Motor Neurons: Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.Motor Neuron Disease: Diseases characterized by a selective degeneration of the motor neurons of the spinal cord, brainstem, or motor cortex. Clinical subtypes are distinguished by the major site of degeneration. In AMYOTROPHIC LATERAL SCLEROSIS there is involvement of upper, lower, and brainstem motor neurons. In progressive muscular atrophy and related syndromes (see MUSCULAR ATROPHY, SPINAL) the motor neurons in the spinal cord are primarily affected. With progressive bulbar palsy (BULBAR PALSY, PROGRESSIVE), the initial degeneration occurs in the brainstem. In primary lateral sclerosis, the cortical neurons are affected in isolation. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1089)Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Survival of Motor Neuron 1 Protein: A SMN complex protein that is essential for the function of the SMN protein complex. In humans the protein is encoded by a single gene found near the inversion telomere of a large inverted region of CHROMOSOME 5. Mutations in the gene coding for survival of motor neuron 1 protein may result in SPINAL MUSCULAR ATROPHIES OF CHILDHOOD.Neurons, Afferent: Neurons which conduct NERVE IMPULSES to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Motor Cortex: Area of the FRONTAL LOBE concerned with primary motor control located in the dorsal PRECENTRAL GYRUS immediately anterior to the central sulcus. It is comprised of three areas: the primary motor cortex located on the anterior paracentral lobule on the medial surface of the brain; the premotor cortex located anterior to the primary motor cortex; and the supplementary motor area located on the midline surface of the hemisphere anterior to the primary motor cortex.Survival of Motor Neuron 2 Protein: A SMN complex protein that is closely-related to SURVIVAL OF MOTOR NEURON 1 PROTEIN. In humans, the protein is encoded by an often duplicated gene found near the inversion centromere of a large inverted region of CHROMOSOME 5.Evoked Potentials, Motor: The electrical response evoked in a muscle or motor nerve by electrical or magnetic stimulation. Common methods of stimulation are by transcranial electrical and TRANSCRANIAL MAGNETIC STIMULATION. It is often used for monitoring during neurosurgery.Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: A degenerative disorder affecting upper MOTOR NEURONS in the brain and lower motor neurons in the brain stem and SPINAL CORD. Disease onset is usually after the age of 50 and the process is usually fatal within 3 to 6 years. Clinical manifestations include progressive weakness, atrophy, FASCICULATION, hyperreflexia, DYSARTHRIA, dysphagia, and eventual paralysis of respiratory function. Pathologic features include the replacement of motor neurons with fibrous ASTROCYTES and atrophy of anterior SPINAL NERVE ROOTS and corticospinal tracts. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1089-94)Spinal Cord: A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.Muscular Atrophy, Spinal: A group of disorders marked by progressive degeneration of motor neurons in the spinal cord resulting in weakness and muscular atrophy, usually without evidence of injury to the corticospinal tracts. Diseases in this category include Werdnig-Hoffmann disease and later onset SPINAL MUSCULAR ATROPHIES OF CHILDHOOD, most of which are hereditary. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1089)Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Axons: Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.SMN Complex Proteins: A complex of proteins that assemble the SNRNP CORE PROTEINS into a core structure that surrounds a highly conserved RNA sequence found in SMALL NUCLEAR RNA. They are found localized in the GEMINI OF COILED BODIES and in the CYTOPLASM. The SMN complex is named after the Survival of Motor Neuron Complex Protein 1, which is a critical component of the complex.Action Potentials: Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.Nerve Tissue ProteinsMolecular Motor Proteins: Proteins that are involved in or cause CELL MOVEMENT such as the rotary structures (flagellar motor) or the structures whose movement is directed along cytoskeletal filaments (MYOSIN; KINESIN; and DYNEIN motor families).Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Nerve Degeneration: Loss of functional activity and trophic degeneration of nerve axons and their terminal arborizations following the destruction of their cells of origin or interruption of their continuity with these cells. The pathology is characteristic of neurodegenerative diseases. Often the process of nerve degeneration is studied in research on neuroanatomical localization and correlation of the neurophysiology of neural pathways.Synapses: Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.Neuromuscular Diseases: A general term encompassing lower MOTOR NEURON DISEASE; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; and certain MUSCULAR DISEASES. Manifestations include MUSCLE WEAKNESS; FASCICULATION; muscle ATROPHY; SPASM; MYOKYMIA; MUSCLE HYPERTONIA, myalgias, and MUSCLE HYPOTONIA.Ganglia, Invertebrate: Clusters of neuronal cell bodies in invertebrates. Invertebrate ganglia may also contain neuronal processes and non-neuronal supporting cells. Many invertebrate ganglia are favorable subjects for research because they have small numbers of functional neuronal types which can be identified from one animal to another.Electrophysiology: The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.Interneurons: Most generally any NEURONS which are not motor or sensory. Interneurons may also refer to neurons whose AXONS remain within a particular brain region in contrast to projection neurons, which have axons projecting to other brain regions.Synaptic Transmission: The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.Movement: The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.Cholinergic Neurons: Neurons whose primary neurotransmitter is ACETYLCHOLINE.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Aplysia: An opisthobranch mollusk of the order Anaspidea. It is used frequently in studies of nervous system development because of its large identifiable neurons. Aplysiatoxin and its derivatives are not biosynthesized by Aplysia, but acquired by ingestion of Lyngbya (seaweed) species.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Dopaminergic Neurons: Neurons whose primary neurotransmitter is DOPAMINE.Superoxide Dismutase: An oxidoreductase that catalyzes the reaction between superoxide anions and hydrogen to yield molecular oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. The enzyme protects the cell against dangerous levels of superoxide. EC 1.15.1.1.Electromyography: Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.Anterior Horn Cells: MOTOR NEURONS in the anterior (ventral) horn of the SPINAL CORD which project to SKELETAL MUSCLES.Neuromuscular Junction: The synapse between a neuron and a muscle.Dendrites: Extensions of the nerve cell body. They are short and branched and receive stimuli from other NEURONS.Sensory Receptor Cells: Specialized afferent neurons capable of transducing sensory stimuli into NERVE IMPULSES to be transmitted to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Sometimes sensory receptors for external stimuli are called exteroceptors; for internal stimuli are called interoceptors and proprioceptors.Bulbar Palsy, Progressive: A motor neuron disease marked by progressive weakness of the muscles innervated by cranial nerves of the lower brain stem. Clinical manifestations include dysarthria, dysphagia, facial weakness, tongue weakness, and fasciculations of the tongue and facial muscles. The adult form of the disease is marked initially by bulbar weakness which progresses to involve motor neurons throughout the neuroaxis. Eventually this condition may become indistinguishable from AMYOTROPHIC LATERAL SCLEROSIS. Fazio-Londe syndrome is an inherited form of this illness which occurs in children and young adults. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1091; Brain 1992 Dec;115(Pt 6):1889-1900)Ganglia, Spinal: Sensory ganglia located on the dorsal spinal roots within the vertebral column. The spinal ganglion cells are pseudounipolar. The single primary branch bifurcates sending a peripheral process to carry sensory information from the periphery and a central branch which relays that information to the spinal cord or brain.Neural Inhibition: The function of opposing or restraining the excitation of neurons or their target excitable cells.GABAergic Neurons: Neurons whose primary neurotransmitter is GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID.Patch-Clamp Techniques: An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Models, Neurological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Cerebral Cortex: The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Facial Nerve: The 7th cranial nerve. The facial nerve has two parts, the larger motor root which may be called the facial nerve proper, and the smaller intermediate or sensory root. Together they provide efferent innervation to the muscles of facial expression and to the lacrimal and SALIVARY GLANDS, and convey afferent information for TASTE from the anterior two-thirds of the TONGUE and for TOUCH from the EXTERNAL EAR.Membrane Potentials: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).Motor Skills Disorders: Marked impairments in the development of motor coordination such that the impairment interferes with activities of daily living. (From DSM-V)Animals, Genetically Modified: ANIMALS whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING, or their offspring.Hippocampus: A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.gamma-Aminobutyric Acid: The most common inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.Brain Stem: The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.Axonal Transport: The directed transport of ORGANELLES and molecules along nerve cell AXONS. Transport can be anterograde (from the cell body) or retrograde (toward the cell body). (Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 3d ed, pG3)Neuropeptides: Peptides released by NEURONS as intercellular messengers. Many neuropeptides are also hormones released by non-neuronal cells.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Neural Conduction: The propagation of the NERVE IMPULSE along the nerve away from the site of an excitation stimulus.Choline O-Acetyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of acetylcholine from acetyl-CoA and choline. EC 2.3.1.6.Ganglia: Clusters of multipolar neurons surrounded by a capsule of loosely organized CONNECTIVE TISSUE located outside the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Grasshoppers: Plant-eating orthopterans having hindlegs adapted for jumping. There are two main families: Acrididae and Romaleidae. Some of the more common genera are: Melanoplus, the most common grasshopper; Conocephalus, the eastern meadow grasshopper; and Pterophylla, the true katydid.Neurons, Efferent: Neurons which send impulses peripherally to activate muscles or secretory cells.Nerve Net: A meshlike structure composed of interconnecting nerve cells that are separated at the synaptic junction or joined to one another by cytoplasmic processes. In invertebrates, for example, the nerve net allows nerve impulses to spread over a wide area of the net because synapses can pass information in any direction.Neurofilament Proteins: Type III intermediate filament proteins that assemble into neurofilaments, the major cytoskeletal element in nerve axons and dendrites. They consist of three distinct polypeptides, the neurofilament triplet. Types I, II, and IV intermediate filament proteins form other cytoskeletal elements such as keratins and lamins. It appears that the metabolism of neurofilaments is disturbed in Alzheimer's disease, as indicated by the presence of neurofilament epitopes in the neurofibrillary tangles, as well as by the severe reduction of the expression of the gene for the light neurofilament subunit of the neurofilament triplet in brains of Alzheimer's patients. (Can J Neurol Sci 1990 Aug;17(3):302)Locomotion: Movement or the ability to move from one place or another. It can refer to humans, vertebrate or invertebrate animals, and microorganisms.Central Nervous System: The main information-processing organs of the nervous system, consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges.Reaction Time: The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Medulla Oblongata: The lower portion of the BRAIN STEM. It is inferior to the PONS and anterior to the CEREBELLUM. Medulla oblongata serves as a relay station between the brain and the spinal cord, and contains centers for regulating respiratory, vasomotor, cardiac, and reflex activities.Excitatory Postsynaptic Potentials: Depolarization of membrane potentials at the SYNAPTIC MEMBRANES of target neurons during neurotransmission. Excitatory postsynaptic potentials can singly or in summation reach the trigger threshold for ACTION POTENTIALS.Neuronal Plasticity: The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.Evoked Potentials: Electrical responses recorded from nerve, muscle, SENSORY RECEPTOR, or area of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM following stimulation. They range from less than a microvolt to several microvolts. The evoked potential can be auditory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, AUDITORY), somatosensory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, SOMATOSENSORY), visual (EVOKED POTENTIALS, VISUAL), or motor (EVOKED POTENTIALS, MOTOR), or other modalities that have been reported.Cell Count: The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.Mice, Inbred C57BLMuscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Olfactory Receptor Neurons: Neurons in the OLFACTORY EPITHELIUM with proteins (RECEPTORS, ODORANT) that bind, and thus detect, odorants. These neurons send their DENDRITES to the surface of the epithelium with the odorant receptors residing in the apical non-motile cilia. Their unmyelinated AXONS synapse in the OLFACTORY BULB of the BRAIN.Glutamic Acid: A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Psychomotor Performance: The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)Afferent Pathways: Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a peripheral part toward a nerve center.Dopamine: One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.Leeches: Annelids of the class Hirudinea. Some species, the bloodsuckers, may become temporarily parasitic upon animals, including man. Medicinal leeches (HIRUDO MEDICINALIS) have been used therapeutically for drawing blood since ancient times.Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein: A protein that has been shown to function as a calcium-regulated transcription factor as well as a substrate for depolarization-activated CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES. This protein functions to integrate both calcium and cAMP signals.Chick Embryo: The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Muscles: Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.Neuroglia: The non-neuronal cells of the nervous system. They not only provide physical support, but also respond to injury, regulate the ionic and chemical composition of the extracellular milieu, participate in the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER, form the myelin insulation of nervous pathways, guide neuronal migration during development, and exchange metabolites with neurons. Neuroglia have high-affinity transmitter uptake systems, voltage-dependent and transmitter-gated ion channels, and can release transmitters, but their role in signaling (as in many other functions) is unclear.Rhombencephalon: The posterior of the three primitive cerebral vesicles of an embryonic brain. It consists of myelencephalon, metencephalon, and isthmus rhombencephali from which develop the major BRAIN STEM components, such as MEDULLA OBLONGATA from the myelencephalon, CEREBELLUM and PONS from the metencephalon, with the expanded cavity forming the FOURTH VENTRICLE.Paralysis: A general term most often used to describe severe or complete loss of muscle strength due to motor system disease from the level of the cerebral cortex to the muscle fiber. This term may also occasionally refer to a loss of sensory function. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p45)Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Pyramidal Cells: Projection neurons in the CEREBRAL CORTEX and the HIPPOCAMPUS. Pyramidal cells have a pyramid-shaped soma with the apex and an apical dendrite pointed toward the pial surface and other dendrites and an axon emerging from the base. The axons may have local collaterals but also project outside their cortical region.Spinal Muscular Atrophies of Childhood: A group of recessively inherited diseases that feature progressive muscular atrophy and hypotonia. They are classified as type I (Werdnig-Hoffman disease), type II (intermediate form), and type III (Kugelberg-Welander disease). Type I is fatal in infancy, type II has a late infantile onset and is associated with survival into the second or third decade. Type III has its onset in childhood, and is slowly progressive. (J Med Genet 1996 Apr:33(4):281-3)Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Cerebellum: The part of brain that lies behind the BRAIN STEM in the posterior base of skull (CRANIAL FOSSA, POSTERIOR). It is also known as the "little brain" with convolutions similar to those of CEREBRAL CORTEX, inner white matter, and deep cerebellar nuclei. Its function is to coordinate voluntary movements, maintain balance, and learn motor skills.Astrocytes: A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system - the largest and most numerous neuroglial cells in the brain and spinal cord. Astrocytes (from "star" cells) are irregularly shaped with many long processes, including those with "end feet" which form the glial (limiting) membrane and directly and indirectly contribute to the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER. They regulate the extracellular ionic and chemical environment, and "reactive astrocytes" (along with MICROGLIA) respond to injury.Neurogenesis: Formation of NEURONS which involves the differentiation and division of STEM CELLS in which one or both of the daughter cells become neurons.Periodicity: The tendency of a phenomenon to recur at regular intervals; in biological systems, the recurrence of certain activities (including hormonal, cellular, neural) may be annual, seasonal, monthly, daily, or more frequently (ultradian).Nerve Growth Factors: Factors which enhance the growth potentialities of sensory and sympathetic nerve cells.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Physical Stimulation: Act of eliciting a response from a person or organism through physical contact.Mesencephalon: The middle of the three primitive cerebral vesicles of the embryonic brain. Without further subdivision, midbrain develops into a short, constricted portion connecting the PONS and the DIENCEPHALON. Midbrain contains two major parts, the dorsal TECTUM MESENCEPHALI and the ventral TEGMENTUM MESENCEPHALI, housing components of auditory, visual, and other sensorimoter systems.Peripheral Nerves: The nerves outside of the brain and spinal cord, including the autonomic, cranial, and spinal nerves. Peripheral nerves contain non-neuronal cells and connective tissue as well as axons. The connective tissue layers include, from the outside to the inside, the epineurium, the perineurium, and the endoneurium.FMRFamide: A molluscan neuroactive peptide which induces a fast excitatory depolarizing response due to direct activation of amiloride-sensitive SODIUM CHANNELS. (From Nature 1995; 378(6558): 730-3)Serotonin: A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.Nerve Regeneration: Renewal or physiological repair of damaged nerve tissue.Neurites: In tissue culture, hairlike projections of neurons stimulated by growth factors and other molecules. These projections may go on to form a branched tree of dendrites or a single axon or they may be reabsorbed at a later stage of development. "Neurite" may refer to any filamentous or pointed outgrowth of an embryonal or tissue-culture neural cell.Cell Death: The termination of the cell's ability to carry out vital functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, responsiveness, and adaptability.Kinesin: A microtubule-associated mechanical adenosine triphosphatase, that uses the energy of ATP hydrolysis to move organelles along microtubules toward the plus end of the microtubule. The protein is found in squid axoplasm, optic lobes, and in bovine brain. Bovine kinesin is a heterotetramer composed of two heavy (120 kDa) and two light (62 kDa) chains. EC 3.6.1.-.Axotomy: Transection or severing of an axon. This type of denervation is used often in experimental studies on neuronal physiology and neuronal death or survival, toward an understanding of nervous system disease.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Functional Laterality: Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.Recruitment, Neurophysiological: The spread of response if stimulation is prolonged. (Campbell's Psychiatric Dictionary, 8th ed.)Nervous System: The entire nerve apparatus, composed of a central part, the brain and spinal cord, and a peripheral part, the cranial and spinal nerves, autonomic ganglia, and plexuses. (Stedman, 26th ed)Tetrodotoxin: An aminoperhydroquinazoline poison found mainly in the liver and ovaries of fishes in the order TETRAODONTIFORMES, which are eaten. The toxin causes paresthesia and paralysis through interference with neuromuscular conduction.Cranial Nerves: Twelve pairs of nerves that carry general afferent, visceral afferent, special afferent, somatic efferent, and autonomic efferent fibers.Caenorhabditis elegans: A species of nematode that is widely used in biological, biochemical, and genetic studies.Homeodomain Proteins: Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Presynaptic Terminals: The distal terminations of axons which are specialized for the release of neurotransmitters. Also included are varicosities along the course of axons which have similar specializations and also release transmitters. Presynaptic terminals in both the central and peripheral nervous systems are included.Sciatic Nerve: A nerve which originates in the lumbar and sacral spinal cord (L4 to S3) and supplies motor and sensory innervation to the lower extremity. The sciatic nerve, which is the main continuation of the sacral plexus, is the largest nerve in the body. It has two major branches, the TIBIAL NERVE and the PERONEAL NERVE.Zebrafish: An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.RNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins that bind to RNA molecules. Included here are RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS and other proteins whose function is to bind specifically to RNA.Serotonergic Neurons: Neurons whose primary neurotransmitter is SEROTONIN.Astacoidea: A superfamily of various freshwater CRUSTACEA, in the infraorder Astacidea, comprising the crayfish. Common genera include Astacus and Procambarus. Crayfish resemble lobsters, but are usually much smaller.Muscle Contraction: A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-tyrosine, tetrahydrobiopterin, and oxygen to 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine, dihydrobiopterin, and water. EC 1.14.16.2.Efferent Pathways: Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a nerve center toward a peripheral site. Such impulses are conducted via efferent neurons (NEURONS, EFFERENT), such as MOTOR NEURONS, autonomic neurons, and hypophyseal neurons.Extremities: The farthest or outermost projections of the body, such as the HAND and FOOT.Reflex: An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.Neural Pathways: Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.Macaca mulatta: A species of the genus MACACA inhabiting India, China, and other parts of Asia. The species is used extensively in biomedical research and adapts very well to living with humans.Neurotransmitter Agents: Substances used for their pharmacological actions on any aspect of neurotransmitter systems. Neurotransmitter agents include agonists, antagonists, degradation inhibitors, uptake inhibitors, depleters, precursors, and modulators of receptor function.LIM-Homeodomain Proteins: A subclass of LIM domain proteins that include an additional centrally-located homeodomain region that binds AT-rich sites on DNA. Many LIM-homeodomain proteins play a role as transcriptional regulators that direct cell fate.Caenorhabditis elegans Proteins: Proteins from the nematode species CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS. The proteins from this species are the subject of scientific interest in the area of multicellular organism MORPHOGENESIS.Embryo, Mammalian: The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Myenteric Plexus: One of two ganglionated neural networks which together form the ENTERIC NERVOUS SYSTEM. The myenteric (Auerbach's) plexus is located between the longitudinal and circular muscle layers of the gut. Its neurons project to the circular muscle, to other myenteric ganglia, to submucosal ganglia, or directly to the epithelium, and play an important role in regulating and patterning gut motility. (From FASEB J 1989;3:127-38)Movement Disorders: Syndromes which feature DYSKINESIAS as a cardinal manifestation of the disease process. Included in this category are degenerative, hereditary, post-infectious, medication-induced, post-inflammatory, and post-traumatic conditions.Brain Mapping: Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.Thalamus: Paired bodies containing mostly GRAY MATTER and forming part of the lateral wall of the THIRD VENTRICLE of the brain.Hand: The distal part of the arm beyond the wrist in humans and primates, that includes the palm, fingers, and thumb.Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor: A member of the nerve growth factor family of trophic factors. In the brain BDNF has a trophic action on retinal, cholinergic, and dopaminergic neurons, and in the peripheral nervous system it acts on both motor and sensory neurons. (From Kendrew, The Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994)Pons: The front part of the hindbrain (RHOMBENCEPHALON) that lies between the MEDULLA and the midbrain (MESENCEPHALON) ventral to the cerebellum. It is composed of two parts, the dorsal and the ventral. The pons serves as a relay station for neural pathways between the CEREBELLUM to the CEREBRUM.Growth Cones: Bulbous enlargement of the growing tip of nerve axons and dendrites. They are crucial to neuronal development because of their pathfinding ability and their role in synaptogenesis.RNA-Binding Protein FUS: A multifunctional heterogeneous-nuclear ribonucleoprotein that may play a role in homologous DNA pairing and recombination. The N-terminal portion of protein is a potent transcriptional activator, while the C terminus is required for RNA binding. The name FUS refers to the fact that genetic recombination events result in fusion oncogene proteins (ONCOGENE PROTEINS, FUSION) that contain the N-terminal region of this protein. These fusion proteins have been found in myxoid liposarcoma (LIPOSARCOMA, MYXOID) and acute myeloid leukemia.Spinal Nerve Roots: Paired bundles of NERVE FIBERS entering and leaving the SPINAL CORD at each segment. The dorsal and ventral nerve roots join to form the mixed segmental spinal nerves. The dorsal roots are generally afferent, formed by the central projections of the spinal (dorsal root) ganglia sensory cells, and the ventral roots are efferent, comprising the axons of spinal motor and PREGANGLIONIC AUTONOMIC FIBERS.Substantia Nigra: The black substance in the ventral midbrain or the nucleus of cells containing the black substance. These cells produce DOPAMINE, an important neurotransmitter in regulation of the sensorimotor system and mood. The dark colored MELANIN is a by-product of dopamine synthesis.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Proprioception: Sensory functions that transduce stimuli received by proprioceptive receptors in joints, tendons, muscles, and the INNER EAR into neural impulses to be transmitted to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Proprioception provides sense of stationary positions and movements of one's body parts, and is important in maintaining KINESTHESIA and POSTURAL BALANCE.Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate: A class of ionotropic glutamate receptors characterized by affinity for N-methyl-D-aspartate. NMDA receptors have an allosteric binding site for glycine which must be occupied for the channel to open efficiently and a site within the channel itself to which magnesium ions bind in a voltage-dependent manner. The positive voltage dependence of channel conductance and the high permeability of the conducting channel to calcium ions (as well as to monovalent cations) are important in excitotoxicity and neuronal plasticity.Photic Stimulation: Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.Corpus Striatum: Striped GRAY MATTER and WHITE MATTER consisting of the NEOSTRIATUM and paleostriatum (GLOBUS PALLIDUS). It is located in front of and lateral to the THALAMUS in each cerebral hemisphere. The gray substance is made up of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the lentiform nucleus (the latter consisting of the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and PUTAMEN). The WHITE MATTER is the INTERNAL CAPSULE.Mechanoreceptors: Cells specialized to transduce mechanical stimuli and relay that information centrally in the nervous system. Mechanoreceptor cells include the INNER EAR hair cells, which mediate hearing and balance, and the various somatosensory receptors, often with non-neural accessory structures.Prosencephalon: The anterior of the three primitive cerebral vesicles of the embryonic brain arising from the NEURAL TUBE. It subdivides to form DIENCEPHALON and TELENCEPHALON. (Stedmans Medical Dictionary, 27th ed)Rotarod Performance Test: A performance test based on forced MOTOR ACTIVITY on a rotating rod, usually by a rodent. Parameters include the riding time (seconds) or endurance. Test is used to evaluate balance and coordination of the subjects, particular in experimental animal models for neurological disorders and drug effects.Neuroprotective Agents: Drugs intended to prevent damage to the brain or spinal cord from ischemia, stroke, convulsions, or trauma. Some must be administered before the event, but others may be effective for some time after. They act by a variety of mechanisms, but often directly or indirectly minimize the damage produced by endogenous excitatory amino acids.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Microelectrodes: Electrodes with an extremely small tip, used in a voltage clamp or other apparatus to stimulate or record bioelectric potentials of single cells intracellularly or extracellularly. (Dorland, 28th ed)Learning: Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.Mice, Neurologic Mutants: Mice which carry mutant genes for neurologic defects or abnormalities.Excitatory Amino Acid Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate excitatory amino acid receptors, thereby blocking the actions of agonists.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Neurotoxins: Toxic substances from microorganisms, plants or animals that interfere with the functions of the nervous system. Most venoms contain neurotoxic substances. Myotoxins are included in this concept.Peripheral Nervous System: The nervous system outside of the brain and spinal cord. The peripheral nervous system has autonomic and somatic divisions. The autonomic nervous system includes the enteric, parasympathetic, and sympathetic subdivisions. The somatic nervous system includes the cranial and spinal nerves and their ganglia and the peripheral sensory receptors.Forelimb: A front limb of a quadruped. (The Random House College Dictionary, 1980)Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Nitrergic Neurons: Nerve cells where transmission is mediated by NITRIC OXIDE.Receptors, AMPA: A class of ionotropic glutamate receptors characterized by their affinity for the agonist AMPA (alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid).Nephropidae: Family of large marine CRUSTACEA, in the order DECAPODA. These are called clawed lobsters because they bear pincers on the first three pairs of legs. The American lobster and Cape lobster in the genus Homarus are commonly used for food.Parkinson Disease: A progressive, degenerative neurologic disease characterized by a TREMOR that is maximal at rest, retropulsion (i.e. a tendency to fall backwards), rigidity, stooped posture, slowness of voluntary movements, and a masklike facial expression. Pathologic features include loss of melanin containing neurons in the substantia nigra and other pigmented nuclei of the brainstem. LEWY BODIES are present in the substantia nigra and locus coeruleus but may also be found in a related condition (LEWY BODY DISEASE, DIFFUSE) characterized by dementia in combination with varying degrees of parkinsonism. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1059, pp1067-75)Stilbamidines: STILBENES with AMIDINES attached.Spinal Cord Injuries: Penetrating and non-penetrating injuries to the spinal cord resulting from traumatic external forces (e.g., WOUNDS, GUNSHOT; WHIPLASH INJURIES; etc.).Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.GABA Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate GABA RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of endogenous GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and GABA RECEPTOR AGONISTS.Pyramidal Tracts: Fibers that arise from cells within the cerebral cortex, pass through the medullary pyramid, and descend in the spinal cord. Many authorities say the pyramidal tracts include both the corticospinal and corticobulbar tracts.Motor Neurons, Gamma: Motor neurons which activate the contractile regions of intrafusal SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS, thus adjusting the sensitivity of the MUSCLE SPINDLES to stretch. Gamma motor neurons may be "static" or "dynamic" according to which aspect of responsiveness (or which fiber types) they regulate. The alpha and gamma motor neurons are often activated together (alpha gamma coactivation) which allows the spindles to contribute to the control of movement trajectories despite changes in muscle length.Electrophysiological Phenomena: The electrical properties, characteristics of living organisms, and the processes of organisms or their parts that are involved in generating and responding to electrical charges.Adrenergic Neurons: Neurons whose primary neurotransmitter is EPINEPHRINE.Rats, Transgenic: Laboratory rats that have been produced from a genetically manipulated rat EGG or rat EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN. They contain genes from another species.Vagus Nerve: The 10th cranial nerve. The vagus is a mixed nerve which contains somatic afferents (from skin in back of the ear and the external auditory meatus), visceral afferents (from the pharynx, larynx, thorax, and abdomen), parasympathetic efferents (to the thorax and abdomen), and efferents to striated muscle (of the larynx and pharynx).DEAD Box Protein 20: A multifunctional protein that is both a DEAD-box RNA helicase and a component of the SMN protein complex.N-Methylaspartate: An amino acid that, as the D-isomer, is the defining agonist for the NMDA receptor subtype of glutamate receptors (RECEPTORS, NMDA).Inclusion Bodies: A generic term for any circumscribed mass of foreign (e.g., lead or viruses) or metabolically inactive materials (e.g., ceroid or MALLORY BODIES), within the cytoplasm or nucleus of a cell. Inclusion bodies are in cells infected with certain filtrable viruses, observed especially in nerve, epithelial, or endothelial cells. (Stedman, 25th ed)Ganglia, Sympathetic: Ganglia of the sympathetic nervous system including the paravertebral and the prevertebral ganglia. Among these are the sympathetic chain ganglia, the superior, middle, and inferior cervical ganglia, and the aorticorenal, celiac, and stellate ganglia.Drosophila: A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Nociceptors: Peripheral AFFERENT NEURONS which are sensitive to injuries or pain, usually caused by extreme thermal exposures, mechanical forces, or other noxious stimuli. Their cell bodies reside in the DORSAL ROOT GANGLIA. Their peripheral terminals (NERVE ENDINGS) innervate target tissues and transduce noxious stimuli via axons to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Trigeminal Nerve: The 5th and largest cranial nerve. The trigeminal nerve is a mixed motor and sensory nerve. The larger sensory part forms the ophthalmic, mandibular, and maxillary nerves which carry afferents sensitive to external or internal stimuli from the skin, muscles, and joints of the face and mouth and from the teeth. Most of these fibers originate from cells of the TRIGEMINAL GANGLION and project to the TRIGEMINAL NUCLEUS of the brain stem. The smaller motor part arises from the brain stem trigeminal motor nucleus and innervates the muscles of mastication.Inhibitory Postsynaptic Potentials: Hyperpolarization of membrane potentials at the SYNAPTIC MEMBRANES of target neurons during NEUROTRANSMISSION. They are local changes which diminish responsiveness to excitatory signals.Denervation: The resection or removal of the nerve to an organ or part. (Dorland, 28th ed)Larva: Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.Stem Cells: Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Spinal Nerves: The 31 paired peripheral nerves formed by the union of the dorsal and ventral spinal roots from each spinal cord segment. The spinal nerve plexuses and the spinal roots are also included.
A neuroeffector junction is a site where a motor neuron releases a neurotransmitter to affect a target-non-neuronal-cell. This ... Besides smooth muscle, autonomic neural control of immune, epithelial, and endothelial cells also involves nonsynaptic ... Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) - non-muscular cells of mesenchymal origin-were proposed as potential mediators in motor ... However, unlike most neurons, somatic efferent motor neurons innervate skeletal muscle, and are always excitatory. Visceral ...
showed that Onuf nucleus cells have the same cytoskeletal abnormalities as alpha-motor neurons in motor neuron disease/ ... Cells in Onuf's nucleus resemble autonomic neurons and do not receive afferents from adjacent neurons.[5] ... Neurons in Onuf's nucleus lack autonomic dense core vesicles even though they receive the same synaptic endings as alpha-motor ... Onuf's nucleus cells are anatomically linked with the sacral parasympathetic motor neurons and have many peptidergic nerve ...
... autonomic) motor system. Neuron cell bodies in the lateral column send their axons to synapse on sympathetic ganglia that ... The lateral grey column is composed of sympathetic preganglionic visceral motor neurons which are part of the autonomic nervous ... Postganglionic cells (that is, nerve cells innervated in ganglia by lateral column neurons) typically release norepinephrine ( ... The cells of the intermediolateral cell column are fusiform or star-shaped, and of a medium size. The intermediolateral cell ...
The neurons of the enteric nervous system control the motor functions of the system, in addition to the secretion of ... Auerbach's plexus, also known as the myenteric plexus, is a collection of unmyelinated fibers and postganglionic autonomic cell ... These neurons provide motor inputs to both layers of the muscularis externa, and provide both parasympathetic and sympathetic ... It is capable of operating independently of the brain and spinal cord, but does rely on innervation from the autonomic nervous ...
... its contraction must be initiated by an autonomic nervous system neuron). A few of the cells in a given SUVSM unit may behave ... it can contract regularly without input from a motor neuron (as opposed to multiunit smooth muscle, which is neurogenic - that ... In SUVSM, a single smooth muscle cell in a bundle is innervated by an autonomic nerve fiber. An action potential can be ... Lauralee, Sherwood (2008). Human Physiology: From Cells to Systems. Cengage Learning. pp. 293-296. Retrieved 17 December 2010. ...
... spinal cord and motor neurons retina posterior pituitary Neural plate Neuroectodermal tumor Neuroepithelial cell This article ... The types of neuroectoderm include: Neural crest pigment cells in the skin ganglia of the autonomic nervous system dorsal root ... aorticopulmonary septum of the developing heart and lungs ciliary body of the eye adrenal medulla parafollicular cells in the ...
Once the virus reaches the cell body it travels rapidly to the central nervous system (CNS), replicating in motor neurons and ... After the brain is infected, the virus travels centrifugally to the peripheral and autonomic nervous systems, eventually ... The third is the paralytic stage and is caused by damage to motor neurons. Incoordination is seen, owing to rear limb paralysis ... The human diploid cell rabies vaccine was started in 1967. Less expensive purified chicken embryo cell vaccine and purified ...
Anterior horn cell disease (335.2) Motor neuron disease (335.20) Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (335.21) Progressive muscular ... Autonomic dysreflexia (337.9) Unspecified disorder of autonomic nervous system (338) Pain, not elsewhere classified (338.0) ... Other motor neuron diseases (336) Other diseases of spinal cord (336.0) Syringomyelia and syringobulbia (337) Disorders of the ... autonomic nervous system (337.0) Idiopathic peripheral autonomic neuropathy (337.00) Idiopathic peripheral autonomic neuropathy ...
Labels: A: Motor neuron axon B: Axon terminal C: Synaptic cleft D: Muscle cell E: Part of a Myofibril ... preganglionic neurons in the central nervous system send projections to neurons located in autonomic ganglia; these neurons ... These motor neurons send their axons through motor nerves, from which they emerge to connect to muscle fibers at a special type ... When a motor neuron generates an action potential, it travels rapidly along the nerve until it reaches the neuromuscular ...
The ACC is a relatively ancient cortical region, and is involved with many autonomic functions, including motor and digestive ... Fronto-insular spindle neurons[edit]. At a Society for Neuroscience meeting in 2003, Allman reported on spindle cells his team ... Spindle neurons, also called von Economo neurons (VENs), are a specific class of neurons that are characterized by a large ... Spindle neuron concentrations[edit]. ACC[edit]. The largest number of ACC spindle neurons are found in humans, fewer in the ...
A motor neuron (or motoneuron) is a neuron whose cell body is located in the motor cortex, brainstem or the spinal cord, and ... they synapse onto neurons located in ganglia of the autonomic nervous system (sympathetic and parasympathetic), located in the ... Types of lower motor neurons are alpha motor neurons, beta motor neurons, and gamma motor neurons. The term 'motor neuron' is ... There are two types of motor neuron - upper motor neurons and lower motor neurons. Axons from upper motor neurons synapse onto ...
... and also in the autonomic ganglia. Dogiel cells Ganglion cell Purkinje cell Pyramidal cell Neural tissue Diagram Diagram Image ... Multipolar neurons constitute the majority of neurons in the central nervous system. They include motor neurons and ... A multipolar neuron (or multipolar neurone) is a type of neuron that possesses a single axon and many dendrites (and dendritic ... These processes are projections from the nerve cell body. ... integration of a great deal of information from other neurons. ...
Sensory neurons lose the ability to transmit signals, while motor neurons has reduced ability to transmit signals. Genes ... Some cells produce near normal amounts of the protein, and other cells-particularly brain cells-have very little of the protein ... The FAM134B protein is found in sensory and autonomic neurons. It is involved in the survival of neurons, particularly those ... that is important in the development and survival of nerve cells (neurons), including sensory neurons. The NGFβ protein ...
Betz cells, large motor neurons. Lugaro cells, interneurons of the cerebellum. Medium spiny neurons, most neurons in the corpus ... which comprises the autonomic nervous system and the somatic nervous system. There are many types of specialized neurons. ... Pyramidal cells, neurons with triangular soma, a type of Golgi I. Renshaw cells, neurons with both ends linked to alpha motor ... Efferent neurons transmit signals from the central nervous system to the effector cells and are also called motor neurons. ...
... they accumulate inside the cell. The metabolites have been shown to be more toxic to sensory neurons than to motor neurons. ... Autonomic disturbances, if present, manifest as decreased sweating. The degree of motor disturbances is highly variable, even ... Dyck, PJ (1993). "Neuronal atrophy and degeneration predominantly affecting peripheral sensory and autonomic neurons". In Dyck ... Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type IV (Congenital insensitivity to pain with anhidrosis) Hereditary motor and ...
Skeletal muscles are organized into hundreds of motor units, each of which involves a motor neuron, attached by a series of ... Calcium is released from its storage area in the cell's sarcoplasmic reticulum. An impulse from a nerve cell causes calcium ... Smooth muscles are controlled directly by the autonomic nervous system and are involuntary, meaning that they are incapable of ... Neuromuscular junctions are the focal point where a motor neuron attaches to a muscle. Acetylcholine, (a neurotransmitter used ...
... neurons. They may be caused by motor neurone diseases, sensory neuronopathies, toxins, or autonomic dysfunction. Neurotoxins ... in terms of which part of the nerve cell is affected mainly: the axon, the myelin sheath, or the cell body. Distal axonopathy, ... Here, T cells involvement has been demonstrated, while in terms of demyelination, antibodies alone are not capable. The ... It is the most common response of neurons to metabolic or toxic disturbances, and may be caused by metabolic diseases such as ...
... and the sacral autonomic nucleus. It extends from T1 to L2, and contains the autonomic motor neurons that give rise to the ... The intermediolateral cell column exists at vertebral levels T1 - L2 and mediates the entire sympathetic innervation of the ...
... preganglionic neurons in the central nervous system send projections to neurons located in autonomic ganglia; these neurons ... These motor neurons send their axons through motor nerves, from which they emerge to connect to muscle fibers at a special type ... as a neurotransmitter-a chemical released by nerve cells to send signals to other cells. Its name is derived from its chemical ... When a motor neuron generates an action potential, it travels rapidly along the nerve until it reaches the neuromuscular ...
Schwann cells, and sensory neurons. The novel protein product of the isoform is more plentiful in sensory neurons than motor ... Causing Hereditary Sensory and Autonomic Neuropathy Type II through the Study of Canadian Genetic Isolates". American Journal ... It is proposed that this gene product may play a role in the development and/or maintenance of peripheral sensory neurons or ... and touch sensation owing to reduction or absence of peripheral sensory neurons. "Entrez Gene: Hereditary sensory neuropathy, ...
Patients with ALS show a marked decrease in ChAT activity in motor neurons in the spinal cord and brain. Low levels of ChAT ... ChAT functions to transfer an acetyl group from acetyl co-enzyme A to choline in the synapses of nerve cells and exists in two ... These defects in the medulla could lead to an inability to control essential autonomic functions such as the cardiovascular and ... Though the specific cause of the reduced production is not clear, it is believed that the death of medium-sized motor neurons ...
SHIRPA is a hierarchal screening protocol that efficiently searches for mutations in muscle and lower motor neuron function, ... Spinocerebellar,,sensory neuron function, neuropsychiatry function, and autonomic nervous system function. The mice are then ... A mutation is a change or error in the genomic sequence of a cell. It can occur during meiosis or replication of DNA, as well ... When tested, the motor output of the central nervous system following mechano-sensory stimulation was normal in ennui, which ...
Tetanospasmin released in the wound is absorbed into the circulation and reaches the ends of motor neurons all over the body. ... A minimal amount of spore germination and vegetative cell growth are required for toxin production. Tetanus toxin is a potent ... and the autonomic nervous system may also be affected. Tetanospasmin appears to prevent the release of neurotransmitters by ... By binding to peripheral motor neuron terminals, the toxin enters the nerve axons, and is transported across synaptic junctions ...
The neurons, neural pathways, and other cells where these molecules, enzymes, and one or both cannabinoid receptor types are ... Research found that the CB1 receptor is expressed presynaptically by motor neurons that innervate visceral organs. Cannabinoid- ... Peripheral expression of cannabinoid receptors led researchers to investigate the role of cannabinoids in the autonomic nervous ... CB1 is present in neurons of the enteric nervous system and in sensory terminals of vagal and spinal neurons in the ...
Cell therapy and stem cells in animal models of motor neuron disorders". European Journal of Neuroscience. 26 (7): 1721-1737. ... Also, dysfunction of the peripheral nerves and the autonomic nervous system may occur. Due to these dysfunctions the patients ... and transplantation of healthy motor neurons grown in vitro from the patient's stem cells. Studies in amyotrophic lateral ... The pathology underlying the observable characteristics of DSMA1 is cell body degeneration of motor nerves. Specifically, the ...
"Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical. 153 (1-2): 106-15. doi:10.1016/j.autneu.2009.07.006. PMC 2818077. PMID 19679518.. ... The TH2 lymphocytes interact with B cells and together they produce IgE. IgE circulates around and binds to receptors of cells ... In "kindling", repeated stimulation of hippocampal or amygdaloid neurons in the limbic system eventually leads to seizures in ... such as sensitization to the locomotor response of a stimulant resulting in cross-sensitization to the motor-activating effects ...
... lower motor neurons which may be injured; sensory pathways; dorsal root ganglia at and below the site and autonomic ganglia. ... The investigators believe that Arm 2 may provide stimulation of the upper and lower motor neurons and sensory receptors such as ... Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) Function [ Time Frame: 1,3,6 and 12 months post-procedure ]. The autonomic nervous system (ANS) ... This may also help stimulate the upper and lower motor neurons and sensory receptors. ...
What is autonomic motor neuron? Meaning of autonomic motor neuron medical term. What does autonomic motor neuron mean? ... Looking for online definition of autonomic motor neuron in the Medical Dictionary? autonomic motor neuron explanation free. ... Related to autonomic motor neuron: autonomic nervous system. neuron. [noor´on] a highly specialized cell of the nervous system ... somatic motor neuron directly synapse with striated muscle fibers by motor endplates; visceral motor neuron or autonomic motor ...
Cell types derived from the neural crest include spinal and autonomic ganglion cells and the Schwann cells of peripheral nerves ... Are there signs of upper motor neuron (UMN) or lower motor neuron (LMN) involvement? (If not, consider weakness from a ... Neurons in the basal plate are predominantly motor and give rise to ventral or anterior nerve roots. At appropriate levels of ... The central nervous system is composed of large numbers of excitable nerve cells and their processes, called neurons, which are ...
cell bodies of postsynaptic motor neurons are located outside the cns in what ganglia. autonomic. ... cell bodies of somatic motor and presynaptic visceral motor neurons are located in what matter of the spinal cord. gray matter ... 1)support 2)insulate 3)nourishment for neurons. what are types of neuroglia. 1)oligodendroglia 2)astrocytes 3)ependymal cells 4 ... motor fibers of the peripheral nerves are axons of what type of neurons. multipolar. ...
Includes: nerve cells; sensory neurons, motor neurons; nerve terminology; the nervous system; central and peripheral nervous ... system; main parts of the nervous system; the spinal cord; crainial nerves; the autonomic nervous system; reflex actions. ... Including: the cell cycle; phases of the cell cycle; cell cycle regulation; cell death; cells to bodies; stem cells; animal ... Including: what is a cell, history of cell biology; prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells; cell shape and size; cell structure; the ...
A neuroeffector junction is a site where a motor neuron releases a neurotransmitter to affect a target-non-neuronal-cell. This ... Besides smooth muscle, autonomic neural control of immune, epithelial, and endothelial cells also involves nonsynaptic ... Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) - non-muscular cells of mesenchymal origin-were proposed as potential mediators in motor ... However, unlike most neurons, somatic efferent motor neurons innervate skeletal muscle, and are always excitatory. Visceral ...
showed that Onuf nucleus cells have the same cytoskeletal abnormalities as alpha-motor neurons in motor neuron disease/ ... Cells in Onufs nucleus resemble autonomic neurons and do not receive afferents from adjacent neurons.[5] ... Neurons in Onufs nucleus lack autonomic dense core vesicles even though they receive the same synaptic endings as alpha-motor ... Onufs nucleus cells are anatomically linked with the sacral parasympathetic motor neurons and have many peptidergic nerve ...
The autonomic nervous system is the part of the nervous system that regulates involuntary body functions, such as heart rate, ... Nerve cells in the brain, called upper motor neurons, initiate movement through the release of chemical signals call... ... White blood cells, which are produced in the bones, are a major component of the bodys immune system. When an infectious ... The autonomic nervous system is the part of the nervous system that regulates involuntary body functions, such as heart rate, ...
... mediolateral nucleus extends from the first thoracic through the second lumbar segment and contains the autonomic motor neurons ... The male erectile response is initiated by the action of neurons, or nerve cells (i.e., neuronal action), and maintained by a ... The neurons thus labeled were mediolateral autonomic neurons at T12-L3 and S1-S3. ... depicts a section of the spinal cord and its autonomic pathways;. FIG. 2B. is a superior view of the spinal cord and ...
Disinhibition of anterior horn cells and autonomic neurons results in increased muscle tone, painful spasms, and widespread ... This toxin enters at the neuromuscular junction and is transported by motor neurons to ganglia where it binds tightly and ... The net effect is disinhibiton of neurons that modulate excitatory impulses from the motor cortex resulting in increased muscle ... The net effect is disinhibition of neurons that modulate excitatory impulses from the motor cortex. ...
Several Factors Influence Whether a Cell Will Become a Neuron or a Glia. 4.3. The Molecular Differentiation of Motor Neurons Is ... Autonomic Neurons Refine Their Inputs and Outputs. 8.4. Donald Hebb Speculated about Neural Plasticity. 8.5. Long-Term ... The Death of Many Cells Is a Normal Process in Development. 7.2. The Extent of Death among Developing Motor Neurons Is ... Cerebellar Granule Cells Parachute Down from Above. Researchers at Work: Weaver Neurons Fail to Grasp Glial Fibers. 3.11. Cells ...
Peripheral nerves originate from motor, sensory, and autonomic neurons located in the cranial nerve nuclei, spinal cord, dorsal ... The motor, antidromic response stimulates the parent anterior horn cell which then fires a normal dromic response down the ... Peripheral nerves originate from motor, sensory, and autonomic neurons located in the cranial nerve nuclei, spinal cord, dorsal ... At any age, peripheral neuropathy will produce symptoms related to motor, sensory and autonomic disturbance. Autonomic and ...
... autonomic, and upper motor neuron signs are rare.3 ... believed to lead to focal ischemia of the anterior horn cells ... 6. Lee KH, Choi DS, Lee YS, et al.: Clinical experiences of uncommon motor neuron disease: Hirayama disease. Korean J Spine ... Because HD is uncommon and symptoms are similar to other motor neuron diseases, this clinical entity has a tendency to be ... 8. Pinto WBVR, Nunes PP, Lima E Teixeira I, et al.: OSullivan-McLeod syndrome: unmasking a rare atypical motor neuron disease ...
Functional Classification of Neurons (Diagrammatic View); explained beautifully in an illustrated and interactive way. Click ... motor neurons (efferent neurons; lower motor neurons) are multipolar shaped cells that conduct action potentials out of the ... They also carry autonomic nerous system signals from the visceral organs (heart, lungs, vessels, etc). ... motor neurons, or interneurons.. * Sensory neurons (afferent neurons) are unipolar, bipolar, or multipolar shaped cells that ...
... involvement of spinal sympathetic neurons and ganglia provides a plausible explanation for autonomic instability seen in some ... motor axons (polyradiculitis), peripheral nerve (Guillain-Barré syndrome, brachial plexopathy). In addition, involvement of ... spinal sympathetic neurons and ganglia provides a plausible explanation for autonomic instability seen in some patients. Many ... motor axons (polyradiculitis), peripheral nerve (Guillain-Barré syndrome, brachial plexopathy). In addition, ...
... suppresses differentiation of neural crest lineages and promotes that of ventral CNS tissues such as motor neurons. Notably, ... with autonomic system and sensory lineages induced preferentially by high and low BMP4 concentrations, respectively. In ... Generation of neural crest-derived peripheral neurons and floor plate cells from mouse and primate embryonic stem cells. Kenji ... Generation of neural crest-derived peripheral neurons and floor plate cells from mouse and primate embryonic stem cells ...
Includes motor neuron disease, mixed motor and sensory neuropathies, sensory neuropathies and autonomic neuropathies Feline ... Schwann cells remain intact for some time in the distal stump of a transected nerve, and proliferate to form columns of ... Recovery is possible if adjacent Schwann cells proliferate and remyelinate axons.. Timecourse. *Variable, depends on entity ... Premature degeneration and death of neuronal cell populations in the spinal cord and/or interruption of nerve to target organ ...
motor neuron cell bodies of the sympathetic NS located in lateral horns of 12 thoracic segments and first 2 lumbar segments of ... autonomic sensory neurons, integrating centers in the CNS, and autonomic motor neurons ... pre-ganglionic cell bodies of the motor neuron in parasympathetic NS are located where? ... Highly branched-many synapse with >20 post-synaptic neurons. -Presynaptic neurons synapse with 4 or 5 post-synaptic neurons, ...
However, another line of evidence highlights a key role for autonomic cardiac control in social behavior and cognition. In this ... However, another line of evidence highlights a key role for autonomic cardiac control in social behavior and cognition. In this ... In parallel, researchers have also highlighted the effects of OT on cardiovascular (CV) and autonomic nervous system (ANS) ... We also highlight the importance of autonomic cardiac control in psychiatric disorders of social dysfunction and suggest that ...
What is Autonomic division? Meaning of Autonomic division medical term. What does Autonomic division mean? ... Looking for online definition of Autonomic division in the Medical Dictionary? Autonomic division explanation free. ... axons of somatic motor neurons in the spinal cord and brainstem synapse directly on the effector cell, a muscle cell. In ... a smooth muscle cell, a cardiac muscle cell, or a secretory cell. This autonomic motor circuitry is further subdivided into two ...
The sympathetic ganglion cells belong to the autonomic nervous system. They are motor neurons that, for example, innervate and ... These ganglion cells are completely surrounded by a single row of small cells called satellite cells. ... Plate 6.104 Ganglion Cells: Nodes of Ranvier. Ronald A. Bergman, Ph.D., Adel K. Afifi, M.D., Paul M. Heidger, Jr., Ph.D.. Peer ... GANGLION CELLS. Nodes of Ranvier Human, 10% formalin, H. & E., A., B., C., 238 x.. Compare and recognize the differences ...
Other motor neuron diseases. Although ALS is the most common motor neuron disease requiring ICU admission,other motor neuron ... It is noteworthy that the development of autonomic dysfunction frequently parallels the severity of motor weakness. ... 4. Anterior horn cell disorder. a. Further tests for these disorders are dictated by the clinical presentation of the patient. ... Differentiating upper from lower motor neuron causes of weakness is important in the initial evaluation of new weakness. ...
... pudendal motor neurons are unique compared to other somatic motor neurons and have several characteristics similar to autonomic ... being taken up s electively by motor neurons, replicating inside the cell, and traveling to other neurons via synaptic ... innervated by pudendal motor neurons. Pudendal motor neurons innervate several perineal muscles ( Chambille and Rampin, 2002 ) ... the EUS and BSM motor neurons are segregated respectively into the dorsolateral and dorsomedial pools of motor neuron s, in the ...
Upper cord motor neurons, brainstem, and contralateral motor cortex neurons were infected from 48-72 hours. Viral RNA and ... motor cortex, hypothalamus, and thalamus were infected. Other CNS regions, dorsal root, and autonomic ganglia were spared. ... mice killed 24 to 36 hours postinfection had viral RNA and antigens in ipsilateral lumbar anterior horn cells and adjacent ... The most numerous infected neurons were in anterior horns, motor trigeminal nuclei, and brainstem reticular formation; fewer ...
All of the motor neurons within the autonomic system are located outside of the central nervous system. The autonomic nervous ... Nerve Cell. There are two distinct classes of cells within the nervous system: nerve cells and glial cells (Kandel, et al., ... TYPES OF NEURONS. All of this activity, whether autonomic or somatic, is carried out by individual nerve cells. Discussing the ... nerve cells also vary in the number of connections they make with other nerve cells. For instance, a spinal motor cell, whose ...
  • It is suggested that autonomic neural control of immune, epithelial and endothelial cells also involves non-synaptic transmission. (wikipedia.org)
  • This small group of neural cells is located between S1 and S2 or S2 and S3 and although Onuf's nucleus is located primarily in S2, it can extend to the caudal end of the first sacral segment or to the middle part of the third sacral segment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lively and engaging, with the finest illustrations, Foundations of Neural Development is the perfect book to help any undergraduate student understand how a single microscopic cell, a human zygote, can develop into the most complex machine on earth, the brain. (oup.com)
  • To understand the range of competence of embryonic stem (ES) cell-derived neural precursors, we have examined in vitro differentiation of mouse and primate ES cells into the dorsal- (neural crest) and ventralmost (floor plate) cells of the neural axis. (pnas.org)
  • Although early exposure of SDIA-treated ES cells to bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)4 suppresses neural differentiation and promotes epidermogenesis, late BMP4 exposure after the fourth day of coculture causes differentiation of neural crest cells and dorsalmost CNS cells, with autonomic system and sensory lineages induced preferentially by high and low BMP4 concentrations, respectively. (pnas.org)
  • In contrast, Sonic hedgehog (Shh) suppresses differentiation of neural crest lineages and promotes that of ventral CNS tissues such as motor neurons. (pnas.org)
  • Figure 1: Summary of sympathetic (A) and parasympathetic (B) autonomic neural outflows from the central nervous system . (scholarpedia.org)
  • The neural gut-brain axis consists of viscerosensory and autonomic motor neurons innervating the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Previous research provides an incomplete picture of the brain nuclei that are directly connected with the neural gut-brain axis, and no studies have thoroughly assessed sensory-motor overlap in those nuclei. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Our goal in this study was to comprehensively characterize the central sensory and motor circuitry associated with the neural gut-brain axis linked to a segment of the small intestine. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • TY - JOUR T1 - Central sensory-motor crosstalk in the neural gut-brain axis. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • For more information about cell types in the CNS see the MACS Handbook chapter neural cells. (miltenyibiotec.com)
  • This chapter deals more strictly with the autonomic nervous system and the neural mechanisms of respiration and swallowing, and the next chapter, with the hypothalamus and neuroendocrine disorders. (mhmedical.com)
  • Although both Schwann cells and oligodendrocytes are in charge of axon myelination, they have distinct morphological and molecular properties and different embryonic origins, the neural crest and the neural tube, respectively. (nysora.com)
  • Allman's team proposes that spindle neurons help channel neural signals from deep within the cortex to relatively distant parts of the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • The connections between neurons can form neural circuits and also neural networks that generate an organism's perception of the world and determine its behavior. (pearltrees.com)
  • Vertebrate dopaminergic neurons develop in distinct neural territories to constitute one of the major neuromodulatory systems. (biologists.org)
  • The heralding features demonstrate congenital onset with non-progressive, neurodevelopmental cerebellar hypoplasia and lifetime improvement in motor and cognitive function that implicate compensatory neural mechanisms. (bireme.br)
  • Question 40 The central nervous system provides neural integration of efferent information transmitted from the autonomic nervous system? (stuvia.com)
  • Despite considerable divergence in overall neural architecture, a molecular underpinning for the functional allocation of neurons to interactions with the environment or to homeostasis was inherited from the urbilaterian ancestor by contemporary protostomes and deuterostomes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Spindle neurons are relatively enormous cells that refract waves of neural signals as they are transmitted in waves from one region of the brain to other regions. (wikidoc.org)
  • The neurons and neural circuits in these regions are fundamentally implicated in the control of autonomic responses and motor reflexes with clear sexual dimorphism, as well as in more complex brain functions that determine the identity and sexual behaviour of the individual. (georgetown.edu)
  • What role do Glia cells play in the neural functioning? (writework.com)
  • Whereas other types of neurons tend to have many dendrites, the polar shaped morphology of spindle neurons is unique, having only been found in two very restricted regions in the brains of hominids - the family of species comprising humans and great apes. (wikidoc.org)
  • We have identified a zebrafish mutation in the bHLH-PAS family member arnt2 , based on a strong reduction in cell number of specific dopaminergic neuron groups in the hypothalamus and posterior tuberculum. (biologists.org)
  • Arnt2, Sim1 and Otp thus are core components of a conserved transcriptional network, which specifies neuroendocrine as well as A11-related dopaminergic neurons in the fish hypothalamus and posterior tuberculum. (biologists.org)
  • The recent discovery of spindle neurons in certain whale species has led to speculation of a second, independent evolution of the spindle neuron. (wikidoc.org)
  • In 1999, neuroscientist Prof. John Allman and colleagues at the California Institute of Technology first published a report on spindle neurons found in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) of hominids, but not in any other species. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the E16 developing cortex, mHuB is induced in very early postmitotic neurons exiting the ventricular zone, mHuD is expressed in migrating neurons of the intermediate zone, and mHuC is expressed in mature cortical plate neurons. (jneurosci.org)
  • Vercelli A., Assal F., and Innocenti G. M. (1992) Emergence of calossally projecting neurons with stellate morphology in the visual cortex of the kitten. (springer.com)
  • Kaspar E. M., Lubke J., Larkman A. U., and Blakemore C. (1994) Pyramidal neurons in layer 5 of the rat visual cortex. (springer.com)
  • To address these issues, we have investigated the differentiation of monoaminergic neurons in the mammalian hindbrain ( Goridis and Rohrer, 2002 ). (biologists.org)
  • Mammalian diencephalic DA cell groups are classified A11 through A15 from caudal to rostral. (biologists.org)
  • Despite the large evolutionary distance between teleosts and mammals, and the differences in neuroanatomy, some anatomical and functional homologies between zebrafish DA neuron groups and their mammalian counterparts have been established ( Smeets and Gonzalez, 2000 ). (biologists.org)
  • Furthermore, human KCNC3R423H expression in mammalian cells results in altered glycosylation and aberrant retention of the channel in anterograde and/or endosomal vesicles. (bireme.br)
  • We demonstrate that ocular co-expression of KCNC3R423H with Drosophila epidermal growth factor receptor (dEgfr) results in striking rescue of the eye phenotype, whereas KCNC3R423H expression in mammalian cells results in aberrant intracellular retention of human epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). (bireme.br)
  • Two distinct families of mammalian neuron-specific RNA binding proteins (n-RBPs) have been identified as target antigens in the human paraneoplastic neurological disorders (for review, see Darnell, 1996 ). (jneurosci.org)