Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Stromal Cells: Connective tissue cells of an organ found in the loose connective tissue. These are most often associated with the uterine mucosa and the ovary as well as the hematopoietic system and elsewhere.Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Macrophage Activation: The process of altering the morphology and functional activity of macrophages so that they become avidly phagocytic. It is initiated by lymphokines, such as the macrophage activation factor (MAF) and the macrophage migration-inhibitory factor (MMIF), immune complexes, C3b, and various peptides, polysaccharides, and immunologic adjuvants.Macrophages, Peritoneal: Mononuclear phagocytes derived from bone marrow precursors but resident in the peritoneum.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Mice, Inbred C57BLT-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Mesenchymal Stromal Cells: Bone-marrow-derived, non-hematopoietic cells that support HEMATOPOETIC STEM CELLS. They have also been isolated from other organs and tissues such as UMBILICAL CORD BLOOD, umbilical vein subendothelium, and WHARTON JELLY. These cells are considered to be a source of multipotent stem cells because they include subpopulations of mesenchymal stem cells.Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell: IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.Bone Marrow Cells: Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.Macrophages, Alveolar: Round, granular, mononuclear phagocytes found in the alveoli of the lungs. They ingest small inhaled particles resulting in degradation and presentation of the antigen to immunocompetent cells.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Immune System: The body's defense mechanism against foreign organisms or substances and deviant native cells. It includes the humoral immune response and the cell-mediated response and consists of a complex of interrelated cellular, molecular, and genetic components.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell: Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.Mice, Inbred BALB CCell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Endometrium: The mucous membrane lining of the uterine cavity that is hormonally responsive during the MENSTRUAL CYCLE and PREGNANCY. The endometrium undergoes cyclic changes that characterize MENSTRUATION. After successful FERTILIZATION, it serves to sustain the developing embryo.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Coculture Techniques: A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Phagocytosis: The engulfing and degradation of microorganisms; other cells that are dead, dying, or pathogenic; and foreign particles by phagocytic cells (PHAGOCYTES).Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Immunity, Innate: The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Lipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Monocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Immune Tolerance: The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor: A mononuclear phagocyte colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) synthesized by mesenchymal cells. The compound stimulates the survival, proliferation, and differentiation of hematopoietic cells of the monocyte-macrophage series. M-CSF is a disulfide-bonded glycoprotein dimer with a MW of 70 kDa. It binds to a specific high affinity receptor (RECEPTOR, MACROPHAGE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR).Antigens, CD3: Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.HLA Antigens: Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Histocompatibility Antigens Class II: Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.Antigens, Protozoan: Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Hematopoietic Stem Cells: Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Bone Marrow: The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Antigens, Polyomavirus Transforming: Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Thymus Gland: A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Antigens, CD8: Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.GPI-Linked Proteins: A subclass of lipid-linked proteins that contain a GLYCOSYLPHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOL LINKAGE which holds them to the CELL MEMBRANE.H-2 Antigens: The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.Antigens, Differentiation: Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Cell Communication: Any of several ways in which living cells of an organism communicate with one another, whether by direct contact between cells or by means of chemical signals carried by neurotransmitter substances, hormones, and cyclic AMP.HLA-DR Antigens: A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Corneal Stroma: The lamellated connective tissue constituting the thickest layer of the cornea between the Bowman and Descemet membranes.Antigens, Fungal: Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.Mice, Inbred C3HAntigens, CD45: High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.Antigen-Antibody Complex: The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Antigens, Helminth: Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Decidua: The hormone-responsive glandular layer of ENDOMETRIUM that sloughs off at each menstrual flow (decidua menstrualis) or at the termination of pregnancy. During pregnancy, the thickest part of the decidua forms the maternal portion of the PLACENTA, thus named decidua placentalis. The thin portion of the decidua covering the rest of the embryo is the decidua capsularis.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Cell SeparationInterleukin-6: A cytokine that stimulates the growth and differentiation of B-LYMPHOCYTES and is also a growth factor for HYBRIDOMAS and plasmacytomas. It is produced by many different cells including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.Antigens, CD79: A component of the B-cell antigen receptor that is involved in B-cell antigen receptor heavy chain transport to the PLASMA MEMBRANE. It is expressed almost exclusively in B-LYMPHOCYTES and serves as a useful marker for B-cell NEOPLASMS.Culture Media, Conditioned: Culture media containing biologically active components obtained from previously cultured cells or tissues that have released into the media substances affecting certain cell functions (e.g., growth, lysis).Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Antigens, CD4: 55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.Antigen-Presenting Cells: A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.Immunophenotyping: Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic: Surface antigens expressed on myeloid cells of the granulocyte-monocyte-histiocyte series during differentiation. Analysis of their reactivity in normal and malignant myelomonocytic cells is useful in identifying and classifying human leukemias and lymphomas.Chemokine CXCL12: A CXC chemokine that is chemotactic for T-LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES. It has specificity for CXCR4 RECEPTORS. Two isoforms of CXCL12 are produced by alternative mRNA splicing.Macrophage Migration-Inhibitory Factors: Proteins released by sensitized LYMPHOCYTES and possibly other cells that inhibit the migration of MACROPHAGES away from the release site. The structure and chemical properties may vary with the species and type of releasing cell.Killer Cells, Natural: Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Histocompatibility Antigens: A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Cytotoxicity, Immunologic: The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.Hematopoiesis: The development and formation of various types of BLOOD CELLS. Hematopoiesis can take place in the BONE MARROW (medullary) or outside the bone marrow (HEMATOPOIESIS, EXTRAMEDULLARY).Immunity: Nonsusceptibility to the invasive or pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or to the toxic effect of antigenic substances.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Carcinoembryonic Antigen: A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.Receptors, Immunologic: Cell surface molecules on cells of the immune system that specifically bind surface molecules or messenger molecules and trigger changes in the behavior of cells. Although these receptors were first identified in the immune system, many have important functions elsewhere.Antigens, CD34: Glycoproteins found on immature hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. They are the only molecules to date whose expression within the blood system is restricted to a small number of progenitor cells in the bone marrow.Blood Group Antigens: Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Adjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, alpha-beta: T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Tumor Microenvironment: The milieu surrounding neoplasms consisting of cells, vessels, soluble factors, and molecules, that can influence and be influenced by, the neoplasm's growth.Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Leukocytes: White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).Antigens, Viral, Tumor: Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.Histocompatibility Antigens Class I: Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.Chemokines: Class of pro-inflammatory cytokines that have the ability to attract and activate leukocytes. They can be divided into at least three structural branches: C; (CHEMOKINES, C); CC; (CHEMOKINES, CC); and CXC; (CHEMOKINES, CXC); according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.T-Lymphocyte Subsets: A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Leukocytes, Mononuclear: Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen: Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.Antigens, CD19: Differentiation antigens expressed on B-lymphocytes and B-cell precursors. They are involved in regulation of B-cell proliferation.Interleukin-2: A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.Clone Cells: A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Autoantigens: Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.Cell Culture Techniques: Methods for maintaining or growing CELLS in vitro.Models, Immunological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of immune system, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electrical equipment.Receptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.Osteogenesis: The process of bone formation. Histogenesis of bone including ossification.NF-kappa B: Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.Lectins, C-Type: A class of animal lectins that bind to carbohydrate in a calcium-dependent manner. They share a common carbohydrate-binding domain that is structurally distinct from other classes of lectins.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Jurkat Cells: A CELL LINE derived from human T-CELL LEUKEMIA and used to determine the mechanism of differential susceptibility to anti-cancer drugs and radiation.Mice, SCID: Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.Neutrophils: Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.Antigens, Thy-1: A group of differentiation surface antigens, among the first to be discovered on thymocytes and T-lymphocytes. Originally identified in the mouse, they are also found in other species including humans, and are expressed on brain neurons and other cells.Interleukin-10: A cytokine produced by a variety of cell types, including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; DENDRITIC CELLS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS that exerts a variety of effects on immunoregulation and INFLAMMATION. Interleukin-10 combines with itself to form a homodimeric molecule that is the biologically active form of the protein.Interleukin-1: A soluble factor produced by MONOCYTES; MACROPHAGES, and other cells which activates T-lymphocytes and potentiates their response to mitogens or antigens. Interleukin-1 is a general term refers to either of the two distinct proteins, INTERLEUKIN-1ALPHA and INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. The biological effects of IL-1 include the ability to replace macrophage requirements for T-cell activation.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.HLA-A2 Antigen: A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.Macrophage Inflammatory Proteins: Heparin-binding proteins that exhibit a number of inflammatory and immunoregulatory activities. Originally identified as secretory products of MACROPHAGES, these chemokines are produced by a variety of cell types including NEUTROPHILS; FIBROBLASTS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS. They likely play a significant role in respiratory tract defenses.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Ascitic Fluid: The serous fluid of ASCITES, the accumulation of fluids in the PERITONEAL CAVITY.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Cell Count: The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.Receptors, IgG: Specific molecular sites on the surface of various cells, including B-lymphocytes and macrophages, that combine with IMMUNOGLOBULIN Gs. Three subclasses exist: Fc gamma RI (the CD64 antigen, a low affinity receptor), Fc gamma RII (the CD32 antigen, a high affinity receptor), and Fc gamma RIII (the CD16 antigen, a low affinity receptor).Toll-Like Receptors: A family of pattern recognition receptors characterized by an extracellular leucine-rich domain and a cytoplasmic domain that share homology with the INTERLEUKIN 1 RECEPTOR and the DROSOPHILA toll protein. Following pathogen recognition, toll-like receptors recruit and activate a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCING ADAPTOR PROTEINS.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Antigens, CD1: Glycoproteins expressed on cortical thymocytes and on some dendritic cells and B-cells. Their structure is similar to that of MHC Class I and their function has been postulated as similar also. CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS.Lymphoid Tissue: Specialized tissues that are components of the lymphatic system. They provide fixed locations within the body where a variety of LYMPHOCYTES can form, mature and multiply. The lymphoid tissues are connected by a network of LYMPHATIC VESSELS.Inflammation Mediators: The endogenous compounds that mediate inflammation (AUTACOIDS) and related exogenous compounds including the synthetic prostaglandins (PROSTAGLANDINS, SYNTHETIC).Neoplasm Proteins: Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Peritoneal Cavity: The space enclosed by the peritoneum. It is divided into two portions, the greater sac and the lesser sac or omental bursa, which lies behind the STOMACH. The two sacs are connected by the foramen of Winslow, or epiploic foramen.Adaptive Immunity: Protection from an infectious disease agent that is mediated by B- and T- LYMPHOCYTES following exposure to specific antigen, and characterized by IMMUNOLOGIC MEMORY. It can result from either previous infection with that agent or vaccination (IMMUNITY, ACTIVE), or transfer of antibody or lymphocytes from an immune donor (IMMUNIZATION, PASSIVE).Endometriosis: A condition in which functional endometrial tissue is present outside the UTERUS. It is often confined to the PELVIS involving the OVARY, the ligaments, cul-de-sac, and the uterovesical peritoneum.T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic: Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation: Transfer of MESENCHYMAL STEM CELLS between individuals within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS).Antigen Presentation: The process by which antigen is presented to lymphocytes in a form they can recognize. This is performed by antigen presenting cells (APCs). Some antigens require processing before they can be recognized. Antigen processing consists of ingestion and partial digestion of the antigen by the APC, followed by presentation of fragments on the cell surface. (From Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)Sarcoma, Endometrial Stromal: A highly malignant subset of neoplasms arising from the endometrial stroma. Tumors in this group infiltrate the stroma with a wide range of atypia cells and numerous mitoses. They are capable of widespread metastases (NEOPLASM METASTASIS).Interleukin-4: A soluble factor produced by activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that induces the expression of MHC CLASS II GENES and FC RECEPTORS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and causes their proliferation and differentiation. It also acts on T-lymphocytes, MAST CELLS, and several other hematopoietic lineage cells.Antigens, CD40: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Paracrine Communication: Cellular signaling in which a factor secreted by a cell affects other cells in the local environment. This term is often used to denote the action of INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS on surrounding cells.Antigens, CD80: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CD28 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD80 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a costimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Ovalbumin: An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.Antigen-Antibody Reactions: The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.Toll-Like Receptor 4: A pattern recognition receptor that interacts with LYMPHOCYTE ANTIGEN 96 and LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES. It mediates cellular responses to GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Hybridomas: Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.Prostate-Specific Antigen: A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.Autoimmune Diseases: Disorders that are characterized by the production of antibodies that react with host tissues or immune effector cells that are autoreactive to endogenous peptides.ZAP-70 Protein-Tyrosine Kinase: A protein tyrosine kinase that is required for T-CELL development and T-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTOR function.Mice, Inbred CBARecombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Thioglycolates: Organic esters of thioglycolic acid (HS-CH2COOH).Immunoglobulins: Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.O Antigens: The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Cell Lineage: The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor: An acidic glycoprotein of MW 23 kDa with internal disulfide bonds. The protein is produced in response to a number of inflammatory mediators by mesenchymal cells present in the hemopoietic environment and at peripheral sites of inflammation. GM-CSF is able to stimulate the production of neutrophilic granulocytes, macrophages, and mixed granulocyte-macrophage colonies from bone marrow cells and can stimulate the formation of eosinophil colonies from fetal liver progenitor cells. GM-CSF can also stimulate some functional activities in mature granulocytes and macrophages.Chemokines, CXC: Group of chemokines with paired cysteines separated by a different amino acid. CXC chemokines are chemoattractants for neutrophils but not monocytes.Receptors, Antigen: Molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with specific antigens.

*Lymph node stromal cell

An adaptive immune response takes place in response to the presence of the antigen in the lymph node. Antigen-presenting cells ... These sinuses are cavities containing macrophages (specialised cells which help to keep the extracellular matrix in order). The ... The lymph tissue in the lymph nodes consists of immune cells (95%), for example lymphocytes, and stromal cells (1% to 5%) The ... dendritic cells move to the T cell zone or to the B cell follicle along the fibroblast reticular cell network. Dendritic cells ...

*Macrophage-activating factor

... which can inhibit cytotoxic responses of other lymphocytes to cancer cell antigens. The stromal reaction surrounding a tumor, ... IFNγ signaling can initially originate from Natural Killer (NK) cells, but adaptive immune cells are required to sustain a ... The phrase 'alternatively activated macrophage' is used to refer to M2 macrophages. Regulatory macrophages do not fit into the ... secreted by granulocytes after tissue damage or by adaptive immune cells within a Th2 response, causes macrophages to secrete ...

*Succinic acid

The mechanism by which succinate accumulates in immune cells is not fully understood. Activation of inflammatory macrophages ... Succinate may enhance adaptive immunity by triggering the activity of antigen-presenting cells that, in turn, activate T-cells ... SDH mutations have also been identified in gastrointestinal stromal tumors, renal tumors, thyroid tumors, testicular seminomas ... Enzymes required for the GABA shunt are expressed in neurons, glial cells, macrophages and pancreatic cells. Succinate is ...

*Lymphatic system

... to produce immune cells to fight antigens to remove particulate matter and aged blood cells, mainly erythrocytes to produce ... In addition, thymic stromal cells allow for the selection of a functional and self-tolerant T cell repertoire. Therefore, one ... These monocytes, upon moving to injured tissue (such as the heart), turn into dendritic cells and macrophages while promoting ... as the primary site for cells relating to adaptive immune system including T-cells and B-cells. Cells in the lymphatic system ...

*Belimumab

BAFF is secreted by a variety of cells: monocytes and macrophages, bone marrow stromal cells, astrocytes, synoviocytes during ... B lymphocytes (B cells) are one of the immune cells responsible for the damage in autoimmune disease. B cells develop in the ... BAFF interacts with three membrane receptors on B lymphocytes: BAFF-R (BAFF receptor) BCMA (B cell maturation antigen) TACI ( ... B cells are responsible for part of the normal immune response, and also for the over-aggressive immune response in autoimmune ...

*Outline of immunology

LTi cells) (Non-hematopoietic cells with immune functions) Stromal cells Lymph node stromal cells Follicular dendritic cells ... CD18 Macrophage-1 antigen (CR3) - Heterodimer: CD11b / CD18 Integrin alphaXbeta2 (CR4) - Heterodimer: CD11c / CD18 Very late ... Commonly termed CD4+ T cells Th1 cells Th2 cells Th3 cells Th17 cells TFH cells - Follicular helper T cells Cytotoxic T cells ... Lymphoid cells B cells Plasma B cells Memory B cells B-1 cells B-2 cells (the conventional B cells most texts refer to) ...

*TLR4

On the other hand, TLR4 signaling in immune and inflammatory cells of tumor microenvironment may lead to production of ... to accumulation and function of MDSC at the site of tumor and it also allows mesenchymal stromal cells to counter NK cell- ... Morphine causes inflammation by binding to the protein lymphocyte antigen 96, which, in turn, causes the protein to bind to ... High levels of TLR4 molecules and M2 tumor-associated macrophages are associated with increased susceptibility to cancer growth ...

*Induced stem cells

Under certain conditions macrophages can divide without losing features they have acquired while specializing into immune cells ... human iPS cell-derived myeloid cell lines as unlimited cell source for dendritic cell-like antigen-presenting cells". Gene ... "Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stromal Cells from Aged Patients with Coronary Artery Disease Keep Mesenchymal Stromal Cell ... "Regeneration of Human Tumor Antigen-Specific T Cells from iPSCs Derived from Mature CD8+ T Cells". Cell Stem Cell. 12 (1): 31-6 ...

*S100 protein

Schwann cells, and melanocytes), chondrocytes, adipocytes, myoepithelial cells, macrophages, Langerhans cells, dendritic cells ... paraganglioma stromal cells, histiocytoma and clear cell sarcomas. Further, S100 proteins are markers for inflammatory diseases ... Wilson, AJ; Maddox, PH; Jenkins, D (January 1991). "CD1a and S100 antigen expression in skin Langerhans cells in patients with ... of the Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor in Mycobacterium tuberculosis-Infected Macrophages Has Pleiotropic Effects on Innate Immune ...

*Tumor microenvironment

... in humans of a systemic immune response to eliminate immunogenic cancer cells was provided by Boon's 1991 studies of antigens ... intratumoral macrophages was reported after the induction of cancer cell apoptosis in human and mouse gastrointestinal stromal ... T cells reach tumor sites via the circulatory system. The TME appears to preferentially recruit other immune cells over T cells ... Because FAP+ stromal cells also accumulate in nontransformed, inflammatory lesions, this "coating" of cancer cells may reflect ...

*Immune tolerance

... importation of antigen from peripheral sites via circulating blood, and in the case of thymic stromal cells, expression of ... tissue macrophages, and other immune infiltrates. These cells and their interactions all contribute to the changing tumor ... Treg cells are not the only cells that mediate peripheral tolerance. Other regulatory immune cells include T cell subsets ... Peripheral mucosal immune tolerance, in particular mediated by iTreg cells and tolerogenic antigen-presenting cells, is thought ...

*Lymphopoiesis

T cells that remember antigens previously encountered), and T-suppressor cells (which moderate the immune response of other ... needed for activation of other cells such as B cells and macrophages), T-cytotoxic (which kill virally infected cells), T- ... they are fully committed to the T cell lineage- when thymoctyes expressing Notch1 receptors engage thymic stromal cells ... B cells Large Pre-B cells => Small Pre-B cells Immature B cells B Cells => (B1 cells; B2 cells) Plasma cells Pro-T cells T- ...

*Mouse models of breast cancer metastasis

T cells regulate pulmonary metastasis of mammary carcinomas by enhancing protumor properties of macrophages". Cancer Cell. 16 ( ... The role of an innate and adaptive immune response to assist metastasis can be studied in MMTV-PyMT; Rag1−/− mice in which CD4+ ... The mouse must first have their mammary fat pads humanized by injecting human telemorase-immortalized human mammary stromal ... in which MMTV-LTR is used to drive the expression of mammary gland specific polyomavirus middle T-antigen, leading to a rapid ...

*Immunoediting

... macrophages and stromal cells surrounding the tumour cells. The recruited tumour-infiltrating NK cells and macrophages produce ... For the innate immune response, several effector cells such as natural killer cells and T cells are activated by the ... CD4+ and CD8+ T cells home to the tumor site and the cytotoxic T lymphocytes then destroy the antigen-bearing tumor cells which ... natural killer cells, natural killer T cells, macrophages and dendritic cells) to the tumor site. During this phase, the ...

*Dengue fever

They are then able to enter other white blood cells, such as monocytes and macrophages. The initial reaction of infected cells ... This can be done by virus isolation in cell cultures, nucleic acid detection by PCR, viral antigen detection (such as for NS1) ... Furthermore, dysfunction of the bone marrow due to infection of the stromal cells leads to reduced numbers of platelets, which ... Interferon also activates the adaptive immune system, which leads to the generation of antibodies against the virus as well as ...

*Dendritic cell

Dendritic cells (DCs) are antigen-presenting cells (also known as accessory cells) of the mammalian immune system. Their main ... Every helper T-cell is specific to one particular antigen. Only professional antigen-presenting cells (macrophages, B ... "The Inducible CXCR3 Ligands Control Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cell Responsiveness to the Constitutive Chemokine Stromal Cell- ... Here they act as antigen-presenting cells: they activate helper T-cells and killer T-cells as well as B-cells by presenting ...

*Michael R. Gold

... immune-synapse formation, and signaling by particulate B cell receptor ligands". Immunity. 28 (1): 75-87. doi:10.1016/j.immuni. ... "The Rap GTPases regulate B cell migration toward the chemokine stromal cell-derived factor-1 (CXCL12): Potential role for Rap2 ... of how antigen receptors on the surface of B-cells might trigger the adaptive immunity upon recognizing their cognate antigens ... The goal of his Ph.D. project was to characterize biochemically a receptor present on macrophages, that recognize bacterial ...

*Superantigen

Compared to a normal antigen-induced T-cell response where 0.0001-0.001% of the body's T-cells are activated, these SAgs are ... of T cells). The large number of activated T-cells generates a massive immune response which is not specific to any particular ... Minor lymphocyte stimulating (Mls) exotoxins were originally discovered in the thymic stromal cells of mice. These toxins are ... This excess amount of IFN-gamma in turn activates the macrophages. The activated macrophages, in turn, over-produce ...

*Index of immunology articles

3-dioxygenase Induced-self antigen Inflammasome Inflammation Inflammatory reflex Innate immune system Innate lymphoid cell ... Macrophage Macrophage colony-stimulating factor Macrophage inflammatory protein Macrophage-activating factor Major ... cell Thymic stromal lymphopoietin Thymus Thymus transplantation Tilomisole Timeline of immunology Titer Titermax Tn antigen TNF ... IL22RA2 Immune adherence Immune complex Immune dysregulation Immune network theory Immune privilege Immune receptor Immune ...

*Prostaglandin EP4 receptor

... suppressor T cells that modulate the immune system to maintain tolerance to self-antigens and prevent autoimmune disease); b) ... trabecular cells, ciliary epithelium, conjunctival stromal cells, and iridal stromal cells of the eye; and gingival fibroblasts ... of plaque-bound pro-inflammatory macrophages; e) increases the survival of neurons in an inflammation-based model of ... stimulate Dendritic cells (i.e. antigen-presenting cells located primarily in the skin and mucus membranes) to mature, migrate ...

*Feline leukemia virus

Purification of protein from bovine-derived stromal cell supernatants produces a substantially homogeneous factor, free of ... usually through the pharynx where it infects the epithelial cells and infects the tonsilar B-lymphocytes and macrophages. These ... If the cat's immune system does not fight off the virus, then it progresses to: Stage Five: The bone marrow becomes infected. ... newer evidence shows that a high percentage of FeLV-Antigen negative lymphomas contain FeLV-DNA, indicating a "hit-and-run" ...

*Epithelioid sarcoma

Adoptive immunotherapy seeks to expand a population of the body's T-cells that will recognize a specific tumor antigen. T-cells ... It usually involves "training" or "tweaking" the immune system so that it can better recognize and reject cancer cells. ... which include most human cancer cells. In addition, CGTG-102 codes for the granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM ... most notably Imatinib-mesylate in gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs). Tyrosine kinase (a subclass of protein kinases) is ...

*Lymph node

These are taken up by cells throughout the body called antigen-presenting cells, such as dendritic cells. These antigen ... The medullary cords are cords of lymphatic tissue, and include plasma cells, macrophages, and B cells. The medullary sinuses ( ... A lymph node or lymph gland is an ovoid or kidney-shaped organ of the lymphatic system, and of the adaptive immune system, that ... Katakai, Tomoya; Takahiro Hara; Hiroyuki Gonda; Manabu Sugai; Akira Shimizu (5 July 2004). "A novel reticular stromal structure ...

*IL17A

doi:10.1016/j.cell.2009.09.033. PMC 2796826 . PMID 19836068. Chen K, Kolls JK (2013). "T cell-mediated host immune defenses in ... Antigen specific Th17 cells were also shown to recognize conserved protein antigens among different K. pneumoniae strains and ... "T cell interleukin-17 induces stromal cells to produce proinflammatory and hematopoietic cytokines". The Journal of ... macrophage recruitment, and emphysema in response to cigarette smoke". PLoS One. 6 (5): e20333. doi:10.1371/journal.pone. ...

*Endometriosis

Immunohistochemistry has been found to be useful in diagnosing endometriosis as stromal cells have a peculiar surface antigen, ... There are immune system changes in women with endometriosis, such as an increase macrophage-derived secretion products, but it ... Stem cells: Endometriosis may arise from stem cells from bone marrow and potentially other sources. In particular this theory ... Coelomic metaplasia: Coelomic cells which are the common ancestor of endometrial and peritoneal cells may undergo metaplasia ( ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Combined introduction of Bmi-1 and hTERT immortalizes human adipose tissue-derived stromal cells with low risk of transformation. AU - Tátrai, Péter. AU - Szepesi, Áron. AU - Matula, Zsolt. AU - Szigeti, Anna. AU - Buchan, Gyöngyi. AU - Mádi, András. AU - Uher, Ferenc. AU - Német, Katalin. PY - 2012/5/25. Y1 - 2012/5/25. N2 - Adipose tissue-derived stromal cells (ASCs) are increasingly being studied for their usefulness in regenerative medicine. However, limited life span and donor-dependent variation of primary cells such as ASCs present major hurdles to controlled and reproducible experiments. We therefore aimed to establish immortalized ASC cell lines that provide steady supply of homogeneous cells for in vitro work while retain essential features of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Survivin Is Required for Mouse and Human Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stromal Cell Function. AU - Singh, Pratibha. AU - Fukuda, Seiji. AU - Liu, Liqiong. AU - Chitteti, Brahmananda Reddy. AU - Pelus, Louis. PY - 2018/1/1. Y1 - 2018/1/1. N2 - Although mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have significant potential in cell-based therapies, little is known about the factors that regulate their functions. While exploring regulatory molecules potentially involved in MSC activities, we found that the endogenous multifunctional factor Survivin is essential for MSC survival, expansion, lineage commitment, and migration. Pharmacological or genetic blockade of Survivin expression in mouse and human bone marrow MSC enhances caspase 3 and 7 expression and reduces proliferation resulting in fewer MSC and clonogenic colony-forming unit-fibroblasts (CFU-F), whereas ectopic Survivin overexpression in MSC results in their expansion. ...
Lymph node stromal cells are essential to the structure and function of the lymph node. There are a number of different types of lymph node stromal cells which have a number of functions including: creating a tissue scaffold within lymph nodes for the support of hematopoietic cells; the release of small molecules that are chemical messengers that facilitate interactions between hematopoietic cells; the facilitation of the migration of hematopoietic cells; the presentation of antigens to immune cells at the initiation of the adaptive immune system; and the homeostasis of lymphocyte numbers. Stromal ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Adipose stromal cells differentiation toward smooth muscle cell phenotype diminishes their vasculogenic activity due to induction of activin A secretion. AU - Merfeld-Clauss, Stephanie. AU - Lease, Benjamin R.. AU - Lu, Hongyan. AU - March, Keith L.. AU - Traktuev, Dmitry O.. PY - 2017/11. Y1 - 2017/11. N2 - Adipose stromal cells (ASCs) support endothelial cell (EC) vasculogenesis through paracrine and cell-contact communications. In addition, ASCs differentiate towards the smooth muscle cell (SMC) phenotype under different stimuli, which prompted their use as a source of mural cells in fabricating small calibre vessels. How ASCs SMC-lineage commitment affects their subsequent communication with ECs is unknown. The vasculogenic characteristics of human ASCs in progenitor stage and after differentiation ...
BioAssay record AID 44634 submitted by ChEMBL: HSF produced by bone marrow-derived stromal cell lines C6.4 on stimulation with the compound at (1000 ng/mL) was determined in vitro in an GM-CFC assay..
Expression of uPAR in tumor-associated stromal cells is associated with colorectal cancer patient prognosis: a TMA study. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Intracerebral Xenotransplantation of GFP Mouse Bone Marrow Stromal Cells in Intact and Stroke Rat Brain. T2 - Graft Survival and Immunologic Response. AU - Irons, H.. AU - Lind, J. G.. AU - Wakade, Chandramohan G.. AU - Yu, G.. AU - Hadman, M.. AU - Carroll, James Edwin. AU - Hess, David C. AU - Borlongan, Cesar V.. PY - 2004/1/1. Y1 - 2004/1/1. N2 - The present study characterized survival and immunologic response of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) following transplantation into intact and stroke brains. In the first study, intrastriatal transplantation of BMSC (60,000 in 3 μl) or vehicle was performed in normal adult Sprague-Dawley male rats that subsequently received daily cyclosporin A (CsA, 10 mg/kg, IP in 3 ml) or vehicle (olive oil, similar volume) starting on day of surgery up to 3 days posttransplantation. Animals were euthanized at 3 or 30 days ...
Bone marrow stromal cells protect hematopoietic cells and provide drug resistance by delivering bunch of variable proteins. Thus, alterations of protein expression are typically associated with cell-cell signal transduction and regulation of cellular functions. Co-culture models of bone marrow stromal cells and hematopoietic cells are often used in studies of their crosstalk. Studies of altered protein expression initiated by stromal cell/hematopoietic cell interactions are an important new trend in microenvironmental research. There has been no report to date of global quantitative proteomics analysis of crosstalk between hematopoietic cells and stromal ...
Non-healing bone fractures and periodontal bone loss constitute significant clinical problems with few approved medical options. Bone repair is enhanced by the presence of osteoblasts or osteoblastic precursor cells. Subcutaneous adipose tissue is a plentiful, accessible, and replenishable source of human stromal cells for transplantation. In Phase I of this SBIR, we tested the hypothesis that human adipose tissue-derived stromal cells are capable of osteoblast function. Substantial in vitro data indicates that these stromal cells differentiate into cells biochemically and morphologically similar to osteoblasts. The ability of these cells to form bone in ...
Looking for online definition of macrophage/monocyte inhibitory factor in the Medical Dictionary? macrophage/monocyte inhibitory factor explanation free. What is macrophage/monocyte inhibitory factor? Meaning of macrophage/monocyte inhibitory factor medical term. What does macrophage/monocyte inhibitory factor mean?
In this study, we analyzed the influence of mesenchymal stromal cells derived from lymph nodes of non-Hodgkin lymphomas, on effector functions and differentiation of Vδ2 T lymphocytes. We show that: i) lymph-node mesenchymal stromal cells of non-Hodgkin lymphoma inhibit NKG2D-mediated lymphoid cell killing, but not rituximab-induced antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity, exerted by Vδ2 T lymphocytes; ii) pre-treatment of mesenchymal stromal cells with the aminobisphosphonates pamidronate or zoledronate can rescue lymphoma cell killing via NKG2D; iii) this is due to inhibition of transforming growth factor-β and increase in interleukin-15 production by mesenchymal stromal cells; iv) aminobiphosphonate-treated mesenchymal ...
In this study, the role of histamine in interleukin-1 (IL-1) formation in murine bone marrow stromal cells was investigated in vitro. It was found that histamine and 4-methylhistamine increased the number of granulocyte colony-forming units in murine bone marrow cells. A similar effect was elicited by dibutyryl-cAMP and theophylline. When histamine and H2 agonists, such as 4-methylhistamine and dimaprit, were added to the culture medium containing murine bone marrow stromal cells, thymocyte comitogenic activity detected in the medium increased significantly. However, no such effect was observed in the case of 2-methyl-histamine, an H1 agonist. Histamine-induced production of thymocyte comitogenic activity in bone marrow stromal cells was inhibited by some H2 ...
Objectives: Human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSCs) are adherent fibroblast-like cells found in the bone marrow. They are a heterogeneous population of cells that includes a subset of osteoprogenitors. BMSCs have been widely used for tissue engineering, especially for bone regeneration. However, for clinical application currently, large quantities of hBMSCs are usually required for transplantation which is typically produced by serial passages of the cells ex vivo. We examined the effects of in vitro expansion on hBMSCs proliferation, multidifferentiation, and gene expression profiles. Methods: hBMSCs were harvested from surgical waste bone specimens from 3 healthy adults with IRB approval. The hBMSCs were cultured in α-MEM with 10% FBS and 1% penicillin-streptomycin. hBMSCs were ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Proliferation Profile of Uterine Endometrial Stromal Cells during In Vitro Culture with Gonadotropins. T2 - Recombinant versus Urinary Follicle Stimulating Hormone. AU - Kim, Yong Jin. AU - Kim, Yoon Young. AU - Song, Da Young. AU - Lee, Sanghoon. AU - Park, Chan Woo. AU - Kim, Hoon. AU - Ku, Seung Yup. PY - 2019/4/11. Y1 - 2019/4/11. N2 - Background:: Provision of optimal endometrial stromal cells is essential in uterine tissue engineering. Culture of these cells is significantly influenced by gonadotropin hormones. This investigation attempted to define the proliferation profiles of murine uterine endometrial stromal cells during in vitro culture with recombinant follicle stimulating hormone (rFSH), urinary follicle stimulating hormone ...
Expression of CD44v9-containing isoforms (CD44v9) on myeloma plasma cells correlates with unfavorable prognosis, suggesting that CD44 variant molecules are involved in the disease process. In this study, the presence of CD44v on B cell lines from different stages of development was analyzed by flow cytometry and a role in adhesion to stromal cells from different tissues was evaluated in in vitro binding assays. CD44v3, v6 and v9 isoforms were exclusively expressed on plasma cell lines and CD44v9 expression correlated with IL-6-dependent plasma cell growth. Binding studies using CD44 isoform- specific reagents showed that CD44v6 and CD44v9 were involved in binding to bone marrow stromal cells, but not to in vitro synthesized ECM or hyaluronic acid. CD44v9-mediated plasma cell binding resulted in a significant induction of ...
The cellular mechanisms which account for the formation of osteoclasts and bone resorption associated with enlarging benign and malignant mesenchymal tumours of bone are uncertain. Osteoclasts are marrow-derived, multinucleated, bone-resorbing cells which express a macrophage phenotype. We have determined whether tumour-associated macrophages (TAMs) isolated from benign and malignant mesenchymal tumours are capable of differentiating into osteoclasts. Macrophages were cultured on both coverslips and dentine slices for up to 21 days with UMR 106 osteoblastic cells in the presence of 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) and human macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) or, in the absence of UMR 106 cells, with M-CSF and RANK ligand. In all tumours, the formation of osteoclasts from CD14-positive ...
Large populations of macrophages are a prominent feature of tuberculous granulomas, yet there are many unanswered questions surrounding the spatial organization of macrophage subsets in granulomas and whether macrophages have microenvironment-specific homeostatic or bactericidal functions. Much of what we know about granuloma macrophages comes from animal models that may not represent the spectrum of pathology seen in humans or has been derived from cells removed from the context of the granuloma. To address these questions, we used immunohistochemistry to clarify the interplay of microenvironment and macrophage biology by identifying macrophage subsets and arginase and NOS expression in granulomas from cynomolgus macaques, a nonhuman primate that recapitulates human TB (4). We found that granulomas have macrophage subsets that are stratified into pro- and anti-inflammatory regions with the implication that ...
The hallmark of the human atherosclerotic plaque is the presence of lipid-laden macrophages, or foam cells. However, many macrophage subsets are found within atherosclerotic lesions and it is not well understood how monocytes differentiate into these subsets. We focused on characterizing macrophages derived in vitro from human peripheral blood monocytes treated with IL-15, IL-4 or IL-10. We show these macrophages to have differing phenotypes: CD209+CD64+, CD209+CD23+, or CD209+CD163+ for macrophages derived from IL-15, IL-4, or IL-10 respectively. To characterize the macrophage subsets ability to become foam cells we measured their uptake of fluorescently-labeled oxidized LDL (oxLDL). IL-10 derived macrophages had the greatest amount of oxLDL uptake. We then investigated the mechanism of uptake and found that fucoidan, a ...
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and macrophages play an important role in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Currently, it is not clear whether inflammatory M1 or anti-inflammatory M2 predominate among the resident macrophages in the synovium. In the present study, we set out to investigate the impact of TLR stimulation on monocyte-derived M1 and M2 macrophage function and phenotype by mimicking the exposure to abundant TLR agonists as occurs in the context of RA. The response of macrophage subsets to TLR2 and TLR4 activation was evaluated on cluster of differentiation (CD) marker profile; cytokine secretion; gene expression; and NF-κB, interferon regulatory factors 3 and 7 (IRF3/7), and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation. Human monocytes were isolated from peripheral blood of healthy individuals and patients with RA and differentiated into M1-like and M2-like macrophages by granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and macrophage ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - BCL6 suppresses RhoA activity to alter macrophage morphology and motility. AU - Pixley, Fiona J.. AU - Xiong, Ying. AU - Yu, Raymond Yick Loi. AU - Sahai, Erik A.. AU - Stanley, E. Richard. AU - Ye, B. Hilda. PY - 2005/5/1. Y1 - 2005/5/1. N2 - BCL6 is a potent transcriptional repressor that plays important roles in germinal center formation, T helper cell differentiation and lymphomagenesis and regulates expression of several chemokine genes in macrophages. In a further investigation of its role in macrophages, we show that BCL6 inactivation in primary bone marrow-derived macrophages leads to decreased polarization, motility and cell spreading accompanied by an increase in peripheral focal complexes, anchored F-actin bundles and cortical F-actin density. These changes were associated with excess RhoA activation. C3 transferase inhibition of RhoA activity reverted the adhesion structure phenotype, which was not affected by Rho kinase ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Increased muscle proteolysis after local trauma mainly reflects macrophage-associated lysosomal proteolysis. AU - Farges, M C AU - Balcerzak, Denis Pierre. AU - Fisher, B D AU - Attaix, D AU - Bechet, D AU - Ferrara, M AU - Baracos, V E PY - 2002/2. Y1 - 2002/2. N2 - Rat gastrocnemius showed increased protein degradation (+75-115%) at 48 h after traumatic injury. Injured muscle showed increased cathepsin B activity (+327%) and mRNA encoding cathepsin B (+670%), cathepsin L (+298%), cathepsin H (+159%), and cathepsin C (+268%). In in situ hybridization, cathepsin B mRNA localized to the mononuclear cell infiltrate in injured muscle, and only background levels of hybridization were observed either over muscle cells in injured tissue or in uninjured muscle. Immunogold/electron microscopy showed specific staining for cathepsin B only in lysosome-like structures in cells of the mononuclear cell ...
Gaucher disease is caused by an inherited deficiency of glucocerebrosidase that manifests with storage of glycolipids in lysosomes, particularly in macrophages. Available cell lines modeling Gaucher disease do not demonstrate lysosomal storage of glycolipids; therefore, we set out to develop two macrophage models of Gaucher disease that exhibit appropriate substrate accumulation. We used these cellular models both to investigate altered macrophage biology in Gaucher disease and to evaluate candidate drugs for its treatment. We generated and characterized monocyte-derived macrophages from 20 patients carrying different Gaucher disease mutations. In addition, we created induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived macrophages from five fibroblast lines taken from patients with type 1 or type 2 Gaucher disease. Macrophages derived from patient monocytes or iPSCs showed reduced glucocerebrosidase activity and increased storage of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Expression of Gα(i2) mimics several aspects of LPS priming in a murine macrophage-like cell line. AU - Kugi, M.. AU - Kitamura, K.. AU - Cottam, G. L.. AU - Miller, R. T.. PY - 1995/1/1. Y1 - 1995/1/1. N2 - Priming of macrophages with low concentrations of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) enhances the ability of substances that act through heterotrimeric G proteins to stimulate immune cell functions. Although LPS-induced alterations in the expression and functions of G proteins of the α(i) family have been reported in hematopoietic cells, their effects on subsequent steps in LPS priming of macrophages have not been defined. To study the role of Gα(i2) in priming of macrophages by LPS, we expressed a mutant, activated form of α(i2) (α(i2Q2051)) in P388D1 cells, and compared its effects on PAF-dependent Ca signalling and arachidonic ...
It is widely known that macrophages can be activated to kill tumor cells. It is also known that tumor-infiltrating macrophages can be immunosuppressed. The mechanisms of both tumor killing by activated macrophages and tumor-induced macrophage suppression are not entirely clear. To better understand the mechanisms that macrophages use to kill tumor cells, a murine macrophage cell line, RAW264.7, was fixed with paraformaldehyde, subsequently stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and co-cultured with tumor cells. Macrophage activity was assessed by nitric oxide (NO) production and tumor cell growth inhibition in the 3H-thymidine incorporation assay. It was found that fixed macrophages were still able to suppress the proliferation of tumor ...
In this study we immunophenotypically differentiate subpopulations of brain macrophages into perivascular macrophages and parenchymal microglia and demonstrate that perivascular macrophages are the major cell productively infected by SIV in the CNS of macaques. Preferential infection of perivascular macrophages in the CNS may account for several important observations concerning infection of the CNS, viral dynamics in the CNS, and the role of the CNS as a viral sanctuary or reservoir.. Although it has not been directly demonstrated, it is generally assumed that lentiviruses enter the CNS by the traffic of infected monocyte/macrophages (64). Our data showing that perivascular macrophages are the major cell type, infected in the brain, support this hypothesis. Studies in chimeric rodents and humans receiving bone marrow indicate that perivascular macrophages are continuously replaced from the ...
Macrophage activation is characterized by pronounced metabolic adaptation. Classically activated macrophages show decreased rates of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation and oxidative phosphorylation and acquire a glycolytic state together with their pro-inflammatory phenotype. In contrast, alternatively activated macrophages require oxidative phosphorylation and mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation for their anti-inflammatory function. Although it is evident that mitochondrial metabolism is regulated during macrophage polarization and essential for macrophage function, little is known on the regulation and role of peroxisomal β-oxidation during macrophage activation. In this study, we show that peroxisomal β-oxidation is strongly decreased in classically activated bone-marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM) and mildly induced in alternatively activated BMDM. To examine the role of peroxisomal β-oxidation in macrophages, we used Mfp2-/- BMDM lacking ...
Inflammation is associated with macrophage activation, and this process has been shown to occur during atherogenesis. Macrophages (J774A.1) that were activated with either lipopolysaccharide (LPS), zymosan, or phorbol ester demonstrated a 30-35% increased uptake and degradation of low density lipoprotein (LDL) in comparison with nonactivated cells. This phenomenon was also shown for LDL cellular binding, and it resulted in macrophage cholesterol accumulation, as evidenced by cholesterol mass determination and flow cell cytometric analysis. Enhanced uptake of LDL was also obtained with two other types of macrophages: mouse peritoneal macrophages and human monocyte-derived macrophages. In LPS-stimulated macrophages, high density lipoprotein-mediated cholesterol efflux was not different from that shown in nonstimulated cells. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Lentivirus delivery of IL-10 to promote and sustain macrophage polarization towards an anti-inflammatory phenotype. AU - Boehler, R. M.. AU - Kuo, R.. AU - Shin, S.. AU - Goodman, A. G.. AU - Pilecki, M. A.. AU - Leonard, J. N.. AU - Shea, L. D.. PY - 2014/6. Y1 - 2014/6. N2 - Gene delivery from biomaterials can create an environment that promotes and guides tissue formation. However, the immune response induced upon biomaterial implantation can be detrimental to tissue regeneration. Macrophages play a central role in mediating early phases of this response, and functional "polarization" of macrophages towards M1 (inflammatory) or M2 (anti-inflammatory) phenotypes may bias the local immune state at the implant site. Since gene delivery from biomaterial scaffolds can confer transgene expression in macrophages in vivo, we investigated whether transduction of macrophages with an IL-10 encoding ...
Macrophages are usually found in tumor infiltrates where they exert cytostatic/cytotoxic activities against tumor cells. The tumoricidal activity is enhanced by activation of macrophages with bacterial products or cytokines (1,2). Recently nitric oxide (NO) has been indicated as a critical effector molecule for macrophage anti-tumor activity (3,4). Macrophages can be induced to release NO upon stimulation with a variety of stimuli such as bacterial products or cytokines (3,5). More recently it has been reported that mycoplasma-treated macrophages release large amounts of NO (6).. YAC-1 tumor cells have been classically used as targets for natural killer (NK) cells. Resident macrophages do not present anti-YAC-1 activity, but lymphokine-activated macrophages ...
Macrophage recognition of Candida albicans (C. albicans) is facilitated by pattern recognition receptors that interact with the fungal pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). Dectin-1 is the major macrophage receptor that is known to recognize fungal Beta-glucans leading to induction of various immune responses. This receptor is also known to be required for in vivo protection against C. albicans (Taylor et al., 2007). We recently showed that the Dectin-1 mediated protection in vivo is strain-dependent, and that C. albicans can adapt to modulate immune recognition by Dectin-1 (Marakalala et al., 2013). In vitro analysis, however, showed a Dectin-1-dependent and pro-inflammatory responses against all strains tested. This protocol describes in detail the in vitro analysis used in the paper. In particular, methods involved in fluorescent labeling of live C. albicans, quantification of macrophage binding of the pathogen, and pro-inflammatory responses to yeast and ...
To elucidate the differentiation mechanisms of macrophages in the murine omentum, we studied the repopulation of these cells and the expression of macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) in the milky spots and omental tissues in mice depleted of macrophages following administration of liposome-encapsulated dichloromethylene diphosphonate (clodronate). The macrophages in the omentum were spindle or dendritic in shape, expressed several macrophage-specific antigens and Ia antigen, and phagocytized intraperitoneally injected carbon particles. In the milky spots, macrophages and macrophage precursors were detected, and the number of precursors increased after elimination of macrophages by intraperitoneal injection of liposome-encapsulated clodronate. Macrophage precursors in the milky spots proliferated, moved to the omentum, and ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Differential mRNA expression of prostaglandin receptor subtypes in macrophage activation. AU - Hubbard, Neil. AU - Lee, S. H.. AU - Lim, D.. AU - Erickson, Kent L. PY - 2001. Y1 - 2001. N2 - Assessing the regulation of macrophage receptors for prostaglandin (PGE2) is essential to understanding the control which that potent lipid mediator has in modulating macrophage activities. The purpose of this study was to assess the differential mRNA expression of PGE2 receptor subtypes (EP) during macrophage exposure to activating and transducing agents. RAW 264.7 macrophages constitutively expressed mRNA for EP2, EP3 and EP4 receptor subtypes. Messenger RNA for EP4 was expressed at a much higher level when compared to EP2 in unstimulated macrophages as assessed by kinetic quantitative RT-PCR. When macrophages were stimulated with LPS, EP2 mRNA levels were 12-fold higher when compared to unstimulated macrophages, while EP4 mRNA remained ...
Macrophages persist indefinitely at sites of spinal cord injury (SCI) and contribute to both pathological and reparative processes. While the alternative, anti-inflammatory (M2) phenotype is believed to promote cell protection, regeneration, and plasticity, pro-inflammatory (M1) macrophages persist after SCI and contribute to protracted cell and tissue loss. Thus, identifying non-invasive, clinically viable, pharmacological therapies for altering macrophage phenotype is a challenging, yet promising, approach for treating SCI. Azithromycin (AZM), a commonly used macrolide antibiotic, drives anti-inflammatory macrophage activation in rodent models of inflammation and in humans with cystic fibrosis. We hypothesized that AZM treatment can alter the macrophage response to SCI and reduce progressive tissue pathology. To test this hypothesis, mice (C57BL/6J, 3-month-old) received daily doses of AZM (160 mg/kg) or vehicle treatment via oral gavage for 3 days prior and up to 7 days ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cell-cell contact with proinflammatory macrophages enhances the immunotherapeutic effect of mesenchymal stem cells in two abortion models. AU - Li, Yanhong. AU - Zhang, Di. AU - Xu, Ling. AU - Dong, Lin. AU - Zheng, Ji. AU - Lin, Yikong. AU - Huang, Jiefang. AU - Zhang, Yanyun. AU - Tao, Yu. AU - Zang, Xingxing. AU - Li, Dajin. AU - Du, Meirong. PY - 2019/12/1. Y1 - 2019/12/1. N2 - Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which are pluripotent cells with immunomodulatory properties, have been considered good candidates for the therapy of several immune disorders, such as inflammatory bowel diseases, concanavalin A-induced liver injury, and graft-versus-host disease. The embryo is a natural allograft to the maternal immune system. A successful pregnancy depends on the timely extinction of the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - β2-Agonist clenbuterol suppresses bacterial phagocytosis of splenic macrophages expressing high levels of macrophage receptor with collagenous structure. AU - Shirato, Ken. AU - Sato, Shogo. AU - Sato, Madoka. AU - Hashizume, Yoko. AU - Tachiyashiki, Kaoru. AU - Imaizumi, Kazuhiko. PY - 2013/3. Y1 - 2013/3. N2 - Splenic marginal zone macrophages expressing macrophage receptor with collagenous structure (MARCO) contribute to the clearance of blood-borne pathogens. We determined a splenic adherent cell fraction abundantly containing cells expressing a higher level of MARCO by flow cytometry, and examined the effects of daily administration of an anabolic dose of β2-agonist clenbuterol on the phagocytic capacity of the cells in mice. After 6 weeks of clenbuterol (1.0 mg/kg body weight/d) or vehicle administration to the mice, splenic adherent ...
Francisella tularensis, the causative agent of tularemia, is a potent human and animal pathogen. Its principal survival mechanism is rapid intracellular multiplication. The mechanisms that enables it to multiply intracellularly have been ill-defined and the thesis focused on characterizing the outcome of the macrophage-Francisella interaction and also if the interactions differ between the various subspecies of F tularensis. The nature of host cell death was examined and the correlation of macrophage killing with intramacrophage Francisella growth was investigated by in vitro infection of J774A.1 macrophages with either the live vaccine (LVS) strain of F. tularensis, belonging to subspecies holarctica, or the subspecies novicida strain U112 Macrophage entry was in both cases cytochalasin D-sensitive but the intramacrophage growth of the two Francisella strains led to distinct types of host cell death, i.e., apoptosis vs. necrosis. The macrophage apoptosis induced by infection with the LVS ...
Cellular proliferation and macrophage influx precede interstitial fibrosis in cyclosporine nephrotoxicity is an eagle-i resource of type Journal article at eagle-i Network Shared Resource Repository.
Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are a major cellular component in the tumor microenvironment of many solid tumors. The functional competence of TAMs varies depending on the type of tumors and their respective microenvironments. The classically activated M1 macrophages exhibit antitumor functions, whereas the alternatively activated M2 macrophages exhibit protumor functions that contribute to tumor development and progression. Although TAMs have been detected in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), little is known about their phenotype. In the present study, we performed an immunohistochemical analysis to identify TAMs in surgically resected specimens from 50 patients with OSCC and evaluated the relationship between infiltrated TAMs and the pathological grade of OSCC. Positive staining for CD163, which has been used as a marker for M2 macrophages, was observed in OSCC specimens, and the percentages of CD163+ ...
Triamcinolone acetonide (TA) is used for osteoarthritis management to reduce pain, and pre-clinical studies have shown that TA limits osteophyte formation. Osteophyte formation is known to be facilitated by synovial macrophage activation. TA injections might influence macrophage activation and subsequently reduce osteophytosis. Although widely applied in clinical care, the mechanism through which TA exerts this effect remains unknown. In this animal study, we investigated the in vivo effects of TA injections on macrophage activation, osteophyte development and joint degeneration. Furthermore, in vitro macrophage differentiation experiments were conducted to further explain working mechanisms of TA effects found in vivo. Osteoarthritis was induced in rat knees using papain injections and a running protocol. Untreated and TA-treated animals were longitudinally monitored for 12 weeks with in vivo micro-computed tomography (μCT) to measure subchondral bone changes. Synovial macrophage activation was
Looking for online definition of macrophage colony-stimulating factor in the Medical Dictionary? macrophage colony-stimulating factor explanation free. What is macrophage colony-stimulating factor? Meaning of macrophage colony-stimulating factor medical term. What does macrophage colony-stimulating factor mean?
BACKGROUND: The expression of the two types of ferritin subunits, the H-subunit and L-subunit, has been shown to be differentially regulated by cytokines. The primary aim of the present study was to quantitatively measure the expression of the H-subunit and L-subunit of ferritin in bone marrow macrophages and cells of the erythron in patients with chronic T-helper cell type-1 immune stimulation. METHODS: The expression of the H-subunit and L-subunit of ferritin in bone marrow macrophages and cells of the erythron was quantitatively evaluated by post-embedding immunolocalisation with immunogold transmission electron microscopy. RESULTS: The present study showed up-regulation of the H-subunit of ferritin in the bone marrow macrophage in patients with pronounced cellular immune activation (94.7 ± 37.3 counts/μm2; n = 31 vs 72.4 ± 34.0 ...
BACKGROUND: Adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) have become a focus of attention recently because they have been shown to accumulate with an increase in fat mass and to be involved in the genesis of insulin resistance in obese mice. However, the phenotype and functions of human ATMs are still to be defined. METHODS AND RESULTS: The present study, performed on human subcutaneous AT, showed that ATMs from lean to overweight individuals are composed of distinct macrophage subsets based on the expression of several cell surface markers: CD45, CD14, CD31, CD44, HLA-DR, CD206, and CD16, as assessed by flow cytometry. ATMs isolated by an immunoselection protocol showed a mixed expression of proinflammatory (tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-6 [IL-6], IL-23, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, IL-8, cyclooxygenase-2) and antiinflammatory (IL-10, transforming growth factor-beta, alternative macrophage activation-associated cc chemokine-1, cyclooxygenase-1) factors. Fat mass enlargement is ...
Wear particles derived from implant biomaterials induce a pronounced foreign body macrophage response in both the pseudocapsule and pseudomembrane surrounding arthroplasty components.28 29 The clinical severity and rapidly of onset of aseptic loosening can be correlated with both the amount of wear particle deposition and the extent of the macrophage response in these periprosthetic tissue.30-32 In this study we have shown that the capacity of arthroplasty macrophages to differentiate into osteoclasts is OPGL dependent and that this process is inhibited by OPG in a dose dependent fashion.. Our results show that the inflammatory foreign body macrophage infiltrate in periprosthetic tissues, surrounding loose arthroplasty components, contains mononuclear osteoclast precursors and that these cells express the phenotypic characteristics of macrophages and not osteoclasts. Post-mitotic osteoclast precursors of marrow origin have ...
Francisella tularensis, the causative agent of tularemia, is a potent human and animal pathogen. Its principal survival mechanism is rapid intracellular multiplication. The mechanisms that enables it to multiply intracellularly have been ill-defined and the thesis focused on characterizing the outcome of the macrophage-Francisella interaction and also if the interactions differ between the various subspecies of F tularensis.. The nature of host cell death was examined and the correlation of macrophage killing with intramacrophage Francisella growth was investigated by in vitro infection of J774A.1 macrophages with either the live vaccine (LVS) strain of F. tularensis, belonging to subspecies holarctica, or the subspecies novicida strain U112 Macrophage entry was in both cases cytochalasin D-sensitive but the intramacrophage growth of the two Francisella strains led to distinct types of host cell death, i.e., apoptosis vs. necrosis.. The macrophage apoptosis induced by infection with the LVS ...
Cathelicidins are essential in the protection against invading pathogens through both their direct antimicrobial activity and their immunomodulatory functions. Although cathelicidins are known to modulate activation by several TLR ligands, little is known about their influence on DNA-induced macrophage activation. In this study, we explored the effects of cathelicidins on DNA-induced activation of chicken macrophages and elucidated the intracellular processes underlying these effects. Our results show that chicken cathelicidin (CATH)-2 strongly enhances DNA-induced activation of both chicken and mammalian macrophages because of enhanced endocytosis of DNA-CATH-2 complexes. After endocytosis, DNA is liberated from the complex because of proteolytic breakdown of CATH-2, after which TLR21 is activated. This leads to increased cytokine expression and NO production. Through the interaction with DNA, CATH-2 can play an important role in modulating the immune ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Differential regulation of the expression of cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant by mouse macrophages. AU - Crippen, Tawni L.. AU - Riches, David W H. AU - Hyde, Dallas M.. PY - 1998. Y1 - 1998. N2 - The production of cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant (CINC) by functionally diverse mouse bone-marrow-derived macrophages was determined. Studies showed that β1,3-glucan, IL-1β, TNFα and IFNγ/TNFα induced expression and production of CINC in macrophages while neither IFNγ nor TGFβ alone induced detectable CINC expression. Pretreatment or simultaneous treatment of macrophages with TGFβ resulted in suppression of CINC protein production. These studies demonstrate that IFNγ and TNFα, found early during the inflammatory response, induce production of CINC, as well as induce macrophages into a cytocidal state that are capable of killing transformed ...
Background Macrophages/microglia are important effector cells at the site of spinal cord injury (SCI). M1-type macrophages facilitate innate immunity to remove foreign microbes and wound debris from the injury site. M2-type macrophages exhibit tissue repair properties and attenuate production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Regulation of the polarisation of M1/M2 macrophages may affect the inflammatory response in SCI and may be related to neurotrophin-3 (NT-3). Electroacupuncture (EA) at GV acupuncture points can be used as an adjuvant therapy for SCI. ...
Background Macrophages/microglia are important effector cells at the site of spinal cord injury (SCI). M1-type macrophages facilitate innate immunity to remove foreign microbes and wound debris from the injury site. M2-type macrophages exhibit tissue repair properties and attenuate production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Regulation of the polarisation of M1/M2 macrophages may affect the inflammatory response in SCI and may be related to neurotrophin-3 (NT-3). Electroacupuncture (EA) at GV acupuncture points can be used as an adjuvant therapy for SCI. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Candida albicans stimulates arachidonic acid liberation from alveolar macrophages through α-mannan and β-glucan cell wall components. AU - Castro, M.. AU - Ralston, N. V C. AU - Morgenthaler, Timothy Ian. AU - Rohrbach, M. S.. AU - Limper, Andrew Harold. PY - 1994. Y1 - 1994. N2 - Candida albicans is an increasingly important fungal pathogen. Alveolar macrophages respond to fungal components such as zymosan by releasing arachidonic acid (AA) and AA metabolites. However, few studies have evaluated the effect of whole fungi on macrophage eicosanoid metabolism. We hypothesized that macrophages respond to C. albicans by releasing AA and generating AA metabolites as a consequence of interaction of mannose and β- glucan receptors with fungal cell wall components. [14C]AA-labeled rabbit alveolar macrophages released AA following stimulation with either live or heat-killed C. albicans. High-pressure liquid chromatography analysis ...
Accumulation of lipid-laden foam cells of monocyte origin plays an important role in atherogenesis. Therefore, for determination of the mechanism of accelerated atherogenesis in Werners syndrome, studies were carried out on the metabolism of acetylated low density lipoprotein (LDL) by monocyte-derived macrophages from patients with this syndrome. These macrophages showed abnormally high activities for degradation and uptake of 125I-acetylated LDL, incorporation of 14C-oleate into cellular cholesteryl ester in the presence of acetylated LDL, and accumulation of cholesteryl ester derived from internalized 3H-cholesteryl linoleate-labeled acetylated LDL. However, these macrophages showed normal binding of 125I-acetylated LDL. These results indicate that in monocyte-derived macrophages of patients with Werners syndrome, the uptake, lysosomal hydrolysis, and re-esterification of free cholesterol ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Macrophage foam cell formation is augmented in serum from patients with diabetic angiopathy. AU - Cui, Xinglong. AU - Kushiyama, Akifumi. AU - Yoneda, Masayasu. AU - Nakatsu, Yusuke. AU - Guo, Ying. AU - Zhang, Jun. AU - Ono, Haruya. AU - Kanna, Machi. AU - Sakoda, Hideyuki. AU - Ono, Hiraku. AU - Kikuchi, Takako. AU - Fujishiro, Midori. AU - Shiomi, Masashi. AU - Kamata, Hideaki. AU - Kurihara, Hiroki. AU - Kikuchi, Masatoshi. AU - Kawazu, Shoji. AU - Nishimura, Fusanori. AU - Asano, Tomoichiro. PY - 2010/1/1. Y1 - 2010/1/1. N2 - The differentiation of macrophages into cytokine-secreting foam cells plays a critical role in the development of diabetic angiopathy. J774.1, a murine macrophage cell line, reportedly differentiates into foam cells when incubated with oxidized LDL, ApoE-rich VLDL or WHHLMI (myocardial infarction-prone Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic) rabbit ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Human Mesenchymal stem cells program macrophage plasticity by altering their metabolic status via a PGE 2 -dependent mechanism. AU - Vasandan, Anoop Babu. AU - Jahnavi, Sowmya. AU - Shashank, Chandanala. AU - Prasad, Priya. AU - Kumar, Anujith. AU - Jyothi Prasanna, S.. PY - 2016/12/2. Y1 - 2016/12/2. N2 - Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are speculated to act at macrophage-injury interfaces to mediate efficient repair. To explore this facet in-depth this study evaluates the influence of MSCs on human macrophages existing in distinct functional states. MSCs promoted macrophage differentiation, enhanced respiratory burst and potentiated microbicidal responses in naïve macrophages (MÏ †). Functional attenuation of inflammatory M1 macrophages was associated with a concomitant shift towards alternatively activated M2 state in MSC-M1 co-cultures. In ...
article{f63aac35-6350-4bf7-866a-e224429f2246, abstract = {BACKGROUND: Galectin-3 (the Mac-2 antigen) is abundantly expressed in both macrophage like cells and certain non-macrophage cells. We have studied endocytosis of galectin-3 as one important step relevant for its function, and compared it between variants of a macrophage like cell line, and non-macrophage cells. ,br/,,br, ,br/,,br, METHODS: Endocytosis of galectin-3 was observed by fluorescence microscopy and measured by flow cytometry. The endocytosis mechanism was analysed using galectin-3 mutants, galectin-3 inhibitors and endocytic pathways inhibitors in the human leukaemia THP-1 cell line differentiated into naïve (M0), classical (M1) or alternatively activated (M2) macrophage like cells, and the non-macrophage cell lines HFL-1 ...
Purpose: Toxoplasmosis is the most common cause of infectious retinochoroiditis. It is caused by the parasite Toxoplasma gondii, which affects both immune compromised and immune competent patients. The cytokine interferon gamma (IFNg) plays an important role in the inhibition of Toxoplasma growth. In some cell types (such as HeLa cells) IFNg induces the enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) leading to tryptophan depletion and restriction of Toxoplasma growth while other cell types restrict Toxoplasma growth through an unknown mechanism. Macrophages and other innate immunity cells that infiltrate the retina in ocular toxoplasmosis play an important role in fighting the infection but can also contribute to the inflammation in the eye. It is unclear how human macrophages inhibit Toxoplasma growth. The goal of this study is to determine how ...
Large-scale macrophage infiltration and reactive astrogliosis are hallmarks of early spinal cord injury (SCI) pathology. The exact nature of the macrophage response and relationship between these phenomena have not been explored in detail. Here, we have investigated these responses using a combination of in vivo SCI models, organotypic and primary cultures. In vivo macrophage response was investigated using a contusive injury mouse model. Interactions between astrocytes and macrophages were studied in primary or organotypic cultures. Proliferation was assessed though MTT assay and nucleotide incorporation and gene expression changes through qPCR. Seven days following contusive SCI, a mixed M1/M2 macrophage response was seen in the injury site. Conditioned medium from primary M1, but not M2, macrophages are able to induce astrocyte proliferation in both organotypic spinal cord cultures and primary astrocytes. Soluble factors from M1 macrophages induce a ...
Previous studies identified a prominent role of S1PR1 in tumor progression linked to persistent STAT3 activation in tumor and myeloid cells (Lee et al., 2010; Deng et al., 2012; Degagné et al., 2014). We previously noticed STAT3 signaling downstream of S1PR1 in human macrophages, which contributed to establishing an anti-inflammatory phenotype (Weis et al., 2009). However, in the present study, S1PR1 signaling in CD11bhi CD206+ TAMs did not affect typical STAT3 target genes in macrophages. Rather, a so-far-unexplored S1PR1 signaling circuit in macrophages promoted lymphangiogenesis via NLRP3-dependent IL-1β secretion.. Our global mRNA expression data in TAMs failed to identify previously described macrophage-derived prolymphangiogenic factors such as VEGF-C or VEGF-D as targets of S1PR1 signaling (Kerjaschki, 2005). Rather, NLRP3 expression and the concomitant IL-1β release promoted lymphangiogenesis. ...
Cocaine is a commonly used illicit drug among HIV-1 infected individuals and is known to increase HIV-1 replication in permissive cells including PBMCs, CD4+ T cells, and macrophages. Cocaines potentiating effects on HIV-1 replication in macrophages- the primary targets of the virus in the central nervous system, has been suggested to play an important role in HIV-1 neuro-pathogenesis. However, the mechanism by which cocaine enhances HIV-1 replication in macrophages remain poorly understood. Here we report the identification of cocaine-induced signaling events that lead to enhanced HIV-1 transcription in macrophages. Treatment of physiologically relevant concentrations of cocaine enhanced HIV-1 transcription in a dose-dependent manner in infected THP-1 monocyte-derived macrophages (THP-1macs) and primary monocyte-derived ...
In immunology, the mononuclear phagocyte system or mononuclear phagocytic system (MPS) (also known as the reticuloendothelial system or macrophage system) is a part of the immune system that consists of the phagocytic cells located in reticular connective tissue. The cells are primarily monocytes and macrophages, and they accumulate in lymph nodes and the spleen. The Kupffer cells of the liver and tissue histiocytes are also part of the MPS. The mononuclear phagocyte system and the monocyte macrophage system refer to two different entities, often mistakenly understood as one. "Reticuloendothelial system" is an older term for the mononuclear phagocyte system, but it is used less commonly now, as it is understood that most endothelial cells are not ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Dendritic cell/macrophage precursors capture exogenous antigen for MHC class I presentation by dendritic cells. AU - Mitchell, Duane A.. AU - Nair, Smita K.. AU - Gilboa, Eli. PY - 1998/6/1. Y1 - 1998/6/1. N2 - Presentation of MHC class I antigens by professional antigen-presenting cells (APC) is an important pathway in priming cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses in vivo. This study sought to identify the nature of the professional APC responsible for indirect class I presentation by examining a special feature of professional APC, namely their ability to process exogenous forms of antigen for class I presentation. Incubation of highly purified bone marrow-derived precursor cells with chicken ovalbumin (OVA) led to the efficient presentation of the major class I-restricted OVA ...
BACKGROUND: Alveolar macrophages are sentinels of the pulmonary mucosa and central to maintaining immunological homeostasis. However, their role in governing the response to allergen is not fully understood. Inappropriate responses to the inhaled environment manifest as asthma. METHODS: We utilized a mechanistic IL-13-driven model and a house dust mite allergen mucosal sensitization model of allergic airway disease to investigate the role of alveolar macrophages in regulating pulmonary inflammation. RESULTS: IL-13-dependent eosinophilic and Th2 inflammation was enhanced in mice depleted of alveolar macrophages using clodronate liposomes. Similarly, depletion of alveolar macrophages during house dust mite sensitization or established disease resulted in augmented Th2 immunity and increased allergen-specific IgG1 and IgE. Clodronate treatment also delayed the resolution of tissue inflammation following cessation of allergen challenge. ...
Definition of foreign body giant cell in the Financial Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is foreign body giant cell? Meaning of foreign body giant cell as a finance term. What does foreign body giant cell mean in finance?
Abundant macrophage infiltration in tumors often correlates with a poor prognosis. T cell/histiocyte rich large B cell lymphoma (THRLBCL) is a distinct aggressive B cell lymphoma entity showing a high macrophage content. To further elucidate the role of tumor-associated macrophages in THRLBCL, we performed gene expression profiling of microdissected histiocyte subsets of THRLBCL, nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma (NLPHL), Piringer lymphadenitis, sarcoidosis, nonspecific lymphadenitis and monocytes from peripheral blood. In a supervised principal component analysis, histiocytes from THRLBCL were most closely related to epithelioid cells from NLPHL, with both types of cells expressing genes related to proinflammatory and regulatory macrophage activity. Moreover, histiocytes from THRLBCL strongly expressed metal-binding proteins like MT2A, by which histiocytes of THRLBCL can be ...
1. Still GF. On a form of chronic joint disease in children. Med Chir Trans 1897; 80: 47. 2. Bywaters EG. Stillęs disease in the adult. Ann Rheum Dis 1971; 30: 121. 3. Yamaguchi M, Ohta A, Tsunematsu T. Preliminary criteria for classification of adult Stillęs disease. J Rheumatol 1992; 19: 424-430. 4. Deane S, Selmi C, Teuber SS, Gershwin ME. Macrophage Activation Syndrome in Autoimmune Disease. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 2010; 153: 109-120. 5. Sawhney S, Woo P, Murray KJ. Macrophage activation syndrome: A potentially fatal complication of rheumatic disorders. Arch Dis Child 2001; 85: 421-426. 6. Behrens EM, Beukelman T, Paessler M, Cron RQ. Ocult macrophage activation syndrome in patients with systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis. J Rheumatol 2007; 34: 1133-1138. 7. Parodi A, Davi S, Pringe AB, Pistorio A, Ruperto N, Magn-manzoni S, et al. Macrophage Activation syndrome in Juvenile Systemic Lupus Erythematosus. Arthritis Rheum 2009; 60(11): 3388-3399. 8. Athreya BH. Is macrophage activation ...
Glucose can react non-enzymatically with amino groups of, for example, proteins, to yield derivatives termed advanced glycation end products (AGE), which contribute to many chronic progressive diseases associated with microvascular complications. The study aimed to determine the effect of AGE-modified albumin on THP-1 cells and human monocyte-derived macrophages. Bovine serum albumin (BSA) or human serum albumin (HSA), modified by glucose-derived AGE, was prepared by incubation with glucose for differing periods of time. Alternatively, BSA was incubated with sodium cyanoborohydride and glyoxylic acid to produce N(epsilon)-(carboxymethyl)lysine-modified BSA (CML-BSA). Stimulation for 24h of THP-1 cells with BSA, incubated for 6-8 weeks with glucose, induced significant VEGF release. Human monocyte-derived macrophages stimulated with extensively glycated HSA also showed ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Distinct patterns of nitric oxide production in hepatic macrophages and endothelial cells following acute exposure of rats to endotoxin. AU - Laskin, D. L.. AU - Heck, D. E.. AU - Gardner, C. R.. AU - Feder, L. S.. AU - Laskin, J. D.. PY - 1994/12/1. Y1 - 1994/12/1. N2 - Hepatic macrophages and endothelial cells play an important role in the clearance of endotoxin from the portal circulation. These cells are activated by endotoxin to release reactive mediators including superoxide anion, hydrogen peroxide, and nitric oxide, which have been implicated in hepatic inflammation and tissue injury. In the present studies we analyzed mechanisms regulating the production of nitric oxide by hepatic macrophages and endothelial cells following in vivo ...
Definition of Macrophage migration inhibition test with photos and pictures, translations, sample usage, and additional links for more information.
Home » Type i IFN inhibits alternative macrophage activation during mycobacterium tuberculosis infection and leads to enhanced protection in the absence of IFN-γ ...
C-reactive protein (CRP) is an acute phase protein that binds to surface structures of a number of different organisms. Leishmania donovani express CRP ligand when first entering the mammalian host and CRP has been shown to alter macrophage function. The aim of this study was to investigate the functional significance of CRP-mediated uptake of L. donovani on survival of the parasite within human macrophages and macrophage cell responses to the infection. CRP opsonized L. donovani uptake was inhibitable by including excess CRP in the fluid phase, suggesting Fc receptor usage rather than indirect complement-mediated uptake. Comparing equivalent initial infection loads, parasite survival over 72 h within peripheral blood derived macrophages (PBMs) and differentiated U937 cells was unaltered by CRP. Whereas CRP increased macrophage responses to phosphorylcholine coated erythrocytes, no significant alteration in tumour necrosis ...
Cholesterol ester hydrolase (CEH) catalyses the rate limiting step in free cholesterol efflux from macrophage foam cells and intracellular CEH levels negatively correlate with lipid accumulation in foam cells and susceptibility to atherosclerosis. We have demonstrated that macrophage-specific transgenic expression of CEH enhances cholesterol efflux from foam cells and reduces lesions in athero-susceptible LDLR−/− mice. In the present study we tested the hypothesis that expression of CEH in blood-derived macrophages and the cholesterol efflux potential of serum from human subjects correlates with the disease status. Human subjects with (n=5, age 47-72 y) or without (n=7, age 50 -71 y) established CAD were enrolled. All subjects with established disease were on Statins and the serum lipid profiles (Total cholesterol, 198±16 vs 216±17; LDL-C, ...
Recognition of bacteria by PRRs is a fundamental aspect of the innate immune response to pathogens. Impaired recognition can lead to severe illness and death. For example, mutations or TLR polymorphisms that affect the interaction of TLR with either agonists or signaling proteins have been associated with greatly increased susceptibility to infection in humans (reviewed in reference 59). We demonstrated previously that F. tularensis LVS is specifically recognized by TLR2 in HEK293T/TLR2 transfectants and in murine DC (8, 30) and that F. tularensis LVS infection induces in mice or their macrophages a very strong proinflammatory response as measured at the level of gene and protein expression (8). Thus, our demonstration herein that signaling through TLR2 is an obligatory component of the early macrophage response to F. tularensis LVS infection (Fig. 1) represents a key step forward in unraveling the potent proinflammatory response induced by this bacterium.. F. tularensis is ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Morphine induces defects in early response of alveolar macrophages to Streptococcus pneumoniae by modulating TLR9-NF-κB signaling. AU - Wang, Jinghua. AU - Barke, Roderick A.. AU - Charboneau, Richard. AU - Schwendener, Reto. AU - Roy, Sabita. PY - 2008/3/1. Y1 - 2008/3/1. N2 - Resident alveolar macrophages and respiratory epithelium constitutes the first line of defense against invading lung pneumococci. Results from our study showed that increased mortality and bacterial outgrowth and dissemination seen in morphine-treated mice were further exaggerated following depletion of alveolar macrophages with liposomal clodronate. Using an in vitro alveolar macrophages and lung epithelial cells infection model, we show significant release of MIP-2 from alveolar macrophages, but not from lung epithelial cells, ...
Nitric oxide (NO) is produced by numerous different cell types, and it is an important regulator and mediator of many processes including smooth muscle relaxation, neurotransmission, and murine macrophage- mediated cytotoxicity for microbes and tumor cells. Although murine macrophages produce NO readily after activation, human monocytes and tissue macrophages have been reported to produce only low levels of NO in vitro. The purpose of this study was to determine if stimulated human mononuclear phagocytes produce inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNA, protein, and enzymatic activity. By reverse transcriptase- polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis, we show that human monocytes can be induced to express iNOS mRNA after treatment with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and/or interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma). By immunofluorescence and immunoblot analyses, we show monocytes and peritoneal macrophages contain ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - An avocado constituent, persenone A, suppresses expression of inducible forms of nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase in macrophages, and hydrogen peroxide generation in mouse skin. AU - Kim, Oe Kyung. AU - Murakami, Akira. AU - Takahashi, Daisuke. AU - Nakamura, Yoshimasa. AU - Torikai, Koji. AU - Kim, Ha Won. AU - Ohigashi, Hajime. PY - 2000/1/1. Y1 - 2000/1/1. N2 - We investigated the suppressive effects of an avocado constituent, persenone A, on lipopolysaccharide- and interferon-γ-induced inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX-2) in a mouse macrophage cell line RAW 264.7. Persenone A at concentration of 20 μM almost completely suppressed both iNOS and COX-2 protein expression. In mouse skin, double treatments with persenone A (810 nmol) significantly suppressed double 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA, 8.1 nmol) application-induced hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) generation. Treatment with persenone A before the second TPA treatment was ...
Decidual macrophages (DM) are the second most abundant population in the fetal-maternal interface. Their role has been so far identified as being local immuno-modulators favoring the maternal tolerance to the fetus. Herein we investigated tissue samples from 11 cases of spontaneous miscarriages and from 9 cases of elective terminations of pregnancy. Using immunohistochemistry and dual immunofluorescence we have demonstrated that in spontaneous miscarriages the DM are significantly increased. Additionally, we noted a significant up-regulation of macrophage FasL expression. Our results further support a dual role for DM during pregnancy and miscarriages. We hypothesize that the baseline DM population in normal pregnancy is in line with an M2 phenotype supporting the ongoing gestation. In contrast, during spontaneous miscarriages, the increased FasL-expressing population could be a part of an M1 phenotype participating in Fas/FasL-related apoptosis. Our results highlight a new aspect of ...
Recently, it was reported that nitric oxide (NO) directly controls intracellular iron metabolism by activating iron regulatory protein (IRP), a cytoplasmic protein that regulates ferritin translation. To determine whether intracellular iron levels themselves affect NO synthase (NOS), we studied the effect of iron on cytokine-inducible NOS activity and mRNA expression in the murine macrophage cell line J774A.1. We show here that NOS activity is decreased by about 50% in homogenates obtained from cells treated with interferon gamma plus lipopolysaccharide (IFN-gamma/LPS) in the presence of 50 microM ferric iron [Fe(3+)] as compared with extracts from cells treated with IFN-gamma/LPS alone. Conversely, addition of the iron chelator desferrioxamine (100 microM) at the time of stimulation with IFN-gamma/LPS increases NOS activity up to 2.5-fold in J774 cells. ...
The fungal pathogen Paracoccidioides brasiliensis produces a melanin-like pigment in the presence of l-DOPA in vitro. We investigated whether melanization affected yeast uptake by alveolar and peritoneal macrophages, the intracellular resistance of fungal cells and their susceptibility to antifungal drugs. The interactions of melanized and nonmelanized P. brasiliensis with murine primary macrophages and J774.16 and MH-S macrophage-like cell lines were investigated. Melanized yeast cells were poorly phagocytosed by the cells even in the presence of complement. Melanization caused significant interference with the binding of cell wall components to lectin receptors on macrophages. Melanized cells were also more resistant than nonmelanized ...
Definition of macrophage-activating factor in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is macrophage-activating factor? Meaning of macrophage-activating factor as a legal term. What does macrophage-activating factor mean in law?
The meconium aspiration syndrome is an important cause of respiratory distress in newborn infants. Alveolar macrophages (AMs) provide a first line of defense in the lower respiratory tract against inhaled pathogens and particles such as meconium. In this study, we examined the effect of meconium on two primary macrophage functions: phagocytosis and respiratory burst. Short-term exposure of rat NR8383 AMs to sterile meconium from human or equine neonates (1.2-24 mg/mL) produced a dose-dependent Show moreThe meconium aspiration syndrome is an important cause of respiratory distress in newborn infants. Alveolar macrophages (AMs) provide a first line of defense in the lower respiratory tract against inhaled pathogens and particles such as meconium. In this study, we examined the effect of meconium on two primary macrophage functions: phagocytosis and respiratory burst. Short-term exposure of rat NR8383 AMs to sterile meconium from human or equine neonates (1.2-24 mg/mL) produced ...
Preoperative oral treatment with lactulose is used to prevent complications after surgery in patients with obstructive jaundice. The effect is perhaps the result of an inactivation of gut derived endotoxins but the exact mechanism of action is, however, unknown. Tumour necrosis factor is an important mediator of endotoxin toxicity. The cytokine tumour necrosis factor is mainly produced by mononuclear phagocytes. In this study, the effect of lactulose on the endotoxin induced tumour necrosis factor release by monocytes was investigated. The direct effect of lactulose on endotoxin was tested in a chromogenic limulus amoebocyte lysate assay. Polymyxin B a known inactivator of endotoxin was used as control in both experiments. Lactulose has a limited capacity to inactivate endotoxin as measured in the endotoxin assay. In contrast lactulose significantly reduced endotoxin induced tumour necrosis factor production by monocytes. In conclusion lactulose inhibits tumour necrosis factor production by a ...
misc{7862195, abstract = {Acute or chronic inflammation in the prostate is implicated in pathogenesis of benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) as well as development of prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) and prostate cancer (PCa). Chronic prostatitis (inflammation in the prostate) is associated with high morbidity and negatively impacts life quality. Macrophages are critical regulators of inflammatory processes and are early immune cells responders. Among macrophage-associated genes, the stress-induced enzyme heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), which degrades heme to carbon monoxide (CO), biliverdin and iron, has strong immunomodulatory effects in in vitro and in vivo disease models. In this study, we investigated the specific role of HO-1 in macrophages on modulation of prostate inflammation. We established a mouse model of bacterial prostatitis in wild type mice, and evaluated the role of HO-1 in pathogen-induced ...
Obesity-mediated inflammation is a major cause of insulin resistance, and macrophages play an important role in this process. The 78-kDa glucose-regulated protein (GRP78) is a major endoplasmic reticulum chaperone that modulates unfolded protein response (UPR), and mice with GRP78 heterozygosity were resistant to diet-induced obesity. Here, we show that mice with macrophage-selective ablation of GRP78 (Lyz- GRP78(-/-)) are protected from skeletal muscle insulin resistance without changes in obesity compared with wild-type mice after 9 wk of high-fat diet. GRP78-deficient macrophages demonstrated adapted UPR with up-regulation of activating transcription factor (ATF)-4 and M2-polarization markers. Diet-induced adipose tissue inflammation was reduced, and bone marrow-derived macrophages from Lyz- GRP78(-/-) mice demonstrated a selective increase in IL-6 expression. Serum IL-13 levels were elevated by | 4-fold in Lyz- GRP78(-/-) mice, and IL-6 stimulated the ...
QUEIROZ, Celso Emanoel de Souza et al. Evaluation of cytotoxicity of two endodontic cements in a macrophage culture. J. Appl. Oral Sci. [online]. 2005, vol.13, n.3, pp.237-242. ISSN 1678-7757. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1678-77572005000300007.. Compared to gutta-percha, the endodontic cements are used in small quantity to seal root canals, but are indispensable to achieve hermetically sealed margins, where its biocompatibility depends on the sum of responses of each cell present in the periapical region. The object of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxicity of two endodontic cements, one based on epoxy resin (Sealer 26) and the other containing zinc oxide eugenol (Endofill) by using cultured peritoneal macrophages from Swiss mice to measure the induced production of nitric oxide. After solidification and pulverization, aliquots of 100ml of suspension containing 18mg/mL of the respective cements were added to 96-well tissue culture plates containing the tissue culture of ...
An increasing number of studies address the roles of Wnt proteins in shaping leukocyte functions. Recombinant Wnt3a and Wnt5a, prototypical activators of β-Catenin-dependent and -independent Wnt signaling, respectively, are widely used to investigate the effects of Wnt proteins on myeloid cell functions. Recent reports describe both proinflammatory and immunemodulatory effects of Wnt3a and Wnt5a on macrophages, DCs, and microglia. The underlying molecular mechanisms for this divergence are unclear. We show here that recombinant Wnt3a- and Wnt5a-induced cytokine production from murine C57BL/6 macrophages was dependent on TLR4 and inhibited by Polymyxin B. Similarly, impairment of TLR-induced cytokine production upon preexposure to Wnt proteins was TLR4 dependent. The extent of Wnt3a- and Wnt5a-induced inflammatory gene expression greatly varied between Wnt protein lots. We conclude that cytokine responses and TLR tolerization induced by recombinant Wnt ...
Mice deficient in phagocyte oxidase (phox) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), which are primary macrophage killing mechanisms, generated tissue granulomas but showed unrestrained Leishmania donovani visceral replication and suboptimal initial responsiveness to antimony treatment. Nevertheless, visceral infection was controlled post-treatment and did not recur. A phox/iNOS-independent macrophage mechanism, which was not triggered by L. donovani, emerges after chemotherapy.
Background: Clinical studies have demonstrated that remnant lipoproteins play an important role in atherogenesis, and we have previously reported that very low-density lipoprotein receptor (VLDL-R), one of the major receptors for remnant lipoproteins, is involved in foam cell formation. Recent studies have indicated that the oxygenation state of atherosclerotic plaques vary with plaque thickness. Therefore, the goal of the present study was to determine the effect of hypoxia on VLDL-R expression in macrophages and vascular smooth muscle cells and to characterize the role of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) in hypoxia-induced changes in VLDL-R expression.. Methods and Results: The expression of VLDL-R was assayed by real-time PCR and Western blot analysis in THP-1 macrophages and in human coronary artery smooth muscle cells (HCASMC). Treatment of THP-1 ...
Burkholderia cenocepacia is an opportunistic pathogen causing life-threatening infections in cystic fibrosis and other immunocompromised patients. The bacterium survives within macrophages by interfering with typical endocytic trafficking, resulting in delayed maturation of a B. cenocepacia-containing phagosome. We hypothesize that B. cenocepacia alters gene expression after internalization by macrophages, inducing genes involved in intracellular survival and host adaptation. Furthermore, we hypothesize that specialized bacterial secretion systems are involved in the interactions between intracellular bacteria and macrophages. In this work, we characterize later-stage infection of macrophages by B. cenocepacia, showing replication within an acidified endosomal compartment suggestive of a phagolysosome. We examine differential gene expression by intracellular B. cenocepacia using selective capture of transcribed sequences (SCOTS) with both ...
Macrophage suppression has been shown to be mediated by a unique, low molecular weight fraction of murine serum. The present investigation involves the in vitro production of this macrophage modulator (suppressor) by Concanavalin A-stimulated spleen cells. Spleen cell culture supernatant containing macrophage suppressor factor (MSF) caused a significant decrease in in vitro phagocytosis of Listeria monocytogenes by non-elicited peritoneal macrophages. The molecular weight of MSF was determined by ultrafiltration to be less than 10,000, and the modulating activity of MSF was not altered by heating at 100°C for 30 minutes or freezing at -70°C for six months. MSF is resistant to treatment with Pronase E, but is, however, sensitive to acid hydrolysis. Activity of MSF in spleen cell culture supernatants from normal mice does not differ from supernatants from mice immunized with L. monocytogenes. It was therefore concluded that MSF is not ...
Oxidative stress is an important part of host innate immune response to foreign pathogens. However, the impact of vitamin C on oxidative stress and inflammation remains unclear in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). We aimed to determine the effect of vitamin C on oxidative stress and inflammation. CAP patients were enrolled. Reactive oxygen species (ROS), DNA damage, superoxide dismutases (SOD) activity, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and IL-6 were analyzed in CAP patients and LPS-stimulated macrophages cells. MH-S cells were transfected with RFP-LC3 plasmids. Autophagy was measured in LPS-stimulated macrophages cells. Severe CAP patients showed significantly increased ROS, DNA damage, TNF-α, and IL-6. SOD was significantly decreased in severe CAP. Vitamin C significantly decreased ROS, ...
The role of RNI during experimental salmonellosis in murine hosts has recently been demonstrated (21, 22). To elucidate the role of RNI in the cellular microbiology of Salmonella, we first investigated how a cultured macrophage-like cell line reacts to infection with S. typhimurium. RAW267.4 macrophages were infected with S. typhimurium wild-type and the NO response as measured by nitrite accumulation was studied. An increase in the MOI resulted in a gradual increase of the nitrite production by the RAW267.4 cells at early time after infection (Fig. 1 A). 8 h after infection, no significant difference in nitrite production was observed after infection at various MOI in the range of 10 to 150. In contrast, macrophages infected with heat-killed bacteria did not exhibit significant nitrite accumulation after 8 h (Fig. 1 B). After 24 h, accumulation of nitrite was detectable but lower than that observed with live Salmonella. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Macrophage elastase suppresses white adipose tissue expansion with cigarette smoking. AU - Tsuji, Takao. AU - Kelly, Neil J.. AU - Takahashi, Saeko. AU - Leme, Adriana S.. AU - Houghton, A. Mc Garry. AU - Shapiro, Steven D.. PY - 2014/12/1. Y1 - 2014/12/1. N2 - Macrophage elastase (MMP12) is a key mediator of cigarette smoke (CS)-induced emphysema, yet its role in other smoking related pathologies remains unclear. The weight suppressing effects of smoking are a major hindrance to cessation efforts, and MMP12 is known to suppress the vascularization on which adipose tissue growth depends by catalyzing the formation of antiangiogenic peptides endostatin and angiostatin. The goal of this study was to determine the role of MMP12 in adipose tissue growth and smoking-related suppression of weight gain. Whole body weights and white adipose depots from wild-type and Mmp12-deficient mice were collected during early postnatal development and after chronic CS exposure. Adipose tissue ...
Fc gamma receptor IIIA (CD16/FcγRIIIA) on monocytes/macrophages may play an important role in the pathogenesis of severe malarial anemia (SMA) by promoting phagocytosis of IgG-coated uninfected red cells and by allowing the production of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) upon cross-linking by immune complexes (ICs). However, not much is known about the differential expression of this receptor on monocytes of children with severe malaria and uncomplicated malaria. Therefore, we investigated the expression of CD16/FcγRIIIA on monocytes of children with SMA, cerebral malaria (CM), and their age-matched uncomplicated malaria controls by flow cytometry. Since CD14low (CD14+) monocytes are considered more mature and macrophage-like than CD14high (CD14++) monocytes, we also compared the level of expression of CD16/FcγRIIIA according to the CD14 level and studied the relationship between CD16/FcγRIIIA expression and intracellular ...
Asbestos-induced mutagenicity in the lung may involve reactive oxygen/nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) released by alveolar macrophages. With the aim of proposing an alternative in vitro mutagenesis test, a coculture system of rat alveolar macrophages (NR8383) and transgenic Big Blue Rat2 embryonic fibroblasts was developed and tested with a crocidolite sample. Crocidolite exposure induced no detectable increase in ROS production from NR8383, contrasting with the oxidative burst that occurred following a brief exposure (1 hour) to zymosan, a known macrophage activator. In separated cocultures, crocidolite and zymosan induced different changes in the gene expressions involved in cellular inflammation in NR8383 and Big Blue. In particular, both particles induced up-regulation of iNOS expression in Big Blue, suggesting the formation of potentially genotoxic nitrogen species. However, crocidolite exposure in separated or mixed cocultures induced no mutagenic effects whereas an ...
article{1188623, abstract = {Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) is characterized by biased Th2 inflammation and CRS without nasal polyps (CRSsNP) by a Th1 immune response. Colonization by Staphylococcus aureus is increased in CRSwNP. We aimed to determine macrophage phenotypes in nasal mucosa of CRSwNP and CRSsNP and to examine phagocytosis of S. aureus in these pathologies. Methods: Macrophage phenotyping was performed by immunohistochemical staining on nasal mucosa sections from 28 patients; in addition flow cytometry analysis was performed. Tissue homogenate protein levels of IFN-gamma, IL-5, IL-6, IL-1 beta, TGF-beta, eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) and total IgE were analyzed and correlated with macrophage subtypes. Phagocytosis of S. aureus was analyzed by flow cytometry. Survival of S. aureus in Thp1 cells in the presence of polarizing cytokines was studied in vitro. Results: By immunohistochemical analysis more M2 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Macrophages contribute to the development of renal fibrosis following ischaemia/reperfusion-induced acute kidney injury. AU - Ko, Gang Jee. AU - Boo, Chang Su. AU - Jo, Sang Kyung. AU - Cho, Won Yong. AU - Kim, Hyoung Kyu. PY - 2008/3/1. Y1 - 2008/3/1. N2 - Background. Ischaemia/reperfusion is a major cause of acute kidney injury and can result in poor long-term graft function. Although most of the patients with acute kidney injury recover their renal function, significant portion of patients suffer from progressive deterioration of renal function. A persistent inflammatory response might be associated with long-term changes following acute ischaemia/reperfusion. Macrophages are known to infiltrate into tubulointersitium in animal models of chronic kidney disease. However, the role of macrophages in long-term changes after ischaemia/reperfusion remains unknown. We aimed to investigate the role of macrophages on the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Immunobiology of monocytes and macrophages during Chlamydia trachomatis infection. AU - Nielsen, Mads Lausen. AU - Christiansen, Gunna. AU - Poulsen, Thomas Bouet Guldbæk. AU - Birkelund, Svend. PY - 2019/3/1. Y1 - 2019/3/1. N2 - Infections caused by the intracellular bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis are a global health burden affecting more than 100 million people annually causing damaging long-lasting infections. In this review, we will present and discuss important aspects of the interaction between C. trachomatis and monocytes/macrophages.. AB - Infections caused by the intracellular bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis are a global health burden affecting more than 100 million people annually causing damaging long-lasting infections. In this review, we will present and discuss important aspects of the interaction between C. trachomatis and monocytes/macrophages.. KW - Chlamydia trachomatis. KW - Macrophages. KW - Monocytes. UR ...
Low-grade chronic adipose tissue inflammation contributes to the onset and development of aging-related insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. In the current study, α-mangostin, a xanthone isolated from mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana), was identified to ameliorate lipopolysaccharides-induced acute adipose tissue inflammation in mice, by reducing the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. In a cohort of young (3 months) and old (18–20 months) mice, α-mangostin mitigated aging-associated adiposity, hyperlipidemia, and insulin resistance. Further study showed that α-mangostin alleviated aging-related adipose tissue inflammation by reducing macrophage content and shifting pro-inflammatory macrophage polarization. Moreover, α-mangostin protected the old mice against liver injury through suppressing the secretion of microRNA-155-5p from macrophages. The above results demonstrated that α-mangostin represents a new scaffold to alleviate ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Study of histamine effects on phagocytosis and enzyme secretion of Tetrahymena pyriformis. AU - Darvas, Z.. AU - Madarasz, B.. AU - László, V.. PY - 1999. Y1 - 1999. N2 - 1. The biogenic amine histamine develops effects not only in mammalian cells and tissues but in ciliated unicellular Tetrahymena as well. In addition to binding and internalization of labelled histamine, low concentrations can stimulate the phagocytosis of cells in inorganic salt solution. 2. In inorganic solution Tetrahymena cells secrete acid hydrolases to the medium. High concentration of histamine (10 mM) decreases the secretion of three investigated acid hydrolases in a different manner. We think that in this process the primary determinant is the alkaline character of histamine. 3. The effect of histamine on phagocytosis differs from the effect on secretion since the ...
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is an incurable and progressive disease. Emphysema is the principal manifestation of COPD, and the main cause of this condition is cigarette smoke (CS). Natural products have shown antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties that can prevent acute lung inflammation and emphysema, but there are few reports in the literature regarding therapeutic approaches to emphysema. We hypothesized that supplementation with natural extracts would repair lung damage in emphysema caused by CS exposure. Mice were exposed to 60days of CS and then treated or not with three different natural extracts (mate tea, grape and propolis) orally for additional 60days. Histological analysis revealed significant improvements in lung histoarchitecture, with recovery of alveolar spaces in all groups treated with natural extracts. Propolis was also able to recovery alveolar septa and elastic fibers. Propolis also increased MMP-2 and decreased MMP-12 expression, favoring the process of
The HIV pandemic raised the potential for facultative-pathogenic mycobacterial species like, Mycobacterium kansasii, to cause disseminating disease in humans with immune deficiencies. In contrast, non-pathogenic mycobacterial species, like M. smegmatis, are not known to cause disseminating disease even in immunocompromised individuals. We hypothesized that this difference in phenotype could be explained by the strong induction of an innate immune response by the non-pathogenic mycobacterial species.. A comparison of two rapid-growing, non-pathogenic species (M. smegmatis and M. fortuitum) with two facultative-pathogenic species (M. kansasii and M. bovis BCG) demonstrated that only the non-pathogenic bacteria induced strong apoptosis in human THP-1 cells and murine bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM) and dendritic cells (BMDD). The phospho-myo-inositol ...
The principal mechanism by which bronchodilator β-adrenoceptor agonists act is to relax airways smooth muscle although they may also be anti-inflammatory. However, the extent of anti-inflammatory activity and the cell types affected by these agonists are uncertain. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether β-adrenoceptor agonists prevent pro-inflammatory cytokine generation from activated human lung macrophages. Macrophages were isolated and purified from human lung. The cells were pre-treated with both short-acting (isoprenaline, salbutamol, terbutaline) and long-acting (formoterol, salmeterol, indacaterol) β-agonists before activation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to induce cytokine (TNFα, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10) generation. The experiments showed that short-acting β-agonists were poor inhibitors of cytokine generation. Of the long-acting β-agonists studied, formoterol was also a weak inhibitor of cytokine generation ...

Lymph node stromal cell - WikipediaLymph node stromal cell - Wikipedia

An adaptive immune response takes place in response to the presence of the antigen in the lymph node. Antigen-presenting cells ... These sinuses are cavities containing macrophages (specialised cells which help to keep the extracellular matrix in order). The ... The lymph tissue in the lymph nodes consists of immune cells (95%), for example lymphocytes, and stromal cells (1% to 5%) The ... dendritic cells move to the T cell zone or to the B cell follicle along the fibroblast reticular cell network. Dendritic cells ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lymph_node_stromal_cell

Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Affect Disease Outcomes via Macrophage PolarizationMesenchymal Stromal Cells Affect Disease Outcomes via Macrophage Polarization

... and clinical studies in all areas of stem cell biology and applications. The journal will consider basic, translational, and ... Stem Cells International is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research articles, review articles, ... professional antigen presenting cells (dendritic cells, macrophages, and B lymphocytes), and NK cells via direct cell-to-cell ... In recent years, many studies have reported the effect of MSCs on the innate and adaptive immune systems. MSCs regulate the ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/sci/2015/989473/abs/

Cancers  | Free Full-Text | The Future of Glioblastoma Therapy: Synergism of Standard of Care and Immunotherapy | HTMLCancers | Free Full-Text | The Future of Glioblastoma Therapy: Synergism of Standard of Care and Immunotherapy | HTML

Cytotoxic ionizing radiation is known to trigger pro-inflammatory signaling cascades and immune activation secondary to cell ... Here, we review current GBM therapy and the evidence for combination of immune checkpoint inhibitors, DC and peptide vaccines ... Immunotherapies such as the dendritic cell (DC) vaccine, heat shock protein vaccines, and epidermal growth factor receptor ( ... Immune-mediated tumor killing through macrophage phagocytosis, complement mediated destruction, or antigen presentation leading ...
more infohttps://www.mdpi.com/2072-6694/6/4/1953/htm

Recent advances in inflammatory bowel disease: mucosal immune cells in intestinal inflammation | GutRecent advances in inflammatory bowel disease: mucosal immune cells in intestinal inflammation | Gut

IgA secreting plasma cells, innate lymphoid cells and stromal cells such as fibroblasts. Antigen presenting cells in Peyers ... macrophages, dendritic cells, adaptive immune cells, and the newly discovered innate lymphoid cells, which appear of ... Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) resemble lymphocytes, but lack the key characteristics of adaptive immune cells, namely an antigen ... goblet cells, neuroendocrine cells, Paneth cells and M cells, all deriving from a common intestinal epithelial stem cell.35 ...
more infohttp://gut.bmj.com/content/62/11/1653

The Inflammatory Microenvironment in Hepatocellular Carcinoma: A Pivotal Role for Tumor-Associated MacrophagesThe Inflammatory Microenvironment in Hepatocellular Carcinoma: A Pivotal Role for Tumor-Associated Macrophages

... stromal cells, such as carcinoma-associated fibroblasts (CAFs), hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), endothelial cells and immune ... Furthermore, TAMs are poor antigen-presenting cells [10, 13]. Notably, arginase expression by TAMs was previously suggested to ... or Programmed Cell Death 1 Ligand 1, PDL-1) on macrophage surface, thus suppressing CD8+ T-cell antitumor immune response [43, ... as well as the suppression of antitumor immune response by interacting with both stromal and cancer cells within the tumor ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2013/187204/

Fibroblasts and tissue remodelling: Defining a role for fibroblasts in the persistence of chronic inflammation | SFEBES2007Fibroblasts and tissue remodelling: Defining a role for fibroblasts in the persistence of chronic inflammation | SFEBES2007

... begun to challenge the primacy of the lymphocyte and have begun to focus on an extended immune system in which stromal cells, ... Current models of inflammation stress the role of antigen-specific lymphocyte responses and attempt to address the causative ... such as macrophages and fibroblasts play a role in the persistence of the inflammatory lesion. In this lecture I will ... Our work suggests that targeting the stromal microenvironment is likely to be an important strategy for future anti- ...
more infohttps://www.endocrine-abstracts.org/ea/0013/ea0013s9.htm

Frontiers | Role of Microbiota in Sexually Dimorphic Immunity | ImmunologyFrontiers | Role of Microbiota in Sexually Dimorphic Immunity | Immunology

As the intestinal microbiota is known to influence the immune system, such sex differences in immune responses may be a ... As the intestinal microbiota is known to influence the immune system, such sex differences in immune responses may be a ... Sex differences in peripheral immune responses are well recognized. This is associated with sex differences in many ... Sex differences in peripheral immune responses are well recognized. This is associated with sex differences in many ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fimmu.2018.01018/full

9 Addressing Diagnosis and Treatment Across the Spectrum of Drug Resistance | The Global Crisis of Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis...9 Addressing Diagnosis and Treatment Across the Spectrum of Drug Resistance | The Global Crisis of Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis...

The trial used stromal cells harvested from the bone marrow aspirate of XDR TB patients. The cells were grown for 2-3 weeks and ... Patients regained immune responses, as indicated by gamma-interferon production directed against TB antigens. In patients who ... For example, some antimalaria drugs affect major histocompatibility complex (MHC) expression on macrophages. "Do not be afraid ... Enhancing the immune response at the wrong time and in the wrong place can harm a patient. But properly applied adjunct ...
more infohttps://www.nap.edu/read/18346/chapter/10

Frontiers | Modulators of the Balance between M1 and M2 Macrophages during Pregnancy | ImmunologyFrontiers | Modulators of the Balance between M1 and M2 Macrophages during Pregnancy | Immunology

... including regulation of immune cell activities, decidualization, placental cell invasion, angiogenesis, parturition, and post- ... including regulation of immune cell activities, decidualization, placental cell invasion, angiogenesis, parturition, and post- ... Targeting macrophage polarization might be an efficient strategy for maintaining maternal-fetal immune homeostasis and a normal ... Targeting macrophage polarization might be an efficient strategy for maintaining maternal-fetal immune homeostasis and a normal ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fimmu.2017.00120/full

Oral Prion Disease Pathogenesis Is Impeded in the Specific Absence of CXCR5-Expressing Dendritic Cells | Journal of VirologyOral Prion Disease Pathogenesis Is Impeded in the Specific Absence of CXCR5-Expressing Dendritic Cells | Journal of Virology

B cells acquire particulate antigen in a macrophage-rich area at the boundary between the follicle and the subcapsular sinus of ... Characterisation of PrPSc transmission from immune cells to neuronal cells. Cell Immunol 279:145-150. doi:10.1016/j.cellimm. ... The chemokine CXCL13 is expressed by FDC and follicular stromal cells in the B-cell follicles of lymphoid tissues and mediates ... Immune complex relay by subcapsular sinus macrophages and noncognate B cells drives antibody affinity maturation. Nat Immunol ...
more infohttps://jvi.asm.org/content/91/10/e00124-17

Protocols and Video Articles Authored by David H. AdamsProtocols and Video Articles Authored by David H. Adams

CD16+ cells expressed both macrophage and dendritic cell markers but showed high levels of phagocytic activity, antigen ... The mechanisms that govern wound healing involve interactions between the innate and adaptive immune systems and stromal cells ... DCs are the most potent antigen-presenting cells, with the capacity to take up, process, and present tumor antigens to T cells ... T cells are involved together with effector responses mediated by NK cells, γδ T cells, and macrophages. A number of triggering ...
more infohttps://www.jove.com/author/David+H._Adams

Functional specialization of antigen presenting cells in the gastrointestinal tract<...Functional specialization of antigen presenting cells in the gastrointestinal tract<...

... macrophages, B cells and basophils as professional antigen presenting cells (APCs), and stromal cells and epithelial cells as ... that antigen presentation in the gastrointestinal tract is carried out by different specialized immune and non-immune cells. ... macrophages, B cells and basophils as professional antigen presenting cells (APCs), and stromal cells and epithelial cells as ... macrophages, B cells and basophils as professional antigen presenting cells (APCs), and stromal cells and epithelial cells as ...
more infohttps://moh-it.pure.elsevier.com/en/publications/functional-specialization-of-antigen-presenting-cells-in-the-gast

New perspective on targeting the tumor suppressor p53 pathway in the tumor microenvironment to enhance the efficacy of...New perspective on targeting the tumor suppressor p53 pathway in the tumor microenvironment to enhance the efficacy of...

Experimental and clinical observations by our laboratory and others have demonstrated that p53 also participates in immune ... we postulate that some of those observed therapeutic benefits might also be partially mediated through their immune stimulatory ... briefly review our current understanding of the potential cellular and molecular mechanisms by which p53 participates in immune ... Moreover, this elevated p53 expression also makes it an ideal tumor associated antigen (TAA) for cancer vaccines. Recent ...
more infohttps://jitc.biomedcentral.com.preview-live.oscarjournals.springer.com/articles/10.1186/s40425-015-0053-5

Macrophage Inflammatory Protein 3α Is Expressed at Inflamed Epithelial Surfaces and Is the Most Potent Chemokine Known in...Macrophage Inflammatory Protein 3α Is Expressed at Inflamed Epithelial Surfaces and Is the Most Potent Chemokine Known in...

... normal T cell expressed and secreted protein; SCF, stem cell factor; SDF, stromal cell-derived factor. ... where they present processed antigen to naive T cells and generate antigen-specific primary T cell responses. ... Dendritic cells (DCs) are bone marrow-derived professional APCs with a unique ability to induce primary immune responses. They ... 1994) Efficient presentation of soluble antigen by cultured human dendritic cells is maintained by granulocyte/macrophage ...
more infohttp://jem.rupress.org/content/192/5/705

Paracrine interactions between primary human macrophages and human fibroblasts enhance murine mammary gland humanization in...Paracrine interactions between primary human macrophages and human fibroblasts enhance murine mammary gland humanization in...

... primary human macrophages to the murine mammary gland would enhance and provide a novel approach to examine immune-stromal cell ... Methods: Primary human macrophages, in the presence or absence of ectopic estrogen stimulation, were used to humanize mouse ... Macrophages comprise an essential component of the mammary microenvironment necessary for normal gland development. However, ... as well as significantly increased proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) positive cells in humanized glands. Cytokine/ ...
more infohttps://www.rti.org/publication/paracrine-interactions-between-primary-human-macrophages-and-human-fibroblasts-enhance

Protocols and Video Articles Authored by Stephen Wigmore (Translated to Danish)Protocols and Video Articles Authored by Stephen Wigmore (Translated to Danish)

Kupffer cells are liver resident macrophages and form the largest population of fixed tissue macrophages. Their isolation ... In these conditions, antigen-specific mechanisms can be implicated but immune-mediated injury is central to diseases where ... These processes depend on complex interactions involving epithelial cells, stromal cells, and leukocytes shaped by the local ... Sep, 2007 , Pubmed ID: 17692868 Macrophages are a diverse population of cells that are able to adapt to specific tissue ...
more infohttps://www.jove.com/author/Stephen_Wigmore?language=Danish

Board of Councilors - About | Society for Mucosal ImmunologyBoard of Councilors - About | Society for Mucosal Immunology

Major current interests include assessing the role of environment in regulating immune/stromal cell functionality and ... macrophages constitutively migrate to draining mesenteric lymph nodes and play a key role in presenting luminal derived antigen ... Agace developed an interest in epithelial-immune cell interactions and after completing his PhD decided to move up in the world ... breakthroughs in the MAIT cell field including the identification of the vitamin B-based antigens that activate MAIT cells, and ...
more infohttps://www.socmucimm.org/about/board-of-councilors/

JCI -
Bone marrow dendritic cells regulate hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell traffickingJCI - Bone marrow dendritic cells regulate hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell trafficking

Critical role of macrophages in the marginal zone in the suppression of immune responses to apoptotic cell-associated antigens ... Targeting of mesenchymal stromal cells by Cre-recombinase transgenes commonly used to target osteoblast lineage cells. J Bone ... cells), macrophages (Gr-1lo B220- MHC-II+ F4/80+ cells), and DCs (Gr-1lo B220- MHC-IIhi CD11chi cells) from Zbtb46gfp mice is ... Dendritic cells (DCs) are professional antigen presenting cells that are present in most tissues. In addition to antigen ...
more infohttps://www.jci.org/articles/view/124829

Cancers  | Free Full-Text | Sarcoma Immunotherapy | HTMLCancers | Free Full-Text | Sarcoma Immunotherapy | HTML

... likely due to mechanisms by which tumors equilibrate with and ultimately escape immune surveillance. More sophisticated ... Dendritic cells (DCs) are distinct from other antigen-presenting cells in their ability to induce primary T-cell responses, and ... and tumor associated macrophages (TAMs) [44,45] play additional functions in immune suppression and tumor promotion, acting ... giant cell tumor of the bone and gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST), although this effect is primarily based on descriptive ...
more infohttp://mdpi.com/2072-6694/3/4/4139/htm

Patent US7507873 - Transgenic avians containing recombinant ovomucoid promoters - Google PatentsPatent US7507873 - Transgenic avians containing recombinant ovomucoid promoters - Google Patents

A CHO cell line stably transfected with a plasmid that expressed the corresponding cell-surface antigen for the antibody ... such as a macrophage and/or monocyte. Many other cells however also produce monokines, such as natural killer cells, ... secreted amino acid sequences that affect a function of cells and modulates an interaction between cells in an immune, ... fibroblasts, basophils, neutrophils, endothelial cells, brain astrocytes, bone marrow stromal cells, epideral keratinocytes and ...
more infohttp://www.google.com/patents/US7507873?dq=5920316

Coexpression analysis of large cancer datasets provides insight into the cellular phenotypes of the tumour microenvironment |...Coexpression analysis of large cancer datasets provides insight into the cellular phenotypes of the tumour microenvironment |...

The conserved signature of the tumour-associated macrophage is shown to be largely-independent of tumour cell type. All stromal ... Based upon this analysis, and without needing to isolate the individual cells, we have defined a broad spectrum of cell-type ... This heterogeneity also means that the level of expression of genes expressed specifically in a given cell type or process, ... However, viewed in the context of established tumours, the interactions between stromal components appear to be multifactorial ...
more infohttps://bmcgenomics.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-2164-14-469

Essential Role for Pbx1 in Corneal Morphogenesis | IOVS | ARVO JournalsEssential Role for Pbx1 in Corneal Morphogenesis | IOVS | ARVO Journals

... acting as antigen-presenting cells that can serve as immune sentinels. In the cornea these include macrophages and dendritic ... Choong PF Mok PL Cheong SK Then KY . Mesenchymal stromal cell-like characteristics of corneal keratocytes. Cytotherapy. 2007; 9 ... Hamrah P Dana MR . Corneal antigen-presenting cells. Chem Immunol Allergy. 2007; 92: 58-70. [PubMed] ... Although corneas usually lack resident lymphoreticular cells, they are capable of actively participating in an immune response. ...
more infohttps://iovs.arvojournals.org/article.aspx?articleid=2127207

Nanobody-Based Targeting of the Macrophage Mannose Receptor for Effective In Vivo Imaging of Tumor-Associated Macrophages |...Nanobody-Based Targeting of the Macrophage Mannose Receptor for Effective In Vivo Imaging of Tumor-Associated Macrophages |...

In addition, tumors contain a large stromal compartment, which includes myeloid cells such as macrophages (35). Stromal cells ... Nanobodies as tools for in vivo imaging of specific immune cell types. J Nucl Med 2010;51:782-9. ... This is especially true when targeting the tumor stroma, because stromal antigens are typically not restricted to tumors. In ... Macrophages: obligate partners for tumor cell migration, invasion, and metastasis. Cell 2006;124:263-6. ...
more infohttp://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/72/16/4165

ACCUMULATIONS AND DEPOSITSACCUMULATIONS AND DEPOSITS

CD38: Plasma cells and many other immune cells. CD4: Helper/inducer T-cells. CD40: Antigen presenters. CD41 (GPIIb/IIIa): ... turned-on B-cells, T-cells or macrophages; hairy cell leukemia. CD27: Plasma cells express it strongly, memory B-cells weakly, ... CD117 (c-Kit): Lymphomas and GI stromal tumors; most seminomas. Great for telling GI stromal tumors from other spindle cell ... CD90: Macrophage marker CD99 (HBA-71-B; O13): Ewings / PNET; T-cells, islet cells, sertoli cells, granulosa cells, solitary ...
more infohttp://www.pathguy.com/lectures/accdep.html

Endocrine Immune Interactions in the Host-Parasite Relationship: Steroid
Hormones as Immune Regulators in Parasite Infections ...Endocrine Immune Interactions in the Host-Parasite Relationship: Steroid Hormones as Immune Regulators in Parasite Infections ...

... and neurotransmitters that modulate the host immune response by several effector mechanisms, inc.. ... Antigen presenting cells (macrophages and DCs) have a critical role in this response and stimulate B cells and T cell subsets [ ... Wira CR, and Rossoll RM (2003) Oestradiol regulation of antigen presentation by uterine stromal cells: role of transforming ... The cells involved in the host defense are neutrophils, macrophages, natural killer cells (NK) and dendritic cells (DCs) [8]. ...
more infohttps://www.omicsonline.org/open-access/endocrine-immune-interactions-in-the-hostparasite-relationship-steroidhormones-as-immune-regulators-in-parasite-infections-2157-7536-1000165.php?aid=66321
  • Most T cells are, in time, eliminated in the thymus by a process of clonal deletion. (wikipedia.org)
  • This type of receptor interacts with the chemokine CCL21, produced by fibroblastic reticular cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Transcription factor Aire (autoimmune regulator) that controls the expression of PTAs on mTEC cells in the thymus is only expressed at low levels by uncharacterized double negative stromal cells. (wikipedia.org)
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