Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Antigens, CD3: Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).Antigens, CD8: Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell: IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.Antigens, CD34: Glycoproteins found on immature hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. They are the only molecules to date whose expression within the blood system is restricted to a small number of progenitor cells in the bone marrow.Antigens, CD38: A bifunctional enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis and HYDROLYSIS of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from NAD+ to ADP-RIBOSE. It is a cell surface molecule which is predominantly expressed on LYMPHOID CELLS and MYELOID CELLS.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell: Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.Antigens, CD19: Differentiation antigens expressed on B-lymphocytes and B-cell precursors. They are involved in regulation of B-cell proliferation.Antigens, CD40: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Antigens, CD20: Unglycosylated phosphoproteins expressed only on B-cells. They are regulators of transmembrane Ca2+ conductance and thought to play a role in B-cell activation and proliferation.CD40 Ligand: A membrane glycoprotein and differentiation antigen expressed on the surface of T-cells that binds to CD40 ANTIGENS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and induces their proliferation. Mutation of the gene for CD40 ligand is a cause of HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 1.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Antigens, CD28: Costimulatory T-LYMPHOCYTE receptors that have specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN. Activation of this receptor results in increased T-cell proliferation, cytokine production and promotion of T-cell survival.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Antigens, CD2: Glycoprotein members of the immunoglobulin superfamily which participate in T-cell adhesion and activation. They are expressed on most peripheral T-lymphocytes, natural killer cells, and thymocytes, and function as co-receptors or accessory molecules in the T-cell receptor complex.Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte: Antigens expressed on the cell membrane of T-lymphocytes during differentiation, activation, and normal and neoplastic transformation. Their phenotypic characterization is important in differential diagnosis and studies of thymic ontogeny and T-cell function.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Antigens, CD44: Acidic sulfated integral membrane glycoproteins expressed in several alternatively spliced and variable glycosylated forms on a wide variety of cell types including mature T-cells, B-cells, medullary thymocytes, granulocytes, macrophages, erythrocytes, and fibroblasts. CD44 antigens are the principle cell surface receptors for hyaluronate and this interaction mediates binding of lymphocytes to high endothelial venules. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)Antigens, CD7: Differentiation antigens expressed on pluripotential hematopoietic cells, most human thymocytes, and a major subset of peripheral blood T-lymphocytes. They have been implicated in integrin-mediated cellular adhesion and as signalling receptors on T-cells.Antigens, CD14: Glycolipid-anchored membrane glycoproteins expressed on cells of the myelomonocyte lineage including monocytes, macrophages, and some granulocytes. They function as receptors for the complex of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and LPS-binding protein.Antigens, Differentiation: Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Antigens, CD5: Glycoproteins expressed on all mature T-cells, thymocytes, and a subset of mature B-cells. Antibodies specific for CD5 can enhance T-cell receptor-mediated T-cell activation. The B-cell-specific molecule CD72 is a natural ligand for CD5. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)Antigens, CD1: Glycoproteins expressed on cortical thymocytes and on some dendritic cells and B-cells. Their structure is similar to that of MHC Class I and their function has been postulated as similar also. CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS.CD4-CD8 Ratio: Ratio of T-LYMPHOCYTES that express the CD4 ANTIGEN to those that express the CD8 ANTIGEN. This value is commonly assessed in the diagnosis and staging of diseases affecting the IMMUNE SYSTEM including HIV INFECTIONS.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.ADP-ribosyl Cyclase: A membrane-bound or cytosolic enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD). This enzyme generally catalyzes the hydrolysis of cADPR to ADP-RIBOSE, as well, and sometimes the synthesis of cyclic ADP-ribose 2' phosphate (2'-P-cADPR) from NADP.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Antigens, CD80: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CD28 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD80 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a costimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Antigens, CD56: The 140 kDa isoform of NCAM (neural cell adhesion molecule) containing a transmembrane domain and short cytoplasmic tail. It is expressed by all lymphocytes mediating non-MHC restricted cytotoxicity and is present on some neural tissues and tumors.Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic: Surface antigens expressed on myeloid cells of the granulocyte-monocyte-histiocyte series during differentiation. Analysis of their reactivity in normal and malignant myelomonocytic cells is useful in identifying and classifying human leukemias and lymphomas.Antigens, CD53: Tetraspanin proteins found at high levels in cells of the lymphoid-myeloid lineage. CD53 antigens may be involved regulating the differentiation of T-LYMPHOCYTES and the activation of B-LYMPHOCYTES.Antigens, Differentiation, B-Lymphocyte: Membrane antigens associated with maturation stages of B-lymphocytes, often expressed in tumors of B-cell origin.Antigens, CD24: A cell adhesion protein that was originally identified as a heat stable antigen in mice. It is involved in METASTASIS and is highly expressed in many NEOPLASMS.Antigens, CD45: High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Antigens, CD86: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CD28 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD86 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a stimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Antigens, CD13: Zinc-binding metalloproteases that are members of the type II integral membrane metalloproteases. They are expressed by GRANULOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and their precursors as well as by various non-hematopoietic cells. They release an N-terminal amino acid from a peptide, amide or arylamide.HLA Antigens: Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.Antigens, Protozoan: Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Antigens, CD79: A component of the B-cell antigen receptor that is involved in B-cell antigen receptor heavy chain transport to the PLASMA MEMBRANE. It is expressed almost exclusively in B-LYMPHOCYTES and serves as a useful marker for B-cell NEOPLASMS.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Immunophenotyping: Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.Antigens, CD95: A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype found in a variety of tissues and on activated LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for FAS LIGAND and plays a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. Multiple isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Antigens, Polyomavirus Transforming: Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.H-2 Antigens: The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.NAD+ NucleosidaseAntigens, Fungal: Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.Histocompatibility Antigens Class II: Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.Sialic Acid Binding Ig-like Lectin 3: A 67-kDa sialic acid binding lectin that is specific for MYELOID CELLS and MONOCYTE-MACROPHAGE PRECURSOR CELLS. This protein is the smallest siglec subtype and contains a single immunoglobulin C2-set domain. It may play a role in intracellular signaling via its interaction with SHP-1 PROTEIN-TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE and SHP-2 PROTEIN-TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE.Antigens, Helminth: Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.Antigens, CD18: Cell-surface glycoprotein beta-chains that are non-covalently linked to specific alpha-chains of the CD11 family of leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION). A defect in the gene encoding CD18 causes LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION DEFICIENCY SYNDROME.HLA-DR Antigens: A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.GPI-Linked Proteins: A subclass of lipid-linked proteins that contain a GLYCOSYLPHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOL LINKAGE which holds them to the CELL MEMBRANE.Antigens, CD30: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that may play a role in the regulation of NF-KAPPA B and APOPTOSIS. They are found on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; MAST CELLS and NK CELLS. Overexpression of CD30 antigen in hematopoietic malignancies make the antigen clinically useful as a biological tumor marker. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Antigens, CD4: 55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.Histocompatibility Antigens: A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, alpha-beta: T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.Antigens, CD9: A subtype of tetraspanin proteins that play a role in cell adhesion, cell motility, and tumor metastasis. CD9 antigens take part in the process of platelet activation and aggregation, the formation of paranodal junctions in neuronal tissue, and the fusion of sperm with egg.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Carcinoembryonic Antigen: A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.Blood Group Antigens: Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.Antigens, CD15: A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Antigens, Viral, Tumor: Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.Lectins, C-Type: A class of animal lectins that bind to carbohydrate in a calcium-dependent manner. They share a common carbohydrate-binding domain that is structurally distinct from other classes of lectins.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Antigens, CD43: A sialic acid-rich protein and an integral cell membrane mucin. It plays an important role in activation of T-LYMPHOCYTES.Mice, Inbred BALB CHematopoietic Stem Cells: Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.Antigens, CD36: Leukocyte differentiation antigens and major platelet membrane glycoproteins present on MONOCYTES; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; PLATELETS; and mammary EPITHELIAL CELLS. They play major roles in CELL ADHESION; SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION; and regulation of angiogenesis. CD36 is a receptor for THROMBOSPONDINS and can act as a scavenger receptor that recognizes and transports oxidized LIPOPROTEINS and FATTY ACIDS.Antigens, CD11: A group of three different alpha chains (CD11a, CD11b, CD11c) that are associated with an invariant CD18 beta chain (ANTIGENS, CD18). The three resulting leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION) are LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1; MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN; and ANTIGEN, P150,95.Mice, Inbred C57BLImmunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Cell SeparationTransfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Antigens, CD59: Small glycoproteins found on both hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD59 restricts the cytolytic activity of homologous complement by binding to C8 and C9 and blocking the assembly of the membrane attack complex. (From Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p234)Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.HLA-A2 Antigen: A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.ZAP-70 Protein-Tyrosine Kinase: A protein tyrosine kinase that is required for T-CELL development and T-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTOR function.Thymus Gland: A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen: Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.Antigens, CD57: Oligosaccharide antigenic determinants found principally on NK cells and T-cells. Their role in the immune response is poorly understood.Antigens, CD70: A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that specifically binds to CD27 ANTIGEN. It is found on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS where it plays a role in stimulating the proliferation of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES and CD8-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Antigens, CD46: A ubiquitously expressed complement receptor that binds COMPLEMENT C3B and COMPLEMENT C4B and serves as a cofactor for their inactivation. CD46 also interacts with a wide variety of pathogens and mediates immune response.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Antigens, CD58: Glycoproteins with a wide distribution on hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells and strongly expressed on macrophages. CD58 mediates cell adhesion by binding to CD2; (ANTIGENS, CD2); and this enhances antigen-specific T-cell activation.Histocompatibility Antigens Class I: Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.Antigens, CD47: A ubiquitously expressed membrane glycoprotein. It interacts with a variety of INTEGRINS and mediates responses to EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.Antigens, CD11b: A CD antigen that contains a conserved I domain which is involved in ligand binding. When combined with CD18 the two subunits form MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Autoantigens: Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Prostate-Specific Antigen: A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.Antigens, CD11c: An integrin alpha subunit of approximately 150-kDa molecular weight. It is expressed at high levels on monocytes and combines with CD18 ANTIGEN to form the cell surface receptor INTEGRIN ALPHAXBETA2. The subunit contains a conserved I-domain which is characteristic of several of alpha integrins.O Antigens: The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Hybridomas: Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.Sialic Acid Binding Ig-like Lectin 2: A lectin and cell adhesion molecule found in B-LYMPHOCYTES. It interacts with SIALIC ACIDS and mediates signaling from B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS.Receptors, Interleukin-2: Receptors present on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and B-LYMPHOCYTES that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-2 and play an important role in LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION. They are heterotrimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT, the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT, and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Burkitt Lymphoma: A form of undifferentiated malignant LYMPHOMA usually found in central Africa, but also reported in other parts of the world. It is commonly manifested as a large osteolytic lesion in the jaw or as an abdominal mass. B-cell antigens are expressed on the immature cells that make up the tumor in virtually all cases of Burkitt lymphoma. The Epstein-Barr virus (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN) has been isolated from Burkitt lymphoma cases in Africa and it is implicated as the causative agent in these cases; however, most non-African cases are EBV-negative.Receptors, Antigen: Molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with specific antigens.Interleukin-2: A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.Antigen-Presenting Cells: A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.CD4 Lymphocyte Count: The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.Jurkat Cells: A CELL LINE derived from human T-CELL LEUKEMIA and used to determine the mechanism of differential susceptibility to anti-cancer drugs and radiation.Antigens, Tumor-Associated, Carbohydrate: Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.Monocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Antigens, CD55: GPI-linked membrane proteins broadly distributed among hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD55 prevents the assembly of C3 CONVERTASE or accelerates the disassembly of preformed convertase, thus blocking the formation of the membrane attack complex.Clone Cells: A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Antigens, CD31: Cell adhesion molecules present on virtually all monocytes, platelets, and granulocytes. CD31 is highly expressed on endothelial cells and concentrated at the junctions between them.Lymphocyte Specific Protein Tyrosine Kinase p56(lck): This enzyme is a lymphoid-specific src family tyrosine kinase that is critical for T-cell development and activation. Lck is associated with the cytoplasmic domains of CD4, CD8 and the beta-chain of the IL-2 receptor, and is thought to be involved in the earliest steps of TCR-mediated T-cell activation.Antigens, CD81: Tetraspanin proteins that are involved in a variety of cellular functions including BASEMENT MEMBRANE assembly, and in the formation of a molecular complexes on the surface of LYMPHOCYTES.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Antigens, CD137: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that is specific for 4-1BB LIGAND. It is found in a variety of immune cell types including activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; NATURAL KILLER CELLS; and DENDRITIC CELLS. Activation of the receptor on T-LYMPHOCYTES plays a role in their expansion, production of cytokines and survival. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Cytotoxicity, Immunologic: The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.Bone Marrow: The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic: Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).HLA-A Antigens: Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Bone Marrow Cells: Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.Receptor-CD3 Complex, Antigen, T-Cell: Molecule composed of the non-covalent association of the T-cell antigen receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL) with the CD3 complex (ANTIGENS, CD3). This association is required for the surface expression and function of both components. The molecule consists of up to seven chains: either the alpha/beta or gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor, and four or five chains in the CD3 complex.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Immunologic Memory: The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.Hepatitis B Surface Antigens: Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.Tyrosine: A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.Antigens, CD63: Ubiquitously-expressed tetraspanin proteins that are found in late ENDOSOMES and LYSOSOMES and have been implicated in intracellular transport of proteins.Lymphoma: A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.Antigen-Antibody Reactions: The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Antigens, Thy-1: A group of differentiation surface antigens, among the first to be discovered on thymocytes and T-lymphocytes. Originally identified in the mouse, they are also found in other species including humans, and are expressed on brain neurons and other cells.Antigens, CD151: Tetraspanin proteins found associated with LAMININ-binding INTEGRINS. The CD151 antigens may play a role in the regulation of CELL MOTILITY.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Phospholipase C gamma: A phosphoinositide phospholipase C subtype that is primarily regulated by PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASES. It is structurally related to PHOSPHOLIPASE C DELTA with the addition of SRC HOMOLOGY DOMAINS and pleckstrin homology domains located between two halves of the CATALYTIC DOMAIN.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, gamma-delta: T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated gamma and delta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4-/CD8- T-cells. The receptors appear to be preferentially located in epithelial sites and probably play a role in the recognition of bacterial antigens. The T-cell receptor gamma/delta chains are separate and not related to the gamma and delta chains which are subunits of CD3 (see ANTIGENS, CD3).Mice, SCID: Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Ovalbumin: An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.Herpesvirus 4, Human: The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.HLA-D Antigens: Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.CTLA-4 Antigen: An inhibitory T CELL receptor that is closely related to CD28 ANTIGEN. It has specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN and acts as a negative regulator of peripheral T cell function. CTLA-4 antigen is believed to play role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.CD30 Ligand: A membrane-bound tumor necrosis family member found primarily on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that binds specifically to CD30 ANTIGEN. It may play a role in INFLAMMATION and immune regulation.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.N-Glycosyl Hydrolases: A class of enzymes involved in the hydrolysis of the N-glycosidic bond of nitrogen-linked sugars.Immune Tolerance: The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.Antigen Presentation: The process by which antigen is presented to lymphocytes in a form they can recognize. This is performed by antigen presenting cells (APCs). Some antigens require processing before they can be recognized. Antigen processing consists of ingestion and partial digestion of the antigen by the APC, followed by presentation of fragments on the cell surface. (From Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)Antigens, CD11a: An alpha-integrin subunit found on lymphocytes, granulocytes, macrophages and monocytes. It combines with the integrin beta2 subunit (CD18 ANTIGEN) to form LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Neoplasm Proteins: Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.Hepatitis B Antigens: Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Autoantibodies: Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte: Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)T-Lymphocyte Subsets: A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.HLA-B Antigens: Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by more than 30 detectable alleles on locus B of the HLA complex, the most polymorphic of all the HLA specificities. Several of these antigens (e.g., HLA-B27, -B7, -B8) are strongly associated with predisposition to rheumatoid and other autoimmune disorders. Like other class I HLA determinants, they are involved in the cellular immune reactivity of cytolytic T lymphocytes.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Enzyme Precursors: Physiologically inactive substances that can be converted to active enzymes.Killer Cells, Natural: Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.Antigen-Antibody Complex: The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.MART-1 Antigen: A melanosome-specific protein that plays a role in the expression, stability, trafficking, and processing of GP100 MELANOMA ANTIGEN, which is critical to the formation of Stage II MELANOSOMES. The protein is used as an antigen marker for MELANOMA cells.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-vav: Proto-oncogene proteins that are guanine nucleotide exchange factors for RHO GTPASES. They also function as signal transducing adaptor proteins.Antigens, CD147: A widely distributed cell surface transmembrane glycoprotein that stimulates the synthesis of MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASES. It is found at high levels on the surface of malignant NEOPLASMS and may play a role as a mediator of malignant cell behavior.Major Histocompatibility Complex: The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.Isoantigens: Antigens that exist in alternative (allelic) forms in a single species. When an isoantigen is encountered by species members who lack it, an immune response is induced. Typical isoantigens are the BLOOD GROUP ANTIGENS.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.HIV Antigens: Antigens associated with specific proteins of the human adult T-cell immunodeficiency virus (HIV); also called HTLV-III-associated and lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) antigens.HL-60 Cells: A promyelocytic cell line derived from a patient with ACUTE PROMYELOCYTIC LEUKEMIA. HL-60 cells lack specific markers for LYMPHOID CELLS but express surface receptors for FC FRAGMENTS and COMPLEMENT SYSTEM PROTEINS. They also exhibit phagocytic activity and responsiveness to chemotactic stimuli. (From Hay et al., American Type Culture Collection, 7th ed, pp127-8)T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory: CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.Antigens, CD82: A widely expressed transmembrane glycoprotein that functions as a METASTASIS suppressor protein. It is underexpressed in a variety of human NEOPLASMS.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
  • CD1d also can bind nonantigenic lipids, however, but unexpectedly, mouse CD1d orients the two aliphatic chains of a nonantigenic lipid rotated 180°, causing a dramatic repositioning of the exposed sugar. (pnas.org)
  • Thus, we have demonstrated that in response to particulate antigenic lipids iNKT cells are recruited for the assistance of B cell activation, resulting in the enhancement of specific antibody responses. (pnas.org)
  • As CD1d is expressed by B cells, it is conceivable that BCR-mediated internalization could also play a role in CD1d-dependent presentation of antigenic lipids to T cells. (pnas.org)
  • In addition, thymocytes and splenocytes from NPC2-deficient mice were poor presenters of endogenous and exogenous lipids to CD1d-restricted Vα14 hybridoma cells. (rupress.org)
  • Importantly, we determined that similar to saposins, recombinant NPC2 was able to unload lipids from and load lipids into CD1d. (rupress.org)
  • CD1d is the restriction element for two groups of T cells that recognize lipids. (rupress.org)
  • The first group is indistinguishable from classic T cells and has been identified in humans for lipids as diverse as mycobacterial mycolic acids and endogenous sulfatide ( 5 - 7 ). (rupress.org)
  • iNKT cells are activated in response to a range of endogenous and exogenous lipids, with the glycosphingolipid α-galactosylceramide (α-GalCer) being the prototypical and one of the most powerful, although not physiological (i.e., not synthesized in mammalian tissues), stimulating agonists ( 4 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • What particularly interests us about NKT cells is that they can become activated by self lipids, which means that they can perform functions even when there is no infectious challenge. (pewtrusts.org)
  • Mice express only CD1d. (pnas.org)
  • (pnas.org)
  • It can be used to manipulate both NK T cell and conventional T cell responses in mice ( 19 )( 20 ) and potentially in humans ( 21 )( 22 )( 23 ). (rupress.org)
  • Transfer of APCs presenting these "stabilized" CD1d/αGC complexes into mice resulted in immune responses with a more prominent Th1-like bias, characterized by increased NK cell transactivation and interferon-γ production. (elsevier.com)
  • These human T cells appear to be precise homologues of the subset of NK1.1 + TCR-α/β + T cells, often referred to as NK T cells, which was initially identified in mice. (elsevier.com)
  • The main endogenous self-glycolipid that, once bound to CD1d, selects canonical Vα14 NKT cells was recently identified as iGb3, a sphingolipid that is produced in small quantities by iGb3 synthases and mainly by the degradation of isoglobotetrahexosylceramide by glycosidase β-hexosaminidase b, as illustrated by the absence of Vα14 NKT cells in hexosaminidase b-deficient mice ( 10 , 15 ). (rupress.org)
  • C3H/HeJ mice, which have a mutation in TLR4 , or i NKT cell-deficient mice were used along with their respective controls (C3H/HeN and C57BL/6). (jci.org)
  • B ) Surface expression of CD86 on CD11c + cells was assessed on splenocytes from wild-type C57BL/6 or CD1d-/- mice or a mixture of splenocytes from both (Mixed), stimulated in vitro with (thick solid lines) or without α-GalCer (gray filled histograms) for 16 hours. (jci.org)
  • E ) Inset shows expression of CD86 on splenic CD11c + cells from C57BL/6 mice injected with vehicle (gray filled histogram), α-GalCer (thick dashed line), MPL (thin dashed line), or α-GalCer plus MPL (thick solid line). (jci.org)
  • Diverse MR1-restricted T cells in mice and humans. (nih.gov)
  • In the current study, we demonstrate that adipocyte CD1d plays a key role in the stimulation of adipose iNKT cells, leading to anti-inflammatory responses in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Accordingly, adipocyte-specific CD1d-knockout (CD1d ADKO ) mice showed reduced numbers of iNKT cells in adipose tissues and decreased responses to α-galactosylceramide-induced iNKT cell activation. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Additionally, HFD-fed CD1d ADKO mice revealed reduced interleukin-4 expression in adipose iNKT cells and aggravated adipose tissue inflammation and insulin resistance. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Compared with wild-type mice, iNKT cell-deficient animals such as Jα18-knockout (KO) or CD1d-KO mice exhibited higher proinflammatory responses and exacerbated insulin resistance upon high-fat diet (HFD) ( 13 - 17 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Accordingly, we generated adipocyte-specific CD1d-KO (CD1d ADKO ) mice and then analyzed the effects of adipocyte CD1d deletion on adipose tissue immune responses and metabolic alterations following HFD feeding. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • To test whether iNKT cell-targeted therapy could be used to treat allergen-induced airway disease, mice were sensitized with OVA and treated with di-palmitoyl-phosphatidyl-ethanolamine polyethylene glycol (DPPE-PEG), a CD1d-binding lipid antagonist. (jimmunol.org)
  • In mice, a minimal proximal promoter region has been identified, which is regulated by various members of the ETS family of TFs, including Elf-1 in murine B cells and PU.1 in cells of myeloid lineage ( 11 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • It is of interest that single nucleotide polymorphisms in the proximal promoter of PWD inbred mice drastically reduce CD1d expression, with a consequent severe reduction in iNKT cell frequency ( 16 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • To analyze the role of activated iNKT cells in our model, we administered αGalCer in WT mice during adenine ingestion. (springer.com)
  • While at Whitehead, she collaborated with Dr. Rudolf Jaenisch to learn somatic cell nuclear transfer and generate a panel of transnuclear mice. (dana-farber.org)
  • Importantly, the generation of transnuclear mice is rapid, requiring approximately 6 weeks from T cell harvest to obtaining chimeric animals. (dana-farber.org)
  • These interactions cannot be accurately modeled using xenografts, nor are they fully replicated in humanized mice that develop human leukocytes, but still face cross-species barriers with respect to immune-stromal interactions and T cell development. (dana-farber.org)
  • Transnuclear mice reveal Peyer's patch iNKT cells that regulate B-cell class switching to IgG1. (dana-farber.org)
  • Studies have shown that Listeria monocytogenes (Lm)-based vaccine expressing a fusion protein comprising truncated listeriolysin O (LLO) and human papilloma virus (HPV) E7 protein (Lm-LLO-E7) induces a decrease in regulatory T cells (Treg) and complete regression of established, transplanted HPV-TC-1 tumors in mice. (jove.com)
  • To find whether it worked in actual bodies, they conducted experiments in mice with a virulent form of melanoma that also expresses a model antigen called OVA. (riken.jp)
  • Tests in mice showed, moreover, that aggressive tumors could be shrunken by vaccinating the animals with aAVC cells that were programmed to display OVA antigen. (riken.jp)
  • A. C57BL/6 mice were injected with OVA expressing B16, MO4 cells s.c. and then treated with or without 5x105aAVC-OVA at day 12. (riken.jp)
  • C. The frequency of Ag-specific CD8+T cells in the spleen and tumor (gating on CD45+CD3+) in the untreated or aAVC-OVA treated, tumor-bearing mice was analyzed using OVA-tetramer. (riken.jp)
  • Thus, mice have been used extensively to characterize the role of CD1d and CD1d-dependent NKT cells in a variety of disease models. (wikipedia.org)
  • The term "NK T cells" was first used in mice to define a subset of T cells that expressed the natural killer (NK) cell-associated marker NK1.1 (CD161). (wikipedia.org)
  • These cells are conserved between humans and mice.The highly conserved TCR is made of Va24-Ja18 paired with Vb11 in humans, which is specific for glycolipid antigens. (wikipedia.org)
  • In comparison to mice, humans have fewer iNKT cells and have a wide variation in the amount of circulating iNKT cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, lymphoproliferative responses to whole-cell A. phagocytophilum cultures are detectable even among splenocytes from naïve mice. (asm.org)
  • Here, we report that sulfatide/CD1d-tetramer + cells accumulate in the draining pancreatic lymph nodes, and that treatment of NOD mice with sulfatide or C24:0 was more efficient than C16:0 in stimulating the NKT cell-mediated transfer of a delay in onset from T1D into NOD. (plos.org)
  • Using NOD.CD1d −/− mice, we show that this delay of T1D is CD1d-dependent. (plos.org)
  • (plos.org)
  • In a mouse model of blastoid variant mantle cell lymphoma, treatment of tumor-bearing mice with a potent NKT cell agonist, α-galactosylceramide (α-GalCer), resulted in a significant decrease in disease pathology. (mdpi.com)
  • Ex vivo studies demonstrated that NKT cells from α-GalCer treated mice produced IFN-γ following α-GalCer restimulation, unlike NKT cells from vehicle-control treated mice. (mdpi.com)
  • mutant mice deficient in CD1d lack V α 14 NKT cells ( 10 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Moreover, we generated V α 14 NKT mice expressing the invariant V α 14 and V β 8.2 transgenes in a recombination activating gene (RAG)-deficient background (RAG −/− V α 14 tg V β 8.2 tg ) that only have V α 14 NKT cells, but no T, B, or NK cells ( 15 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Most of the available information on NKT cells comes from research conducted on mice. (termedia.pl)
  • Cells and mice infected with both mutant viruses produced remarkably larger amounts of IFN-β than those infected with wild-type HSV-1. (asm.org)
  • Within this group, distinguishable subpopulations have been identified, including CD4 + CD8 - cells and CD4 - CD8 - cells that are present in mice and humans, and CD4 - CD8 + cells that are found only in humans. (rndsystems.com)
  • Identification of mast cell progenitors in adult mice. (springer.com)
  • Despite a high degree of conservation, subtle but important differences exist between the CD1d antigen presentation pathways of humans and mice. (usc.edu)
  • RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We tested whether iNKT-conditioned DCs in NOD mice and a major histocompatibility complex-matched C57BL/6 (B6) background congenic stock differed in capacity to inhibit type 1 diabetes induced by the adoptive transfer of pathogenic AI4 CD8 T-cells. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The ability of α-GalCer-activated iNKT-cells to inhibit autoimmune type 1 diabetes development in NOD mice may be at least partly due to downstream maturation of tolerogenic DCs ( 2 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • iNKT-conditioned DCs in NOD mice preferentially accumulated in pancreatic lymph nodes where some diabetogenic T-cells subsequently underwent apoptotic deletion, but with a larger proportion becoming functionally anergized ( 2 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Here we show, using chimeric mice, cell depletion and adoptive cell transfer, that CD1d-lipid presentation by Bregs induces iNKT cells to secrete interferon (IFN)-γ to contribute, partially, to the downregulation of T helper (Th)1 and Th17-adaptive immune responses and ameliorate experimental arthritis. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • Mice lacking CD1d-expressing B cells develop exacerbated disease compared to wild-type mice, and fail to respond to treatment with the prototypical iNKT cell agonist α-galactosylceramide. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • As antibodies are designed to specifically recognize and eliminate invading antigens, they are effective weapons used by the immune system to combat infection. (pnas.org)
  • Gabrilovich DI, Nagaraj S (2009) Myeloid-derived suppressor cells as regulators of the immune system. (springer.com)
  • The article presents an encyclopedia entry for cytotoxic T-cells or cytolytic T-cells (CTL), which refers to effector cells of the immune system that carry the CD8 surface marker. (ebscohost.com)
  • A corollary of these notions is that autoimmune diseases arise from either the failure to eliminate or inactivate high-affinity immunocompetent cells during their ontogeny and/or the failure of the immune system to control the outgrowth or function of intermediate self-reactive clones that escape into the periphery. (jci.org)
  • In addition to direct autoimmune attack, the immune system can also induce disease, because the very protective immunologic mechanisms that are employed to limit the outgrowth of invading foreign pathogens or tumor cells can induce "collateral damage" on normal, uninfected cells in the vicinity of immune attack. (jci.org)
  • While iNKT cells are not very numerous, their unique properties makes them an important regulatory cell that can influence how the immune system develops. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Immunotherapy laboratory of the Department of Medical Oncology of the VU University Medical Center studies the possibility to exploit the immune system to specifically recognize, attack and eradicate tumor cells. (vumc.com)
  • DCs are the sentinels of our immune system which, in case of danger (e.g. viral or bacterial infections, inflammation or tumor growth), become activated and release factors that recruit other immune cells to contribute to an effective anti-tumor immune response. (vumc.com)
  • Finally, an updated review of protein nanoclustering on the cell membrane shows examples of the importance of protein nanoclustering in regulating biological function in the immune system. (icfo.es)
  • NK T cells are key players in the immune system and have been implicated in autoimmune diseases, such as diabetes, and in cancer although scientists have not yet discerned exactly how. (scripps.edu)
  • These [NK T cells] are the master keys for the regulation of the immune system," says Teyton. (scripps.edu)
  • Here we show that human NK T cell clones are strongly and specifically activated by the same synthetic glycolipid antigens as have been shown recently to stimulate murine NK T cells. (elsevier.com)
  • To assess the functional outcomes of epigenetic modulation, murine and human B cell lymphomas were pretreated with HDAC inhibitors and then we assessed their ability to process and present antigen. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Human and murine CD1d genes share a retinoic acid response element in the distal promoter (≈1.5 kb from ATG) ( 12 ), and retinoic acid was shown to increase CD1d expression in myeloid and B cells in vitro ( 13 - 15 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • These results demonstrate that human invariant Valpha24+ CD4-CD8- T cells, and presumably the homologous murine NK1+ T cell population, are CD1d reactive and functionally distinct from NK cells. (nih.gov)
  • Pathways of murine mast cell development and trafficking: Tracking the roots and routes of the mast cell. (springer.com)
  • In this study, we tested the hypothesis that presentation of α-GalCer by murine CD1d (mCD1d) to mCD1d-restricted NKT cells was facilitated by plasma membrane glycolipid rafts. (ovid.com)
  • Given the importance of human immune responses, we conducted a human-mouse cross-species analysis of iNKT-cell activation by iGb3-CD1d. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Formation of larger nanoclusters occurs in the absence of interactions between CD1d cytosolic tail and the actin cytoskeleton and correlates with enhanced iNKT cell activation. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Despite the establishment of these models and the reporting of their findings, the regulatory mechanisms for adipose iNKT cell activation have not been thoroughly understood. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The present experiments suggest that adipocyte CD1d is a crucial activator of adipose iNKT cells and that adipose iNKT cell activation could alleviate adipose tissue inflammation and insulin resistance in obese subjects. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • However, in other systems iNKT-cell activation has an adjuvant-like effect that enhances rather than suppresses various immunological responses. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The absence of lipid presentation by B cells alters iNKT cell activation with disruption of metabolism regulation and cytokine responses. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • In the past 15 years, the molecular identification of antigens that can mediate the killing of tumor cells by T cells has been vigorously pursued. (ebscohost.com)
  • 1 , 2 ] demonstrated that the infusion of allogeneic bone marrow cells may destroy recipient tumor cells, indicating the possibility of cytotherapeutic antitumor potential in the transplanted allogeneic cellular graft (graft-versus-tumor activity, GVT). (hindawi.com)
  • In lymph nodes that drain tumor sites these CTLs are instructed by DCs (migrated from the tumor) to recognize and kill tumor cells. (vumc.com)
  • In the Eμ-myc transgenic mouse model, single therapeutic vaccination of irradiated, α-GalCer-loaded autologous tumor cells was sufficient to significantly inhibit growth of established tumors and prolong survival. (bloodjournal.org)
  • MC can directly influence tumor cell proliferation and invasion but also help tumors indirectly by organizing its microenvironment and modulating immune responses to tumor cells. (springer.com)
  • NKT cells are able to directly lyse malignant cells and induce anti-tumor responses by modulating other immune cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Importantly, α-GalCer was used to induce CD8+ T cells to antigens delivered orally, despite the fact that this route of administration is normally associated with blunted responses. (jci.org)
  • In addition, cytokine milieu in tumor microenvironment can also induce the pro-tumoral activities and functional plasticity of Vγ9Vδ2-T cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • Using a highly attenuated Lm dal dat ?actA strain (LmddA)-based vaccine, we report here that the vector LmddA was sufficient to induce a decrease in the proportion of Tregs by preferentially expanding CD4(+)FoxP3(-) T cells and CD8(+) T cells by a mechanism dependent on and directly mediated by LLO. (jove.com)
  • Indeed, both subsets induce similar levels of B cell proliferation, whereas CD4 + NKT cells induce higher levels of immunoglobulin production. (rupress.org)
  • Like natural killer cells, NKT cells can also induce perforin-, Fas-, and TNF-related cytotoxicity, but this is generally not thought to be their primary function. (rndsystems.com)
  • Hence, strain-dependent factors may be important in determining whether activated iNKT-cells induce immunogenic or tolerogenic events. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In this study we demonstrate that specific BCR uptake of CD1d-restricted antigens represents an effective means of enhancing invariant natural killer T (iNKT)-dependent B cell responses in vivo . (pnas.org)
  • These cells may have an important immune regulatory function, but an understanding of their biology has been hampered by the lack of suitable reagents for tracking them in vivo. (rupress.org)
  • The remaining NKT cells failed to produce measurable quantities of interferon-γ in vivo and in vitro after activation with α-galactosylceramide. (rupress.org)
  • D ) The immunostimulatory capacity of splenic CD11c + cells from α-GalCer- or vehicle-treated C57BL/6 (B6) animals was assessed by loading with OVA 257-264 peptide ex vivo and transferring antigen-loaded cells into naive C57BL/6 and i NKT cell-deficient recipients ( n = 5) (arrows indicate direction of DC transfer). (jci.org)
  • In the current study, we investigated the in vivo roles of adipocyte CD1d in the regulation of adipose iNKT cells, adipose tissue inflammation, and insulin resistance in obesity. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Although the target cells that mediate activation of invariant Vα24+ T cells in vivo are not known, normal B cells express CD1d (51) and may be a relevant CD1d-presenting cell. (nih.gov)
  • NKT cell populations were examined ex vivo in mouse models of spontaneous B cell lymphoma, and it was found that during early stages, NKT cell responses were enhanced in lymphoma-bearing animals compared to disease-free animals. (mdpi.com)
  • Remarkably, while US3-difficient virus grows well in vitro, its replication is severely attenuated in vivo, suggesting that the evasion of the CD1d-restricted NKT cell function plays a critical role in viral pathogenesis. (usc.edu)
  • In order to study human-specific CD1d antigen presentation pathway in vivo, we have recently generated novel mouse models with CD1d/NKT system humanized (Wen, X., et al. (usc.edu)
  • The peptide-MHC complex which is displayed on Antigen Presenting cells (APC) can now be identifed, examined biochemically, and quantitated on APC, both ex vivo and in vivo.This examination gives new perspectives on the nature of the ensuing CD4 T cell response. (scielosp.org)
  • The adjuvant activity of α-GalCer enhances both priming and boosting of CD8+ T cells to coadministered peptide or protein antigens, including a peptide encoding the clinically relevant, HLA-A2-restricted epitope of the human tumor antigen NY-ESO-1. (jci.org)
  • Their role in helping antigen-specific B cell response to protein antigens, as well as to the so called "help-less" antigens that cannot be recognized by T follicular helper cells, is being increasingly elucidated, highlighting their potential pathophysiological impact on the immune response, as well as on the design of improved vaccine formulations. (mdpi.com)
  • A. phagocytophilum membranes depleted of Msp2 and protein antigens enhanced the proliferation of naïve mouse splenocytes beyond that of untreated membranes. (asm.org)
  • This glycolipid is also evaluated for its ability to stimulate i NKT cells and sulfatide-reactive Type II NKT cells. (mdpi.com)
  • Moreover, thymocytes were not recognized by CD1d-reactive Valpha24invt T-cell clones. (nih.gov)
  • This review series will focus on recent advances indicating that distinct subsets of regulatory CD4 + and CD8 + T cells as well as NK T cells control the outgrowth of potentially pathogenic antigen-reactive T cells and will highlight the evidence that these suppressor T cells may play potentially important clinical roles in preventing and treating immune-mediated disease. (jci.org)
  • Thus, mechanisms that normally regulate the outgrowth or function of these self-reactive T cells ultimately control the initiation and progression of autoimmune disease. (jci.org)
  • Interestingly, the latter delay or protection from T1D is associated with the enhanced secretion of IL-10 rather than IFN-g by C24:0-treated CD4 + T cells and the deviation of the islet-reactive diabetogenic T cell response. (plos.org)
  • Anti-metastatic properties of NKT cells reactive to the CD1d-binding antigen α-galactosylceramide (α-GalCer) are now being explored as a contributor to tumour cell killing. (ovid.com)
  • For many years, peptides were assumed to be the only antigenic determinant for initiating T cell responses. (pnas.org)
  • However, such a pathway and its potential impact on the development of B and T cell responses remain poorly characterized. (pnas.org)
  • Tetramers have been used widely to obtain a detailed analysis of the distribution and frequency of conventional CD4 + and CD8 + antigen-specific T cells during a variety of immune responses. (rupress.org)
  • These findings support a model in which low endosomal pH controls stability and lipid raft localization of CD1d-glycolipid complexes to regulate the outcome of iNKT cell mediated responses. (elsevier.com)
  • Overall, our studies demonstrate the efficacy of HDACi in restoring NKT cell mediated anti-tumor responses and may provide the basis for an NKT cell-based immunotherapeutic strategy that not only enhances the immune response, but also increases the immunogenicity of the tumor itself. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Only T cell responses induced in the presence of iNKT cell stimulation, whether by the i.v. or oral route, were capable of eradicating established tumors. (jci.org)
  • OVA 257-264 -specific CD8 + T cell responses in recipient animals were measured in the blood by FACS analysis using H-2K b /OVA 257-264 tetramers 7 days after transfer. (jci.org)
  • Graph shows OVA 257-264 -specific CD8 + T cell responses enumerated in the blood by FACS analysis 7 days after administration of 400 μg OVA with various combinations of vehicle, α-GalCer, or MPL. (jci.org)
  • Among various cell types in adipose tissue, immune cells actively regulate inflammatory responses and affect whole-body energy metabolism. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Collectively, these data suggest that adipocytes could selectively stimulate adipose iNKT cells to mediate anti-inflammatory responses and attenuate excess proinflammatory responses in obese adipose tissue. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • This diverse range of functions underpins the ability of the CD1d-iNKT cell axis to play a key role in antimicrobial, antitumor, and autoimmune responses ( 3 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Because of this antigenic diversity, a single mechanism might not explain all observed TCR-dependent γδ T cell responses ( 15 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Vδ1 γδ-T cells with different Vγ elements account for the majority of mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue γδ-T cells, and they mediate the immune responses to Listeria monocytogenes , Cytomegalovirus, and certain hematological malignancies ( 2 , 3 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • In contrast, γδ-T cells bearing the Vδ2 gene with the co-expression of the Vγ9 chain (Vγ9Vδ2-T cells) are abundant in the peripheral blood and lymphoid organs of most healthy individuals, and they are involved in the first line of the immune responses to mycobacteria, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), and some solid tumors ( 1 , 2 , 4 - 10 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • In the immune responses against tumors, two subsets of NKT cells, type I and type II, play opposing roles and cross-regulate each other. (springer.com)
  • Finally, we will speculate on how the distinct suppressor cell subsets may function in concert to regulate immune responses. (jci.org)
  • The T cell responses induced by most vaccine regimens disseminated systemically into secondary lymphoid tissues (lymph nodes, spleen) and effector anatomical sites (including liver, vaginal tissue), indicative of their role in viral containment at the portal of entry. (jove.com)
  • These results suggest that LLO may serve as a promising adjuvant by preferentially inducing the expansions of CD4(+)FoxP3(-) T cells and CD8(+) T cells, thus reducing the ratio of Tregs to CD4(+)FoxP3(-) T cells and to CD8(+) T cells favoring immune responses to eradicate tumor. (jove.com)
  • Suppression of immune responses by CD8 cells. (nii.ac.jp)
  • T-cell responses to the immunodominant major surface protein 2 (Msp2) hypervariable regions that vary with in vitro propagation do not occur to any substantial degree, diminishing their importance as inflammatory stimuli ( 7 ). (asm.org)
  • We identified over 50 annotated genes enriched in cell-mediated immune responses that are globally over-expressed in RPE-choroid AMD phenotypes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These results are consistent with a model whereby cell-based inflammatory responses represent a central feature of AMD etiology, and depending on genetics, environment, or stochastic factors, may give rise to the advanced AMD phenotypes characterized by angiogenesis and/or cell death. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In this study, we sought to investigate NKT cell responses to B cell lymphoma. (mdpi.com)
  • Therefore, the progression and severity of the disease are strongly modulated by the host immune response, particularly, T cell responses. (springer.com)
  • V α 14 NKT cells incorporated [ 3 H]thymidine ([ 3 H]TdR) after stimulation with α-galactosylceramide (α-GalCer), whereas activation with ceramide itself or β-galactosylceramide (β-GalCer) resulted in no proliferative responses (Fig. 1 , A and C). Because α-glucosylceramide (α-GlcCer) as well as α-GalCer stimulated V α 14 NKT cells readily, the α-anomeric conformation of sugar moiety is essential. (sciencemag.org)
  • Proliferative responses of V α 14 NKT cells by glycosylceramides. (sciencemag.org)
  • Mast cells (MC) are a bone marrow-derived, long-lived, heterogeneous cellular population that function both as positive and negative regulators of immune responses. (springer.com)
  • Although the exact function of NKT cells during various immune responses remains elusive, recent studies have suggested that NKT cells may have been evolved primarily for their role in antimicrobial immune responses. (usc.edu)
  • Activating iNKT-cells with various agonists has shown promise in modulating DC functions for both stimulating immunological responses against tumors and infectious agents as well as inducing tolerogenic responses for inhibiting autoimmune syndromes ( 1 , 3 , 4 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • CD1b presents self and Borrelia burgdorferi diacylglycerols to human T cells. (nih.gov)
  • Collectively, these data suggest that C24:0 stimulated type II NKT cells may regulate protection from T1D by activating DCs to secrete IL-10 and suppress the activation and expansion of type I iNKT cells and diabetogenic T cells. (plos.org)
  • Interestingly, herpes simplex virus (HSV) can down-regulate CD1d-mediated activation of NKT cells. (elsevier.com)
  • Hence, our findings strongly suggest that T322 and S323 form a dual residue motif that can regulate the functional expression of CD1d during a viral infection. (elsevier.com)
  • They arise in the thymus, and, as mature cells, they stimulate an adaptive immune response and regulate a range of disease states, including diabetes, cancer, and pathogenic infections. (scripps.edu)