Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell: IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell: Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Antigens, Protozoan: Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.HLA Antigens: Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Antigens, Polyomavirus Transforming: Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.Antigens, CD3: Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Antigens, Fungal: Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.H-2 Antigens: The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Antigens, CD79: A component of the B-cell antigen receptor that is involved in B-cell antigen receptor heavy chain transport to the PLASMA MEMBRANE. It is expressed almost exclusively in B-LYMPHOCYTES and serves as a useful marker for B-cell NEOPLASMS.Antigens, Helminth: Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.Histocompatibility Antigens Class II: Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.Antigens, CD8: Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.GPI-Linked Proteins: A subclass of lipid-linked proteins that contain a GLYCOSYLPHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOL LINKAGE which holds them to the CELL MEMBRANE.HLA-DR Antigens: A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.Blood Group Antigens: Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.Carcinoembryonic Antigen: A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.Antigens, Viral, Tumor: Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.Histocompatibility Antigens: A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Mice, Inbred BALB CReceptors, Antigen, T-Cell, alpha-beta: T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.Antigens, CD45: High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen: Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Mice, Inbred C57BLImmunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.HLA-A2 Antigen: A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.ZAP-70 Protein-Tyrosine Kinase: A protein tyrosine kinase that is required for T-CELL development and T-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTOR function.Antigens, CD4: 55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Prostate-Specific Antigen: A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.O Antigens: The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Receptors, Antigen: Molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with specific antigens.Antigens, CD19: Differentiation antigens expressed on B-lymphocytes and B-cell precursors. They are involved in regulation of B-cell proliferation.Autoantigens: Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.Antigens, Differentiation: Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.Antigens, CD15: A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.Antigens, CD1: Glycoproteins expressed on cortical thymocytes and on some dendritic cells and B-cells. Their structure is similar to that of MHC Class I and their function has been postulated as similar also. CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS.Hybridomas: Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.Antigens, Tumor-Associated, Carbohydrate: Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Histocompatibility Antigens Class I: Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Hepatitis B Surface Antigens: Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.Sialic Acid Binding Ig-like Lectin 2: A lectin and cell adhesion molecule found in B-LYMPHOCYTES. It interacts with SIALIC ACIDS and mediates signaling from B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.HLA-A Antigens: Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.Antigen-Antibody Reactions: The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.Lymphocyte Specific Protein Tyrosine Kinase p56(lck): This enzyme is a lymphoid-specific src family tyrosine kinase that is critical for T-cell development and activation. Lck is associated with the cytoplasmic domains of CD4, CD8 and the beta-chain of the IL-2 receptor, and is thought to be involved in the earliest steps of TCR-mediated T-cell activation.Thymus Gland: A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.Jurkat Cells: A CELL LINE derived from human T-CELL LEUKEMIA and used to determine the mechanism of differential susceptibility to anti-cancer drugs and radiation.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Tyrosine: A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Phospholipase C gamma: A phosphoinositide phospholipase C subtype that is primarily regulated by PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASES. It is structurally related to PHOSPHOLIPASE C DELTA with the addition of SRC HOMOLOGY DOMAINS and pleckstrin homology domains located between two halves of the CATALYTIC DOMAIN.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Antigen-Presenting Cells: A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.HLA-D Antigens: Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Antigens, CD40: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Antigens, CD80: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CD28 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD80 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a costimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Hepatitis B Antigens: Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.Receptor-CD3 Complex, Antigen, T-Cell: Molecule composed of the non-covalent association of the T-cell antigen receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL) with the CD3 complex (ANTIGENS, CD3). This association is required for the surface expression and function of both components. The molecule consists of up to seven chains: either the alpha/beta or gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor, and four or five chains in the CD3 complex.Clone Cells: A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Antigens, Thy-1: A group of differentiation surface antigens, among the first to be discovered on thymocytes and T-lymphocytes. Originally identified in the mouse, they are also found in other species including humans, and are expressed on brain neurons and other cells.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, gamma-delta: T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated gamma and delta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4-/CD8- T-cells. The receptors appear to be preferentially located in epithelial sites and probably play a role in the recognition of bacterial antigens. The T-cell receptor gamma/delta chains are separate and not related to the gamma and delta chains which are subunits of CD3 (see ANTIGENS, CD3).Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Interleukin-2: A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte: Antigens expressed on the cell membrane of T-lymphocytes during differentiation, activation, and normal and neoplastic transformation. Their phenotypic characterization is important in differential diagnosis and studies of thymic ontogeny and T-cell function.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Autoantibodies: Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.Enzyme Precursors: Physiologically inactive substances that can be converted to active enzymes.Neoplasm Proteins: Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.HLA-B Antigens: Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by more than 30 detectable alleles on locus B of the HLA complex, the most polymorphic of all the HLA specificities. Several of these antigens (e.g., HLA-B27, -B7, -B8) are strongly associated with predisposition to rheumatoid and other autoimmune disorders. Like other class I HLA determinants, they are involved in the cellular immune reactivity of cytolytic T lymphocytes.T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic: Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Antigen-Antibody Complex: The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Cytotoxicity, Immunologic: The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Antigens, CD2: Glycoprotein members of the immunoglobulin superfamily which participate in T-cell adhesion and activation. They are expressed on most peripheral T-lymphocytes, natural killer cells, and thymocytes, and function as co-receptors or accessory molecules in the T-cell receptor complex.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-vav: Proto-oncogene proteins that are guanine nucleotide exchange factors for RHO GTPASES. They also function as signal transducing adaptor proteins.Ovalbumin: An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.Antigens, CD28: Costimulatory T-LYMPHOCYTE receptors that have specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN. Activation of this receptor results in increased T-cell proliferation, cytokine production and promotion of T-cell survival.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.MART-1 Antigen: A melanosome-specific protein that plays a role in the expression, stability, trafficking, and processing of GP100 MELANOMA ANTIGEN, which is critical to the formation of Stage II MELANOSOMES. The protein is used as an antigen marker for MELANOMA cells.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Antigens, CD1d: A major histocompatibily complex class I-like protein that plays a unique role in the presentation of lipid ANTIGENS to NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS.CTLA-4 Antigen: An inhibitory T CELL receptor that is closely related to CD28 ANTIGEN. It has specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN and acts as a negative regulator of peripheral T cell function. CTLA-4 antigen is believed to play role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.HIV Antigens: Antigens associated with specific proteins of the human adult T-cell immunodeficiency virus (HIV); also called HTLV-III-associated and lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) antigens.Antibodies, Anti-Idiotypic: Antibodies which react with the individual structural determinants (idiotopes) on the variable region of other antibodies.Major Histocompatibility Complex: The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.Antigens, CD86: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CD28 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD86 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a stimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.Immune Tolerance: The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing: A broad category of carrier proteins that play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They generally contain several modular domains, each of which having its own binding activity, and act by forming complexes with other intracellular-signaling molecules. Signal-transducing adaptor proteins lack enzyme activity, however their activity can be modulated by other signal-transducing enzymesEpstein-Barr Virus Nuclear Antigens: Nuclear antigens encoded by VIRAL GENES found in HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 4. At least six nuclear antigens have been identified.Immunoglobulin alpha-Chains: The class of heavy chains found in IMMUNOGLOBULIN A. They have a molecular weight of approximately 58 kDa and contain about 470 amino acid residues arranged in four domains and an oligosaccharide component bound covalently to their Fc fragment constant region.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.src-Family Kinases: A PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE family that was originally identified by homology to the Rous sarcoma virus ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(V-SRC). They interact with a variety of cell-surface receptors and participate in intracellular signal transduction pathways. Oncogenic forms of src-family kinases can occur through altered regulation or expression of the endogenous protein and by virally encoded src (v-src) genes.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Antigens, Heterophile: Antigens stimulating the formation of, or combining with heterophile antibodies. They are cross-reacting antigens found in phylogenetically unrelated species.Isoantibodies: Antibodies from an individual that react with ISOANTIGENS of another individual of the same species.Precipitin Tests: Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.Isoantigens: Antigens that exist in alternative (allelic) forms in a single species. When an isoantigen is encountered by species members who lack it, an immune response is induced. Typical isoantigens are the BLOOD GROUP ANTIGENS.src Homology Domains: Regions of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE similarity in the SRC-FAMILY TYROSINE KINASES that fold into specific functional tertiary structures. The SH1 domain is a CATALYTIC DOMAIN. SH2 and SH3 domains are protein interaction domains. SH2 usually binds PHOSPHOTYROSINE-containing proteins and SH3 interacts with CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS.Hepatitis B Core Antigens: The hepatitis B antigen within the core of the Dane particle, the infectious hepatitis virion.T-Lymphocyte Subsets: A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.Antigens, CD34: Glycoproteins found on immature hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. They are the only molecules to date whose expression within the blood system is restricted to a small number of progenitor cells in the bone marrow.Antigen Presentation: The process by which antigen is presented to lymphocytes in a form they can recognize. This is performed by antigen presenting cells (APCs). Some antigens require processing before they can be recognized. Antigen processing consists of ingestion and partial digestion of the antigen by the APC, followed by presentation of fragments on the cell surface. (From Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Antigens, CD5: Glycoproteins expressed on all mature T-cells, thymocytes, and a subset of mature B-cells. Antibodies specific for CD5 can enhance T-cell receptor-mediated T-cell activation. The B-cell-specific molecule CD72 is a natural ligand for CD5. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Immunodiffusion: Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Forssman Antigen: A glycolipid, cross-species antigen that induces production of antisheep hemolysin. It is present on the tissue cells of many species but absent in humans. It is found in many infectious agents.PhosphoproteinsAntigens, Differentiation, B-Lymphocyte: Membrane antigens associated with maturation stages of B-lymphocytes, often expressed in tumors of B-cell origin.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.I Blood-Group System: A blood group related both to the ABO and P systems that includes several different antigens found in most people on erythrocytes, in milk, and in saliva. The antibodies react only at low temperatures.H-Y Antigen: A sex-specific cell surface antigen produced by the sex-determining gene of the Y chromosome in mammals. It causes syngeneic grafts from males to females to be rejected and interacts with somatic elements of the embryologic undifferentiated gonad to produce testicular organogenesis.Immunoglobulins: Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.Prostatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Antigens, CD20: Unglycosylated phosphoproteins expressed only on B-cells. They are regulators of transmembrane Ca2+ conductance and thought to play a role in B-cell activation and proliferation.Antigens, CD95: A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype found in a variety of tissues and on activated LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for FAS LIGAND and plays a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. Multiple isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.Phosphotyrosine: An amino acid that occurs in endogenous proteins. Tyrosine phosphorylation and dephosphorylation plays a role in cellular signal transduction and possibly in cell growth control and carcinogenesis.GRB2 Adaptor Protein: A signal transducing adaptor protein that links extracellular signals to the MAP KINASE SIGNALING SYSTEM. Grb2 associates with activated EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR and PLATELET-DERIVED GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTORS via its SH2 DOMAIN. It also binds to and translocates the SON OF SEVENLESS PROTEINS through its SH3 DOMAINS to activate PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN P21(RAS).B-Lymphocyte Subsets: A classification of B-lymphocytes based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.Complement Fixation Tests: Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.HLA-DQ Antigens: A group of the D-related HLA antigens found to differ from the DR antigens in genetic locus and therefore inheritance. These antigens are polymorphic glycoproteins comprising alpha and beta chains and are found on lymphoid and other cells, often associated with certain diseases.Type C Phospholipases: A subclass of phospholipases that hydrolyze the phosphoester bond found in the third position of GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS. Although the singular term phospholipase C specifically refers to an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE (EC 3.1.4.3), it is commonly used in the literature to refer to broad variety of enzymes that specifically catalyze the hydrolysis of PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS.Erythrocyte Aging: The senescence of RED BLOOD CELLS. Lacking the organelles that make protein synthesis possible, the mature erythrocyte is incapable of self-repair, reproduction, and carrying out certain functions performed by other cells. This limits the average life span of an erythrocyte to 120 days.Simian virus 40: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.Immunoglobulin D: An immunoglobulin which accounts for less than 1% of plasma immunoglobulin. It is found on the membrane of many circulating B LYMPHOCYTES.Cross-Priming: Class I-restricted activation of CD8-POSITIVE LYMPHOCYTES resulting from ANTIGEN PRESENTATION of exogenous ANTIGENS (cross-presentation). This is in contrast to normal activation of these lymphocytes (direct-priming) which results from presentation of endogenous antigens.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Adjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.Immunophenotyping: Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Immunologic Memory: The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Immunoelectrophoresis: A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.Cell SeparationAutoimmune Diseases: Disorders that are characterized by the production of antibodies that react with host tissues or immune effector cells that are autoreactive to endogenous peptides.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases: An enzyme group that specifically dephosphorylates phosphotyrosyl residues in selected proteins. Together with PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE, it regulates tyrosine phosphorylation and dephosphorylation in cellular signal transduction and may play a role in cell growth control and carcinogenesis.Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte: Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Immunoglobulin Heavy Chains: The largest of polypeptide chains comprising immunoglobulins. They contain 450 to 600 amino acid residues per chain, and have molecular weights of 51-72 kDa.Autoimmunity: Process whereby the immune system reacts against the body's own tissues. Autoimmunity may produce or be caused by AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Genes, MHC Class II: Genetic loci in the vertebrate major histocompatibility complex that encode polymorphic products which control the immune response to specific antigens. The genes are found in the HLA-D region in humans and in the I region in mice.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fyn: Src-family kinases that associate with T-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTOR and phosphorylate a wide variety of intracellular signaling molecules.Rh-Hr Blood-Group System: Erythrocyte isoantigens of the Rh (Rhesus) blood group system, the most complex of all human blood groups. The major antigen Rh or D is the most common cause of erythroblastosis fetalis.Mice, Inbred CBAGlycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Bacterial Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.Antibodies, Protozoan: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.CA-19-9 Antigen: Sialylated Lewis blood group carbohydrate antigen found in many adenocarcinomas of the digestive tract, especially pancreatic tumors.
This affinity keeps the T cell receptor of the cytotoxic T cell and the target cell bound closely together during antigen- ... In addition to aiding with cytotoxic T cell antigen interactions the CD8 co-receptor also plays a role in T cell signaling. The ... the CD8 co-receptor plays a role in T cell signaling and aiding with cytotoxic T cell antigen interactions. ... and dendritic cells. The CD8 molecule is a marker for cytotoxic T cell population. It is expressed in T cell lymphoblastic ...
It is in this way, the MHC class I-dependent pathway of antigen presentation, that the virus infected cells signal T-cells that ... The α3-CD8 interaction holds the MHC I molecule in place while the T cell receptor (TCR) on the surface of the cytotoxic T cell ... Their function is to display peptide fragments of proteins from within the cell to cytotoxic T cells; this will trigger an ... The fate of the virus-infected cell is almost always induction of apoptosis through cell-mediated immunity, reducing the risk ...
Wikipedia:MeSH D12.776#MeSH D12.776.543.750 - receptors.2C cell surface. References[edit]. *^ a b c Hall, JE (2016). Guyton and ... In biochemistry and pharmacology, a receptor is a protein molecule that receives chemical signals from outside a cell.[1] When ... Cells can increase (upregulate) or decrease (downregulate) the number of receptors to a given hormone or neurotransmitter to ... Cell surface receptors at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ...
... is a co-receptor of the T cell receptor (TCR) and assists the latter in communicating with antigen-presenting cells. The ... They are often referred to as CD4 cells, T-helper cells or T4 cells. They are called helper cells because one of their main ... T cell selection. • response to estradiol. • induction by virus of host cell-cell fusion. • adaptive immune response. • ... entry into host cell. • T cell activation. • positive regulation of T cell activation. • maintenance of protein location in ...
Structurally CD64 is composed of a signal peptide that allows its transport to the surface of a cell, three extracellular ... CD64+Antigens at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ... but treatment of polymorphonuclear leukocytes with cytokines like IFNγ and G-CSF can induce CD64 expression on these cells.[4][ ... "Immune interferon induces the receptor for monomeric IgG1 on human monocytic and myeloid cells". J Exp Med. 158 (4): 1092-113 ...
... causes a response in a type of immune cell called a TH2 lymphocyte, which belongs to a subset of T cells that produce a ... 1 - antigen. 2 - IgE antibody. 3 - FcεRI receptor. 4 - preformed mediators (histamine, proteases, chemokines, heparin). 5 - ... on the surface of other kinds of immune cells called mast cells and basophils, which are both involved in the acute ... These TH2 cells interact with other lymphocytes called B cells, whose role is the production of antibodies. Coupled with ...
Schwann cell antigen. Neuritis, paralysis. Hashimoto's thyroiditis[1]. Thyroglobulin antigen. Hypothyroidism, hard goiter, ... These cells differentiate into epithelioid cells which wall off the infected cells, but results in significant inflammation and ... CD4+ Th1 helper T cells recognize antigen in a complex with the MHC class II major histocompatibility complex on the surface of ... Enteric microbiota and/or self antigens. Hyperactivation of T-cells, cytokine release, recruitment of macrophages and other ...
FcεRI is expressed on mast cells, basophils, and the antigen-presenting dendritic cells in both mice and humans. Binding of ... Regulation of IgE levels through control of B cell differentiation to antibody-secreting plasma cells is thought to involve the ... those cells can be lysed or down-regulated, thus achieving the inhibition of the production of antigen-specific IgE and hence a ... which share a common haemopoietic progenitor with mast cells, upon the cross-linking of their surface bound IgE by antigens, ...
cell-cell signaling. • G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway. • cell surface receptor signaling pathway. • movement of ... Eichler W, Hamann J, Aust G (Nov 1997). "Expression characteristics of the human CD97 antigen". Tissue Antigens. 50 (5): 429-38 ... immune cells, epithelial cells, muscle cells as well as their malignant counterparts.[12][13][14][15][16][17] In the case of ... Aust G, Wandel E, Boltze C, Sittig D, Schütz A, Horn LC, Wobus M (Apr 2006). "Diversity of CD97 in smooth muscle cells". Cell ...
"The activation antigen CD69". Stem Cells (Dayton, Ohio). 12 (5): 456-465. doi:10.1002/stem.5530120502. ISSN 1066-5099. PMID ... It is activated in hematopoietic stem cells, T cells, and many other cell types in the immune system. The activation of T ... a type II membrane glycoprotein related to a family of natural killer cell activation antigens". Eur. J. Immunol. 23 (7): 1643- ... 1995). "CD 69 antigen of human lymphocytes is a calcium-dependent carbohydrate-binding protein". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun ...
Causes normal cells to increase expression of class I MHC molecules as well as class II MHC on antigen-presenting cells-to be ... Th1 cells), cytotoxic T cells (TC cells), macrophages, mucosal epithelial cells and NK cells. IFNγ is the only Type II ... Th1 cells secrete IFNγ, which in turn causes more undifferentiated CD4+ cells (Th0 cells) to differentiate into Th1 cells[ ... positive regulation of T cell proliferation. • cell cycle arrest. • positive regulation of cell proliferation. • regulation of ...
NCA-90 (granulocyte cell antigen). Clinical data. ATC code. *V09HA04 (WHO) Legal status. ...
A novel lysosomal membrane glycoprotein, cloned by a screening procedure for intracellular antigens in eukaryotic cells". J. ... 1990). "Characterization of three abundant mRNAs from human ovarian granulosa cells". DNA Cell Biol. 9 (7): 479-485. doi: ... In cell biology, CD63 is often used as a marker for multivessicular bodies, which are enriched with CD63. CD63 has been shown ... CD63 antigen is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CD63 gene. CD63 is mainly associated with membranes of intracellular ...
2000). "NY-ESO-1 tumour associated antigen is a cytoplasmic protein detectable by specific monoclonal antibodies in cell lines ... Cancer/testis antigen 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CTAG1B gene. It is a tumor antigen. GRCh38: Ensembl ... 1998). "A breast and melanoma-shared tumor antigen: T cell responses to antigenic peptides translated from different open ... 2002). "Differential presentation of a soluble exogenous tumor antigen, NY-ESO-1, by distinct human dendritic cell populations ...
2000). "CDw108 expression during T-cell development". Tissue Antigens. 55 (5): 429-36. doi:10.1034/j.1399-0039.2000.550505.x. ... Cell. Proteomics. 4 (12): 2000-9. doi:10.1074/mcp.M500207-MCP200. PMID 16199891. Koh JM, Oh B, Lee JY, et al. (2006). " ... SEMA7A is also known as the John-Milton-Hagen (JMH) blood group antigen, an 80-kD glycoprotein expressed on activated ... SEMA7A is a membrane-bound semaphorin that associates with cell surfaces via a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) linkage. ...
... are expressed by natural killer cells of a single individual". Tissue Antigens. 52 (6): 510-9. doi:10.1111/j.1399-0039.1998. ... Killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor 3DL1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the KIR3DL1 gene. Killer cell ... 2002). "Molecular mechanism of the activation-induced cell death inhibition mediated by a p70 inhibitory killer cell Ig-like ... 2000). "Diversity of the p70 killer cell inhibitory receptor (KIR3DL) family members in a single individual". Mol. Cells. 10 (1 ...
1998). "CD101 is expressed by skin dendritic cells. Role in T-lymphocyte activation". Tissue Antigens. 50 (5): 439-48. doi: ... 2001). "Triggering CD101 molecule on human cutaneous dendritic cells inhibits T cell proliferation via IL-10 production". Eur. ... 2000). "CD101 expression by Langerhans cell histiocytosis cells". Histopathology. 36 (3): 229-32. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2559.2000. ... Soares LR, Rivas A, Tsavaler L, Engleman EG (1997). "Ligation of the V7 molecule on T cells blocks anergy induction through a ...
Rh antigen appears at about 40 days of gestation. White blood cells[edit]. Fetus starts producing leukocytes at 2 months ... This process is called differentiation, which produces the varied cell types (such as blood cells, kidney cells, and nerve ... Red blood cells[edit]. Fetus produces megaloblastic red blood cells early in development, which become normoblastic near term. ... It starts out as a single cell zygote and then divides several times to form a ball of cells called a morula. Further cellular ...
Rh antigen appears at about 40 days of gestation. White blood cells[edit]. The fetus starts producing leukocytes at 2 months ... This process is called differentiation, which produces the varied cell types (such as blood cells, kidney cells, and nerve ... whereas long-lived T cells reside in the blood stream. Plasma cells are derived from B cells and their life in fetal blood is ... Red blood cells[edit]. Megaloblastic red blood cells are produced early in development, which become normoblastic near term. ...
Donor cells may have homozygous (e.g. K+k+), heterozygous (K+k-) expression or no expression of various antigens (K−k−). The ... Red cell transfusion[edit]. Main article: Packed red blood cells. Historically, red blood cell transfusion was considered when ... myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs), natural killer cells (NKCs), and dendritic cells ... Laura, Dean (2005). Blood Groups and Red Cell Antigens. Bethesda, United States: National Center for Biotechnology Information ...
1981) Antigen-reactive T cell clones. I. Transcomplementing hybrid I-A-region gene products function effectively in antigen ... His research centers on a molecular and cellular understanding of CD4 T cell responsiveness in mice and man. President of the ... 1996) Monoclonal T cells identified in early NOD islet infiltrates. Immunity 4:189-194. Anandasabapathy, Niroshana, Ford, ... 2004) Two isoforms of otubain 1 regulate T cell anergy via GRAIL. Nat Immunol 5:45-54. Kodama, Keiichi, Butte, Atul J., Creusot ...
Losada A, Yokochi T, Hirano T (May 2005). "Functional contribution of Pds5 to cohesin-mediated cohesion in human cells and ... "Entrez Gene: STAG2 stromal antigen 2". Sumara I, Vorlaufer E, Gieffers C, Peters BH, Peters JM (November 2000). " ... Cell. 127 (3): 635-48. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.09.026. PMID 17081983. ... The Journal of Cell Biology. 151 (4): 749-62. doi:10.1083/jcb.151.4.749. PMC 2169443 . PMID 11076961. Gregson HC, Schmiesing JA ...
Recognition of the specific antigen (for this antibody). - Production of antibodies against same antigen in experimental ... Transferable by serum or lymphoid cells. The modern revisions consider three types of evidence: - Direct evidence from transfer ... At Heidelberg he primarily worked with brain and organ tissue, as well as blood group antigens. Leaving Germany as a result of ... Witebsky helped develop procedures for the isolation and partial characterization of A and B blood antigens. He also began the ...
They have also been implicated in antigen presentation to T cells. Eosinophils are responsible for tissue damage and ... can inhibit proliferation of T cells, suppress antibody production by B cells, induce degranulation by mast cells, and ... Shi H (2004). "Eosinophils function as antigen-presenting cells". J Leukoc Biol. 76 (3): 520-7. doi:10.1189/jlb.0404228. PMID ... "Diverse effects of eosinophil cationic granule proteins on IMR-32 nerve cell signaling and survival". Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol ...
When antigen binds to T-cell receptor, Lck becomes autophosphorylated and phosphorylates the zeta chain of the T-cell receptor ... Another Src family member Lyn is involved in signaling mediated by B-cell receptor. Lyn is activated by stimulation of B-cell ... Signaling by many receptors is dependent on nRTKs including T-cell receptors (TCR), B-cell receptors (BCR), IL-2 receptors (IL- ... "Signal transduction by lymphocyte antigen receptors". Cell. 76 (2): 263-74. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(94)90334-4. PMID 8293463. ...
... the B cell acts as an antigen presenting cell (APC) and internalizes offending antigens, which are taken up by the B cell ... Plasma cells, also called plasma B cells, plasmocytes, plasmacytes, or effector B cells, are white blood cells that secrete ... In humans, CD27 is a good marker for plasma cells, naive B cells are CD27-, memory B-cells are CD27+ and plasma cells are ... Germinal center B cells may differentiate into memory B cells or plasma cells. Most of these B cells will become plasmablasts ( ...
Human Anti-Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA) IgG ELISA kit, 96 tests, Quantitative - Gentaur.com - Product info ... Antigens are peptides or recombinant or native dependent on the production method. For cells, cell lines and tissues in culture ... 1x Human Anti-Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA) IgG ELISA kit, 96 tests, Quantitative found in adi. *. Stock ... 5025 , Human Anti-Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA) IgG ELISA kit, 96 tests, Quantitative1 Kit 973.8 USD. *. Catalog ...
Results Our artificial antigen-presenting cells expanded both polyclonal T cells and MART-1-specific CD8+ T cells in a more ... Stimulation with artificial antigen-presenting cells allows for the generation of viable T cells displaying an immunophenotype ... The starting specificity of anti MART-1 CD8+ T cells was preserved after stimulation with artificial antigen-presenting cells ... we tested the T-cell expansion efficiency of a new artificial antigen-presenting cell-based system. ...
This is due to donor T- and B-cell targeting of male-specific minor Histocompatibility Antigens (mHAgs). Clinical studies and ... Analyzing the antibody against H-Y antigen in hematopoietic cell transplant patients ... Analyzing the antibody against H-Y antigen in hematopoietic cell transplant patients ... This region contains the FIDSYICQV sequence, an epitope recognized by CD8⁺ HLA-A*0201-restricted T cells frequently isolated in ...
E1A was expressed at high levels in CN706-infected human PSA-producing LNCaP cells but not in CN706-infected DU145 cells, which ... The titer of CN706 was significantly higher in LNCaP cells compared to several human cell lines that do not produce PSA (HBL100 ... A Selective Cytotoxic for Prostate-specific Antigen-positive Prostate Cancer Cells. Ron Rodriguez, Eric R. Schuur, Ho Yeong Lim ... A Selective Cytotoxic for Prostate-specific Antigen-positive Prostate Cancer Cells ...
LNCaP PCA cells (43) , PC-3 PCA cells (44) , DU 145 PCA cells (45) , A549 lung carcinoma cells (46) , LS-174T colon carcinoma ... Vaccination activated new T-cell and B-cell immune responses against PCA antigens. T-cell responses, evaluated by assessing ... B, Lane 1, PC-3 PCA cells; Lane 2, LNCaP PCA cells; Lane 3, A549 lung carcinoma cells; Lane 4, LS-174T colon carcinoma cells; ... DCs, the most potent immunostimulatory antigen-presenting cells known, activate antigen-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells by ...
Antigen-specific and nonspecific mediators of T cell/B cell cooperation. I. Evidence for their production by different T cells ... To further examine the ability of PNAhi cells to stimulate proliferation in response to specific antigen, primed T cells were ... Cell Preparation.. Single-cell suspensions of WKM were prepared from adult zebrafish as previously described (31). IPEX cells ... this experiment demonstrated that the T-cell proliferation was antigen specific. As expected, primed T cells (Fig. 5E Upper) ...
A specialized type of cell, bearing cell surface class II MHC (major histocompatibility complex) molecules, involved in ... processing and presentation of antigen to inducer, or helper. ... Antigen-presenting cell, Accessory Cells T lymphocytes are part ... Examples of Antigen-processing cells include: * Macrophages These are large white blood cells that ingest antigens and other ... Dendritic Cell (DC) Follicular Dendritic Cell (FDC) Dendritic cells are the principle APC involved in primary immune responses ...
T-cell antigen receptors: T-cell antigen receptors are found only on the cell membrane. For this reason, T-cell receptors were ... T-cell receptors consist of two polypeptide chains. The most… ... Other articles where T-cell antigen receptor is discussed: ... T-cell antigen receptors. T-cell antigen receptors are found only on the cell membrane. For this reason, T-cell receptors were ... www.britannica.com/science/T-cell-antigen-receptor", "title": "T-cell antigen receptor", "documentGroup": "TOPIC PAGINATED ...
Antigen presentation and T cell stimulation by dendritic cells.. Guermonprez P1, Valladeau J, Zitvogel L, Théry C, Amigorena S. ... Antigen presentation in dendritic cells is finely regulated: antigen uptake, intracellular transport and degradation, and the ... Dendritic cells take up antigens in peripheral tissues, process them into proteolytic peptides, and load these peptides onto ... Dendritic cells then migrate to secondary lymphoid organs and become competent to present antigens to T lymphocytes, thus ...
1998) The IL-1 receptor-related T1 antigen is expressed on immature and mature mast cells and on fetal blood mast cell ... IL-33 exacerbates antigen-induced arthritis by activating mast cells. Damo Xu, Hui-Rong Jiang, Peter Kewin, Yubin Li, Rong Mu, ... IL-33 exacerbates antigen-induced arthritis by activating mast cells. Damo Xu, Hui-Rong Jiang, Peter Kewin, Yubin Li, Rong Mu, ... The mode of mast cell activation and the mechanism by which activated-mast cells mediate antigen-induced arthritis are largely ...
It accompanies the dbRBC, a new NCBI resource that contains clinical and DNA data about human red blood cells. ... Blood Groups and Red Cell Antigens is a guide to the differences in our blood types that complicate blood transfusions and ... Blood Groups and Red Cell Antigens. Blood Groups and Red Cell Antigens. ... 2. Blood group antigens are surface markers on the red blood cell membrane*Antigens stimulate an immune response ...
The indirect antibody technique for amplified detection of antigens (Coons, 1956) has a wide and expanding range of ... Wofsy L., Henry C., Cammisuli S. (1978) Hapten - Sandwich Labeling of Cell-Surface Antigens. In: Reisfeld R.A., Inman F.P. (eds ... Kishida, Y., Olsen, B. R., Berg, R. A., and Prockop, D. J., 1975, J. Cell Biol. 64: 331.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Heggeness, M. H., and Ash, J. F., 1977, J. Cell Biol. 73: 783.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ...
Stimulation of rat mast cell suspension from actively sensitized rats with antigen in vitro produced a parallel release of ... TPNE was not only a cleavable substrate for the enzymatic activity in the 800g cell supernatant following antigen stimulation, ... Stimulation of rat mast cell suspension from actively sensitized rats with antigen in vitro produced a parallel release of ... E.P. Benditt,An Enzyme in Mast Cell with Some Properties Resembling Chymotrypsin, Fedn. Proc.15, 507 (1956).Google Scholar ...
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
T cells have been identified as main effector cells in HBV clearance. In contrast, B cells producing neutralizing antibodies ... However, they are not restricted to HBsAg-specific B cells, but affect the global B cell compartment of patients with acute or ... Fluorochrome-labeled HBsAg binds to the HBsAg-specific B cell receptor (BCR) of HBsAg-specific B cells, allowing their ... Indeed, these cells are present, but show phenotypic alterations and impaired function during acute and chronic HBV infection. ...
Adaptive natural killer cells for tumor therapy. Adaptive Natural Killer (aNK) cells represent a subset of NK cells which seems ... The proper targeting of tumor-reactive cytotoxic effector cells (CD8+ T cells, NK cells) to tumor tissues appears to be an ... We develop novel platforms for the in vitro diagnostics of tumor-antigen specific T cells (joint project with Dr. Z rnig/Prof. ... Cancer stem cells, tumor heterogeneity and novel therapy. *Advanced tools: Preclinical mouse models, Single cell technics and ...
... cell-based therapy for B-cell malignancies, and early phase clinical trials have been launched in recent years. The few ... Many studies have struggled to improve the clinical responses to and benefits of CART-cell treatment of solid tumors. In this ... Although antitumor effects were confirmed,i, in vitro,/i, and in animal models, CART-cell-based therapy still faces several ... Importantly, we will suggest improvements that could increase the therapeutic effectiveness of CART cells for solid tumors and ...
Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), or cyclin, is a non-histone acidic nuclear protein [PMID: 2884104] that plays a key ... Proliferating cell nuclear antigen, PCNA, C-terminal (IPR022649). Short name: Pr_cel_nuc_antig_C ... Functional interactions of a homolog of proliferating cell nuclear antigen with DNA polymerases in Archaea.. J. Bacteriol. 181 ... Molecular cloning of cDNA coding for rat proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)/cyclin.. EMBO J. 6 637-42 1987 ...
... by the antigen-presenting cell, of two distinct signals. The first results from the engagement of the TCR:CD3:CD4 complex, and ... T-cell activation and the development of efficient immune responses requires the delivery, ... T-cell activation and the development of efficient immune responses requires the delivery, by the antigen-presenting cell, of ... Antigen presentation by parenchymal cells: a route to peripheral tolerance? Immunol Rev. 1999 Dec;172:297-314. doi: 10.1111/j. ...
... welcomes high quality research concerning every aspect of antigen presenting cells (APCs), ... Antigen Presenting Cell Biology is devoted to the publication of high quality research concerning every aspect of antigen ... Antigen Presenting Cell Biology welcomes submissions of the following article types: Case Report, Classification, Clinical ... All manuscripts must be submitted directly to the section Antigen Presenting Cell Biology, where they are peer-reviewed by the ...
Dendritic and Antigen Presenting Cell RT2 Profiler PCR Array The Human Dendritic and Antigen Presenting Cell RT² Profiler PCR ... Dendritic and Antigen Presenting Cell RT2 Profiler PCR Array The Mouse Dendritic and Antigen Presenting Cell RT² Profiler PCR ... Dendritic and Antigen Presenting Cell RT2 Profiler PCR Array The Rat Dendritic and Antigen Presenting Cell RT² Profiler PCR ... causing the cells to migrate to lymph nodes where they encounter T cells. They display these antigens on their cell surface ...
Prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA) is expressed in the majority of prostate cancer patients, making it an ideal target for ... or animal cells such as fibroblasts, CHO cells, COS cells, NS0 cells, HeLa cells, BHK cells, HEK 293 cells, or human cells. ... subtilis cells, fungal cells such as yeast cells or Aspergillus cells, insect cells such as Drosophila S2 or Spodoptera Sf9 ... Prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA) is a predominantly prostate-specific cell surface antigen that is expressed in the majority ...
By selecting for labeled cells which produce light scatter and low red autofluorescence, viable single cells can be isolated ... Method for isolating specific antibody hybridomas from a hybridoma cell mixture employing antigen-conjugated labeled ... 2.4 cells producing antibody to Ig-1b were mixed with 11-5.2 cells producing antibody to the IAk cell surface antigen. The ... a mixture of hybrid cells will be obtained after fusion between spleen cells and myeloma cells. The resulting cell mixture is ...
Chimeric Antigen Receptor (CAR) T cell Immunotherapy- Competitive Landscape,... ... Chimeric Antigen Receptor (CAR) T cell Immunotherapy - Competitive Landscape, Pipeline and Market Analysis, 2017 Press Release ... DelveInsights, Chimeric Antigen Receptor (CAR) T cell Immunotherapy- Competitive Landscape, Pipeline and Market Analysis, 2017 ... Coverage of the Chimeric Antigen Receptor (CAR) T cell Immunotherapy pipeline on the basis of target, MOA, route of ...
... thereby limiting antigen-specific T cell localization.. Figure 4. Modulation of the antigen-specific T cell response by Hla. (A ... T cell differentiation toward effector and memory cell phenotypes during infection is shaped by local cues from antigen- ... As our studies assess the T cell response to a single exogenous antigen, further analysis of endogenous T cells elicited by ... To track antigen-specific CD4+ T cell responses, we transferred CD45.1+ OT-II T cells into mice prior to intravenous or skin ...
  • Clinical studies and murine models suggest that the protein product of the SMCY (KDM5D) gene is a major T-cell target for H-Y (Y-chromosome histocompatibility antigen) specific responses. (whitman.edu)
  • Authors: Schultz L, Gardner R Abstract Immunotherapies have been successfully developed for the treatment of B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) with FDA approval of blinatumomab, inotuzumab, and tisagenlecleucel for relapsed or refractory patients. (medworm.com)
  • Thus, IL-33 is closely associated with the activation and production of type II cytokines from in vitro polarized Th2 cells ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • Mast cells express a high density of ST2 and produce a variety of proinflammatory cytokines in vitro in response to IL-33 ( 1 , 12 - 14 ). (pnas.org)
  • Stimulation of rat mast cell suspension from actively sensitized rats with antigen in vitro produced a parallel release of histamine and enzyme, probably proteolytic activity, which releases p -nitrophenol from an l -tyrosine- p -nitrophenyl ester derivative (TPNE). (springer.com)
  • We develop novel platforms for the in vitro diagnostics of tumor-antigen specific T cells (joint project with Dr. Z rnig/Prof. J ger). (dkfz.de)
  • Although antitumor effects were confirmed in vitro and in animal models, CART-cell-based therapy still faces several challenges when directed towards solid tumors, and it has been difficult to achieve the desired outcomes in clinical practice. (hindawi.com)
  • In this paper we have attempted to critically review the often conflicting reports on the functional effects of antigen presentation by epithelial and endothelial cells to T cells, both in vitro and in vivo. (nih.gov)
  • This approach has been tested in vitro with CD30+ hematopoietic stem cells and CD30+ tumor cells and in vivo in mice transplanted with human CD30+ hematopoietic stem cells. (innovations-report.com)
  • By comparing FoxP3-transduced T-cells with various antigen specificities, it became clear that the in vivo effect correlated with specific homing to and activation in pancreatic lymph nodes and not with in vitro suppressor activity or cytokine production. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Our results complement recent results on in vitro-amplified antigen-specific T-cells in ameliorating type 1 diabetes and suggest that FoxP3 transduction of expanded T-cells might achieve the same goal. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Our results complement recent results on naturally occurring, in vitro-amplified antigen-specific T-cells in type 1 diabetes ( 8 , 9 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Eosinophils, incubated with OVA Ag in vitro, were instilled intratracheally into wild-type recipient mice that adoptively received i.v. infusions of OVA Ag-specific CD4 + T cells from OVA TCR transgenic mice. (jimmunol.org)
  • Cell extracts of synchronized HEp-2 cells were phosphorylated in vitro with exogenous ATP, examined by SDS-PAGE and Western blot, and probed with specific anti-Ro sera. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Phosphorylation of the in vitro and in vivo cell extracts increased the molecular mass to 65 kD. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Two different approaches were used: in order to analyze the subsets occurring during a primary response, antigen-experienced CD4 cells were analyzed in vitro after priming with the superantigen TSST. (hu-berlin.de)
  • The results revealed that both in vitro and ex vivo the IL7RhiCCR7+ T cell subset corresponds to cells with TCM characteristics whereas IL7RlowCCR7- identifies cells with effector characteristics. (hu-berlin.de)
  • Finally, it was demonstrated that IL7RhiCCR7+ TCM-like cells generated in vitro acquired different functional properties depending on the strength of stimulation during the priming. (hu-berlin.de)
  • In summary, despite some differences observed between in vitro and ex vivo CD4 T cell subsets, the combination of the markers CCR7 and IL7R is useful to distinguish memory- from effector-like CD4 T cells. (hu-berlin.de)
  • Up to now, evaluations of the functional T cell response in vitro have been based on the secretion of cytokines (mainly IFNg) and on the expression of activation molecules on the cell surface. (scielo.br)
  • Our BEST (B-cell Epitope prediction using Support vector machine Tool) method predicts epitopes from antigen sequences, in contrast to some method that predict only from short sequence fragments, using a new architecture based on averaging selected scores generated from sliding 20-mers by a Support Vector Machine (SVM). (psu.edu)
  • Empirical evaluation on benchmark datasets demonstrates that BEST outperforms several modern sequence-based B-cell epitope predictors including ABCPred, method by Chen et al. (psu.edu)
  • The second epitope, the antigen E7 49 (derived from human papilloma virus 16), was inserted close to the C terminus of GFP ( Fig. 1A ) ( 8 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • The bifunctional antigens were designed so that the backbone substitution level of each antigenic epitope could be quantified using (19)F NMR. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The T cell peptide epitope was appended so that it could be liberated in B cells via the action of the endosomal protease cathepsin D, and this design feature was critical for T cell activation. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Since the first descriptions of DCs in humans and mice, this cell type has been identified in other mammals, birds, reptiles and amphibians, but not in fish ( 7 ). (pnas.org)
  • Autophagy refers to a fundamental recycling process of cells that occurs in yeast, fungi, plants, as well as animals and humans. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Here, we used an attenuated whole parasite malaria vaccine model in humans and various experimental infections in mice to show that the duration of antigenic stimulation and timing of brefeldin A (BFA) addition influence the magnitude of Ag-specific and bystander T cell responses. (jci.org)
  • Indeed, after immunization with an attenuated whole sporozoite malaria vaccine in humans, significantly higher numbers of IFN-γ-producing memory CD8+ T cells comprising Ag-specific and bystander responses were detected when the duration of Ag stimulation prior to addition of BFA was increased. (jci.org)
  • The first signal is the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), which in humans is also called the human leukocyte antigen (HLA). (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, altered gut microbiota are associated with β cell autoimmunity in humans at risk of developing T1D, underscoring a role for gut microbiota in the pathogenesis of antiislet cell autoimmunity and T1D development. (rupress.org)
  • Although data from both experimental models and clinical studies suggest that antigen specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells are required for optimal control of genital tract chlamydial infections, the current lack of information regarding the specific C. trachomatis antigens eliciting protective immune responses in humans hinders vaccine development. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • CN706 destroyed large LNCaP tumors (1 × 10 9 cells) and abolished PSA production in nu/nu mouse xenograft models with a single intratumoral injection. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The few published clinical studies of CART cells in solid tumors have addressed safety and feasibility, but the clinical outcome data are limited. (hindawi.com)
  • Many studies have struggled to improve the clinical responses to and benefits of CART-cell treatment of solid tumors. (hindawi.com)
  • In this review, the status quo of CART cells and their clinical applications for solid tumors will be summarized first. (hindawi.com)
  • Importantly, we will suggest improvements that could increase the therapeutic effectiveness of CART cells for solid tumors and their future clinical applications. (hindawi.com)
  • These interventions will make treatment with CART cells an effective and routine therapy for solid tumors. (hindawi.com)
  • The clinical studies of CART cells for solid tumors have begun recently. (hindawi.com)
  • Up to date, eleven studies of CART-cell therapy for solid tumors have been conducted in the past decade (Table 1 ), and thirty-five clinical trials for various solid tumors are listed at ClinicalTrials.gov ( http://www.clinicaltrials.gov ) (Figure 1 ). (hindawi.com)
  • The registered numbers of clinical trials increase annually, and a range of tumor antigens, including CEA, mesothelin, HER2, and GD2, are being targeted for various solid tumors. (hindawi.com)
  • Natural killer (NK) cells have the capacity to target tumors and are ideal candidates for immunotherapy. (plos.org)
  • This novel strategy could be a potential valuable therapeutic approach for the treatment of B-cell tumors. (plos.org)
  • Additionally, treatment of solid tumors with CAR-T cells has been less successful than targeting CD19-expressing tumors. (ca.gov)
  • In the past 15 years, the molecular identification of antigens that can mediate the killing of tumor cells by T cells has been vigorously pursued. (ebscohost.com)
  • With the increasing prevalence of asthma and related allergic disorders ( 9 ), attention has focused on cells that mediate or modulate ongoing Ag-dependent allergic airways inflammation in response to inhaled Ags. (jimmunol.org)
  • Tolerance to allergens is critically dependent on the generation of allergen-specific regulatory T (Treg) cells, which mediate a state of sustained non-responsiveness to the offending allergen. (harvard.edu)
  • CD2 interacts with lymphocyte function-associated antigen CD58 (LFA-3) and CD48/BCM1 to mediate adhesion between T-cells and other cell types. (uniprot.org)
  • We identified a CAR containing the transmembrane domain of NKG2D, the 2B4 co-stimulatory domain, and the CD3zeta signaling domain to mediate strong antigen-specific NK cell signaling. (ca.gov)
  • Although accurate predictors for T-cell epitopes are already in place, the prediction of the B-cell epitopes requires further research. (psu.edu)
  • We overview the available approaches for the prediction of B-cell epitopes and propose a novel and accurate sequence-based solution. (psu.edu)
  • We therefore used ring-opening metathesis polymerization to access chemically defined, multivalent antigens containing both B and T cell epitopes to explore how antigen structure impacts B cell and T cell activation and communication. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Thus, HBsAg-specific B cells are a novel attractive target for antiviral strategies toward functional cure of chronic HBV infection. (jci.org)
  • Using this approach, phenotypical as well as functional differences between HBsAg-specific B cells in acute and chronic infection versus resolved infection were identified. (jci.org)
  • Figure 4: Nck recruitment to the T cell contact site is dependent on the functional activity of LAT. (nature.com)
  • This can potentially reduce the cost while allowing control over generating large numbers of functional pathogen-specific T cells for therapy. (wikipedia.org)
  • We present here a method to develop functional antigen (Ag)-specific regulatory T cells (Tregs) from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) for immunotherapy of autoimmune arthritis in a murine model. (jove.com)
  • Thus, in TI-2 immune responses, large differences in affinity produce only small differences in the intrinsic ability of B cells to respond to antigen, and selection for high-affinity clones is due to clonal competition during the earliest stages of the response. (nature.com)
  • For example, several groups have reported clinical trials with anti-CD19 CART cells in which favorable clinical efficacy resulted from the specific recognition and eradication of CD19-positive tumor cells [ 3 , 4 , 6 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • A K562 cell line expressing high levels of anti-CD19 CARs was generated as a donor cell to transfer the anti-CD19 CARs onto NK cells via trogocytosis. (plos.org)
  • Immunofluorescence analysis confirmed the localization of the anti-CD19 CARs on the NK cell surface. (plos.org)
  • Acquisition of anti-CD19 CARs via trogocytosis enhanced NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity against the B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) cell lines and primary B-ALL cells derived from patients. (plos.org)
  • CD19 is an ideal target antigen for immunotherapy because it is expressed on nearly all leukemia cells in most patients with B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and chronic lymphoblastic leukemia (CLL) , . (plos.org)
  • Researchers want to see if giving modified CD19/CD22-CAR T cells to people with these cancers can attack cancer cells. (centerwatch.com)
  • To study the safety and effects of giving CD19/CD22-CAR T cells to children and young adults with B-cell cancer. (centerwatch.com)
  • Assess the safety of administering escalating doses of autologous CD19/CD22-CAR engineered T cells that meet established release specifications in children and young adults with CD19+CD22+ B cell ALL or lymphoma following a cyclophosphamide/fludarabine conditioning regimen. (centerwatch.com)
  • Patients will receive a lymphodepleting preparative regimen of fludarabine (25 mg/m^2/d x 3 on Days -4, -3, -2) and cyclophosphamide (900 mg/m^2/d x 1 on Day -2) followed by infusion of CD19/CD22-CAR T-cells on D0. (centerwatch.com)
  • Patients who are CAR pre-treated (with exception for those with an interval HSCT) will receive increased lymphodepleting preparative regimen of fludarabine (30 mg/m^2/d x 4 on Days -5, -4, -3, -2) and cyclophosphamide (600 mg/m^2/d x 2 on Days -3, -2) followed by infusion of CD19/CD22-CAR T-cells on D0. (centerwatch.com)
  • Areas of interest also include cell biological and molecular mechanisms of pattern sensing and of antigen uptake and processing, as well as novel methods in APC research. (frontiersin.org)
  • The immunological synapse: a molecular machine controlling T cell activation. (nature.com)
  • Dustin, M.L. & Cooper, J.A. The immunological synapse and the actin cytoskeleton: molecular hardware for T cell signaling. (nature.com)
  • Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular Cell Research (2014):Sep 6. (wikipedia.org)
  • Researchers have identified the molecular basis of many red cell blood group antigens, and an actively maintained database currently lists over 1,600 alleles of 44 genes (1). (aacc.org)
  • For this reason, molecular typing is eminently suitable for the mass screening of blood donors, and is expected to greatly expand the pool of blood donors (and donor RBC units) who are negative for multiple antigens or negative for a high-prevalence antigen. (aacc.org)
  • Molecular typing also provides the means to identify antigen-negative donors when typing antisera are not available. (aacc.org)
  • We previously described that some mycobacterial glycolipid antigens must be processed, however the underlying molecular mechanisms remain poorly defined. (ipbs.fr)
  • Recombinant fragment, corresponding to a region within amino acids 1-146 of Human Bone marrow stromal cell antigen 1. (abcam.com)
  • T-cell responses, evaluated by assessing delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) reactions against untransduced autologous tumor cells, were evident in two of eight patients before vaccination and in seven of eight patients after treatment. (aacrjournals.org)
  • A distinctive eosinophilic vasculitis was evident near autologous tumor cells at vaccine sites, and at DTH sites. (aacrjournals.org)
  • This trial is to compare the efficacy and safety of modified FOLFOX6 [mFOLFOX6, a specific chemotherapy regimen of Oxaliplatin ,5-Fluorouracil and Leucovorin] chemotherapy plus Antigen Pulsed Dendritic Cells (APDC3a kind of autologous tumor lysates pulsed human dendritic cells vaccine) with modified chemotherapy alone in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Not surprisingly, this first wave of trials will include many hematological malignancy trials, and that should include those with autologous cellular immunotherapies, such as CAR-T cells. (urotoday.com)
  • Generally, leukapheresis is utilized to collect peripheral blood mononuclear cells to create autologous therapy. (urotoday.com)
  • Several studies over the past decade using mouse model of colitis and human IBD samples have established the central role for antigen presenting cells and CD4 + T cells in induction and regulation of intestinal inflammation. (biospace.com)
  • J.C. Foreman, M.B. Hallett and J.L. Mongar , The Relationship between Histamine Secretion and 43 Calcium Uptake by Mast Cells, J. Physiol. (springer.com)
  • We have observed that the uptake of ovalbumin (OVA) into DC2.4 cells is greatly increased when co-cultured with the cationic liposomes composed of 1,2-dioleoyl-3-trimethylammonium-propane (DOTAP) and 3β-[N-(N',N'-dimethylaminoethane)-carbamoyl] (DC-chol). (scirp.org)
  • Our results implied, at least in part, that enhanced uptake of antigens induced by the cationic liposomes could be a possible mechanism for the induction of immune responses. (scirp.org)
  • These recombinant subunit antigens require potent adjuvants or immune modulators to enhance their immunogenicity as well as their capacity to trigger CTLs responses required to fend off life-threatening infections caused by intracellular pathogens, such as HIV, malaria, and tuberculosis [ 6 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Altogether, lipid antigen properties make them attractive for their use in subunit vaccines against Mtb. (ipbs.fr)
  • Although the natural host cell of MCPyV has not yet been established, this work provides a foundation for understanding how LT activity is regulated and provides tools for better exploring this regulation in both natural host cells and Merkel cells. (mdpi.com)
  • PP2A is a key enzyme within various signal transduction pathways as it regulates fundamental cellular activities such as DNA replication, transcription, translation, metabolism, cell cycle progression, cell division, apoptosis and development (1-3). (cellsignal.com)
  • It was not until the 1970s that Steinman and Cohn clearly identified the DC as a distinct cell type with unique morphology, tissue distribution, cell-surface phenotype, and function ( 2 - 5 ). (pnas.org)
  • Recently published studies and our in-house data indicate that activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in DCs and terminally differentiated CD4 + T cells induces strong immunoregulatory phenotype. (biospace.com)
  • The red cell phenotype is the complement of antigens on the red cell surface. (aacc.org)
  • Red cell phenotype testing on patients is used selectively, to supplement routine pre-transfusion testing. (aacc.org)
  • The phenotype is then used to select matched, antigen-negative RBC units, thus avoiding exposure to foreign antigens and further alloimmunization. (aacc.org)
  • Detecting these SNPs can predict the red cell phenotype and is an alternative to serological typing. (aacc.org)