mathematical understanding of mitotic cell division. (innovations-report.com)
- Mitotic cell division does not take place at random. (abpischools.org.uk)
- Otherwise, they will not be able to separate during cell division, and the DNA within could be cut or divided badly, which might lead to cell death or harmful mutations - and possibly cancer. (eurekalert.org)
- If MiDAS cannot take place, it leads to cell death or mutations in the surviving cells. (news-medical.net)
Stem cell transplant4
- Blood stem cell transplantation and stem cell treatment in India, the possibilities and challenges ahead and the need for cord blood banks were discussed at a Jeevan oration meet in Chennai. (medindia.net)
- Preferred Term is Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. (medindia.net)
- For decades, cord blood donation has served an important role in facilitating stem cell transplantation for the treatment of various blood and immune disorders. (stanford.edu)
- Spinal cord injury has been recognized as one of the conditions for which stem cell transplantation might be beneficial. (wingsforlife.com)
Opposite poles of the cell1
- dramatically increase the activity of this gene when they regenerate, allowing stem cells to maintain their telomeres as they divide to replace missing tissues. (slashdot.org)
- Telomeres also help divvy-up the workload among stem cells so the most eager doesn't monopolize the work. (slashdot.org)
- It rebuilds telomeres and allows cells to divide indefinitely. (ibtimes.co.uk)
- NRLP3 is one of several inflammasomes - multiprotein structures in disease-fighting white blood cells - the first of which was identified less than 15 years ago. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Unfortunately, the dyes killed the cells, and since the structures under the microscope were difficult to see as it was, Flemming's forerunners weren't sure they were seeing anything characteristic of a live, functional cell. (visionlearning.com)
Mitosis in human cells1
- In both cases, neuronal cells are derived from polarized progenitor cells that divide asymmetrically. (nih.gov)
- A) Culture expansion of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (CD34+ cells, HSCs) on plastic or mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs). (ukaachen.de)
- Cancer initiating cells are often derived from stem and progenitor cells. (ukaachen.de)
- That information will in turn permit them to better understand cell division gone awry, the hallmark of cancer. (nytimes.com)
- Clarke MF, Fuller M (2006) Stem cells and cancer: two faces of eve. (springer.com)
- Dick JE (2008) Stem cell concepts renew cancer research. (springer.com)
- Thus cancer involves a glitch in cell division. (i4u.com)
- Cancer is a disease of the cells, which are the body's basic building blocks. (cancervic.org.au)
- We were investigating which proteins help cancer cells to use MiDAS. (news-medical.net)
- We believe that this RTEL1 function is critical for any cancer cells that rely on MiDAS, which is more than 80 percent of the known cancer types based on our knowledge. (news-medical.net)
- Therefore, we can use this to design drugs to inhibit RTEL1 and hopefully selectively kill cancer cells,' says Ying Liu. (news-medical.net)
- In this interview, News-Medical speaks to Dr. Cristina Branco from Breast Cancer Now about the spread of breast cancer cells to the lungs. (news-medical.net)
- Understanding how the contractile ring works to divide the cell may facilitate development of therapies to prevent uncontrolled cell division in cancer. (brightsurf.com)
- The idea that a failure of proper cell division produces genomic instability and promotes the development of cancer was first proposed by German biologist Theodor Boveri in 1915. (brightsurf.com)
- Cancer is a disease that originates in our own cells. (abpischools.org.uk)
- Cancer cells may spread from the original (primary) tumour to form new (secondary) tumours throughout the body. (abpischools.org.uk)
- This resource looks at how cancer cells develop, the causes of cancer and how treatments are used to tackle cancer. (abpischools.org.uk)
- Sometimes mitosis can go wrong and cause cancer cells to develop. (abpischools.org.uk)
- The new 4D model was used to integrate data on fluorescently knocked-in mitotic proteins taken from HeLa cells, an immortal line of human cancer cells commonly used in scientific research. (europa.eu)
- Elevated TPX2 levels lead to both aberrant microtubule assembly in cells and poor outcomes in cancer patients. (genengnews.com)
- Ultimately, this could help the rational design of more specific therapies to inhibit the division of cancer cells, ideally without affecting the healthy cells that are dividing at the same time, Hickson said. (nanowerk.com)
- In cancer, this breakdown is sabotaged, allowing the cells to multiply freely. (fiercebiotech.com)