Caspase 3: A short pro-domain caspase that plays an effector role in APOPTOSIS. It is activated by INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 9. Isoforms of this protein exist due to multiple alternative splicing of its MESSENGER RNA.Caspase 9: A long pro-domain caspase that contains a caspase recruitment domain in its pro-domain region. Caspase 9 is activated during cell stress by mitochondria-derived proapoptotic factors and by CARD SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEINS such as APOPTOTIC PROTEASE-ACTIVATING FACTOR 1. It activates APOPTOSIS by cleaving and activating EFFECTOR CASPASES.Caspase Inhibitors: Endogenous and exogenous compounds and that either inhibit CASPASES or prevent their activation.Caspase 8: A long pro-domain caspase that contains a death effector domain in its pro-domain region. Caspase 8 plays a role in APOPTOSIS by cleaving and activating EFFECTOR CASPASES. Activation of this enzyme can occur via the interaction of its N-terminal death effector domain with DEATH DOMAIN RECEPTOR SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEINS.Caspase 7: A short pro-domain caspase that plays an effector role in APOPTOSIS. It is activated by INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 3 and CASPASE 10. Several isoforms of this protein exist due to multiple alternative splicing of its MESSENGER RNA.Caspases: A family of intracellular CYSTEINE ENDOPEPTIDASES that play a role in regulating INFLAMMATION and APOPTOSIS. They specifically cleave peptides at a CYSTEINE amino acid that follows an ASPARTIC ACID residue. Caspases are activated by proteolytic cleavage of a precursor form to yield large and small subunits that form the enzyme. Since the cleavage site within precursors matches the specificity of caspases, sequential activation of precursors by activated caspases can occur.Caspase 1: A long pro-domain caspase that has specificity for the precursor form of INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. It plays a role in INFLAMMATION by catalytically converting the inactive forms of CYTOKINES such as interleukin-1beta to their active, secreted form. Caspase 1 is referred as interleukin-1beta converting enzyme and is frequently abbreviated ICE.Caspase 10: A long pro-domain caspase that contains a death effector domain in its pro-domain region. Activation of this enzyme can occur via the interaction of its N-terminal death effector domain with DEATH DOMAIN RECEPTOR SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEINS. Caspase 10 plays a role in APOPTOSIS by cleaving and activating EFFECTOR CASPASES. Several isoforms of this protein exist due to multiple alternative splicing of its MESSENGER RNA.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Amino Acid Chloromethyl Ketones: Inhibitors of SERINE ENDOPEPTIDASES and sulfhydryl group-containing enzymes. They act as alkylating agents and are known to interfere in the translation process.Cysteine Proteinase Inhibitors: Exogenous and endogenous compounds which inhibit CYSTEINE ENDOPEPTIDASES.Caspase 12: A long pro-domain caspase that contains a caspase recruitment domain in its pro-domain region. Caspase 12 is activated by pro-apoptotic factors that are released during cell stress and by CARD SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEINS. It activates APOPTOSIS by cleaving and activating EFFECTOR CASPASES.Caspase 14: A short pro-domain caspase that is almost exclusively expressed in the EPIDERMIS and may play a role in the differentiation of epidermal KERATINOCYTES.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.DNA Fragmentation: Splitting the DNA into shorter pieces by endonucleolytic DNA CLEAVAGE at multiple sites. It includes the internucleosomal DNA fragmentation, which along with chromatin condensation, are considered to be the hallmarks of APOPTOSIS.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2: Membrane proteins encoded by the BCL-2 GENES and serving as potent inhibitors of cell death by APOPTOSIS. The proteins are found on mitochondrial, microsomal, and NUCLEAR MEMBRANE sites within many cell types. Overexpression of bcl-2 proteins, due to a translocation of the gene, is associated with follicular lymphoma.Cytochromes c: Cytochromes of the c type that are found in eukaryotic MITOCHONDRIA. They serve as redox intermediates that accept electrons from MITOCHONDRIAL ELECTRON TRANSPORT COMPLEX III and transfer them to MITOCHONDRIAL ELECTRON TRANSPORT COMPLEX IV.Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Antigens, CD95: A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype found in a variety of tissues and on activated LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for FAS LIGAND and plays a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. Multiple isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.Cytochrome c Group: A group of cytochromes with covalent thioether linkages between either or both of the vinyl side chains of protoheme and the protein. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p539)X-Linked Inhibitor of Apoptosis Protein: An inhibitor of apoptosis protein that is translated by a rare cap-independent mechanism. It blocks caspase-mediated cellular destruction by inhibiting CASPASE 3; CASPASE 7; and CASPASE 9.Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of multiple ADP-RIBOSE groups from nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NAD) onto protein targets, thus building up a linear or branched homopolymer of repeating ADP-ribose units i.e., POLY ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE RIBOSE.Apoptotic Protease-Activating Factor 1: A CARD signaling adaptor protein that plays a role in the mitochondria-stimulated apoptosis (APOPTOSIS, INTRINSIC PATHWAY). It binds to CYTOCHROME C in the CYTOSOL to form an APOPTOSOMAL PROTEIN COMPLEX and activates INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 9.bcl-2-Associated X Protein: A member of the Bcl-2 protein family and homologous partner of C-BCL-2 PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN. It regulates the release of CYTOCHROME C and APOPTOSIS INDUCING FACTOR from the MITOCHONDRIA. Several isoforms of BCL2-associated X protein occur due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of the mRNA for this protein.Cell Death: The termination of the cell's ability to carry out vital functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, responsiveness, and adaptability.Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins: A conserved class of proteins that control APOPTOSIS in both VERTEBRATES and INVERTEBRATES. IAP proteins interact with and inhibit CASPASES, and they function as ANTI-APOPTOTIC PROTEINS. The protein class is defined by an approximately 80-amino acid motif called the baculoviral inhibitor of apoptosis repeat.Jurkat Cells: A CELL LINE derived from human T-CELL LEUKEMIA and used to determine the mechanism of differential susceptibility to anti-cancer drugs and radiation.Caspases, Initiator: A subtype of caspases that contain long pro-domain regions that regulate the activation of the enzyme. The pro-domain regions contain protein-protein interaction motifs that can interact with specific signaling adaptor proteins such as DEATH DOMAIN RECEPTORS; DED SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEINS; and CARD SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEINS. Once activated, the initiator caspases can activate other caspases such as the EFFECTOR CASPASES.In Situ Nick-End Labeling: An in situ method for detecting areas of DNA which are nicked during APOPTOSIS. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase is used to add labeled dUTP, in a template-independent manner, to the 3 prime OH ends of either single- or double-stranded DNA. The terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase nick end labeling, or TUNEL, assay labels apoptosis on a single-cell level, making it more sensitive than agarose gel electrophoresis for analysis of DNA FRAGMENTATION.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.BH3 Interacting Domain Death Agonist Protein: A member of the Bcl-2 protein family that reversibly binds MEMBRANES. It is a pro-apoptotic protein that is activated by caspase cleavage.Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins: A large group of proteins that control APOPTOSIS. This family of proteins includes many ONCOGENE PROTEINS as well as a wide variety of classes of INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS such as CASPASES.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Cysteine Endopeptidases: ENDOPEPTIDASES which have a cysteine involved in the catalytic process. This group of enzymes is inactivated by CYSTEINE PROTEINASE INHIBITORS such as CYSTATINS and SULFHYDRYL REAGENTS.Oligopeptides: Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.Fas-Associated Death Domain Protein: A signal-transducing adaptor protein that associates with TNF RECEPTOR complexes. It contains a death effector domain that can interact with death effector domains found on INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 8 and CASPASE 10. Activation of CASPASES via interaction with this protein plays a role in the signaling cascade that leads to APOPTOSIS.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.bcl-X Protein: A member of the bcl-2 protein family that plays a role in the regulation of APOPTOSIS. Two major isoforms of the protein exist due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of the BCL2L1 mRNA and are referred to as Bcl-XS and Bcl-XL.Apoptosis Inducing Factor: A flavoprotein that functions as a powerful antioxidant in the MITOCHONDRIA and promotes APOPTOSIS when released from the mitochondria. In mammalian cells AIF is released in response to pro-apoptotic protein members of the bcl-2 protein family. It translocates to the CELL NUCLEUS and binds DNA to stimulate CASPASE-independent CHROMATIN condensation.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.CASP8 and FADD-Like Apoptosis Regulating Protein: An APOPTOSIS-regulating protein that is structurally related to CASPASE 8 and competes with CASPASE 8 for binding to FAS ASSOCIATED DEATH DOMAIN PROTEIN. Two forms of CASP8 and FADD-like apoptosis regulating protein exist, a long form containing a caspase-like enzymatically inactive domain and a short form which lacks the caspase-like domain.Staurosporine: An indolocarbazole that is a potent PROTEIN KINASE C inhibitor which enhances cAMP-mediated responses in human neuroblastoma cells. (Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1995;214(3):1114-20)Annexin A5: A protein of the annexin family isolated from human PLACENTA and other tissues. It inhibits cytosolic PHOSPHOLIPASE A2, and displays anticoagulant activity.Membrane Potential, Mitochondrial: The voltage difference, normally maintained at approximately -180mV, across the INNER MITOCHONDRIAL MEMBRANE, by a net movement of positive charge across the membrane. It is a major component of the PROTON MOTIVE FORCE in MITOCHONDRIA used to drive the synthesis of ATP.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.HL-60 Cells: A promyelocytic cell line derived from a patient with ACUTE PROMYELOCYTIC LEUKEMIA. HL-60 cells lack specific markers for LYMPHOID CELLS but express surface receptors for FC FRAGMENTS and COMPLEMENT SYSTEM PROTEINS. They also exhibit phagocytic activity and responsiveness to chemotactic stimuli. (From Hay et al., American Type Culture Collection, 7th ed, pp127-8)TNF-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand: A transmembrane-protein belonging to the TNF family of intercellular signaling proteins. It is a widely expressed ligand that activates APOPTOSIS by binding to TNF-RELATED APOPTOSIS-INDUCING LIGAND RECEPTORS. The membrane-bound form of the protein can be cleaved by specific CYSTEINE ENDOPEPTIDASES to form a soluble ligand form.Enzyme Precursors: Physiologically inactive substances that can be converted to active enzymes.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Necrosis: The pathological process occurring in cells that are dying from irreparable injuries. It is caused by the progressive, uncontrolled action of degradative ENZYMES, leading to MITOCHONDRIAL SWELLING, nuclear flocculation, and cell lysis. It is distinct it from APOPTOSIS, which is a normal, regulated cellular process.Caspases, Effector: A subclass of caspases that contain short pro-domain regions. They are activated by the proteolytic action of INITIATOR CASPASES. Once activated they cleave a variety of substrates that cause APOPTOSIS.Apoptosomes: Multimeric protein complexes formed in the CYTOSOL that play a role in the activation of APOPTOSIS. They can occur when MITOCHONDRIA become damaged due to cell stress and release CYTOCHROME C. Cytosolic cytochrome C associates with APOPTOTIC PROTEASE-ACTIVATING FACTOR 1 to form the apoptosomal protein complex. The apoptosome signals apoptosis by binding to and activating specific INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 9.Reactive Oxygen Species: Molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. These reactive oxygen intermediates include SINGLET OXYGEN; SUPEROXIDES; PEROXIDES; HYDROXYL RADICAL; and HYPOCHLOROUS ACID. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of PHAGOCYTES, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.CRADD Signaling Adaptor Protein: A death domain receptor signaling adaptor protein that plays a role in signaling the activation of INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 2. It contains a death domain that is specific for RIP SERINE-THEONINE KINASES and a caspase-binding domain that binds to and activates CASPASES such as CASPASE 2.Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Death Domain Receptor Signaling Adaptor Proteins: Intracellular signaling adaptor proteins that bind to the cytoplasmic death domain region found on DEATH DOMAIN RECEPTORS. Many of the proteins in this class take part in intracellular signaling from TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR RECEPTORS.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Phosphatidylserines: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a serine moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and serine and 2 moles of fatty acids.CARD Signaling Adaptor Proteins: A family of intracellular signaling adaptor proteins that contain caspase activation and recruitment domains. Proteins that contain this domain play a role in APOPTOSIS-related signal transduction by associating with other CARD domain-containing members and in activating INITIATOR CASPASES that contain CARD domains within their N-terminal pro-domain region.bcl-2 Homologous Antagonist-Killer Protein: A multi-domain mitochondrial membrane protein and member of the bcl-2 Protein family. Bak protein interacts with TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P53 and promotes APOPTOSIS.Calpain: Cysteine proteinase found in many tissues. Hydrolyzes a variety of endogenous proteins including NEUROPEPTIDES; CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS; proteins from SMOOTH MUSCLE; CARDIAC MUSCLE; liver; platelets; and erythrocytes. Two subclasses having high and low calcium sensitivity are known. Removes Z-discs and M-lines from myofibrils. Activates phosphorylase kinase and cyclic nucleotide-independent protein kinase. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 184.108.40.206.Granzymes: A family of serine endopeptidases found in the SECRETORY GRANULES of LEUKOCYTES such as CYTOTOXIC T-LYMPHOCYTES and NATURAL KILLER CELLS. When secreted into the intercellular space granzymes act to eliminate transformed and virus-infected host cells.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Proto-Oncogene Proteins: Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.Mitochondrial Proteins: Proteins encoded by the mitochondrial genome or proteins encoded by the nuclear genome that are imported to and resident in the MITOCHONDRIA.Tumor Suppressor Protein p53: Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.Receptor-Interacting Protein Serine-Threonine Kinases: A family of serine-threonine kinases that plays a role in intracellular signal transduction by interacting with a variety of signaling adaptor proteins such as CRADD SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEIN; TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTOR 2; and TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED DEATH DOMAIN PROTEIN. Although they were initially described as death domain-binding adaptor proteins, members of this family may contain other protein-binding domains such as those involving caspase activation and recruitment.Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic: Agents obtained from higher plants that have demonstrable cytostatic or antineoplastic activity.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor: Cell surface receptors that bind TUMOR NECROSIS FACTORS and trigger changes which influence the behavior of cells.Receptors, TNF-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand: Tumor necrosis factor receptor family members that are widely expressed and play a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. The receptors are specific for TNF-RELATED APOPTOSIS-INDUCING LIGAND and signal via conserved death domains that associate with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Cytosol: Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.bcl-Associated Death Protein: A pro-apoptotic protein and member of the Bcl-2 protein family that is regulated by PHOSPHORYLATION. Unphosphorylated Bad protein inhibits the activity of BCL-XL PROTEIN.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.NF-kappa B: Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.Serpins: A family of serine proteinase inhibitors which are similar in amino acid sequence and mechanism of inhibition, but differ in their specificity toward proteolytic enzymes. This family includes alpha 1-antitrypsin, angiotensinogen, ovalbumin, antiplasmin, alpha 1-antichymotrypsin, thyroxine-binding protein, complement 1 inactivators, antithrombin III, heparin cofactor II, plasminogen inactivators, gene Y protein, placental plasminogen activator inhibitor, and barley Z protein. Some members of the serpin family may be substrates rather than inhibitors of SERINE ENDOPEPTIDASES, and some serpins occur in plants where their function is not known.JNK Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A subgroup of mitogen-activated protein kinases that activate TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1 via the phosphorylation of C-JUN PROTEINS. They are components of intracellular signaling pathways that regulate CELL PROLIFERATION; APOPTOSIS; and CELL DIFFERENTIATION.Etoposide: A semisynthetic derivative of PODOPHYLLOTOXIN that exhibits antitumor activity. Etoposide inhibits DNA synthesis by forming a complex with topoisomerase II and DNA. This complex induces breaks in double stranded DNA and prevents repair by topoisomerase II binding. Accumulated breaks in DNA prevent entry into the mitotic phase of cell division, and lead to cell death. Etoposide acts primarily in the G2 and S phases of the cell cycle.U937 Cells: A human cell line established from a diffuse histiocytic lymphoma (HISTIOCYTIC LYMPHOMA, DIFFUSE) and displaying many monocytic characteristics. It serves as an in vitro model for MONOCYTE and MACROPHAGE differentiation.Genes, bcl-2: The B-cell leukemia/lymphoma-2 genes, responsible for blocking apoptosis in normal cells, and associated with follicular lymphoma when overexpressed. Overexpression results from the t(14;18) translocation. The human c-bcl-2 gene is located at 18q24 on the long arm of chromosome 18.Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing: A broad category of carrier proteins that play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They generally contain several modular domains, each of which having its own binding activity, and act by forming complexes with other intracellular-signaling molecules. Signal-transducing adaptor proteins lack enzyme activity, however their activity can be modulated by other signal-transducing enzymesMitochondrial Membranes: The two lipoprotein layers in the MITOCHONDRION. The outer membrane encloses the entire mitochondrion and contains channels with TRANSPORT PROTEINS to move molecules and ions in and out of the organelle. The inner membrane folds into cristae and contains many ENZYMES important to cell METABOLISM and energy production (MITOCHONDRIAL ATP SYNTHASE).Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Mice, Inbred C57BLCeramides: Members of the class of neutral glycosphingolipids. They are the basic units of SPHINGOLIPIDS. They are sphingoids attached via their amino groups to a long chain fatty acyl group. They abnormally accumulate in FABRY DISEASE.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Receptor-Interacting Protein Serine-Threonine Kinase 2: A RIP serine-theonine kinase that contains a C-terminal caspase activation and recruitment domain. It can signal by associating with other CARD-signaling adaptor proteins and INITIATOR CASPASES that contain CARD domains within their N-terminal pro-domain region.Protein Synthesis Inhibitors: Compounds which inhibit the synthesis of proteins. They are usually ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS or toxins. Mechanism of the action of inhibition includes the interruption of peptide-chain elongation, the blocking the A site of ribosomes, the misreading of the genetic code or the prevention of the attachment of oligosaccharide side chains to glycoproteins.Drug Synergism: The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.Myeloid Cell Leukemia Sequence 1 Protein: A member of the myeloid leukemia factor (MLF) protein family with multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different protein isoforms. In hematopoietic cells, it is located mainly in the nucleus, and in non-hematopoietic cells, primarily in the cytoplasm with a punctate nuclear localization. MLF1 plays a role in cell cycle differentiation.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Membrane Potentials: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Neoplasm Proteins: Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.Autophagy: The segregation and degradation of damaged or unwanted cytoplasmic constituents by autophagic vacuoles (cytolysosomes) composed of LYSOSOMES containing cellular components in the process of digestion; it plays an important role in BIOLOGICAL METAMORPHOSIS of amphibians, in the removal of bone by osteoclasts, and in the degradation of normal cell components in nutritional deficiency states.RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Coumarins: Synthetic or naturally occurring substances related to coumarin, the delta-lactone of coumarinic acid.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Protein Processing, Post-Translational: Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.Oxidative Stress: A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).Intracellular Membranes: Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A superfamily of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that are activated by diverse stimuli via protein kinase cascades. They are the final components of the cascades, activated by phosphorylation by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES, which in turn are activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES).Propidium: Quaternary ammonium analog of ethidium; an intercalating dye with a specific affinity to certain forms of DNA and, used as diiodide, to separate them in density gradients; also forms fluorescent complexes with cholinesterase which it inhibits.Receptors, Death Domain: A family of cell surface receptors that signal via a conserved domain that extends into the cell CYTOPLASM. The conserved domain is referred to as a death domain due to the fact that many of these receptors are involved in signaling APOPTOSIS. Several DEATH DOMAIN RECEPTOR SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEINS can bind to the death domains of the activated receptors and through a complex series of interactions activate apoptotic mediators such as CASPASES.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt: A protein-serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION in response to GROWTH FACTORS or INSULIN. It plays a major role in cell metabolism, growth, and survival as a core component of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Three isoforms have been described in mammalian cells.Cycloheximide: Antibiotic substance isolated from streptomycin-producing strains of Streptomyces griseus. It acts by inhibiting elongation during protein synthesis.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Protease Inhibitors: Compounds which inhibit or antagonize biosynthesis or actions of proteases (ENDOPEPTIDASES).Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor: Methods of investigating the effectiveness of anticancer cytotoxic drugs and biologic inhibitors. These include in vitro cell-kill models and cytostatic dye exclusion tests as well as in vivo measurement of tumor growth parameters in laboratory animals.Nucleic Acid Synthesis Inhibitors: Compounds that inhibit cell production of DNA or RNA.Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor, Type I: A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype that has specificity for TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR ALPHA and LYMPHOTOXIN ALPHA. It is constitutively expressed in most tissues and is a key mediator of tumor necrosis factor signaling in the vast majority of cells. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that regulates a variety of cellular processes including CELL GROWTH PROCESSES; CELL DIFFERENTIATION; APOPTOSIS; and cellular responses to INFLAMMATION. The P38 MAP kinases are regulated by CYTOKINE RECEPTORS and can be activated in response to bacterial pathogens.Proteolysis: Cleavage of proteins into smaller peptides or amino acids either by PROTEASES or non-enzymatically (e.g., Hydrolysis). It does not include Protein Processing, Post-Translational.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Serine Endopeptidases: Any member of the group of ENDOPEPTIDASES containing at the active site a serine residue involved in catalysis.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.DNA Damage: Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.Acetylcysteine: The N-acetyl derivative of CYSTEINE. It is used as a mucolytic agent to reduce the viscosity of mucous secretions. It has also been shown to have antiviral effects in patients with HIV due to inhibition of viral stimulation by reactive oxygen intermediates.Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex: A large multisubunit complex that plays an important role in the degradation of most of the cytosolic and nuclear proteins in eukaryotic cells. It contains a 700-kDa catalytic sub-complex and two 700-kDa regulatory sub-complexes. The complex digests ubiquitinated proteins and protein activated via ornithine decarboxylase antizyme.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Cell-Free System: A fractionated cell extract that maintains a biological function. A subcellular fraction isolated by ultracentrifugation or other separation techniques must first be isolated so that a process can be studied free from all of the complex side reactions that occur in a cell. The cell-free system is therefore widely used in cell biology. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p166)Ultraviolet Rays: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Hydrogen Peroxide: A strong oxidizing agent used in aqueous solution as a ripening agent, bleach, and topical anti-infective. It is relatively unstable and solutions deteriorate over time unless stabilized by the addition of acetanilide or similar organic materials.Drug Resistance, Neoplasm: Resistance or diminished response of a neoplasm to an antineoplastic agent in humans, animals, or cell or tissue cultures.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Cell Extracts: Preparations of cell constituents or subcellular materials, isolates, or substances.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress: Various physiological or molecular disturbances that impair ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM function. It triggers many responses, including UNFOLDED PROTEIN RESPONSE, which may lead to APOPTOSIS; and AUTOPHAGY.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Microscopy, Confocal: A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.Deoxyadenine Nucleotides: Adenine nucleotides which contain deoxyribose as the sugar moiety.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Neuroprotective Agents: Drugs intended to prevent damage to the brain or spinal cord from ischemia, stroke, convulsions, or trauma. Some must be administered before the event, but others may be effective for some time after. They act by a variety of mechanisms, but often directly or indirectly minimize the damage produced by endogenous excitatory amino acids.Cell Line, Transformed: Eukaryotic cell line obtained in a quiescent or stationary phase which undergoes conversion to a state of unregulated growth in culture, resembling an in vitro tumor. It occurs spontaneously or through interaction with viruses, oncogenes, radiation, or drugs/chemicals.Lamins: Nuclear matrix proteins that are structural components of the NUCLEAR LAMINA. They are found in most multicellular organisms.Drosophila: A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Insect Proteins: Proteins found in any species of insect.Microtubule-Associated Proteins: High molecular weight proteins found in the MICROTUBULES of the cytoskeletal system. Under certain conditions they are required for TUBULIN assembly into the microtubules and stabilize the assembled microtubules.Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Gene Knockdown Techniques: The artificial induction of GENE SILENCING by the use of RNA INTERFERENCE to reduce the expression of a specific gene. It includes the use of DOUBLE-STRANDED RNA, such as SMALL INTERFERING RNA and RNA containing HAIRPIN LOOP SEQUENCE, and ANTI-SENSE OLIGONUCLEOTIDES.Permeability: Property of membranes and other structures to permit passage of light, heat, gases, liquids, metabolites, and mineral ions.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Interleukin-1beta: An interleukin-1 subtype that is synthesized as an inactive membrane-bound pro-protein. Proteolytic processing of the precursor form by CASPASE 1 results in release of the active form of interleukin-1beta from the membrane.FlavoproteinsCathepsin B: A lysosomal cysteine proteinase with a specificity similar to that of PAPAIN. The enzyme is present in a variety of tissues and is important in many physiological and pathological processes. In pathology, cathepsin B has been found to be involved in DEMYELINATION; EMPHYSEMA; RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS, and NEOPLASM INVASIVENESS.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Bongkrekic Acid: An antibiotic produced by Pseudomonas cocovenenans. It is an inhibitor of MITOCHONDRIAL ADP, ATP TRANSLOCASES. Specifically, it blocks adenine nucleotide efflux from mitochondria by enhancing membrane binding.Pentanoic AcidsHepatocytes: The main structural component of the LIVER. They are specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that are organized into interconnected plates called lobules.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Doxorubicin: Antineoplastic antibiotic obtained from Streptomyces peucetius. It is a hydroxy derivative of DAUNORUBICIN.Cytoprotection: The process by which chemical compounds provide protection to cells against harmful agents.Aspartic Acid: One of the non-essential amino acids commonly occurring in the L-form. It is found in animals and plants, especially in sugar cane and sugar beets. It may be a neurotransmitter.L-Lactate Dehydrogenase: A tetrameric enzyme that, along with the coenzyme NAD+, catalyzes the interconversion of LACTATE and PYRUVATE. In vertebrates, genes for three different subunits (LDH-A, LDH-B and LDH-C) exist.Protein Kinase C-delta: A ubiquitously expressed protein kinase that is involved in a variety of cellular SIGNAL PATHWAYS. Its activity is regulated by a variety of signaling protein tyrosine kinase.Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.Lamin Type B: A subclass of ubiquitously-expressed lamins having an acidic isoelectric point. They are found to remain bound to nuclear membranes during mitosis.Isatin: An indole-dione that is obtained by oxidation of indigo blue. It is a MONOAMINE OXIDASE INHIBITOR and high levels have been found in urine of PARKINSONISM patients.Keratin-18: A type I keratin found associated with KERATIN-8 in simple, or predominately single layered, internal epithelia.Neuroblastoma: A common neoplasm of early childhood arising from neural crest cells in the sympathetic nervous system, and characterized by diverse clinical behavior, ranging from spontaneous remission to rapid metastatic progression and death. This tumor is the most common intraabdominal malignancy of childhood, but it may also arise from thorax, neck, or rarely occur in the central nervous system. Histologic features include uniform round cells with hyperchromatic nuclei arranged in nests and separated by fibrovascular septa. Neuroblastomas may be associated with the opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome. (From DeVita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp2099-2101; Curr Opin Oncol 1998 Jan;10(1):43-51)Glutathione: A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.Leupeptins: A group of acylated oligopeptides produced by Actinomycetes that function as protease inhibitors. They have been known to inhibit to varying degrees trypsin, plasmin, KALLIKREINS, papain and the cathepsins.MAP Kinase Signaling System: An intracellular signaling system involving the MAP kinase cascades (three-membered protein kinase cascades). Various upstream activators, which act in response to extracellular stimuli, trigger the cascades by activating the first member of a cascade, MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKKs). Activated MAPKKKs phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES which in turn phosphorylate the MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs). The MAPKs then act on various downstream targets to affect gene expression. In mammals, there are several distinct MAP kinase pathways including the ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) pathway, the SAPK/JNK (stress-activated protein kinase/c-jun kinase) pathway, and the p38 kinase pathway. There is some sharing of components among the pathways depending on which stimulus originates activation of the cascade.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays: In vivo methods of screening investigative anticancer drugs, biologic response modifiers or radiotherapies. Human tumor tissue or cells are transplanted into mice or rats followed by tumor treatment regimens. A variety of outcomes are monitored to assess antitumor effectiveness.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 8: A c-jun amino-terminal kinase that is activated by environmental stress and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Several isoforms of the protein with molecular sizes of 43 and 48 KD exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.Endoplasmic Reticulum: A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
... it also regulates the cell cycle and arrests cell growth by activating a regulator of the cell cycle, p21. Under severe DNA ... But in contrast, the caspase-2, which is acetylated by NatA, can interact with the adaptor protein RIP associated Ich-1/Ced-3 ... They play an essential role in maintaining the structure of the cell as well as cell processes, for example, movement of ... Ectopic expression of hNaa10p increased cell proliferation and up regulation of gene involved in cell survival proliferation ...
Anterior ischemic optic neuropathy
The optic disc is where the axons from the retinal ganglion cells collect into the optic nerve. The optic nerve is the bundle ... This trial will test the use of a synthetic siRNA that blocks caspase 2, an important enzyme in the apoptosis cycle. In ... AAION is due to temporal arteritis (also called giant cell arteritis), an inflammatory disease of medium-sized blood vessels ( ... Cell Death & Disease. 2 (6): e173. doi:10.1038/cddis.2011.54. PMC 3168996 . PMID 21677688. Patents related to treatment of ...
Mukerjee N, McGinnis KM, Gnegy ME, Wang KK (August 2001). "Caspase-mediated calcineurin activation contributes to IL-2 release ... Crabtree GR (March 1999). "Generic signals and specific outcomes: signaling through Ca2+, calcineurin, and NF-AT". Cell. 96 (5 ... binding domain of Cabin1 results in enhanced cytokine gene expression in T cells". The Journal of Experimental Medicine. 194 ( ... 503 (2-3): 201-5. doi:10.1016/S0014-5793(01)02730-2. PMID 11513882. Esau C, Boes M, Youn HD, Tatterson L, Liu JO, Chen J ( ...
Ced-family members contain a caspase recruitment domain (CARD) and are known to be key mediators of programmed cell death. The ... Cell. 10 (2): 417-26. doi:10.1016/S1097-2765(02)00599-3. PMID 12191486. Hiller S, Kohl A, Fiorito F, Herrmann T, Wider G, ... Tschopp J, Martinon F, Burns K (Feb 2003). "NALPs: a novel protein family involved in inflammation". Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 4 ( ... The NLRP1 protein interacts strongly with caspase 2 and weakly with caspase 9. Overexpression of this gene was demonstrated to ...
NALP and sometimes caspase 5 (also known as caspase 11 or ICH-3). It is expressed in myeloid cells and is a component of the ... "Caspase-1 activation of lipid metabolic pathways in response to bacterial pore-forming toxins promotes cell survival". Cell. ... doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.07.033. PMID 16990137. Keller M, Rüegg A, Werner S, Beer HD (2008). "Active caspase-1 is a regulator of ... Cell. 140 (6): 821-32. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2010.01.040. PMID 20303873. Jha S, Ting JP (December 2009). "Inflammasome-associated ...
Caspase 8 then cleaves RIPK1, leading to inhibition of this signalling, inhibiting cell death. FADD knockout in mouse embryos ... It is not yet clear what advantage this has on the cancer cells, but given FADDs roles in cell cycle regulation and cell ... initiating the caspase cascade. The activated caspases can go on to cleave intracellular proteins such as inhibitor of caspase- ... "Essential roles of Atg5 and FADD in autophagic cell death - Dissection of autophagic cell death into vacuole formation and cell ...
doi:10.1016/j.cell.2005.09.036. PMID 16360037. Vakifahmetoglu H, Olsson M, Orrenius S, Zhivotovsky B (2006). "Functional ... 2007). "Autoproteolysis of PIDD marks the bifurcation between pro-death caspase-2 and pro-survival NF-κB pathway". EMBO J. 26 ( ... Janssens S, Tinel A, Lippens S, Tschopp J (2006). "PIDD mediates NF-kappaB activation in response to DNA damage". Cell. 123 (6 ... 2007). "The expression of p53-induced protein with death domain (Pidd) and apoptosis in oral squamous cell carcinoma". Br. J. ...
... egg extracts have provided numerous insights into the basic biology of cells with particular impact on cell division ... Recently, oocytes were used recently to study the biochemical mechanisms of caspase-2 activation; importantly, this mechanism ... For example, expression of seven transcription factors in pluripotent Xenopus cells rendered those cells able to develop into ... Cell. 127 (3): 539-52. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.08.053. PMID 17081976. You, Z; Bailis, JM; Johnson, SA; Dilworth, SM; Hunter, T ...
doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.09.026. PMID 17081983. Hicks SW, Horn TA, McCaffery JM, et al. (2007). "Golgin-160 promotes cell ... 2000). "Caspase-2 Is Localized at the Golgi Complex and Cleaves Golgin-160 during Apoptosis". J. Cell Biol. 149 (3): 603-12. ... Maag RS, Mancini M, Rosen A, Machamer CE (Jun 2005). "Caspase-resistant Golgin-160 Disrupts Apoptosis Induced by Secretory ... Sbodio JI, Hicks SW, Simon D, Machamer CE (2006). "GCP60 preferentially interacts with a caspase-generated golgin-160 fragment ...
... novel inducer of T cell apoptosis with distinct profile of caspase activation". The Journal of Immunology. 173 (6): 3825-37. ... Both galectin-1 and galectin-9 are secreted by epithelial cells in the thymus and mediate T cell apoptosis. T cell death is ... Thus, they have a broad variety of functions including mediation of cell-cell interactions, cell-matrix adhesion and ... reducing cell-cell interactions. In breast cancer cells, it is hypothesised that galectin-3 has high affinity for cancer- ...
Cell. 125 (4): 801-14. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.03.032. PMID 16713569. Sakai N, Terami H, Suzuki S, Haga M, Nomoto K, Tsuchida N ... "Hexokinase II detachment from the mitochondria potentiates cisplatin induced cytotoxicity through a caspase-2 dependent ... Peng Q, Zhou J, Zhou Q, Pan F, Zhong D, Liang H (2009). "Silencing hexokinase II gene sensitizes human colon cancer cells to 5- ... Peng Q, Zhou J, Zhou Q, Pan F, Zhong D, Liang H (2009). "Silencing hexokinase II gene sensitizes human colon cancer cells to 5- ...
Iino M, Foster DC, Kisiel W (1998). "Quantification and characterization of human endothelial cell-derived tissue factor ... DNA Cell Biol. 15 (11): 947-54. doi:10.1089/dna.1996.15.947. PMID 8945635. "Entrez Gene: TFPI2 tissue factor pathway inhibitor ... "cDNA cloning and mRNA expression of a serine proteinase inhibitor secreted by cancer cells: identification as placental protein ... 19 (2-3): 217-23. doi:10.1016/S0143-4004(98)90011-X. PMID 9548189. Shinoda E, Yui Y, Hattori R, et al. (1999). "Tissue factor ...
Cell. Biol. 17 (4): 2247-56. PMC 232074 . PMID 9121475. Cryns VL, Byun Y, Rana A, Mellor H, Lustig KD, Ghanem L, Parker PJ, ... Cell. Proteomics. 3 (4): 311-326. doi:10.1074/mcp.M300127-MCP200. PMID 14718574. Beausoleil SA, Jedrychowski M, Schwartz D, ... Yarrow JC, Totsukawa G, Charras GT, Mitchison TJ (2005). "Screening for cell migration inhibitors via automated microscopy ... Elias JE, Villén J, Li J, Cohn MA, Cantley LC, Gygi SP (2004). "Large-scale characterization of HeLa cell nuclear ...
Major facilitator superfamily
... induces a caspase-independent autophagic cell death". Cell Death and Differentiation. 10 (7): 798-807. doi:10.1038/sj.cdd. ... Cell. 127 (5): 917-28. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.09.041. PMID 17129779. Ruel J, Emery S, Nouvian R, Bersot T, Amilhon B, Van ... This drives closure of the extracellular face, and opening of the cytoplasmic side, allowing substrate into the cell. Upon ... Cell. 72 (5): 705-13. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(93)90399-b. PMID 8453665. Pedersen BP, Kumar H, Waight AB, Risenmay AJ, Roe-Zurz Z ...
2011). Targeting neonatal ischemic brain injury with a pentapeptide-based irreversible caspase inhibitor. Cell Death & Disease ... Transplantation of neural stem cells and umbilical cord stem cells is currently being trialed in neonatal brain injury, but it ... but some current studies involve the transplantation of neural stem cells and umbilical cord stem cells; it is not yet known if ... Injury may also occur due to O2 accumulation via the production of O2 by microglia, a type of glial cell that are responsible ...
"Ischemic preconditioning augments survival of stem cells via miR-210 expression by targeting caspase-8-associated protein 2". ... thereby starving cells of oxygen and nutrients (termed ischemia). Prolong ischemia will eventually kill the cells and the ... It is also overexpressed in cells affected by cardiac disease and tumours. MiRNA-210 in particular, has been studied for its ... "MicroRNA-210 regulates mitochondrial free radical response to hypoxia and krebs cycle in cancer cells by targeting iron sulfur ...
Baculoviral IAP repeat-containing protein 3
2002). "Expression of inhibitor of apoptosis proteins in small- and non-small-cell lung carcinoma cells". Exp. Cell Res. 279 (2 ... 1998). "IAPs block apoptotic events induced by caspase-8 and cytochrome c by direct inhibition of distinct caspases". EMBO J. ... 2001). "A serine protease, HtrA2, is released from the mitochondria and interacts with XIAP, inducing cell death". Mol. Cell. 8 ... "IAPs block apoptotic events induced by caspase-8 and cytochrome c by direct inhibition of distinct caspases". EMBO J. 17 (8): ...
Caspases are the enzymes primarily responsible for cell death. XIAP binds to and inhibits caspase 3, 7 and 9. The BIR2 domain ... XIAP has been shown to interact with: ALS2CR2, Caspase 3. Caspase 7, Caspase-9, Diablo homolog HtrA serine peptidase 2, MAGED1 ... XIAP stops apoptotic cell death that is induced either by viral infection or by overproduction of caspases. ... When inhibiting caspase-3 and caspase-7 activity, the BIR2 domain of XIAP binds to the active-site substrate groove, blocking ...
... caspase-8 and caspase-10. In some types of cells (type I), processed caspase-8 directly activates other members of the caspase ... HeLa cells are an immortalized cancer cell line used frequently in research. The cell line was established by removing cells ... leading to cell death. Cell death in organisms is necessary for the normal development of cells and the cell cycle maturation.[ ... along the caspase-9, caspase-3 and caspase-7 pathway; and by external signals (FAS and TNF), along the caspase 8 pathway. ...
... two ancient families of caspase-like proteins, one of which plays a key role in MALT lymphoma". Mol. Cell. 6 (4): 961-7. doi: ... two ancient families of caspase-like proteins, one of which plays a key role in MALT lymphoma". Mol. Cell. 6 (4): 961-967. doi: ... of MALT B cell lymphoma and mutated in multiple tumor types". Cell. 96 (1): 35-45. doi:10.1016/S0092-8674(00)80957-5. PMID ... B-cell lymphoma/leukemia 10 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the BCL10 gene. Like BCL2, BCL3, BCL5, BCL6, BCL7A, and ...
... is cleaved through activated caspase-3 in fibroblast and cancer cells exposed to ultraviolet, hyperosmotic shock, and ... Caspase-7 phosphorylation at S30, T173 and S239 inhibits apoptotic activity in breast cancer cells, Paxillin phosphorylation at ... Stem Cells. 33 (5): 1630-41. doi:10.1002/stem.1951. PMC 4409559 . PMID 25586960. PAK2 Info with links in the Cell Migration ... "Binding of activated alpha2-macroglobulin to its cell surface receptor GRP78 in 1-LN prostate cancer cells regulates PAK-2- ...
"A protein-protein interaction network for human inherited ataxias and disorders of Purkinje cell degeneration". Cell. 125 (4): ... "Hexokinase II detachment from the mitochondria potentiates cisplatin induced cytotoxicity through a caspase-2 dependent ... "Cell Cycle. 8 (20): 3355-64. doi:10.4161/cc.8.20.9853. PMC 2829766. PMID 19770592.. ... doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.03.032. PMID 16713569.. *. Sakai N, Terami H, Suzuki S, Haga M, Nomoto K, Tsuchida N, Morohashi K, ...
In healthy tissue, these antibodies react with B-cells in the mantle zone, as well as some T-cells. However, positive cells ... Guo Y, Srinivasula SM, Druilhe A, Fernandes-Alnemri T, Alnemri ES (Apr 2002). "Caspase-2 induces apoptosis by releasing ... Due to the fact that dendritic cells are the immune system's most important antigen-presenting cells, their activity must be ... that accelerates programmed cell death". Cell. 74 (4): 609-19. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(93)90509-O. PMID 8358790. Gillissen B, ...
It is a disulfide-linked homotrimeric glycoprotein that mediates cell-to-cell and cell-to-matrix interactions. The role of the ... Studies of the mouse counterpart suggest that this protein may modulate the cell surface properties of mesenchymal cells and be ... Armstrong DJ, Hiscott P, Batterbury M, Kaye S (Jun 2002). "Corneal stromal cells (keratocytes) express thrombospondins 2 and 3 ... The Journal of Cell Biology. 140 (2): 419-30. doi:10.1083/jcb.140.2.419. PMC 2132586 . PMID 9442117. Adolph KW (May 1999). " ...
... novel inducer of T cell apoptosis with distinct profile of caspase activation". J Immunol. 173 (6): 3825-37. doi:10.4049/ ... 4 induce surface exposure of phosphatidylserine in activated human neutrophils but not in activated T cells". Blood. 109 (1): ... Galectin-2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the LGALS2 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a soluble beta- ... 15 (2): 418-20. doi:10.1006/geno.1993.1078. PMID 8449510. Dunham I, Shimizu N, Roe BA, et al. (1999). "The DNA sequence of ...
1999). "Identification of caspases that cleave presenilin-1 and presenilin-2. Five presenilin-1 (PS1) mutations do not alter ... Zhang WJ, Wu JY (Feb 1998). "Sip1, a novel RS domain-containing protein essential for pre-mRNA splicing". Mol Cell Biol. 18 (2 ... 1999). "Antigens recognized by autologous antibody in patients with renal-cell carcinoma". Int. J. Cancer. 83 (4): 456-64. doi: ... 2004). "Large-scale characterization of HeLa cell nuclear phosphoproteins". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101 (33): 12130-5. ...
... "cDNA expression array analysis of gene expression in human hepatocarcinoma Hep3B cells induced by BNIPL-1". Acta Biochimica et ... "The apoptosis-associated protein BNIPL interacts with two cell proliferation-related proteins, MIF and GFER". FEBS Letters. 540 ... "Differential gene expression in human hepatocellular carcinoma Hep3B cells induced by apoptosis-related gene BNIPL-2". World ... Qin W, Hu J, Guo M, Xu J, Li J, Yao G, Zhou X, Jiang H, Zhang P, Shen L, Wan D, Gu J (Aug 2003). "BNIPL-2, a novel homologue of ...
Activated caspase 9 stimulates the subsequent caspase cascade that commits the cell to apoptosis. Alternative splicing results ... Pop C, Timmer J, Sperandio S, Salvesen GS (Apr 2006). "The apoptosome activates caspase-9 by dimerization". Molecular Cell. 22 ... 10 in a caspase-9-dependent manner". The Journal of Cell Biology. 144 (2): 281-92. doi:10.1083/jcb.144.2.281. PMC 2132895 . ... "Cytochrome c and dATP-dependent formation of Apaf-1/caspase-9 complex initiates an apoptotic protease cascade". Cell. 91 (4): ...
Rho inhibition induces caspase-9 and caspase-3-dependent apoptosis of cultured human endothelial cells. These proteins are ... Bcl-x is a dominant regulator of programmed cell death in mammalian cells. The long form (Bcl-x(L), displays cell death ... activates caspase-9 and caspase-3, leading to apoptosis. Although Zamzami et al. suggest that the release of cytochrome c is ... opposing activities that mediate cell death". Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology. 9 (1): 47-59. doi:10.1038/nrm2308. Chao DT ...
cell nucleus. • kinetochore. • centrosome. • rough endoplasmic reticulum. • dendritic shaft. • aggresome. • cell surface. • ... of the presenilin 1/beta-catenin interaction and preservation of the heterodimeric presenilin 1 complex following caspase ... cell cortex. • integral component of membrane. • azurophil granule membrane. • Z disc. • neuronal cell body. • perinuclear ... cell-cell adhesion. • cellular response to amyloid-beta. • negative regulation of core promoter binding. • negative regulation ...
... of the total DNA in cells. ... CASP16P: encoding protein Caspase 16, pseudogene. *CCDC113: ... ISBN 978-1-136-84407-2.. *^ a b Genome Decoration Page, NCBI. Ideogram data for Homo sapience (850 bphs, Assembly GRCh38.p3). ... 3 (2): 243-54. PMID 10464676.. *. Martin J, et al. (2004). "The sequence and analysis of duplication-rich human chromosome 16 ... CMTM2: encoding protein CKLF-like MARVEL transmembrane domain-containing protein 2. *CCDC135: encoding protein Coiled-coil ...
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor
cell-cell signaling. • positive regulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor receptor signaling pathway. • collateral ... regulation of protein localization to cell surface. • regulation of receptor activity. • activation of phospholipase C activity ... BDNF binds at least two receptors on the surface of cells that are capable of responding to this growth factor, TrkB ( ... The expression of reelin by Cajal-Retzius cells goes down during development under the influence of BDNF. The latter also ...
Paracrine signaling is a form of cell-cell communication in which a cell produces a signal to induce changes in nearby cells, ... the Smac mimetic promotes formation of a RIPK1-dependent caspase-8-activating complex, leading to apoptosis. Recent studies ... These T cells can then go on to perform effector functions such as macrophage activation, B cell activation, and cell-mediated ... When interleukin-1 is produced in response to external stimuli, it can bind to cell-surface receptors on the same cell that ...
"Cell. 137 (1): 133-45. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2009.01.041. PMC 2668214. PMID 19345192.. ... The resulting deconstruction of cellular components is primarily carried out by specialized proteases known as caspases, but ... Cell cycle controlEdit. Cell cycle progression is controlled by ordered action of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs), activated by ... Apoptosis is mediated through disrupting the regulated degradation of pro-growth cell cycle proteins. However, some cell ...
Innate immune system
Rather, NK cells destroy compromised host cells, such as tumor cells or virus-infected cells, recognizing such cells by a ... HR has some similarities to animal pyroptosis, such as a requirement of caspase-1-like proteolytic activity of VPEγ, a cysteine ... Mast cells. Main article: Mast cell. Mast cells are a type of innate immune cell that reside in connective tissue and in ... Natural killer cells. Main article: Natural killer cell. Natural killer cells (NK cells) are a component of the innate ...
Tumor necrosis factor alpha
positive regulation of heterotypic cell-cell adhesion. • negative regulation of mitotic cell cycle. • endothelial cell ... Nevertheless, TRADD binds FADD, which then recruits the cysteine protease caspase-8. A high concentration of caspase-8 induces ... but it is produced also by a broad variety of cell types including lymphoid cells, mast cells, endothelial cells, cardiac ... NK cells, neutrophils, mast cells, eosinophils, and neurons. TNFα is a member of the TNF superfamily, consisting of various ...
Epigenetics of neurodegenerative diseases
doi:10.1016/j.cell.2007.01.033. PMID 17320505.. *^ a b c Faghihi MA, Modarresi F, Khalil AM, Wood DE, Sahagan BG, Morgan TE, ... "Critical loss of CBP/p300 histone acetylase activity by caspase-6 during neurodegeneration". primary. The EMBO Journal. 22 (24 ... The Journal of Cell Biology. 191 (2): 367-81. doi:10.1083/jcb.201008051. PMC 2958468. PMID 20937701.. ... Tested on: mouse (M), only mouse cells (MC), human (H), Drosophila (D), rat (R). Successful treatment: yes (y), yes but with ...
Development of analogs of thalidomide
... to upregulate the activity of caspase-8. This causes cross talking of apoptotic signaling between caspase-8 and caspase-9 ... They have also been shown to cause dose dependent G0/G1 cell cycle arrest in leukemia cell lines where the analogs showed 100 ... Orphan indications include diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, chronic lymphocytic leukemia and mantle cell lymphoma. Lenalidomide ... is induced in the presence of TNF-α and the adhesion of MM cells to BMSC. In vitro proliferation of MM cell lines and ...
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor
cell-cell signaling. • positive regulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor receptor signaling pathway. • collateral ... regulation of protein localization to cell surface. • regulation of receptor activity. • activation of phospholipase C activity ... BDNF binds at least two receptors on the surface of cells that are capable of responding to this growth factor, TrkB ( ... Bartkowska K, Paquin A, Gauthier AS, Kaplan DR, Miller FD (December 2007). "Trk signaling regulates neural precursor cell ...
Caspase 9 can then go on to activate caspase 3 and caspase 7, which are responsible for destroying the cell from within. ... Cytochrome c also has an intermediate role in apoptosis, a controlled form of cell death used to kill cells in the process of ... Waterhouse NJ, Trapani JA (Jul 2003). "A new quantitative assay for cytochrome c release in apoptotic cells". Cell Death and ... Caspase 3. Pro-apoptotic:. BAX. BAK1/Bcl-2 homologous antagonist killer. Bcl-2-associated death promoter. Anti-apoptotic:. Bcl- ...
regulation of mitotic cell cycle. • intestinal epithelial cell maturation. • cellular response to ionizing radiation. • cell ... This protein was reported to be specifically cleaved by CASP3-like caspases, which thus leads to a dramatic activation of CDK2 ... G2/M transition of mitotic cell cycle. • positive regulation of B cell proliferation. • negative regulation of cell growth. • ... Amini S, Khalili K, Sawaya BE (2004). "Effect of HIV-1 Vpr on cell cycle regulators". DNA Cell Biol. 23 (4): 249-60. doi: ...
Cell studies. Crocin and crocetin may provide neuroprotection in rats by reducing the production of various neurotoxic ... "Crocetin prevents retinal degeneration induced by oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum stresses via inhibition of caspase ... "Anti-inflammatory effects of crocin and crocetin in rat brain microglial cells". European Journal of Pharmacology. 648 (1-3): ... is an experimental drug that increases the movement of oxygen from red blood cells into hypoxic (oxygen-starved) tissues. ...
"A novel form of DAP5 protein accumulates in apoptotic cells as a result of caspase cleavage and internal ribosome entry site- ... 272 (2): 1110-6. doi:10.1074/jbc.272.2.1110. PMID 8995410.. *^ a b c d e f g Ewing RM, Chu P, Elisma F, Li H, Taylor P, Climie ... cell nucleus. • membrane. • microtubule. • cytoplasm. • cytosol. • multi-eIF complex. • eukaryotic translation initiation ... Cell. Biol. 20 (2): 496-506. doi:10.1128/mcb.20.2.496-506.2000. PMC 85113. PMID 10611228.. ...
Factor de necrose tumoral alfa, a enciclopedia libre
Non obstante, a TRADD únese a FADD, o cal despois recruta a cisteína protease caspase-8. Unha alta concentración de caspase-8 ... Cell Biol. 6 (2): 97-105. PMID 14743216. doi:10.1038/ncb1086.. *↑ Micheau O, Tschopp J (July 2003). "Induction of TNF receptor ... Wajant H, Pfizenmaier K, Scheurich P (2003). "Tumor necrosis factor signaling". Cell Death Differ. 10 (1): 45-65. PMID 12655295 ... Kriegler M, Perez C, DeFay K, Albert I, Lu SD (1988). "A novel form of TNF/cachectin is a cell surface cytotoxic transmembrane ...
Programmed cell death
Excess progenitor cell proliferation that leads to gross brain abnormalities is often lethal, as seen in caspase-3 or caspase-9 ... to cells (such as feedback from neighbors, stress or DNA damage), mitochondria release caspase activators that trigger the cell ... Kuida, K (1998). "Reduced apoptosis and cytochrome c-mediated caspase activation in mice lacking caspase 9". Cell. 94: 325-337 ... Cell death in arthropods occurs first in the nervous system when ectoderm cells differentiate and one daughter cell becomes a ...
망막색소상피세포 - 위키백과, 우리 모두의 백과사전
"DICER1/Alu RNA dysmetabolism induces Caspase-8-mediated cell death in age-related macular degeneration". 》PNAS》 111 (45): 16082 ... 망막색소상피세포(Retinal Pigment Epithelium cells, RPE cells)는 망막 감각신경 부분의 바깥에 존재하며, 색소가 있는 세포들을 지칭한다.  ... J Cell Sci Suppl 17: 189-195, 1993. *↑ Tanihara H, Inatani M, and Honda Y. Growth factors and their receptors in the retina and ... J Cell Physiol 197: 453-462, 2003. *↑ Kojima S, Rahner C, Peng S, and Rizzolo LJ. Claudin 5 is transiently expressed during the ...
It is an energy dependent process mediated by proteolytic enzymes called caspases, which trigger cell death through the ... Stromal cells are the cells that support the parenchymal cells in any organ. Fibroblasts, immune cells, pericytes, and ... Cell damage (also known as cell injury) is a variety of changes of stress that a cell suffers due to external as well internal ... When a cell is damaged the body will try to repair or replace the cell to continue normal functions. If a cell dies the body ...
... -1, Caspase-4 and Caspase-5 in humans, and Caspase-1 and Caspase-11 in mice play important roles in inducing cell death ... Executioner Caspases (Caspase 3, Caspase 6 and Caspase 7). Once initiator caspases are activated, they produce a chain reaction ... Caspase-1, Caspase-4, Caspase-5 and Caspase-11 are considered 'Inflammatory Caspases'. ... Kumar, S (2006). "Caspase function in programmed cell death". Cell Death and Differentiation. 14 (1): 32-43. doi:10.1038/sj.cdd ...
Interferencia de ARN, a enciclopedia libre
Lian S, Jakymiw A, Eystathioy T, Hamel J, Fritzler M, Chan E (2006). "GW bodies, microRNAs and the cell cycle". Cell Cycle 5 (3 ... "Caspase 8 small interfering RNA prevents acute liver failure in mice". Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 100 (13): 7797-802. PMC 164667 ... Cullen L, Arndt G (2005). "Genome-wide screening for gene function using RNAi in mammalian cells". Immunol Cell Biol 83 (3): ... Molecular Cell Biology (5th ed.). ISBN 978-0716743668..  *↑ Matranga C, Tomari Y, Shin C, Bartel D, Zamore P (2005). " ...
"Cell. 151 (6): 1308-18. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2012.10.051. PMC 3778871. PMID 23217712.. ... This complex then cleaves procaspase-9, activating caspase-9 and eventually inducing apoptosis via caspase-3 activation. Hsp70 ... The Hsp70s are an important part of the cell's machinery for protein folding, and help to protect cells from stress. ... "Cell Stress & Chaperones. 1 (1): 23-8. doi:10.1379/1466-1268(1996)001,0023:AHSGTT,2.3.CO;2. PMC 313013. PMID 9222585.. ...
Sevier CS, Kaiser CA (November 2002). "Formation and transfer of disulphide bonds in living cells". Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. 3 ... Ubiquitin ligases transfer ubiquitin to its pendant, proteins, and caspases, which engage in proteolysis in the apoptotic cycle ... Cell Dev. Biol. 22: 457-86. doi:10.1146/annurev.cellbio.22.010305.104538. PMID 16824008.. ... Protein disulfide isomerases catalyze the proper formation of disulfide bonds; the cell transfers dehydroascorbic acid to the ...
Farnesoid X receptor
"Inactivation of caspase-8 on mitochondria of Bcl-xL-expressing MCF7-Fas cells: role for the bifunctional apoptosis regulator ... cell-cell junction assembly. • toll-like receptor 9 signaling pathway. • negative regulation of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 ... cell nucleus. Biological process. • Notch signaling pathway. • cellular triglyceride homeostasis. • cellular response to ... Similar to other nuclear receptors, when activated, FXR translocates to the cell nucleus, forms a dimer (in this case a ...
1998). "Lymphopain, a cytotoxic T and natural killer cell-associated cysteine proteinase". Leukemia. 12 (11): 1771-81. doi: ... 2001). "Human cathepsin W, a cysteine protease predominantly expressed in NK cells, is mainly localized in the endoplasmic ... Expression of this gene is up-regulated by interleukin-2.. References. *^ a b c GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... is a cysteine proteinase that may have a specific function in the mechanism or regulation of T-cell cytolytic activity. The ...
Cell Cycle 5:1940-1945, PMID 16940754. *^ MacPhail SH, Banáth JP, Yu Y, Chu E, Olive PL.Cell cycle-dependent expression of ... Also, it is extensively used in research for the detection of DNA damage, caspase cleavage and apoptosis. In ... automated quantification of specified optical parameters on a cell-by-cell basis. To analyze solid tissues, a single-cell ... The flow cell has a liquid stream (sheath fluid), which carries and aligns the cells so that they pass single file through the ...
"Reduced apoptosis and cytochrome c-mediated caspase activation in mice lacking caspase 9". Cell. 94 (3): 325-37. doi:10.1016/ ... Cell biological determinants. Cortical stem cells, known as radial glial cells (RGC)s, reside in the ventricular zone and ... "Cell Stem Cell. 18 (5): 587-590. doi:10.1016/j.stem.2016.02.016. ISSN 1934-5909. PMC 5299540. PMID 26952870.. ... "Cell Stem Cell. 18 (5): 591-6. doi:10.1016/j.stem.2016.03.012. PMC 4860115. PMID 27038591.. ...
Ugonjwa wa Alzheimer, kamusi elezo huru
Hernández F, Avila J (Septemba 2007). "Tauopathies". Cell. Mol. Life Sci. 64 (17): 2219-33. doi:10.1007/s00018-007-7220-x . ... "N-APP binds DR6 to cause axon pruning and neuron death via distinct caspases". Nature 457 (7232): 981-989. doi:10.1038/ ... Chun W, Johnson GV (2007). "The role of tau phosphorylation and cleavage in neuronal cell death". Front Biosci 12: 733-56. doi: ... Ohnishi S, Takano K (Machi 2004). "Amyloid fibrils from the viewpoint of protein folding". Cell. Mol. Life Sci. 61 (5): 511-24 ...
Virulent Newcastle disease
"Newcastle disease virus exerts oncolysis by both intrinsic and extrinsic caspase-dependent pathways of cell death". Journal of ... harming normal cells. It binds, fuses into and replicates within the infected cells' cytoplasm independent of cell ... in hepatocellular carcinoma cells. In addition, an increase of CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells occurs within the tumor cells when ... NDV-induced mechanisms leading to tumor cell death. The precise way in which the presence of NDV induces tumor cell death ...
ITPR2 - Wikipédia, a enciclopédia livre
J. Cell Biol. 183 (2): 297-311. PMC 2568025. . PMID 18936250. doi:10.1083/jcb.200803172. !CS1 manut: Uso explícito de et al. ( ... Diaz F, Bourguignon LY (2000). «Selective down-regulation of IP(3)receptor subtypes by caspases and calpain during TNF alpha - ... induced apoptosis of human T-lymphoma cells.». Cell Calcium. 27 (6): 315-28. PMID 11013462. doi:10.1054/ceca.2000.0126. ... cell cortex. •membrane. •integral component of membrane. •platelet dense tubular network membrane. •sarcoplasmic reticulum ...
cell-cell signaling. • cell surface receptor signaling pathway. • positive regulation of cysteine-type endopeptidase activity ... TRAIL binds to the death receptors DR4 (TRAIL-RI) and DR5 (TRAIL-RII). The process of apoptosis is caspase-8-dependent. Caspase ... TRAIL is a cytokine that is produced and secreted by most normal tissue cells. It causes apoptosis primarily in tumor cells, ... These artificial TRAIL mimics bind to DR4/DR5 on cancer cells and induce cell death via both apoptosis and necrosis, which ...
Caspase-2 Mediates Neuronal Cell Death Induced by β-Amyloid | Journal of Neuroscience
Caspase activity assay. Preparation of cell lysates. At 6 hr after Aβ1-42 treatment, cells were harvested for assays of ... Although caspase-3 activation occurs, it does not mediate cell death in this paradigm. The activation of caspase-3 may be ... Caspase specificities in different paradigms of cell death. Schematic illustration of the pathways to cell death for β-amyloid ... Cell culture. PC12 cells. PC12 cells were grown as described previously (Greene and Tischler, 1976; Troy et al., 1997) on rat ...
Cadmium induces caspase-mediated cell death: suppression by Bcl-2.
Apoptosis is a process of active cell death and is characterized by activation of caspases, DNA fragmentation, and biochemical ... as intracellular caspase assays using a fluorigenic caspase-3 substrate confirmed that caspase-3 is activated in Rat-1 cells ... selective inhibitors of caspase-3 and caspase-1, respectively, suppressed significantly cadmium-induced cell death. However, ... Caspases / physiology*. Cells, Cultured. DNA Fragmentation / drug effects. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Enzyme Activation ...
Timosaponin AIII mediates caspase activation and induces apoptosis through JNK1/2 pathway in human promyelocytic leukemia cells...
... is a steroidal saponin isolated from Anemarrhena asphodeloidesthat has been shown to inhibit cell growth and induce apoptosis ... TAIII induced apoptosis of HL-60 cells through caspase-3, caspase-8, and caspase-9 activations and PARP cleavage in a dose- and ... Caspases in cell survival, proliferation and differentiation. Cell Death Differ. 2007;14:44-55.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar ... Caspase-independent cell death. Nat Med. 2005;11:725-30.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar ...
Figure 4 | Wushenziye Formula Inhibits Pancreatic β Cell Apoptosis in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus via MEK-ERK-Caspase-3 Signaling...
Kinetin Riboside Preferentially Induces Apoptosis by Modulating Bcl-2 Family Proteins and caspase-3 in Cancer Cells
KR disrupted the mitochondrial membrane potential and induced the release of cytochrome c and activation of caspase-3. Bad were ... induces apoptosis in HeLa and mouse melanoma B16F-10 cells. ... induces apoptosis in HeLa and mouse melanoma B16F-10 cells. KR ... In contrast, human skin fibroblast CCL-116 and bovine primary fibroblast cells show resistances to KR and no significant ... Our data suggest that KR selectively induces apoptosis in cancer cells through the classical mitochondria dependent apoptosis ...
WP1066 Disrupts Janus Kinase-2 and Induces Caspase-Dependent Apoptosis in Acute Myelogenous Leukemia Cells | Cancer Research
... inhibited AML cell proliferation, and induced caspase-dependent apoptotic cell death in AML cells. These findings suggest that ... WP1066 induces caspase-dependent apoptosis. A, OCIM2 cells (left) and K562 cells (right) were incubated alone or with 1, 2, or ... WP1066 inhibited OCIM2 cell multiplication by inducing accumulation of cells at the G0-G1 phase of the cell cycle. Similar to ... WP1066 induces cell cycle arrest in OCIM2 cells. Because WP1066 inhibited the proliferation of AML cells, we wondered how this ...
HOXA5-induced apoptosis in breast cancer cells is mediated by caspases-2 and caspase-8 | Cancer Research
Hormonally-induced autophagocytic cell death in human breast cancer cells is caspase dependent ... HOXA5-induced apoptosis in breast cancer cells is mediated by caspases-2 and caspase-8. Hexin Chen, Seung Chung and Saraswati ... HOXA5-induced apoptosis in breast cancer cells is mediated by caspases-2 and caspase-8 ... HOXA5-induced apoptosis in breast cancer cells is mediated by caspases-2 and caspase-8 ...
Marked mitochondrial alterations upon starvation without cell death, caspases or Bcl-2 family members.
Dictyostelium HMX44A cells can withstand starvation under monolayer conditions for a few days without dying. They die only when ... Caspases / metabolism. Cell Death. Cells, Cultured. Culture Media. Dictyostelium / cytology*, enzymology, metabolism. ... Since these cells did not die as shown for instance by FACS analysis, these results showed unexpected resilience of cells ... Dictyostelium HMX44A cells can withstand starvation under monolayer conditions for a few days without dying. They die only when ...
Fluoride Action Network | Fluoride-induced headkidney macrophage cell apoptosis involves activation of the CaMKIIg-ERK 1/2...
... culminating in caspase-8/caspase-3 mediated apoptosis of HKM cells. We conclude that fluoride-induced apoptosis is largely ... Our results suggest the influx of extra-cellular Ca2+ to be an initial event in fluoride-induced HKM cell apoptosis. We ... Effects of fluoride on oxidative stress and apoptosis in primary culture of rat sertoli cells].. OBJECTIVE: To study effects of ... Fluoride-induced headkidney macrophage cell apoptosis involves activation of the CaMKIIg-ERK 1/2-caspase-8 axis: the role of ...
Levofloxacin increases the effect of serum deprivation on anoikis of rat nucleus pulposus cells via Bax/Bcl-2/caspase-3 pathway...
The purpose of this study was to further explore the effects of levofloxacin on rat nucleus pulposus cells (NPCs). Inverted ... Simultaneously, levofloxacin decreased cell binding to type II collagen (COL2). Thus, levofloxacin-induced apoptosis exhibits ... Levofloxacin increases the effect of serum deprivation on anoikis of rat nucleus pulposus cells via Bax/Bcl-2/caspase-3 pathway ... At last, western blot was used to find that levofloxacin increased the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 and active caspase-3 in a dose- ...
Caspase-2 Mediates Site-Specific Retinal Ganglion Cell Death After Blunt Ocular Injury | IOVS | ARVO Journals
Thomas CN, Berry M, Logan A, Blanch RJ, Ahmed Z. Caspases in retinal ganglion cell death and axon regeneration. Cell Death ... Caspase structure, proteolytic substrates, and function during apoptotic cell death. Cell Death Differ. 1999; 6: 1028-1042. ... Kumar S. Caspase function in programmed cell death. Cell Death Differ. 2007; 14: 32-43. ... Caspase-9 Mediates Photoreceptor Death After Blunt Ocular Trauma. The Effect of Retinal Ganglion Cell Injury on Light-Induced ...
TT‑1, an analog of melittin, triggers apoptosis in human thyroid cancer TT cells via regulating caspase, Bcl‑2 and Bax
The apoptotic rates of TT cells were also increased following TT‑1 treatment. Additionally, TT‑1 stimulated caspase‑3, caspase‑ ... TT‑1, an analog of melittin, triggers apoptosis in human thyroid cancer TT cells via regulating caspase, Bcl‑2 and Bax. * ... triggers apoptosis in human thyroid cancer TT cells via regulating caspase, Bcl‑2 and Bax. Oncology Letters 15, no. 1 (2018): ... triggers apoptosis in human thyroid cancer TT cells via regulating caspase, Bcl‑2 and Bax. Oncology Letters 15.1 (2018): 1271- ...
Restoration of Tissue Factor Pathway Inhibitor-2 in a Human Glioblastoma Cell Line Triggers Caspase-Mediated Pathway and...
C, Western blot analysis for caspase-10, caspase-9, caspase-8, caspase-6, and caspase-3 in the cell lysates of rAAV-TFPI-2- ... The activities of all cleaved forms of caspase-10, caspase-9, caspase-8, caspase-7, caspase-6, and caspase-3 were increased ... caspase-9, caspase-8, caspase-7, caspase-6, and caspase-3, which include both effector and executioner caspases after stable ... The antibodies for caspase-9, caspase-8, caspase-7, caspase-6, caspase-3, lamin A, Bcl-2, apoptotic protease-activating factor- ...
2,5-Hexanedione Induces Human Ovarian Granulosa Cell Apoptosis Through BCL-2, BAX, and CASPASE-3 Signaling Pathways
Studies have shown that 2,5-hexanedione (2,5-HD) is the main active metabolite of n-hexane in the human body. The toxicity of n ... and 2,5-hexanedione has been extensively researched, but toxicity to the reproductive system, especially the impact on female ... and CASPASE family (CASPASE-3) with increasing 2,5-HD concentration. The results showed that with increasing 2,5-HD doses, the ... In this study, we exposed human ovarian granulosa cells to 0, 16, 64, and 256 μM 2,5-HD in vitro for 24 h. Through hematoxylin- ...
Induction of apoptosis by TNF receptor 2 in a T-cell hybridoma is FADD dependent and blocked by caspase-8 inhibitors | Journal...
The splicing co-factor Barricade/Tat-SF1 is required for cell cycle and lineage progression in Drosophila neural stem cells. ... on cell motility. A Travelling Fellowship from Journal of Cell Science allowed her to spend time in Prof Maddy Parsons lab at ... First Person is a series of interviews with the first authors of a selection of papers published in Journal of Cell Science, ... Call for papers - Reconstituting cell biology. We are now accepting submissions for our upcoming special issue on ...
Induction of apoptosis in human leukemia U937 cells by anthocyanins through down-regulation of Bcl-2 and activation of caspases
It was found that these anthocyanins inhibit cell viability and induce apoptotic cell death of U937 cells in a dose-dependent ... Apoptosis of U937 cells by anthocyanins was associated with modulation of expression of Bcl-2 and IAP family members. ... Furthermore, z-DEVD-fmk, a caspase-3 specific inhibitor, blocked apoptosis and increased the survival of anthocyanin-treated ... Consequently, anthocyanin treatment induced proteolytic activation of caspase-3, -8 and -9, and a concomitant degradation of ...
Fisetin induces apoptosis in human cervical cancer HeLa cells through ERK1/2-mediated activation of caspase-8-/caspase-3...
Fisetin is a naturally occurring flavonoid that has been reported to inhibit the proliferation and to induce apoptotic cell ... death in several tumor cells. However, the apoptosis-inducing effect of... ... Trifolin acetate-induced cell death in human leukemia cells is dependent on caspase-6 and activates the MAPK pathway. Apoptosis ... Thorburn A (2004) Death receptor-induced cell killing. Cell Signal 16:139-144PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ...
Caspase-12 compensates for lack of caspase-2 and caspase-3 in female germ cells - Semantic Scholar
Because of the mutual interdependence of germ cells and granulosa cells, herein we generated caspase-2 and -3 double-mutant ( ... Those data also revealed dispensability of caspase-3, although we found this caspase critical for ovarian granulosa cell death ... However, when DNA damage is involved, and in the absence of caspase-2 and -3, caspase-12 becomes upregulated and mediates ... These results revealed that in female germ cells, insults that directly interfere with their metabolic status (e.g. MTX) ...
Two non-cytotoxic type 2 ribosome-inactivating proteins (Sambucus Sieboldiana lectin and Sambucus Nigra lectin) lead...
... lead neurosphere cells to caspase-independent apoptosis, Masaharu Ko ... Two non-cytotoxic type 2 ribosome-inactivating proteins (Sambucus Sieboldiana lectin and Sambucus Nigra lectin) ... it is expected that SSA and SNA have the cell-damaging effect on stem cells, such as ES cells, iPS cells and tissue stem cells. ... Cell biological analyses of neurosphere cells treated with SSA or SNA. To see if the cell damage of neurosphere cells induced ...
Gentaur Molecular :Cell Technology \ Apo Active FITC Caspase 3 \ FAB200-2
Cell Technology \ Apo Active FITC _ Caspase 3 \ FAB200-2 for more molecular products just contact us ... Index / Cell Technology / Apo Active FITC _ Caspase 3 / Product Detail : FAB200-2 Apo Active FITC _ Caspase 3 Related keywords ... We have also other products like : Apo Active FITC _ Caspase 3 Related products : Apo Active FITC _ Caspase 3 ... Cells Cloning Elisa Kits microRNA Analysis Multiplex Cytokine Assays PCR Peptides Proteins Transfection Viral Systems ...
Gentaur Molecular :Cell Technology \ Apo Active PE Caspase 3 \ PAB200-2
Cell Technology \ Apo Active PE _ Caspase 3 \ PAB200-2 for more molecular products just contact us ... We have also other products like : Apo Active PE _ Caspase 3 Related products : Apo Active PE _ Caspase 3 ... Cells Cloning Elisa Kits microRNA Analysis Multiplex Cytokine Assays PCR Peptides Proteins Transfection Viral Systems ... 2. Tel 0035924682280 Fax 0035924808322 e-mail: [email protected] , Gentaur. IBAN: BG11FINV91501014771636. BIC: FINVBGSF ...
7BIO caspase independent nonapoptotic cell death inducer | CAS# 916440-85-2
... is a caspase independent nonapoptotic cell death inducer . 7-bromoindirubin-3-oxime is an inhibitor of FLT3, DYRK1A, DYRK2 ... 7BIO-induced cell death was not accompanied by cytochrome c release neither by any measurable effector caspase activation. 7BIO ... 7-bromoindirubin-3-oxime (7BIO), a derivative of indirubin, is a caspase independent nonapoptotic cell death inducer . 7- ... 7-Bromoindirubin-3′-oxime induces caspase-independent cell death[J]. Oncogene, 2006, 25(47): 6304-6318..  Myrianthopoulos V ...
Apoptosis Activator 2|Indoledione caspase activator, cell-permeable|CAS# 79183-19-0
p,Apoptosis Activator 2 is a small molecule apoptosis activator with IC50 value of about 4μM .,/p,,p,Apoptosis Activator 2 ... is a cell permeable compound that promotes apoptosis by activating caspases in a cytochrome c- and Apaf-1-dependent manner. 20 ... Moreover, this induction of apoptosis only occurs in tumor cell lines (such as breast, lung, colon, and epidermal cancer cell ... Direct activation of the apoptosis machinery as a mechanism to target cancer cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003 Jun 24;100( ...
IJERPH | Free Full-Text | Mercury-Induced Externalization of Phosphatidylserine and Caspase 3 Activation in Human Liver...
... indicating a gradual increase in apoptotic cells with increasing doses of mercury. The percentages of Caspase 3 positive cells ... cells. The Annexin-V and Caspase 3 assays were performed by flow cytometric analysis to determine the extent of ... phosphatidylserine externalization and Caspase 3 activation in mercury-treated HepG2 cells. Cells were exposed to mercury for ... also indicating a gradual increase in Caspase positive cells with increasing doses of mercury. ...
Molecules | Free Full-Text | Silver Nanoparticles Biosynthesized Using Achillea biebersteinii Flower Extract: Apoptosis...
The Ag-NPs caused a dose-dependent decrease in cell viability, fragmentation in nucleic acid, inhibited the proliferation and ... caspase-3, -8 and -9 were also evaluated by RT-PCR. The TEM images revealed that the Ag-NPs morphology had a different shape. ... induction of apoptosis on MCF-7 by suppressing specific cell cycle genes, and simulation programmed cell dead genes. Further ... The anti-apoptosis effect of Ag-NPs on the MCF-7 cell line was investigated by MTT assay, DAPI and acridine orange staining and ...
RCSB PDB - 3R7N: Caspase-2 bound with two copies of Ac-DVAD-CHO
... cell cycle regulation, and tumor suppression. In biochemical assays, caspase-2 uniquely prefers a pentapeptide (such as ... ... cell cycle regulation, and tumor suppression. In biochemical assays, caspase-2 uniquely prefers a pentapeptide (such as VDVAD) ... Caspase-2 subunit p18. A, C. 160. Homo sapiens. Mutation(s): 0 Gene Names: CASP2, ICH1, NEDD2. EC: 3.4.22 (PDB Primary Data), ... Caspase-2 subunit p12. B, D. 112. Homo sapiens. Mutation(s): 0 Gene Names: CASP2, ICH1, NEDD2. EC: 3.4.22 (PDB Primary Data), ...
RCSB PDB - 2H4W: Crystal structure of human caspase-1 (Glu390->Asp) in complex with 3-[2-(2-benzyloxycarbonylamino-3-methyl...
2-(2-benzyloxycarbonylamino-3-methyl-butyrylamino)-propionylamino]-4-oxo-pentanoic acid (z-VAD-FMK) ... Crystal structure of human caspase-1 (Glu390-,Asp) in complex with 3-[ ... Unit Cell:. Length (Å). Angle (°). a = 63.214. α = 90.00. b = 63.214. β = 90.00. ... An allosteric circuit in caspase-1.. Datta, D., Scheer, J.M., Romanowski, M.J., Wells, J.A.. (2008) J.Mol.Biol. 381: 1157-1167 ...
Sanguinarine-induced apoptosis in human leukemia U937 cells via Bcl-2 downregulation and caspase-3 activation. | Medic Debate
Caspase-3 activity was measured using a colorimetric assay.. RESULTS:. Exposure of U937 cells to sanguinarine resulted in ... Furthermore, a caspase-3-specific inhibitor blocked caspase-3 activation as well as PARP degradation, and increased the ... Sanguinarine-induced apoptosis in human leukemia U937 cells via Bcl-2 downregulation and caspase-3 activation.. Han MH, Yoo YH ... Sanguinarine-induced caspase-3 activation and apoptosis were significantly attenuated in Bcl-2-overexpressing U937/Bcl-2 cells ...
Mitochondrial permeabilization engages NF-κB-dependent anti-tumour activity under caspase deficiency | Nature Cell Biology
We therefore investigated whether MOMP-induced caspase-independent cell death (CICD) might be a better way to kill cancer cells ... Moreover, they support a rationale for engaging caspase-independent cell death in cell-killing anti-cancer therapies. Tait and ... typically kills cells even in the absence of caspase activity. Caspase activity can also have a variety of unwanted ... We find that cells undergoing CICD display potent pro-inflammatory effects relative to apoptosis. Underlying this, MOMP was ...
Family of cysteine proteasesProteinsCysteineRepressor with caspase recruitment domainSubstratesSubstrateSubunitsIntracellularCytochromeStimuliEffector caspasesMammalian cellsActivatesAntigenRecombinantStress-induced apoptosisBiologySpecificityMitochondriaApicalActivation of the caspaseAntibodiesMechanismLevels of cleavedProapoptoticGeneFragmentationBiolHumanDeath InducedApoptotic cellDomain death agonistFragmentsNeuronalOverexpressionMolecular
Family of cysteine proteases8
- It belongs to a family of cysteine proteases called caspases that cleave proteins only at an amino acid following an aspartic acid residue. (wikipedia.org)
- Apoptosis requires the action of various classes of proteases, including a family of cysteine proteases known collectively as the caspases. (ahajournals.org)
- Caspases are a family of cysteine proteases implicated in the biochemical and morphological changes that occur during apoptosis (programmed cell death). (sciencemag.org)
- Caspase-3 (CPP32, Yama, apopain) is a member of the family of cysteine proteases which includes interleukin-1beta-converting enzyme (ICE) and C. elegans protein, Ced-3. (fishersci.com)
- Apoptosis can be inhibited by coexpression of Bcl-2 as well as inhibitors of Caspase-3 or other members of the family of cysteine proteases. (fishersci.com)
- Caspases, a family of cysteine proteases, play a central role in apoptosis. (jci.org)
- In mammals, a family of cysteine proteases (designated caspases) related to the Caenorhabditis elegans CED-3 protein appears to represent a major effector arm of the apoptotic program ( 5 ). (pnas.org)
- Essential in this process is the caspase family of cysteine proteases ( 2 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
- The cell damage/death was induced by non-cytotoxic type 2 ribosome-inactivating proteins: Sambucus Sieboldiana lectin (SSA) and Sambucus Nigra lectin (SNA). (alliedacademies.org)
- They are classified as non-cytotoxic type 2 ribosome-inactivating proteins that do not have biological activities such as mitogenicity or cytotoxicity [ 11 ]. (alliedacademies.org)
- The toxicity of several heavy metals such as mercury has been attributed to their high affinity to sulfhydryl groups of proteins and enzymes, and their ability to disrupt cell cycle progression and/or apoptosis in various tissues. (mdpi.com)
- Might function by either activating some proteins required for cell death or inactivating proteins necessary for cell survival. (abcam.com)
- Western blot method was performed to detect the expression level of BAX, Bcl-2 and Caspase-3 proteins. (omgcb.com)
- Cell differentiation, caspase inhibition and macromolecular synthesis blockage, but not Bcl-2 or Bcl-XL proteins, protect SH-SY5Y cells from apoptosis triggered by two cdk inhibitory drugs. (udl.cat)
- Caspase 2 proteolytically cleaves other proteins. (wikipedia.org)
- The active form of Caspase-3 cleaves several other apoptotic proteins including proteins such as DNA fragmentation factor (DFF). (fishersci.com)
- To determine if viral Bcl-2 proteins can be converted into death factors, similar to their cellular counterparts, five herpesvirus Bcl-2 homologs from five different viruses were tested for their susceptibility to caspases. (asm.org)
- Thus, herpesvirus Bcl-2 homologs escape negative regulation by retaining their antiapoptotic activities and/or failing to be converted into proapoptotic proteins by caspases during programmed cell death. (asm.org)
- More than 15 cellular Bcl-2-related proteins have been identified in a wide range of species. (asm.org)
- We and others have reported that caspase-3 cleaves Bcl-2 at Asp-34 and Bcl-x L at Asp-61 and Asp-76 to produce N-terminally truncated proteins that have lost their antiapoptotic activities ( 8 , 13 , 20 , 22 , 35 ). (asm.org)
- Additionally, Bcl‑2, Bax and caspase‑3 proteins may exert a significant effect on neuron injury. (spandidos-publications.com)
- Nerve cell apoptosis may occur following cerebral ischemia or reperfusion injury as a result of the expression of apoptosis-related proteins and a complicated process leading to physiological and pathological alterations. (spandidos-publications.com)
- Several factors are contributed in apoptosis, but the key elements are categorized in two main families of proteins including caspase enzymes and Bcl-2 family [ 18 ]. (hindawi.com)
- Bcl-2 family is a set of cytoplasmic proteins that regulate apoptosis. (hindawi.com)
- The two main groups of this family, Bcl-2 and Bax proteins, are functionally opposed: Bcl-2 and Bcl-x L act to inhibit apoptosis, whereas Bax counteracts this effect [ 19 , 20 ]. (hindawi.com)
- regulatory proteins that control cell cycle. (brainscape.com)
- The ubiquitin/proteasome system (UPS) is involved in many biological pathways, including regulation of the cell cycle and modulation of the degradation of short-lived and regulatory proteins (for review see Rubinsztein, 2006 ). (rupress.org)
- The proteins that execute the apoptotic programme are a group of proteases termed caspases (cysteine‐dependent aspartate‐specific protease). (els.net)
- Substrates targeted by caspases during the apoptotic programme include proteins involved in maintaining various aspects of cytoskeletal and organelle architecture as well as proteins that function in signalling networks critical for cell function. (els.net)
- Apoptotic caspases are cysteine proteases that become activated in response to diverse extracellular and intracellular stimuli and subsequently carry out the cell death programme by systematically cleaving intracellular proteins. (els.net)
- Once active, caspase 9 functions to proteolytically cleave and activate the effector caspases 3 and 7, which then go on to cleave numerous intracellular proteins to dismantle the cell. (els.net)
- The CARD has been proposed to play a regulatory role in apoptosis by allowing proteins such as Apaf-1 to associate with caspase-9 ( 13 ). (pnas.org)
- Two viral proteins, baculovirus p35 and cowpox virus CrmA, inhibit apoptosis by directly targeting caspases ( 14 , 15 ). (pnas.org)
- By characterizing these regions, the researchers could determine the proteins that are being specifically activated to transform the monocytes into Kupffer cells. (ucsd.edu)
- And while we found strong evidence for the proteins and signals involved in Kupffer cell differentiation, to prove those proteins do what we think they do, the next step will be to delete the genes that encode those proteins and see if we get the predicted outcomes. (ucsd.edu)
- Apoptotic cell shrinkage is achieved by net loss of intracellular osmoles and H 2 O, as well as by caspase-dependent proteolysis of housekeeping and structural proteins, which mediates cell disassembly. (physiology.org)
- Here, cytokine activation of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway and the role of the two proapoptotic Bcl-2 proteins, Bad and Bax, were examined in β-cells. (diabetesjournals.org)
- The release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria is regulated by the Bcl-2 family of proteins ( 5 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
- The proapoptotic Bcl-2 proteins can be subdivided into "multidomain" and "BH3-only" proteins. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Multidomain proapoptotic proteins, such as Bax and Bak, contain the conserved Bcl-2 homology (BH) domains 1-3. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Antiapoptotic Bcl-2 family members contain all four BH domains (BH1-4) and are generally thought to prevent apoptosis by sequestering the proapoptotic Bcl-2 proteins, although the exact mechanisms remain elusive ( 6 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
- The proapoptotic multidomain proteins Bax and Bak are essential in mitochondrial dysfunction and cell death caused by a variety of stimuli ( 7 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
- Hsp90 plays a key role in the intracellular trafficking and maturation of diverse cell signaling proteins, including those involved in cell survival such as Bcr-Abl, Raf-1, ErbB2, and Akt. (aspetjournals.org)
- Tumour growth can occur by a combination of factors, including a mutation in a cell cycle gene which removes the restraints on cell growth, combined with mutations in apoptopic proteins such as Caspases that would respond by inducing cell death in abnormally growing cells. (wikipedia.org)
- In addition to the caspase family, the Bcl-2 family of proteins represents another class of molecules that have been extensively studied for their death-promoting as well as death-inhibiting properties. (pnas.org)
- Although, the caspase and Bcl-2 families of proteins have received much attention, the relationship of these families and mechanisms of interaction at a molecular level was not clear. (pnas.org)
- I was able to show that both proteins underly different regulation regarding their nuclear import in cells. (uio.no)
- the cell synthesizes proteins needed for cell division, such as proteins in microtubules. (slideshare.net)
- Researchers have identified a family of proteins called cyclins, internal signals that increase or decrease during the cell cycle. (slideshare.net)
- In contrast, activation of caspase 3, a cysteine protease, is considered as a marker for apoptosis in Schwann cells. (biomedcentral.com)
- Auf www.antikoerper-online.de finden Sie aktuell 236 Caspase 2, Apoptosis-Related Cysteine Peptidase (CASP2) Antikörper von 34 unterschiedlichen Herstellern. (antikoerper-online.de)
- This active site cysteine is present in a QAC(R/Q)G motif, which is conserved among different members of this family and is involved in substrate binding and catalysis ( 2 ). (pnas.org)
Repressor with caspase recruitment domain1
- We have identified and characterized ARC, apoptosis repressor with caspase recruitment domain (CARD). (pnas.org)
- Caspases and their substrates. (nih.gov)
- Caspases proteolytically cleave a host of cellular substrates at aspartate residues, which may render them either functionally inactive or confer novel activities that help to promote cellular demise. (els.net)
- Subsequently, active caspases specifically process various substrates that are implicated in apoptosis and inflammation. (jci.org)
- The structures also provide a series of snapshots of caspase-2 in different catalytic states, shedding light on the mechanism of capase-2 activation, substrate binding, and catalysis. (rcsb.org)
- These findings broaden our understanding of caspase-2 substrate specificity and catalysis. (rcsb.org)
- Here, we investigated the possibility that Bcl-2 could also serve as a caspase substrate. (sciencemag.org)
- This Review gives an overview of caspases and their classification, structure, and substrate specificity. (jci.org)
- Caspase enzymes specifically recognize a 4 or 5 amino acid sequence on the target substrate which necessarily includes an aspartic acid residue. (bio-medicine.org)
- DFFA is the substrate for caspase-3 and triggers DNA fragmentation during apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
- Pro-caspase-2 contains two subunits, p19 and p12. (wikipedia.org)
- In addition, caspases cleave the proenzyme precursors to produce the active subunits of caspases themselves ( 8 ). (sciencemag.org)
- The caspases are synthesized as inactive precursors that are proteolytically processed to generate active subunits. (pnas.org)
- An active caspase consists of two large and two small subunits that form two heterodimers which associate in a tetramer. (bio-medicine.org)
- This subdivision was of main significance as IFN-producing TH1 cells had been consequently demonstrated to become essential in sponsor defences against intracellular pathogens by triggering cell-mediated defenses, whilst TH2-powered reactions had been important for effective humoral reactions against extracellular microorganisms. (sprentland.com)
- TAK1 has also been shown to participate in intracellular events involving the T-cell receptor, B-cell receptor, and LMP1 oncogene product of EBV ( 27 - 29 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- KR disrupted the mitochondrial membrane potential and induced the release of cytochrome c and activation of caspase-3. (nih.gov)
- 7BIO-induced cell death was not accompanied by cytochrome c release neither by any measurable effector caspase activation. (apexbt.com)
- Apoptosis Activator 2 is a cell permeable compound that promotes apoptosis by activating caspases in a cytochrome c- and Apaf-1-dependent manner. (apexbt.com)
- 20μM Apoptosis Activator 2 increases the fraction of Apaf-1 in the apoptosome when there is 0.15μM cytochrome c. (apexbt.com)
- Decreased Bcl-2 levels were not related to cytochrome c release, activation of caspases 3/8 or poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase proteolysis. (unboundmedicine.com)
- Truncated Bid (tBid) then activates Bax/Bak which induce mitochondrial permeabilisation, the release of cytochrome c , formation of the apoptosome and the activation of caspases 9 and 3. (els.net)
- Mitochondrial cytochrome c release and activation of caspase cascade were determined by Western blot analysis. (unboundmedicine.com)
- Treatment of Jurkat T cells with DHURS (20-25 μg/ml) caused cytotoxicity and apoptotic DNA fragmentation along with Δψm loss, mitochondrial cytochrome c release, activation of caspase-9, -7, -3, and -8, and PARP degradation. (unboundmedicine.com)
- These results indicate that DHURS-induced apoptogenic activity in Jurkat T cells, which was less potent in normal peripheral T cells, was mediated by Δψm loss, mitochondrial cytochrome c release, and subsequent activation of caspase-9 and -3, leading to activation of caspase-7 and -8, which could be regulated by Bcl-2. (unboundmedicine.com)
- Activation of Bad was determined by Ser136 dephosphorylation, mitochondrial stress by changes in mitochondrial metabolic activity and cytochrome c release, downstream apoptotic signaling by activation of caspase-9 and -3, and DNA fragmentation. (diabetesjournals.org)
- RESULTS We found that proinflammatory cytokines induced calcineurin-dependent dephosphorylation of Bad Ser136, mitochondrial stress, cytochrome c release, activation of caspase-9 and -3, and DNA fragmentation. (diabetesjournals.org)
- There have been no reports that SSA or SNA has cytotoxicity against mammalian cells, including neurosphere cells. (alliedacademies.org)
- Caspases play a major role in the transduction of the apoptotic signal and execution of apoptosis in mammalian cells. (fishersci.com)
- In addition, MRIT simultaneously and independently interacts with BclX L and FLICE in mammalian cells. (pnas.org)
- In mammalian cells, it was also demonstrated that CED-4 could independently interact with BclX L , an anti-apoptotic member of the Bcl-2 family as well as with ICE and FLICE, two large prodomain caspases ( 8 ). (pnas.org)
- Although CED-4 was required as a biochemical link between CED-3 and CED-9, BclX L and FLICE could interact in mammalian cells independent of the presence of CED-4 ( 8 ). (pnas.org)
- Conclusions -OxyHb activates caspase-2 and -3 in cultured brain microvessel endothelial cells. (ahajournals.org)
- However, unlike FLICE, the C-terminal domain of MRIT lacks the caspase catalytic consensus sequence QAC(R/Q)G. Nonetheless MRIT activates caspase-dependent death. (pnas.org)
- Zoledronate activates human Vγ9Vδ2 T cells, which are immune sentinels of cell stress and tumors, through upstream accumulation of the cognate Ag isopentenyl pyrophosphate. (jimmunol.org)
- These comprise TH1, TH2, TH17, follicular assistant Capital t cells (TFH), inducible Capital t regulatory cells (iTreg), and the most lately explained and least well-characterised subsets, TH9 and TH22 cells, each of which is definitely created upon antigen demonstration in the existence of particular cytokines or units of cytokines (Number 1). (sprentland.com)
- Using a recombinant adeno-associated viral vector carrying human TFPI-2 cDNA, we stably expressed TFPI-2 in U-251 cells, a highly invasive human glioblastoma cell line. (aacrjournals.org)
- In vitro translated human Bcl-2 was digested with purified recombinant caspase-3 (CPP32). (sciencemag.org)
- A ) 35 S-labeled in vitro translated Bcl-2 and the indicated Bcl-2 mutants were digested with purified recombinant caspase-3 and analyzed on 12% SDS-polyacrylamide gels ( 24 ). (sciencemag.org)
- Alternatively, Jurkat cell lysates were digested for 4 hours with recombinant caspase-3. (sciencemag.org)
- Recombinant caspase-3 cleaved the in vitro-translated NHE1 cytoplasmic domain into five distinct peptides, identical in molecular weight to NHE1 degradation products derived from staurosporine-stimulated RTC lysates. (physiology.org)
- We are now accepting submissions for our upcoming special issue on 'Reconstituting cell biology', guest edited by Manuel Théry. (biologists.org)
- Advancement of methods such as multi-parameter circulation cytometry and anatomist of fate-mapping cytokine media reporter rodents offers lately caused main improvement in TH cell biology, with seven functionally exclusive TH subsets right now explained. (sprentland.com)
- and Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Laboratory of Experimental Cardiology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands (M.-J.G. (ahajournals.org)
- This is in part due to our incipient understanding of the biology of the disease-causing mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) and the mechanisms that regulate their activity in vivo. (sciencemag.org)
- The two best-known species of this genus are Xenopus laevis and Xenopus tropicalis , which are commonly studied as model organisms for developmental biology, cell biology, toxicology, neuroscience and for modelling human disease and birth defects. (eol.org)
- Xenopus has long been an important tool for in vivo studies in molecular, cell, and developmental biology of vertebrate animals. (eol.org)
- A leading stem cell and vascular biology researcher, Dr. Frenette joined Einstein from Mt. Sinai School of Medicine in July 2010, when he was named the first director of the Gottesman Institute. (healthcanal.com)
- Caspase-3 gene knockout defines cell lineage specificity for programmed cell death signaling in the ovary. (semanticscholar.org)
- 7BIO inhibited FLT3, the dual-specificity tyrosine phosphorylation-regulated kinases, DYRK1A and DYRK2 with the IC50 values of 0.34 μM, 1.9 and 1.3 μM, respectively . (apexbt.com)
- The CARD domain of ARC exhibited significant homology to the prodomains of apical caspases and the CARDs present in the cell death regulators Apaf-1 and RAIDD. (pnas.org)
- DRONC, a key apical caspase in Drosophila , is the only known caspase that is transcriptionally regulated by ecdysone during development. (rupress.org)
Activation of the caspase1
- Here, the molecular mechanism by which TAIII-induced apoptosis affects human AML cells was investigated. (springer.com)
- As part of our continuing studies, we investigated the underlying apoptosis mechanism of human ovarian granulosa cells exposed to 0, 16, 64, and 256 μM 2,5-HD in vitro for 24 h. (nih.gov)
- Direct activation of the apoptosis machinery as a mechanism to target cancer cells. (apexbt.com)
- To delineate the mechanism of cell death induced by the confluent process, we employed Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. (ncku.edu.tw)
- Apoptosis could be proposed as a possible mechanism for hyperglycemia-induced hippocampal neuronal cell death. (hindawi.com)
- The involvement of p53, Bcl-2, Bax, caspases, and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) was examined as a mechanism for the anti-cancer activity of EGCG. (nih.gov)
- We have previously shown that renal tubular epithelial cell (RTC) apoptosis is a mechanism of tubular atrophy ( 20 , 43 ). (physiology.org)
- The ability of Bax/Bak double knockout cells to undergo autophagy cell death suggests that autophagy might provide an alternative mechanism of cell death. (keystonesymposia.org)
- Objective: To investigate the protective role of TGF-β1 against TNF-α-mediated NP cell apoptosis and the underlying mechanism. (portlandpress.com)
Levels of cleaved1
- However, because KSBcl-2 was not cleavable by caspases, the latent proapoptotic activity of KSBcl-2 apparently cannot be released. (asm.org)
- The Bcl-2 homologs encoded by herpesvirus saimiri, Epstein-Barr virus, and BHV4 were not cleaved by apoptotic cell extracts and did not possess latent proapoptotic activities. (asm.org)
- Although both prosurvival and proapoptotic components of the cell death machinery are present constitutively within a cell, a balance between pro- and antideath factors appears to regulate the apoptotic process. (rupress.org)
- For example, in AML cells bearing the translocation t(9;12), the oligomerization domain of the TEL gene combines with the catalytic domain of JAK2 and incites the leukemogenic process ( 4 , 5 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- Caspase 2 also known as CASP2 is an enzyme that, in humans, is encoded by the CASP2 gene. (wikipedia.org)
- The bcl-2 gene was identified at chromosomal translocation breakpoints in follicular lymphomas and contributes to tumorigenesis by inhibiting programmed cell death rather than by stimulating cell growth ( 1 , 59 ). (asm.org)
- Apoptosis is a gene-regulated occurrence characterized by special morphological features, including condensation of chromatin, shrinkage of cell and nucleus, membrane blebbing, and DNA fragmentation [ 17 ]. (hindawi.com)
- Delivery of ARC by gene transfer or enhancement of its endogenous activity may provide a strategy for the treatment of diseases that are characterized by inappropriately increased cell death in muscle tissue. (pnas.org)
- But these new, monocyte-derived cells were nearly identical in terms of gene expression and function. (ucsd.edu)
- Apoptosis is a process of active cell death and is characterized by activation of caspases, DNA fragmentation, and biochemical and morphological changes. (biomedsearch.com)
- The apoptotic process is accompanied by shrinkage and fragmentation of the cells and nuclei and degradation of the chromosomal DNA into nucleosomal units. (wikipedia.org)
- It is also known as caspase activated nuclease (CPAN), dna fragmentation factor 40 (DFF-40), DFF2 and DFFB. (wikipedia.org)
- Ravindranath MH, Ramasamy V, Moon S, Ruiz C, Muthugounder S. Differential growth suppression of human melanoma cells by tea ( Camellia sinensis ) epicatechins (ECG, EGC and EGCG). (springer.com)
- Cytotoxic and antineoplastic activity of timosaponin A-III for human colon cancer cells. (springer.com)
- The present study is aimed to elucidate the effects and relative mechanisms of TT‑1 on a human thyroid cancer cell line (TT) in vitro and in vivo. (spandidos-publications.com)
- Studies have shown that 2,5-hexanedione (2,5-HD) is the main active metabolite of n-hexane in the human body. (nih.gov)
- In this study, we exposed human ovarian granulosa cells to 0, 16, 64, and 256 μM 2,5-HD in vitro for 24 h. (nih.gov)
- However, a marked dose-dependent increase in the expression of BAX and active CASPASE-3 (p17) was observed in human ovarian granulosa cells. (nih.gov)
- In this study, we investigated the anthocyanins isolated from Vitis coignetiae Pulliat for their potential anti-proliferative and apoptotic effects on human leukemia U937 cells. (spandidos-publications.com)
- Taken together, these results show that Bcl-2 and caspases are key regulators of apoptosis in response to anthocyanins in human leukemia U937 cells. (spandidos-publications.com)
- Dubin RL, Hall CM, Pileri CL, Kudlacek PE, Li XY, Yee JA, Johnson ML, Anderson RJ (2001) Thermostable (SULT1A1) and thermolabile (SULT1A3) phenol sulfotransferases in human osteosarcoma and osteoblast cells. (springer.com)
- The aim of this study was to assess the potential for mercury to induce early and late-stage apoptosis in human liver carcinoma (HepG 2 ) cells. (mdpi.com)
- The aim of this research was the characterization and investigation of the cytotoxic properties of Ag-NPs synthesized using A. biebersteinii flower extract, on a human breast cancer cell line. (mdpi.com)
- Sanguinarine-induced apoptosis in human leukemia U937 cells via Bcl-2 downregulation and caspase-3 activation. (sureserver.com)
- This study aims to assess the anticancer activity of the methanolic extract of A. absinthium (MEAA) against human colorectal cancer HCT-116 cell line. (omgcb.com)
- We report here on the anticancer effect of ziyuglycoside II on human gastric carcinoma BGC-823 cells . (bvsalud.org)
- Our previous studies ( 2 , 3 ) indicated that the loci of brain tissue damage and pathological characteristics in a rat ischemia model coincided with human cerebral infarction loci and clinical symptoms with regard to injury as the same target tissue is involved in both rats and humans. (spandidos-publications.com)
- Human caspase-4 detects tetra-acylated LPS and cytosolic Francisella and functions differently from murine caspase-11. (nih.gov)
- and it is still controversial that human caspase-12 acts as a functional counterpart of mouse caspase-12. (rupress.org)
- In this study, we investigated the effects of EGCG on cell growth, cell cycle progression, and apoptosis in human fibrosarcoma HT-1080 cells. (nih.gov)
- Further evidence supporting the unique anatomical identity of fibrogenic stromal cells comes from a recent systematic study of phenotypically similar perivascular MSC populations residing in multiple adult human tissues. (sciencemag.org)
- The present study evaluated the apoptotic effect of 2α,3α-dihydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid (DHURS), purified from the dried spikes on human acute leukemia Jurkat T cells. (unboundmedicine.com)
- The IC(50) value for Jurkat T cells was ∼22 μg/ml, whereas that for human peripheral T cells was 25 μg/ml. (unboundmedicine.com)
- Cell lines from MYCN transgenic murine tumours reflect the molecular and biological characteristics of human neuroblastoma. (semanticscholar.org)
- Every tissue in the human body has an immune cell in it called a macrophage. (ucsd.edu)
- Thus, our results show that CD100 is a new important element in the deleterious T cell-neural cell cross talk during neuroinflammation and suggest its role in demyelination or absence of remyelination in neuroinflammatory diseases including multiple sclerosis and human T lymphotropic virus type 1-associated myelopathy. (jimmunol.org)
- Human peripheral blood PBMCs, For immunohistochemistry (IHC) Cell Chip with Human Peripheral Blood PBMC and T Cells. (bio-medicine.org)
- Umbilical cord blood CD14+ Monocytes, For immunohistochemistry (IHC) Cell Chip with Human Umbilical Cord Blood Monocytes, B Cells and NK Cells. (bio-medicine.org)
- Structure of caspase-1 (CASP1), originally called interleukin-1 beta-converting enzyme (ICE), the first human caspase to be identified. (wikipedia.org)
- 7BIO triggered the activation of non-apoptotic cell death, possibly through necroptosis or autophagy. (apexbt.com)
- Ceramide phosphoethanolamine synthase SMSr is a target of caspase-6 during apoptotic cell death. (nih.gov)
- Activation of caspase-8 leads directly to the activation of caspase-7 and caspase-3 and, subsequently, apoptotic cell death ( 15 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- The marine toxin yessotoxin (YTX) is well known to induce various cytotoxic effects including apoptotic and non-apoptotic cell death. (frontiersin.org)
- Bcl-2 is capable of inhibiting apoptotic cell death in diverse biological systems and is related to C. elegans death-antagonist ced-9 ( 5 ). (pnas.org)
- Caspase-3 is activated in the apoptotic cell. (wikipedia.org)
Domain death agonist1
- 1% non-neuronal cells remain after 3 d). (jneurosci.org)
- Ischemic semi-diazonal nerve cells principally undergo delayed apoptotic neuronal death ( 1 ), which is a key factor leading to motor dysfunction and neurological impairment. (spandidos-publications.com)
- found that inhibiting the neuronal cell-surface glutamate receptor mGluR5 with the drug CTEP stimulated autophagy of huntingtin aggregates and improved motor and cognitive performance in HD model mice, without any apparent side effects. (sciencemag.org)
- We found that the treatment of 12-month-old symptomatic heterozygous and homozygous zQ175 huntingtin knockin mice for 12 weeks with CTEP, a negative allosteric modulator of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5), reduced the size and number of huntingtin aggregates, attenuated caspase-3 activity, and reduced both neuronal apoptosis and neuronal loss in brain tissue. (sciencemag.org)
- Knockdown of E2-25K/Hip-2 expression suppresses neuronal cell death triggered by ER stress, and thus caspase-12 is required for the E2-25K/Hip-2-mediated cell death. (rupress.org)
- He also describes the roles of cell death in development, neuronal selection, and the development of self-tolerance in the immune system, as well as how the body uses cell death to defend against cancer. (cshlpress.com)
- An additional finding of that study was the accumulation of full-length APP and tau following overexpression of Bcl-2 in 3xTg-AD mice [ 8 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- However, direct demonstration that APP is cleaved by caspases and is prevented following overexpression of Bcl-2 was not investigated. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- However, these apoptotic events were abrogated by overexpression of Bcl-2. (unboundmedicine.com)
- Three isoforms of TFPI-2 are synthesized by these cells and migrate with an apparent molecular weight of 33, 31, and 27 kDa due to differential glycosylation ( 9 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- DCs are themselves advised to make cytokines pursuing recognition of particular pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) on international microorganisms through design acknowledgement receptors (PRRs) during virus encounter in the periphery . (sprentland.com)
- The neurons expressing caspase‑3, Bax and Bcl‑2 in the cortical area, CA3, CA1, stratum lucidum (Slu) and molecular layer of the dentate gyrus (MoDG) of the hippocampus were detected using immunohistochemistry or the TUNEL method. (spandidos-publications.com)
- However, the exact molecular mechanisms by which proinflammatory cytokines induce β-cell death are not clear. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Molecular Cell 44 (3): 373-384. (els.net)