Multipotent Stem Cells: Specialized stem cells that are committed to give rise to cells that have a particular function; examples are MYOBLASTS; MYELOID PROGENITOR CELLS; and skin stem cells. (Stem Cells: A Primer [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Institutes of Health (US); 2000 May [cited 2002 Apr 5]. Available from: http://www.nih.gov/news/stemcell/primer.htm)Stem Cells: Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Germ Cells: The reproductive cells in multicellular organisms at various stages during GAMETOGENESIS.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Cell Lineage: The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal: Neoplasms composed of primordial GERM CELLS of embryonic GONADS or of elements of the germ layers of the EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in the gonads or present in an embryo or FETUS.Adult Stem Cells: Cells with high proliferative and self renewal capacities derived from adults.Stem Cell Transplantation: The transfer of STEM CELLS from one individual to another within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or between species (XENOTRANSPLANTATION), or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS). The source and location of the stem cells determines their potency or pluripotency to differentiate into various cell types.Hematopoietic Stem Cells: Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.Mesenchymal Stromal Cells: Bone-marrow-derived, non-hematopoietic cells that support HEMATOPOETIC STEM CELLS. They have also been isolated from other organs and tissues such as UMBILICAL CORD BLOOD, umbilical vein subendothelium, and WHARTON JELLY. These cells are considered to be a source of multipotent stem cells because they include subpopulations of mesenchymal stem cells.Hydra: A genus of freshwater polyps in the family Hydridae, order Hydroida, class HYDROZOA. They are of special interest because of their complex organization and because their adult organization corresponds roughly to the gastrula of higher animals.Adipogenesis: The differentiation of pre-adipocytes into mature ADIPOCYTES.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Hair Follicle: A tube-like invagination of the EPIDERMIS from which the hair shaft develops and into which SEBACEOUS GLANDS open. The hair follicle is lined by a cellular inner and outer root sheath of epidermal origin and is invested with a fibrous sheath derived from the dermis. (Stedman, 26th ed) Follicles of very long hairs extend into the subcutaneous layer of tissue under the SKIN.Embryonic Stem Cells: Cells derived from the BLASTOCYST INNER CELL MASS which forms before implantation in the uterine wall. They retain the ability to divide, proliferate and provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Nestin: A type VI intermediate filament protein expressed mostly in nerve cells where it is associated with the survival, renewal and mitogen-stimulated proliferation of neural progenitor cells.Regeneration: The physiological renewal, repair, or replacement of tissue.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Cell Culture Techniques: Methods for maintaining or growing CELLS in vitro.Testis: The male gonad containing two functional parts: the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES for the production and transport of male germ cells (SPERMATOGENESIS) and the interstitial compartment containing LEYDIG CELLS that produce ANDROGENS.Cell SeparationSOXB1 Transcription Factors: A subclass of SOX transcription factors that are expressed in neuronal tissue where they may play a role in the regulation of CELL DIFFERENTIATION. Members of this subclass are generally considered to be transcriptional activators.Pluripotent Stem Cells: Cells that can give rise to cells of the three different GERM LAYERS.Spermatogenesis: The process of germ cell development in the male from the primordial germ cells, through SPERMATOGONIA; SPERMATOCYTES; SPERMATIDS; to the mature haploid SPERMATOZOA.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Bone Marrow Cells: Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.Testicular Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the TESTIS. Germ cell tumors (GERMINOMA) of the testis constitute 95% of all testicular neoplasms.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Osteogenesis: The process of bone formation. Histogenesis of bone including ossification.Spermatogonia: Euploid male germ cells of an early stage of SPERMATOGENESIS, derived from prespermatogonia. With the onset of puberty, spermatogonia at the basement membrane of the seminiferous tubule proliferate by mitotic then meiotic divisions and give rise to the haploid SPERMATOCYTES.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Stem Cell Niche: A particular zone of tissue composed of a specialized microenvironment where stem cells are retained in a undifferentiated, self-renewable state.Neural Stem Cells: Self-renewing cells that generate the main phenotypes of the nervous system in both the embryo and adult. Neural stem cells are precursors to both NEURONS and NEUROGLIA.Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: Transfer of HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS from BONE MARROW or BLOOD between individuals within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS). Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has been used as an alternative to BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION in the treatment of a variety of neoplasms.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Mice, Inbred C57BLFlow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells: Cells from adult organisms that have been reprogrammed into a pluripotential state similar to that of EMBRYONIC STEM CELLS.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Spermatozoa: Mature male germ cells derived from SPERMATIDS. As spermatids move toward the lumen of the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES, they undergo extensive structural changes including the loss of cytoplasm, condensation of CHROMATIN into the SPERM HEAD, formation of the ACROSOME cap, the SPERM MIDPIECE and the SPERM TAIL that provides motility.Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation: Transfer of MESENCHYMAL STEM CELLS between individuals within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS).Clone Cells: A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Germinoma: A malignant neoplasm of the germinal tissue of the GONADS; MEDIASTINUM; or pineal region. Germinomas are uniform in appearance, consisting of large, round cells with vesicular nuclei and clear or finely granular eosinophilic-staining cytoplasm. (Stedman, 265th ed; from DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, pp1642-3)Sertoli Cells: Supporting cells projecting inward from the basement membrane of SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES. They surround and nourish the developing male germ cells and secrete ANDROGEN-BINDING PROTEIN and hormones such as ANTI-MULLERIAN HORMONE. The tight junctions of Sertoli cells with the SPERMATOGONIA and SPERMATOCYTES provide a BLOOD-TESTIS BARRIER.Seminiferous Tubules: The convoluted tubules in the TESTIS where sperm are produced (SPERMATOGENESIS) and conveyed to the RETE TESTIS. Spermatogenic tubules are composed of developing germ cells and the supporting SERTOLI CELLS.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Stem Cell Factor: A hematopoietic growth factor and the ligand of the cell surface c-kit protein (PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-KIT). It is expressed during embryogenesis and is a growth factor for a number of cell types including the MAST CELLS and the MELANOCYTES in addition to the HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Gonads: The gamete-producing glands, OVARY or TESTIS.Nerve Tissue ProteinsWheat Germ Agglutinins: Lectins purified from the germinating seeds of common wheat (Triticum vulgare); these bind to certain carbohydrate moieties on cell surface glycoproteins and are used to identify certain cell populations and inhibit or promote some immunological or physiological activities. There are at least two isoforms of this lectin.Spermatocytes: Male germ cells derived from SPERMATOGONIA. The euploid primary spermatocytes undergo MEIOSIS and give rise to the haploid secondary spermatocytes which in turn give rise to SPERMATIDS.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Spermatids: Male germ cells derived from the haploid secondary SPERMATOCYTES. Without further division, spermatids undergo structural changes and give rise to SPERMATOZOA.Germ Layers: The three primary germinal layers (ECTODERM; ENDODERM; and MESODERM) developed during GASTRULATION that provide tissues and body plan of a mature organism. They derive from two early layers, hypoblast and epiblast.Adipose Tissue: Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.Octamer Transcription Factor-3: An octamer transcription factor that is expressed primarily in totipotent embryonic STEM CELLS and GERM CELLS and is down-regulated during CELL DIFFERENTIATION.Seminoma: A radiosensitive, malignant neoplasm of the testis, thought to be derived from primordial germ cells of the sexually undifferentiated embryonic gonad. There are three variants: classical (typical), the most common type; anaplastic; and spermatocytic. The classical seminoma is composed of fairly well differentiated sheets or cords of uniform polygonal or round cells (seminoma cells), each cell having abundant clear cytoplasm, distinct cell membranes, a centrally placed round nucleus, and one or more nucleoli. In the female, a grossly and histologically identical neoplasm, known as dysgerminoma, occurs. (Dorland, 27th ed)Fetal Stem Cells: Cells derived from a FETUS that retain the ability to divide, proliferate and provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Neural Crest: The two longitudinal ridges along the PRIMITIVE STREAK appearing near the end of GASTRULATION during development of nervous system (NEURULATION). The ridges are formed by folding of NEURAL PLATE. Between the ridges is a neural groove which deepens as the fold become elevated. When the folds meet at midline, the groove becomes a closed tube, the NEURAL TUBE.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Homeodomain Proteins: Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).Teratoma: A true neoplasm composed of a number of different types of tissue, none of which is native to the area in which it occurs. It is composed of tissues that are derived from three germinal layers, the endoderm, mesoderm, and ectoderm. They are classified histologically as mature (benign) or immature (malignant). (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1642)Tissue Engineering: Generating tissue in vitro for clinical applications, such as replacing wounded tissues or impaired organs. The use of TISSUE SCAFFOLDING enables the generation of complex multi-layered tissues and tissue structures.Embryo, Mammalian: The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.Meiosis: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division, occurring during maturation of the GERM CELLS. Two successive cell nucleus divisions following a single chromosome duplication (S PHASE) result in daughter cells with half the number of CHROMOSOMES as the parent cells.Stem Cell Research: Experimentation on STEM CELLS and on the use of stem cells.Tooth Germ: The collective tissues from which an entire tooth is formed, including the DENTAL SAC; ENAMEL ORGAN; and DENTAL PAPILLA. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Oogenesis: The process of germ cell development in the female from the primordial germ cells through OOGONIA to the mature haploid ova (OVUM).Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit: A protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is specific for STEM CELL FACTOR. This interaction is crucial for the development of hematopoietic, gonadal, and pigment stem cells. Genetic mutations that disrupt the expression of PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-KIT are associated with PIEBALDISM, while overexpression or constitutive activation of the c-kit protein-tyrosine kinase is associated with tumorigenesis.Plant Stems: Parts of plants that usually grow vertically upwards towards the light and support the leaves, buds, and reproductive structures. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Hematopoiesis: The development and formation of various types of BLOOD CELLS. Hematopoiesis can take place in the BONE MARROW (medullary) or outside the bone marrow (HEMATOPOIESIS, EXTRAMEDULLARY).Ovary: The reproductive organ (GONADS) in female animals. In vertebrates, the ovary contains two functional parts: the OVARIAN FOLLICLE for the production of female germ cells (OOGENESIS); and the endocrine cells (GRANULOSA CELLS; THECA CELLS; and LUTEAL CELLS) for the production of ESTROGENS and PROGESTERONE.Neoplastic Stem Cells: Highly proliferative, self-renewing, and colony-forming stem cells which give rise to NEOPLASMS.Seminiferous Epithelium: The epithelium lining the seminiferous tubules composed of primary male germ cells (SPERMATOGONIA) and supporting SERTOLI CELLS. As SPERMATOGENESIS proceeds, the developing germ cells migrate toward the lumen. The adluminal compartment, the inner two thirds of the tubules, contains SPERMATOCYTES and the more advanced germ cells.Gametogenesis: The process of germ cell development from the primordial GERM CELLS to the mature haploid GAMETES: ova in the female (OOGENESIS) or sperm in the male (SPERMATOGENESIS).Dysgerminoma: A malignant ovarian neoplasm, thought to be derived from primordial germ cells of the sexually undifferentiated embryonic gonad. It is the counterpart of the classical seminoma of the testis, to which it is both grossly and histologically identical. Dysgerminomas comprise 16% of all germ cell tumors but are rare before the age of 10, although nearly 50% occur before the age of 20. They are generally considered of low-grade malignancy but may spread if the tumor extends through its capsule and involves lymph nodes or blood vessels. (Dorland, 27th ed; DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1646)RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Colony-Forming Units Assay: A cytologic technique for measuring the functional capacity of stem cells by assaying their activity.Regenerative Medicine: A field of medicine concerned with developing and using strategies aimed at repair or replacement of damaged, diseased, or metabolically deficient organs, tissues, and cells via TISSUE ENGINEERING; CELL TRANSPLANTATION; and ARTIFICIAL ORGANS and BIOARTIFICIAL ORGANS and tissues.Adipocytes: Cells in the body that store FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. WHITE ADIPOCYTES are the predominant type and found mostly in the abdominal cavity and subcutaneous tissue. BROWN ADIPOCYTES are thermogenic cells that can be found in newborns of some species and hibernating mammals.Hematopoietic Stem Cell Mobilization: The release of stem cells from the bone marrow into the peripheral blood circulation for the purpose of leukapheresis, prior to stem cell transplantation. Hematopoietic growth factors or chemotherapeutic agents often are used to stimulate the mobilization.Totipotent Stem Cells: Single cells that have the potential to form an entire organism. They have the capacity to specialize into extraembryonic membranes and tissues, the embryo, and all postembryonic tissues and organs. (Stem Cells: A Primer [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Institutes of Health (US); 2000 May [cited 2002 Apr 5]. Available from: http://www.nih.gov/news/stemcell/primer.htm)Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Oogonia: Euploid female germ cells of an early stage of OOGENESIS, derived from primordial germ cells during ovarian differentiation. Oogonia undergo MEIOSIS and give rise to haploid OOCYTESEndodermal Sinus Tumor: An unusual and aggressive tumor of germ-cell origin that reproduces the extraembryonic structures of the early embryo. It is the most common malignant germ cell tumor found in children. It is characterized by a labyrinthine glandular pattern of flat epithelial cells and rounded papillary processes with a central capillary (Schiller-Duval body). The tumor is rarely bilateral. Before the use of combination chemotherapy, the tumor was almost invariably fatal. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1189)Antigens, CD34: Glycoproteins found on immature hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. They are the only molecules to date whose expression within the blood system is restricted to a small number of progenitor cells in the bone marrow.Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Chimera: An individual that contains cell populations derived from different zygotes.Cell Count: The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.Cell Transplantation: Transference of cells within an individual, between individuals of the same species, or between individuals of different species.Sex Differentiation: The process in developing sex- or gender-specific tissue, organ, or function after SEX DETERMINATION PROCESSES have set the sex of the GONADS. Major areas of sex differentiation occur in the reproductive tract (GENITALIA) and the brain.Cell- and Tissue-Based Therapy: Therapies that involve the TRANSPLANTATION of CELLS or TISSUES developed for the purpose of restoring the function of diseased or dysfunctional cells or tissues.Stromal Cells: Connective tissue cells of an organ found in the loose connective tissue. These are most often associated with the uterine mucosa and the ovary as well as the hematopoietic system and elsewhere.Mice, SCID: Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Nuclear Receptor Subfamily 6, Group A, Member 1: An orphan nuclear receptor expressed mainly in the GERM CELLS of GONADS. It functions as a transcription factor that binds to a direct repeat of the sequence AGGTCA and may play a role in the regulation of EMBRYOGENESIS and germ cell differentiation.Mesoderm: The middle germ layer of an embryo derived from three paired mesenchymal aggregates along the neural tube.Coculture Techniques: A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Cell Dedifferentiation: A reverse developmental process in which terminally differentiated cells with specialized functions revert back to a less differentiated stage within their own CELL LINEAGE.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Infertility, Male: The inability of the male to effect FERTILIZATION of an OVUM after a specified period of unprotected intercourse. Male sterility is permanent infertility.Embryo, Nonmammalian: The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.Transplantation, Autologous: Transplantation of an individual's own tissue from one site to another site.RNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins that bind to RNA molecules. Included here are RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS and other proteins whose function is to bind specifically to RNA.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Cryptorchidism: A developmental defect in which a TESTIS or both TESTES failed to descend from high in the ABDOMEN to the bottom of the SCROTUM. Testicular descent is essential to normal SPERMATOGENESIS which requires temperature lower than the BODY TEMPERATURE. Cryptorchidism can be subclassified by the location of the maldescended testis.Embryonic Development: Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS.Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation: Transplantation of stem cells collected from the peripheral blood. It is a less invasive alternative to direct marrow harvesting of hematopoietic stem cells. Enrichment of stem cells in peripheral blood can be achieved by inducing mobilization of stem cells from the BONE MARROW.Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Fetus: The unborn young of a viviparous mammal, in the postembryonic period, after the major structures have been outlined. In humans, the unborn young from the end of the eighth week after CONCEPTION until BIRTH, as distinguished from the earlier EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.

*Adult stem cell

Multipotent stem cells have also been derived from germ cells found in human testicles.[48] ... Hematopoietic stem cells[edit]. Main article: Hematopoietic stem cell. Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are stem cells that can ... Stem cell division and differentiation. A - stem cells; B - progenitor cell; C - differentiated cell; 1 - symmetric stem cell ... such as mesenchymal stem cell, adipose-derived stem cell, endothelial stem cell, etc.).[72][73] A great deal of adult stem cell ...

*Vasa gene

A study on Macrostomum lignano found Vasa expression in multipotent neoblast stem cells in addition to germ cells. However, ... In Cnidarians, Vasa has a role in nerve cells and gland cells. Other examples include Vasa in multipotent stem cell cluster of ... Bosch TC, David CN (May 1987). "Stem cells of Hydra magnipapillata can differentiate into somatic cells and germ line cells". ... where it is involved in germ cell determination and function, as well as in multipotent stem cells, where its exact function is ...

*Weismann barrier

... contain multipotent stem cell lineages, that give rise to both somatic and reproductive cells. Weismann barrier appears to be ... In plants, genetic changes in somatic lines can and do result in genetic changes in the germ lines, because the germ cells are ... germ cell lineages producing gametes and "disposable" somatic cells. In more precise terminology, hereditary information moves ... The use of this theory, commonly in the context of the germ plasm theory of the late 19th century, before the development of ...

*Stem cell

... cells derived from any of the three germ layers. Multipotent stem cells can differentiate into a number of cell types, but only ... mesenchymal stem cell, adipose-derived stem cell, endothelial stem cell, dental pulp stem cell, etc.). Muse cells (multi- ... Cell bank Human genome Meristem Partial cloning Plant stem cell Stem cell controversy Stem cell marker Shinya Yamanaka Tuch BE ... Adult stem cells, also called somatic (from Greek σωματικóς, "of the body") stem cells, are stem cells which maintain and ...

*Adult stem cell

Multipotent stem cells have also been derived from germ cells found in human testicles. The therapeutic potential of adult stem ... such as mesenchymal stem cell, adipose-derived stem cell, endothelial stem cell, etc.). A great deal of adult stem cell ... Intestinal stem cells reside near the base of the stem cell niche, called the crypts of Lieberkuhn. Intestinal stem cells are ... See cancer stem cell for more details.) Induced somatic stem cells Mlsna, Lucas J. (2010). "Stem Cell Based Treatments and ...

*Human embryogenesis

... epithelial cells become mesenchymal stem cells, multipotent stromal cells that can differentiate into various cell types. The ... The inner cell mass is the source of embryonic stem cells, which are pluripotent and can develop into any one of the three germ ... Haematopoietic stem cells that give rise to all the blood cells develop from the mesoderm. The development of the organs starts ... This cell potency means that some cells can be removed from the preimplantation embryo and the remaining cells will compensate ...

*Amelanism

... and multipotent cells migrate down along the sides of the embryo, or through germ layers, to their ultimate destinations. ... Stem cells in the neural crest give rise to the cells of the autonomic nervous system, supportive elements of the skeleton such ... Melanocyte stem cells are called melanoblasts. Conditions associated with abnormalities in the migration of melanoblasts are ... Melanosomes are found in specialized pigment cells called melanocytes, but may also be engulfed by other cells, which are then ...

*Germline

... generating gametes from multipotent stem cell lineages that also give rise to ordinary somatic tissues. It is therefore likely ... The cells of the germline commonly are called germ cells. For example, gametes such as the sperm or the egg are part of the ... Setting aside an isolated germ cell population early in embryogenesis might promote cooperation between the somatic cells of a ... and he believed that there was some clear qualitative difference between germ cells and somatic cells, though he did realise ...

*Amniotic stem cells

... mixture of multipotent cells after it was demonstrated that they were able to differentiate into cells from all three germ ... Evidence in favour of their embryonic stem cell nature is the cells' ability to produce clones. The use of amniotic stem cells ... Amniotic stem cells are the mixture of stem cells that can be obtained from the amniotic fluid as well as the amniotic membrane ... Embryonic-like stem cells were originally identified using markers common to embryonic stem cells such as nuclear Oct4, CD34, ...

*Embryonic stem cell

... while embryonic stem cells can generate all cell types in the body, adult stem cells are multipotent and can produce only a ... Because ES cells give rise to all of the cell types of an organism including the cells of the germ line, mutations arising in ... Embryonic stem cells (ES cells) are pluripotent stem cells derived from the inner cell mass of a blastocyst, an early-stage pre ... Embryoid body Embryonic Stem Cell Research Oversight Committees Fetal tissue implant Stem cell controversy Induced stem cells ...

*Transgenesis

Multipotent stem cells can only differentiate into a limited number of therapeutically useful cell types, nevertheless their ... if it is not accepted by the germ-line the new traits will not appear in their offspring. If DNA is injected in multiple sites ... The manipulated gene construct is inserted into totipotent stem cells, cells which can develop into any specialized cell. Cells ... Xue H, Wu J, Li S, Rao MS, Liu Y (March 2014). "Genetic Modification in Human Pluripotent Stem Cells by Homologous ...

*Cellular differentiation

Three basic categories of cells make up the mammalian body: germ cells, somatic cells, and stem cells. Each of the ... Pluripotent stem cells undergo further specialization into multipotent progenitor cells that then give rise to functional cells ... Hematopoietic stem cells (adult stem cells) from the bone marrow that give rise to red blood cells, white blood cells, and ... adult stem cells) from the bone marrow that give rise to stromal cells, fat cells, and types of bone cells Epithelial stem ...

*Pancreatic progenitor cell

Pancreatic progenitor cells are multipotent stem cells originating from the developing fore-gut endoderm which have the ability ... They have also been shown to give rise to cells of at least two different germ layers. However this may be misinterpreted as an ... Endocrine lineages develop into Delta cells, PP-cells, Epsilon cells, Beta cells and Alpha cells. Alpha cells produce glucagon ... Exocrine cells constitute the acinar cells and the ductal cells. The endocrine cells constitute the beta cells which make ...

*SOX2

"Pluripotency factors in embryonic stem cells regulate differentiation into germ layers". Cell. 145 (6): 875-89. doi:10.1016/j. ... "In vivo fate analysis reveals the multipotent and self-renewal capacities of Sox2+ neural stem cells in the adult hippocampus ... "Thyroid hormone signaling acts as a neurogenic switch by repressing Sox2 in the adult neural stem cell niche". Cell Stem Cell. ... Proliferation of Sox2+ neural stem cells can generate neural precursors as well as Sox2+ neural stem cell population. Induced ...

*Dental pulp stem cells

They are multipotent, so they have the potential to differentiate into a variety of cell types. Other sources of dental stem ... in vitro and teratoma-like structures that contained tissues derived from all three embryonic germ layers when injected in nude ... Stem cells are found inside the soft living tissue. Scientists have identified the mesenchymal type of stem cell inside dental ... Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) are stem cells present in the dental pulp, the soft living tissue within teeth. ...

*Jeffrey I. Gordon

... including multipotent stem cells. Gordon played a pivotal role in the study of protein N-myristoylation, a co-translational ... 2001 Backhed et al., Mechanisms underlying the resistance to diet-induced obesity in germ-free mice. PNAS, 2007 Turnbaugh et al ... Cell Host Microbe, 2007 NIH Roadmap Archived 2010-12-10 at the Wayback Machine. The Gordon Lab website. ... One of these responses, the induction of intestinal cell surface fucose residues, is elicited by a prominent human intestinal ...

*CD117

To be specific, hematopoietic stem cells (HSC), multipotent progenitors (MPP), and common myeloid progenitors (CMP) express ... Seminomas, a subtype of testicular germ cell tumors, frequently have activating mutations in exon 17 of CD117. In addition, the ... It is also a marker for mouse prostate stem cells. In addition, mast cells, melanocytes in the skin, and interstitial cells of ... Mobilization is used clinically as a source of hematopoietic stem cells for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). ...

*Induced stem cells

"Direct Reprogramming of Mouse and Human Fibroblasts into Multipotent Neural Stem Cells with a Single Factor". Cell Stem Cell. ... "Derivation of male germ cells from induced pluripotent stem cells in vitro and in reconstituted seminiferous tubules". Cell ... link) Scientists develop 'game changing' stem cell repair system. Stem Cells Portal Could this new stem cell become the game ... "Human Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer Using Adult Cells". Cell Stem Cell. 14 (6): 777-80. doi:10.1016/j.stem.2014.03.015. PMID ...

*Stem cell marker

December 2006). "Isolation of multipotent neural crest-derived stem cells from the adult mouse cornea". Stem Cells. 24 (12): ... cell line derived from a non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse: in vivo differentiation into lymphocytes and potential for germ line ... Stem cell markers are genes and their protein products used by scientists to isolate and identify stem cells. Stem cells can ... 2005). "Somatic stem cell marker prominin-1/CD133 is expressed in embryonic stem cell-derived progenitors". Stem Cells. 23 (6 ...

*Cell potency

For example, a multipotent blood stem cell is a hematopoietic stem cell (HSC)-and this cell type can differentiate itself into ... lessons from germ cells". Cell. 127 (5): 891-904. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.11.016. PMID 17129777. Asch R, Simerly C, Ord T, Ord ... Multipotent cells have been found in cord blood, adipose tissue, cardiac cells, bone marrow, and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) ... In cell biology, a unipotent cell is the concept that one stem cell has the capacity to differentiate into only one cell type. ...

*Cell potency

For example, a multipotent blood stem cell -and this cell type can differentiate itself into several types of blood cell like ... Primordial germ cellsEdit. In mouse primordial germ cells, genome-wide reprogramming leading to totipotency involves erasure of ... Multipotent cells are found in many, but not all human cell types. Multipotent cells have been found in cord blood,[38] adipose ... Cell potency is a cell's ability to differentiate into other cell types.[1][2][3] The more cell types a cell can differentiate ...

*Giant-cell carcinoma of the lung

They have been hypothesized to derive from an undifferentiated multipotent malignant stem cell precursor that is generated in ... About 1% of lung cancers are sarcomas, germ cell tumors, and hematopoietic tumors, while 99% of lung cancers are carcinoma. ... Giant cells in a lung cancer are highly associated with the presence of spindle cells. The chromatin of malignant giant cells ... Both "tumor cell-tumor cell" and "leukocyte-tumor cell" emperipolesis (i.e. active penetration of the latter by the former) is ...

*Induced pluripotent stem cell

... multipotent vascular stem cells. After the iPS cells were injected directly into the vitreous of the damaged retina of mice, ... of a core of mitotically active and differentiating hESCs and a periphery of fully differentiated cells from all three germ ... Induced pluripotent stem cells are similar to natural pluripotent stem cells, such as embryonic stem (ES) cells, in many ... 2 July 2010). "Reprogramming of human peripheral blood cells to induced pluripotent stem cells". Cell stem cell. 7 (1): 20-4. ...

*Hair removal

The bulge contains multipotent stemcells that can be recruited during wound healing to help the repair of the epidermis. Notes ... This technique permanently destroys germ cells[citation needed] responsible for hair growth by way of insertion of a fine probe ... "Epidermal Stem Cells of the Skin". PMC 2405915 . Missing or empty ,url= (help) Further reading Aldraibi MS, Touma DJ, ... In the hair follicle, stemcells reside in a discrete microenvironment called the bulge, located at the base of the part of the ...
Multipotent adult progenitor cells are a recently described population of stem cells derived from the bone marrow stroma. multipotent adult progenitor cells along mesodermal lineages and exhibited the enhanced expression of alkaline phosphatase and production of calcium-containing mineral debris by multipotent adult progenitor cells, necessary precursors for osteogenesis. In combination with a demineralized bone matrix scaffold, multipotent adult progenitor cells exhibited enhanced revascularization and new bone formation in vivo in an orthotopic defect model when compared to mesenchymal stem cells on ...
Looking for online definition of multipotent adult progenitor cell in the Medical Dictionary? multipotent adult progenitor cell explanation free. What is multipotent adult progenitor cell? Meaning of multipotent adult progenitor cell medical term. What does multipotent adult progenitor cell mean?
TY - JOUR. T1 - Transplantation of Cryopreserved Human Bone Marrow-derived Multipotent Adult Progenitor Cells for Neonatal Hypoxic-Ischemic Injury. T2 - Targeting the Hippocampus. AU - Yasuhara, Takao. AU - Matsukawa, Noriyuki. AU - Yu, Guolong. AU - Xu, Lin. AU - Mays, Robert W.. AU - Kovach, Jim. AU - Deans, Robert. AU - Hess, David C. AU - Carroll, James Edwin. AU - Borlongan, Cesar V.. PY - 2006/1/1. Y1 - 2006/1/1. N2 - There is currently no treatment for neonatal hypoxic-ischemic (HI) injury. Although limited clinical trials of stem cell therapy have been initiated in a number of neurological disorders, the preclinical evidence of a cell-based therapy for neonatal HI injury remains in its infancy. Stem cell therapy, via stimulation of endogenous stem cells or transplantation of exogenous stem ...
All information about the latest scientific publications of the Clínica Universidad de Navarra. In vitro and in vivo arterial differentiation of human multipotent adult progenitor cells
Multipotent adult progenitor cells are a recently described population of stem cells derived from the bone marrow stroma. multipotent adult progenitor cells along mesodermal lineages and exhibited the enhanced expression of alkaline phosphatase and production of calcium-containing mineral debris by multipotent adult progenitor cells, necessary precursors for osteogenesis. In combination with a demineralized bone matrix scaffold, multipotent adult progenitor cells exhibited enhanced revascularization and new bone formation in vivo in an orthotopic defect model when compared to mesenchymal stem cells on ...
In Vivo Tracking of Murine Adipose Tissue-Derived Multipotent Adult Stem Cells and Ex Vivo Cross-Validation. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Because stem cells are often found to improve repair tissue including heart without evidence of engraftment or differentiation, mechanisms underlying wound healing are still elusive. Several studies have reported that stem cells can fuse with cardiomyocytes either by permanent or partial cell fusion processes. However, the respective physiological impact of these two processes remains unknown in part because of the lack of knowledge of the resulting hybrid cells. To further characterize cell fusion, we cocultured mouse fully differentiated cardiomyocytes with human multipotent adipose-derived stem (hMADS) cells as a model of adult stem cells. We found that heterologous cell ...
Introduction. Contents 1. Introduction 2. Summary 3. What are stem cells? 3.1 Adult stem cells 3.2 Core blood stem cells 3.3 Embryonic stem cells 4. Potentially of embryonic stem cells 5. UK Stem Cell bank. 6. Controversial Issues 7. Bibliography 1. Introduction This is a report on stem cells and the stem cell bank The aim of this report to overview stem cell research, including stem cell banks and pitched at general readers of non scientific background. 2 Summary This report consists of brief information on what stem ...
Basic Biology and Clinical Application of Multipotent Mesenchymal Stromal Cells: From Bench to Bedside - A special issue journal published by Hindawi
Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have potential therapeutic benefit for the treatment of neurological diseases and injury. MSCs interact with and alter brain parenchymal cells by direct cell-cell communication and/or by indirect secretion of factors and thereby promote functional recover …
During asymmetric stem cell division, both the daughter stem cell and the presumptive intermediate progenitor cell inherit cytoplasm from their parental stem cell. Thus, proper specification of intermediate progenitor cell identity requires an efficient mechanism to rapidly extinguish the activity of self-renewal factors, but the mechanisms remain unknown in most stem cell lineages. During asymmetric division of a type II neural stem cell (neuroblast) in the Drosophila larval brain, the Brain tumor (Brat) protein segregates unequally into the immature intermediate neural progenitor (INP), where it specifies INP identity by attenuating the function of the self-renewal factor Klumpfuss (Klu), but the mechanisms are not understood. Here, we report that Brat specifies INP identity through its N-terminal B-boxes via a novel mechanism that is independent of asymmetric protein segregation. Brat-mediated specification of INP ...
The efficiency of cloning of bone marrow multipotent stromal cells (ECF-MSC) from CBA mice and the MSC counts in the femoral bone increased 24 h after a single in vivo (but not in vitro) injection of...
Stem cell transplantation has the long history of more than 50 years from the first bone marrow transplantation in 1957. From the 2000s, clinical applications of stem cells significantly increased with more diseases and more patients treated with stem cells. Both autologous stem cells and allogeneic stem cells as well as adult stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), and both in vitro non-expanded stem cells and in vitro expanded stem cells ...
Implications for Personalized Approaches to Transplants, , , , JULY 12, 2006 - (Philadelphia, PA) - Researchers at the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine have isolated a new source of adult st...
AMSBIO has expanded its wide and varied catalogue of primary and progenitor cell types and media with a new range of human endothelial progenitor cells (EPC).. Read More ...
Background Locks bulge progenitor cells (HBPCs) are multipotent stem cells derived from the bulge region of mice vibrissal hairs. cell-permeable molecule called Cardiogenol C. We founded that Cardiogenol C could induce HBPCs to express transcription factors GATA4 Nkx2.5 and Tbx5 which are early specific markers for pre-cardiomyogenic cells. In long term ethnicities the Cardiogenol C-treated HBPCs can also express muscle mass proteins cardiac-specific troponin I and sarcomeric myosin weighty chain. However we did not observe the ability of the cells to functionally agreement. We called these cells cardiomyocyte-like cells instead of cardiomyocytes Therefore. We tried to treat ...
Stem cells cells of the body (somatic cells) which can divide and become differentiated.[1]. When an organism grows, stem cells specialize, and take specific functions. For instance, mature tissues like skin, muscle, blood, bone, liver, nerves, all have different types of cells. Because stem cells are not yet differentiated, they can change to become some kind of specialized cells. Organisms also use stem cells to replace damaged cells.. Stem ...
There are two basic stem cell types. The first is called unlimited stem cells (also known as embryonic stem cells). These can turn into any kind of cell, while the second type is termed limited stem cells (also known as adult stem cells).. With the unlimited type of stem cells, the cells have the potential to become any human cell type. They can be replicated outside the body and have applications for many human diseases.. Limited stem cells, though, do not have the same limitless potential and cannot be replicated outside the body. They ...
Stem cells play an essential role in embryonic development, cell differentiation and tissue regeneration. Tissue homeostasis in adults is maintained by adult stem cells resident in the niches of different tissues. As one kind of adult stem cell, epidermal stem cells have the potential to generate diversified types of progeny cells in the skin. Although its biology is still largely unclarified, epidermal stem cells are widely used in stem cell research and regenerative medicine given its easy accessibility and pluripotency. Despite the same genome, cells within an organism have different fates due to the ...
There is great interest in mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) for cell-therapy and tissue engineering approaches. MSCs are currently expanded in vitro in the presence of fetal calf serum (FCS); however, FCS raises concerns when used in clinical grade preparations. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether MSCs expanded in medium supplemented with platelet-lysate (PL), already shown to promote MSC growth, are endowed with biological properties appropriate for cell-therapy approaches. We confirm previously published data showing that MSCs expanded in either FCS or PL display comparable morphology, phenotype, and differentiation capacity, while PL-MSCs were superior in terms of clonogenic efficiency and proliferative capacity. We further extended these data by investigating the immune-regulatory effect of MSCs on the alloantigen-specific immune response in mixed lymphocyte culture (MLC). We found that MSCs-PL are comparable to MSCs-FCS in their capacity to: ...
The formation of complex ectodermal organs begins with multipotent stem cells that undergo many basic cellular events. During the formation of a complex organ, there are many factors that need to be considered such as patterning, size, and shape in order to maintain proper organ function. Feather development is a good model. The feather field must be patterned to establish how many feathers, the size must be determined, and the shape of the feather must be appropriate for its function. Canonical and non-canonical Wnt signaling has been implicated in many crucial steps in feather bud development.; Canonical Wnt signaling involves the stabilization and accumulation of beta-catenin, which is subsequently translocated to the nucleus. There, beta-catenin interacts with various coactivators including CREB-binding protein (CBP) and p300, which results in the expression of different genes downstream of beta-catenin/TCF that may ...
article{a4771b6c-1150-427f-a70a-c2fe50a441ba, abstract = {Diamond-Blackfan anemia (DBA) is a congenital bone marrow failure syndrome characterized by a specific deficiency in erythroid progenitors. Since some patients with DBA develop a reduction in thrombocytes and granulocytes with age, we asked whether multipotent hematopoietic progenitors from DBA patients had normal proliferative capacity in liquid expansion cultures. CD34(+) cells derived from DBA patients showed deficient proliferation in liquid culture containing IL-3, IL-6, and SCF. Single CD34(+) CD38(-) cells from DBA patients exhibited deficient proliferation recruitment in a limiting dilution assay containing IL-3, IL-6, SCF, Tpo, FIL, and G-CSF or containing IL-3, IL-6, and SCF. Our findings suggest that the underlying hematopoietic defect in DBA may not be limited to the erythroid lineage. Since a fraction of DBA patients have ...
The possibility for isolating bovine mesenchymal multipotent cells (MSCs) from fetal adnexa is an interesting prospect because of the potential for these cells to be used for biotechnological applications. Bone marrow and adipose tissue are the most common sources of MSCs derived from adult animals. However, little knowledge exists about the characteristics of these progenitors cells in the bovine species. Traditionally most cell cultures are developed in two dimensional (2D) environments. In mammalian tissue, cells connect not only to each other, but also support structures called the extracellular matrix (ECM). The three-dimensional (3D) cultures may play a potential role in cell biotechnology, especially in tissue therapy. In this study, bovine-derived umbilical cord Whartons jelly ...
Aim: Based on our preliminary positive clinical results with use of cultured bone marrow-derived multipotent mesenchymal stem/stromal cells in traumatology, our
Bulgular: T m nlanm ve nleyici tedavi verilmemi ratlar lm t r. MSH nin nleyici uygulamalar , standart GVHD nleyici tedavileri kadar etkin bulunmu tur. MSH uygulamalar , GVHH n n g zlemsel ve histolojik bulgular n ve CD4+/CD8+ oran n azaltmaktad r.Ayr ca MSH uygulanan gruplarda CD25+ T h crelerinin in vivo oran da daha y ksek olup, Allojeneik kemik ili i nakli sonras standart GVHH tedavisi uygulananlara g re plazma nterl kin-2 seviyesinin daha y ksek olarak saptanm t r ...
Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation(allo-HSCT) can cure many hematologic diseases. Although good progress has been made in the prevention and treatment of side effects associated with transplantation, poor graft function (PGF) remains an important complication that occurs in 5-27% of patients, and is associated with considerable morbidity and mortality related to infections or hemorrhagic complications. Treatment of PGF usually involves the prescription of hematopoietic growth factors such as granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), or repeat transplantation, but these methods are associated with short-term effect and a significant risk of graft-versus-host disease(GVHD( development, respectively.. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a form of multipotent adult stem cells that can be isolated from bone marrow (BM), adipose ...
Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies. ...
BACKGROUND: The introduction of specific BCR-ABL inhibitors in chronic myelogenous leukemia therapy has entirely mutated the prognosis of this hematologic cancer from being a fatal disorder to becoming a chronic disease. Due to the probable long lasting treatment with tyrosine-kinase inhibitors (TKIs), the knowledge of their effects on normal cells is of pivotal importance.. DESIGN AND METHODS:. We investigated the effects of dasatinib treatment on human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs).. RESULTS:. Our findings demonstrate, for the first time, that dasatinib induces MSCs adipocytic differentiation. Particularly, when the TKI is added to the medium inducing osteogenic differentiation, a high MSCs percentage acquires adipocytic morphology and overexpresses adipocytic specific genes, including PPARγ, CEBPα, LPL and SREBP1c. Dasatinib also inhibits the activity of alkaline phosphatase, an ...
Neural stem cells in the subventricular zone (SVZ) continue to generate new neurons in the adult brain. SVZ cells exposed to EGF in culture grow to form neurospheres that are multipotent and self-renewing. We show here that the majority of these EGF-responsive cells are not derived from relatively quiescent stem cells in vivo, but from the highly mitotic, Dlx2(+), transit-amplifying C cells. When exposed to EGF, C cells downregulate Dlx2, arrest neuronal production, and become highly proliferative and invasive. Killing Dlx2(+) cells dramatically reduces the in vivo response to EGF and neurosphere formation ...
Recent studies implicated the existence of adult lymphoid-primed multipotent progenitors (LMPPs) with little or no megakaryocyte-erythroid potential, questioning common myeloid and lymphoid progenitors as obligate intermediates in hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) lineage commitment. However, the existence of LMPPs remains contentious. Herein, global and single-cell analyses revealed a hierarchical organization of transcriptional lineage programs, with downregulation of megakaryocyte-erythroid genes from HSCs to LMPPs, sustained granulocyte-monocyte priming, and upregulation of common lymphoid (but not B and T cell-specific) genes. These biological and molecular relationships, implicating almost mutual exclusion of megakaryocyte-erythroid and lymphoid pathways, are established already in fetal hematopoiesis, as evidenced by existence of LMPPs in fetal liver. The identification of LMPPs and hierarchically ordered transcriptional activation and downregulation of distinct lineage ...
The odontoblasts of dental pulp tissue form primary and secondary dentine. If the pulp tissue is exposed, the odontoblast layer will be destroyed. The aim of direct pulp capping is to induce new hard tissue formation in order to keep the pulp tissue vital. If direct pulp capping is successful, tertiary dentine is formed. This hard tissue is denoted as reparative dentine and defined as a dentine matrix, which is formed by a new generation of odontoblast-like cells after an appropriate stimulus. Thus, reparative dentine is not formed by the original post-mitotic odontoblasts. Until recently it has been unclear which pulp cells differentiate into these odontoblast-like cells. Besides multipotent adult stem cells, fibroblasts and un-differentiated mesenchymal ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - β1-integrin is a cell-autonomous factor mediating the Numb pathway for cardiac progenitor maintenance. AU - Gibbs, Brian C.. AU - Shenje, Lincoln. AU - Andersen, Peter. AU - Miyamoto, Matthew. AU - Kwon, Chulan. PY - 2018/1/1. Y1 - 2018/1/1. N2 - Proper control of multipotent/stem cell number and fate is essential for ensuing organ formation during development. β1-integrin, a subfamily of cell surface receptors, has a conserved role in maintenance of multipotent/stem cells, including renal progenitor cells, follicle stem cells, epidermal stem cells and neural stem cells. However, it remains unclear whether β1-integrin has a ...
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Injuries to articular cartilage are one of the most challenging issues of musculoskeletal medicine due to the poor intrinsic ability of this tissue for repair. Despite progress in orthopaedic surgery, the lack of efficient modalities of treatment for large chondral defects has prompted research on tissue engineering combining chondrogenic cells, scaffold materials and environmental factors. The aim of this review is to focus on the recent advances made in exploiting the potentials of cell therapy for cartilage engineering. These include: 1) defining the best cell candidates between chondrocytes or multipotent progenitor cells, such as multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC), in terms of readily available sources for isolation, expansion and repair potential; 2) engineering biocompatible and biodegradable natural or ...
Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells or mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are adult progenitor cells essentially isolated from bone marrow and adipose tissue and probably present in most of adult tissue, including muscle, synovial tissue, placental tissue, and recently the teeth [1]. They are currently under investigation for tissue engineering applications, in particular bone and cartilage repair, thanks to their potential to differentiate into various lineages such as chondrocytes, osteoblasts, or adipocytes [2, 3]. They may also have a therapeutic value in other clinical applications based on their capacity to limit scar formation through anti-fibrotic properties, to prevent apoptosis, to stimulate endogenous cells for regeneration, and to suppress the host immune response ...
Video articles in JoVE about multipotent stem cells include Isolation of Blood-vessel-derived Multipotent Precursors from Human Skeletal Muscle, Isolation of Neural Stem/Progenitor Cells from the Periventricular Region of the Adult Rat and Human Spinal Cord, Production and Administration of Therapeutic Mesenchymal Stem/Stromal Cell (MSC) Spheroids Primed in 3-D Cultures Under Xeno-free Conditions, Isolation and Differentiation of Adipose-Derived Stem Cells from Porcine Subcutaneous Adipose Tissues, A cGMP-applicable Expansion Method for Aggregates of Human Neural Stem and Progenitor Cells Derived From Pluripotent Stem Cells ...
New York - Jan 2nd, 2018 - Creative Bioarray, as a world-leading biotechnology company, specializing in developing unique technologies that provide global scientists with high quality products and satisfactory services. In addition, we also update professional biotechnology knowledge for the popular products we offered. Here you will get a guide to learn about the powerful plasticity of mesenchymal stem cells.. Mesenchymal stem cells are members of a family of stem cells, which are multipotent stromal cells that have the ability to self-replicate and have strong differentiation potential into a variety of cell types, including: osteoblasts (bone cells), chondrocytes (cartilage ...
Neural crest cells are a group of multipotent stem cell that migrate to various locations and give rise to many diverse cell types in the vertebrate body. The ENS arises from "vagal" neural crest stem cells that originate from the post-otic dorsal neural tube. Vagal neural crest cells are multipotent and can give rise to the outflow tract of the heart, enteric ganglia, sympathetic ganglia, as well as pigment cells of the skin. To become enteric ganglia during development, vagal neural crest migrate ventrally from the neural tube and enter the primitive foregut tissue. They then migrate along the rostrocaudal extent of the gut in response to microenvironmental signaling cues to until they eventually reach the hindgut. These enteric neural ...
Adult stem cells are multipotent, semi-differentiated, cells that exist in all tissues. "Adult stem cell", however, is not the preferred term used in the field to refer to them-developmental biologists will usually refer to them as "tissue resident stem cells" or as a specific cell type (often referencing the genes they express). They function to maintain tissue homeostasis by dividing to replace damaged or senescent somatic cells. The two most well-studied examples of adult stem cells are the hematopoietic stem cells, which give rise to blood cells, and the ...
Human being mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) possess immunosuppressive and antimicrobial results that are partly mediated by the tryptophan-catabolizing enzyme indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO). in the treatment of GvHD in transplant individuals, we recommend that individuals planned for MSC therapy should go through comprehensive evaluation for an energetic CMV disease and get CMV-directed antiviral therapy prior to the administration of MSC. 1. Intro Human being multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC), known for their multilineage difference potential, have pleiotropic immunosuppressive features that are mediated by phrase of the tryptophan-catabolizing enzyme indoleamine-2 partially,3-dioxygenase (IDO) [1C4]. Upon arousal with inflammatory cytokines, MSC show broad-spectrum antimicrobial effector features aimed against BMS-536924 different relevant pathogens medically, and these ...
Abstract. Background. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are non-hematopoietic multipotent stromal cells that can differentiate into lineages such as adipocytes, osteocytes and chondrocytes. MSC are immune privileged and also possess immunosuppressive properties, which in combination with their differentiative properties makes them excellent candidates for tissue engineering, an alternative treatment solution for of congenital malformations. This study will investigate mesenchymal stem cells from amniotic fluid and umbilical cords to evaluate which tissue that is superior for tissue engineering.. Methods and Results. Mesenchymal stem cells were isolated from amniotic fluid (afMSC) obtained at routinely performed amniocenteses and from umbilical ...
Adipose-derived stem cells (ASC) are multipotent stem cells that show great potential as a cell source for osteogenic tissue replacements and it is critical to understand the underlying mechanisms of lineage specification. Here we explore the role of primary cilia in human ASC (hASC) differentiation. This study focuses on the chemosensitivity of the primary cilium and the action of its associated proteins: polycystin-1 (PC1), polycystin-2 (PC2) and intraflagellar transport protein-88 (IFT88), in hASC osteogenesis. To elucidate cilia-mediated mechanisms of hASC differentiation, siRNA knockdown of PC1, PC2 and IFT88 was performed to disrupt cilia-associated protein function. Immunostaining of the primary cilium structure indicated phenotypic-dependent changes in cilia morphology. hASC cultured in osteogenic differentiation media yielded cilia of a more ...
Scientists at Childrens Hospital Oakland Research Institute (CHORI) led by Vladimir Serikov, MD, PhD, and Frans Kuypers, PhD, report in the current Epub issue of Stem Cells Translational Medicine that placental stem cells with important therapeutic properties can be harvested in large quantities from the fetal side of human term placentas (called the chorion). The chorion is a part of the afterbirth and is normally discarded after delivery, but it contains stem cells of fetal origin that appear to be pluripotent -- i.e., they can differentiate into different types of human cells, such as lung, liver, or brain cells. Since these functional placental stem ...
Hair Restoration News: Lactate Influences Hair Follicle Stem Cells. New study suggests that Lactate may influence hair follicle stem cells in a dose dependent manner. What is Lactate? Lactate regulates human metabolism and is known for being able to stimulate collagen synthesis and vessel growth. Lately it has been shown that lactate, in vivo, may have a role to play in the proliferation of stem cells. Click Lactate Influences Hair Follicle Stem Cells for complete coverage on this topic and our community discussion.. ...
Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) are a heterogeneous cell population that may be enriched by positive selection with antibodies against the low-affinity nerve growth factor receptor (LNGFR or CD271), yielding a selective cell universe with higher proliferation and differentiation potential. This paper addresses the need for determining the quantity of ADSCs positive for the CD271 receptor and its correlation with donors age. Mononuclear cells were harvested from the lower backs of 35 female donors and purified using magnetic beads. Multipotency capacity was tested by the expression of stemness genes and through differentiation into preosteoblasts and adipocytes. A significant statistical difference was found in CD271|sup|+|/sup| concentrations between defined age intervals. The highest yield was found within women on the 30–40-year-old age range. CD271|sup|+|/sup| ...
In this study, we have shown that ligand-induced Notch activation in multipotent hematopoietic precursor cells regulates lineage expression in a density-dependent manner. Our data suggest that the enhanced formation of B and T precursors occurs in the presence of lower densities of Delta1ext-IgG because of the effects on multipotent precursors. In addition, higher densities of ligand lead mainly to T cell differentiation because of the inhibition of early B cell and myeloid differentiation by multipotent precursors and the promotion of T cell differentiation by lymphoid committed precursors. These results represent the first evidence that a single Notch ligand can enhance the development of cells that adopt either a B or a T cell fate.. Previous studies of cell fate outcomes induced by Delta1 have used cell-expressed ligands and were thus unable to address ...
Researchers from the University of Toronto and The Ottawa Hospital were looking to see if mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) might treat osteoporosis. MSCs are multipotent stromal cells that can differentiate into a variety of cell types, including: bone cells (osteoblasts), cartilage cells (chondrocytes), muscle cells (myocytes) and fat cells (adipocytes).. Faulty MSCs are the culprits behind osteoporosis; after injecting healthy MSCs into mice with the affliction that causes bones to become weak and brittle, researchers were hoping for a general increase in the mices bone health. Instead, they were surprised (and probably very excited) to discover after six months-a quarter of ...
Neural stem/progenitor cell (NSPC) transplantation is a promising therapy for spinal cord injury (SCI). However, little is known about NSPC from the adult human spinal cord as a donor source. We demonstrate for the first time that multipotent and self-renewing NSPC can be cultured, passaged and transplanted from the adult human spinal cord of organ transplant donors. Adult human spinal cord NSPC require an adherent substrate for selection and expansion in EGF (epidermal growth factor) and FGF2 (fibroblast growth factor) enriched medium. NSPC as an adherent monolayer can be passaged for at least 9 months and form neurospheres when plated in suspension culture. In EGF/FGF2 culture, NSPC proliferate and primarily express nestin and Sox2, and low levels of markers for differentiating cells. Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) promotes NSPC proliferation and significantly enhances GFAP expression in hypoxia. In differentiating ...
Although adipose tissue is an expandable and readily attainable source of proliferating, multipotent stem cells, its potential for use in regenerative medicine has not been extensively explored. Here we report that adult human and mouse adipose-derived stem cells can be reprogrammed to induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells with substantially higher efficiencies than those reported for human and mouse fibroblasts. Unexpectedly, both human and mouse iPS cells can be obtained in feeder-free conditions. We discovered that adipose-derived stem cells intrinsically express high levels of pluripotency factors such as basic FGF, TGFβ, fibronectin, and vitronectin and can serve as ...
Researchers at the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine have identified a gene and a novel signaling pathway, both critical for making the first hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) in developing vertebrate embryos. The discovery has implications for developing stem cell-based therapies for diseases like leukemia and congenital blood disorders.. HSCs are multipotent stem cells that give rise to all blood cell types, including red blood and immune cells. Existing medical treatments using HSCs are hampered by cell shortages and finding compatible matches between donors and recipients. Currently, it is not possible to create HSCs from converted embryonic stem cells or induced pluripotent stem ...
There has been an explosion of research publications in the field of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in the past 10 yr. Many researchers have sought to exploit their potential as a source of reparative cells for clinical use in a variety of contexts [1]. Adult stem cells are multipotent, undifferentiated, self-renewing capable of healing and regeneration of injured tissues [2-4]. Adult MSCs were initially identified in bone marrow (BM) and since then have been isolated and characterized from different human and animal adult tissues, peripheral blood, adipose, muscle, skin, dental pulp and other tissues [5-10].. Adult stem cells can be conveniently sampled from an extensive array of sources bypassing the ethical controversy associated with the ...
New research has been published confirming that multipotent adult progenitor cells (MAPCs), a type of adult stem cell, can repair and restore damaged blood systems in mice. Catherine Verfaillie and colleagues at the University of Minnesota first described these novel stem cells in 2002, but other teams have had difficulty in replicating the work. In a new paper published in the journal Experimental Medicine, Verfaillie has worked with a leading sceptic of the research, Dr Irving Weissman of Stanford University, to show that the cells can be grown in the laboratory and successfully transplanted into animals. Dr Weissman, who directs Stanfords Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, rigorously examined the data and concluded, These experiments point to ...
Our overall goal is to file an IND within 4 years for a hematopoietic stem cell based genetic therapy for HIV-1 disease. The concept is that introducing anti-HIV gene therapeutics into hematopoietic stem cells will produce a protected population of T lymphocytes and monocyte/macrophages (the cells specifically infected by HIV) in individuals to decrease viral load and maintain stable T lymphocyte counts. Hemapoietic stem cells are unique in that they are multipotent stem cells that give rise to all the types of blood cells, including T cells and monocytes/macrophages. During the first year we have met each of our key ...
Neural crest cells are multipotent progenitor cells that originate from the dorsal neural tube at the border of the neural plate and the lateral epidermis to give rise to various tissues, including the skeletal elements of the face and head, dorsal root and sympathetic ganglia, the glial cells of the peripheral and enteric nervous systems, and melanocytes (Baker and Bronner-Fraser, 1997; Knecht and Bronner-Fraser, 2002; Le Douarin et al., 2004; Selleck et al., 1993; Trainor, 2005). Neural crest-derived melanocytes originate as non-pigmented precursors called melanoblasts, which migrate along characteristic pathways to various destinations, such as the dermis and epidermis, the inner ear and the choroids of the eye (Crane and Trainor, 2006; Dupin and Le Douarin, 2003; Sauka-Spengler and Bronner-Fraser, 2006; Steel and ...
The Effect of Radio Frequency Discharge Plasma on Surface Properties and Biocompatibility of Polycaprolactone Matrices written by TPU researchers together with their colleagues from Kemerovo Research Institute for Complex Issues of Cardiovascular Diseases (NII KPSSZ) studies the effect of surface modification of bioresorbable polymer material (polycaprolactone, PCL) with abnormal glow discharge, initiated during radio-frequency magnetron sputtering of a hydroxyapatite target.. TPU scientists analyzed plasma exposure of PCL surface on bone marrow multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells behavior (BM MSCs). It was identified that modification of polymer surface with abnormal glow discharge stimulated adhesion and subsequent proliferation of BM MSCs. This type of plasma modification did not affect cell viability (apoptosis, necrosis). Thus, the surface modification with abnormal glow discharge, initiated during radio-frequency magnetron sputtering ...
[216 Pages Report] Check for Discount on Mesenchymal Stem Cells - Advances & Applications (2018) report by BioInformant Worldwide, L.L.C.. Executive Summary Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent cells that...
Some adult stem cell sources are blood, bone marrow, adipose tissue, and dura mater. Blood and blood components that are separated by a technique called apheresis contain at least four types of stem cells. Multipotent stem cells are important in bone marrow transplants, because they migrate to the recipients bone marrow and differentiate to produce all types of blood cells, fat, cartilage, bone, muscle, adipose tissues, nerve cells, and glia-the supporting tissue of the brain and spinal cord.. Umbilical cord blood has some advantages over bone marrow and other blood. For example, cord blood is almost pure stem cells, and because it is young it lacks cell markers; it ...
Endogenous regeneration in the brain is the ability of cells to engage in the repair and regeneration process. While the brain has a limited capacity for regeneration, endogenous neural stem cells, as well as numerous pro-regenerative molecules, can participate in replacing and repairing damaged or diseased neurons and glial cells. Another benefit that can be achieved by using endogenous regeneration could be avoiding an immune response from the host. During the early development of a human, neural stem cells lie in the germinal layer of the developing brain, ventricular and subventricular zones. In brain development, multipotent stem cells (those that can ...
NG2-glia, identified by their expression of the NG2 chondroitin sulphate proteoglycan (CSPG), represent a fifth glial cell population in the central nervous system (CNS). NG2-glia were originally considered to be oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs), but they have properties and distribution in the adult that is distinct from OPCs. NG2-glia have been shown to form contacts with axons at nodes of Ranvier in white matter and to respond to synaptically released glutamate in grey matter. Furthermore, NG2-glia are known to give rise to oligodendrocytes after demyelination in vivo and to form neurons and astrocytes in vitro. However, the function of NG2-glia remains largely undefined. Therefore, the aim of this thesis was to define the interrelations of NG2-glia with other elements in the CNS and test the hypothesis that they are multipotent neural stem cells ...
Wnt signalling controls the balance between stem cell proliferation and differentiation and patterning throughout development. Non-canonical Wnts, such as Wnt5a or Wnt11, enhance cardiac gene expression of endothelial progenitor cells (EPC), mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) and bone marrow mononuclear cells suggesting that non-canonical Wnts regulate cardiac commitment. However, the underlying mechanism is unclear. Using microarray analysis of Wnt5a-induced gene expression in EPC, we discovered that Wnt5a (1.0 μM, 24hours) significantly increased a variety of enzymes, which play key roles in epigenetic remodelling by modifying histone acetylation and methylation. Specifically, JMJD2B (205%), REST (311%), HDAC5 and HDAC7A (716 and 381%), YY1 (304%), and PCGF2 (352%), were significantly increased by Wnt5a. Wnt5a induced ...
Adult stem cells are found in numerous tissues of the body and play a role in tissue development, replacement and repair. Evidence shows that breast stem cells are multipotent and can self renew, which are key characteristics of stem cells, and a single cell enriched with cell surface markers has the ability to grow a fully functional mammary gland in vivo. Many groups have extrapolated the cancer stem cell hypothesis from the haematopoietic system to solid cancers, where using in vitro culture techniques and in vivo transplant models have established evidence of cancer stem cells in colon, pancreas, prostate, brain and breast cancers. In the report we describe the evidence for breast cancer ...
Lymph node stromal cells are essential to the structure and function of the lymph node. There are a number of different types of lymph node stromal cells which have a number of functions including: creating a tissue scaffold within lymph nodes for the support of hematopoietic cells; the release of small molecules that are chemical messengers that facilitate interactions between hematopoietic cells; the facilitation of the migration of hematopoietic cells; the presentation of antigens to immune cells at the initiation of the adaptive immune system; and the homeostasis of lymphocyte numbers. Stromal cells originate from ...
Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are self-renewing multipotent stem cells that generate mature blood lineages throughout life. They, together with hematopoietic progenitor cells (collectively known as HSPCs), emerge from hemogenic endothelium in the floor of the embryonic dorsal aorta by an endothelial-to-hematopoietic transition (EHT). Here we demonstrate that transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) is required for HSPC specification and that it regulates the expression of the Notch ligand Jagged1a in endothelial cells prior to EHT, in a striking parallel with the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). The requirement for TGFβ is two fold and sequential: autocrine via Tgfβ1a and Tgfβ1b produced in the endothelial ...
Introduction: The primary site of prostate cancer metastasis is to the bone. Bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) are multipotent stem cells resident in the bone with the potential to differentiate into osteoblasts, chondrocytes and adipocytes. They have been shown to home to sites of inflammation, including prostate cancer, contributing to tumor growth and progression. This study aims to explore the impact of metastatic prostate cancer patient derived BM-MSCs on prostate cancer cell proliferation and invasive capacity.. Methodologies: BM-MSCs were isolated from bone marrow aspirates from patients diagnosed with metastatic prostate cancer (both androgen deprivation treatment naïve and commenced). Co-culture models were used to examine the impact on patient BM-MSCs versus healthy donor BM-MSCs on prostate cancer cell proliferation, PSA and ...
An adult stem cell is thought to be an undifferentiated cell, found among differentiated cells in a tissue or organ that can renew itself and can differentiate to yield some or all of the major specialized cell types of the tissue or organ.. The primary roles of adult stem cells in a living organism are to maintain and repair the tissue in which they are found.. Scientists also use the term somatic stem cell instead of adult stem cell, where somatic refers to cells of the body (not the germ cells, sperm or eggs). Unlike embryonic stem cells, which are defined by their origin (the inner cell mass of the blastocyst), the origin of adult ...
Simply put, adult stem cells, when taken as a whole, have the potential to grow into any of the bodys more than 200 cell types.. Adult Stem Cells are Ethical. Because adult stem cells are derived from adult tissues, there are no ethical dilemmas related to this type of therapy. Furthermore, research continues to show adult stem cells have far greater potential than embryonic stem cells to treat a variety of disease and conditions, including cancer, heart disease and neurodegenerative diseases.. It is only through continued research and clinical trials in patients that scientists and doctors will identify the different applications for adult stem cell ...
QIAGEN provides a broad range of assay technologies for biological development, cellular differentiation, and stem cell research, enabling analysis of gene expression and regulation, epigenetic modification, genotyping, and signal transduction pathway activation. During embryonic development, pluripotent stem cells differentiate into germ layers: ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm. These germ layers eventually differentiate into multipotent stem cells (progenitors), which progress into terminally differentiated cells. These tightly regulated developmental processes require specific changes to the epigenome, gene expression and cellular signaling. Solutions optimized for these research studies are organized into more focused ...
Atopic dermatitis (AD) also known as atopic eczema, affects approximately 10% of dogs worldwide and is likely the most prevalent canine skin diseases requiring medical intervention. Current treatment options for dogs afflicted with this condition include antihistamines, corticosteroids, cyclosporine A, oclacitinib, and allergen-specific immunotherapy (ASIT) administered subcutaneously or sublingually, as well as adjunctive treatments such as topical and systemic antimicrobial therapy. It is difficult to avoid allergens in many cases.. Certain issues may arise with treatment options due to possible unreliable,therapeutic methods that may have adverse reactions, or come with significant financial burden. There is a great need for finding a novel, safe, and effective treatment for the management of canine atopic dermatitis.. Multipotent mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been extensively evaluated in human ...
Organoids", i.e., complex structures that can develop when pluripotent or multipotent stem cells are maintained in three-dimensional cultures, have become a new area of interest in stem cell research. Hopes have grown that when focussing experimentally on the mechanisms behind this type of in vitro morphogenesis, research aiming at tissue and organ replacements can be boosted. Processes leading to the formation of organoids in vitro are now often addressed as self-organization, a term referring to the formation of complex tissue architecture in groups of cells without depending on specific instruction provided by other cells or tissues. The present article focuses on recent reports using the term self-organization in the context of studies on embryogenesis, specifically addressing pattern formation processes ...
Embryonic stem cells are pluripotent, meaning they are able to grow (i.e. differentiate) into all derivatives of the three primary germ layers: ectoderm, endoderm and mesoderm. In other words, they can develop into each of the more than 200 cell types of the adult body as long as they are specified to do so. Embryonic stem cells are distinguished by two distinctive properties: their pluripotency, and their ability to replicate indefinitely. ES cells are pluripotent, that is, they are able to differentiate into all derivatives of the three primary germ layers: ectoderm, endoderm, and mesoderm. These include each of the more than 220 cell types in the adult body. Pluripotency distinguishes embryonic stem ...
The epicardium is derived from the proepicardial organ, a source of multipotent progenitor cells. Epicardium contribution to the developing coronary vasculature and to cardiac interstitial cells has been established. Studies over the past several years have suggested that epicardium-derived cells can adopt cardiomyocyte and vascular smooth muscle fates and can contribute to cardiac repair when activated by injury.1,2 Recently, Chong et al3 have provided a detailed characterization of a population of epicardium-derived multipotent cardiac progenitor cells (cCFU-Fs). These cells, which do not arise from the bone marrow, neural crest, or myocardium, resemble mesenchymal stem ...
New neurons continue to be formed in the adult mammalian nervous system in specific neurogenic niches, the subventricular zone [SVZ; subependymal layer SEL (Boulder Committee, 1970)] of the lateral wall of the lateral ventricles and the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus (Abrous et al., 2005). The adult SVZ contains astrocyte-like stem cells that generate neuronal precursors (neuroblasts) migrating as a network of tightly associated chains towards the olfactory bulb (OB). There, they undergo apoptosis or differentiate into interneurons (Menezes et al., 1995; Doetsch and Alvarez-Buylla, 1996; Peretto et al., 1997; Doetsch et al., 1999; Garcia et al., 2004). The molecular cues initiating the cell cycle in these multipotent stem cells, driving proliferation of intermediate precursors, directing migration of neuroblasts towards the olfactory bulb ...
Olfactory Stem Cells and Neural Regeneration. In the vertebrate olfactory system, primary sensory neurons are continuously regenerated throughout adult life via the proliferation and differentiation of multipotent neural progenitor cells. This feature makes the olfactory system particularly amenable for studies on adult neurogenesis and the properties of neuronal stem cells. Olfactory sensory neurons normally turn over every 30-60 days and are replaced through the proliferation and differentiation of multipotent progenitor cells. Following injury that results in the destruction of mature cells in the olfactory epithelium, these adult tissue ...
Background: Leptin-deficient ob/ob mice exhibit adipocyte hypertrophy and hyperplasia as well as elevated adipose tissue and systemic inflammation. Multipotent stem cells isolated from adult adipose tissue can differentiate into adipocytes ex vivo and thereby contribute toward increased adipocyte cell numbers, obesity, and inflamm ation. ... read moreCurrently, information is lacking regarding regulation of adipose stem cell numbers as well as leptin-induced inflammation and its signaling pathway in ob/ob mice. read less. ...
The burgeoning field of stem cell research is expanding beyond the initial studies that involved localizing, isolating and culturing of the cells. How stem cell homeostasis is regulated is now the focus of current research. Even more nascent is the idea of how homeostasis is regulated from signals outside the defined stem cell niche or microenvironment. The extra-niche area is defined as the Macroenvironment. This includes adjacent tissue, distant organ systems and even the external environment. To investigate the macroenviroment as a stem cell regulator, hair follicle stem cell interactions with 1)adjacent tissues (subcutaneous adipose tissue), 2)remote signalling (neuroendocrine signalling), and 3)the external environment (circadian rhythms) were studied. Capitalizing on recent work that highlighted inhibitory Bmp2 signalling from the subcutaneous adipose ...
In the last decade, great advances have been made in epidermal stem cell studies at the cellular and molecular level. These studies reported various subpopulations and differentiations existing in the epidermal stem cell. Although controversies and unknown issues remain, epidermal stem cells possess an immune-privileged property in transplantation together with easy accessibility, which is favorable for future clinical application. In this review, we will summarize the biological characteristics of epidermal stem cells, and their potential in orthopedic regenerative medicine. Epidermal stem cells play a critical role via cell replacement, and demonstrate significant translational potential in the treatment of orthopedic injuries and diseases, including treatment for wound ...
In this study, we show that the amount of Evi1 transcript can be indicative of an undifferentiated state with multipotent differentiation capacity within HSPCs. In both the fetal and adult hematopoietic systems, Evi1 expression can mark long-term multilineage repopulating HSCs, and enhance HSC purification with a combination of other surface markers, suggesting a specific relationship between HSC activity and Evi1 expression throughout ontogeny. This stem cell-specific expression pattern of Evi1 allows us to functionally identify self-renewing HSCs by using Evi1-IRES-GFP knock-in mice, and suggests the relevance of Evi1 in fine-tuning of stem cell properties. Indeed, we provide the genetic evidence confirming that Evi1 has a predominant effect on LT-HSCs by specifically regulating their self-renewal capacity.. The prospective isolation of HSCs is the most important step to dissect their function. The strategy commonly used for HSC isolation ...
Br J Dermatol. 2012a Sep;167(3):479-84. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2133.2012.11018.x. Epub 2012 Aug 8. Stem cells and alopecia: a review of pathogenesis. Al-Refu K. Source Faculty of Medicine, Internal Medicine Department, Mutah University, PO Box 5, Karak, Mutah 61710, Jordan. Abstract Recent work has focused on the hair follicle as the main source of multipotent stem cells in…. read more ...
Adult stem cells are an inexhaustible source of multipotent cells, which can differentiate into various cell lines. Thanks to these properties, adult stem cells can be used in regenerative medicine for various purposes. Dental pulp stem cells (DPSC) can give rise to different cells of mesenchymal origin, such as osteoblasts, adipocytes, chondrocytes and muscle cells. At present, DPSC applications are mainly focused on bone regeneration in dental/maxilla-facial and orthopedic surgery. Current methods for preserving and banking dental pulp stem cells include steps in which ...
Cardiomyocytes derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are promising candidates to regenerate myocardium as a treatment for heart disease. However, this application is limited because of the inability to prospectively identify a pure population of cardiovascular progenitors (CVPs) that is devoid of residual, undifferentiated cells capable of teratoma formation. Furthermore, the potential of hESC-derived cardiovascular lineage cells to functionally couple to human myocardium remains unknown. The purpose of the current study was to test the hypotheses that (i) CVPs derived from hESCs can be isolated based on a set of distinct surface markers and (ii) they can functionally integrate into the human fetal heart. We screened a large panel of monoclonal antibodies to prospectively identify early cardiovascular precursors that emerge from ...
Stem cells are one of several varieties of cell that have the ability to renew themselves through division, and differentiate themselves into specialized cell types. There is a gradient that corresponds to how well a particular stem cell can differentiate. The two most common types, adult and embryonic, are multipotent and pluripotent respectively. Multipotent means that a stem cell can differentiate into similar types of cells, for instance blood cells only. Pluripotent means that they can turn into any of the 3 germ layer types.[1] Even though embryonic stem cells can differentiate into more cell types than can adult stem ...
The cellular diversity of the vertebrate central nervous system (CNS) relies upon the generation of distinct neuronal subclasses at defined positions and times from a relatively small pool of proliferating progenitors. As neural progenitors proliferate, they are exposed to secreted inductive signals that initiate cell fate decisions by regulating expression of transcription factors. These transcription factors, in turn, impose developmental restrictions on multipotent progenitor cells before ultimately effecting their final differentiation [1-3]. Understanding how extracellular and cell-intrinsic mechanisms are coordinated during CNS development is important not only for understanding embryonic patterning but also for gaining insight into the developmental potential of neuronal stem cells and progenitors isolated from different regions of the CNS [4].. ...
Haemopoietic stem cells in vivo proliferate and develop in association with stromal cells of the bone marrow. Proliferation and differentiation of haemopoietic stem cells also occurs in vitro, either in association with stromal cells or in response to soluble growth factors. Many of the growth factors that promote growth and development of haemopoietic cells in vitro have now been molecularly cloned and purified to homogeneity and various techniques have been described that allow enrichment (to near homogeneity) of multipotential stem cells. This in turn, has facilitated studies at the mechanistic level regarding the role of such growth ...
PURPOSE OF REVIEW Metastatic melanoma is the most aggressive skin cancer and despite tremendous efforts and considerable progress in clinical treatment of melanoma patients within recent years, it remains a deadly disease. Current treatments affect melanoma cells indiscriminately, while accumulating evidence suggests that melanoma might be a disease of stem cells. This review aims to summarize the important accomplishments in the field and to emphasize the common molecular and cellular mechanisms regulating self-renewal of neural crest stem cells (NCSCs) and melanoma cells. RECENT FINDINGS A growing number of publications highlight the existence of phenotypic and functional similarities between embryonic NCSCs and melanoma ...
... (NSC) are multipotent cells derived from iPSCs and ESCs. These fully characterized Neural Stem Cells at low passage can be further differentiated to the particular neuronal cell type of the investigators choice, such as DOPA, Astrocytes, Neurons, thus facilitating studies in cell replacement therapies and neuronal disease modeling. Click here to learn more.
5 Misconceptions About Adult Stem Cells. by Lake Nona Medical Arts. If you feel confused about adult-derived stem cells, youre not alone. Many people are unclear of how cells differ based on whether they are adult, embryonic, or come from the umbilical cord of a newborn baby. This confusion causes them to believe common misconceptions that could prevent them from realizing the full benefit of adult stem cells.. An adult stem cell is undifferentiated, which means that it is located in differentiated cells in the major organs and tissues of the body. It is capable of self-renewal and can yield to some or all the most prominent types of cells ...
ATCC offers a targeted array of products for the culture of mesenchymal stem cells. These multipotent cells can be used for studies of adult stem cell differentiation, tissue engineering, regenerative medicine, and the creation of induced pluripotent stem cells.
ATCC offers a targeted array of products for the culture of mesenchymal stem cells. These multipotent cells can be used for studies of adult stem cell differentiation, tissue engineering, regenerative medicine, and the creation of induced pluripotent stem cells.
Reversine, a purine analog, experienced been proved that it could induce dedifferentiation of differentiated cells into multipotent progenitor cells. acid-Schiff staining assay in hepatogenic differentiated … Manifestation of pluripotent guns and epigenetic guns To further characterize the pluripotency of reversine-pretreated cells, manifestation of specific guns 468-28-0 supplier (April4, Sox2 and Nanog) of pluripotent cells were analyzed by using RT-PCR, western blotting and immunofluorescence. In addition, we also desired to determine which gene caused the differential strength. The outcomes indicated that reversine elevated the reflection of March4 significantly, but Sox2 and Nanog had been not really discovered (Fig. ?(Fig.5,5, A and B), which indicated the account activation of Oct4 ...
This unit describes a robust protocol for producing multipotent Kdr‐expressing mesoderm progenitor cells in serum‐free conditions, and for functional genomics screening using these cells
In this article, we successfully isolate Sca-1+ cells from postnatal mice hearts with the MACS system, using a microbead-labeled anti-Sca-1 antibody. The isolated Sca-1+ cells express the stemness markers Nanog and TERT, the cardiac mesoderm markers ISL-1, TBX5, and the cardiac specific transcription factors GATA4, Nkx2.5, and MEF2C. They can be propagated in vitro for a long time without any significant changes in marker expression. Moreover, the isolated Sca-1+ cells and their long-term descendants exhibit multipotent differentiation to cardiac cell lineages, including smooth muscle, endothelial cells and cardiomyocytes. So, the Sca-1+ cells we isolated from mouse heart tissue should be identified as ...
Tissue from the telencephalon was isolated from E13.5 BALB/C mouse and allowed to culture as neurospheres in the presence of FGF2. These cultures were assessed for undifferentiated neural stem cells by the expression of Nestin and were found to be ~98% Nestin positive. Comparisons of these nestin positive neural stem cells will be made to R1 ES cells to identify the genes that are important in totipotent, self-renewing ES cells vs. commitment to the multipotent, self-renewing neural stem cell phenotype ...
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent cells that can be induced to differentiate in various tissue lineages upon specific molecular or mechanical cues. Based on specific lineage markers and identified master genes, established protocols are now recognized to drive differentiation towards osteocytes, chondrocytes and adipocytes (Caplan, 1991; Pittenger et al., 1999; Prockop, 1997). Although studies identify tendon cell differentiation upon molecular and mechanical cues from MSCs (reviewed in Nourissat et al., 2015; Zhang et al., 2018), tendon lineage is less studied than other tissue-specific lineages. There is no recognized/established protocol with external inducers to differentiate MSCs towards a tendon phenotype. In addition, there is no identified master gene that initiates the tenogenic program in cell cultures as for the cartilage (Sox9), bone (Runx2) and ...
Stem cells are of special interest to medical researchers because of their unique ability to differentiate into other cells. The potential to repair and replace tissues using a persons own cells has opened up a whole new field of medical research and affected nearly every medical specialty and subspecialty. Since their discovery more than three decades ago, stem cells have been explored as options to manage cancer and repair or even replace damaged organs. But it wasnt until 2011 that the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved the use of stem cells for the management of wrinkles - in this case, specifically nasolabial folds, the creases that extend from the nose to the corners of the mouth. [6]. The ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Synergistic induction of astrocytic differentiation by factors secreted from meninges in the mouse developing brain. AU - Kawamura, Yoichiro. AU - Katada, Sayako. AU - Noguchi, Hirofumi. AU - Yamamoto, Hiroyuki. AU - Sanosaka, Tsukasa. AU - Iihara, Koji. AU - Nakashima, Kinichi. PY - 2017/11. Y1 - 2017/11. N2 - Astrocytes, which support diverse neuronal functions, are generated from multipotent neural stem/precursor cells (NS/PCs) during brain development. Although many astrocyte-inducing factors have been identified and studied in vitro, the regions and/or cells that produce these factors in the developing brain remain elusive. Here, we show that meninges-produced factors induce astrocytic differentiation of NS/PCs. Consistent with the timing when astrocytic differentiation of NS/PCs increases, expression of astrocyte-inducing factors is upregulated. ...
A considerable amount of controversy has arisen surrounding the use of embryonic stem cells to treat various conditions and diseases. This moral and ethical question may be avoided through the use of adult stem cells. However, some of us are unfamiliar with the benefits of these cells and why their adult counterparts may present an ideal option. It is a good idea to take a more in-depth look at both of these topics. How do Adult Stem Cells Work? Like embryonic stem cells, adult cells are not specialised. In other words, they have not formed one type of cell or another. This will allow them to differentiate later in their lifespan. By placing ...
Our proposal is focused on analyzing the effects of space radiation on these critical populations of multipotent neural stem and precursor cells. We have developed the technology to isolate and grow these cells in culture and will use a variety of techniques to analyze how cells exposed to space radiation change. We will monitor the time course of oxidative stress in these cells and how that depends on the dose, the dose rate and type of radiation applied. We will determine how radiation-induced oxidative stress impacts cellular proliferation, signaling between cells, cell fate and survival ...
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19208786 We investigated whether the human placenta contributes to embryonic and fetal hematopoietic development. Two cell populations--CD34(++)CD45(low) and CD34( +)CD45(low)--were found in chorionic villi. CD34(++) CD45(low) cells display many markers that are characteristic of multipotent primitive hematopoietic progenitors and hematopoietic stem cells. Clonogenic in vitro assays showed that CD34(++)CD45( low) cells contained colony-forming units-culture with myeloid and erythroid potential and differentiated into CD56(+) natural killer cells and CD19(+) B cells in culture. CD34(+)CD45(low) cells were mostly enriched in erythroid- and ...
Our knowledge about stem cells is evolving. Id like to summarize the current understanding of adult stem cell properties as a whole. Recent research has shown there are some common features for all somatic stem cells residing in different organs.
Theres hope in the news for future adult stem cell therapies using patients own stem cells within the next ten years.The (UK) Times Online reports on the rapid progress in research on tissue regeneration using patients own adult stem cells to produce heart valves and muscles. The researcher predicts the technology will be available in…

Differences Between Germ-Line Stem Cells and Multipotent Adult Germ-Line Stem Cells for MicroRNAs | SpringerLinkDifferences Between Germ-Line Stem Cells and Multipotent Adult Germ-Line Stem Cells for MicroRNAs | SpringerLink

Testes-derived male germ-line stem cells exhibit spermatogenic potential or multipotency depending on the culture conditions ... In: Hayat M. (eds) Stem Cells and Cancer Stem Cells, Volume 6. Stem Cells and Cancer Stem Cells, vol 6. Springer, Dordrecht. * ... Stem Cells and Cancer Stem Cells book series (STEM, volume 6). Abstract. Testes-derived male germ-line stem cells exhibit ... Gupta M.K., Lee H.T. (2012) Differences Between Germ-Line Stem Cells and Multipotent Adult Germ-Line Stem Cells for MicroRNAs. ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-94-007-2993-3_11

In Vitro Differentiation and Maturation of Human Embryonic Stem Cell into Multipotent CellsIn Vitro Differentiation and Maturation of Human Embryonic Stem Cell into Multipotent Cells

... and clinical studies in all areas of stem cell biology and applications. The journal will consider basic, translational, and ... Stem Cells International is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research articles, review articles, ... "Differentiation of human embryonic stem cells into embryoid bodies compromising the three embryonic germ layers," Molecular ... "Differentiation of human embryonic stem cells into bipotent mesenchymal stem cells," Stem Cells, vol. 24, no. 8, pp. 1914-1922 ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/sci/2011/735420/

Generation of functional neurons ... preview & related info | MendeleyGeneration of functional neurons ... preview & related info | Mendeley

Recently, we reported the successful establishment of multipotent adult germ-line stem cells (maGSCs) from cultured adult mouse ... spermatogonial stem cells. Similar to embryonic stem cells, maGSCs are able to self-renew and differentiate into deri... ... Generation of functional neurons and glia from multipotent adult mouse germ-line stem cells. Stem Cell Research, 2(2), 139-154 ... Generation of functional neurons and glia from multipotent adult mouse germ-line stem cells. *Streckfuss-Bömeke K ...
more infohttps://www.mendeley.com/catalogue/generation-functional-neurons-glia-multipotent-adult-mouse-germline-stem-cells/

Multipotent adult germ-line stem cells, like other pluripotent stem cells, can be killed by cytotoxic T lymphocytes despite low...Multipotent adult germ-line stem cells, like other pluripotent stem cells, can be killed by cytotoxic T lymphocytes despite low...

Multipotent adult germ-line stem cells, like other pluripotent stem cells, can be killed by cytotoxic T lymphocytes despite low ... Generation of functional neurons and glia from multipotent adult mouse germ-line stem cells. Stem Cell Res. 2009, 2: 139-154. ... Adult germ line stem cells as a source of functional neurons and glia. Stem Cells. 2008, 26: 2434-2443. 10.1634/stemcells.2008- ... Multipotent adult germ-line stem cells (maGSCs) represent a new pluripotent cell type that can be derived without genetic ...
more infohttps://0-biologydirect-biomedcentral-com.brum.beds.ac.uk/articles/10.1186/1745-6150-4-31

PDGF-AB and 5-Azacytidine induce conversion of somatic cells into tissue-regenerative multipotent stem cells | PNASPDGF-AB and 5-Azacytidine induce conversion of somatic cells into tissue-regenerative multipotent stem cells | PNAS

Reprogrammed cells were differentiated into derivatives of all three germ layers as detailed in SI Appendix. ... 2011) Adult cardiac-resident MSC-like stem cells with a proepicardial origin. Cell Stem Cell 9(6):527-540. ... This method can be applied to both mouse and human somatic cells to generate multipotent stem cells and has the potential to ... In this report we describe the generation of tissue-regenerative multipotent stem cells (iMS cells) by treating mature bone and ...
more infohttps://www.pnas.org/content/early/2016/04/01/1518244113

Cellular Reprogramming and prenatal Therapy group  Flashcards by kirsty mackinlay | BrainscapeCellular Reprogramming and prenatal Therapy group Flashcards by kirsty mackinlay | Brainscape

Epiblast stem cells (post-implanta?on embryo) • Primordial germ cells (mid-gestation embryo). • Multipotent germ line stem ... induced pluipotent stem cells:Differen?ated cells can be reprogrammed to pluripotency and other cell fates by treatment with ... cell fusion: fusion of ES cells with somatic cells- very inefficient. tetraploidy of the reprogrammed cells presents a major ... For example, the generation of cloned ES cells from neurons was less efficient than that from neural stem cells ...
more infohttps://www.brainscape.com/flashcards/cellular-reprogramming-and-prenatal-thera-5117740/packs/7124422

Adult stem cell - WikipediaAdult stem cell - Wikipedia

Multipotent stem cells have also been derived from germ cells found in human testicles.[48] ... Hematopoietic stem cells[edit]. Main article: Hematopoietic stem cell. Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are stem cells that can ... Stem cell division and differentiation. A - stem cells; B - progenitor cell; C - differentiated cell; 1 - symmetric stem cell ... such as mesenchymal stem cell, adipose-derived stem cell, endothelial stem cell, etc.).[72][73] A great deal of adult stem cell ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Somatic_stem_cell

Vlasov A[au] - PubMed - NCBIVlasov A[au] - PubMed - NCBI

Generation of functional neurons and glia from multipotent adult mouse germ-line stem cells. ... Stem Cell Res. 2009 Mar;2(2):139-54. doi: 10.1016/j.scr.2008.09.001. Epub 2008 Oct 7. ... Cell Syst. 2018 Jan 24;6(1):75-89.e11. doi: 10.1016/j.cels.2017.11.010. Epub 2017 Dec 13. ... Context-specific flow through the MEK/ERK module produces cell- and ligand-specific patterns of ERK single and double ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?cmd=search&term=Vlasov+A%5Bau%5D&dispmax=50

Tendon Regeneration and Repair with Stem CellsTendon Regeneration and Repair with Stem Cells

... and clinical studies in all areas of stem cell biology and applications. The journal will consider basic, translational, and ... Stem Cells International is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research articles, review articles, ... Multipotent cells form a number of cells or tissues that are usually restricted to a particular germ layer. Multipotent cells ... Pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) can form most cells of an organism from all three germ cell layers. Embryonic stem cells present ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/sci/2012/316281/

Frontiers | Implications for a Stem Cell Regenerative Medicine Based Approach to Human Intervertebral Disk Degeneration | Cell...Frontiers | Implications for a Stem Cell Regenerative Medicine Based Approach to Human Intervertebral Disk Degeneration | Cell...

... including using autologous mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and even attempts at direct ... including using autologous mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and even attempts at direct ... Different stem cell based regenerative medicine approaches to cure disc degeneration are now available, ... Different stem cell based regenerative medicine approaches to cure disc degeneration are now available, ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fcell.2017.00017/full

Cell Lineage - QIAGENCell Lineage - QIAGEN

These germ layers differentiate into multipotent stem cells (progenitors), which progress into terminally differentiated cells ... These germ layers differentiate into multipotent stem cells (progenitors), which progress into terminally differentiated cells ... Stem Cell Transcription Factors EpiTect Methyl II PCR Array The Human Stem Cell Transcription Factors EpiTect Methyl II ... Stem Cell Transcription Factors EpiTect ChIP qPCR Array The Human Stem Cell Transcription Factors EpiTect Chip qPCR Array ...
more infohttps://www.qiagen.com/us/shop/genes-and-pathways/complete-biology-list/cell-lineage/

Cell Lineage - QIAGENCell Lineage - QIAGEN

These germ layers differentiate into multipotent stem cells (progenitors), which progress into terminally differentiated cells ... These germ layers differentiate into multipotent stem cells (progenitors), which progress into terminally differentiated cells ... Stem Cell Transcription Factors EpiTect Methyl II PCR Array The Human Stem Cell Transcription Factors EpiTect Methyl II ... Stem Cell Transcription Factors EpiTect ChIP qPCR Array The Human Stem Cell Transcription Factors EpiTect Chip qPCR Array ...
more infohttps://www.qiagen.com/cr/shop/genes-and-pathways/complete-biology-list/cell-lineage/

The unfolded protein response regulator ATF6 promotes mesodermal differentiation | Science SignalingThe unfolded protein response regulator ATF6 promotes mesodermal differentiation | Science Signaling

We investigated this hypothesis using human stem cells undergoing differentiation into multipotent germ layers, nascent tissues ... stem cells, or the single-cell zygote is unknown.. Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs ... similar to those seen in other stem cell and primitive cell types (H7-hESC and H1-hESC; Fig. 1F). Stem cells treated with the ... of ATF6 to assess how ATF6 signaling affected stem cell differentiation into early germ cell layers and functional cell types ( ...
more infohttp://stke.sciencemag.org/content/11/517/eaan5785.full

The unfolded protein response regulator ATF6 promotes mesodermal differentiation | Science SignalingThe unfolded protein response regulator ATF6 promotes mesodermal differentiation | Science Signaling

We investigated this hypothesis using human stem cells undergoing differentiation into multipotent germ layers, nascent tissues ... Activating ATF6 promoted the development of functional vascular endothelial cells from stem cells in culture dishes, suggesting ... found that ATF6 was critical to the differentiation of stem cells to the mesodermal lineage, at least in part, by promoting the ... We artificially activated ATF6 in stem cells with a small-molecule ATF6 agonist and, conversely, inhibited ATF6 using induced ...
more infohttp://stke.sciencemag.org/content/11/517/eaan5785

How Stem Cells Differentiate - Introduction to Stem Cells | CourseraHow Stem Cells Differentiate - Introduction to Stem Cells | Coursera

The Science of Stem Cells. Welcome to The Science of Stem Cells! You will begin with a basic overview of stem cells--what they ... the history of stem cell research, and the ... ... Once a stem cell has differentiated into a germ layer,. it is ... now multipotent,. which means that it can make many cell types within the layer. ... Introduction to Stem Cells. Welcome to The Science of Stem Cells! You will begin with a basic overview of stem cells--what they ...
more infohttps://www.coursera.org/lecture/stem-cells/how-stem-cells-differentiate-YGZcf

Molecular Vision: Differentiation of rabbit bone marrow
mesenchymal stem cells into corneal epithelial cells in vivo and ex...Molecular Vision: Differentiation of rabbit bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells into corneal epithelial cells in vivo and ex...

... multipotent stem cells whereas corneal epithelial cells are terminal differentiated cells and do not belong to the same germ ... Bone marrow contains hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) which produce all the blood cells and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) ... particular attention has been focused on mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). MSCs are a self-renewing, multipotent stem cell group ... It is important to test the suitability of other stem cell lines for the reconstruction of a stem cell-deficient ocular surface ...
more infohttp://www.molvis.org/molvis/v15/a10/

Cell Cycle Regulation of Stem Cells by MicroRNAs | SpringerLinkCell Cycle Regulation of Stem Cells by MicroRNAs | SpringerLink

Somatic stem cells, however, are multipotent and can only differentiate into cell types of the specific tissue or organ from ... ESCs are pluripotent and therefore have the capacity to differentiate into all the possible cell types of the three germ layers ... MicroRNA Cell cycle Stem cells ESC Somatic stem cell Cancer stem cell ... MiRNAs and Cell Cycle Regulation of Stem Cells. Embryonic Stem Cells (ESCs). The duration of the cell cycle is variable between ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12015-018-9808-y

Cardiogenic Differentiation and Transdifferentiation of Progenitor Cells | Circulation ResearchCardiogenic Differentiation and Transdifferentiation of Progenitor Cells | Circulation Research

... bone marrow stem cell; VSESC, very small embryonic stem cell-like stem cell; EGS, embryonic germ cells. ... hematopoietic stem cells [HSCs],25 mesenchymal stem cells [MSCs],26-32 very small embryonic-like stem cells,33 multipotent ... stem cells (eg, hematopoietic stem cells resident in skeletal muscle),11,12 the possibility that bone marrow-derived stem cells ... adult stem cells and embryonic stem cells (ESCs). Adult stem cells are derived from postnatal somatic tissues and are generally ...
more infohttp://circres.ahajournals.org/content/103/10/1058

Stem cells - ConservapediaStem cells - Conservapedia

Multipotent means that a stem cell can differentiate into similar types of cells, for instance blood cells only. Pluripotent ... means that they can turn into any of the 3 germ layer types.[1] ... Stem cells. This is the current revision of Stem cells as ... much attention has been shifted away from embryonic stem cells to induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS cells). This type of cell ... Even though embryonic stem cells can differentiate into more cell types than can adult stem cells, like with in vitro ...
more infohttps://www.conservapedia.com/index.php?title=Stem_cells&oldid=1149934&mobileaction=toggle_view_mobile

Stem cells - ConservapediaStem cells - Conservapedia

Multipotent means that a stem cell can differentiate into similar types of cells, for instance blood cells only. Pluripotent ... means that they can turn into any of the 3 germ layer types.[1] ... Stem cells are one of several varieties of cell that have the ... much attention has been shifted away from embryonic stem cells to induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS cells). This type of cell ... Even though embryonic stem cells can differentiate into more cell types than can adult stem cells, like with in vitro ...
more infohttp://www.conservapedia.com/Stem_cells

JCI -
Clonally expanded novel multipotent stem cells from human bone marrow regenerate myocardium after myocardial infarctionJCI - Clonally expanded novel multipotent stem cells from human bone marrow regenerate myocardium after myocardial infarction

... of multipotency for more than 140 population doublings and exhibit the capacity for differentiation into cells of all 3 germ ... Clonally expanded novel multipotent stem cells from human bone marrow regenerate myocardium after myocardial infarction. ... Clonally expanded novel multipotent stem cells from human bone marrow regenerate myocardium after myocardial infarction. ... To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration that a specific population of multipotent human BM-derived stem cells can ...
more infohttps://jci.org/articles/view/22326/figure/1

Control and Regulation of Stem CellsControl and Regulation of Stem Cells

GERM CELLS AND TOTIPOTENCY. R. Lehmann, M.A. Surani, T. Shinohara, S. Yoshida, and D. Solter. NICHES AND ASYMMETRY. T. Xie, A.C ... EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT AND MULTIPOTENT PROGENITORS. U. Grossniklaus, G.M. Keller, L.I. Zon, K.S. Zaret, J.C. Izpisúa Belmonte, ... the stem cell niche, and signaling and gene regulation in stem cells. Studies of embryonic stem cells and adult stem cells are ... Control and Regulation of Stem Cells [Hardcover]. Stem Cell Biology [Hardcover]. Stem Cell Biology [Paperback]. ...
more infohttps://cshlpress.com/default.tpl?action=full&cart=1550364070162103856&--eqskudatarq=682&typ=ps&newtitle=Control%20and%20Regulation%20of%20Stem%20Cells

Control and Regulation of Stem Cells
	Control and Regulation of Stem Cells

GERM CELLS AND TOTIPOTENCY. R. Lehmann, M.A. Surani, T. Shinohara, S. Yoshida, and D. Solter. NICHES AND ASYMMETRY. T. Xie, A.C ... EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT AND MULTIPOTENT PROGENITORS. U. Grossniklaus, G.M. Keller, L.I. Zon, K.S. Zaret, J.C. Izpisúa Belmonte, ... the stem cell niche, and signaling and gene regulation in stem cells. Studies of embryonic stem cells and adult stem cells are ... Control and Regulation of Stem Cells [Paperback]. Stem Cell Biology [Hardcover]. Stem Cell Biology [Paperback]. ...
more infohttps://www.cshlpress.com/default.tpl?action=full&cart=1562917131219410225&--eqskudatarq=681&typ=ps&newtitle=Control%20and%20Regulation%20of%20Stem%20Cells

Control and Regulation of Stem Cells
	Control and Regulation of Stem Cells

GERM CELLS AND TOTIPOTENCY. R. Lehmann, M.A. Surani, T. Shinohara, S. Yoshida, and D. Solter. NICHES AND ASYMMETRY. T. Xie, A.C ... EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT AND MULTIPOTENT PROGENITORS. U. Grossniklaus, G.M. Keller, L.I. Zon, K.S. Zaret, J.C. Izpisúa Belmonte, ... the stem cell niche, and signaling and gene regulation in stem cells. Studies of embryonic stem cells and adult stem cells are ... Control and Regulation of Stem Cells [Paperback]. Stem Cell Biology [Hardcover]. Stem Cell Biology [Paperback]. ...
more infohttps://www.cshlpress.com/default.tpl?action=full&cart=156829935127094392&--eqskudatarq=681&typ=ps&newtitle=Control%20and%20Regulation%20of%20Stem%20Cells

Control and Regulation of Stem Cells
	Control and Regulation of Stem Cells

GERM CELLS AND TOTIPOTENCY. R. Lehmann, M.A. Surani, T. Shinohara, S. Yoshida, and D. Solter. NICHES AND ASYMMETRY. T. Xie, A.C ... EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT AND MULTIPOTENT PROGENITORS. U. Grossniklaus, G.M. Keller, L.I. Zon, K.S. Zaret, J.C. Izpisúa Belmonte, ... the stem cell niche, and signaling and gene regulation in stem cells. Studies of embryonic stem cells and adult stem cells are ... Control and Regulation of Stem Cells [Hardcover]. Stem Cell Biology [Hardcover]. Stem Cell Biology [Paperback]. ...
more infohttps://cshlpress.com/default.tpl?action=full&cart=1550364682162557214&--eqskudatarq=682&typ=ps&newtitle=Control%20and%20Regulation%20of%20Stem%20Cells
  • In a process called "somatic cell nuclear transfer" (SCNT), scientists relocate genetic material from the nucleus of a donor adult cell to an egg whose nucleus, and thus its genetic material, has been removed. (avsabonline.org)
  • The most stringent definition of human totipotency is defined as the ability of a single cell when placed in its normal environment (i.e., uterus) to undergo a developmental program that eventually gives rise to an offspring which itself is fertile ( Condic, 2014 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Based on presentations by world-renowned investigators at the 73rd annual Cold Spring Harbor Symposium on Quantitative Biology, this volume reviews the latest advances in research on the control and regulation of stem cells. (cshlpress.com)
  • In particular, testicular transplantation of GS cells with contaminating maGS cells may result in teratoma formation. (springer.com)
  • Therefore, pluripotent cells might be rejected after transplantation by this mechanism if specific antigens are presented and if specific activated CTLs are present. (beds.ac.uk)
  • In recent years, cell transplantation has drawn tremendous interest as a novel approach to preserving or even restoring contractile function to infarcted hearts. (ahajournals.org)
  • These features make interneuron transplantation a powerful tool for the study of neurodevelopmental processes such as cell specification, cell death, and cortical plasticity. (jove.com)
  • EB has the advantage of providing a three-dimensional structure, which enhances cell-cell interactions that may be important for some developmental processes. (hindawi.com)
  • Oncogenic cells often regress to an earlier developmental state, and the mechanisms of this process are under study. (qiagen.com)
  • Yet, our understanding of human germ cell development is poor, at least in part due to the inaccessibility of early stages to genetic and developmental studies. (jove.com)
  • There are two broad types of stem cells including embryonic stem cells (ESCs), which are solely present at the earliest stages of development, and somatic (or adult) stem cells, which appear during fetal development and remain throughout life. (springer.com)
  • Valuable proof of principle for cell-based cardiac repair was provided by early preclinical studies in which terminally differentiated cardiomyocytes from fetal and neonatal sources were transplanted into infarcted rodent hearts, resulting in improved left ventricular function. (ahajournals.org)
  • The clinical application of fetal and neonatal cardiomyocytes for cardiac repair is precluded by their limited supply and ethical concerns, and so the field has sought to identify other cardiogenic cell sources. (ahajournals.org)
  • Upon sex determination of the fetal gonad, germ cell cysts become organized into testicular or ovarian cord-like structures and begin to interact with gonadal somatic cells. (jove.com)
  • Activating ATF6 promoted the development of functional vascular endothelial cells from stem cells in culture dishes, suggesting that manipulating ATF6 may facilitate the production of mesodermal tissues for research or therapy. (sciencemag.org)
  • There is yet no consensus among biologists on the prevalence and physiological and therapeutic relevance of stem cell plasticity. (wikipedia.org)
  • To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration that a specific population of multipotent human BM-derived stem cells can induce both therapeutic neovascularization and endogenous and exogenous cardiomyogenesis. (jci.org)
  • These data demonstrate unique techniques to follow and purify MGE-like derivatives from ES cells, including GABAergic cortical interneurons and oligodendrocytes, for use in stem cell-based therapeutic assays and treatments. (jove.com)
  • Stems cells have the capability to differentiate into a variety of different cell types including osteocytes and tenocytes, and if normal architecture of damaged tendon (either macroscopic or microscopic) could be restored, this would significantly improve the management of patients with these injuries. (hindawi.com)
  • Of all stem cell types, autologous harvesting involves the least risk. (wikipedia.org)
  • By definition, autologous cells are obtained from one's own body, just as one may bank his or her own blood for elective surgical procedures. (wikipedia.org)
  • The objective of this process is not to create cloned human beings, but rather to produce stem cells that can be used to study human maturity and development and to treat ailments. (avsabonline.org)
  • The human body develops from a single cell, the zygote, the product of the maternal oocyte and the paternal spermatozoon. (frontiersin.org)
  • A typical human infarct involves the loss of approximately 1 billion cardiomyocytes, and, therefore, many investigators have sought to identify endogenous or exogenous stem cells with the capacity to differentiate into committed cardiomyocytes and repopulate lost myocardium. (ahajournals.org)
  • Largely driven by federal bans on using NIH funds to produce new human embryonic cell lines, much attention has been shifted away from embryonic stem cells to induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS cells). (conservapedia.com)
  • This advancement in the stem cell field would not have likely come to pass this soon if not for the push to ban human embryonic stem cell research in the US. (conservapedia.com)
  • Researchers believe that due to this property, stem cells extend the greatest potential for the alleviation of human pain. (womens-health.co.uk)
  • Human embryonic stem cells are derived from the inner cell mass. (womens-health.co.uk)
  • Based on surface marker expression, these clonally expanded human BM-derived multipotent stem cells (hBMSCs) do not appear to belong to any previously described BM-derived stem cell population. (jci.org)
  • Human umbilical vein ECs (lane 4) and immortalized cell lines with high telomere length, provided by the Roche Diagnostics Corp. (lane 5), were used as controls. (jci.org)
  • The invention also provides for vectors, cells and non-human transgenic animal comprising the polynucleotides. (google.com)
  • The invention also provides for vectors, cells and non-human transgenic animal comprising the polynucleotides of the invention as well as their use in medicaments for various conditions. (google.com)
  • 14 . A non-human transgenic animal comprising a polynucleotide according to any one of claims 1 to 10 , a vector according to claim 11 , or a cell according to claim 12 or 13 . (google.com)
  • 16 . A method of identifying an agent capable of modulating the phenotype of a cell according to claim 12 or 13 or a non-human transgenic animal according to claim 14 , in a desired manner comprising determining whether a test agent can modulate the phenotype of the cell or transgenic organism in the desired manner. (google.com)
  • Thus, the ER homeostasis protein in adult cells first directs ER development in embryonic cells. (sciencemag.org)
  • ATF6 encodes a transcription factor that is anchored in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and activated during the unfolded protein response (UPR) to protect cells from ER stress. (sciencemag.org)
  • When a cell enters the G1 phase, a protein called cyclin D increases in response to mitogenic stimuli. (springer.com)
  • A major breakthrough was the discovery that insulin stimulates the translocation of a specific glucose transport protein, GLUT4, from intracellular vesicles to the cell surface. (jci.org)
  • In this five-part online course you will explore the history and basic biology of stem cells, learn about new research techniques, and find out how stem cells could lead to cures for diseases and to individualized medicine. (coursera.org)
  • You will hear from Museum scientists, medical researchers at the frontiers of the field, and a panel of bioethics experts who will address the ethical implications of stem cell research and therapy. (coursera.org)
  • iPS cells are a major leap forward in stem cell research and provide the distinct advantage of generating pluripotent stem cells from any adult individual. (conservapedia.com)
  • An Ethical Dilemma: Cloning/ Stem cell Research What is stem cell research and cloning? (avsabonline.org)
  • Why did he campaign for stem cell research?Superman actor Christopher Reeve, who turned personal tragedy into a public crusade and from his wheelchair became the nation's most recognizable spokesman for spinal cord research, died October 10, 2004 of heart failure. (avsabonline.org)
  • His advocacy for stem cell research helped it emerge as a major campaign issue between President Bush and Sen. John Kerry. (avsabonline.org)
  • Research into stem cells grew out of findings by Ernest A. McCulloch and James E. Till at the University of Toronto in the 1960s. (wikipedia.org)
  • Self-renewal , which is the ability to go through numerous cycles of cell division while still maintaining its undifferentiated state. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ability to regulate the cell cycle in response to external cues helps prevent stem cell exhaustion, or the gradual loss of stem cells following an altered balance between dormant and active states. (wikipedia.org)
  • Parkinsons is a neurodegenerative brain disorder caused by the gradual loss of dopamine-producing cells in the brain. (euvolution.com)
  • 8 . A polynucleotide according to claim 5 , 6 or 7 , wherein the stem loop structure can be cleaved by an enzyme to generate a siRNA molecule which 3′ overhangs at each of its termini each comprising two uridine residues. (google.com)