Killer Cells, Natural: Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.Receptors, Tachykinin: Cell surface proteins that bind TACHYKININS with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Three classes of tachykinin receptors have been characterized, the NK-1; NK-2; and NK-3; which prefer, respectively, SUBSTANCE P; NEUROKININ A; and NEUROKININ B.Receptors, Neurokinin-1: A class of cell surface receptors for TACHYKININS with a preference for SUBSTANCE P. Neurokinin-1 (NK-1) receptors have been cloned and are members of the G protein coupled receptor superfamily. They are found on many cell types including central and peripheral neurons, smooth muscle cells, acinar cells, endothelial cells, fibroblasts, and immune cells.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Substance P: An eleven-amino acid neurotransmitter that appears in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. It is involved in transmission of PAIN, causes rapid contractions of the gastrointestinal smooth muscle, and modulates inflammatory and immune responses.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Lectins: Proteins that share the common characteristic of binding to carbohydrates. Some ANTIBODIES and carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. PLANT LECTINS are carbohydrate-binding proteins that have been primarily identified by their hemagglutinating activity (HEMAGGLUTININS). However, a variety of lectins occur in animal species where they serve diverse array of functions through specific carbohydrate recognition.Mannose-Binding Lectin: A specific mannose-binding member of the collectin family of lectins. It binds to carbohydrate groups on invading pathogens and plays a key role in the MANNOSE-BINDING LECTIN COMPLEMENT PATHWAY.Lymphocyte Subsets: A classification of lymphocytes based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.Cytotoxicity, Immunologic: The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.Plant Lectins: Protein or glycoprotein substances of plant origin that bind to sugar moieties in cell walls or membranes. Some carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) from PLANTS also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. Many plant lectins change the physiology of the membrane of BLOOD CELLS to cause agglutination, mitosis, or other biochemical changes. They may play a role in plant defense mechanisms.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Lymphocyte Count: The number of LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD.Receptors, NK Cell Lectin-Like: Structurally-related receptors that are typically found on NATURAL KILLER CELLS. They are considered lectin-like proteins in that they share sequence homology with the carbohydrate binding domains of C-TYPE LECTINS. They differ from classical C-type lectins, however, in that they appear to lack CALCIUM-binding domains.NK Cell Lectin-Like Receptor Subfamily K: An activating NK cell lectin-like receptor subfamily that regulates immune responses to INFECTION and NEOPLASMS. Members of this subfamily generally occur as homodimers.NK Cell Lectin-Like Receptor Subfamily A: An inhibitory subclass of NK cell lectin-like receptors that interacts with CLASS I MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS and prevents the activation of NK CELLS.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Lectins, C-Type: A class of animal lectins that bind to carbohydrate in a calcium-dependent manner. They share a common carbohydrate-binding domain that is structurally distinct from other classes of lectins.Antigens, CD56: The 140 kDa isoform of NCAM (neural cell adhesion molecule) containing a transmembrane domain and short cytoplasmic tail. It is expressed by all lymphocytes mediating non-MHC restricted cytotoxicity and is present on some neural tissues and tumors.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Mice, Inbred C57BLFlow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Receptors, Immunologic: Cell surface molecules on cells of the immune system that specifically bind surface molecules or messenger molecules and trigger changes in the behavior of cells. Although these receptors were first identified in the immune system, many have important functions elsewhere.NK Cell Lectin-Like Receptor Subfamily C: A subclass of NK cell lectin-like receptors that associates with members of NK CELL LECTIN-LIKE RECEPTOR SUBFAMILY D to form heterodimeric receptors for HLA-E antigen.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Interleukin-2: A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.NK Cell Lectin-Like Receptor Subfamily D: A subclass of NK cell lectin-like receptors that associates with a variety of members of NK CELL LECTIN-LIKE RECEPTOR SUBFAMILY C to form heterodimeric receptors for HLA-E antigen.Receptors, Natural Killer Cell: Receptors that are specifically found on the surface of NATURAL KILLER CELLS. They play an important role in regulating the cellular component of INNATE IMMUNITY.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Concanavalin A: A MANNOSE/GLUCOSE binding lectin isolated from the jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis). It is a potent mitogen used to stimulate cell proliferation in lymphocytes, primarily T-lymphocyte, cultures.Antigens, Ly: A group of lymphocyte surface antigens located on mouse LYMPHOCYTES. Specific Ly antigens are useful markers for distinguishing subpopulations of lymphocytes.Cytotoxicity Tests, Immunologic: The demonstration of the cytotoxic effect on a target cell of a lymphocyte, a mediator released by a sensitized lymphocyte, an antibody, or complement.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.T-Lymphocyte Subsets: A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.Mice, Inbred BALB CImmunophenotyping: Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.Natural Cytotoxicity Triggering Receptor 1: A 46-kD stimulatory receptor found on resting and activated NATURAL KILLER CELLS. It has specificity for VIRAL HEMAGGLUTININS that are expressed on infected cells.Interleukin-15: Cytokine that stimulates the proliferation of T-LYMPHOCYTES and shares biological activities with IL-2. IL-15 also can induce proliferation and differentiation of B-LYMPHOCYTES.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Lymphocyte Culture Test, Mixed: Measure of histocompatibility at the HL-A locus. Peripheral blood lymphocytes from two individuals are mixed together in tissue culture for several days. Lymphocytes from incompatible individuals will stimulate each other to proliferate significantly (measured by tritiated thymidine uptake) whereas those from compatible individuals will not. In the one-way MLC test, the lymphocytes from one of the individuals are inactivated (usually by treatment with MITOMYCIN or radiation) thereby allowing only the untreated remaining population of cells to proliferate in response to foreign histocompatibility antigens.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Receptors, KIR: A family of receptors found on NK CELLS that have specificity for a variety of HLA ANTIGENS. KIR receptors contain up to three different extracellular immunoglobulin-like domains referred to as D0, D1, and D2 and play an important role in blocking NK cell activation against cells expressing the appropriate HLA antigens thus preventing cell lysis. Although they are often referred to as being inhibitory receptors, a subset of KIR receptors may also play an activating role in NK cells.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic: Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.Phytohemagglutinins: Mucoproteins isolated from the kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris); some of them are mitogenic to lymphocytes, others agglutinate all or certain types of erythrocytes or lymphocytes. They are used mainly in the study of immune mechanisms and in cell culture.Antigens, CD3: Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Perforin: A calcium-dependent pore-forming protein synthesized in cytolytic LYMPHOCYTES and sequestered in secretory granules. Upon immunological reaction between a cytolytic lymphocyte and a target cell, perforin is released at the plasma membrane and polymerizes into transmembrane tubules (forming pores) which lead to death of a target cell.Lymphocytes, Tumor-Infiltrating: Lymphocytes that show specificity for autologous tumor cells. Ex vivo isolation and culturing of TIL with interleukin-2, followed by reinfusion into the patient, is one form of adoptive immunotherapy of cancer.Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte: Antigens expressed on the cell membrane of T-lymphocytes during differentiation, activation, and normal and neoplastic transformation. Their phenotypic characterization is important in differential diagnosis and studies of thymic ontogeny and T-cell function.Cell SeparationAntigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Lymphocyte Depletion: Immunosuppression by reduction of circulating lymphocytes or by T-cell depletion of bone marrow. The former may be accomplished in vivo by thoracic duct drainage or administration of antilymphocyte serum. The latter is performed ex vivo on bone marrow before its transplantation.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.Complement Pathway, Mannose-Binding Lectin: Complement activation triggered by the interaction of microbial POLYSACCHARIDES with serum MANNOSE-BINDING LECTIN resulting in the activation of MANNOSE-BINDING PROTEIN-ASSOCIATED SERINE PROTEASES. As in the classical pathway, MASPs cleave COMPLEMENT C4 and COMPLEMENT C2 to form C3 CONVERTASE (C4B2A) and the subsequent C5 CONVERTASE (C4B2A3B) leading to cleavage of COMPLEMENT C5 and assembly of COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX.Histocompatibility Antigens Class I: Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.Leukocyte Count: The number of WHITE BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in venous BLOOD. A differential leukocyte count measures the relative numbers of the different types of white cells.Receptors, IgG: Specific molecular sites on the surface of various cells, including B-lymphocytes and macrophages, that combine with IMMUNOGLOBULIN Gs. Three subclasses exist: Fc gamma RI (the CD64 antigen, a low affinity receptor), Fc gamma RII (the CD32 antigen, a high affinity receptor), and Fc gamma RIII (the CD16 antigen, a low affinity receptor).Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Lymphocyte Transfusion: The transfer of lymphocytes from a donor to a recipient or reinfusion to the donor.Hemagglutination: The aggregation of ERYTHROCYTES by AGGLUTININS, including antibodies, lectins, and viral proteins (HEMAGGLUTINATION, VIRAL).Granzymes: A family of serine endopeptidases found in the SECRETORY GRANULES of LEUKOCYTES such as CYTOTOXIC T-LYMPHOCYTES and NATURAL KILLER CELLS. When secreted into the intercellular space granzymes act to eliminate transformed and virus-infected host cells.Immunity, Innate: The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Galectins: A class of animal lectins that bind specifically to beta-galactoside in a calcium-independent manner. Members of this class are distiguished from other lectins by the presence of a conserved carbohydrate recognition domain. The majority of proteins in this class bind to sugar molecules in a sulfhydryl-dependent manner and are often referred to as S-type lectins, however this property is not required for membership in this class.Thymus Gland: A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.Antibody-Dependent Cell Cytotoxicity: The phenomenon of antibody-mediated target cell destruction by non-sensitized effector cells. The identity of the target cell varies, but it must possess surface IMMUNOGLOBULIN G whose Fc portion is intact. The effector cell is a "killer" cell possessing Fc receptors. It may be a lymphocyte lacking conventional B- or T-cell markers, or a monocyte, macrophage, or polynuclear leukocyte, depending on the identity of the target cell. The reaction is complement-independent.Coculture Techniques: A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Clone Cells: A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Pore Forming Cytotoxic Proteins: Proteins secreted from an organism which form membrane-spanning pores in target cells to destroy them. This is in contrast to PORINS and MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS that function within the synthesizing organism and COMPLEMENT immune proteins. These pore forming cytotoxic proteins are a form of primitive cellular defense which are also found in human LYMPHOCYTES.Interleukin-12: A heterodimeric cytokine that plays a role in innate and adaptive immune responses. Interleukin-12 is a 70 kDa protein that is composed of covalently linked 40 kDa and 35 kDa subunits. It is produced by DENDRITIC CELLS; MACROPHAGES and a variety of other immune cells and plays a role in the stimulation of INTERFERON-GAMMA production by T-LYMPHOCYTES and NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Lysosomal-Associated Membrane Protein 1: An abundant lysosomal-associated membrane protein that has been found to shuttle between LYSOSOMES; ENDOSOMES; and the PLASMA MEMBRANE. In PLATELETS and T-LYMPHOCYTES it may play a role in the cellular degranulation process.Lymphocyte Function-Associated Antigen-1: An integrin heterodimer widely expressed on cells of hematopoietic origin. CD11A ANTIGEN comprises the alpha chain and the CD18 antigen (ANTIGENS, CD18) the beta chain. Lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 is a major receptor of T-CELLS; B-CELLS; and GRANULOCYTES. It mediates the leukocyte adhesion reactions underlying cytolytic conjugate formation, helper T-cell interactions, and antibody-dependent killing by NATURAL KILLER CELLS and granulocytes. Intracellular adhesion molecule-1 has been defined as a ligand for lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1.Cell Communication: Any of several ways in which living cells of an organism communicate with one another, whether by direct contact between cells or by means of chemical signals carried by neurotransmitter substances, hormones, and cyclic AMP.Mitogens: Substances that stimulate mitosis and lymphocyte transformation. They include not only substances associated with LECTINS, but also substances from streptococci (associated with streptolysin S) and from strains of alpha-toxin-producing staphylococci. (Stedman, 25th ed)Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Acetylgalactosamine: The N-acetyl derivative of galactosamine.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Natural Cytotoxicity Triggering Receptor 3: A 30 kDa stimulatory receptor found on resting and activated NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Leukocytes, Mononuclear: Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Monocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.Collectins: A class of C-type lectins that target the carbohydrate structures found on invading pathogens. Binding of collectins to microorganisms results in their agglutination and enhanced clearance. Collectins form trimers that may assemble into larger oligomers. Each collectin polypeptide chain consists of four regions: a relatively short N-terminal region, a collagen-like region, an alpha-helical coiled-coil region, and carbohydrate-binding region.Receptors, Mitogen: Glycoprotein molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes, that react with molecules of antilymphocyte sera, lectins, and other agents which induce blast transformation of lymphocytes.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Carbohydrates: The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Wheat Germ Agglutinins: Lectins purified from the germinating seeds of common wheat (Triticum vulgare); these bind to certain carbohydrate moieties on cell surface glycoproteins and are used to identify certain cell populations and inhibit or promote some immunological or physiological activities. There are at least two isoforms of this lectin.NK Cell Lectin-Like Receptor Subfamily B: A subclass of NK cell lectin-like receptors that includes both inhibitory and stimulatory members.Receptors, Lymphocyte Homing: Cell surface glycoproteins on lymphocytes and other leukocytes that mediate adhesion to specialized blood vessels called high endothelial venules. Several different classes of lymphocyte homing receptors have been identified, and they appear to target different surface molecules (addressins) on high endothelial venules in different tissues. The adhesion plays a crucial role in the trafficking of lymphocytes.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Rosette Formation: The in vitro formation of clusters consisting of a cell (usually a lymphocyte) surrounded by antigenic cells or antigen-bearing particles (usually erythrocytes, which may or may not be coated with antibody or antibody and complement). The rosette-forming cell may be an antibody-forming cell, a memory cell, a T-cell, a cell bearing surface cytophilic antibodies, or a monocyte possessing Fc receptors. Rosette formation can be used to identify specific populations of these cells.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell: Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Antigens, CD45: High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Lymphopenia: Reduction in the number of lymphocytes.Lymphocyte Cooperation: T-cell enhancement of the B-cell response to thymic-dependent antigens.
  • Immature DCs uptake antigens and mature DCs present antigens to naive T-lymphocytes, then stimulate naive T cells to differentiate to be effector T cells [ 2 ], thus, DCs are important key mediators between innate and acquired immune responses [ 3 ]. (alliedacademies.org)
  • Several of them recognize truly tumor-specific antigens encoded by mutated genes, also known as neoantigens, which likely play a key role in antitumor CD8 T-cell immunity. (frontiersin.org)
  • Day 14 γδT cells from PBMC of patients with cancer were equally effective as their counterparts derived from blood of healthy individuals and triggered potent CD8 + αβT cell responses following processing and cross-presentation of simple (influenza M1) and complex (tuberculin purified protein derivative) protein antigens. (frontiersin.org)
  • Expression of one or more pan-T-cell antigens (CD45RO, CD2, CD3, CD5, and CD7), absence of pan-B-cell antigens, and histopathologic findings combine to make the diagnosis ( 8 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • It is one of the earliest cell surface antigens expressed by T cells following activation. (sinobiological.com)
  • They are expressed on natural killer and T cells, and interact with human leukocyte antigens. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Clearly, this more diverse view of the genome has significant implications for allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, not least in the generation of transplant antigens but also in terms of individual susceptibility to transplant-related toxicities. (bloodjournal.org)
  • The role of the CD19/CD21 complex in B cell processing and presentation of complement-tagged antigens. (medscape.com)
  • Besides, the immune system remembers the antigens that caused a previous reaction (memory) due to the development of memory B cells. (statpearls.com)
  • They include engagement of the B-cell receptor (BCR) by self or microbial antigens ( 6 ), influences mediated by T cells activated by microbial pathogens ( 7 ), host inflammatory responses ( 8 - 10 ), and the interface between tumor cells and stromal elements such as collagen interactions with integrins and other receptors ( 11 , 12 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • T cells within insulitis are specific for islet antigens rather than bystanders. (soc-bdr.org)
  • These consist of naturally occurring CD25+ Treg cells and adaptive Treg cells that are postulated to prevent immune responses against self-antigens and adaptive immune responses, respectively. (ersjournals.com)
  • The aim of this study was to define the effects on antigen-presenting cells of the expression of HIV antigens from an attenuated poxvirus vector. (asm.org)
  • M-cells are very specialized cells for phagocytosis of intestinal macromolecules, particulate antigens and microorganisms across epithelium . (com.es)
  • The instrumental role of the adducts of reactive LPO products with self protein antigens in the sensitization of autoreactive cells to the respective unmodified proteins and in the intermolecular spreading of the autoimmune responses to aldehyde-modified and native DNA is well documented. (aimspress.com)
  • Natural killer (NK) cells are a distinct lineage of lymphocytes that mediate cytotoxic activity and secrete cytokines upon immune stimulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Depending on the type of signals provided by the tumor microenvironment, CD4 + CD161 + cells may regulate the immune response. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Veillette A. Immune regulation by SLAM family receptors and SAP-related adaptors. (springer.com)
  • Their immune system is also characterized by the fact that their surface is covered by live cells with mucus in direct contact with environmental water and the fact that the immune response is greatly affected by temperature. (springer.com)
  • Natural killer (NK) cells are involved in immune surveillance and responsible for the initial response to viral and pathogenic infection. (biomedcentral.com)
  • PD-1-expressing CD8 + T lymphocytes appear to play a major role in the response to these immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI). (frontiersin.org)
  • Recently, much interest in immunology has focused on posttranscriptional membrane-related events occurring when immune effector cells meet their target cells. (rupress.org)
  • 5 In tumor patients, regular subcutaneous injections of the optimal dose of mistletoe lectin-1 (1mg/kg of body weight, twice a week) yielded statistically significant increases in certain acute phase reactants (C-reactive protein, haptoglobin, ceruloplasmin, C3-complement, albumin, and immunoglobulin IgM) after four weeks of therapy 54 , eliciting a humoral immune response. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • contributes to tumor cell evasion of immune responses. (functionalglycomics.org)
  • Within the immune system this GBP is considerably up-regulated in activated T lymphocytes, macrophages, uterine NK cells and regulatory T cells. (functionalglycomics.org)
  • Several highly overexpressed genes in both PTCL-NOS and DLBCL involve the immune network, stroma, angiogenesis, and cell survival cascades that make important contributions to lymphomagenesis. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In addition to their role in transducing signals from immune inhibitory receptors, SHIP and SHP-1 have a broader role in cellular inhibition and can couple to both immune and nonimmune activation receptors by undefined sequences other than the ITIM ( 12 , 13 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Immunopathological evaluation of placenta from women with recurrent pregnancy losses of immune etiologies often demonstrate increased inflammatory cell infiltration at the implantation site and increased fibrin deposition on deciduas and/or perivillous placental membrane. (nih.gov)
  • Long, E. O., Regulation of immune responses through inhibitory receptors. (wiley.com)
  • The structure, chromosomal localization, expression and function of CD69 suggest that it is likely a pleiotropic immune regulator , potentially important in the activation and differentiation of a wide variety of hematopoietic cells. (sinobiological.com)
  • 1999) CD69 and regulation of the immune function. (sinobiological.com)
  • Interesting in this regard, N. gonorrhoeae infection is associated with impaired HIV-1 (human immunodeficiency virus type 1)-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) responses and with transient increases in plasma viremia in HIV-1-infected patients, suggesting that N. gonorrhoeae may also subvert immune responses to co-pathogens. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Difference in the clustering of complement receptor type 1 (CR1) on polymorphonuclear leukocytes and erythrocytes: effect on immune adherence. (medscape.com)
  • Here's why: "Allicin, the main active compound in garlic, is thought to improve your immune cells' ability to fight off colds and the flu," says Blake. (clique2click.com)
  • Commensal microbes outnumber host cells by a factor of 10 to 1 and aid in many essential metabolic and immune host functions ( 2 ). (asm.org)
  • 10 , 13 - 15 , 19 - 21 , 23 - 25 , 32 - 39 ] Viscotoxins are small proteins that exhibit cell-killing activity and possible immune system-stimulating activity. (cancer.gov)
  • The complement system (CS) is composed of receptors and regulators bound to the cell membrane and different plasma proteins that interact with cells and mediators of the immune system ( Figure 1 ). (scielo.br)
  • There are currently Food and Drug Administration-approved monoclonal antibodies for the treatment of rheumatologic and autoimmune diseases targeting various cytokines and immune factors, including TNF-α, IL-1, cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4), B cells (CD20), IL-6, IL-12/23p40, and so on. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A major hurdle to the successful immunotherapy of cancer is represented by the difficulty in generating clinically relevant numbers of immune effector cells with potent in vivo anti-tumour activity, especially in heavily pre-treated patients. (biomedcentral.com)
  • They discovered receptors that alerted the second arm of the immune system, the more familiar T cells and B cells that attack pathogens. (blogspot.com)
  • Total immunoglobulin (Ig) levels and other assessments of immune function are normal, including numbers of blood T and B lymphocytes. (renalandurologynews.com)
  • The effects of beta-glucan on human immune and cancer cells. (prezi.com)
  • Background Large granular lymphocyte leukemia is a semi-autonomous clonal proliferation of cytotoxic T cells accompanied by immune cytopenias and various autoimmune conditions. (haematologica.org)
  • Immunogenetic factors are likely to modulate various aspects of physiological cellular immune responses and have been implicated in the pathogenesis of T-cell-mediated autoimmune diseases. (haematologica.org)
  • Furthermore, the currently proposed molecular markers of exaggerated immune response appear ubiquitous among various autoimmune T-cell-mediated syndromes, despite the heterogeneous clinical phenotypes observed, implying the presence of additional factors contributing to pathological clonal responses. (haematologica.org)
  • Epithelial cells of mucosal surfaces are critical for maintaining immune homeostasis by aiding in the discrimination of pathogenic and commensal microorganisms and modulating the activities of antigen-presenting cells and lymphocytes. (aacrjournals.org)
  • We suggest that this effect is mediated through structural contributions to the subepithelial basement membrane (BM) as a previously unappreciated component of immune responses mediated by cells of the intestinal epithelium and lamina propria. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The immune response to infection in endometrium was mainly adaptive in nature, with the most upregulated genes functioning in either humoral or cell-mediated immunity. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Cancer cell growth is associated with immune surveillance failure. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Nowadays, restoring the desired immune response against cancer cells remains a major therapeutic strategy. (biomedcentral.com)
  • One of the most important successes in immune therapy is represented by the applicational use of monoclonal antibodies, particularly the use of rituximab for B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders. (biomedcentral.com)
  • More recently, other monoclonal antibodies have been developed, to inhibit immune checkpoints within the tumor microenvironment that limit immune suppression, or to enhance some immune functions with immune adjuvants through different targets such as Toll-receptor agonists. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This effect is supported by enhancing the number, functions, and activity of the immune effector cells, including the natural killer (NK) lymphocytes, NKT-lymphocytes, γδ T-lymphocytes, cytotoxic T-lymphocytes, directly or indirectly through vaccines particularly with neoantigens, and by lowering the functions of the immune suppressive cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The aim of this review is to discuss some practical aspects of immune therapy, giving to clinicians the concept of immune effector cells balancing between control and tolerance. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Based on the concept of immune surveillance, the immune system should ideally work to eradicate cancer cells [ 8 , 9 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 4) blocking the immune suppression ability of cancer cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These strategies may restore the immune surveillance by not only killing the tumor cells but also preventing the emergence of new tumor cell clones which may result due to gene mutation after anti-tumor therapy. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This review outlines the pathogenic mechanisms utilized by the immune system to mediate destruction of the pancreatic beta-cells. (soc-bdr.org)
  • 1980). Another indication that VA-E activated immune function became evident by the augmentation of splenic plaque-forming cells (PFC) three days after i.p. immunization with SRBC mixed with this drug extract (Bloksma et al. (alpfmedical.info)
  • These findings underline the notion that several effects of Viscum album treatment may be based on an activation of immune cells rather than direct cytotoxicty. (alpfmedical.info)
  • Once activated, the Th-cells orchestrate adaptive antigen-specific cell-mediated and humoral immune responses. (ersjournals.com)
  • The discovery of the mutual inhibitory effects of Th1 and Th2 cells in mice 4 , prompted the postulate that an imbalance between these two arms of the immune response would underlie Th1-mediated autoimmune diseases as well as Th2-mediated allergic diseases, including asthma 5 , 6 . (ersjournals.com)
  • At present, naturally occurring and adaptive T-regulatory cells (Treg) cells (nTreg and aTreg, respectively) are taking the centre stage as the crucial immunoregulatory cells that are capable of suppressing Th1- and Th2-mediated adaptive immune responses in a cell contact-dependant fashion directly or by acting on APCs. (ersjournals.com)
  • thus causing the proliferation of immune cells needed for the PAMP-specific adaptive immune response. (laborural.org)
  • Gut microbiota can promote the development and progression of CRC by different processes, including the induction of a chronic inflammatory state or immune response, altering stem cell dynamics, the biosynthesis of toxic and genotoxic metabolites, and affecting the host metabolism [20, (deepdyve.com)
  • Emerging evidence has indicated that these microbes may induce inflammation, facilitate cell proliferation and provide a microenvironment for host cells to alter stem cell dynamics and produce metabolites that affect glycolysis or immune response . (deepdyve.com)
  • These cells transfer substances from gut across epithelium and to immune cells. (com.es)
  • M-cells are famous for instigating mucosal immunity response on the apical membrane of these cells then allocate for conveying of microorganisms and particles throughout the epithelial cell layer through the gut lumen to the lamina propria where communications with immune cells occurs [ 4 ]. (com.es)
  • siglecs are a family of sialic-acid binding immunoglobulin-like lectins mostly expressed by cells of the immune system that have the potential to interact with sialylated glycans expressed not only on host cells but also on certain pathogens. (asm.org)
  • In humans, there are eight CD33-related siglecs which share ∼50 to 80% sequence similarity and have two conserved tyrosine-based motifs in their cytoplasmic tails, including a membrane-proximal immune receptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif (ITIM) and a membrane-distal ITIM-like motif. (asm.org)
  • It is now clear that MIF is a key regulator of immune and inflammatory responses and is produced by a range of cells and tissues. (aacrjournals.org)
  • TGF- β 1 supresses myeloid Fc γ receptor function by regulating the expression and function of the common γ -subunit," Journal of Immunology , vol. 170, no. 9, pp. 4572-4577, 2003. (hindawi.com)
  • Crucial role of DNA methylation in determination of clonally distributed killer cell Ig-like receptor expression patterns in NK cells," Journal of Immunology , vol. 169, no. 8, pp. 4253-4261, 2002. (hindawi.com)
  • A. Kikuchi-Maki, S. I. Yusa, T. L. Catina, and K. S. Campbell, "KIR2DL4 is an IL-2-regulated NK cell receptor that exhibits limited expression in humans but triggers strong IFN- γ production," Journal of Immunology , vol. 171, no. 7, pp. 3415-3425, 2003. (hindawi.com)
  • Thymus-independent Expression of Truncated T Cell Receptor-α mRNA in Murine Kidney," The Journal of Immunology, vol. 148, No. 2, pp. 612-619, Jan. 15, 1992. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • In this context, anti-CTLA-4 and anti-PD-1 monoclonal antibodies have demonstrated survival benefits in numerous cancers, including melanoma and non-small-cell lung carcinoma. (frontiersin.org)
  • The IgA antibodies exhibited potent Fab- and Fc-mediated functionalities against cancer cell lines, whereby especially granulocytes are recruited. (mdpi.com)
  • Immunoglobulins (Ig) or antibodies are glycoproteins that are produced by plasma cells. (statpearls.com)
  • 0.05 mIU l −1 and increased free T3 and/or free T4) and the presence of TSH receptor antibodies. (nature.com)
  • Bortezomib, a proteasome inhibitor with anti-MM clinical efficacy, activates the DNA damage response to augment MICA expression in some MM cells, thereby enhancing their opsonization by anti-MICA antibodies. (pnas.org)
  • The phenomenon is also known from neurobiology, in which a similar transfer of proteins between cells has been shown to be part of an intercellular communication system, with functional consequences for the cells involved ( 13 ). (rupress.org)
  • Plant proteins with high affinity to specific cellular glycoconjugates: Lectin I (D-galactose-and N-acetyl-D-galactosamine, and sialoglycoproteins specific lectin) 37 , 38 , 39 , 40 , 41 , Lectin II and III (N-acetyl-D-galactosamine specific proteins) 9 . (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • When comparing cell adhesion proteins within one organism or between organisms, there is no pattern of similarities which would be expected if evolution had not occurred. (sunyorange.edu)
  • Most are receptors for proteins of the matrix surrounding cells but some interact with other cell membrane proteins. (sunyorange.edu)
  • T cells often interact with antigen presenting cells which have ingested microbes and have bound parts of the microbe to special cell surface proteins called MHC proteins. (sunyorange.edu)
  • In 1989, a curious phenomenon was described: HIV-specific T-cell responses to the viral envelope and core proteins could be detected in antibody-positive and antigen-negative sexual partners of known HIV-positive men . (lww.com)
  • 5 More than 30 proteins act synergically to provide host defense against cells, microorganisms, and tissues identified as abnormal by a specific antibody. (scielo.br)
  • Studying these proteins, dubbed Toll-like receptors, quickly became one of the hottest areas in biology. (blogspot.com)
  • Medzhitov now thinks that Toll-like receptors and related proteins may trigger the chronic inflammation that leads to coronary artery disease, Alzheimer's, and diabetes-some of our biggest killers. (blogspot.com)
  • 4 - 9 The expression of cytotoxic proteins has been demonstrated in nodal anaplastic large cell lymphomas (ALCLs), angiocentric (nasal and nasal-type) NK/T lymphomas, hepatosplenic γδ T cell lymphomas, subcutaneous panniculitis-like T cell lymphomas, intestinal lymphoma nasal-type lymphomas, NK/T cell lymphomas in immunocompromised patients, mycosis fungoides (MF), and CD30 positive lymphoproliferative disorders arising in the skin. (bmj.com)
  • Sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin (Ig)-like lectins (siglecs) are a family of type I membrane proteins containing a homologous N-terminal V-set Ig-like domain that binds sialylated glycoconjugates and various numbers of C2-set Ig-like domains ( 10 ). (asm.org)
  • We also looked at NK cell markers, CD161, NKp30 and NKp46 using flow cytometry and western blot. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Flow cytometry surface staining pattern of human peripheral blood cells stained using anti-human CD314 (1D11) purified antibody (azide free, concentration in sample 2 μg/ml) GAM APC. (exbio.cz)
  • Flow cytometry was employed to determine the expression of MICA within hematologic compartments, showing that the signal intensity of MICA was increased in granulocytes from neutropenic patients with large granular lymphocyte leukemia in comparison with that in controls ( P =0.033). (haematologica.org)
  • Although it is unclear how the CD94-NKG2 receptor family interacts with HLA-E, the association of CD94 with NKG2 is critical for the biological activity of this family. (rupress.org)
  • IgM is regarded as a potent agglutinin (e.g., anti-A and anti-B isoagglutinin present in type B and type A blood respectively) and a monomer of IgM is used as a B cell receptor (BCR). (statpearls.com)
  • Presenescent T cells emerge that are resistant to apoptosis and that often expand to large clonal populations. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Fetal infection was associated with an increase in viral load coupled with a reduction in T cell signaling in the endometrium that could be due to PRRSV-controlled apoptosis of uninfected bystander cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • When MHC class I on CC531s cells was masked by preincubation with monoclonal antibody OX18, hepatic NK cell-mediated cytolysis ( 51 Cr release) as well as apoptosis (DNA fragmentation, nucleus condensation and fragmentation) increased. (biomedcentral.com)
  • When hepatic NK cells were preincubated with the granzyme inhibitor 3,4-dichloroisocoumarin, or when extracellular Ca 2+ was chelated by ethylene glycol-bis(β-aminoethyl ether)-N, N-tetraacetic acid, the enhanced cytolysis and apoptosis were completely inhibited. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Therefore, it is needed to explore whether the protective role of MHC class I is also operative in apoptosis induced by NK cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • MIF also has the ability to protect tumor cells from apoptosis. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Multiple pathways were suggested to be involved in the mechanism of MPP + -induced toxicity, including oxidative stress, DNA and protein damage, cell cycling arrest, and apoptosis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • They act, analogously to other chemotherapeutic drugs, by forming DNA adducts and, in this way, they drive the tumor cells toward apoptosis. (aimspress.com)
  • 10 7 cells/ml blood) when peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from healthy individuals and melanoma patients were stimulated with zoledronate and then cultured for 14 days in the presence of IL-2 and IL-15, yielding γδT cell cultures of variable purity (77 ± 21 and 56 ± 26%, respectively). (frontiersin.org)
  • Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from 10 healthy donors and 4 patients with solid cancer were primed with IFN-γ on day 0 and low (50 ng/ml), intermediate (250 ng/ml) and high (500 ng/ml) concentrations of either αCD3 mAb or TG on day 1, and were fed with IL-2 every 3 days for 21 days. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were separated on Ficoll gradients, and purified RNA was analyzed using Affymetrix GeneChip expression arrays. (docme.ru)
  • Indeed, peripheral blood mononuclear cells from four patients with active WD (confirmed by PAS-positive intestinal biopsies) were negative by PCR for T. whipplei DNA ( 74 ). (asm.org)
  • Using multiparameter flow cytometric analysis and a panel of different CD28 mAbs, we show that human peripheral blood NK cells (defined by CD56+, CD16+, and CD3- surface expression) express the CD28 costimulatory receptor, with its detection totally dependent on the mAb used. (ox.ac.uk)
  • 700 biopsies have been screened for their Hsp70 cell surface expression. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Podoplanin is also expressed on the surface of lymphatic endothelial cells, but not vascular endothelial cells. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • Consequently, down-regulation of MHC-I expression leads to a reduction in HLA-E expression at the cell surface. (rupress.org)
  • The frequency of DCIR+ T cells and the level of surface expression were increased in the rheumatic joint compared to blood. (bmj.com)
  • N. gonorrhoeae infection initiates with the physical attachment of the bacterial surface appendages called pili to the apical side of the host mucosal cells , . (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • α 4 β 7 can be engaged by HIV-1 on the cell-surface and CD4 + T cells expressing high levels of this integrin (α 4 β 7 high ) are particularly susceptible to HIV-1 infection. (prolekare.cz)
  • Fas-mediated killing) on the surface of the target cells or deliver the contents of cytotoxic granules to these target cells, both cases ultimately inducing cell death. (hindawi.com)
  • Emerging evidence shows that CRT is a multifunctional protein with significant roles in physiological and pathological processes with presence both inside and outside of the ER, including the cell surface and extracellular space. (biomedcentral.com)
  • M-cells express many different carbohydrate markers on their surface which helps in cell and pathogen or antigen interaction. (com.es)
  • MIF binds to the extracellular domain of CD74, the cell-surface form of the MHC class-II-associated invariant chain ( 15 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Diseases associated with KLRD1 include Psoriasis and Bare Lymphocyte Syndrome, Type I . Among its related pathways are Immunoregulatory interactions between a Lymphoid and a non-Lymphoid cell and Allograft rejection . (genecards.org)
  • Specialized DCs present in the gut-associated lymphoid tissues produce retinoic acid (RA), an important immunomodulator, able to influence HIV-1 replication and a key mediator of integrin α 4 β 7 on lymphocytes. (prolekare.cz)
  • Thus, the presence of KIR on NK/T cell lymphomas seems to mimic the distribution of KIR found on NK and T cells in normal lymphoid tissue. (bmj.com)
  • These cells originate within the gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) in Peyer's patches of the small intestine, and in the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) of additional division of the human gastrointestinal tract [ 3 ]. (com.es)
  • These cells are found in the follicle-associated epithelia (FAE) of Peyer's patches (PP), isolated lymphoid follicles, NALT (nasal associated lymphoid tissue), BALT (bronchial associated lymphoid tissue), appendix and in MALT outside the gastrointestinal tract. (com.es)