Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
Highly proliferative, self-renewing, and colony-forming stem cells which give rise to NEOPLASMS.
Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Characteristic cells of granulomatous hypersensitivity. They appear as large, flattened cells with increased endoplasmic reticulum. They are believed to be activated macrophages that have differentiated as a result of prolonged antigenic stimulation. Further differentiation or fusion of epithelioid cells is thought to produce multinucleated giant cells (GIANT CELLS).
One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A cell adhesion protein that was originally identified as a heat stable antigen in mice. It is involved in METASTASIS and is highly expressed in many NEOPLASMS.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Methods for maintaining or growing CELLS in vitro.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Phenotypic changes of EPITHELIAL CELLS to MESENCHYME type, which increase cell mobility critical in many developmental processes such as NEURAL TUBE development. NEOPLASM METASTASIS and DISEASE PROGRESSION may also induce this transition.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
An octamer transcription factor that is expressed primarily in totipotent embryonic STEM CELLS and GERM CELLS and is down-regulated during CELL DIFFERENTIATION.
Spherical, heterogeneous aggregates of proliferating, quiescent, and necrotic cells in culture that retain three-dimensional architecture and tissue-specific functions. The ability to form spheroids is a characteristic trait of CULTURED TUMOR CELLS derived from solid TUMORS. Cells from normal tissues can also form spheroids. They represent an in-vitro model for studies of the biology of both normal and malignant cells. (From Bjerkvig, Spheroid Culture in Cancer Research, 1992, p4)
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A class of fibrous proteins or scleroproteins that represents the principal constituent of EPIDERMIS; HAIR; NAILS; horny tissues, and the organic matrix of tooth ENAMEL. Two major conformational groups have been characterized, alpha-keratin, whose peptide backbone forms a coiled-coil alpha helical structure consisting of TYPE I KERATIN and a TYPE II KERATIN, and beta-keratin, whose backbone forms a zigzag or pleated sheet structure. alpha-Keratins have been classified into at least 20 subtypes. In addition multiple isoforms of subtypes have been found which may be due to GENE DUPLICATION.
A subclass of SOX transcription factors that are expressed in neuronal tissue where they may play a role in the regulation of CELL DIFFERENTIATION. Members of this subclass are generally considered to be transcriptional activators.
Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.
Specialized stem cells that are committed to give rise to cells that have a particular function; examples are MYOBLASTS; MYELOID PROGENITOR CELLS; and skin stem cells. (Stem Cells: A Primer [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Institutes of Health (US); 2000 May [cited 2002 Apr 5]. Available from: http://www.nih.gov/news/stemcell/primer.htm)
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
The mucous membrane lining the RESPIRATORY TRACT, including the NASAL CAVITY; the LARYNX; the TRACHEA; and the BRONCHI tree. The respiratory mucosa consists of various types of epithelial cells ranging from ciliated columnar to simple squamous, mucous GOBLET CELLS, and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.
The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.
Acidic sulfated integral membrane glycoproteins expressed in several alternatively spliced and variable glycosylated forms on a wide variety of cell types including mature T-cells, B-cells, medullary thymocytes, granulocytes, macrophages, erythrocytes, and fibroblasts. CD44 antigens are the principle cell surface receptors for hyaluronate and this interaction mediates binding of lymphocytes to high endothelial venules. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)
Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
The larger air passages of the lungs arising from the terminal bifurcation of the TRACHEA. They include the largest two primary bronchi which branch out into secondary bronchi, and tertiary bronchi which extend into BRONCHIOLES and PULMONARY ALVEOLI.
Cells derived from the BLASTOCYST INNER CELL MASS which forms before implantation in the uterine wall. They retain the ability to divide, proliferate and provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.
A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
The physiological renewal, repair, or replacement of tissue.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.
Transplantation between animals of different species.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Stratified squamous epithelium that covers the outer surface of the CORNEA. It is smooth and contains many free nerve endings.
An essential ribonucleoprotein reverse transcriptase that adds telomeric DNA to the ends of eukaryotic CHROMOSOMES.
Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.
Bone-marrow-derived, non-hematopoietic cells that support HEMATOPOETIC STEM CELLS. They have also been isolated from other organs and tissues such as UMBILICAL CORD BLOOD, umbilical vein subendothelium, and WHARTON JELLY. These cells are considered to be a source of multipotent stem cells because they include subpopulations of mesenchymal stem cells.
MAMMARY GLANDS in the non-human MAMMALS.
Orientation of intracellular structures especially with respect to the apical and basolateral domains of the plasma membrane. Polarized cells must direct proteins from the Golgi apparatus to the appropriate domain since tight junctions prevent proteins from diffusing between the two domains.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Human colonic ADENOCARCINOMA cells that are able to express differentiation features characteristic of mature intestinal cells, such as ENTEROCYTES. These cells are valuable in vitro tools for studies related to intestinal cell function and differentiation.
Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.
Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.
A member of the CXC chemokine family that plays a role in the regulation of the acute inflammatory response. It is secreted by variety of cell types and induces CHEMOTAXIS of NEUTROPHILS and other inflammatory cells.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Small polyhedral outpouchings along the walls of the alveolar sacs, alveolar ducts and terminal bronchioles through the walls of which gas exchange between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood takes place.
Eukaryotic cell line obtained in a quiescent or stationary phase which undergoes conversion to a state of unregulated growth in culture, resembling an in vitro tumor. It occurs spontaneously or through interaction with viruses, oncogenes, radiation, or drugs/chemicals.
A transparent, biconvex structure of the EYE, enclosed in a capsule and situated behind the IRIS and in front of the vitreous humor (VITREOUS BODY). It is slightly overlapped at its margin by the ciliary processes. Adaptation by the CILIARY BODY is crucial for OCULAR ACCOMMODATION.
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
The segment of LARGE INTESTINE between the CECUM and the RECTUM. It includes the ASCENDING COLON; the TRANSVERSE COLON; the DESCENDING COLON; and the SIGMOID COLON.
In humans, one of the paired regions in the anterior portion of the THORAX. The breasts consist of the MAMMARY GLANDS, the SKIN, the MUSCLES, the ADIPOSE TISSUE, and the CONNECTIVE TISSUES.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
Glandular tissue in the BREAST of human that is under the influence of hormones such as ESTROGENS; PROGESTINS; and PROLACTIN. In WOMEN, after PARTURITION, the mammary glands secrete milk (MILK, HUMAN) for the nourishment of the young.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The layer of pigment-containing epithelial cells in the RETINA; the CILIARY BODY; and the IRIS in the eye.
Lining of the ORAL CAVITY, including mucosa on the GUMS; the PALATE; the LIP; the CHEEK; floor of the mouth; and other structures. The mucosa is generally a nonkeratinized stratified squamous EPITHELIUM covering muscle, bone, or glands but can show varying degree of keratinization at specific locations.
The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
The cartilaginous and membranous tube descending from the larynx and branching into the right and left main bronchi.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Gated transport mechanisms by which proteins or RNA are moved across the NUCLEAR MEMBRANE.
Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.
Calcium-dependent cell adhesion proteins. They are important in the formation of ADHERENS JUNCTIONS between cells. Cadherins are classified by their distinct immunological and tissue specificities, either by letters (E- for epithelial, N- for neural, and P- for placental cadherins) or by numbers (cadherin-12 or N-cadherin 2 for brain-cadherin). Cadherins promote cell adhesion via a homophilic mechanism as in the construction of tissues and of the whole animal body.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Cell-cell junctions that seal adjacent epithelial cells together, preventing the passage of most dissolved molecules from one side of the epithelial sheet to the other. (Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, p22)
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)
Any of several ways in which living cells of an organism communicate with one another, whether by direct contact between cells or by means of chemical signals carried by neurotransmitter substances, hormones, and cyclic AMP.
Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.
A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.
Long convoluted tubules in the nephrons. They collect filtrate from blood passing through the KIDNEY GLOMERULUS and process this filtrate into URINE. Each renal tubule consists of a BOWMAN CAPSULE; PROXIMAL KIDNEY TUBULE; LOOP OF HENLE; DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULE; and KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCT leading to the central cavity of the kidney (KIDNEY PELVIS) that connects to the URETER.
The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.
A gland in males that surrounds the neck of the URINARY BLADDER and the URETHRA. It secretes a substance that liquefies coagulated semen. It is situated in the pelvic cavity behind the lower part of the PUBIC SYMPHYSIS, above the deep layer of the triangular ligament, and rests upon the RECTUM.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
The transparent anterior portion of the fibrous coat of the eye consisting of five layers: stratified squamous CORNEAL EPITHELIUM; BOWMAN MEMBRANE; CORNEAL STROMA; DESCEMET MEMBRANE; and mesenchymal CORNEAL ENDOTHELIUM. It serves as the first refracting medium of the eye. It is structurally continuous with the SCLERA, avascular, receiving its nourishment by permeation through spaces between the lamellae, and is innervated by the ophthalmic division of the TRIGEMINAL NERVE via the ciliary nerves and those of the surrounding conjunctiva which together form plexuses. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
Direct contact of a cell with a neighboring cell. Most such junctions are too small to be resolved by light microscopy, but they can be visualized by conventional or freeze-fracture electron microscopy, both of which show that the interacting CELL MEMBRANE and often the underlying CYTOPLASM and the intervening EXTRACELLULAR SPACE are highly specialized in these regions. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p792)
The renal tubule portion that extends from the BOWMAN CAPSULE in the KIDNEY CORTEX into the KIDNEY MEDULLA. The proximal tubule consists of a convoluted proximal segment in the cortex, and a distal straight segment descending into the medulla where it forms the U-shaped LOOP OF HENLE.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
Lining of the STOMACH, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. The surface cells produce MUCUS that protects the stomach from attack by digestive acid and enzymes. When the epithelium invaginates into the LAMINA PROPRIA at various region of the stomach (CARDIA; GASTRIC FUNDUS; and PYLORUS), different tubular gastric glands are formed. These glands consist of cells that secrete mucus, enzymes, HYDROCHLORIC ACID, or hormones.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
The portion of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT between the PYLORUS of the STOMACH and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE. It is divisible into three portions: the DUODENUM, the JEJUNUM, and the ILEUM.
A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.
Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
High molecular weight mucoproteins that protect the surface of EPITHELIAL CELLS by providing a barrier to particulate matter and microorganisms. Membrane-anchored mucins may have additional roles concerned with protein interactions at the cell surface.
A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.
Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)
Electron microscopy in which the ELECTRONS or their reaction products that pass down through the specimen are imaged below the plane of the specimen.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Epithelial cell line originally derived from porcine kidneys. It is used for pharmacologic and metabolic studies.
The mucous membrane that covers the posterior surface of the eyelids and the anterior pericorneal surface of the eyeball.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
Surface ligands, usually glycoproteins, that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion. Their functions include the assembly and interconnection of various vertebrate systems, as well as maintenance of tissue integration, wound healing, morphogenic movements, cellular migrations, and metastasis.
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
A 195-kDa zonula occludens protein that is distinguished by the presence of a ZU5 domain at the C-terminal of the molecule.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Major constituent of the cytoskeleton found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They form a flexible framework for the cell, provide attachment points for organelles and formed bodies, and make communication between parts of the cell possible.
The innermost membranous sac that surrounds and protects the developing embryo which is bathed in the AMNIOTIC FLUID. Amnion cells are secretory EPITHELIAL CELLS and contribute to the amniotic fluid.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
The tubular and cavernous organs and structures, by means of which pulmonary ventilation and gas exchange between ambient air and the blood are brought about.
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
An annular transitional zone, approximately 1 mm wide, between the cornea and the bulbar conjunctiva and sclera. It is highly vascular and is involved in the metabolism of the cornea. It is ophthalmologically significant in that it appears on the outer surface of the eyeball as a slight furrow, marking the line between the clear cornea and the sclera. (Dictionary of Visual Science, 3d ed)
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Minute projections of cell membranes which greatly increase the surface area of the cell.
A partitioning within cells due to the selectively permeable membranes which enclose each of the separate parts, e.g., mitochondria, lysosomes, etc.
Restoration of integrity to traumatized tissue.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.
A form of interference microscopy in which variations of the refracting index in the object are converted into variations of intensity in the image. This is achieved by the action of a phase plate.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Human colonic ADENOCARCINOMA cells that are able to express differentiation features characteristic of mature intestinal cells such as the GOBLET CELLS.
Cellular uptake of extracellular materials within membrane-limited vacuoles or microvesicles. ENDOSOMES play a central role in endocytosis.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.
A 6-kDa polypeptide growth factor initially discovered in mouse submaxillary glands. Human epidermal growth factor was originally isolated from urine based on its ability to inhibit gastric secretion and called urogastrone. Epidermal growth factor exerts a wide variety of biological effects including the promotion of proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal and EPITHELIAL CELLS. It is synthesized as a transmembrane protein which can be cleaved to release a soluble active form.
The quality of surface form or outline of CELLS.
The single layer of pigment-containing epithelial cells in the RETINA, situated closely to the tips (outer segments) of the RETINAL PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS. These epithelial cells are macroglia that perform essential functions for the photoreceptor cells, such as in nutrient transport, phagocytosis of the shed photoreceptor membranes, and ensuring retinal attachment.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
Culture media containing biologically active components obtained from previously cultured cells or tissues that have released into the media substances affecting certain cell functions (e.g., growth, lysis).
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
The mucous membrane lining of the uterine cavity that is hormonally responsive during the MENSTRUAL CYCLE and PREGNANCY. The endometrium undergoes cyclic changes that characterize MENSTRUATION. After successful FERTILIZATION, it serves to sustain the developing embryo.
Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.
Absorptive cells in the lining of the INTESTINAL MUCOSA. They are differentiated EPITHELIAL CELLS with apical MICROVILLI facing the intestinal lumen. Enterocytes are more abundant in the SMALL INTESTINE than in the LARGE INTESTINE. Their microvilli greatly increase the luminal surface area of the cell by 14- to 40 fold.
Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.
The middle germ layer of an embryo derived from three paired mesenchymal aggregates along the neural tube.
A pair of highly specialized muscular canals extending from the UTERUS to its corresponding OVARY. They provide the means for OVUM collection, and the site for the final maturation of gametes and FERTILIZATION. The fallopian tube consists of an interstitium, an isthmus, an ampulla, an infundibulum, and fimbriae. Its wall consists of three histologic layers: serous, muscular, and an internal mucosal layer lined with both ciliated and secretory cells.
A chloride channel that regulates secretion in many exocrine tissues. Abnormalities in the CFTR gene have been shown to cause cystic fibrosis. (Hum Genet 1994;93(4):364-8)
A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.
They typically have well-differentiated columnar cells organized into glands with the characteristic mucin in the cytoplasm. ... Endometrial cancers may be tumors derived from epithelial cells (carcinomas), mixed epithelial and mesenchymal tumors ( ... ranging from cancers with well-differentiated cells (grade I), to very poorly-differentiated cells (grade III). Grade I cancers ... Usually, when cells grow old or get damaged, they die, and new cells take their place. Cancer starts when new cells form ...
The epithelial cells of the uterus possess some of the same characteristics of the vaginal epithelium.[21] ... to ten-layer cell layer. The parabasal cells can also differentiate into histiocytes or glandular cells. Estrogen also ... when the epithelium is degraded to the upper intermediate cells and superficial cells. In this way, the cytoplasm is dissolved ... basal cells) or the cell layers (parabasal cells) above it. The parabasal cells, which are slightly larger than the basal cells ...
... or molecular characteristics of epithelial cells.[5][6] A progenitor carcinoma stem cell can be formed from any of a number of ... Composed of large, monotonous rounded or overtly polygonal-shaped cells with abundant cytoplasm.. Small cell carcinoma. Cells ... component of cells characteristic of more highly differentiated types (i.e. adenocarcinoma and/or squamous cell carcinoma). ... or tissue architectural characteristics of epithelial cells. Types[edit]. *Oral: Most of oral cancers are squamous-cell ...
... and may contain bile pigment in the cytoplasm. In poorly differentiated forms, malignant epithelial cells are discohesive, ... Due to the characteristic blood flow pattern of HCC tumors, a specific perfusion pattern of any detected liver lesion may ... giant cell), and clear cell. In well-differentiated forms, tumor cells resemble hepatocytes, form trabeculae, cords, and nests ... Well-differentiated HCC Moderately differentiated HCC. Poorly differentiated HCC BCLC Staging System The prognosis of HCC is ...
Oct4 genetic knockout cells both in vivo and in culture display TE morphological characteristics. It has been shown that one ... Thus, TE becomes specified and differentiates. Inside cells, however, do not turn on the Cdx2 gene, and express high levels of ... whereas inside cells sequester Yap in the cytoplasm through a phosphorylation event. Together these transcription factors ... Knockout mice for the Cdx2 gene undergo compaction, but lose the TE epithelial integrity during the late blastocyst stage. ...
Spindle cell morphology, and has a Basophilic cytoplasm. Cystic nephromas have an immunostaining pattern like ovarian stroma; ... A cystic nephroma, also known as multilocular cystic nephroma, mixed epithelial stromal tumour (MEST) and renal epithelial ... The characteristics of cystic nephromas are: Cysts lined by a simple epithelium with a hobnail morphology, i.e. the nuclei of ... cystic partially differentiated nephroblastoma cystic standard nephroblastoma (cystic Wilm's tumor) cystic mesoblastic nephroma ...
Cell division becomes uncontrolled. Cell nuclei become less uniform. Pathologists describe cells as well differentiated (low- ... This parameter assesses whether the cell nuclei are uniform like those in normal breast duct epithelial cells, or whether they ... Cells have receptors on their surface and in their cytoplasm and nucleus. Chemical messengers such as hormones bind to ... These cancer characteristics are described as the size of the tumor (T), whether or not the tumor has spread to the lymph nodes ...
... the transmembrane protein mediating epithelial cell adhesion, exhibits loss of expression on LN cells, and P120 Catenin ... Proliferation of LN cells that do not meet these histological characteristics are either Atypical Lobular Hyperplasia or simply ... When e-cadherin is lost, p120 cadherin builds up in the cytoplasm of the neoplastic cells - thus, producing a positive reaction ... In these scenarios, pathologists may employ immunohistochemical testing to differentiate between entities. This involves using ...
... or other more differentiated lung cancer cell types. They tend to be highly pleomorphic (i.e. variable in characteristics), but ... abnormal cells with epithelial tissue architecture and/or molecular characteristics, and which derive from embryonic endoderm. ... The tumor cells had an abundant, thick and well-demarcated cytoplasm. The location of the nucleus was centrifugal, and the ... Giant cells in a lung cancer are highly associated with the presence of spindle cells. The chromatin of malignant giant cells ...
The presence of a high density of amylopectin granules in the cytoplasm causes it to have a foamy appearance, a characteristic ... concurrently differentiate into macrogametes, sometimes even within the same host cell. These gametes then fuse forming zygotes ... within the epithelial layer of the duodenum of the host. Subsequently, zygotes transition to an oocyst stage. This transition ... An important defining characteristic of the genus Schellackia is its octonucleate oocyst stage within the small intestine of a ...
... the follicle ruptures resulting in epithelial cell damage. In order to heal the tissue and replace the damage, the cells ... "Molecular characteristics of malignant ovarian germ cell tumors and comparison with testicular counterparts: implications for ... the cellular structure is distinguished by a round-ovoid shape containing ample eosinophilic cytoplasm and an irregularly ... Immature teratomas contain immature or embryonic tissue which significantly differentiates them from mature teratomas as they ...
Clear cell tumors are characterized by large epithelial cells with abundant clear cytoplasm and may be seen in association with ... cells a well-differentiated tumor closely resembles benign tumors a poorly differentiated tumor may not resemble the cell type ... Patient and Tumor Characteristics. SEER Program. NIH Pub. No. 07-6215. Bethesda, MD: National Cancer Institute. pp. 133-144. ... the prognosis is poor Brenner tumors are uncommon surface-epithelial stromal cell tumors in which the epithelial cell (which ...
... (PRCC) is a malignant, heterogeneous tumor originating from renal tubular epithelial cells of ... A micrograph of type 1 PRCC, illustrating features of small basophilic cells with scarce cytoplasm. A single layer of cells are ... PRCC can be differentiated from other types of RCC due to its distinguishing features, displaying a small hypovascular renal ... Herts BR, Coll DM, Novick AC, Obuchowski N, Linnell G, Wirth SL, Baker ME (February 2002). "Enhancement characteristics of ...
They attach the epithelial cell to the basement membrane. Gap junctions connect the cytoplasm of two cells and are made up of ... Epithelial cells tend to cluster together, and have a "characteristic tight pavement-like appearance". But this is not always ... Simple cuboidal epithelium commonly differentiates to form the secretory and duct portions of glands.[12] Stratified cuboidal ... Goblet cells are modified columnar cells and are found between the columnar epithelial cells of the duodenum. They secrete ...
These stains give the cytoplasm and nuclei of cells characteristic colors and allows for visualization of the nuclear ... A koilocyte is a squamous epithelial cell that has undergone a number of structural changes, which occur as a result of ... and the basal layer of cells remains a discrete layer. This differentiates this lesion from High-Grade Squamous Intraepithelial ... Koilocytes are characteristic of LSIL in the anus. In contrast to LSIL, HSIL in the anus consists of abnormal basaloid cells ...
They are composed of cells that cannot differentiate further and develop directly from germ cells or from gonadoblastomas. ... Epithelial ovarian cancers develop from the epithelium, a layer of cells that covers the ovary. Most people with epithelial ... rounded clear cells. The nuclei are uniform and round or square with prominent nucleoli and the cytoplasm has high levels of ... Several characteristics of an adnexal mass indicate ovarian malignancy; they usually are solid, irregular, multilocular, and/or ...
In Hydra polyps, cnidocytes differentiate from a specific population of stem cells, the interstitial cells (I-cells) located ... The resulting osmotic pressure causes a rapid influx of water into the cell. This increase in water volume in the cytoplasm ... They are very short genes containing the characteristic collagen-triple helix sequence, as well as polyproline domains and ... In the Anthozoan sea anemone Nematostella vectensis, nematocytes are thought to develop throughout the animal from epithelial ...
The ependymal cells line the inside of the ventricles of the brain. These cells have proteins that make up the characteristics ... Therefore, the cells differentiate from what they were meant to be. If the abnormal cells continue to grow, divide, and produce ... and vimentin typically stains tumor cell cytoplasm adjacent to vessel walls. The cells of this tumor usually show a columnar to ... epithelial membrane antigen) → - GFAP (glial fibrillary acidic protein) → + Synaptophysin → - Chromogranin → - NSE (neuron- ...
... γδ T cells exhibit characteristics that place them at the border between innate and adaptive immunity. On one hand, γδ T cells ... and highly restricted intraepithelial Vδ1 T cells will respond to stressed epithelial cells. ... In tissues, organ-specific macrophages are differentiated from phagocytic cells present in the blood called monocytes. ... are known as granulocytes due to the presence of granules in their cytoplasm, or as polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs) due to their ...
... but as the new cells grow and mature, their characteristics slowly change and they become differentiated as components of the ... Functions of epithelial tissue: The principle function of epithelial tissues are covering and lining of free surface The cells ... Each cell contains a dense cytoplasm and a prominent nucleus. The dense protoplasm of meristematic cells contains very few ... Inside the body, epithelial cells form the lining of the mouth and alimentary canal and protect these organs. Epithelial ...
De-differentiation of mutated cells may create stem cell-like characteristics, suggesting that any cell might become a cancer ... mutants in adult stem cells or adult progenitor cells and mutant, differentiated cells that acquire stem-like attributes. These ... EpCAM (epithelial cell adhesion molecule, ESA, TROP1) is hemophilic Ca2+-independent cell adhesion molecule expressed on the ... 2. They express various transmembrane proteins, such as MDR1 and BCRP, that pump drugs out of the cytoplasm. 3. They divide ...
C) Clear cell carcinoma: clear cell cytoplasm identified in polygonal cells with a central nucleus, columnar cells with an ... This occurs in mucinous adenocarcinoma, in which cells are poorly differentiated. If the mucus remains inside the tumor cell, ... A pathology report contains a description of the microscopical characteristics of the tumor tissue, including both tumor cells ... originating from superficial glandular epithelial cells lining the colon and rectum. It invades the wall, infiltrating the ...
The outer epithelial layer may include cells of several types including sensory cells, gland cells and stinging cells. There ... Each typically has a cell membrane formed of phospholipids, cytoplasm and a nucleus. All of the different cells of an animal ... The defining characteristic of a vertebrate is the vertebral column, formed in the development of the segmented series of ... The bones of mammals are well ossified and their teeth, which are usually differentiated, are coated in a layer of prismatic ...
... the cells must undergo an epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) to lose their epithelial characteristics, such as cell- ... During gastrulation, the cells are differentiated into the ectoderm or mesendoderm, which then separates into the mesoderm and ... This displacement brings maternally loaded determinants of cell fate from the equatorial cytoplasm and vegetal cortex into ... cells in the body are either organized into sheets of connected cells (as in epithelia), or as a mesh of isolated cells, such ...
This then enters the body of the insect vector and further develops into an oocyst between the epithelial cells and basement ... Macrogametocytes, on the other hand, stain blue-purple due to a higher number of ribosomes within the cytoplasm and contain a ... The gametocytes are known to doubly infect the same erythrocyte, a feature considered characteristic of some species. Oocysts ... Polychromophilus was first described by Dionisi in 1898, who also differentiated between the first two species, ...
Microarray hybridization data revealed slight decrease in FAM89A expression in response to airway epithelial cell exposure to ... which is characteristic of its predicted leucine zipper structural motif. FAM89A contains a conserved leucine-rich adapter ... followed by the cytoplasm having the lowest score (4.3%). PredictProtein tool supports the prediction of subcellular ... "A qPCR expression assay of IFI44L gene differentiates viral from bacterial infections in febrile children". Scientific Reports ...
In well differentiated carcinomas, tumor cells are pleomorphic/atypical, but resembling normal keratinocytes from prickle layer ... "cell nests" or "epithelial/keratinous pearls". The surrounding stroma is reduced and contains inflammatory infiltrate ( ... and sometimes ulceration which can be characteristics. The key term is translucency. ... large, polygonal, with abundant eosinophilic (pink) cytoplasm and central nucleus).[32] ...
... it further differentiates into an effector cell, known as a plasma cell. Plasma cells are short-lived cells (2-3 days) that ... as opposed to CD4+ and CD8+ αβ T cells and share characteristics of helper T cells, cytotoxic T cells and natural killer cells ... and highly restricted intraepithelial Vδ1 T cells respond to stressed epithelial cells. B Cells are the major cells involved in ... MiRNA pathway in cytoplasm binds to Ago1-RISC complex and functions as a template for viral RNA degradation. Last one is piRNA ...
... fat cells, and types of bone cells Epithelial stem cells (progenitor cells) that give rise to the various types of skin cells ... Such cells, called somatic cells, make up most of the human body, such as skin and muscle cells. Cells differentiate to ... dismantles the cell cycle machinery and often expresses a range of genes characteristic of the cell's final function (e.g. ... the distinct cytoplasm that each daughter cell inherits results in a distinct pattern of differentiation for each daughter cell ...
... more compatible to cytoskeleton characteristic of typical epithelial cell than to cytoskeleton of active and movable ... epithelioid cells be formed not from differentiated macrophages, but from so-called plasmacytoid monocytes (have similarities ... are supervised everywhere in cytoplasm of epithelioid cells. Some fascicles of actinic filaments were posed in filopodiums ... Play media Epithelioid cells are an essential characteristic of epithelioid cell granulomas. Epithelioid cell granuloma can be ...
... cancer is a group of more than 100 diseases that develop across time and involve the uncontrolled division of the bodys cells ... cancers derived from these cells may have lost this characteristic. Likewise, epithelial cells usually contain large amounts of ... Tumor cells also often lack the differentiated traits of the normal cell from which they arose. Whereas normal secretory cells ... Still other oncogenes disrupt parts of the signal cascade that occurs in a cells cytoplasm such that the cells nucleus ...
One of the distinguishing characteristics of benign epithelial cells is that they are polarized so that the apical cytoplasm is ... and differentiates into many types of derivatives (neurons, glia, cartilage and bone, pigmented and endocrine cells). In this ... Mammospheres spontaneously form on and around the epithelial cell monolayer. Specific cell populations can be harvested ... Various cell types could be analyzed using this technique, including lymphocytes/leukocytes, stem cells, and tumor cells. ...
One of the distinguishing characteristics of benign epithelial cells is that they are polarized so that the apical cytoplasm is ... 3D culture can be effectively used as a means to differentiate the malignant phenotype from the benign breast phenotype and for ... We found that some tumor cell lines such as melanoma B16F1 cells, glioblastoma U87 cells, and breast cancer MDA-MB-435 cells ... epithelial cells and fibroblasts within the original core were evident on histology. Malignant epithelial cells with squamoid ...
Mesenchyme is derived primarily from the mesoderm , although there are also mesenchymal cells known as the neural crest cells, ... It consists of many loosely packed, nonspecialized, mobile cells. ... epithelial cells . Unlike mesenchymal cells, epithelial cells are not mobile. Epithelial cells form continuous sheets, with ... some cells do remain undifferentiated in adults. These serve as stem cells, which retain the ability to differentiate into ...
They typically have well-differentiated columnar cells organized into glands with the characteristic mucin in the cytoplasm. ... Histologically, these tumors show sheets of identical epithelial cells with no identifiable pattern. ... Usually, when cells grow old or get damaged, they die , and new cells take their place. Cancer starts when new cells form ... Higher-grade endometrioid adenocarcinomas have less well-differentiated cells, have more solid sheets of tumor cells no longer ...
... to 10-cell layers thick with the basal cells lined with an elongated nucleus and the presence of a characteristic superficial ... W. Thosaporn, A. Iamaroon, S. Pongsiriwet, and K. H. Ng, "A comparative study of epithelial cell proliferation between the ... an intermediate layer of polyhedral cells with eosinophilic cytoplasm, and a thick superficial layer of orthokeratin [1, 2, 8 ... The OOC is a specific odontogenic clinicopathological entity that should be differentiated from the KCOT as it presents a ...
The expression of Ovol2 in tumor samples from patients with HCC and HCC cell lines was examined using Western blotting, real- ... Keywords: Ovol2, hepatocellular carcinoma, prognosis, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, mesenchymal-epithelial transition ... Metastasis involves epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and mesenchymal-epithelial transition. Ovol2 belongs to the Ovo- ... Recent studies have demonstrated that Ovols affect mesenchymal-epithelial transition by inducing the expression of miR-200 in a ...
They typically have well-differentiated columnar cells organized into glands with the characteristic mucin in the cytoplasm. ... Endometrial cancers may be tumors derived from epithelial cells (carcinomas), mixed epithelial and mesenchymal tumors ( ... ranging from cancers with well-differentiated cells (grade I), to very poorly-differentiated cells (grade III). Grade I cancers ... Usually, when cells grow old or get damaged, they die, and new cells take their place. Cancer starts when new cells form ...
smallest/numerous unit that has characteristics of life, nucleous is surrounded by cytoplasm within a limiting membrane, cells ... differentiate to perform unique tasks, smallest living unit in body. tissue level. similar cells together to perform certain ... epithelial, connective, muscle, nervous. oran level. organization of several diff kinds of tissues to perform a special ... intracellular control = within cells intrinsic control (autoregulation) = within tissues or organs extrinsic control = organ to ...
The epithelial cells of the uterus possess some of the same characteristics of the vaginal epithelium.[21] ... to ten-layer cell layer. The parabasal cells can also differentiate into histiocytes or glandular cells. Estrogen also ... when the epithelium is degraded to the upper intermediate cells and superficial cells. In this way, the cytoplasm is dissolved ... basal cells) or the cell layers (parabasal cells) above it. The parabasal cells, which are slightly larger than the basal cells ...
... patterns of ileal epithelial cells isolated by laser capture microdissection from either the villus epithelial or crypt cell ... Previously established biomarkers as well as a novel and distinct set of genes believed to be linked to epithelial cell ... The spatial organization of the epithelial cells along the crypt-villus axis segregates them into regions of specialized ... The elucidation of differential gene expression patterns between crypt and villus epithelial cell lineages in human ileal ...
... basal cell, granular cell, clear cell, acanthomatous, vascular, and desmoplastic patterns. An interesting characteristic of the ... However, PA can be differentiated by nuclei located in the upper part of the cytoplasm. In addition, immunohistochemical ... and that PA is derived from odontogenic epithelial remnants, rather than from basal cells of the oral epithelium.7 ... Both are characterized by a proliferation of basal cells, often arranged in nests and intermixed with a fibrous stroma. ...
1D) shows characteristic malignant microacini with a single layer of irregular epithelial cells, unlike the double cell layer ... D) Representative malignant duct with pleomorphic cells, high nucleus/cytoplasm ratio, and an angulated appearance. (E) IHC on ... A) In vitro uptake of Me4FDG by a slice of a moderately differentiated pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, with one low-uptake ... such as CA1 cells in the hippocampus and Purkinje cells in the cerebellum (19, 20). In epithelial cells, SGLTs and GLUTs are ...
cells ______ to perform unique functions. differentiate. an organization of similar cells specialized to perform a certain ... tissue cells are surrounded by nonliving matrix 4 major tissue types. a) epithelial tissue b) connective tissue c) muscle ... each cell has a ______ surrounded by cytoplasm within a limiting membrane. nucleus. ... smallest & most numerous units that possess and exhibit characteristics of life. Cells. ...
The stem cell-stem cell niche is maintained by stellate cells in the periportal area and crypt base. Periportal vitamin A-rich ... Decreased colonic subepithelial myofibroblasts and IgA/IgG-positive cells, and increased CD11c-positive dendritic cells in the ... stellate cells) were demonstrated as hepatic stellate cells in the hepatic lobule and as subepithelial myofibroblasts in the ... stellate cells decrease in patients with chronic hepatitis C who are habitual smokers. Mice fed a vitamin A-supplemented diet ...
These represent a more differentiated cell type and are rich in vacuolar cytoplasm. The other cell population consisted of ... There are no small oval or fusiform non-vacuolar cells or cells with squamous epithelial differentiation. Second, the cells ... These represent a more differentiated cell type and are rich in vacuolar cytoplasm. These cells have pleomorphic nuclei, which ... These represent a more differentiated cell type and are rich in vacuolar cytoplasm. The other cell population consists of ...
... epithelial cells. Secretory vesicles (containing pepsinogen) are clearly visible in the apical cytoplasm of chief cells. Basal ... by pumping hydrogen ions across the cell membrane. These are among the most dramatically differentiated epithelial cells in the ... Goblet cells, which stand alone within a surface epithelium, are a characteristic feature of the intestine (as well as the ... Serous Cells. Serous cells, exemplified by pancreatic acinar cells, are glandular epithelial cells specialized for exocrine ...
1F, e). 5.3% of tumors developed small cysts with hobnail-shaped cells or clear cytoplasm. These are classified as clear cell ... Poorly differentiated carcinoma. f. Clear cell carcinoma. Scale bar: 100 μm. Pie chart shows distribution of each subtype. ... translocates to nucleus of mammary epithelial cells and upregulates transcription of alveolar development-related genes and ... H&E staining exhibited multifocal areas and mixed phenotypes of different morphological characteristics. Dominant phenotype for ...
In all instances, motile bacteria exited the epithelial cells from a localized area on the epithelial cell surface. Fluxing ... 1g ) within the cytoplasm of a superficial umbrella cell. These studies demonstrate that E. coli carry out a developmental ... UPEC Differentiates into a Filamentous Form in Vivo. Consistent with observations in previous studies, a subpopulation of the ... These characteristics are similar to those found in biofilms on numerous surfaces in nature. ...
The reticulum is largely of epithelial origin and retains its epithelial characteristics in cytoplasm and nucleus. In the ... The epithelium may form macrophages but does not differentiate to lymphocytes and other types of cells. In imprints from the ... rabbit the epithelial cells usually can be distinguished from those of the mesenchymatous reticulum. During regeneration ... Imprints stained with May-Grünwald and Giemsa are of great value for detailed cytology of the thymus and for determining cell ...
The best immunohistochemical markers for differentiating epithelial malignant mesotheliomas from papillary serous carcinomas ... The tumor cells stained positive for mesothelial markers calretinin, keratin 5/6, keratin AE1/3, and CAM 5.2. Adenocarcinoma ... This case demonstrates the expected characteristics of a soft tissue tumor; sharply demarcated, heterogeneously enhancing ... with abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm, round nuclei, and prominent nucleoli.2 All mesotheliomas stain positive for keratin. ...
Sheets of epithelial cells within bone are shown. B, sheets of poorly differentiated adenocarcimoma with focal squamous areas. ... cells had more abundant cytoplasm than is typically seen in neuroendocrine carcinomas but expressed markers characteristic of ... Epithelial hyperplasia.. Epithelial hyperplasia is a non-neoplastic increase in epithelial cells within the prostate and can be ... Histologically, tumors consist of nests of malignant epithelial cells admixed with stromal cells and blood vessels (Fig. 7D). ...
FIGURE 6 Epithelial membrane antigen (EMA), showing transmembrane positivity of the sebaceous cells ... with similar characteristics. Thus, our diagnostic conclusion was moderately differentiated sebaceous carcinoma with lymphatic ... A histology of the ulcers border revealed atypical cells with prominent nucleoli, eosinophilic cytoplasm with multiple micro- ... FIGURE 3 Atypical round and polygonal cells with pleomorphic nuclei, prominent nucleoli, and eosinophilic cytoplasm with ...
... epithelial cells with clear cytoplasm, pleomorphism, atypia, and few mitoses. These features generally are consistent with the ... Certain characteristics may be useful in differentiating hidradenocarcinomas from related tumors. (7) For example, adenoid ... The lesions are composed of a mixture of eosinophilic polygonal cells, squamous cells, mucinous cells, and clear cells (Figure ... Occasionally, malignant cells may infiltrate the surrounding benign cells in an unorganized fashion and, in contrast to the ...
... or molecular characteristics of epithelial cells.[5][6] A progenitor carcinoma stem cell can be formed from any of a number of ... Composed of large, monotonous rounded or overtly polygonal-shaped cells with abundant cytoplasm.. Small cell carcinoma. Cells ... component of cells characteristic of more highly differentiated types (i.e. adenocarcinoma and/or squamous cell carcinoma). ... or tissue architectural characteristics of epithelial cells. Types[edit]. *Oral: Most of oral cancers are squamous-cell ...
This fluorescence image gallery explores over 30 of the most common cell lines, labeled with a variety of fluorophores using ... the original cells were taken from a moderately differentiated sarcoma of the tibia. U-2 OS cells exhibit typical epithelial ... EOMA cells are tumorigenic in syngeneic mice and exhibit characteristic endothelial cell properties. The cells synthesize a ... Typically epithelial cells contain a relatively large amount of cytoplasm and a significant quantity of granules. The function ...
... allowing movement of nucleocapsid into the cells cytoplasm. Other coated viruses are brought into the cell using endosomes, ... These drugs appear to inhibit the absorption of the influenza virus into the epithelial cells of the respiratory tract and, ... Viruses are differentiated by whether the DNA or RNA is single or doubled-stranded. The type of capsid structure and whether ... Viruses are classified according to structural characteristics such as whether the virus genome is made of DNA or RNA. Both of ...
... often branching microvilli on cell surfaces is a characteristic feature of malignant and benign mesothelial cells. However, ... However, these typical microvilli are seen only in better-differentiated lumens within epithelial areas of malignant ... These invaginated deeply into the cytoplasm of neighboring tumor cells, as well as into the surrounding stromal matrix. The ... often branching microvilli on cell surfaces is a characteristic feature of malignant and benign mesothelial cells. However, ...
ECT2, epithelial cell transforming 2; H&E, hematoxylin and eosin; WD, well differentiated; MD, moderately differentiated; PD, ... ECT2 positive staining was detected mainly in the nucleus and cytoplasm of gastric cancer cells. Weak staining was observed in ... Characteristics. Total n=130. ECT2 strong positivity, n=35. ECT2 weak positivity/absent, n=95. P-value. ... i] ECT2, epithelial cell transforming 2; ADC, adenocarcinoma; WD, well differentiated; MD, moderately differentiated; PD, ...
... and may contain bile pigment in the cytoplasm. In poorly differentiated forms, malignant epithelial cells are discohesive, ... Due to the characteristic blood flow pattern of HCC tumors, a specific perfusion pattern of any detected liver lesion may ... giant cell), and clear cell. In well-differentiated forms, tumor cells resemble hepatocytes, form trabeculae, cords, and nests ... Well-differentiated HCC Moderately differentiated HCC. Poorly differentiated HCC BCLC Staging System The prognosis of HCC is ...
  • An invasive tumor is said to be malignant , and cells shed into the blood or lymph from a malignant tumor are likely to establish new tumors ( metastases ) throughout the body. (nih.gov)
  • 2 These tumors are thought to arise from either extraosseous remnants of dental lamina or the basal cell layer of surface epithelium, which is believed to have odontogenic potential. (appliedradiology.com)
  • 5 The imaging appearance of these tumors is not pathognomonic but it can be characteristic with a "soap bubble" or "honeycomb" appearance with often associated resorption of the adjacent tooth root best seen on CT. (appliedradiology.com)
  • Characterization of the transcriptome profiles of ECT2 upregulated gastric tumors indicated that ECT2 upregulation may be associated with transcriptional features of cancer stem cells (CSCs). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • However, hyaline stromal material may be absent in poorly differentiated tumors. (cytojournal.com)
  • This report presents a brief review of the current literature on primary ovarian solid pseudopapillary tumors, including a discussion of expected prognosis after surgical resection, as well as a discussion of the role of immunohistochemistry (IHC) in differentiating ovarian neoplasms in young premenopausal women. (hindawi.com)
  • the latter characteristics generally apply to higher-grade tumors. (oralcancerfoundation.org)
  • High-grade tumors are poorly differentiated, and they are made up primarily of squamous epithelial and intermediate cells. (oralcancerfoundation.org)
  • Low-grade tumors are well differentiated and are made up primarily of mucus-secreting and squamous epithelial cells. (oralcancerfoundation.org)
  • Analysis of the transcription of the genes responsible for the production of CS showed a decline in the expression of some genes in poorly differentiated compared to well-differentiated tumors. (frontiersin.org)
  • Syndecan 2 levels were very low or undetectable in healthy tissues, increasing significantly in well-differentiated tumors, and decreasing in poorly differentiated NETs, and its expression levels showed a positive correlation with patient survival. (frontiersin.org)
  • Glypican 5 appeared overexpressed in high-grade tumors with epithelial differentiation, and not in those that displayed a neuroendocrine phenotype. (frontiersin.org)
  • however, mitoses may be uncommon in well-differentiated tumors. (humpath.com)
  • Histopathologically, the tumors ranged from well to poorly differentiated and showed many molecular features of human HNSCC. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Metastatic cancer cells showed complete loss of p53 expression when compared with primary tumors. (aacrjournals.org)
  • APUDOMA is a general term collectively applied to tumors associated with APUD cells. (slicksurface.com)
  • Tumor angiogenesis is a key factor in the progression of thymic epithelial tumors (TETs). (nature.com)
  • Thymic epithelial tumors (TETs), comprising thymomas and thymic carcinomas (TCs) are extremely rare malignancies with an annual incidence of only 3.2 cases per million 1 . (nature.com)
  • Laboratory of Rare Human Circulating Cells (LCCRH), Department of Cellular and Tissular Biopathology of Tumors, University Medical Centre, Montpellier, France. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Laboratory of Hormonal and Cell Biology, Department of Cellular and Tissular Biopathology of Tumors, University Medical Centre, Montpellier, France. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Circulating tumor cells (CTC) in blood are promising new biomarkers potentially useful for prognostic prediction and monitoring of therapies in patients with solid tumors including colon cancer. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Functional studies showed that CTC-MCC-41 cells induced rapidly in vitro endothelial cell tube formation and in vivo tumors after xenografting in immunodeficient mice. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Although it is common in the lung cancer literature to refer to histologically mixed tumors containing significant numbers of malignant giant cells as "giant-cell carcinomas", technically a diagnosis of "giant-cell carcinoma" should be limited strictly to neoplasms containing only malignant giant cells (i.e. "pure" giant-cell carcinoma). (wikipedia.org)
  • About 1% of lung cancers are sarcomas, germ cell tumors, and hematopoietic tumors, while 99% of lung cancers are carcinoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • Carcinomas are tumors composed of transformed, abnormal cells with epithelial tissue architecture and/or molecular characteristics, and which derive from embryonic endoderm. (wikipedia.org)
  • Small cell undifferentiated histology hepatoblastoma and rhabdoid tumors of the liver. (cigna.com)
  • however, immunohistochemical tests are recommended in order to differentiate from other tumors. (biomedsearch.com)
  • This spread of tumors cells is called metastasis. (massagefitnessmag.com)
  • Discussion: Germ cell tumors can occur in the mediastinum, however, the cells in this case are not as pleomorphic and cytologically atypical as those seen in embryonal carcinoma, and do not show the round nuclei with clear cytoplasm of the cells seen in a seminoma. (jhu.edu)
  • The presence of pseudorosettes raises the possibility of a Ewing's sarcoma/PNET of the mediastinum, however, such tumors are mitotically active and composed of primitive small round blue cells. (jhu.edu)
  • The classification of thymic epithelial tumors can be rather confusing. (jhu.edu)
  • Type A are tumors consisting of bland spindle cells with a few lymphocytes. (jhu.edu)
  • Spindle cell tumors of the pleura, as well as those tumors primary from the chest wall or mediastinum, may present as either localized or diffuse masses and, depending on the extent of thoracic involvement, may be difficult to distinguish from those of pulmonary origin. (redorbit.com)
  • It has been previously shown that GFRα1 is expressed by somatotroph cells and acromegaly tumors. (frontiersin.org)
  • A characteristic feature of these tumors on histology is larger basophilic or amphophilic cells, known as Paget's cells, scattered singly, in clusters, or in glandular structures throughout the epidermis ( Figure 2 , Figure 3 ). (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • Pineal region tumors are normally composed of a variety of cells including astrocytes, ganglion cells, blood vessels, and pinealocytes, which are the cells of this organ. (wikipedia.org)
  • Specifically, papillary tumors of this region are made up of ependymal cells which form papilla. (wikipedia.org)
  • These tumors, papillary tumors in this case, have no known predisposing genetic characteristics, as stated by Dr. Janss when I interviewed her. (wikipedia.org)
  • Necrosis or cell death is normally observed to some extent in most of these tumors cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • however, morphologically the tumors appeared to be less differentiated than a choroid plexus papilloma and more differentiated than a choroid plexus carcinoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • In routine light microscopy, mucous cells are most conspicuously distinguished by their 'empty' appearance (i.e., poorly stained cytoplasm) and densely-stained, basal nuclei. (siumed.edu)
  • the smallest ones with pacychromatic nuclei and scanty cytoplasm are more numerous in the thymus. (ashpublications.org)
  • Smears show rich cellularity comprising of cell clusters with dual population of cells with bland round and oval nuclei. (mrimsjournal.com)
  • Other areas show benign cells with spindle to oval nuclei (myoepithelial cells). (mrimsjournal.com)
  • Cells show moderate to abundant cytoplasm and round to oval and elongated bland spindle nuclei. (mrimsjournal.com)
  • Adenoid cystic carcinoma shows characteristic hyaline spherical globules of varying sizes with adherent tumor cells, multilayered dense cell clusters and cup - shared fragments composed of tumor cells with increase N: C ratio, hyper chromatic nuclei along with naked nuclei in the background. (mrimsjournal.com)
  • The epithelial cells are relatively uniform with round-to-oval nuclei and have a coarse nuclear chromatin with prominent nucleoli. (cytojournal.com)
  • Collagenous spherulosis (CS) on fine-needle aspiration shows epithelial cells in clusters, scattered singly, with myoepithelial cells and spherules that appear magenta colored in May- Grunwald-Giemsa and light pink in hematoxylin and eosin-stained slides with numerous bare bipolar nuclei in the background. (cytojournal.com)
  • [ 2 ] The epithelial cells of CS are small and uniformly bland, whereas cells of ACC have a high N:C ratio and enlarged hyperchromatic nuclei and coarse chromatin with irregular nuclear membrane. (cytojournal.com)
  • Mucous cells (mucocytes) can occur singly or in clusters, and they have pale and sometimes foamy cytoplasm, a distinct cell boundary, and small, peripherally placed, compressed nuclei. (oralcancerfoundation.org)
  • In three cases, cells with eccentric nuclei and abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm, resulting in a rhabdoid appearance, were a prominent feature. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • n 2% acetic acid - removes interfering RBCs and enhances nuclei of WBC n Lipid stains - Oil Red O, Sudan III - stains triglycerides and neutral fats orange-red to ID lipid containing cells. (present5.com)
  • Membranous Activin A expression was detected in all tumor tissues of TETs, while Follistatin staining was found in tumor nuclei and cytoplasm. (nature.com)
  • A few atypical cells with hyperchromatic nuclei were diffusely scattered, which suggests malignant potential. (imedpub.com)
  • Paget's cells have a finely granular cytoplasm with enlarged, pleomorphic nuclei. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • Polymorphonuclear cell = multilobed nuclei of granulocytes (= neutrophils/eosinophils). (verdec.com)
  • However, the differences in transcriptional programming and the molecular machinery that governs the migration, adhesion, and differentiation of intestinal epithelial cell lineages in humans remain under-explored. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Previously established biomarkers as well as a novel and distinct set of genes believed to be linked to epithelial cell motility, adhesion, and differentiation were found to be enriched in each of the two corresponding cell populations (GEO accession: GSE10629). (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, many details regarding the mechanisms that underlie intestinal epithelial cell differentiation and the coordination of interactions with adjacent cells and the extracellular matrix remain unknown. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Stellate cells are necessary for the differentiation of epithelial cells, known as the stem cell niche [ 4 , 5 , 6 , 7 ]. (intechopen.com)
  • The World Health Organisation defines primary sebaceous carcinoma of the breast based on sebaceous differentiation in at least 50% of cells in the absence of any evidence of originating in the cutaneous adnexa [1]. (termedia.pl)
  • Refers to a carcinoma with observable features and characteristics indicative of squamous differentiation (intercellular bridges, keratinization, squamous pearls). (wikipedia.org)
  • Molecular iodine (I 2 ) exerts antineoplastic effects on different cancer cells activating re-differentiation pathways. (biomedcentral.com)
  • I 2 supplementation enhances the antineoplastic effect in mDOX, exhibiting a significant decrease in the tumor epithelial fraction, diminished expression of chemoresistance (MDR1 and Survivin) and invasion (uPA) markers and enhanced expression of the differentiation factor known as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors type gamma (PPARγ). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Protozoans comprise a large, diverse assortment of microscopic or near-microscopic organisms that live as single cells or in simple colonies and that show no differentiation into tissues. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Moreover, certain specific cell surface PGs experienced a drastic decrease in expression depending on tumor differentiation. (frontiersin.org)
  • Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs)/OP9 coculture system is a widely used hematopoietic differentiation approach. (bvsalud.org)
  • Thus, we used single-cell qPCR to reveal the gene expression profiles of individual CD34+ cells from different stages of differentiation. (bvsalud.org)
  • Furthermore, these CD34+ cells possessed normal differentiation potency in colony-forming unit assays and normal gene expression profiles. (bvsalud.org)
  • In this study, we demonstrated that single-cell qPCR can provide guidance for optimization of hematopoietic differentiation and transient overexpression of selected hematopoietic transcription factors can enhance hematopoietic differentiation. (bvsalud.org)
  • LPCs prospectively isolated from chronically injured rodent and human livers showed the ability of self-renewal and bidirectional differentiation in vitro and differentiate to mature hepatocytes (MHs) in vivo ( 4 , - 8 ) when they were transplanted into livers, where residential MHs proliferation was impaired. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Anaplastic: The tumor cells are pleomorphic and appear in sheets, without any particular differentiation. (humpath.com)
  • The most important diagnostic problems that occur in mammary gland tumor pathology are: the differential diagnosis of various types of benign lesions and carcinoma, differentiating between carcinoma in situ and invasive carcinoma, diagnosis and differentiation of microinvasion and its imitating lesions, and confirming the breast as the primary site in metastatic carcinoma. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The authors sought to identify mechanisms driving the differentiation of mucus cells during the bronchiolisation process. (bmj.com)
  • Methods Pathways governing airway mucus cell differentiation include SRY (sex determining region Y)-box 2 (SOX2), Notch, forkhead box A3(FOXA3)/SAM pointed domain containing ETS transcription factor (SPDEF), epidermal growth factor (EGF) and the EGF-related neuregulins NRG1α and NRG1β. (bmj.com)
  • Results In IPF, the bronchiolised and enlarged distal airspaces stained for SOX2 are consistent with epithelial differentiation characteristic of conducting airway epithelium. (bmj.com)
  • In this work, pathways governing mucus cell differentiation were investigated in lung tissues from patients with IPF and other chronic pulmonary disorders. (bmj.com)
  • Neuregulin1α, which drives mucus cell differentiation in vitro, was expressed in normal airway submucosal glands and in lungs from patients with IPF. (bmj.com)
  • Activation of abnormal respiratory epithelial differentiation programs may contribute to the expression of MUC5B and bronchiolisation of the distal lung, a salient feature of IPF. (bmj.com)
  • Epidermal membrane antigen (EMA), a glycoprotein found in secretary mammary cells, can be used to help differentiate SC from basal cell carcinoma with sebaceous differentiation, as it would be negative to more weakly positive in the latter. (clinicalpainadvisor.com)
  • 1. A method for differentiating pluripotent stem cells into renal precursor cells expressing SIX2, the method comprising the steps of: a) providing a monolayer of pluripotent stem cells in a pluripotency medium b) incubating the cells in a priming medium supplemented with a small molecule inhibitor of glycogen synthase kinase 3 (Gsk3a-b), c) inducing the differentiation by incubating the primed cells in an induction medium. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • The Fine Structure of Differentiating Fibroblasts in the Incisor Pulp of the Guinea Pig ' SEONG S. HAN, JAMES K. AVERY AND LAWRENCE E. HALE The University of Michigan School of Dentistry and Department of Anatomy, Ann Arbor, Michigan ABSTRACT The differentiation of the fibroblast was followed in the dental pulp of continuously growing incisors of the guinea pig. (docme.ru)
  • However, only incidental information has been made available in terms of the structural characteristic of the cell during its normal differentiation. (docme.ru)
  • RET (HGCN approved name: ret proto-oncogene) is a tyrosine kinase receptor involved in cell survival, proliferation, and differentiation. (frontiersin.org)
  • The known multi-differentiation potential of PBMCs indicates that these cells may be a source of many functional cell types for regenerative therapy. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The apical end of each goblet cell is occupied by a large mass of mucus, which compresses adjacent cells (thus conferring the characteristic 'goblet' shape) and displaces the nucleus toward the basal end of the cell. (siumed.edu)
  • As in other mucous cells , the nucleus is compact and intensely-stained. (siumed.edu)
  • The nucleus in a typical mucous cell gives the impression of having been displaced and compressed by the mass of mucus accumulated in the apical end of the cell. (siumed.edu)
  • The reticulum is largely of epithelial origin and retains its epithelial characteristics in cytoplasm and nucleus. (ashpublications.org)
  • We now know that intermediate filaments (IF) are ubiquitous constituents of virtually all differentiated eukaryotic cells and are present in both the nucleus (as the nuclear lamina) and cytoplasm (as 10- to 15-nm-diameter filaments). (springer.com)
  • For example, the neurofibrils characteristic of neurons were described early on as an extensive "netlike structure" in the cell body surrounding the nucleus and extending into axons (Wilson, 1928, pp. 40-41). (springer.com)
  • 9) The hallmark cell of chordoma is the large physaliphorous cell with a central nucleus and numerous clear cytoplasmic vacuoles. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In support of this notion, using multiparameter sorting we were able to isolate small Sca1+Lin-CD45- cells and CD133+Lin-CD45- cells from murine BM and human UCB, respectively, which were further enriched for the detection of various early developmental markers such as the SSEA antigen on the surface and the Oct4 and Nanog transcription factors in the nucleus. (bvsalud.org)
  • Granular leukocytes characterized by a relatively pale-staining, lobate nucleus and cytoplasm containing coarse dark-staining granules of variable size and stainable by basic dyes. (slicksurface.com)
  • The characteristic feature of this highly lethal malignancy is the distinctive light microscopic appearance of its extremely large cells, which are bizarre and highly pleomorphic, and which often contain more than one huge, misshapen, pleomorphic nucleus ("syncytia"), which result from cell fusion. (wikipedia.org)
  • The latter is usually less differentiated than normal or benign tumor cells, usually have larger nucleus and less cytoplasm space, have a distinguished-looking nucleoli, and fewer specialized structures. (massagefitnessmag.com)
  • 1. The smallest structural unit of an organism that is capable of independent functioning, consisting of cytoplasm, usually one nucleus, and various other organelles, all surrounded by a semipermeable cell membrane. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Cell division involves two major processes: karyokinesis, the division of the nucleus, and cytokinesis, the division of the remainder of the cell. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Characteristics: bigger, single nucleus en abundant granular cytoplasm. (verdec.com)
  • A tumor , or mass of cells, formed of these abnormal cells may remain within the tissue in which it originated (a condition called in situ cancer), or it may begin to invade nearby tissues (a condition called invasive cancer). (nih.gov)
  • Mesenchymal cells are undifferentiated and are therefore pluripotent - that is, they have the capacity to differentiate into any number of tissue types. (encyclopedia.com)
  • A group of mesenchymal cells that will differentiate into another tissue type is called a blastema. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Although mesenchymal cells are technically found only in embryonic tissue, some cells do remain undifferentiated in adults. (encyclopedia.com)
  • These serve as stem cells, which retain the ability to differentiate into diverse types of connective tissue as they are needed by the body for regeneration or repair. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The buildup of extra cells often forms a mass of tissue called a growth or tumor. (litera4you.ru)
  • This tissue is then examined histologically for characteristics of cancer. (litera4you.ru)
  • [19] The cells of the vaginal epithelium retain an usually high level of glycogen compared to other epithelial tissue in the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • The elucidation of differential gene expression patterns between crypt and villus epithelial cell lineages in human ileal tissue provides novel insights into the molecular machinery that mediates their functions and spatial organization. (biomedcentral.com)
  • See separate pages for smooth muscle , for cells of connective tissue (including immune system ), and for nerve cells . (siumed.edu)
  • Upon release at the basal end of the cell, nutrient molecules diffuse into connective tissue space and eventually into capillaries or lacteals of the lamina propria . (siumed.edu)
  • [1] Specifically, a carcinoma is a cancer that begins in a tissue that lines the inner or outer surfaces of the body, and that arises from cells originating in the endodermal , mesodermal [2] or ectodermal germ layer during embryogenesis . (wikipedia.org)
  • spindle cell carcinoma (containing elongated cells resembling connective tissue cancers), giant cell carcinoma (containing huge, bizarre, multinucleated cells), and sarcomatoid carcinoma (mixtures of spindle and giant cell carcinoma). (wikipedia.org)
  • The term tissue culture arose because most of the early cells were derived from primary tissue explants, a technique that dominated the field for over 50 years. (fsu.edu)
  • Normal African Green Monkey Kidney Fibroblast Cells (CV-1) - The CV-1 cell line was initiated in March of 1964 by F. C. Jensen and his colleagues with a tissue section excised from the kidney of a normal adult male African green monkey ( Cercopithecus aethiops ). (fsu.edu)
  • In retrospect, IF networks were first described in the late 1800s-early 1900s by cytologists studying fixed-stained tissue cells. (springer.com)
  • Chistiakov D (2010) Endogenous and exogenous stem cells: a role in lung repair and use in airway tissue engineering and transplantation. (springer.com)
  • In higher organisms, a division of labor has evolved in which groups of cells have differentiated into specialized tissues tissue, in biology, aggregation of cells that are similar in form and function and the intercellular substances produced by them. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Microscopically, chordomas consist of nests or cords of physaliphorous cells separated by fibrous tissue septa and mucoid intercellular substance. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In normal oral tissue, most of the epithelial autofluorescence originates from the cytoplasm of cells in the basal and intermediate regions, whereas structural fibers are responsible for most of the stromal fluorescence. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Upon UV excitation, benign inflammation shows decreased epithelial fluorescence, whereas dysplasia displays increased epithelial fluorescence compared with normal oral tissue. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Fluorescence in epithelial tissue originates from multiple fluorophores (molecules that, when excited by light, emit energy in the form of fluorescence) and is influenced by absorption and scattering as light propagates through the epithelium and stroma. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In the cervix, which is histologically similar to oral tissue in many respects, epithelial fluorescence originates from the cytoplasm of cells and is linked to the metabolic indicators reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), which increase as dysplasia develops ( 19 - 21 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • It has been shown that mature hepatocytes compensate tissue damages not only by proliferation and/or hypertrophy but also by conversion into cholangiocyte-like cells. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • It has been considered that in chronically injured livers, facultative liver stem/progenitor cells (LPCs) 2 are activated, expand, and then contribute to repair of damaged liver tissue ( 1 , - 3 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Normal glandular breast tissue is composed of three cell types which express different subsets of proteins: luminal, basal and myoepithelial. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • We aim to elucidate connections between morphogen signaling, cell metabolism and cell mechanics, and to understand how specific patterns of tissue morphogenesis emerge from their interactions. (mpi-cbg.de)
  • Ultimately, we want to understand the molecular mechanisms of how cells differentiate into tissue specific morphologies. (mpi-cbg.de)
  • Procedures used to prevent the introduction of fungi, bacteria, viruses, mycoplasma or other microorganisms into cell, tissue and organ cultures. (sivb.org)
  • Cells of adipose tissue, where fats (triglycerides) are stored. (wcrf.org)
  • Cytokines (cell signalling proteins) secreted by adipose tissue. (wcrf.org)
  • Tissue comprising mainly cells containing triglyceride (adipocytes). (wcrf.org)
  • However, in a more recent series of 4,212 consecutive lung cancer cases, only one (0.024%) lesion was determined to be a "pure" giant-cell carcinoma after complete sectioning of all available tumor tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • Schematic representation of skin tissue and detailed view of the bottom portion of the epidermis, highlighting the cytoplasmic network of keratin IFs attached to hemidesmosome cell-ECM and desmosome cell-cell contacts in basal keratinocytes. (jci.org)
  • Primary extranodal low-grade B cell lymphoma of the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALToma) of stomach is uncommon. (hkmj.org)
  • Choroid plexus epithelial cells (CPECs) comprise the epithelial compartment of the choroid plexus (CP), the papillary tissue that resides in each of the brain's four ventricles. (jneurosci.org)
  • Vibrational spectroscopy has proven to be useful for cell and tissue characterization based on the intrinsic molecular information. (rsc.org)
  • Here, we have applied infrared and Raman microspectroscopy and imaging to differentiate between non-IBC and IBC at both cell and tissue levels. (rsc.org)
  • This study demonstrates the potential of vibrational spectroscopy and imaging to discriminate between non-IBC and IBC at both cell and tissue levels. (rsc.org)
  • squamous cell carcinoma: well-differentiated keratinizing squamous cell carcinoma with obvious intercellular bridges and horny pearls, and poorly differentiated or intermediately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma interspersed with a small number of basal-like cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Upon primary diagnosis of stage IIIC poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma, the patient underwent an exploratory laparotomy with total hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, omentectomy and tumor debulking. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Major diagnostic issues include: (i) Distinction of benign hepatocellular nodular lesions from reactive hepatocytes, (ii) Distinction of well-differentiated hepatocellular carcinoma (WD-HCC) from benign hepatocellular nodular lesions, (iii) Distinction of poorly differentiated HCC from cholangiocarcinoma and metastatic carcinomas, (iv) Determination of histogenesis of malignant tumor, and (v) Determination of primary site of origin of malignant tumor. (cytojournal.com)
  • On histology sebaceous carcinoma presents with disorderly invasion of the dermis by basaloid or squamoid cells and includes poorly differentiated sebaceous cells in ill-defined lobules. (clinicalpainadvisor.com)
  • The vaginal epithelium is the aglandular inner lining of the vagina consisting of multiple layers of ( squamous ) cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • [13] The vaginal epithelium is divided into layers of cells, including the basal cells , the parabasal cells, the superficial squamous flat cells , and the intermediate cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1,3 Additional theories implicate stratified squamous epithelium or pluripotent cells of minor salivary glands as their origin. (appliedradiology.com)
  • 3 The possible types of cancer include, essentially: squamous cell carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma and melanoma. (scielo.br)
  • Refers to a mixed tumor containing both adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma, wherein each of these cell types comprise at least 10% of the tumor volume. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pleomorphic carcinoma contains spindle cell and/or giant cell components, plus at least a 10% component of cells characteristic of more highly differentiated types (i.e. adenocarcinoma and/or squamous cell carcinoma). (wikipedia.org)
  • Mucoepidermoid ca will show intermediate cells resembling squamous metaplasia, mucin secreting cells and mucoid background. (mrimsjournal.com)
  • Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) are the first and second most common types of skin cancer, respectively. (medscape.com)
  • Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) is the second most common skin cancer and one of the most common cancers overall in the United States. (medscape.com)
  • They contain three cellular elements in varying proportions: squamous cells, mucus-secreting cells, and "intermediate" cells. (oralcancerfoundation.org)
  • According to the WHO Pathological Classification of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma (2005), NPC is classified into the following types: type I, keratinizing squamous cell carcinoma, and type II, non-keratinizing carcinoma, the latter of which is further divided into differentiated and undifferentiated subtypes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • More importantly, such a classification can predict the five year survival prognosis of NPC patients in the following order: epithelial carcinoma, mixed carcinoma, sarcoma-like carcinoma, and squamous cell carcinoma. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (HNSCC) is the sixth most frequent cancer worldwide. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Metastatic squamous cell carcinomas developed in 100% of animals. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Recently, a transgenic mouse model expressing activated K-ras reportedly developed epithelial lesions ranging from oral papillomas ( 9 ) to squamous cell carcinomas of skin, esophagus, stomach, uterine cervix, oral mucosa, and salivary glands ( 10 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • A type of cancer that contains two types of cells: squamous cells (thin, flat cells that line certain organs) and gland-like cells. (wcrf.org)
  • Eight major taxa of lung carcinomas are recognized within the WHO-2004 classification: Small-cell carcinoma Squamous cell carcinoma Adenocarcinoma Large-cell carcinoma Adenosquamous carcinoma Sarcomatoid carcinoma Carcinoid Salivary gland-like carcinoma The subclassification of GCCL among these major taxa has undergone significant changes in recent decades. (wikipedia.org)
  • CAM5.2 (lower molecular weight keratin) would be positive in SC but negative in squamous cell carcinoma. (clinicalpainadvisor.com)
  • Thymic carcinomas may have various morphologic appearances, including squamous carcinoma, lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma, carcinosarcoma, clear-cell carcinoma, basaloid carcinoma, mucoepidermoid carcinoma, and undifferentiated carcinoma, which can be indistinguishable from those of primary lung cancers. (jhu.edu)
  • Tabar This type tends to be less differentiated and spread early via lymphatics or through Fallopian tubes into peritoneum, hence it is associated with poorer prognosis compared to type I lesions. (litera4you.ru)
  • A biopsy should be performed for any lesion suspected of being a cutaneous neoplasm to rule out basal cell carcinoma and other dermal lesions. (medscape.com)
  • Throughout the years, researchers have discovered several immunomarkers that target different proteins in MECs to provide an objective measure of evaluating them when encountering challenging cases, to differentiate carcinoma in situ (CIS) (ductal [DCIS] or lobular [LCIS]) or sclerosing adenosis from invasive breast carcinoma (CA) and benign or atypical papillary lesions from papillary CAs. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • In papillary lesions, especially papillary CA, p63 may show focal patchy reactivity in tumor cells in up to 33.3% of cases. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • and the current lack of agreement on the morphologic criteria for distinguishing high-grade dysplastic lesions (with small cell change) from WD-HCC, have profound impact on nomenclature, cytohistologic interpretation and management. (cytojournal.com)
  • Histopathology before treatment (a) The atypical lymphoid cells form lymphoepithelial lesions. (hkmj.org)
  • Glomerular epithelial cells are primary pathogenic sites in focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FGS) lesions. (asnjournals.org)
  • In this study, to clarify the relationship between FGS lesions and mtDNA mutations, we performed mtDNA mutation screening of kidney biopsy specimens and studied the in situ accumulation of mtDNA mutations in glomerular epithelial cells. (asnjournals.org)
  • As a general rule that is true for all lung lesions, the pathologist should be certain to obtain all clinical history when confronted with a malignant spindle cell lesion in the lung. (redorbit.com)
  • The histology of MPD and EMPD is particularly helpful in differentiating these lesions from clinically similar skin eruptions. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • It is important to differentiate the lesion from other benign and malignant spindle cell lesions particularly metaplastic carcinoma. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Although immunohistochemistry has traditionally been described to assist differentiating these lesions, they are of limited clinical value. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A differential diagnostic feature with the keratocystic odontogenic tumour is that no cases of OOC have been associated with nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome [ 8 , 10 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • These cells are usually undifferentiated and are difficult to distinguish from typical ductal carcinoma cells. (termedia.pl)
  • However, during the case study, the biopsy of the lesion revealed the presence of moderately differentiated sebaceous carcinoma (SC). (scielo.br)
  • Micrograph of a lung primary small cell carcinoma , a type of carcinoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • Carcinoma is a category of types of cancer that develop from epithelial cells . (wikipedia.org)
  • [7] A history of cigarette smoking is the most common cause of large cell carcinoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pleomorphic adenoma has to be differentiated from mucoepidermoid carcinoma, Adenoid cystic carcinoma and carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma. (mrimsjournal.com)
  • Actinic keratosis and basal cell carcinoma are easily excised and have a very good prognosis, while cSCC has a poor prognosis, especially if it invades the lymph nodes and adjacent vital structures. (medscape.com)
  • of those, approximately 80% were basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and 20% were cSCC. (medscape.com)
  • Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the seventh most common histological type of cancer in the Western world and has shown a sustained increase in its prevalence. (scielo.br)
  • In colloid carcinoma, abundant background mucin which can be recognized macroscopically is characteristic. (cytojournal.com)
  • In invasive cribriform carcinoma of the breast, FNAC shows cohesive sheets and three dimensional (3D) cribriform clusters of bland-looking and mitotically inactive ductal cells. (cytojournal.com)
  • Mucoepidermoid carcinoma cell types are classified histologically as low, intermediate, and high-grade types. (oralcancerfoundation.org)
  • This robust cell culture model for serum-derived HCV using HLCs as host cells provides a remarkable system for investigating HCV life cycle, HCV-associated hepatocellular carcinoma development and the screening for new anti HCV drugs. (biomedcentral.com)
  • HPC:150 (HPC:150) : Hepatocellular carcinoma, well-differentiated, grade 2. (humpath.com)
  • Microscopically, the tumor cells, which were uniform in size and shape, contained abundant amounts of eosinophilic cytoplasm and had distinct cell borders resembling hepatocellular carcinoma ( Fig. 1 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • The World Health Organization's Pathology and Genetics of Tumours of the Breast and Female Genital Organs states that ''invasive breast carcinoma is a group of malignant epithelial tumours characterized by invasion of adjacent tissues and a marked tendency to metastasize to distant sites. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Conversely, invasive carcinoma cells have already breached the MEC layer and basement membrane into the surrounding stroma. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Specifically, juvenile granulosa cell tumours, Sertoli-Leydig cell tumours, sex cord tumours with annular tubules, Sertoli cell tumours, germ cell tumours and small cell carcinoma of the ovary of hypercalcaemic type are discussed in this review. (bmj.com)
  • However, the expression pattern of CEP55 and its clinical significance in non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) have not been investigated by immunohistochemistry. (dovepress.com)
  • Giant-cell carcinoma of the lung (GCCL) is a rare histological form of large-cell lung carcinoma, a subtype of undifferentiated lung cancer, traditionally classified within the non-small-cell lung carcinomas (NSCLC). (wikipedia.org)
  • In contrast, sebaceous adenoma appears distinct from sebaceous carcinoma in that it is typically a distinctly circumscribed lobular tumor with mature sebocytes and basaloid germinative cells in the periphery. (clinicalpainadvisor.com)
  • Some of these thymomas have, in the past, been referred to as well-differentiated thymic carcinoma. (jhu.edu)
  • As most cases represent cutaneous spread of tumor cells from a ductal breast carcinoma, a palpable nodule may be appreciable on breast examination. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • their appearance ranges from small basal cells with scanty basophilic cytoplasm to larger and more oval cells with more abundant pale eosinophilic cytoplasm that appears to merge into epidermoid or mucous cells. (oralcancerfoundation.org)
  • They have abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm, but they rarely show keratin pearl formation or dyskeratosis. (oralcancerfoundation.org)
  • With the work of Hooke in the 1600s, and then Virchow in the 1800s, came the understanding that living tissues are composed of cells, and that all cells arise as direct descendants of other cells. (nih.gov)
  • The expression levels of selected epithelial biomarkers were also compared between gastrointestinal tissues. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Serious attempts at the culture of whole tissues and isolated cells were first undertaken in the early 1900s as a technique for investigating the behavior of animal cells in an isolated and highly controlled environment. (fsu.edu)
  • African Green Monkey Kidney Cell Lines - The African green monkey has been a common subject of scientific inquiry for many years and cells from the tissues of this species, Cercopithecus aethiops , along with those of the rhesus monkey, have been used to produce polio vaccines since the 1950s. (fsu.edu)
  • Taken together, we consider that in addition to converting to cholangiocyte-like cells, Sox9 + EpCAM − cells provide luminal space near expanded ductular structures to prevent deterioration of the injuries and potentially supply new hepatocytes to repair damaged tissues. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is used to characterize intracellular proteins or various cell surfaces in all tissues. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The Eaton Lab studies how cells communicate with each other to build tissues of specific sizes and shapes. (mpi-cbg.de)
  • An axenic culture may include the purposeful cocultivation of different types of cells, tissues or organisms. (sivb.org)
  • In cell cultures, the cells are no longer organized into tissues. (sivb.org)
  • These cells can invade surrounding tissues via the circulatory systems and set up new camps away from their original base. (massagefitnessmag.com)
  • In mammals, all new cells arise from existing cells through cell division, and an animal's growth results largely from increases in the number of its cells, most of which differentiate into specialized cell types to form the body's various tissues. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • 2001). In general, mucins have important biological roles in the lubrication and protection of normal epithelial tissues. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • Fixed cells and tissues were analyzed by FTIR microspectroscopy and imaging, while live cells were studied by Raman microspectroscopy. (rsc.org)
  • Furthermore, transplantation of these PBMC-derived cells can regenerate tissues and restore function after injury. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Mast cells are fixed in the tissues and have an unidentified precursor. (verdec.com)
  • Fixed in the tissues they mature in plasma cells and secrete antibodies. (verdec.com)
  • Refers to a heterogeneous group of high-grade carcinomas that feature cells lacking distinct histological or cytological evidence of any of the more specifically differentiated neoplasms . (wikipedia.org)
  • Renal cell carcinomas (RCCs) are the seventh most common histological type of cancer in the Western world and have maintained an increasing prevalence ( 1 , 2 ) , representing 1% to 3% of all malignant visceral neoplasms. (scielo.br)
  • We have especially focused on the immunophenotype of these neoplasms and have undertaken an extensive immunohistochemical analysis, using markers of epithelial, myoid, sex cord and neuroendocrine lineage as well as hormone receptors. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Non-epithelial ovarian tumours are rare neoplasms that occasionally arise in childhood and adolescence. (bmj.com)
  • However, these are epithelial neoplasms and are exceedingly rare in individuals under age 18 years. (bmj.com)
  • Mucinous epithelial neoplasms do occur under age 18 years but are not known to be associated with cancer susceptibility syndromes. (bmj.com)
  • Juvenile granulosa cell tumours (JGCTs) ( figure 1A ) are rare ovarian tumours, accounting for less than 1% of ovarian neoplasms but accounting for approximately two-thirds of SCSTs presenting in childhood. (bmj.com)
  • MAs are a heterogeneous group of neoplasms with different biological characteristics. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In most documented literature, MA is characterised as a rare benign tumour of the kidney that accounts for approximately 0.2% of adult renal epithelial neoplasms. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Thymic carcinomas are fully malignant neoplasms and consist of cytologically malignant thymic epithelial cells. (jhu.edu)
  • Ali NN, Edgar AJ, Samadikuchaksaraei A, Timson CM, Romanska HM et al (2002) Derivation of type II alveolar epithelial cells from murine embryonic stem cells. (springer.com)
  • Several assays were accomplished to characterize the cell population and attest its viability in vitro. (bvsalud.org)
  • Sox9 + EpCAM − cells proliferated and could differentiate to functional hepatocytes in vitro . (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • In addition, in vitro culture in high-glucose medium is sufficient to induce complete maturation of WB-1 cells into functional IPCs. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • We previously demonstrated that hepatic stem cells could be induced in vitro to transdifferentiate into insulin-producing pancreatic endocrine-like cells ( 3 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • To establish an in vitro system to study the molecular mechanism of selective liver to endocrine pancreas transdifferentiation, we generated a stably transfected rat hepatic cell line (WB-1) that overexpresses an activated form of Pdx1 (Pdx1-VP16) along with a reporter gene, RIP-eGFP , to monitor insulin gene expression. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In this study, we investigated the profile of gene expression induced by Pdx1-VP16-mediated transdifferentiation of WB-1 cells in vitro and during in vivo cell transplantation. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • However, these precursor cells require either in vivo hyperglycemia or in vitro long-term high-glucose culture to become fully functional pancreatic endocrine cells. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • More recently they used human in vitro stem cell models to investigate human development. (mpi-cbg.de)
  • Originally published in In vitro Cell. (sivb.org)
  • Term used to denote the maintenance or cultivation of cells in vitro including the culture of single cells. (sivb.org)
  • The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION. (slicksurface.com)
  • Indeed, recent studies have confirmed that PBMCs can differentiate along alternative lineages in vitro and in vivo depending on culture conditions or the site of transplantation [ 9 - 11 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Physaliphorous cells were noted (figure 2), which stained strongly for S-100, epithelial membrane antigen (EMA) and, focally, AE1-3 cytokeratin. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Three cases were diffusely positive with AE1/3 and all with epithelial membrane antigen. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The radiographic and pathologic characteristics of this unusual lesion are briefly examined, and the literature is reviewed. (ajnr.org)
  • In the breast, intraductal papilloma (IDP) is a benign proliferative lesion that consists of a branching fibrovascular core with overlying epithelial and myoepithelial layers. (medscape.com)
  • There is an exception: microglandular adenosis, a benign proliferative lesion which lacks the myoepithelial cell layer. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Short, rapid strokes within the lesion cause dislodgement of cells and allow effective collection within the needle via capillary action. (glowm.com)
  • Biopsy of the suspicious zone revealed atypical lymphoid cells with lymphoepithelial lesion formation. (hkmj.org)
  • Even though lesion is called DCIS, it has been shown that this tumor cells originate from TDLU but not from mammary duct [4,5]. (bioxorio.com)
  • In particular, a spindle cell lesion of the lung in a woman should always prompt an inquiry into gynecologic history. (redorbit.com)
  • The lesion comprised spindle and stellate shaped cells with bizarre stromal giant cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The lesion comprised a haphazard proliferation of rather bland spindle and stellate-shaped cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • abstract = "The presence of long, slender, often branching microvilli on cell surfaces is a characteristic feature of malignant and benign mesothelial cells. (houstonmethodist.org)
  • although pleomorphic LCIS can show high nuclear features with abundant cytoplasm [7,8]. (bioxorio.com)
  • Interspersed among the many absorptive cells of the intestinal epithelium are scattered goblet cells , occasional enteroendocrine cells (which are difficult to distinguish in routine preparations), and occasional wandering cells of the immune system (e.g., lymphocytes, eosinophils). (siumed.edu)
  • The epithelium may form macrophages but does not differentiate to lymphocytes and other types of cells. (ashpublications.org)
  • Various cell subpopulations, often B-lymphocytes, can be defined, based on the different classes of immunoglobulins that they synthesize. (slicksurface.com)
  • They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation. (slicksurface.com)
  • This assay subjects a sample of the child’s lymphocytes to diepoxybutane or mitomycin C, which cause chromosomes within Fanconi anemia cells to break and rearrange. (aippg.net)
  • Neutrophils and lymphocytes are normally only found in the epithelium and the substantia propria, while mast cells and plasma cells are present only in substantia propria. (reviewofcontactlenses.com)
  • In humans, lymphocytes are small cells (~6 µm in diameter), columnar epithelial cells (10 µm x 20 µm) are medium-size cells, and mature ova (120-150 µm) are some of the largest cells. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • White blood cells: granulocytes, monocytes and lymphocytes. (verdec.com)
  • B lymphocytes: differentiate within the bone marrow (also liver during fetal life). (verdec.com)
  • A population of cells defined morphologically as large granular lymphocytes (LGL) also have NK function. (verdec.com)
  • By exposure to the immature cells of thymic epithelial and macrophage-derived, they develop into immature T lymphocytes. (verdec.com)
  • Secondary follicles arise following stimulation of a local immune response: germinal centre enlarges and B lymphocytes proliferate and differentiate. (verdec.com)
  • Epithelial stem cell progenitors, which reside in the intestinal crypt compartment, differentiate into either secretory (goblet, enteroendocrine, Paneth) or absorptive (enterocytes) lineages, that in turn, provide a range of digestive and host defense functions within the gastrointestinal tract. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A range of human diseases and digestive disorders have been linked to disruptions in the proper maturation and/or terminal function of these epithelial lineages, highlighting the need to increase our knowledge of their basic physiology. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The cells were submitted to flow cytometry with the antibodies CD34, CD45, CD73, CD79, CD90 and CD105 and also they were induced to differentiate in three lineages. (bvsalud.org)
  • The term cell line implies that cultures from it consist of lineages of cells originally present in the primary culture. (sivb.org)
  • Pluripotent haemopoietic stem cell = is capable of giving rise to all blood cell lineages. (verdec.com)
  • Of these, the alveolar epithelial gas exchange surface consists of two cell types, the type I and type II pneumocytes, also known as alveolar epithelial type I and type II (AEI and AEII) cells, that comprise ~95 % and 5 %, respectively, of the alveolar lining area (Chen et al. (springer.com)
  • 2004). AEI cells, important in the regulation of alveolar fluid balance (Dahlin et al. (springer.com)
  • Functions of AEII cells include the secretion and reuptake of pulmonary surfactant (Fehrenbach 2001), regulation of alveolar fluid, and synthesis of immunomodulatory proteins (e.g., surfactant protein (SP)-A, SP-D) important for host defense (Matthay et al. (springer.com)
  • Chen Z, Jin N, Narasaraju T, Chen J, McFarland LR et al (2004) Identification of two novel markers for alveolar epithelial type I and II cells. (springer.com)
  • For example, damaged or redundant mitochondria (Fig. 1) , not disposed of by autophagy, can represent a threat to cellular homeostasis and cell survival. (jove.com)
  • The sebaceous gland-like tumour cells were mostly located in the centre of the lobules or cellular nests. (termedia.pl)
  • CUP), but that possess certain specific molecular, cellular, and histological characteristics typical of epithelial cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • As established cell lines emerged, the application of well-defined normal and transformed cells in biomedical investigations has become an important staple in the development of cellular and molecular biology. (fsu.edu)
  • Cytologically, smears are cellular and show epithelial and myoepithelial cell clusters and mesenchymal stromal fragments. (mrimsjournal.com)
  • Cellular prion protein (PrP) is a highly conserved glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored cell surface glycoprotein. (jcancer.org)
  • On FNAC, the smears are moderately cellular with two components: epithelial cells and acellular basement membrane material which appears as homogeneous spherical structures that are diagnostic and nearly unique to this tumor. (cytojournal.com)
  • These systems rely on subjective evaluations of the relative proportions of the various cell types, the degree of cellular atypia, mitotic frequency, presence of necrosis, and invasive characteristics. (oralcancerfoundation.org)
  • This pathological classification offers the following advantages: clear classification boundaries due to distinct cellular characteristics of each type, and ease of being mastered by clinical pathologists. (biomedcentral.com)
  • To know the cellular characteristics of Sox9 + EpCAM − cells, we isolated them as GFP + EpCAM − cells from DDC-injured livers of Sox9-EGFP mice. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The Grapin-Botton lab investigates the impact of the cellular and organ architecture on the cells' fate choices and how single cells act in a community to generate an organ, focusing on the pancreas. (mpi-cbg.de)
  • By introducing the possible functional role exerted within brain activity by glial cells, cerebrospinal fluid, intra- and extra-cellular fluid is outlined the overcoming of the classical neuroscience paradigm, based on the vision of brain activity as ruled by networks of neurons interconnected by synapses. (scirp.org)
  • Heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediates the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cell receptor. (slicksurface.com)
  • In addition, early cytologists such as Heidenhain and Del Rio depicted various types of columnar epithelial cells as containing extensive arrays of "tonofibrillae. (springer.com)
  • 2002). The non-ciliated columnar Clara cells (Evans et al. (springer.com)
  • The cells of this tumor usually show a columnar to cuboidal cytoplasm with a well-defined cytoplasmic membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cancer begins when a cell breaks free from the normal restraints on cell division and begins to follow its own agenda for proliferation ( Figure 3 ). (nih.gov)
  • All of the cells produced by division of this first, ancestral cell and its progeny also display inappropriate proliferation. (nih.gov)
  • Now scientists began to ask from what kinds of normal cells cancer cells arise, how cancer cells differ from their normal counterparts, and what events promote the proliferation of these abnormal cells. (nih.gov)
  • with increasing circulating levels of the hormone , there is proliferation of epithelial cells along with an increase in the number of cell layers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Knocking down PrP expression significantly reduced the proliferation of DLD-1 and SW480 colon cancer cells [ 7 ]. (jcancer.org)
  • CIS CP-673451 tyrosianse inhibitor in general is usually defined as clonal proliferation of epithelial cells without invading through basement membrane into surrounding CP-673451 tyrosianse inhibitor stroma. (bioxorio.com)
  • DCIS is composed of monoclonal proliferation of cohesive epithelial cells, which usually cause mammary ductal growth. (bioxorio.com)
  • LCIS is usually a monoclonal proliferation of cells with dyscohesive appearance. (bioxorio.com)
  • Both notochordal vestiges and EPs show the characteristic physaliphorous cells and demonstrate similar immunohistochemical staining pattern. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Immunohistochemical stains confirmed that the atypical lymphoid cells were positive for B cell marker CD20 (pan-B-cell marker: L26, Dako, UK), and negative for T cell markers CD3 and CD5 ( Fig 2 ). (hkmj.org)
  • Even though characteristics of immunohistochemical (IHC) stain of E-cadherin have been well established, diagnosis based on a single unfavorable stain may not be reliable, especially on small core biopsies. (bioxorio.com)
  • Immunohistochemical stains for CD5 may be helpful to differentiate thymic carcinomas from thymomas and pulmonary carcinomas, since thymic carcinomas are often immunoreactive for CD5. (jhu.edu)
  • Developed by Yakov Gluzman, the COS-1 cell line differs from CV-1 due to transformation of the earlier line with an origin defective mutant of simian virus 40 ( SV40 ) that codes for wild type T-antigen. (fsu.edu)
  • Cells of the lymphoid series that can react with antigen to produce specific cell products called antibodies. (slicksurface.com)
  • Follicular dendritic cells (DENDRITIC CELLS, FOLLICULAR) are also considered to be antigen-presenting cells by some authors. (slicksurface.com)
  • Carcinomas occur when the DNA of a cell is damaged or altered and the cell begins to grow uncontrollably and become malignant . (wikipedia.org)
  • The most frequent histological subtypes include clear cell renal cell carcinomas (ccRCC), papillary renal cell carcinomas (pRCC), and chromophobe renal cell carcinomas (crRCC) ( Figure 1 ). (scielo.br)
  • Using anti-CS antibodies, normal stroma was always negative whereas tumoral stroma always showed a positive staining, more intense in the highest grade carcinomas, while tumor cells were negative. (frontiersin.org)
  • Invasive carcinomas lack the myoepithelial cell layer that normally surrounds benign breast glands. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Giant-cell carcinomas have been reported to be diagnosed in a significantly younger population than all non-small-cell carcinomas considered as a group. (wikipedia.org)
  • For several decades, primary lung cancers were consistently dichotomously classified for treatment and research purposes into small-cell lung carcinomas (SCLCs) and non-small-cell lung carcinomas (NSCLCs), based on an oversimplified approach that is now clearly outmoded. (wikipedia.org)
  • Consult your histology textbook and/or atlas for additional detail and electron micrographs of these cells. (siumed.edu)
  • Histology showed a well encapsulated tumor comprising of benign epithelial cells arranged predominantly in diffuse fashion and focal acinar pattern. (mrimsjournal.com)
  • Table 1 Main histological subtypes of RCC - epidemiology, histology and imaging characteristics. (scielo.br)
  • Histology: The tumor is composed of plump thymic epithelial cells. (jhu.edu)
  • Clear cell, papillary and chromophobe are the most common histological subtypes of RCC, and their preoperative radiological characterization, either followed or not by confirmatory percutaneous biopsy, may be particularly useful in cases of poor surgical condition, metastatic disease, central mass in a solitary kidney, and in patients eligible for molecular targeted therapy. (scielo.br)
  • Histological examination revealed scattered physaliphorous cell nests with a lobular growth pattern. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The histological diagnosis was oncocytoma , the cytoplasm of which was intensely eosinophilic with abundant granule. (imedpub.com)
  • In the present study, we investigated the clinicopathological characteristics of MA, especially those of the uncommon histological subtypes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In large part, this success was made possible by the development and application of the techniques of molecular biology, techniques that enabled researchers to probe and describe features of individual cells in ways unimaginable a century ago. (nih.gov)
  • Induction occurs either via mechanical processes, in which the migrating mesenchymal cells cause changes in the arrangement of epithelial cells, or by molecular agents released by mesenchymal cells. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Alterations of mesangial cells have traditionally been the focus of research in deciphering molecular mechanisms of diabetic nephropathy. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • For each tumour type, we detail the personal and family history features and the presenting characteristics of the ovarian tumour as well as the pathological features and molecular markers that point towards a cancer predisposition syndrome. (bmj.com)
  • In addition, the molecular characterization of single CTCs has revealed important information on the genotype and phenotype of these tumor cells and demonstrated a striking heterogeneity of CTCs ( 8 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Other key reactions move molecules and molecular complexes within the cell, sometimes changing the cell's shape. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The wider availability of paraffin-based molecular assays for the characteristic translocation found in synovial sarcoma has led to an appreciable increase in its diagnosis. (redorbit.com)
  • Human primary hepatocytes should have served as ideal host cells for liver-targeting pathogens, e.g., malarial parasite, hepatitis B, hepatitis C and dengue viruses. (biomedcentral.com)
  • When Mx1-Cre:ROSA mice, which were injected with poly(I:C) to label mature hepatocytes, were fed with the DDC diet, we found LacZ + Sox9 + cells near ductular structures. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • In well differentiated forms, tumor cells resemble hepatocytes, form trabeculae, cords and nests, and may contain bile pigment in cytoplasm . (humpath.com)
  • Distinct cytoplasmic eosinophilic inclusions (hyaline globules) and rarely ground glass-like cells composed of proteins normally synthesized in the hepatocytes (α1-antitrypsin, α-fetoprotein, fibrinogen, albumin) may be seen. (humpath.com)
  • Pdx1 has been shown to convert hepatocytes into both exocrine and endocrine pancreatic cells in mice, but it fails to selectively convert hepatocytes into pure insulin-producing cells (IPCs). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Thus, the conversion of hepatocytes into endocrine pancreatic cells may be a viable option for cell replacement therapy in patients with type 1 diabetes. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) have been reported to contain a multitude of distinct multipotent progenitor cell populations and possess the potential to differentiate into blood cells, endothelial cells, hepatocytes, cardiomyogenic cells, smooth muscle cells, osteoblasts, osteoclasts, epithelial cells, neural cells, or myofibroblasts under appropriate conditions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This tumor is characterized by a histologic pattern of large eosinophilic cells with a granular cytoplasm. (imedpub.com)
  • These abnormal cancer cells have many genetic abnormalities that cause them to grow excessively. (litera4you.ru)
  • It is the result of the abnormal growth of cells that have the ability to invade or spread to other parts of the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • Conclusion Expression of SOX2 and MUC5B and lack of SPDEF in atypically differentiated cells of bronchiolised distal airspaces are consistent with abnormal programming of airway epithelial cells in IPF. (bmj.com)
  • Mucus cells lining abnormal airways from patients with IPF expressed MUC5B and SOX2 but lacked SAM pointed domain containing ETS transcription factor (SPDEF) and forkhead box A3(FOXA3). (bmj.com)
  • Moderate to severe atypia is prominent, including hyperchromatism and pleomorphism with many abnormal mitotic figures and foamy cytoplasm. (clinicalpainadvisor.com)
  • If the abnormal cells continue to grow, divide, and produce more abnormal cells, the mass of abnormal cells may eventually become a tumor. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, the final pathology was reported as solid pseudopapillary tumor based on several defining histologic characteristics. (hindawi.com)
  • Myoepithelial cells express basal cell type CKs (CK 5&6, -14, -17) and specific markers: smooth muscle actin (SMA), calponin, S100 and p63. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • 2 Histologically, the hallmark of invasion is the lack of myoepithelial cells (MECs) , which functionally are a hybrid of both smooth muscle (''myo,'' with contractile property) and epithelial cells (with cadherin-mediated cell-cell junctions), and immunohistochemically express filamentous SMA and smooth muscle myosin as well as intermediate filaments (the epithelial keratins). (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Mesenchyme is derived primarily from the mesoderm , although there are also mesenchymal cells known as the neural crest cells, which derive from ectoderm. (encyclopedia.com)
  • An important characteristic of mesenchymal cells is that they are mobile, and move with a crawling, amoeboid motion. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Unlike mesenchymal cells, epithelial cells are not mobile. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Often, epithelial cells are induced by adjacent mesenchymal cells, that is, they change in form or shape in response to signals from the mesenchyme. (encyclopedia.com)
  • There are several subtypes of endometrioid adenocarcinoma with similar prognoses, including villoglandular, secretory, and ciliated cell variants. (litera4you.ru)
  • While describing all types of cancer cells is beyond the scope of this article, different subtypes have common characteristics. (massagefitnessmag.com)
  • These invaginated deeply into the cytoplasm of neighboring tumor cells, as well as into the surrounding stromal matrix. (houstonmethodist.org)
  • Few plasmacytoid cells and fibromyxoid stromal fragments were also noted in the hemorrhagic background. (mrimsjournal.com)
  • Few singly scattered plasmacytoid cells are present along with fibromyxoid and chondromyxoid stromal fragments. (mrimsjournal.com)
  • Improved diagnostic accuracy may be achieved by designing optical probes/devices that distinguish epithelial fluorescence from stromal fluorescence and by using excitation wavelengths in the UV range. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The present study was conducted to develop an effective method for establishment of porcine parthenogenetic embryonic stem cells (ppESCs) from parthenogenetically activated oocyte-derived blastocysts. (bvsalud.org)
  • Further the expression of four embryonic genes or transcription factors of pluripotent stem cells were analyzed for pluripotent character of sorted cells. (bvsalud.org)
  • The embryonic stem cell markers (induced pluripotent stem cell markers) like Oct4, SOX2, Notch-2 and K19 genes were expressed in CD133 positive epidermal cells. (bvsalud.org)
  • Moreover this application relates to a method for differentiating human embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) into defined renal precursor cells expressing Six2 and podocytes based on linked steps of chemically defined medium inductions. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Here we provide evidence for BMP4 sufficiency to induce CPEC fate from neural progenitors derived from mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs). (jneurosci.org)
  • What is the term used for a benign epithelial tumor? (studyblue.com)
  • Composed of large, monotonous rounded or overtly polygonal-shaped cells with abundant cytoplasm . (wikipedia.org)
  • Mucin is found in about 40% of MPD tumor cells, but in the vast majority, about 90%, of EMPD tumor cells. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • Additionally, these cells have high proliferated rate, and they could be cultured through many passages and kept the ability to proliferate and differentiate after cryopreservation. (bvsalud.org)
  • Malignant mesothelioma is a neoplasm arising from the mesothelial cells of the serosal surfaces of the pleura and peritoneum. (appliedradiology.com)
  • Oncocytoma is an epithelial neoplasm composed of oncocytic cells whose cytoplasm is packed with mitochondria [ 1 ]. (imedpub.com)
  • Microscopic Examination of Urine n Not on lecture guide - Table 6 -3 n Sediment stain characteristics n Toluidine blue - nuclear structure n Assists in differentiating WBC from renal epith. (present5.com)
  • This application relates to a method for differentiating pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) into multi-competent renal precursor cells expressing Six2. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • These renal precursor cells are able to differentiate into fully functional and fully differentiated podocytes. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 2. The method of claim 1, wherein the renal precursor cells express the additional marker genes WT1 and/or SALL1. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Renal epithelial cell damage attributable to mitochondrial dysfunction in congenital nephrotic syndrome was recently reported ( 3 , 4 ). (asnjournals.org)
  • In addition to the normal and pathological processes in the nervous system, many recent studies have provided strong evidence supporting the involvement of PrP in tumor cell biology [ 4 ]. (jcancer.org)
  • The key to diagnosis is the identification of tumor cell clusters with central core of homogeneous basement membrane substance corresponding to the acellular component of the tumor. (cytojournal.com)
  • A second model of HNSCC relied on human tumor cell xenografts in immunodeficient mice. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The cytoplasmic and often nuclear expression of S100 protein is present in nearly all tumor cells, and vimentin typically stains tumor cell cytoplasm adjacent to vessel walls. (wikipedia.org)
  • The expression of Ovol2 in tumor samples from patients with HCC and HCC cell lines was examined using Western blotting, real-time polymerase chain reaction, and immunohistochemistry. (dovepress.com)
  • The bovine pulmonary artery endothelial ( BPAE ) cells presented in the digital image above were resident in an adherent culture stained for F-actin with Alexa Fluor 488 conjugated to phalloidin (green fluorescence), and for DNA with the bis-benzimidazole dye Hoechst 33258 (blue fluorescence). (fsu.edu)
  • The pulmonary system is composed of a variety of epithelial cell populations residing in distinct anatomical locations. (springer.com)
  • Bishop AE (2004) Pulmonary epithelial stem cells. (springer.com)
  • Large-tidal volume (V T ) mechanical ventilation and hyperoxia used in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome can damage pulmonary epithelial cells through lung inflammation and apoptotic cell death. (biomedcentral.com)
  • It is thought that deficiency of vitamin A worsens inflammation and accelerates tumorigenesis, possibly due to local immunity and stem cell niche dysfunction [ 3 , 8 , 9 , 10 , 11 ]. (intechopen.com)
  • Data presented and discussed in this chapter show (1) the distribution, localization, and function of stellate cells in the liver and intestine, and (2) the role of stellate cells in inflammation and tumorigenesis. (intechopen.com)
  • In GPC, the upper tarsal conjunctiva undergoes changes beginning with nonspecific inflammation and progressing in severity to the appearance of characteristic papillary changes on the tarsal conjunctiva. (reviewofcontactlenses.com)
  • Specifically, a high index of suspicion is warranted in patients who present with recurrent or treatment-resistant chalazion (obstruction and inflammation of the Meibomian or Zeis glands that commonly presents as a nontender nodule on the inner eyelid), blepharoconjunctivitis (inflammation of both conjunctiva and eyelids that present with erythema, edema and crusting of the eyelid margins with pink conjunctiva) or keratoconjunctivitis (inflammation of the cornea and conjunctiva with associated epithelial keratitis). (clinicalpainadvisor.com)
  • It appears quite likely that many of the fibrillar structures revealed in the cytoplasm with the early silver and gold staining methods were IF. (springer.com)
  • We found that Sry HMG box protein 9-positive (Sox9 + ) epithelial cell adhesion molecule-negative (EpCAM − ) hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α-positive (HNF4α + ) biphenotypic cells showing hepatocytic morphology appeared near EpCAM + ductular structures in the livers of mice fed 3,5-diethoxycarbonyl-1,4-dihydrocollidine (DDC)-containing diet. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Composed of 10 degenerate tandem repeats, the tandem repeat domain provides a scaffold on which cells build oligosaccharide structures. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • Extra-adrenal paraganglia, either sympathetic or parasympathetic, are derived from the primitive neural crest cells of the autonomic nervous system. (cancerjournal.net)
  • Under the microscope, we observed that the tumour cells were organised in a solid nest-like or leafy distribution and were composed of sebaceous gland cells and oval or fusiform cells (Fig. 2A). (termedia.pl)
  • The sebaceous gland-like cells accounted for more than half of the total number of tumour cells. (termedia.pl)
  • In this review, we outline the genetic background of ovarian non-epithelial tumours arising in children, emphasizing the genes harbouring pathogenic germline variants associated with each tumour type. (bmj.com)
  • The protein acts as a tumour suppressor, keeping cells from growing and dividing too fast or in an uncontrolled way. (wcrf.org)
  • Capable of lysing virus-infected cells and tumour cells. (verdec.com)
  • Giant cell: Large multinucleated and often markedly anaplastic tumor cells can occur in small clusters or be diffuse. (humpath.com)
  • They frequently occur in the uterus and gastrointestinal tract, but they can initiate wherever smooth muscle cells subsist. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The initial pathologic changes in FGS are thought to occur in glomerular epithelial cells ( 1 , 2 ). (asnjournals.org)
  • The cysts may be lined with intermediate, mucous, or epidermoid cells, and they are filled with mucus. (oralcancerfoundation.org)
  • This thorough analysis showed that CTC-MCC-41 cells resemble characteristics of the original tumor cells in the patient with colon cancer and display a stable phenotype characterized by an intermediate epithelial/mesenchymal phenotype, stem cell-like properties, and an osteomimetic signature, indicating a bone marrow origin. (aacrjournals.org)
  • However, RET is also expressed by the GPS pituitary stem cells localized in a niche between the adenopituitary and the intermediate lobe. (frontiersin.org)
  • The epithelium of the vagina, visible at top, consists of multiple layers of flat cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • [6] The epithelial cells of the uterus possess some of the same characteristics of the vaginal epithelium. (wikipedia.org)
  • The basal layer of the epithelium is the most mitotically active and reproduces new cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • During this time, the cells migrate from deep in crypts, where they are formed by dividing stem cells , to the surface epithelium where they eventually undergo apoptosis. (siumed.edu)
  • Goblet cells are scattered among the absorptive cells in the epithelium of the small intestine and colon . (siumed.edu)
  • Goblet cells comprise an integral part of the epithelium, attached by junctional complexes (evidenced in light microscopy as the 'terminal bar') to adjacent absorptive cells. (siumed.edu)
  • The colonic epithelium gives the superficial impression of being almost entirely goblet cells, but there are still several times as many absorptive cells. (siumed.edu)
  • But in individuals with GPC, mast cells are found in the epithelium, and eosinophils and basophils populate both epithelium and substantia propria. (reviewofcontactlenses.com)
  • As determined with in situ PCR, normal mtDNA was mainly distributed in the tubular epithelium and mtDNA with the common deletion was mainly distributed among glomerular epithelial cells. (asnjournals.org)
  • These tonofibrils were probably the same fibrous arrays that can now be detected by immunofluorescence methods using antibodies directed against keratin, and the transcellular bridging areas most likely represent the IF bundle-desmosome complexes that typify keratinocytes and other epithelial cells (Jones and Goldman, 1985). (springer.com)
  • Selecting CD133 (prominin-1) multipotent stem cell marker, enriched stem cells were analyzed by MACS using CD133 antibodies conjugated with magnetic beads. (bvsalud.org)
  • 2 Diffuse malignant mesotheliomas should be differentiated from localized malignant mesothelioma, as the latter is incidental at presentation, requires surgical treatment, and portends a better prognosis. (appliedradiology.com)
  • However, these typical microvilli are seen only in better-differentiated lumens within epithelial areas of malignant mesotheliomas. (houstonmethodist.org)
  • Higher-grade endometrioid adenocarcinomas have less well-differentiated cells, have more solid sheets of tumor cells no longer organized into glands, and are associated with an atrophied endometrium. (litera4you.ru)
  • Type II endometrial cancers are often high-grade, with deep invasion into the underlying uterine wall myometrium , are of the serous or clear cell type, and carry a poorer prognosis. (litera4you.ru)
  • Here, we report a case of HCO in a 55-year-old female, and summarize the characteristics, therapies and prognosis of cases that have been previously reported. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • In our previous works we could demonstrate that different systemic inflammatory proteins, such as CRP or Fibrinogen and indices formed from inflammatory cell counts, such as neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) were associated with higher tumor stage and worse prognosis 3 , 14 . (nature.com)
  • The operation of this reporter relies on differences in pH between the vacuole (pH ~ 5.0-5.5) and mitochondria (pH ~ 8.2) in living cells. (jove.com)
  • Under growing conditions, wild type cells exhibit both red and green fluorescence distributed in a manner characteristic of the mitochondria. (jove.com)
  • When subjected to nitrogen starvation, a condition which induces mitophagy, in addition to red and green fluorescence labeling the mitochondria, cells exhibit the accumulation of red, but not green fluorescence, in the acidic vacuolar lumen representing the delivery of mitochondria to the vacuole. (jove.com)
  • In these mid-layers of the epithelia, the cells begin to lose their mitochondria and other cell organelles. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fat cells with dark coloration due to the densely packed MITOCHONDRIA. (slicksurface.com)
  • Fat cells with light coloration and few MITOCHONDRIA. (slicksurface.com)
  • Cancer stem cells (CSCs), also known as tumor-initiating cells, are characterized by stem-like properties, including self-renewal and ability to generate daughter cells. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Villin + and Lgr5 + gastric stem cells have been detected in the antrum, while Troy + chief cells have been found in the corpus ( 3 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Additionally, Sox2 + gastric stem cells are present in both the antrum and the corpus ( 3 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • PURPOSE: To describe a new technique for isolation of a mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) population from the olfactory mucosa in rabbits. (bvsalud.org)
  • METHODS: Olfactory stem cells (OSCs) were retrieved from under the cribriform plate of the Ethmoid bone. (bvsalud.org)
  • CONCLUSION: The cells harvested were mesenchymal stem cells and the technique described is therefore efficient for rabbit olfactory stem cells isolation. (bvsalud.org)
  • Skin stem cells are very important in cosmetics, pharmacological and regenerative medicine and burn cases. (bvsalud.org)
  • CD133 positive and negative cells with specific skin stem cells markers like - CD34 (Universal stem cells marker), CD29 (integrin beta-1) and CD49f (integrin alpha-6) immunophenotypes were screened and sorted in flowcytometer. (bvsalud.org)
  • It is therefore evident that foreskin derived epidermal stem cells showed pluripotent or multipotent nature. (bvsalud.org)
  • This finding opens up avenues for new uses of these stem cells for direct cell seeding in wound healing, surgical suturing and drug screening. (bvsalud.org)
  • As the theory of stem cell plasticity was first proposed, we have explored an alternative hypothesis for this phenomenon: namely that adult bone marrow (BM) and umbilical cord blood (UCB) contain more developmentally primitive cells than hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). (bvsalud.org)
  • Breast CIS is usually reported to originate from stem cells in the terminal duct lobular unit (TDLU). (bioxorio.com)
  • GFRα2 was shown to be expressed by pituitary stem cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • Peripheral blood is a large accessible source of adult stem cells for both basic research and clinical applications. (biomedcentral.com)
  • After overexpression, we generated more CD34+ cells with normal expression level of CD43 and CD31, which are used to define various hematopoietic progenitors. (bvsalud.org)
  • they have only a scant rim of cytoplasm . (wikipedia.org)
  • They contain a scant ring of CYTOPLASM surrounding a single large lipid droplet or vacuole. (slicksurface.com)
  • Heng C, Wei T, Yingbing T, Hanzhong L. Clinicopathological characteristics of breast sebaceous adenocarcinoma. (termedia.pl)
  • [17] This layer is composed of one layer of cuboidal cells laying on top of the basal membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • AEII cells are cuboidal cells situated between AEI cells and contain characteristic lamellar bodies and apical microvilli (Weibel 1984). (springer.com)