Bronchi: The larger air passages of the lungs arising from the terminal bifurcation of the TRACHEA. They include the largest two primary bronchi which branch out into secondary bronchi, and tertiary bronchi which extend into BRONCHIOLES and PULMONARY ALVEOLI.Bronchial Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the BRONCHI.Bronchial DiseasesBronchography: Radiography of the bronchial tree after injection of a contrast medium.Bronchoscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the bronchi.Trachea: The cartilaginous and membranous tube descending from the larynx and branching into the right and left main bronchi.Bronchoconstriction: Narrowing of the caliber of the BRONCHI, physiologically or as a result of pharmacological intervention.Tracheal DiseasesCarcinoma, Bronchogenic: Malignant neoplasm arising from the epithelium of the BRONCHI. It represents a large group of epithelial lung malignancies which can be divided into two clinical groups: SMALL CELL LUNG CANCER and NON-SMALL-CELL LUNG CARCINOMA.Tracheal NeoplasmsHemoptysis: Expectoration or spitting of blood originating from any part of the RESPIRATORY TRACT, usually from hemorrhage in the lung parenchyma (PULMONARY ALVEOLI) and the BRONCHIAL ARTERIES.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Muscle, Smooth: Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Bronchial Arteries: Left bronchial arteries arise from the thoracic aorta, the right from the first aortic intercostal or the upper left bronchial artery; they supply the bronchi and the lower trachea.Bronchial Fistula: An abnormal passage or communication between a bronchus and another part of the body.Airway Obstruction: Any hindrance to the passage of air into and out of the lungs.Pneumonectomy: The excision of lung tissue including partial or total lung lobectomy.Pulmonary Atelectasis: Absence of air in the entire or part of a lung, such as an incompletely inflated neonate lung or a collapsed adult lung. Pulmonary atelectasis can be caused by airway obstruction, lung compression, fibrotic contraction, or other factors.Neurokinin A: A mammalian neuropeptide of 10 amino acids that belongs to the tachykinin family. It is similar in structure and action to SUBSTANCE P and NEUROKININ B with the ability to excite neurons, dilate blood vessels, and contract smooth muscles, such as those in the BRONCHI.Tachykinins: A family of biologically active peptides sharing a common conserved C-terminal sequence, -Phe-X-Gly-Leu-Met-NH2, where X is either an aromatic or a branched aliphatic amino acid. Members of this family have been found in mammals, amphibians, and mollusks. Tachykinins have diverse pharmacological actions in the central nervous system and the cardiovascular, genitourinary, respiratory, and gastrointestinal systems, as well as in glandular tissues. This diversity of activity is due to the existence of three or more subtypes of tachykinin receptors.Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Respiratory System: The tubular and cavernous organs and structures, by means of which pulmonary ventilation and gas exchange between ambient air and the blood are brought about.Muscle Contraction: A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.Foreign Bodies: Inanimate objects that become enclosed in the body.Tracheal StenosisTomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Lung Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.Bronchiectasis: Persistent abnormal dilatation of the bronchi.Bronchoscopes: Endoscopes for the visualization of the interior of the bronchi.Respiratory Tract NeoplasmsTracheobronchomegaly: A rare and probably congenital condition characterized by great enlargement of the lumen of the trachea and the larger bronchi.Muscle Tonus: The state of activity or tension of a muscle beyond that related to its physical properties, that is, its active resistance to stretch. In skeletal muscle, tonus is dependent upon efferent innervation. (Stedman, 25th ed)Exocrine Glands: Glands of external secretion that release its secretions to the body's cavities, organs, or surface, through a duct.Substance P: An eleven-amino acid neurotransmitter that appears in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. It is involved in transmission of PAIN, causes rapid contractions of the gastrointestinal smooth muscle, and modulates inflammatory and immune responses.Airway Resistance: Physiologically, the opposition to flow of air caused by the forces of friction. As a part of pulmonary function testing, it is the ratio of driving pressure to the rate of air flow.Muscle Relaxation: That phase of a muscle twitch during which a muscle returns to a resting position.Endothelins: 21-Amino-acid peptides produced by vascular endothelial cells and functioning as potent vasoconstrictors. The endothelin family consists of three members, ENDOTHELIN-1; ENDOTHELIN-2; and ENDOTHELIN-3. All three peptides contain 21 amino acids, but vary in amino acid composition. The three peptides produce vasoconstrictor and pressor responses in various parts of the body. However, the quantitative profiles of the pharmacological activities are considerably different among the three isopeptides.Plasma Cell Granuloma, Pulmonary: A tumor-like inflammatory lesion of the lung that is composed of PLASMA CELLS and fibrous tissue. It is also known as an inflammatory pseudotumor, often with calcification and measuring between 2 and 5 cm in diameter.Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic: Carcinoma characterized by bands or cylinders of hyalinized or mucinous stroma separating or surrounded by nests or cords of small epithelial cells. When the cylinders occur within masses of epithelial cells, they give the tissue a perforated, sievelike, or cribriform appearance. Such tumors occur in the mammary glands, the mucous glands of the upper and lower respiratory tract, and the salivary glands. They are malignant but slow-growing, and tend to spread locally via the nerves. (Dorland, 27th ed)Epithelium: One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.Capsaicin: An alkylamide found in CAPSICUM that acts at TRPV CATION CHANNELS.Acetylcholine: A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.Histamine: An amine derived by enzymatic decarboxylation of HISTIDINE. It is a powerful stimulant of gastric secretion, a constrictor of bronchial smooth muscle, a vasodilator, and also a centrally acting neurotransmitter.Pulmonary Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the lung.Radiography, Thoracic: X-ray visualization of the chest and organs of the thoracic cavity. It is not restricted to visualization of the lungs.Endothelin-3: A 21-amino acid peptide that circulates in the plasma, but its source is not known. Endothelin-3 has been found in high concentrations in the brain and may regulate important functions in neurons and astrocytes, such as proliferation and development. It also is found throughout the gastrointestinal tract and in the lung and kidney. (N Eng J Med 1995;333(6):356-63)Respiratory Mucosa: The mucous membrane lining the RESPIRATORY TRACT, including the NASAL CAVITY; the LARYNX; the TRACHEA; and the BRONCHI tree. The respiratory mucosa consists of various types of epithelial cells ranging from ciliated columnar to simple squamous, mucous GOBLET CELLS, and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.Thoracotomy: Surgical incision into the chest wall.Viper Venoms: Venoms from SNAKES of the viperid family. They tend to be less toxic than elapid or hydrophid venoms and act mainly on the vascular system, interfering with coagulation and capillary membrane integrity and are highly cytotoxic. They contain large amounts of several enzymes, other factors, and some toxins.Solanum glaucophyllum: A plant species of the genus SOLANUM, family SOLANACEAE that causes CALCINOSIS in grazing livestock due to high levels of 1a,25-dihydroxy vitamin D3 (CALCITRIOL).Evans Blue: An azo dye used in blood volume and cardiac output measurement by the dye dilution method. It is very soluble, strongly bound to plasma albumin, and disappears very slowly.Pulmonary Artery: The short wide vessel arising from the conus arteriosus of the right ventricle and conveying unaerated blood to the lungs.Bronchitis: Inflammation of the large airways in the lung including any part of the BRONCHI, from the PRIMARY BRONCHI to the TERTIARY BRONCHI.Glomus Tumor: A blue-red, extremely painful vascular neoplasm involving a glomeriform arteriovenous anastomosis (glomus body), which may be found anywhere in the skin, most often in the distal portion of the fingers and toes, especially beneath the nail. It is composed of specialized pericytes (sometimes termed glomus cells), usually in single encapsulated nodular masses which may be several millimeters in diameter (From Stedman, 27th ed). CHEMODECTOMA, a tumor of NEURAL CREST origin, is also sometimes called a glomus tumor.Mucus: The viscous secretion of mucous membranes. It contains mucin, white blood cells, water, inorganic salts, and exfoliated cells.Albuterol: A short-acting beta-2 adrenergic agonist that is primarily used as a bronchodilator agent to treat ASTHMA. Albuterol is prepared as a racemic mixture of R(-) and S(+) stereoisomers. The stereospecific preparation of R(-) isomer of albuterol is referred to as levalbuterol.Methacholine Compounds: A group of compounds that are derivatives of beta-methylacetylcholine (methacholine).Bronchial Spasm: Spasmodic contraction of the smooth muscle of the bronchi.Intubation, Intratracheal: A procedure involving placement of a tube into the trachea through the mouth or nose in order to provide a patient with oxygen and anesthesia.Neoplasms, Fibroepithelial: Neoplasms composed of fibrous and epithelial tissue. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in fibrous tissue or epithelium.Receptors, Endothelin: Cell surface proteins that bind ENDOTHELINS with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells.Aerosols: Colloids with a gaseous dispersing phase and either liquid (fog) or solid (smoke) dispersed phase; used in fumigation or in inhalation therapy; may contain propellant agents.Asthma: A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).Fiber Optic Technology: The technology of transmitting light over long distances through strands of glass or other transparent material.Receptor, Endothelin B: A subtype of endothelin receptor found predominantly in the KIDNEY. It may play a role in reducing systemic ENDOTHELIN levels.Actinomycosis: Infections with bacteria of the genus ACTINOMYCES.Thoracic Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the thoracic organs, most commonly the lungs and the heart.Pulmonary Ventilation: The total volume of gas inspired or expired per unit of time, usually measured in liters per minute.Bronchodilator Agents: Agents that cause an increase in the expansion of a bronchus or bronchial tubes.Bronchopneumonia: Inflammation of the lung parenchyma that is associated with BRONCHITIS, usually involving lobular areas from TERMINAL BRONCHIOLES to the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. The affected areas become filled with exudate that forms consolidated patches.Bronchogenic Cyst: A usually spherical cyst, arising as an embryonic out-pouching of the foregut or trachea. It is generally found in the mediastinum or lung and is usually asymptomatic unless it becomes infected.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Pulmonary Emphysema: Enlargement of air spaces distal to the TERMINAL BRONCHIOLES where gas-exchange normally takes place. This is usually due to destruction of the alveolar wall. Pulmonary emphysema can be classified by the location and distribution of the lesions.Bronchoalveolar Lavage: Washing out of the lungs with saline or mucolytic agents for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. It is very useful in the diagnosis of diffuse pulmonary infiltrates in immunosuppressed patients.Carbachol: A slowly hydrolyzed CHOLINERGIC AGONIST that acts at both MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS and NICOTINIC RECEPTORS.Exudates and Transudates: Exudates are fluids, CELLS, or other cellular substances that are slowly discharged from BLOOD VESSELS usually from inflamed tissues. Transudates are fluids that pass through a membrane or squeeze through tissue or into the EXTRACELLULAR SPACE of TISSUES. Transudates are thin and watery and contain few cells or PROTEINS.Methacholine Chloride: A quaternary ammonium parasympathomimetic agent with the muscarinic actions of ACETYLCHOLINE. It is hydrolyzed by ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE at a considerably slower rate than ACETYLCHOLINE and is more resistant to hydrolysis by nonspecific CHOLINESTERASES so that its actions are more prolonged. It is used as a parasympathomimetic bronchoconstrictor agent and as a diagnostic aid for bronchial asthma. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1116)Esophageal Fistula: Abnormal passage communicating with the ESOPHAGUS. The most common type is TRACHEOESOPHAGEAL FISTULA between the esophagus and the TRACHEA.Carcinoid Tumor: A usually small, slow-growing neoplasm composed of islands of rounded, oxyphilic, or spindle-shaped cells of medium size, with moderately small vesicular nuclei, and covered by intact mucosa with a yellow cut surface. The tumor can occur anywhere in the gastrointestinal tract (and in the lungs and other sites); approximately 90% arise in the appendix. It is now established that these tumors are of neuroendocrine origin and derive from a primitive stem cell. (From Stedman, 25th ed & Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1182)Receptors, Neurokinin-2: A class of cell surface receptors for tachykinins that prefers neurokinin A; (NKA, substance K, neurokinin alpha, neuromedin L), neuropeptide K; (NPK); or neuropeptide gamma over other tachykinins. Neurokinin-2 (NK-2) receptors have been cloned and are similar to other G-protein coupled receptors.Mucous Membrane: An EPITHELIUM with MUCUS-secreting cells, such as GOBLET CELLS. It forms the lining of many body cavities, such as the DIGESTIVE TRACT, the RESPIRATORY TRACT, and the reproductive tract. Mucosa, rich in blood and lymph vessels, comprises an inner epithelium, a middle layer (lamina propria) of loose CONNECTIVE TISSUE, and an outer layer (muscularis mucosae) of SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS that separates the mucosa from submucosa.Respiratory System Abnormalities: Congenital structural abnormalities of the respiratory system.Peptides, Cyclic: Peptides whose amino and carboxy ends are linked together with a peptide bond forming a circular chain. Some of them are ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS. Some of them are biosynthesized non-ribosomally (PEPTIDE BIOSYNTHESIS, NON-RIBOSOMAL).Rolipram: A phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitor with antidepressant properties.Laser Therapy: The use of photothermal effects of LASERS to coagulate, incise, vaporize, resect, dissect, or resurface tissue.Indomethacin: A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAID) that inhibits the enzyme cyclooxygenase necessary for the formation of prostaglandins and other autacoids. It also inhibits the motility of polymorphonuclear leukocytes.Carcinoma, Squamous Cell: A carcinoma derived from stratified SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. It may also occur in sites where glandular or columnar epithelium is normally present. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Leukotrienes: A family of biologically active compounds derived from arachidonic acid by oxidative metabolism through the 5-lipoxygenase pathway. They participate in host defense reactions and pathophysiological conditions such as immediate hypersensitivity and inflammation. They have potent actions on many essential organs and systems, including the cardiovascular, pulmonary, and central nervous system as well as the gastrointestinal tract and the immune system.Cough: A sudden, audible expulsion of air from the lungs through a partially closed glottis, preceded by inhalation. It is a protective response that serves to clear the trachea, bronchi, and/or lungs of irritants and secretions, or to prevent aspiration of foreign materials into the lungs.Respiratory Tract Fistula: An abnormal passage communicating between any component of the respiratory tract or between any part of the respiratory system and surrounding organs.Hamartoma: A focal malformation resembling a neoplasm, composed of an overgrowth of mature cells and tissues that normally occur in the affected area.Lung Volume Measurements: Measurement of the amount of air that the lungs may contain at various points in the respiratory cycle.Mucociliary Clearance: A non-specific host defense mechanism that removes MUCUS and other material from the LUNGS by ciliary and secretory activity of the tracheobronchial submucosal glands. It is measured in vivo as mucus transfer, ciliary beat frequency, and clearance of radioactive tracers.Lung Diseases, Parasitic: Infections of the lungs with parasites, most commonly by parasitic worms (HELMINTHS).Pulmonary Alveoli: Small polyhedral outpouchings along the walls of the alveolar sacs, alveolar ducts and terminal bronchioles through the walls of which gas exchange between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood takes place.Chest Tubes: Plastic tubes used for drainage of air or fluid from the pleural space. Their surgical insertion is called tube thoracostomy.Chlorpheniramine: A histamine H1 antagonist used in allergic reactions, hay fever, rhinitis, urticaria, and asthma. It has also been used in veterinary applications. One of the most widely used of the classical antihistaminics, it generally causes less drowsiness and sedation than PROMETHAZINE.Medicine in ArtSRS-A: A group of LEUKOTRIENES; (LTC4; LTD4; and LTE4) that is the major mediator of BRONCHOCONSTRICTION; HYPERSENSITIVITY; and other allergic reactions. Earlier studies described a "slow-reacting substance of ANAPHYLAXIS" released from lung by cobra venom or after anaphylactic shock. The relationship between SRS-A leukotrienes was established by UV which showed the presence of the conjugated triene. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Lung Diseases: Pathological processes involving any part of the LUNG.Lung Transplantation: The transference of either one or both of the lungs from one human or animal to another.Tantalum: Tantalum. A rare metallic element, atomic number 73, atomic weight 180.948, symbol Ta. It is a noncorrosive and malleable metal that has been used for plates or disks to replace cranial defects, for wire sutures, and for making prosthetic devices. (Dorland, 28th ed)Pneumonia, Aspiration: A type of lung inflammation resulting from the aspiration of food, liquid, or gastric contents into the upper RESPIRATORY TRACT.Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Isoproterenol: Isopropyl analog of EPINEPHRINE; beta-sympathomimetic that acts on the heart, bronchi, skeletal muscle, alimentary tract, etc. It is used mainly as bronchodilator and heart stimulant.Azepines: Seven membered heterocyclic rings containing a NITROGEN atom.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Pleural DiseasesMaximal Expiratory Flow-Volume Curves: Curves depicting MAXIMAL EXPIRATORY FLOW RATE, in liters/second, versus lung inflation, in liters or percentage of lung capacity, during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination. Common abbreviation is MEFV.Thorax: The upper part of the trunk between the NECK and the ABDOMEN. It contains the chief organs of the circulatory and respiratory systems. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Carcinoma, Small Cell: An anaplastic, highly malignant, and usually bronchogenic carcinoma composed of small ovoid cells with scanty neoplasm. It is characterized by a dominant, deeply basophilic nucleus, and absent or indistinct nucleoli. (From Stedman, 25th ed; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1286-7)Benzopyrenes: A class of chemicals that contain an anthracene ring with a naphthalene ring attached to it.Adrenergic beta-Agonists: Drugs that selectively bind to and activate beta-adrenergic receptors.Lipoma: A benign tumor composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It can be surrounded by a thin layer of connective tissue (encapsulated), or diffuse without the capsule.Bronchospirometry: Spirometric technique in which the volume of air breathed in the right and left lung is recorded separately.Piperidines: A family of hexahydropyridines.Tracheoesophageal Fistula: Abnormal passage between the ESOPHAGUS and the TRACHEA, acquired or congenital, often associated with ESOPHAGEAL ATRESIA.
  • A tool used to look into the trachea and bronchi. (petmd.com)
  • Attachment of avian infl uenza A For each of these 3 viruses, we also included a viruses (H4N5) and (H7N7) and human infl uenza B viruses closely related strain from the putative donor host species to trachea and bronchi of harbor seals is consistent with (H7N7 A/Mallard/Sweden/100/02, H4N5 A/Mallard/ reported infl uenza outbreaks in this species. (cdc.gov)
  • In the absence of pilocarpine, the percentage of cell volume occupied by the granule-based CC10 indicated that two varieties of nonciliated cells exist in bronchial airways. (ovid.com)
  • the smooth muscle surrounding the bronchi, swelling and inflammation of the bronchial tubes, and excessive secretion of mucus into the airways. (britannica.com)
  • As the tubes extend, descendants of these cells give rise to the progenitors of the major cell types of the conducting airways-certainly to the ciliated and secretory (Clara) cells ( 5 ). (pnas.org)
  • Moreover, in the proximal airways, columnar epithelial cells give rise to basal cells ( 10 ). (pnas.org)
  • One widely used injury model is naphthalene exposure, which destroys most of the secretory Clara cells of both the proximal and distal conducting airways ( 12 , 13 ). (pnas.org)
  • Ipratropium blocks the effect of acetylcholine on airways (bronchi) and nasal passages. (medicinenet.com)
  • Despite their ability to suppress allergic type 2 immunity in the airways, however, CD25 + CD4 regulatory T cells had no effect on the development of bronchial hyperreactivity. (jimmunol.org)
  • Indirect attempts, by targeting the expression of CD4 T cell products to the airways, have elucidated the role of long-term type 2 cytokine production in mediating chronic allergic airway changes ( 10 , 11 , 12 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • In mice recovered from their first episode of allergen-induced experimental asthma, there are quiescent Th2 memory cells within infiltrates near small, medium, and large airways ( 6 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Stabilized β-catenin translocates into the nucleus, where it activates its target genes by binding to sequence-specific transcription factors of the lymphoid enhancer factor/T cell factor (LEF/TCF) family ( 6 ). (pnas.org)
  • In the gut, T cell-DC crosstalk may be replaced by communication between DCs and innate lymphoid cells to provoke protective immunity and to maintain tolerance to the resident microbial communities in this location. (nature.com)
  • Human airway epithelial (HAE) cell line, CuFi-5, was derived from lung of a 32-year-old patient with cystic fibrosis by retroviral infection with hTERT and HPV-16E6/E7. (atcc.org)
  • Role of mast cells and basophils in IgE responses and in allergic airway hyperresponsiveness. (nature.com)
  • To study the effects of chronic Ag deposition in the airway mucosa on CD4 + T cell priming and subsequent airway disease, transgenic mice were generated that expressed OVA under the control of the surfactant protein C promoter. (jimmunol.org)
  • When challenged with exogenous Ags, the regulatory T cells remained highly efficient in blocking type 2 effector function by CD4 T cells, but were unable to curtail the induction of airway hyperreactivity. (jimmunol.org)
  • Sometimes a small tube (stent) needs to be placed in the bronchus to keep the airway open. (cancer.ca)
  • B ) Lung sections from naïve 6-week-old GFP;CCSP.CRE mice ( n = 22), in which all airway cells bear permanent genetic GFP+ (green arrows) and all other cells TOMATO+ (red arrows) labels, counterstained with nuclear Hoechst33258 dye (top) or immunostained for the club cell marker CCSP and the alveolar type II cell marker SFTPC (bottom). (elifesciences.org)
  • XY plot of GFP-labeled airway versus alveolar cells from n = 5 mice/mouse strain. (elifesciences.org)
  • These T cells respond to inhaled allergen and then lead to disease relapse that mimics a seasonal human asthma attack with eosinophilic airway inflammation, mucus hypersecretion, and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) ( 9 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Cancers occur when genetic mutations build up in critical genes, specifically those that control cell growth and division (proliferation) or the repair of damaged DNA. (medlineplus.gov)
  • When these proteins are turned on (activated) by binding to other molecules, signaling pathways are triggered within cells that promote cell proliferation. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The altered protein cannot regulate cell proliferation effectively and allows DNA damage to accumulate in cells. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The evidence that the naphthalene-resistant Clara cells give rise to other lineages after proliferation is indirect. (pnas.org)
  • Proteins of the Wnt family are secreted factors regulating cell proliferation, fate, and behavior in contexts ranging from early embryonic development to stem cell homeostasis ( 1 - 3 ). (pnas.org)
  • Here we used a mouse contact hypersensitivity (CHS) model to show that upon epicutaneous antigen challenge, dendritic cells (DCs) formed clusters with effector T cells in dermal perivascular areas to promote in situ proliferation and activation of skin T cells in a manner dependent on antigen and the integrin LFA-1. (nature.com)
  • Figure 2: Antigen-dependent T cell proliferation in DC-T cell clusters. (nature.com)
  • The CD25 + CD4 T cells suppressed proliferation of CD25 − CD4 T cells in vitro and inhibited type 2 immune responses induced by aerosolized Ags in vivo. (jimmunol.org)
  • The respiratory system is a complex organ structure of the human body anatomy, and the primary purpose of this system is to supply the blood with oxygen in order for the blood vessels to carry the precious gaseous element to all parts of the body to accomplish cell respiration. (bartleby.com)
  • In addition, compared with organs such as the pancreas and nervous system, we have a rather elementary view about how the major epithelial cell types of the lung are generated in the embryo ( 3 ). (pnas.org)
  • Virus titres in organs were determined by plaque assay in MDCK cells. (nih.gov)
  • Because of the estimated large volume, many cancer registries do not register basal cell skin cancer except for selected sites, such as skin of the external genital organs (for example, vulva, penis, scrotum). (cdc.gov)
  • Several different cytokines trigger the development of determined cell subsets in BALT of growing Wistar rats. (hindawi.com)
  • In the present report, we studied in the BALT: (1) the profile of the cytokines, TNF-α, INF-γ and IL-10 and (2) in TCR γδ+ cells, the existence of a colocalization with TNF-α as well as with INF-γ. (hindawi.com)
  • All the cytokines studied were observed at an early stage of BALT development by immunohistochemistry and in bronchoalveolar cells (BAL cells) by flow cytometry and western blot. (hindawi.com)
  • In addition to the generation of Abs, B cells also generate cytokines with which they can regulate the immune response, and they can act as APCs to CD4 and CD8 T cells ( 3 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Their elaboration of cytokines and interaction with T cells is likely to induce responses that are distinct from those provided by other APCs, shaping T cell immunity in yet to be determined ways. (jimmunol.org)
  • We discuss the role of B cell responses to innate signals and B cell-derived cytokines involved in antiviral responses as well as describe how B cells transform these signals into functional changes. (jimmunol.org)
  • We identified a lung CD3 + CD4 + cell subset that expresses CD44 hi CD62L − CD69 + ST2 + , produces Th2 cytokines, and mediates allergen-induced disease relapse despite treatment with FTY720 and anti-CD4 antibody. (frontiersin.org)
  • Throughout the air sacs at all ages, CSF1R -transgene + cells were scattered and at later stages, CSF1R -transgene + cells lined capillaries. (springer.com)
  • To investigate opportunities to reduce lung cancer mortality after diagnosis of localised non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in New South Wales through surgical resection. (mja.com.au)
  • In this study, we explore clinical and non-clinical predictors of death among patients with localised non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), focusing on surgical resection. (mja.com.au)
  • However many paraneoplastic syndromes also occur in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. (medscape.com)
  • In the United States, 80 to 85 percent of lung cancers are non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC). (cancersupportcommunity.org)
  • NSCLC and small cell lung cancer (SCLC) differ in how the cells look under a microscope, their origin, how quickly they spread to other parts of the body, and how they are treated. (cancersupportcommunity.org)
  • In consideration of the pathologic findings of the previous uterine myoma and results of the immunostaining, it was diagnosed as metastasis to the bronchus of the benign uterine leiomyoma. (go.jp)
  • In the past, the disease was called oat cell cancer because, when viewed under a microscope, the cancer cells resemble oats. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Small cell lung cancer is an aggressive disease that spreads quickly. (encyclopedia.com)
  • In summary, BAT-gal mice unveil the entire complexity of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in mammals and have broad application potentials for the identification of Wnt-responsive cell populations in development and disease. (pnas.org)
  • In contrast, viruses can only reproduce within the living cells of the host, and mutate easily, resulting in a number of different variants of disease, as seen in infectious bronchitis (IB). (fwi.co.uk)
  • Moussion, C. & Girard, J. P. Dendritic cells control lymphocyte entry to lymph nodes through high endothelial venules. (nature.com)
  • Standard immunohistochemical techniques and laser scanning confocal microscopy were used to assess changes in the abundance of Clara cell 10 kD protein (CC10) within granules and endoplasmic reticulum of rat nonciliated cells after the administration of the secretagogue pilocarpine. (ovid.com)
  • There is evidence that during this phase, cells expressing Clara cell markers can give rise to ciliated cells ( 8 , 9 ). (pnas.org)
  • First, repair does not occur if all Scgb1a1 + cells are ablated, including both the naphthalene-sensitive Clara cells and the naphthalene-resistant Clara (putative stem) cells ( 16 ). (pnas.org)
  • numerous Clara cells also occur. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The right main bronchus has a larger diameter, is oriented more vertically, and is shorter than the left main bronchus . (britannica.com)
  • 1. We have investigated the role of phosphatases in modulating contractile responses to electrical field stimulation (EFS), methacholine, substance P and capsaicin in guinea-pig isolated main bronchus by use of the phosphatase 1 and 2A inhibitor okadaic acid. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In part, this is due to a paucity of highly specific genetic lineage tools to follow efficiently the fate of the major epithelial cell populations: the basal, secretory, ciliated, neuroendocrine, and alveolar cells. (pnas.org)
  • These results will serve as a base for further functional characterization of macrophages and dendritic cells and their role in respiratory diseases and vaccine responses. (springer.com)
  • Migratory dermal dendritic cells act as rapid sensors of protozoan parasites. (nature.com)
  • Requirement of interaction between mast cells and skin dendritic cells to establish contact hypersensitivity. (nature.com)
  • Dendritic cells (DCs) are the most potent antigen-presenting cells in the immune system. (nature.com)
  • One common theme for TNF superfamily members is their coordinated expression at the interface between antigen-specific T cells and antigen-presenting dendritic cells and, by virtue of this expression pattern, TNF superfamily members can shape T cell immune responses. (nature.com)
  • K ) Reactivity of serum IgG antibodies, following depletion of graft-resident Foxp3 cells, against donor (BALB/c), recipient (B6), and third-party (CBA) antigen. (jci.org)
  • A protein made by B cells in response to an antigen. (lungevity.org)
  • Others make it easier for white blood cells to destroy the antigen. (lungevity.org)
  • To improve immune responses after vaccination of chickens through increased uptake of vaccines and targeting to antigen presenting cells, a better understanding of the avian respiratory immune system is required. (springer.com)
  • It remains largely unclear how antigen-presenting cells (APCs) encounter effector or memory T cells efficiently in the periphery. (nature.com)
  • DC-intrinsic signals can dictate whether T cells respond or show tolerance to an antigen. (nature.com)