Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Antigens, CD3: Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).Antigens, CD8: Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell: IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.Antigens, CD34: Glycoproteins found on immature hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. They are the only molecules to date whose expression within the blood system is restricted to a small number of progenitor cells in the bone marrow.Antigens, CD38: A bifunctional enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis and HYDROLYSIS of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from NAD+ to ADP-RIBOSE. It is a cell surface molecule which is predominantly expressed on LYMPHOID CELLS and MYELOID CELLS.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell: Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.Antigens, CD19: Differentiation antigens expressed on B-lymphocytes and B-cell precursors. They are involved in regulation of B-cell proliferation.Antigens, CD40: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Antigens, CD20: Unglycosylated phosphoproteins expressed only on B-cells. They are regulators of transmembrane Ca2+ conductance and thought to play a role in B-cell activation and proliferation.CD40 Ligand: A membrane glycoprotein and differentiation antigen expressed on the surface of T-cells that binds to CD40 ANTIGENS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and induces their proliferation. Mutation of the gene for CD40 ligand is a cause of HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 1.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Antigens, CD28: Costimulatory T-LYMPHOCYTE receptors that have specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN. Activation of this receptor results in increased T-cell proliferation, cytokine production and promotion of T-cell survival.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Antigens, CD2: Glycoprotein members of the immunoglobulin superfamily which participate in T-cell adhesion and activation. They are expressed on most peripheral T-lymphocytes, natural killer cells, and thymocytes, and function as co-receptors or accessory molecules in the T-cell receptor complex.Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte: Antigens expressed on the cell membrane of T-lymphocytes during differentiation, activation, and normal and neoplastic transformation. Their phenotypic characterization is important in differential diagnosis and studies of thymic ontogeny and T-cell function.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Antigens, CD44: Acidic sulfated integral membrane glycoproteins expressed in several alternatively spliced and variable glycosylated forms on a wide variety of cell types including mature T-cells, B-cells, medullary thymocytes, granulocytes, macrophages, erythrocytes, and fibroblasts. CD44 antigens are the principle cell surface receptors for hyaluronate and this interaction mediates binding of lymphocytes to high endothelial venules. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)Antigens, CD7: Differentiation antigens expressed on pluripotential hematopoietic cells, most human thymocytes, and a major subset of peripheral blood T-lymphocytes. They have been implicated in integrin-mediated cellular adhesion and as signalling receptors on T-cells.Antigens, CD14: Glycolipid-anchored membrane glycoproteins expressed on cells of the myelomonocyte lineage including monocytes, macrophages, and some granulocytes. They function as receptors for the complex of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and LPS-binding protein.Antigens, Differentiation: Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Antigens, CD5: Glycoproteins expressed on all mature T-cells, thymocytes, and a subset of mature B-cells. Antibodies specific for CD5 can enhance T-cell receptor-mediated T-cell activation. The B-cell-specific molecule CD72 is a natural ligand for CD5. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)Antigens, CD1: Glycoproteins expressed on cortical thymocytes and on some dendritic cells and B-cells. Their structure is similar to that of MHC Class I and their function has been postulated as similar also. CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS.CD4-CD8 Ratio: Ratio of T-LYMPHOCYTES that express the CD4 ANTIGEN to those that express the CD8 ANTIGEN. This value is commonly assessed in the diagnosis and staging of diseases affecting the IMMUNE SYSTEM including HIV INFECTIONS.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.ADP-ribosyl Cyclase: A membrane-bound or cytosolic enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD). This enzyme generally catalyzes the hydrolysis of cADPR to ADP-RIBOSE, as well, and sometimes the synthesis of cyclic ADP-ribose 2' phosphate (2'-P-cADPR) from NADP.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Antigens, CD80: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CD28 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD80 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a costimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Antigens, CD56: The 140 kDa isoform of NCAM (neural cell adhesion molecule) containing a transmembrane domain and short cytoplasmic tail. It is expressed by all lymphocytes mediating non-MHC restricted cytotoxicity and is present on some neural tissues and tumors.Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic: Surface antigens expressed on myeloid cells of the granulocyte-monocyte-histiocyte series during differentiation. Analysis of their reactivity in normal and malignant myelomonocytic cells is useful in identifying and classifying human leukemias and lymphomas.Antigens, CD53: Tetraspanin proteins found at high levels in cells of the lymphoid-myeloid lineage. CD53 antigens may be involved regulating the differentiation of T-LYMPHOCYTES and the activation of B-LYMPHOCYTES.Antigens, Differentiation, B-Lymphocyte: Membrane antigens associated with maturation stages of B-lymphocytes, often expressed in tumors of B-cell origin.Antigens, CD24: A cell adhesion protein that was originally identified as a heat stable antigen in mice. It is involved in METASTASIS and is highly expressed in many NEOPLASMS.Antigens, CD45: High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Antigens, CD86: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CD28 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD86 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a stimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Antigens, CD13: Zinc-binding metalloproteases that are members of the type II integral membrane metalloproteases. They are expressed by GRANULOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and their precursors as well as by various non-hematopoietic cells. They release an N-terminal amino acid from a peptide, amide or arylamide.HLA Antigens: Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.Antigens, Protozoan: Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Antigens, CD79: A component of the B-cell antigen receptor that is involved in B-cell antigen receptor heavy chain transport to the PLASMA MEMBRANE. It is expressed almost exclusively in B-LYMPHOCYTES and serves as a useful marker for B-cell NEOPLASMS.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Immunophenotyping: Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.Antigens, CD95: A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype found in a variety of tissues and on activated LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for FAS LIGAND and plays a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. Multiple isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Antigens, Polyomavirus Transforming: Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.H-2 Antigens: The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.NAD+ NucleosidaseAntigens, Fungal: Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.Histocompatibility Antigens Class II: Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.Sialic Acid Binding Ig-like Lectin 3: A 67-kDa sialic acid binding lectin that is specific for MYELOID CELLS and MONOCYTE-MACROPHAGE PRECURSOR CELLS. This protein is the smallest siglec subtype and contains a single immunoglobulin C2-set domain. It may play a role in intracellular signaling via its interaction with SHP-1 PROTEIN-TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE and SHP-2 PROTEIN-TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE.Antigens, Helminth: Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.Antigens, CD18: Cell-surface glycoprotein beta-chains that are non-covalently linked to specific alpha-chains of the CD11 family of leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION). A defect in the gene encoding CD18 causes LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION DEFICIENCY SYNDROME.HLA-DR Antigens: A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.GPI-Linked Proteins: A subclass of lipid-linked proteins that contain a GLYCOSYLPHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOL LINKAGE which holds them to the CELL MEMBRANE.Antigens, CD30: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that may play a role in the regulation of NF-KAPPA B and APOPTOSIS. They are found on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; MAST CELLS and NK CELLS. Overexpression of CD30 antigen in hematopoietic malignancies make the antigen clinically useful as a biological tumor marker. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Antigens, CD4: 55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.Histocompatibility Antigens: A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, alpha-beta: T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.Antigens, CD9: A subtype of tetraspanin proteins that play a role in cell adhesion, cell motility, and tumor metastasis. CD9 antigens take part in the process of platelet activation and aggregation, the formation of paranodal junctions in neuronal tissue, and the fusion of sperm with egg.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Carcinoembryonic Antigen: A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.Blood Group Antigens: Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.Antigens, CD15: A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Antigens, Viral, Tumor: Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.Lectins, C-Type: A class of animal lectins that bind to carbohydrate in a calcium-dependent manner. They share a common carbohydrate-binding domain that is structurally distinct from other classes of lectins.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Antigens, CD43: A sialic acid-rich protein and an integral cell membrane mucin. It plays an important role in activation of T-LYMPHOCYTES.Mice, Inbred BALB CHematopoietic Stem Cells: Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.Antigens, CD36: Leukocyte differentiation antigens and major platelet membrane glycoproteins present on MONOCYTES; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; PLATELETS; and mammary EPITHELIAL CELLS. They play major roles in CELL ADHESION; SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION; and regulation of angiogenesis. CD36 is a receptor for THROMBOSPONDINS and can act as a scavenger receptor that recognizes and transports oxidized LIPOPROTEINS and FATTY ACIDS.Antigens, CD11: A group of three different alpha chains (CD11a, CD11b, CD11c) that are associated with an invariant CD18 beta chain (ANTIGENS, CD18). The three resulting leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION) are LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1; MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN; and ANTIGEN, P150,95.Mice, Inbred C57BLImmunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Cell SeparationTransfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Antigens, CD59: Small glycoproteins found on both hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD59 restricts the cytolytic activity of homologous complement by binding to C8 and C9 and blocking the assembly of the membrane attack complex. (From Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p234)Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.HLA-A2 Antigen: A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.ZAP-70 Protein-Tyrosine Kinase: A protein tyrosine kinase that is required for T-CELL development and T-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTOR function.Thymus Gland: A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen: Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.Antigens, CD57: Oligosaccharide antigenic determinants found principally on NK cells and T-cells. Their role in the immune response is poorly understood.Antigens, CD70: A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that specifically binds to CD27 ANTIGEN. It is found on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS where it plays a role in stimulating the proliferation of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES and CD8-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Antigens, CD46: A ubiquitously expressed complement receptor that binds COMPLEMENT C3B and COMPLEMENT C4B and serves as a cofactor for their inactivation. CD46 also interacts with a wide variety of pathogens and mediates immune response.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Antigens, CD58: Glycoproteins with a wide distribution on hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells and strongly expressed on macrophages. CD58 mediates cell adhesion by binding to CD2; (ANTIGENS, CD2); and this enhances antigen-specific T-cell activation.Histocompatibility Antigens Class I: Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.Antigens, CD47: A ubiquitously expressed membrane glycoprotein. It interacts with a variety of INTEGRINS and mediates responses to EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.Antigens, CD11b: A CD antigen that contains a conserved I domain which is involved in ligand binding. When combined with CD18 the two subunits form MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Autoantigens: Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Prostate-Specific Antigen: A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.Antigens, CD11c: An integrin alpha subunit of approximately 150-kDa molecular weight. It is expressed at high levels on monocytes and combines with CD18 ANTIGEN to form the cell surface receptor INTEGRIN ALPHAXBETA2. The subunit contains a conserved I-domain which is characteristic of several of alpha integrins.O Antigens: The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Hybridomas: Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.Sialic Acid Binding Ig-like Lectin 2: A lectin and cell adhesion molecule found in B-LYMPHOCYTES. It interacts with SIALIC ACIDS and mediates signaling from B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS.Receptors, Interleukin-2: Receptors present on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and B-LYMPHOCYTES that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-2 and play an important role in LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION. They are heterotrimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT, the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT, and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Burkitt Lymphoma: A form of undifferentiated malignant LYMPHOMA usually found in central Africa, but also reported in other parts of the world. It is commonly manifested as a large osteolytic lesion in the jaw or as an abdominal mass. B-cell antigens are expressed on the immature cells that make up the tumor in virtually all cases of Burkitt lymphoma. The Epstein-Barr virus (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN) has been isolated from Burkitt lymphoma cases in Africa and it is implicated as the causative agent in these cases; however, most non-African cases are EBV-negative.Receptors, Antigen: Molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with specific antigens.Interleukin-2: A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.Antigen-Presenting Cells: A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.CD4 Lymphocyte Count: The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.Jurkat Cells: A CELL LINE derived from human T-CELL LEUKEMIA and used to determine the mechanism of differential susceptibility to anti-cancer drugs and radiation.Antigens, Tumor-Associated, Carbohydrate: Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.Monocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Antigens, CD55: GPI-linked membrane proteins broadly distributed among hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD55 prevents the assembly of C3 CONVERTASE or accelerates the disassembly of preformed convertase, thus blocking the formation of the membrane attack complex.Clone Cells: A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Antigens, CD31: Cell adhesion molecules present on virtually all monocytes, platelets, and granulocytes. CD31 is highly expressed on endothelial cells and concentrated at the junctions between them.Lymphocyte Specific Protein Tyrosine Kinase p56(lck): This enzyme is a lymphoid-specific src family tyrosine kinase that is critical for T-cell development and activation. Lck is associated with the cytoplasmic domains of CD4, CD8 and the beta-chain of the IL-2 receptor, and is thought to be involved in the earliest steps of TCR-mediated T-cell activation.Antigens, CD81: Tetraspanin proteins that are involved in a variety of cellular functions including BASEMENT MEMBRANE assembly, and in the formation of a molecular complexes on the surface of LYMPHOCYTES.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Antigens, CD137: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that is specific for 4-1BB LIGAND. It is found in a variety of immune cell types including activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; NATURAL KILLER CELLS; and DENDRITIC CELLS. Activation of the receptor on T-LYMPHOCYTES plays a role in their expansion, production of cytokines and survival. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Cytotoxicity, Immunologic: The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.Bone Marrow: The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic: Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).HLA-A Antigens: Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Bone Marrow Cells: Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.Receptor-CD3 Complex, Antigen, T-Cell: Molecule composed of the non-covalent association of the T-cell antigen receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL) with the CD3 complex (ANTIGENS, CD3). This association is required for the surface expression and function of both components. The molecule consists of up to seven chains: either the alpha/beta or gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor, and four or five chains in the CD3 complex.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Immunologic Memory: The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.Hepatitis B Surface Antigens: Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.Tyrosine: A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.Antigens, CD63: Ubiquitously-expressed tetraspanin proteins that are found in late ENDOSOMES and LYSOSOMES and have been implicated in intracellular transport of proteins.Lymphoma: A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.Antigen-Antibody Reactions: The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Antigens, Thy-1: A group of differentiation surface antigens, among the first to be discovered on thymocytes and T-lymphocytes. Originally identified in the mouse, they are also found in other species including humans, and are expressed on brain neurons and other cells.Antigens, CD151: Tetraspanin proteins found associated with LAMININ-binding INTEGRINS. The CD151 antigens may play a role in the regulation of CELL MOTILITY.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Phospholipase C gamma: A phosphoinositide phospholipase C subtype that is primarily regulated by PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASES. It is structurally related to PHOSPHOLIPASE C DELTA with the addition of SRC HOMOLOGY DOMAINS and pleckstrin homology domains located between two halves of the CATALYTIC DOMAIN.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, gamma-delta: T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated gamma and delta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4-/CD8- T-cells. The receptors appear to be preferentially located in epithelial sites and probably play a role in the recognition of bacterial antigens. The T-cell receptor gamma/delta chains are separate and not related to the gamma and delta chains which are subunits of CD3 (see ANTIGENS, CD3).Mice, SCID: Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Ovalbumin: An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.Herpesvirus 4, Human: The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.HLA-D Antigens: Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.CTLA-4 Antigen: An inhibitory T CELL receptor that is closely related to CD28 ANTIGEN. It has specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN and acts as a negative regulator of peripheral T cell function. CTLA-4 antigen is believed to play role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.CD30 Ligand: A membrane-bound tumor necrosis family member found primarily on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that binds specifically to CD30 ANTIGEN. It may play a role in INFLAMMATION and immune regulation.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.N-Glycosyl Hydrolases: A class of enzymes involved in the hydrolysis of the N-glycosidic bond of nitrogen-linked sugars.Immune Tolerance: The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.Antigen Presentation: The process by which antigen is presented to lymphocytes in a form they can recognize. This is performed by antigen presenting cells (APCs). Some antigens require processing before they can be recognized. Antigen processing consists of ingestion and partial digestion of the antigen by the APC, followed by presentation of fragments on the cell surface. (From Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)Antigens, CD11a: An alpha-integrin subunit found on lymphocytes, granulocytes, macrophages and monocytes. It combines with the integrin beta2 subunit (CD18 ANTIGEN) to form LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Neoplasm Proteins: Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.Hepatitis B Antigens: Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Autoantibodies: Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte: Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)T-Lymphocyte Subsets: A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.HLA-B Antigens: Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by more than 30 detectable alleles on locus B of the HLA complex, the most polymorphic of all the HLA specificities. Several of these antigens (e.g., HLA-B27, -B7, -B8) are strongly associated with predisposition to rheumatoid and other autoimmune disorders. Like other class I HLA determinants, they are involved in the cellular immune reactivity of cytolytic T lymphocytes.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Enzyme Precursors: Physiologically inactive substances that can be converted to active enzymes.Killer Cells, Natural: Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.Antigen-Antibody Complex: The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.MART-1 Antigen: A melanosome-specific protein that plays a role in the expression, stability, trafficking, and processing of GP100 MELANOMA ANTIGEN, which is critical to the formation of Stage II MELANOSOMES. The protein is used as an antigen marker for MELANOMA cells.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-vav: Proto-oncogene proteins that are guanine nucleotide exchange factors for RHO GTPASES. They also function as signal transducing adaptor proteins.Antigens, CD147: A widely distributed cell surface transmembrane glycoprotein that stimulates the synthesis of MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASES. It is found at high levels on the surface of malignant NEOPLASMS and may play a role as a mediator of malignant cell behavior.Major Histocompatibility Complex: The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.Isoantigens: Antigens that exist in alternative (allelic) forms in a single species. When an isoantigen is encountered by species members who lack it, an immune response is induced. Typical isoantigens are the BLOOD GROUP ANTIGENS.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.HIV Antigens: Antigens associated with specific proteins of the human adult T-cell immunodeficiency virus (HIV); also called HTLV-III-associated and lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) antigens.HL-60 Cells: A promyelocytic cell line derived from a patient with ACUTE PROMYELOCYTIC LEUKEMIA. HL-60 cells lack specific markers for LYMPHOID CELLS but express surface receptors for FC FRAGMENTS and COMPLEMENT SYSTEM PROTEINS. They also exhibit phagocytic activity and responsiveness to chemotactic stimuli. (From Hay et al., American Type Culture Collection, 7th ed, pp127-8)T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory: CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.Antigens, CD82: A widely expressed transmembrane glycoprotein that functions as a METASTASIS suppressor protein. It is underexpressed in a variety of human NEOPLASMS.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
... are expressed on cells specialized for antigen presentation. CD1d (group 2 CD1) is expressed in a wider variety of cells. CD1e ... Natural Killer T (NKT) cells are activated by CD1d-presented antigens, and rapidly produce Th1 and Th2 cytokines, typically ... CD1 antigens are expressed on cortical thymocytes, but not on mature T cells. This often remains true in neoplastic cells from ... Thus, mice have been used extensively to characterize the role of CD1d and CD1d-dependent NKT cells in a variety of disease ...
It has been identified as a CD1d- presented self-antigen for an innate type of immune cells termed as Natural Killer T (NKT) ... Globosides but not isoglobosides can impact the development of invariant NKT cells and their interaction with dendritic cells. ... Cutting edge: influence of the TCR Vbeta domain on the selection of semi-invariant NKT cells by endogenous ligands. J Immunol. ... Different composition of epithelial and nonepithelial cells of small intestine. J Biol Chem. 1982 Jan 10;257(1):557-68. ...
... which are used to detect antigen-specific T-cells in fluid cells and solid tissue samples using flow cytometry. These T-cells ... Multimers may be used to display class 1 MHC, class 2 MHC, or nonclassical molecules (e.g. CD1d) from species such as monkeys, ... designed to identify and isolate T-cells with high affinity to specific antigens amid a large group of unrelated T-cells. ... "Genetic engineering of virus-specific T cells with T-cell receptors recognizing minor histocompatibility antigens for clinical ...
NKT cells recognize glycolipid antigen presented by a molecule called CD1d. Once activated, these cells can perform functions ... Cytotoxic (Killer) CD8 +ve Cytotoxic T cells (TC cells, CTLs, T-killer cells, killer T cells) destroy virus-infected cells and ... such as B cells and natural killer cells, by the presence of a T-cell receptor on the cell surface. They are called T cells ... Healthy cells typically express a large number of self derived pMHC on their cell surface and although the T cell antigen ...
... is the only member of the group 2 CD1 molecules. CD1d-presented lipid antigens activate a special class of T cells, known ... used to identify NKT cells or other CD1d-reactive cells. In particular, type I NKT cells and some type II NKT cells are stained ... Joyce S (2001). "CD1d and natural T cells: how their properties jump-start the immune system". Cell. Mol. Life Sci. 58 (3): 442 ... which is specific of type I NKT cells. Although they are the most widely used of CD1d oligomers, sometimes CD1d dimers (two ...
CD1d being the MHC I-like lipid antigen presenting molecule. Apolipoprotein B can exist in two forms: B-100 and B-48. ... It aids cell trafficking and export of cargo. Microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTTP) is an endoplasmic reticulum lipid ... "A distal effect of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein deficiency on the lysosomal recycling of CD1d". J. Exp. Med. 204 (4 ... MTTP is also involved in the late stage of CD1d trafficking in the lysosomal compartment, ...
Natural killer T cell
iNKT cells recognize lipid antigens presented by CD1d, a non-polymorphic major histocompatibility complex class I-like antigen ... semi-invariant T-cell receptor and NK cell markers. NKT cells are a subset of T cells that coexpress an αβ T-cell receptor, but ... cells are a heterogeneous group of T cells that share properties of both T cells and natural killer cells. Many of these cells ... cell-associated marker NK1.1 (CD161). It is now generally accepted that the term "NKT cells" refers to CD1d-restricted T cells ...
... enumeration and isolation of melanoma-specific CD8+ T cells from blood or tumor tissue. Cancer Testis Antigen CD1d Dextramer - ... activate or eliminate antigen-specific T cells. It is therefore important to be able to quantify and characterize the T cell ... and viral-specific T cells. The CD1d/α-GalCer displays human CD1d molecules loaded with α-GalCer. Though Immudex specializes in ... The use of MHC Dextramers offers a new method to accurately detect and quantify antigen-specific CD8+ T cells. While some of ...
Gamma delta T cell
These Vγ9Vδ2 T cells can also behave like professional antigen-presenting cells (APC). It seems that human Vγ9Vδ2 T cells are ... Like other 'unconventional' T cell subsets bearing invariant TCRs, such as CD1d-restricted Natural Killer T cells, gamma delta ... Gamma delta T cells (γδ T cells) are T cells that have a distinctive T-cell receptor (TCR) on their surface. Most T cells are ... Naive T cells Memory T cells Helper T cells Cytotoxic T cells Natural killer T cells Innate immune system Adaptive immune ...
XBP1 governs late events in plasma cell differentiation and is not required for antigen-specific memory B cell development J ... Expansion and hyperactivity of CD1d-restricted NKT cells during the progression of systemic lupus erythematosus in New Zealand ... B cell receptor revision diminishes the autoreactive B cell response after antigen activation in mice. J. Clin. Invest. 118: ... B cells twist and shout Immunology and Cell Biology 87:512-513 (2009). Nashi, E., Wang, Y. and Diamond, B. The role of B cells ...
CD1a, CD1b, and CD1c subtypes present lipid antigens to T cells, while CD1d cells present lipids, glycolipids, and lipoproteins ... There are two types of cell subtypes that interact with CD1d cells: Type 1 Natural killer T cells and Type 2 Natural killer T ... Different types of cells that present antigens on their surfaces include: macrophages dendritic cells Hepatocytes B cells tumor ... the surface of red blood cells and platelets, CD1 a-d cells in the immune system, many bacteria cells, several viruses, myelin ...
Innate immune system
T cell subsets bearing invariant T cell receptors (TCRs), such as CD1d-restricted Natural Killer T cells, γδ T cells exhibit ... Normal body cells are not recognized and attacked by NK cells because they express intact self MHC antigens. Those MHC antigens ... Rather, NK cells destroy compromised host cells, such as tumor cells or virus-infected cells, recognizing such cells by a ... When host cells die, either by programmed cell death (also called apoptosis) or by cell injury due to a bacterial or viral ...
As with B cells, each type of T cell recognizes a different antigen. Killer T cells are activated when their T-cell receptor ( ... Like other 'unconventional' T cell subsets bearing invariant TCRs, such as CD1d-restricted Natural Killer T cells, γδ T cells ... Rather, NK cells destroy compromised host cells, such as tumor cells or virus-infected cells, recognizing such cells by a ... Killer T cells only recognize antigens coupled to Class I MHC molecules, while helper T cells and regulatory T cells only ...
NKT cells recognize glycolipid antigen presented by a molecule called CD1d. Once activated, these cells can perform functions ... Cytotoxic T cells (TC cells, CTLs, T-killer cells, killer T cells) destroy virus-infected cells and tumor cells, and are also ... Gamma delta T cells. Gamma delta T cells (γδ T cells) represent a small subset of T cells that possess a distinct T cell ... such as B cells and natural killer cells, by the presence of a T-cell receptor on the cell surface. They are called T cells ...
Adaptive immune system
A critical difference between B cells and T cells is how each cell "sees" an antigen. T cells recognize their cognate antigen ... Like other 'unconventional' T cell subsets bearing invariant TCRs, such as CD1d-restricted natural killer T cells, γδ T cells ... T cells are useless without antigen-presenting cells to activate them, and B cells are crippled without T cell help. On the ... Some cells are specially equipped to present antigen, and to prime naive T cells. Dendritic cells, B-cells, and macrophages are ...
Immunoglobulin C1-set domain
... and in various T-cell receptors. AZGP1; B2M; CD1A; CD1B; CD1C; CD1D; CD1E; DMA; DQB2; DRB1; ELK2P1; FCGRT; HFE; HHLA2; HLA-A; ... Cresswell P, Pamer E (1998). "Mechanisms of MHC class I--restricted antigen processing". Annu. Rev. Immunol. 16 (1): 323-358. ... August 2005). "Structure and function of a potent agonist for the semi-invariant natural killer T cell receptor". Nat. Immunol ...
NKT cells recognize glycolipid antigen presented by CD1d. Once activated, these cells can perform functions ascribed to both Th ... Cytotoxic T cells (TC cells, CTLs, T-killer cells, killer T cells) destroy virus-infected cells and tumor cells, and are also ... Helper CD4+ T cellsEdit. T helper cells (TH cells) assist other lymphocytes, including maturation of B cells into plasma cells ... DP cells selected on MHC class I will become CD8+ cells; DP cells selected on MHC class II will become CD4+ T cells. The cells ...
"Cell-cell adhesion mediated by CD8 and human histocompatibility leukocyte antigen G, a nonclassical major histocompatibility ... Sköld M, Behar SM (2003). "Role of CD1d-Restricted NKT Cells in Microbial Immunity". Infect. Immun. 71 (10): 5447-55. doi: ... McIntire RH, Hunt JS (2005). "Antigen presenting cells and HLA-G--a review". Placenta. 26 Suppl A: S104-9. doi:10.1016/j. ... HLA-G histocompatibility antigen, class I, G, also known as human leukocyte antigen G (HLA-G), is a protein that in humans is ...
This association prepares the MHC class I for binding an antigen for presentation on the cell surface. Calreticulin is also ... Zhu Y, Zhang W, Veerapen N, Besra G, Cresswell P (Dec 2010). "Calreticulin controls the rate of assembly of CD1d molecules in ... Sato H, Azuma Y, Higai K, Matsumoto K (Oct 2009). "Altered expression of glycoproteins on the cell surface of Jurkat cells ... but calreticulin is not a Ro/SS-A antigen. Earlier papers referred to calreticulin as an Ro/SS-A antigen, but this was later ...
Regulatory B cells
Bregs shared many markers with various B cells subsets due to their origin. Mouse Bregs were mainly CD5 and CD1d positive in ... "IgG4 production is confined to human IL-10-producing regulatory B cells that suppress antigen-specific immune responses". The ... Whether Breg cells uniquely derive from a specific progenitor or originate within conventional B cell subsets is still an open ... Regulatory B cells (Bregs) represent a small population of B cells which participates in immunomodulations and in suppression ...
Calreticulina, a enciclopedia libre
2010). "Lysyl tRNA synthetase is required for the translocation of calreticulin to the cell surface in immunogenic death". Cell ... "Calreticulin Controls the Rate of Assembly of CD1d Molecules in the Endoplasmic Reticulum". J. Biol. Chem. 285 (49): 38283-92 ... "A human Ro/SS-A autoantigen is the homologue of calreticulin and is highly homologous with onchocercal RAL-1 antigen and an ... "Altered expression of glycoproteins on the cell surface of Jurkat cells during etoposide-induced apoptosis: shedding and ...
T-ćelija - Википедија, слободна енциклопедија
MR1 antigen presentation to mucosal-associated invariant T cells was highly conserved in evolution. 2009 ... ćelije prepoznaju glikolipidne antigene predstavljene molekulama pod nazivom CD1d. Kada se aktiviraju, ove ćelije mogu ... "T cells and B cells derive their names from the organs in which they develop. T cells develop in the thymus, and B cells, in ... T-cell Group - Cardiff University. *(Successful!) Treatment of Metastatic Melanoma with Autologous CD4+ T Cells against NY-ESO- ...
Lipid binding orientation within CD1d affects recognition of Borrelia burgorferi antigens by NKT cells | PNAS
Cell-free antigen presentation assay.. Antigen presentation experiments using wild-type or point-mutated CD1d molecules and V ... Lipid binding orientation within CD1d affects recognition of Borrelia burgorferi antigens by NKT cells. Jing Wang, Yali Li, ... 2005) Cell wall glycosphingolipids of Sphingomonas paucimobilis are CD1d-specific ligands for NKT cells. Eur J Immunol 35:1692- ... Lipid binding orientation within CD1d affects recognition of Borrelia burgorferi antigens by NKT cells ...
Low expression level but potent antigen presenting function of CD1d on monocyte lineage cells. - PubMed - NCBI
CD1d is a key antigen-presenting molecule involved in the selection and activation of a highly conserved T cell subset known as ... Low expression level but potent antigen presenting function of CD1d on monocyte lineage cells.. Spada FM1, Borriello F, Sugita ... In this study, we analyzed the expression, regulation and function of human CD1d by various antigen-presenting cells (APC) of ... CD1d was expressed as a mature glycoprotein by these cells, and unlike the other members of the human CD1 family its expression ...
B cell receptor-mediated uptake of CD1d-restricted antigen augments antibody responses by recruiting invariant NKT cell help in...
iNKT cells help antigen-dependent B cell proliferation in vivo. MD4 B cells (or no cells, in mock) were transferred into WT ... B cell receptor-mediated uptake of CD1d-restricted antigen augments antibody responses by recruiting invariant NKT cell help in ... B cell receptor-mediated uptake of CD1d-restricted antigen augments antibody responses by recruiting invariant NKT cell help in ... B cell receptor-mediated uptake of CD1d-restricted antigen augments antibody responses by recruiting invariant NKT cell help in ...
Tracking the Response of Natural Killer T Cells to a Glycolipid Antigen Using Cd1d Tetramers | JEM
CD1d-dependent NK T cells (16)(18). It can be used to manipulate both NK T cell and conventional T cell responses in mice (19)( ... CD1d-independent cells and CD1d-dependent but Vα14− cells with diverse TCRs, are more prevalent in the spleen and bone marrow, ... 1999) CD1d-restricted immunoglobulin G formation to GPI-anchored antigens mediated by NKT cells. Science. 283:225-229, pmid: ... 1998) CD1d-restricted recognition of synthetic glycolipid antigens by human natural killer T cells. J. Exp. Med. 188:1529-1534 ...
Microsomal triglyceride transfer protein lipidation and control of CD1d on antigen-presenting cells | Journal of Experimental...
... presents glycolipid antigens to NKT cells, which are defined as cells expressing NK surface markers and CD1d-restricted T cell ... MTP in human cells is critical for CD1d antigen presentation. (A) U937 cells were treated with irrelevant or MTP-specific siRNA ... MTP in human cells is critical for CD1d antigen presentation. (A) U937 cells were treated with irrelevant or MTP-specific siRNA ... U937 cells express MTP (Fig. 1 A) and low levels of surface CD1d but are highly potent APCs for CD1d-restricted NKT cells (10 ...
The actin cytoskeleton modulates the activation of invariant NKT cells by segregating CD1d nanoclusters on antigen presenting...
"Endocytic pH regulates cell surface localization of glycolipid antigen loaded CD1d complexes"<...
N2 - Invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells recognize glycolipid antigens presented by CD1d, an antigen presenting protein ... AB - Invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells recognize glycolipid antigens presented by CD1d, an antigen presenting protein ... Invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells recognize glycolipid antigens presented by CD1d, an antigen presenting protein ... abstract = "Invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells recognize glycolipid antigens presented by CD1d, an antigen presenting ...
CD1d-restricted recognition of synthetic glycolipid antigens by human natural killer T cells<...
CD1d-restricted recognition of synthetic glycolipid antigens by human natural killer T cells. Journal of Experimental Medicine ... CD1d-restricted recognition of synthetic glycolipid antigens by human natural killer T cells. / Spada, Franca M.; Koezuka, ... title = "CD1d-restricted recognition of synthetic glycolipid antigens by human natural killer T cells", ... T1 - CD1d-restricted recognition of synthetic glycolipid antigens by human natural killer T cells ...
The yin and yang of CD1d recognition | Nature Immunology
Structural studies identify considerable differences in the recognition of CD1d-lipid complexes by the TCRs of type II and type ... Recognition of CD1d-sulfatide mediated by a type II natural killer T cell antigen receptor *Onisha Patel ... Figure 1: Differences in the recognition of CD1d by type II NKT cell TCRs and type I iNKT cell TCRs.. ... Type II natural killer T cells use features of both innate-like and conventional T cells to recognize sulfatide self antigens * ...
In vivo identification of glycolipid antigen-specific T cells using fluorescent CD1d tetramers
... Academic Article ... Here, we report the generation and use of mouse CD1d1-glycolipid tetramers to visualize CD1d-restricted T cells. In contrast ... antigen-nonspecific NK receptor. Mouse CD1d1-alphaGalCer tetramers also stained human NKT cells, indicating that they will be ... cell T cell receptors (TCRs), allowed us for the first time to accurately describe, based on TCR specificity, the entire ...
Going both ways: immune regulation via CD1d-dependent NKT cells
In stark contrast to both conventional T lymphocytes and other types of Tregs, NKT cells a … ... NKT cells are a unique T lymphocyte sublineage that has been implicated in the regulation of immune responses associated with a ... NKT cells are reactive to the nonclassical class I antigen-presenting molecule CD1d, and they recognize glycolipid antigens ... Going both ways: immune regulation via CD1d-dependent NKT cells J Clin Invest. 2004 Nov;114(10):1379-88. doi: 10.1172/JCI23594 ...
CD1d structure and regulation on human thymocytes, peripheral blood T cells, B cells and monocytes
However, the physiological target cells for this T-cell population, and whether alterations in CD1d expression contribut … ... Valpha24invt T cells) specifically recognize CD1d and appear to have immunoregulatory functions. ... Human T cells expressing CD161 and an invariant T-cell receptor (TCR) alpha-chain ( ... These results demonstrate constitutive CD1d expression by human professional antigen-presenting cells and that post- ...
CD1d protein structure determines species-selective antigenicity of isoglobotrihexosylceramide (iGb3) to invariant NKT cells.
... cells. The role of iGb3 in humans remains unresolved, however, as there have been conflicting reports about iGb3 ... has been identified as a potent CD1d-presented self-antigen for mouse invariant natural killer T (iNKT) ... 0/Amino Acids; 0/Antigens, CD1d; 0/Globosides; 0/Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell; 0/Trihexosylceramides; 0/ ... Antigen Presentation. Antigens, CD1d / chemistry, immunology*, metabolism. Globosides / immunology*, metabolism. Humans. ...
The Niemann-Pick type C2 protein loads isoglobotrihexosylceramide onto CD1d molecules and contributes to the thymic selection...
... cells (Fig. 4 A), where lipid antigens are loaded in CD1d (35). Abnormal lipid trafficking in NPC1−/− cells has been ... CD1d-GM3/(CD1d-GM3 + CD1d-GT)) × 100. Percentage of GT1b unloading = (CD1d unloaded/(CD1d unloaded + CD1d-GT1b)) × 100. ... 6, A and B). This effect required CD1d, as cells from CD1d−/− mice could not stimulate DN32.D3 cells in the presence of ... Distinct subsets of CD1d-restricted T cells recognize self-antigens loaded in different cellular compartments. J. Exp. Med. 189 ...
Molecules | Free Full-Text | Synthesis of a 2ꞌꞌ-Deoxy-β-GalCer
CD1d) and the T cell receptors. However, these structures alone do not reveal the relative importance of these interactions. ... reactive Type II NKT cells have shown how the polar moieties on the glycolipids interact with both the antigen presenting ... This glycolipid is also evaluated for its ability to stimulate iNKT cells and sulfatide-reactive Type II NKT cells. ... Structural studies of ternary complexes of CD1d/glycosyl ceramides/iNKT cells and CD1d/sulfatide/sulfatide ...
Epigenetic regulation of CD1d-mediated antigen presentation in B cell lymphoma | Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer | Full Text
... dependent increase in CD1d-mediated NKT cell activation by lymphoma cells without altering CD1d or co-stimulatory molecule cell ... CD1d, a non-polymorphic MHC class I-like molecule, presents lipid antigens to Natural killer T (NKT) cells, which have potent ... Here we sought to test the hypothesis that B cell lymphomas use epigenetic mechanisms to dysregulate CD1d-mediated antigen ... NKT cells are able to directly lyse malignant cells and induce anti-tumor responses by modulating other immune cells. Many ...
The Molecular Basis for Recognition of CD1d/α-Galactosylceramide by a Human Non-Vα24 T Cell Receptor
... altering their specificities from that of invariant natural killer T cells. ... CD1d-restricted T cells use variation in their CDR1α loop to respond to lipid antigens presented by CD1d, ... Antigen processing and recognition Is the Subject Area "Antigen processing and recognition" applicable to this article? Yes. No ... T cell receptors Is the Subject Area "T cell receptors" applicable to this article? Yes. No. ...
JCI - Utilizing the adjuvant properties of CD1d-dependent NK T cells in T cell-mediated immunotherapy
This process enhances T cell immunity to antigens presented by the DC. The adjuvant activity is further amplified if APCs are ... Activation of invariant CD1d-dependent NK T cells (iNKT cells) in vivo through administration of the glycolipid ligand α- ... Utilizing the adjuvant properties of CD1d-dependent NK T cells in T cell-mediated immunotherapy. ... Utilizing the adjuvant properties of CD1d-dependent NK T cells in T cell-mediated immunotherapy. ...
The actin cytoskeleton modulates the activation of iNKT cells by segregating CD1d nanoclusters on antigen-presenting cells. -...
Here, we show that the spatiotemporal distribution of CD1d molecules on the surface of antigen-presenting cells (APCs) ... By using superresolution microscopy, we show that CD1d molecules form nanoclusters at the cell surface of APCs, and their size ... The ability of iNKT cells to recognize endogenous antigens represents a distinct immune recognition strategy, which underscores ... iNKT cell autoreactivity based on the tight control by the APC cytoskeleton of the sizes and densities of endogenous antigen- ...
A Molecular Basis for the Exquisite CD1d-Restricted Antigen Specificity and Functional Responses of Natural Killer T Cells -...
Deletion of CD1d in Adipocytes Aggravates Adipose Tissue Inflammation and Insulin Resistance in Obesity | Diabetes
B: The mRNA levels of antigen-presenting molecules including CD1d, MHC-I, and MHC-II. C: CD1d protein expression levels on cell ... NCD CD1df/f vs. HFD CD1df/f. E, H, and I: *P , 0.05, HFD CD1df/f vs. HFD CD1dADKO; &P , 0.05, NCD CD1df/f vs. HFD CD1df/f. F: * ... E: Percentages of CD4+ cells among iNKT cells in EATs. F: Percentages of IL-4+ cells among CD4+ iNKT cells or CD4− iNKT cells ( ... The IL-4 expression is reduced in adipose iNKT cells of HFD-fed CD1dADKO mice. A-E and G-I: CD1df/f and CD1dADKO mice were fed ...
A CD1d-Dependent Antagonist Inhibits the Activation of Invariant NKT Cells and Prevents Development of Allergen-Induced Airway...
Binding and antigen presentation of ceramide-containing glycolipids by soluble mouse and human CD1d molecules. J. Exp. Med. 190 ... T cells and CD1d-restricted NKT cells with an invariant TCR (invariant NKT [iNKT] cells), which may also play a crucial role in ... cells from WT mice and fail to stain dendritic cells from CD1d knockout mice, suggesting that our staining is CD1d-dependent ... CD1d and CD1d-restricted iNKT-cells play a pivotal role in contact hypersensitivity. Exp. Dermatol. 14: 250-258. ...
Role and Regulation of CD1d in Normal and Pathological B Cells | The Journal of Immunology
Lipid-antigen presentation by CD1d(+) B cells is essential for the maintenance of invariant natural killer T cells. Immunity 36 ... CD1d in normal B cells. CD1d is expressed in mature, naive, and memory B cells, plasma cells, and B regulatory cells (14, 21). ... B cell receptor-mediated uptake of CD1d-restricted antigen augments antibody responses by recruiting invariant NKT cell help in ... A B cell CD1d-iNKTFH cell interaction in the GC, if too persistent, may similarly have the potential to induce iNKT cell ...
Pellicci DG[au] - PubMed - NCBI
Vβ2 natural killer T cell antigen receptor-mediated recognition of CD1d-glycolipid antigen. ... A semi-invariant Vα10+ T cell antigen receptor defines a population of natural killer T cells with distinct glycolipid antigen- ... Antigen recognition by CD1d-restricted NKT T cell receptors.. Godfrey DI, Pellicci DG, Patel O, Kjer-Nielsen L, McCluskey J, ... Atypical natural killer T-cell receptor recognition of CD1d-lipid antigens.. Le Nours J, Praveena T, Pellicci DG, Gherardin NA ...
Antibodies | Free Full-Text | B Cell Help by CD1d-Rectricted NKT Cells
CD1d restricted NKT cells specific for lipid antigens are one such new player and can coopt bona fide follicular helper ... Their role in helping antigen-specific B cell response to protein antigens, as well as to the so called ... MHC class II-restricted CD4+ T cells specific for peptide antigens, which acquire professional follicular B cell helper ... This is achieved via highly regulated multi-phase processes that involve a variety of cells of both innate and adaptive arms of ...
Invariant Vα24+ T cells responded to CD1d B cell tra | Open-i
T cell clones (105/ well) were incubated for 48 h with either fixed (0.025 or 0.05% glutara ... Invariant Vα24+ T cells responded to CD1d B cell transfectants. ... Antigens, CD/immunology*. *Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, alpha- ... Although the target cells that mediate activation of invariant Vα24+ T cells in vivo are not known, normal B cells express CD1d ... Although the target cells that mediate activation of invariant Vα24+ T cells in vivo are not known, normal B cells express CD1d ...
CD1D | Cancer Genetics Web
... cell antigen when presented on CD1d molecules expressed on professional antigen-presenting cells. Although CD1d-expressing ... eukaryotic cell surface binding - exogenous lipid antigen binding - heterotypic cell-cell adhesion - histone binding - innate ... The frequency of CD1d(+)/CD19(+) cells, CD1d staining intensity and CD1d transcript levels increased with the disease stage. ... In this study, the frequencies of NKT-like cells, B cells expressing CD1d molecule and CD4(+) regulatory (Treg) cells were ...
CD1d Rat anti-Mouse, Clone: 1B1, eBioscience 100 µg; Unconjugated | Fisher Scientific
Shop a large selection of products and learn more about CD1d Rat anti-Mouse, Clone: 1B1, eBioscience 100 µg; Unconjugated 100 ... AI747460, CD1.1, Cd1a, Cd1d, Ly-38, T-cell surface glycoprotein CD1d1, antigen-presenting glycoprotein CD1d1. ... Cell Culture & Analysis Cell Culture & Analysis * Cell Culture Dishes, Plates and Flasks ... Beta 2 microglobulin independent expression of CD1d has also been demonstrated on human intestinal epithelial cells. CD1d is ...
Immunometabolism regulates TCR recycling and iNKT cell functions | Science Signaling
... iNKT cells express a semi-invariant T cell receptor (TCR) and recognize CD1d-presented lipid antigens, as both self and foreign ... Another view of T cell antigen recognition: Cooperative engagement of glycolipid antigens by Va14Ja18 natural T(iNKT) cell ... antigen-presenting cells (APCs), and antigens (33-37). TH1 polarization of iNKT cells could promote tumor rejection and ... Recognition of CD1d-restricted antigens by natural killer T cells. Nat. Rev. Immunol. 12, 845-857 (2012).. ...
Frontiers | Plasticity of gamma delta T cells: impact on the anti-tumor response | Immunology
Among the immune cell subsets that play a role in the tumor microenvironment, innate-like T cells that express T cell receptors ... innate-like T cells that express T cell receptors composed of gamma and delta chains (gamma delta T cells) are of particular ... such as dendritic cells and cytotoxic CD8+ T cells. However, the notion that tumor-infiltrating gamma delta T cells are a good ... such as dendritic cells and cytotoxic CD8+ T cells. However, the notion that tumor-infiltrating γδ T cells are a good ...
ReceptorsReceptorMoleculesDendritic cellsNatural killer T celRecognitionProteinsLipidsDifferentiationMiceInvariant NKT cellsTCRsRecognize glycolipid antigensImmune systemMurineSemi-invariantINKT-cell activationTumor cellsExpress an invariantMonocytesActin cytoskeletonMembraneInduceActivation of iNKT cellsLipid antigen presentationVivoProtein antigensReactiveSelf antigensForeign antigensResponsesCD1BPeptidesCompartmentsCytokineRegulateRegulatory
- Structural studies of ternary complexes of CD1d/glycosyl ceramides/ i NKT cells and CD1d/sulfatide/sulfatide reactive Type II NKT cells have shown how the polar moieties on the glycolipids interact with both the antigen presenting protein (CD1d) and the T cell receptors. (mdpi.com)
- Is the Subject Area "T cell receptors" applicable to this article? (plos.org)
- Distinct CD1d docking strategies exhibited by diverse Type II NKT cell receptors. (nih.gov)
- iNKT cells are the type I NKT cells that are characterized by the expression of semi-invariant CD1d-restricted T cell receptors (TCRs) ( 18 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
- Among the immune cell subsets that play a role in the tumor microenvironment, innate -like T cells that express T cell receptors composed of γ and δ chains (γδ T cells) are of particular interest. (frontiersin.org)
- Among them, innate -like T cells that express T cell receptors (TCR) composed of γ and δ chains actively contribute to the anti-tumor immune response in many tumors (lymphoma, myeloma, melanoma, breast, colon, lung, ovary, and prostate cancer) ( 2 - 12 ). (frontiersin.org)
- They differ from conventional αβ T cells, since most of γδ T cells do not express the CD4 and CD8 co-receptors and, as a consequence, antigen recognition by γδ TCR is not restricted to major histo-compatibility complex (MHC) molecules ( 13 , 14 ). (frontiersin.org)
- The antitumoral activity of Vγ9Vδ2-T cells is governed by a complicated set of activating and inhibitory cell receptors. (frontiersin.org)
- Hayday, A. C. & Vantourout, P. The innate biologies of adaptive antigen receptors. (nature.com)
- T cell receptor bias for MHC: co-evolution or co-receptors? (ebscohost.com)
- In contrast to antibodies, which recognize antigens in native form, Î±Î² T cell receptors (TCRs) only recognize antigens as peptide fragments bound to MHC molecules, a feature known as MHC restriction. (ebscohost.com)
- According to a modern interpretation of the clonal selection hypothesis, multiple clones of immunocompetent cells displaying unique antigen-specific receptors exist prior to interaction with antigens and in the case of T cells get selected on the basis of interaction with self-peptides bound to MHC molecules in the thymus. (jci.org)
- The majority of thymocytes bearing high-affinity receptors for self-antigens are eliminated centrally during thymic differentiation by an apoptotic mechanism termed negative selection. (jci.org)
- Objectives We have previously defined the human iNKT repertoire according to the clonal distribution of high- and low-affinity iNKT T-cell receptors 1 . (bmj.com)
- An education process ensures that activating receptors promote NK cell activation in response to infected or abnormal cells and that inhibitory receptors prevent inappropriate NK cell activation by healthy cells. (sciencemag.org)
- Cells that lack inhibitory receptors are hyporesponsive. (sciencemag.org)
- Although both receptors were generally restricted to membrane microdomains, NKp46 molecules spent less time in an individual microdomain and diffused faster on educated cells compared to hyporesponsive cells. (sciencemag.org)
- Interfering with receptor dynamics reduced signaling by NKp46, indicating that the dynamic movements of these receptors are likely important determinants of NK cell responsiveness. (sciencemag.org)
- Educated natural killer (NK) cells have inhibitory receptors specific for self major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules and kill cancer cells more efficiently than do NK cells that do not have such receptors (hyporesponsive NK cells). (sciencemag.org)
- Biological activity includes the ability to affect T-cell proliferation, 3 , 4 recruit natural killer T (NKT) cells, 5 , 6 , 7 activate innate receptors 6 , 8 and function as immune adjuvants. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- The best-known NKT cells differ from conventional αβ T cells in that their T-cell receptors are far more limited in diversity ('invariant' or 'type 1' NKT). (wikipedia.org)
- The Influence of Peripheral Androgen Conversion at Toll-like Receptors-2 and CD1d Expressions in Human Keratinocytes as Well as Their Modulation After 6 Months Treatment With Oral Contraceptive. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- NKT cells nowadays are defined by the restriction of their TCR receptors. (termedia.pl)
- While the TCR receptors on T cells react with peptide antigens in the context of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I or II molecules, the NKT cells, with use of their TCR receptors, recognise the lipid and glycolipid antigens presented by non-polymorphic MHC class I-like glycoprotein, known as CD1d (Fig. 1) . (termedia.pl)
- Antigen-presenting protein that binds self and non-self glycolipids and presents them to T-cell receptors on natural killer T-cells. (avivasysbio.com)
- The CD1 molecules bind and present amphipathic lipid antigens for recognition by T-cell receptors. (semanticscholar.org)
- Since these lateral and temporal organizations have been shown to be crucial for the regulation of the biological activity by these transmembrane proteins, the understanding of the spatiotemporal behavior of membrane receptors, and of proteins in general, is a necessary step towards understanding the biology of the cell. (icfo.es)
- NKT cells are an unconventional subset of T cells co-expressing T-cell receptor (TCR) and typical surface receptors for NK cells. (usc.edu)
- Most NKT cells express identical or similar T cell receptors and are often called invariant NKT cells or iNKT cells. (usc.edu)
- CD1 molecules are non-polymorphic major histocompatibility complex class I-related proteins that bind and present glycolipid antigens to T-cell antigen receptors (TCR) expressed by αβ T cells or natural killer-like T cells (NKT). (ovid.com)
- Differential recognition of CD1d-alpha-galactosyl ceramide by the V beta 8.2 and V beta 7 semi-invariant NKT T cell receptors. (semanticscholar.org)
- Like other T cells, they express T cell receptors (TCR) although without the normal antigenic variability. (scripps.edu)
- However, NK T cells also express the "NK" innate immune cell receptors and may have the ability to see some of the lipids that bacteria like Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the bacteria that cause tuberculosis, display on their outer surface. (scripps.edu)
- This process is initiated by specific recognition of antigen through the B cell receptor (BCR), leading to early intracellular signaling followed by the late recruitment of T cell help. (pnas.org)
- To elicit antibody production, B cells must be activated in a process that is initiated through specific antigen recognition by the B cell receptor (BCR) ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
- T cells recognize a diverse range of potential antigens through their highly polymorphic T cell receptor (TCR). (pnas.org)
- A major group of natural killer (NK) T cells express an invariant Vα14 + T cell receptor (TCR) specific for the lipoglycan α-galactosylceramide (α-GalCer), which is presented by CD1d. (rupress.org)
- A conserved subset of mature circulating T cells in humans expresses an invariant Vα24-JαQ T cell receptor (TCR)-α chain rearrangement and several natural killer (NK) locus-encoded C-type lectins. (elsevier.com)
- In contrast, natural killer (NK) cells failed to bind the tetramers either empty or loaded with alphaGalCer, suggesting the absence of a CD1d-specific, antigen-nonspecific NK receptor. (scripps.edu)
- Human T cells expressing CD161 and an invariant T-cell receptor (TCR) alpha-chain (Valpha24invt T cells) specifically recognize CD1d and appear to have immunoregulatory functions. (nih.gov)
- Importantly and consistently with iNKT cell activation during inflammatory conditions, exposure of APCs to the Toll-like receptor 7/8 agonist R848 increases nanocluster density and iNKT cell activation. (ox.ac.uk)
- The adjuvant activity is further amplified if APCs are stimulated through Toll-like receptor 4, suggesting that iNKT cell signals can amplify maturation induced by microbial stimuli. (jci.org)
- C ) Mean fluorescence intensity of CD86 (± SE) assessed on CD11c + cells from the spleens of IFN-γ receptor-deficient and type I IFN receptor-deficient animals that had received α-GalCer or vehicle 16 hours previously. (jci.org)
- A subset of human CD4-CD8- T cells that expresses an invariant Valpha24-JalphaQ T cell receptor (TCR)-alpha chain, paired predominantly with Vbeta11, has been identified. (nih.gov)
- Human γδ-T cells can be classified into two main subsets depending on the expression of T cell receptor (TCR) δ chain ( 1 ). (frontiersin.org)
- Glycolipids presented by the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I homolog CD1d are recognized by natural killer T cells (NKT cells) characterized by either a semi-invariant T cell antigen receptor (TCR) repertoire (type I NKT cells or iNKT cells) or a relatively variable TCR repertoire. (ebscohost.com)
- The strength with which complexes of self peptide and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) proteins are recognized by the T cell antigen receptor (TCR) dictates the homeostasis of naive CD8+ T cells, but its effect on reactivity to foreign antigens is controversial. (ebscohost.com)
- Prospects and Limitations of T Cell Receptor Gene Therapy. (ebscohost.com)
- Type I NKT cells, also called invariant NKT (iNKT), express a T-cell receptor (TCR) with a canonical rearrangement formed by a constant α chain (Vα14Jα18 in mice and Vα24Jα18 in humans) paired with a strict repertoire of β chains (Vβ8, Vβ7, Vβ2 in mice and Vβ11 in humans). (springer.com)
- By harvesting as few as 200 primary lymphocytes from animals that are at the peak of an immune response, and by transfer of the nucleus from such antigen specific lymphocytes into an enucleated oocyte, embryonic stem cells that harbor the genetic rearrangements encoding the original antigen receptor may be obtained and used for the construction of transnuclear mice. (dana-farber.org)
- Here we have investigated the iNKT repertoire with regard to function and T-cell receptor affinity in early Rheumatoid Arthritis. (bmj.com)
- Results The clonal repertoire of iNKT cells in healthy controls shows a broad distribution with regard to iNKT receptor affinity for CD1d. (bmj.com)
- The vector of anti-CD1D T cell receptor (TCR) is constructed for the engineering of T cell to target Human CD1D. (creative-biolabs.com)
- The T cells are genetically modified through transduction with a retroviral vector expressing CD1D-specific T cell receptor. (creative-biolabs.com)
- GalCer, galactosylceramide), required removal of the terminal sugars to permit interaction with the T cell receptor. (sciencemag.org)
- CD1d-lipid-antigen recognition by the semi-invariant NKT T-cell receptor. (expasy.org)
- found that the activating receptor NKp46 and the inhibitory receptor Ly49A exhibited dynamic movements in the plasma membrane that differed between educated and hyporesponsive NK cells. (sciencemag.org)
- We developed a refined version of the image mean square displacement (iMSD) method (called iMSD carpet analysis) and used it in combination with single-particle tracking to characterize the dynamics of the activating receptor NKp46 and the inhibitory receptor Ly49A on resting educated versus hyporesponsive murine NK cells. (sciencemag.org)
- Either disrupting the actin cytoskeleton or adding cholesterol to the cells prohibited activating signaling, suggesting that the dynamics of receptor movements within the cell membrane are critical for the proper activation of NK cells. (sciencemag.org)
- Type I (invariant) NKT cells express an invariant T cell receptor (TCR) alpha chain. (fluidigm.com)
- It is now generally accepted that the term "NKT cells" refers to CD1d-restricted T cells, present in mice and humans, some of which coexpress a heavily biased, semi-invariant T-cell receptor and NK cell markers. (wikipedia.org)
- NKT cells are a subset of T cells that coexpress an αβ T-cell receptor, but also express a variety of molecular markers that are typically associated with NK cells, such as NK1.1. (wikipedia.org)
- Classification of natural killer T cells into three groups has been proposed: The best-known subset of CD1d-dependent NKT cells expresses an invariant T-cell receptor (TCR) α chain. (wikipedia.org)
- cells activate Toll-like receptor 2 signaling and possess mitogenic activity, and A. phagocytophilum infection in vivo activates NKT cells unrelated to major surface protein 2 (Msp2) hypervariable region expression. (asm.org)
- Invariant natural killer T (NKT) cells are a highly conserved subset of T lymphocytes expressing a semi-invariant T cell receptor (TCR), which is restricted to CD1d and specific for the glycosphingolipid antigen α-galactosylceramide. (rupress.org)
- Toll-like receptor 2, expressed by inflammatory cells play a crucial role in the innate immune response to this bacterium. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- To analyze how the peripheral androgen conversion can influence the toll-like receptor 2 and CD1d expression in women with inflammatory acne before and after 6 months of oral contraceptives with anti-androgen activity. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Natural killer T (NKT) lymphocytes express an invariant T cell antigen receptor (TCR) encoded by the V α 14 and J α 281 gene segments. (sciencemag.org)
- An unusual lineage of lymphocytes, V α 14 NKT cells, are characterized by their development before thymus formation ( 1 ), their expression of an invariant TCR encoded by the V α 14 and J α 281 gene segments ( 2 , 3 ) mainly associated with V β 8.2 ( 4 ), and by the coexpression of the NK1.1 receptor, a marker of NK cells ( 5 ). (sciencemag.org)
- NKT gained their name after a unique cell surface feature: they express receptor characteristic to T lymphocytes (-TCR) and lineage markers of Natural Killer cells (NK) (e.g. human CD161, mouse NK1.1) [7, 5, 9- (termedia.pl)
- NKT cells are a specific subset of immune regulatory cells that express an invariant antigen receptor α-chain encoded by a Vα14- Jα28.1 rearranged gene segment in mice and Vα14-Jα28 in humans [ 8 ]. (omicsonline.org)
- Natural killer T (NKT) cells are a specialized population of T cells that express a semi-invariant T cell receptor (TCR alpha beta) and surface antigens typically associated with natural killer cells. (rndsystems.com)
- The fidelity, occasional promiscuity, and versatility of T cell receptor recognition. (semanticscholar.org)
- In Chapter 1, the immune system, the membrane receptor DC-SIGN and the antigen presenting protein CD1d are briefly introduced. (icfo.es)
- The semi-invariant natural killer T cell receptor (NKT TCR) recognizes CD1d-lipid antigens. (semanticscholar.org)
- CD1 proteins constitute a family of antigen-presenting molecules ( 1 ), similar in structure to MHC class I antigen-presenting molecules. (pnas.org)
- CD1 molecules recycle through intracellular vesicular compartments, where they sample different lipid-containing antigens for cell-surface presentation to reactive T cells ( 2 ⇓ - 4 ). (pnas.org)
- During the development of immune responses BCR-mediated uptake of antigen allows for its concentration and delivery to specialized late endosomes containing newly synthesized MHC class II molecules ( 7 ). (pnas.org)
- However, it is now evident that T cells are also able to recognize and respond to antigenic lipids and glycolipids, presented by CD1 molecules ( 8 ). (pnas.org)
- The human CD1 gene family is composed of five nonpolymorphic genes ( CD1A , CD1B , CD1C , CD1D , and CD1E ) ( 9 ), whereas mice express only CD1d molecules. (pnas.org)
- In a manner similar to MHC class II molecules, CD1 proteins mediate the presentation of antigenic lipids on the surface of antigen-presenting cells (APCs) after they are loaded or processed in intracellular compartments ( 10 ). (pnas.org)
- iNKT cells recognize and become activated in response to self or foreign antigenic lipids presented by nonpolymorphic CD1d molecules expressed on the surface of APCs ( 8 , 11 ). (pnas.org)
- The CD1 family of major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-like molecules specializes in presenting lipid and glycolipid antigens to alpha/beta T lymphocytes, but little is known about the size of the CD1-restricted T cell population or the frequency of T lymphocytes specific for a given glycolipid antigen. (scripps.edu)
- These observations strongly suggested that the phenotype observed in NPC2-deficient animals was directly linked to the efficiency of the loading of iGb3 into CD1d molecules expressed by thymocytes. (rupress.org)
- Here, we show that the spatiotemporal distribution of CD1d molecules on the surface of antigen-presenting cells (APCs) modulates activation of iNKT cells. (ox.ac.uk)
- By using superresolution microscopy, we show that CD1d molecules form nanoclusters at the cell surface of APCs, and their size and density are constrained by the actin cytoskeleton. (ox.ac.uk)
- Activation of invariant CD1d-dependent NK T cells (iNKT cells) in vivo through administration of the glycolipid ligand α-galactosylceramide (α-GalCer) or the sphingosine-truncated α-GalCer analog OCH leads to CD40 signaling as well as the release of soluble molecules including type 1 and γ interferons that contribute to DC maturation. (jci.org)
- Also, iNKT cells recognize lipid antigens loaded on CD1d molecules ( 19 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
- Thus, while αβ TCR interact with peptides bound to MHC class I or class II molecules, γδ TCR recognize a diverse array of self and non-self antigens, such as small peptides, soluble or membrane proteins, phospholipids, prenyl pyrophosphates, and sulfatides. (frontiersin.org)
- Vγ9Vδ2-T cells can directly kill tumor cells through the secretion of cytolytic molecules or indirectly prime and modulate immunological functions of other innate and adaptive immune cells to develop and establish profound antitumor immunity ( 21 , 22 ). (frontiersin.org)
- Epithelia use butyrophilin-like molecules to shape organ-specific γδ T cell compartments. (nature.com)
- Moreover, activation of iNKT cells is determined by the type and state of the antigen presenting cell, the co-stimulatory molecules, the transactivation mechanisms and the location of the glycolipid-CD1d complexes on the plasma membrane, such as the lipid rafts. (scielo.org.co)
- Because immune protective mechanisms include the elaboration of potent inflammatory molecules, antibodies, and killer cell activation - which together can not only destroy invading microorganisms, pathogenic autoreactive cells, and tumors, but also mortally injure normal cells - the immune system is inherently a "double-edged sword" and must be tightly regulated. (jci.org)
- Description: The 1B1 monoclonal antibody reacts with mouse CD1d, a 48 kDa glycoprotein with structural homology to MHC class I molecules. (fishersci.com)
- Conversely, Ly49A molecules were overall more constrained and diffused more slowly on educated cells. (sciencemag.org)
- however, individual NKp46 molecules resided in these domains for shorter periods and diffused faster on the surface of educated, compared to hyporesponsive, NK cells. (sciencemag.org)
- CD1d, also known as CD1.1 and Ly-38, is a 48 kDa type I membrane glycoprotein with structural homology to harmful MHC class I molecules. (fluidigm.com)
- Unlike MHC class I molecules that present peptide antigens, CD1d presents lipid antigens to natural killer T (NKT) cells. (fluidigm.com)
- They are related to the class I MHC molecules, and are involved in the presentation of lipid antigens to T cells. (wikipedia.org)
- CD1a, CD1b and CD1c (group 1 CD1 molecules) are expressed on cells specialized for antigen presentation. (wikipedia.org)
- Group 1 CD1 molecules have been shown to present foreign lipid antigens, and specifically a number of mycobacterial cell wall components, to CD1-specific T cells. (wikipedia.org)
- Group 2 CD1 molecules activate a group of T cells, known as Natural killer T cells because of their expression of NK surface markers such as CD161. (wikipedia.org)
- Mice lack the group 1 CD1 molecules, and instead have 2 copies of CD1d. (wikipedia.org)
- The cell wall of mycobacteria is a rich source of immuno-modulatory molecules that includes lipids, glycoplipids, phosphoglycolipids, lipoproteins and mycolyl-arabinogalactan-peptiglycan motifs. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- They and other CD1d-restricted T cells ('type 2' NKT) recognize lipids and glycolipids presented by CD1d molecules, a member of the CD1 family of antigen-presenting molecules, rather than peptide-major histocompatibility complexes (MHCs). (wikipedia.org)
- These molecules are constitutively expressed on antigen-presenting cells (APC): dendritic cells (DCs), B lymphocytes, and macrophages . (termedia.pl)
- Lipid-specific T cells comprise a group of T cells that recognize lipids bound to the MHC class I-like CD1 molecules. (hindawi.com)
- In this review, we describe the characteristics of CD1 molecules and CD1-restricted lipid-specific T cells, highlighting the innate-like and adaptive-like features of different CD1-restricted T cell subtypes. (hindawi.com)
- However, the discovery of MHC-class-I-like CD1 antigen-presentation molecules now explains how the immune system also recognizes the abundant and diverse universe of lipid-containing antigens. (semanticscholar.org)
- Saposin B is the dominant saposin that facilitates lipid binding to human CD1d molecules. (semanticscholar.org)
- Selection of peptides from the processing of proteins leading to their interaction with histocompatibility (MHC) molecules is the first and central step in antigen presentation, the processs that leads to recruitment and activation of T lymphocytes. (scielosp.org)
- While chemistry of peptide selection by, and interaction with, class II-MHC molecules is reasonably well understood, the other side of the equation, that of the T cell response is still to be developed. (scielosp.org)
- Variables that influence T cell selections include: the dissociation rate of peptides bound to MHC molecules, the density of pMHC on the APC, competition and cooperativity among T cell clones, the intrinsic adjuvanticity of the antigen, the T cell repertoire developed in the thymus, and the regulatory interactions that expand or limit the T cell repertoire. (scielosp.org)
- Whereas most T cells recognize peptide antigens that derive from non-self proteins and are presented at the cell surface by MHC molecules, NKT cells are activated by lipid and glycolipid antigens presented by CD1d molecules. (pewtrusts.org)
- In addition, using recombinant forms of the saposins molecules, they demonstrated that saposin molecules could efficiently transfer lipids onto CD1d molecules. (scripps.edu)
- Now the researchers are looking at which lipids bind to the CD1 molecules and how they are transported into the cell. (scripps.edu)
- The induction of a differing activity pattern of T-cell costimulatory molecules varying in capacity to override programmed death-ligand-1 inhibitory effects contributes to the respective ability of iNKT-conditioned DCs in NOD and B6 background mice to inhibit or support type 1 diabetes development. (diabetesjournals.org)
- In this study, we analyzed the expression, regulation and function of human CD1d by various antigen-presenting cells (APC) of myeloid origin, including circulating monocytes, monocyte-derived dendritic cells and macrophages. (nih.gov)
- γδ T cells can contribute to the immune response against many tumor types (lymphoma, myeloma, melanoma, breast, colon, lung, ovary, and prostate cancer) directly through their cytotoxic activity and indirectly by stimulating or regulating the biological functions of other cell types required for the initiation and establishment of the anti-tumor immune response, such as dendritic cells and cytotoxic CD8+ T cells. (frontiersin.org)
- They can do this directly through their cytotoxic activity against tumor cells, or indirectly by stimulating and regulating the biological functions of other immune cell types, such as dendritic cells (DC) or interferon γ (IFN-γ)-producing CD8+ T cells, required for the initiation and establishment of an efficient anti-tumor immune response. (frontiersin.org)
- Ostrand-Rosenberg S, Sinha P, Beury DW, Clements VK (2012) Cross-talk between myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC), macrophages, and dendritic cells enhances tumor-induced immune suppression. (springer.com)
- CD1d is expressed by antigen-presenting cells such as B cells, monocytes/macrophages, dendritic cells, and some non-lymphoid cells. (biolegend.com)
- The group found that when these cells are activated, they in turn promote the maturation of dendritic cells, which act as coordinators of the innate and acquired response. (riken.jp)
- Dendritic cells are key because they allow the activation of immune memory, where the body remembers and responds to a threat even years later. (riken.jp)
- Because we found that our treatment can lead to the maturation of dendritic cells, immunotherapy can move to local treatment to more systemic treatment based on immune memory. (riken.jp)
- This analogue, 1 , enhanced cytokine production by bone marrow-derived dendritic cells compared to the natural analogous PIM 2 compound ( 2 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- They engage in cross talk with other immune cells, like dendritic cells, neutrophils and lymphocytes. (wikipedia.org)
- Key components in a successful immune reaction are two types of immune effector cells: the Dendritic Cells (DCs) and the T cells. (vumc.com)
- Spleen cells from V α 14 NKT mice were cocultured with fractionated dendritic cells (DCs) from NK-only (RAG −/− ) mice (no T, B, or V α 14 NKT cells) pulsed with various glycosylceramides, and their proliferative responses were measured. (sciencemag.org)
- We evaluated the antitumor effect of a combination of dendritic cells (DCs) and tumor cells with the iNKT cell agonist α-GalCer in a therapeutic model of B cell lymphoma. (biomedcentral.com)
- Dendritic cells (DCs) in nasal-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT), a mucosal inductive site, were examined by immunohistochemistry. (omicsonline.org)
- There is also defective signal transduction and poor intercellular interactions, particularly with dendritic cells. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
- MC mobilize T cells and antigen-presenting dendritic cells. (springer.com)
- Among the downstream events regulated by activated iNKT-cells is the maturation of dendritic cells (DCs) that subsequently induce various adaptive immune responses ( 1 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
Natural killer T cel17
- Spada, FM, Koezuka, Y & Porcelli, SA 1998, ' CD1d-restricted recognition of synthetic glycolipid antigens by human natural killer T cells ', Journal of Experimental Medicine , vol. 188, no. 8, pp. 1529-1534. (elsevier.com)
- Structural studies identify considerable differences in the recognition of CD1d-lipid complexes by the TCRs of type II and type I (invariant) natural killer T cells. (nature.com)
- The immunological phenotype of NPC2-deficient mice was limited to an impaired thymic selection of Vα14 natural killer T cells (NKT cells) and a subsequent reduction of NKT cells in the periphery. (rupress.org)
- Lindau D, Gielen P, Kroesen M, Wesseling P, Adema GJ (2013) The immunosuppressive tumour network: myeloid-derived suppressor cells, regulatory T cells and natural killer T cells. (springer.com)
- Tupin E, Kinjo Y, Kronenberg M (2007) The unique role of natural killer T cells in the response to microorganisms. (springer.com)
- Girardi E, Zajonc DM (2012) Molecular basis of lipid antigen presentation by CD1d and recognition by natural killer T cells. (springer.com)
- GOMEZ-GIRALDO, Lina and CARRENO, Leandro J . Activation mechanisms of invariant natural killer T cells (iNKTs) . (scielo.org.co)
- A great amount of knowledge on natural killer T cells (iNKTs) is now available, but a consensus about their activation mechanisms has not been reached. (scielo.org.co)
- There are lots of different types of T-cells, but the ones that do the killing of antigens that are foreign to the system are natural killer T-cells, or NKT cells. (enotes.com)
- Invariant Natural Killer T cells (iNKT) are a highly conserved T-cell subset with key roles in immune tolerance. (bmj.com)
- In this review, we focus on donor-type immunoregulatory T cells, namely, natural killer T cells (NKT) and regulatory T cells (Treg), and their current and potential roles in tolerance induction after allogeneic HSCT. (hindawi.com)
- Natural Killer T Cells Are Essential for the Development of Contact Hypersensitivity in BALB/c Mice. (creativebiomart.net)
- Natural killer T cells should not be confused with natural killer cells. (wikipedia.org)
- Natural killer T cells can share other features with NK cells, as well, such as CD16 and CD56 expression and granzyme production. (wikipedia.org)
- Normal development and function of invariant natural killer T cells in mice with isoglobotrihexosylceramide (iGb3) deficiency. (semanticscholar.org)
- Sphingolipids from a symbiotic microbe regulate homeostasis of host intestinal natural killer T cells. (crt-dresden.de)
- Hepatitis B virus-induced alterations in hepatocyte CD1d lipid antigens activate natural killer T cells and contribute to protective immunity. (crt-dresden.de)
- Recognition of these compounds by human NK T cells triggered proliferation, cytokine release, and cytotoxic activity. (elsevier.com)
- Figure 1: Differences in the recognition of CD1d by type II NKT cell TCRs and type I i NKT cell TCRs. (nature.com)
- Tumors frequently alter antigen processing and presentation by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) proteins in order to evade recognition by the immune system. (biomedcentral.com)
- The ability of iNKT cells to recognize endogenous antigens represents a distinct immune recognition strategy, which underscores the constitutive memory phenotype of iNKT cells and their activation during inflammatory conditions. (ox.ac.uk)
- Is the Subject Area "Antigen processing and recognition" applicable to this article? (plos.org)
- Requirements for CD1d recognition by human invariant Valpha24+ CD4-CD8- T cells. (nih.gov)
- Recognition was not dependent upon an endosomal targeting motif in the cytoplasmic tail of CD1d. (nih.gov)
- Here, we review the anti- versus pro-tumoral activities of Vγ9Vδ2-T cells and discuss the mechanisms underlying the recognition, activation, differentiation and regulation of Vγ9Vδ2-T cells in tumor immunosurveillance. (frontiersin.org)
- Unlike the conventional αβ-T cells, the Vγ9Vδ2-T cell is a member of the non-conventional lymphocyte family ( 23 ), and the antigen recognition of Vγ9Vδ2-T cells is major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-unrestricted ( 24 , 25 ). (frontiersin.org)
- Explores the antigen-recognition properties of murine gamma/delta T cells. (ebscohost.com)
- The requirement for processing glycolipid antigens in T cell recognition was examined with mouse CD1d-mediated responses to glycosphingolipids (GSLs). (sciencemag.org)
- Therapeutic vaccination strategies that incorporate immune adjuvants are likely to enhance immune recognition and targeting of hematologic cancers, an example being in mice vaccinated against mouse lymphomas with whole tumor cells loaded with CpG adjuvant. (bloodjournal.org)
- Thus, this lymphocyte shares distinct recognition systems with either T or NK cells. (sciencemag.org)
- Lipid antigens originate from either self-tissues or foreign sources, such as bacteria, fungus, or plants and their recognition by CD1-restricted T cells has important implications in infection but also in cancer and autoimmunity. (hindawi.com)
- Group 1 CD1-restricted T cells and the pathophysiological implications of self-lipid antigen recognition. (semanticscholar.org)
- Many hematologic malignancies express CD1d and the co-stimulatory proteins needed to induce anti-tumor responses by NKT cells, yet most tumors are poorly immunogenic. (biomedcentral.com)
- We have shown in vitro and in vivo that iGb3 could not load CD1d spontaneously but rather required the assistance of lipid transfer proteins (LTPs) such as saposin ( 10 ). (rupress.org)
- The CD1 proteins mediate the presentation of primarily lipid and glycolipid antigens of self or microbial origin to T cells. (cancerindex.org)
- The CD1d gene encodes a divergent member of the CD1 family of transmembrane glycoproteins, which are structurally related to the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) proteins and form heterodimers with beta-2-microglobulin. (fishersci.com)
- Inflammation can be strongly influenced by carbohydrate binding proteins on immune cells. (keystonesymposia.org)
- 11 ⇓ - 13 EBV modulates cellular antiviral responses in various ways, including down-regulation of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) proteins 14 and blocking proteasomal degradation and antigen synthesis. (bloodjournal.org)
- Antigen loading occurs in the endoplasmic reticulum with the help of chaperone proteins such as calreticulin. (bham.ac.uk)
- State-of-the-art biophysical techniques featuring high temporal and spatial resolution have allowed for the first time the direct visualization of individual transmembrane proteins on the cell membrane. (icfo.es)
- Hence, the direct visualization of membrane proteins on the cell membrane of antigen presenting proteins represents a crucial step in understanding how an immune response can be controlled by leukocytes at the molecular level. (icfo.es)
- Once the NK T cells bind to CD1, they become activated and begin to secrete a large amount of proteins like interferon-gamma and interleukin-4, which in turn activate helper T cells. (scripps.edu)
- This loss occurred because without prosaposin, the CD1 proteins were never loaded with the lipid, and therefore the NK T cells could not be selected in the thymus of the mutant mice. (scripps.edu)
- CD1d also can bind nonantigenic lipids, however, but unexpectedly, mouse CD1d orients the two aliphatic chains of a nonantigenic lipid rotated 180°, causing a dramatic repositioning of the exposed sugar. (pnas.org)
- Thus, we have demonstrated that in response to particulate antigenic lipids iNKT cells are recruited for the assistance of B cell activation, resulting in the enhancement of specific antibody responses. (pnas.org)
- As CD1d is expressed by B cells, it is conceivable that BCR-mediated internalization could also play a role in CD1d-dependent presentation of antigenic lipids to T cells. (pnas.org)
- In addition, thymocytes and splenocytes from NPC2-deficient mice were poor presenters of endogenous and exogenous lipids to CD1d-restricted Vα14 hybridoma cells. (rupress.org)
- Importantly, we determined that similar to saposins, recombinant NPC2 was able to unload lipids from and load lipids into CD1d. (rupress.org)
- CD1d is the restriction element for two groups of T cells that recognize lipids. (rupress.org)
- The first group is indistinguishable from classic T cells and has been identified in humans for lipids as diverse as mycobacterial mycolic acids and endogenous sulfatide ( 5 - 7 ). (rupress.org)
- iNKT cells are activated in response to a range of endogenous and exogenous lipids, with the glycosphingolipid α-galactosylceramide (α-GalCer) being the prototypical and one of the most powerful, although not physiological (i.e., not synthesized in mammalian tissues), stimulating agonists ( 4 ). (jimmunol.org)
- What particularly interests us about NKT cells is that they can become activated by self lipids, which means that they can perform functions even when there is no infectious challenge. (pewtrusts.org)
- Subsequently, iNKT cells provide the help required for stimulating B cell proliferation and differentiation. (pnas.org)
- Furthermore, recent studies demonstrated that signals from the microenvironment, particularly cytokines, can confer some plasticity to γδ T cells and promote their differentiation into γδ T cells with regulatory functions. (frontiersin.org)
- It also discusses the putative mechanisms underlying γδ T cell expansion, differentiation, and recruitment in the tumor microenvironment. (frontiersin.org)
- Immune response regulation includes homeostatic mechanisms intrinsic to the activation and differentiation of antigen-triggered immunocompetent cells and extrinsic mechanisms mediated by suppressor cells. (jci.org)
- The study of B cell differentiation has revealed unexpected plasticity. (keystonesymposia.org)
- Selectins play critical roles in cell homing to the site of infection, while glycosylation directly influences cellular development and differentiation. (keystonesymposia.org)
- CD1 (cluster of differentiation 1) is a family of glycoproteins expressed on the surface of various human antigen-presenting cells. (wikipedia.org)
- Once activated, they engage in effector functions, like NK transactivation, T cell activation and differentiation, B cell activation, dendritic cell activation and cross-presentation activity, and macrophage activation. (wikipedia.org)
- As the cluster of differentiation (CD)4 count decreases in patients with HIV (particularly below 100 cells/mm 3 ), prevalence of active herpes simplex virus infection increases. (clinicaladvisor.com)
- According to this model, the daughter cell inheriting cyclinD2 mRNA maintains its self‐renewal capability, while lengthening of G1 and differentiation would occur in the sibling cell. (embopress.org)
- Unfortunately, in regard to possible iNKT-mediated therapeutic approaches in humans, too little is currently known about how iNKT-cells promote differentiation of immunogenic versus tolerogenic DCs. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Therefore, much attention is currently focused on characterizing particular courses of iNKT-cell-induced DC differentiation. (diabetesjournals.org)
- However, it remains unknown to what extent genetic variability may determine whether activated iNKT-cells subsequently induce immunogenic versus tolerogenic differentiation of DCs. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Mice express only CD1d. (pnas.org)
- It can be used to manipulate both NK T cell and conventional T cell responses in mice ( 19 )( 20 ) and potentially in humans ( 21 )( 22 )( 23 ). (rupress.org)
- Transfer of APCs presenting these "stabilized" CD1d/αGC complexes into mice resulted in immune responses with a more prominent Th1-like bias, characterized by increased NK cell transactivation and interferon-γ production. (elsevier.com)
- These human T cells appear to be precise homologues of the subset of NK1.1 + TCR-α/β + T cells, often referred to as NK T cells, which was initially identified in mice. (elsevier.com)
- The main endogenous self-glycolipid that, once bound to CD1d, selects canonical Vα14 NKT cells was recently identified as iGb3, a sphingolipid that is produced in small quantities by iGb3 synthases and mainly by the degradation of isoglobotetrahexosylceramide by glycosidase β-hexosaminidase b, as illustrated by the absence of Vα14 NKT cells in hexosaminidase b-deficient mice ( 10 , 15 ). (rupress.org)
- C3H/HeJ mice, which have a mutation in TLR4 , or i NKT cell-deficient mice were used along with their respective controls (C3H/HeN and C57BL/6). (jci.org)
- B ) Surface expression of CD86 on CD11c + cells was assessed on splenocytes from wild-type C57BL/6 or CD1d-/- mice or a mixture of splenocytes from both (Mixed), stimulated in vitro with (thick solid lines) or without α-GalCer (gray filled histograms) for 16 hours. (jci.org)
- E ) Inset shows expression of CD86 on splenic CD11c + cells from C57BL/6 mice injected with vehicle (gray filled histogram), α-GalCer (thick dashed line), MPL (thin dashed line), or α-GalCer plus MPL (thick solid line). (jci.org)
- Diverse MR1-restricted T cells in mice and humans. (nih.gov)
- In the current study, we demonstrate that adipocyte CD1d plays a key role in the stimulation of adipose iNKT cells, leading to anti-inflammatory responses in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Accordingly, adipocyte-specific CD1d-knockout (CD1d ADKO ) mice showed reduced numbers of iNKT cells in adipose tissues and decreased responses to α-galactosylceramide-induced iNKT cell activation. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Additionally, HFD-fed CD1d ADKO mice revealed reduced interleukin-4 expression in adipose iNKT cells and aggravated adipose tissue inflammation and insulin resistance. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Compared with wild-type mice, iNKT cell-deficient animals such as Jα18-knockout (KO) or CD1d-KO mice exhibited higher proinflammatory responses and exacerbated insulin resistance upon high-fat diet (HFD) ( 13 - 17 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
- Accordingly, we generated adipocyte-specific CD1d-KO (CD1d ADKO ) mice and then analyzed the effects of adipocyte CD1d deletion on adipose tissue immune responses and metabolic alterations following HFD feeding. (diabetesjournals.org)
- To test whether iNKT cell-targeted therapy could be used to treat allergen-induced airway disease, mice were sensitized with OVA and treated with di-palmitoyl-phosphatidyl-ethanolamine polyethylene glycol (DPPE-PEG), a CD1d-binding lipid antagonist. (jimmunol.org)
- In mice, a minimal proximal promoter region has been identified, which is regulated by various members of the ETS family of TFs, including Elf-1 in murine B cells and PU.1 in cells of myeloid lineage ( 11 ). (jimmunol.org)
- It is of interest that single nucleotide polymorphisms in the proximal promoter of PWD inbred mice drastically reduce CD1d expression, with a consequent severe reduction in iNKT cell frequency ( 16 ). (jimmunol.org)
- To analyze the role of activated iNKT cells in our model, we administered αGalCer in WT mice during adenine ingestion. (springer.com)
- While at Whitehead, she collaborated with Dr. Rudolf Jaenisch to learn somatic cell nuclear transfer and generate a panel of transnuclear mice. (dana-farber.org)
- Importantly, the generation of transnuclear mice is rapid, requiring approximately 6 weeks from T cell harvest to obtaining chimeric animals. (dana-farber.org)
- These interactions cannot be accurately modeled using xenografts, nor are they fully replicated in humanized mice that develop human leukocytes, but still face cross-species barriers with respect to immune-stromal interactions and T cell development. (dana-farber.org)
- Transnuclear mice reveal Peyer's patch iNKT cells that regulate B-cell class switching to IgG1. (dana-farber.org)
- Studies have shown that Listeria monocytogenes (Lm)-based vaccine expressing a fusion protein comprising truncated listeriolysin O (LLO) and human papilloma virus (HPV) E7 protein (Lm-LLO-E7) induces a decrease in regulatory T cells (Treg) and complete regression of established, transplanted HPV-TC-1 tumors in mice. (jove.com)
- To find whether it worked in actual bodies, they conducted experiments in mice with a virulent form of melanoma that also expresses a model antigen called OVA. (riken.jp)
- Tests in mice showed, moreover, that aggressive tumors could be shrunken by vaccinating the animals with aAVC cells that were programmed to display OVA antigen. (riken.jp)
- A. C57BL/6 mice were injected with OVA expressing B16, MO4 cells s.c. and then treated with or without 5x105aAVC-OVA at day 12. (riken.jp)
- C. The frequency of Ag-specific CD8+T cells in the spleen and tumor (gating on CD45+CD3+) in the untreated or aAVC-OVA treated, tumor-bearing mice was analyzed using OVA-tetramer. (riken.jp)
- Thus, mice have been used extensively to characterize the role of CD1d and CD1d-dependent NKT cells in a variety of disease models. (wikipedia.org)
- The term "NK T cells" was first used in mice to define a subset of T cells that expressed the natural killer (NK) cell-associated marker NK1.1 (CD161). (wikipedia.org)
- These cells are conserved between humans and mice.The highly conserved TCR is made of Va24-Ja18 paired with Vb11 in humans, which is specific for glycolipid antigens. (wikipedia.org)
- In comparison to mice, humans have fewer iNKT cells and have a wide variation in the amount of circulating iNKT cells. (wikipedia.org)
- However, lymphoproliferative responses to whole-cell A. phagocytophilum cultures are detectable even among splenocytes from naïve mice. (asm.org)
- Here, we report that sulfatide/CD1d-tetramer + cells accumulate in the draining pancreatic lymph nodes, and that treatment of NOD mice with sulfatide or C24:0 was more efficient than C16:0 in stimulating the NKT cell-mediated transfer of a delay in onset from T1D into NOD. (plos.org)
- Using NOD.CD1d −/− mice, we show that this delay of T1D is CD1d-dependent. (plos.org)
- In a mouse model of blastoid variant mantle cell lymphoma, treatment of tumor-bearing mice with a potent NKT cell agonist, α-galactosylceramide (α-GalCer), resulted in a significant decrease in disease pathology. (mdpi.com)
- Ex vivo studies demonstrated that NKT cells from α-GalCer treated mice produced IFN-γ following α-GalCer restimulation, unlike NKT cells from vehicle-control treated mice. (mdpi.com)
- mutant mice deficient in CD1d lack V α 14 NKT cells ( 10 ). (sciencemag.org)
- Moreover, we generated V α 14 NKT mice expressing the invariant V α 14 and V β 8.2 transgenes in a recombination activating gene (RAG)-deficient background (RAG −/− V α 14 tg V β 8.2 tg ) that only have V α 14 NKT cells, but no T, B, or NK cells ( 15 ). (sciencemag.org)
- Most of the available information on NKT cells comes from research conducted on mice. (termedia.pl)
- Cells and mice infected with both mutant viruses produced remarkably larger amounts of IFN-β than those infected with wild-type HSV-1. (asm.org)
- Within this group, distinguishable subpopulations have been identified, including CD4 + CD8 - cells and CD4 - CD8 - cells that are present in mice and humans, and CD4 - CD8 + cells that are found only in humans. (rndsystems.com)
- Identification of mast cell progenitors in adult mice. (springer.com)
- Despite a high degree of conservation, subtle but important differences exist between the CD1d antigen presentation pathways of humans and mice. (usc.edu)
- RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We tested whether iNKT-conditioned DCs in NOD mice and a major histocompatibility complex-matched C57BL/6 (B6) background congenic stock differed in capacity to inhibit type 1 diabetes induced by the adoptive transfer of pathogenic AI4 CD8 T-cells. (diabetesjournals.org)
- The ability of α-GalCer-activated iNKT-cells to inhibit autoimmune type 1 diabetes development in NOD mice may be at least partly due to downstream maturation of tolerogenic DCs ( 2 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
- iNKT-conditioned DCs in NOD mice preferentially accumulated in pancreatic lymph nodes where some diabetogenic T-cells subsequently underwent apoptotic deletion, but with a larger proportion becoming functionally anergized ( 2 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
- Here we show, using chimeric mice, cell depletion and adoptive cell transfer, that CD1d-lipid presentation by Bregs induces iNKT cells to secrete interferon (IFN)-γ to contribute, partially, to the downregulation of T helper (Th)1 and Th17-adaptive immune responses and ameliorate experimental arthritis. (ucl.ac.uk)
- Mice lacking CD1d-expressing B cells develop exacerbated disease compared to wild-type mice, and fail to respond to treatment with the prototypical iNKT cell agonist α-galactosylceramide. (ucl.ac.uk)
Invariant NKT cells5
- CD1d protein structure determines species-selective antigenicity of isoglobotrihexosylceramide (iGb3) to invariant NKT cells. (biomedsearch.com)
- Mussai F, De Santo C, Cerundolo V (2012) Interaction between invariant NKT cells and myeloid-derived suppressor cells in cancer patients: evidence and therapeutic opportunities. (springer.com)
- A relevant question is whether invariant NKT cells can directly help B cells. (rupress.org)
- These results suggest a direct role for invariant NKT cells in regulating B lymphocyte proliferation and effector functions. (rupress.org)
- Here we show that human and mouse iNKT cells were both able to recognise iGb3 presented by mouse CD1d (mCD1d), but not human CD1d (hCD1d), as iGb3-hCD1d was unable to support cognate interactions with the iNKT-cell TCRs tested in this study. (biomedsearch.com)
- The TCRs present on type I NKT cells recognize the antigen alpha-galactosylceramide (alpha-GalCer). (rndsystems.com)
Recognize glycolipid antigens1
- As antibodies are designed to specifically recognize and eliminate invading antigens, they are effective weapons used by the immune system to combat infection. (pnas.org)
- Gabrilovich DI, Nagaraj S (2009) Myeloid-derived suppressor cells as regulators of the immune system. (springer.com)
- The article presents an encyclopedia entry for cytotoxic T-cells or cytolytic T-cells (CTL), which refers to effector cells of the immune system that carry the CD8 surface marker. (ebscohost.com)
- A corollary of these notions is that autoimmune diseases arise from either the failure to eliminate or inactivate high-affinity immunocompetent cells during their ontogeny and/or the failure of the immune system to control the outgrowth or function of intermediate self-reactive clones that escape into the periphery. (jci.org)
- In addition to direct autoimmune attack, the immune system can also induce disease, because the very protective immunologic mechanisms that are employed to limit the outgrowth of invading foreign pathogens or tumor cells can induce "collateral damage" on normal, uninfected cells in the vicinity of immune attack. (jci.org)
- While iNKT cells are not very numerous, their unique properties makes them an important regulatory cell that can influence how the immune system develops. (wikipedia.org)
- The Immunotherapy laboratory of the Department of Medical Oncology of the VU University Medical Center studies the possibility to exploit the immune system to specifically recognize, attack and eradicate tumor cells. (vumc.com)
- DCs are the sentinels of our immune system which, in case of danger (e.g. viral or bacterial infections, inflammation or tumor growth), become activated and release factors that recruit other immune cells to contribute to an effective anti-tumor immune response. (vumc.com)
- Finally, an updated review of protein nanoclustering on the cell membrane shows examples of the importance of protein nanoclustering in regulating biological function in the immune system. (icfo.es)
- NK T cells are key players in the immune system and have been implicated in autoimmune diseases, such as diabetes, and in cancer although scientists have not yet discerned exactly how. (scripps.edu)
- These [NK T cells] are the master keys for the regulation of the immune system," says Teyton. (scripps.edu)
- Here we show that human NK T cell clones are strongly and specifically activated by the same synthetic glycolipid antigens as have been shown recently to stimulate murine NK T cells. (elsevier.com)
- To assess the functional outcomes of epigenetic modulation, murine and human B cell lymphomas were pretreated with HDAC inhibitors and then we assessed their ability to process and present antigen. (biomedcentral.com)
- Human and murine CD1d genes share a retinoic acid response element in the distal promoter (≈1.5 kb from ATG) ( 12 ), and retinoic acid was shown to increase CD1d expression in myeloid and B cells in vitro ( 13 - 15 ). (jimmunol.org)
- These results demonstrate that human invariant Valpha24+ CD4-CD8- T cells, and presumably the homologous murine NK1+ T cell population, are CD1d reactive and functionally distinct from NK cells. (nih.gov)
- Pathways of murine mast cell development and trafficking: Tracking the roots and routes of the mast cell. (springer.com)
- In this study, we tested the hypothesis that presentation of α-GalCer by murine CD1d (mCD1d) to mCD1d-restricted NKT cells was facilitated by plasma membrane glycolipid rafts. (ovid.com)
- Given the importance of human immune responses, we conducted a human-mouse cross-species analysis of iNKT-cell activation by iGb3-CD1d. (biomedsearch.com)
- Formation of larger nanoclusters occurs in the absence of interactions between CD1d cytosolic tail and the actin cytoskeleton and correlates with enhanced iNKT cell activation. (ox.ac.uk)
- Despite the establishment of these models and the reporting of their findings, the regulatory mechanisms for adipose iNKT cell activation have not been thoroughly understood. (diabetesjournals.org)
- The present experiments suggest that adipocyte CD1d is a crucial activator of adipose iNKT cells and that adipose iNKT cell activation could alleviate adipose tissue inflammation and insulin resistance in obese subjects. (diabetesjournals.org)
- However, in other systems iNKT-cell activation has an adjuvant-like effect that enhances rather than suppresses various immunological responses. (diabetesjournals.org)
- The absence of lipid presentation by B cells alters iNKT cell activation with disruption of metabolism regulation and cytokine responses. (ucl.ac.uk)
- In the past 15 years, the molecular identification of antigens that can mediate the killing of tumor cells by T cells has been vigorously pursued. (ebscohost.com)
- 1 , 2 ] demonstrated that the infusion of allogeneic bone marrow cells may destroy recipient tumor cells, indicating the possibility of cytotherapeutic antitumor potential in the transplanted allogeneic cellular graft (graft-versus-tumor activity, GVT). (hindawi.com)
- In lymph nodes that drain tumor sites these CTLs are instructed by DCs (migrated from the tumor) to recognize and kill tumor cells. (vumc.com)
- In the Eμ-myc transgenic mouse model, single therapeutic vaccination of irradiated, α-GalCer-loaded autologous tumor cells was sufficient to significantly inhibit growth of established tumors and prolong survival. (bloodjournal.org)
- MC can directly influence tumor cell proliferation and invasion but also help tumors indirectly by organizing its microenvironment and modulating immune responses to tumor cells. (springer.com)
Express an invariant1
- Dual-color single-particle tracking revealed that diffusing CD1d nanoclusters are actively arrested by the actin cytoskeleton, preventing their further coalescence. (ox.ac.uk)
- The abnormal regulation of the actin cytoskeleton in B cells may be important for development of autoimmunity. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
- Moreover, the lateral behavior of these clusters shows a great dependence on the compartmentalization of the cell membrane by, e.g., the actin cytoskeleton at multiple temporal and spatial scales. (icfo.es)
- In Chapter 6, we demonstrate that the antigen presenting protein CD1d organizes in nanoclusters on the cell membrane of antigen presenting cells whose size and density are tightly controlled by the actin cytoskeleton. (icfo.es)
- 15 , 16 However, EBV also enhances antiviral immune responses by way of its latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1), which up-regulates MHC-I. 17 , 18 This leads to cytotoxic T-cell (CTL)-mediated elimination of EBV latency III cells, promoting the transition to latency I-infected B cells. (bloodjournal.org)
- Thus, we studied A. phagocytophilum to identify whether bacterial membranes and membrane components could initiate differential naïve immune cell proliferation that in part underlies the virulence observed with changing in vitro passage intervals. (asm.org)
- WASP is located in the cytoplasmic compartment with highest density along the cell membrane. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
- Note: Subject to intracellular trafficking between the cell membrane, endosomes and lysosomes. (avivasysbio.com)
- These techniques have revealed that a large amount of molecular components of the cell membrane do not organize in a random manner but they rather grouped together forming so-called clusters at the nanoscale. (icfo.es)
- Protein nanoclustering and membrane compartmentalization have been shown to play a crucial role on leukocytes, particularly on the surface of antigen presenting cells. (icfo.es)
- In Chapter 3, we address the role of the neck region of DC-SIGN in fine-tuning the nanoclustering degree of DC-SIGN on the cell membrane. (icfo.es)
- It is a component of the cell plasma membrane that modulates cell signal transduction events. (hmdb.ca)
- These data indicate that partitioning of mCD1d into membrane rafts increases the capacity of antigen-presenting cells to present limiting quantities of glycolipid antigens, perhaps by stabilizing mCD1d/antigen structures on the plasma membrane and optimizing TCR engagement on NKT cells. (ovid.com)
- The bioactive botanical cosmetic compositions described here are derived from membrane and cell serum fractions of plant cell juice. (cosmeticsandtoiletries.com)
- NKT cells are able to directly lyse malignant cells and induce anti-tumor responses by modulating other immune cells. (biomedcentral.com)
- Importantly, α-GalCer was used to induce CD8+ T cells to antigens delivered orally, despite the fact that this route of administration is normally associated with blunted responses. (jci.org)
- In addition, cytokine milieu in tumor microenvironment can also induce the pro-tumoral activities and functional plasticity of Vγ9Vδ2-T cells. (frontiersin.org)
- Using a highly attenuated Lm dal dat ?actA strain (LmddA)-based vaccine, we report here that the vector LmddA was sufficient to induce a decrease in the proportion of Tregs by preferentially expanding CD4(+)FoxP3(-) T cells and CD8(+) T cells by a mechanism dependent on and directly mediated by LLO. (jove.com)
- Indeed, both subsets induce similar levels of B cell proliferation, whereas CD4 + NKT cells induce higher levels of immunoglobulin production. (rupress.org)
- Like natural killer cells, NKT cells can also induce perforin-, Fas-, and TNF-related cytotoxicity, but this is generally not thought to be their primary function. (rndsystems.com)
- Hence, strain-dependent factors may be important in determining whether activated iNKT-cells induce immunogenic or tolerogenic events. (diabetesjournals.org)
Activation of iNKT cells3
- However, the mechanisms regulating such "tonic" activation of iNKT cells remain unclear. (ox.ac.uk)
- Finally, we show that DPPE-PEG completely inhibits the α-GalCer-induced phosphorylation of ERK tyrosine kinase in iNKT cells, suggesting that DPPE-PEG specifically blocks TCR signaling and thus activation of iNKT cells. (jimmunol.org)
- This review explores the evidence about the factors that affect activation of iNKT cells in order to understand their immune-modulatory potential. (scielo.org.co)
Lipid antigen presentation1
- In this study we demonstrate that specific BCR uptake of CD1d-restricted antigens represents an effective means of enhancing invariant natural killer T (iNKT)-dependent B cell responses in vivo . (pnas.org)
- These cells may have an important immune regulatory function, but an understanding of their biology has been hampered by the lack of suitable reagents for tracking them in vivo. (rupress.org)
- The remaining NKT cells failed to produce measurable quantities of interferon-γ in vivo and in vitro after activation with α-galactosylceramide. (rupress.org)
- D ) The immunostimulatory capacity of splenic CD11c + cells from α-GalCer- or vehicle-treated C57BL/6 (B6) animals was assessed by loading with OVA 257-264 peptide ex vivo and transferring antigen-loaded cells into naive C57BL/6 and i NKT cell-deficient recipients ( n = 5) (arrows indicate direction of DC transfer). (jci.org)
- In the current study, we investigated the in vivo roles of adipocyte CD1d in the regulation of adipose iNKT cells, adipose tissue inflammation, and insulin resistance in obesity. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Although the target cells that mediate activation of invariant Vα24+ T cells in vivo are not known, normal B cells express CD1d (51) and may be a relevant CD1d-presenting cell. (nih.gov)
- NKT cell populations were examined ex vivo in mouse models of spontaneous B cell lymphoma, and it was found that during early stages, NKT cell responses were enhanced in lymphoma-bearing animals compared to disease-free animals. (mdpi.com)
- Remarkably, while US3-difficient virus grows well in vitro, its replication is severely attenuated in vivo, suggesting that the evasion of the CD1d-restricted NKT cell function plays a critical role in viral pathogenesis. (usc.edu)
- In order to study human-specific CD1d antigen presentation pathway in vivo, we have recently generated novel mouse models with CD1d/NKT system humanized (Wen, X., et al. (usc.edu)
- The peptide-MHC complex which is displayed on Antigen Presenting cells (APC) can now be identifed, examined biochemically, and quantitated on APC, both ex vivo and in vivo.This examination gives new perspectives on the nature of the ensuing CD4 T cell response. (scielosp.org)
- The adjuvant activity of α-GalCer enhances both priming and boosting of CD8+ T cells to coadministered peptide or protein antigens, including a peptide encoding the clinically relevant, HLA-A2-restricted epitope of the human tumor antigen NY-ESO-1. (jci.org)
- Their role in helping antigen-specific B cell response to protein antigens, as well as to the so called "help-less" antigens that cannot be recognized by T follicular helper cells, is being increasingly elucidated, highlighting their potential pathophysiological impact on the immune response, as well as on the design of improved vaccine formulations. (mdpi.com)
- A. phagocytophilum membranes depleted of Msp2 and protein antigens enhanced the proliferation of naïve mouse splenocytes beyond that of untreated membranes. (asm.org)
- This glycolipid is also evaluated for its ability to stimulate i NKT cells and sulfatide-reactive Type II NKT cells. (mdpi.com)
- Moreover, thymocytes were not recognized by CD1d-reactive Valpha24invt T-cell clones. (nih.gov)
- This review series will focus on recent advances indicating that distinct subsets of regulatory CD4 + and CD8 + T cells as well as NK T cells control the outgrowth of potentially pathogenic antigen-reactive T cells and will highlight the evidence that these suppressor T cells may play potentially important clinical roles in preventing and treating immune-mediated disease. (jci.org)
- Thus, mechanisms that normally regulate the outgrowth or function of these self-reactive T cells ultimately control the initiation and progression of autoimmune disease. (jci.org)
- Interestingly, the latter delay or protection from T1D is associated with the enhanced secretion of IL-10 rather than IFN-g by C24:0-treated CD4 + T cells and the deviation of the islet-reactive diabetogenic T cell response. (plos.org)
- Anti-metastatic properties of NKT cells reactive to the CD1d-binding antigen α-galactosylceramide (α-GalCer) are now being explored as a contributor to tumour cell killing. (ovid.com)
- For many years, peptides were assumed to be the only antigenic determinant for initiating T cell responses. (pnas.org)
- However, such a pathway and its potential impact on the development of B and T cell responses remain poorly characterized. (pnas.org)
- Tetramers have been used widely to obtain a detailed analysis of the distribution and frequency of conventional CD4 + and CD8 + antigen-specific T cells during a variety of immune responses. (rupress.org)
- These findings support a model in which low endosomal pH controls stability and lipid raft localization of CD1d-glycolipid complexes to regulate the outcome of iNKT cell mediated responses. (elsevier.com)
- Overall, our studies demonstrate the efficacy of HDACi in restoring NKT cell mediated anti-tumor responses and may provide the basis for an NKT cell-based immunotherapeutic strategy that not only enhances the immune response, but also increases the immunogenicity of the tumor itself. (biomedcentral.com)
- Only T cell responses induced in the presence of iNKT cell stimulation, whether by the i.v. or oral route, were capable of eradicating established tumors. (jci.org)
- OVA 257-264 -specific CD8 + T cell responses in recipient animals were measured in the blood by FACS analysis using H-2K b /OVA 257-264 tetramers 7 days after transfer. (jci.org)
- Graph shows OVA 257-264 -specific CD8 + T cell responses enumerated in the blood by FACS analysis 7 days after administration of 400 μg OVA with various combinations of vehicle, α-GalCer, or MPL. (jci.org)
- Among various cell types in adipose tissue, immune cells actively regulate inflammatory responses and affect whole-body energy metabolism. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Collectively, these data suggest that adipocytes could selectively stimulate adipose iNKT cells to mediate anti-inflammatory responses and attenuate excess proinflammatory responses in obese adipose tissue. (diabetesjournals.org)
- This diverse range of functions underpins the ability of the CD1d-iNKT cell axis to play a key role in antimicrobial, antitumor, and autoimmune responses ( 3 ). (jimmunol.org)
- Because of this antigenic diversity, a single mechanism might not explain all observed TCR-dependent γδ T cell responses ( 15 ). (frontiersin.org)
- Vδ1 γδ-T cells with different Vγ elements account for the majority of mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue γδ-T cells, and they mediate the immune responses to Listeria monocytogenes , Cytomegalovirus, and certain hematological malignancies ( 2 , 3 ). (frontiersin.org)
- In contrast, γδ-T cells bearing the Vδ2 gene with the co-expression of the Vγ9 chain (Vγ9Vδ2-T cells) are abundant in the peripheral blood and lymphoid organs of most healthy individuals, and they are involved in the first line of the immune responses to mycobacteria, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), and some solid tumors ( 1 , 2 , 4 - 10 ). (frontiersin.org)
- In the immune responses against tumors, two subsets of NKT cells, type I and type II, play opposing roles and cross-regulate each other. (springer.com)
- Finally, we will speculate on how the distinct suppressor cell subsets may function in concert to regulate immune responses. (jci.org)
- The T cell responses induced by most vaccine regimens disseminated systemically into secondary lymphoid tissues (lymph nodes, spleen) and effector anatomical sites (including liver, vaginal tissue), indicative of their role in viral containment at the portal of entry. (jove.com)
- These results suggest that LLO may serve as a promising adjuvant by preferentially inducing the expansions of CD4(+)FoxP3(-) T cells and CD8(+) T cells, thus reducing the ratio of Tregs to CD4(+)FoxP3(-) T cells and to CD8(+) T cells favoring immune responses to eradicate tumor. (jove.com)
- Suppression of immune responses by CD8 cells. (nii.ac.jp)
- T-cell responses to the immunodominant major surface protein 2 (Msp2) hypervariable regions that vary with in vitro propagation do not occur to any substantial degree, diminishing their importance as inflammatory stimuli ( 7 ). (asm.org)
- We identified over 50 annotated genes enriched in cell-mediated immune responses that are globally over-expressed in RPE-choroid AMD phenotypes. (biomedcentral.com)
- These results are consistent with a model whereby cell-based inflammatory responses represent a central feature of AMD etiology, and depending on genetics, environment, or stochastic factors, may give rise to the advanced AMD phenotypes characterized by angiogenesis and/or cell death. (biomedcentral.com)
- In this study, we sought to investigate NKT cell responses to B cell lymphoma. (mdpi.com)
- Therefore, the progression and severity of the disease are strongly modulated by the host immune response, particularly, T cell responses. (springer.com)
- V α 14 NKT cells incorporated [ 3 H]thymidine ([ 3 H]TdR) after stimulation with α-galactosylceramide (α-GalCer), whereas activation with ceramide itself or β-galactosylceramide (β-GalCer) resulted in no proliferative responses (Fig. 1 , A and C). Because α-glucosylceramide (α-GlcCer) as well as α-GalCer stimulated V α 14 NKT cells readily, the α-anomeric conformation of sugar moiety is essential. (sciencemag.org)
- Proliferative responses of V α 14 NKT cells by glycosylceramides. (sciencemag.org)
- Mast cells (MC) are a bone marrow-derived, long-lived, heterogeneous cellular population that function both as positive and negative regulators of immune responses. (springer.com)
- Although the exact function of NKT cells during various immune responses remains elusive, recent studies have suggested that NKT cells may have been evolved primarily for their role in antimicrobial immune responses. (usc.edu)
- Activating iNKT-cells with various agonists has shown promise in modulating DC functions for both stimulating immunological responses against tumors and infectious agents as well as inducing tolerogenic responses for inhibiting autoimmune syndromes ( 1 , 3 , 4 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
- In iNKT cells, determination of cytokine characters into Th1 type or Th2 type is influenced by antigen-presenting cell (APC) types, environmental cytokine milieu, and lipid antigen species ( 18 , 21 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
- The antigen presentation, interferon (IFN) response, and cytokine transcriptomes of KLECs resemble those of KS. (bloodjournal.org)
- The subtypes iNKT1, iNKT2 and iNKT17 mirror Th Cell subsets in cytokine production. (wikipedia.org)
- iNKT cells can also be indirectly activated through cytokine signaling. (wikipedia.org)
- These cells can be activated with the prototypic lipid α-galactosylceramide (α-GalCer), stimulating interferon gamma (IFN-γ) production and cytokine secretion, which contribute to the enhancement of T cell activation. (biomedcentral.com)
- Cytokine-producing CD4+ T cells were also examined by flow cytometry. (omicsonline.org)
- The results of the present study demonstrated that nasal administration of α-GalCer could activate NKT cells in the nasopharynx, followed by the maturation of DCs, B cells, and some cytokine-producing CD4+ T cells. (omicsonline.org)
- WAS patients have reduced numbers of iNKT cells which also secrete less cytokine when stimulated. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
- Indeed, there is great strain variability in iNKT-cell numbers that also differ in cytokine production profiles ( 11 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
- Collectively, these data suggest that C24:0 stimulated type II NKT cells may regulate protection from T1D by activating DCs to secrete IL-10 and suppress the activation and expansion of type I iNKT cells and diabetogenic T cells. (plos.org)
- Interestingly, herpes simplex virus (HSV) can down-regulate CD1d-mediated activation of NKT cells. (elsevier.com)
- Hence, our findings strongly suggest that T322 and S323 form a dual residue motif that can regulate the functional expression of CD1d during a viral infection. (elsevier.com)
- They arise in the thymus, and, as mature cells, they stimulate an adaptive immune response and regulate a range of disease states, including diabetes, cancer, and pathogenic infections. (scripps.edu)
- In this review, we will discuss the presence and the role of various T cell subsets, including CD8 + cytotoxic T cells, CD4 + T helper cells (Th1, Th2, and Th17), regulatory T cells, and natural killer T (NKT) cells in the pathogenesis of periodontitis. (springer.com)
- They function as intermediaries in regulatory T cells (Treg)-induced tolerance but can also modify or reverse Treg-suppressive properties. (springer.com)