Oxidative Stress: A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).HCT116 Cells: Human COLORECTAL CARCINOMA cell line.Antioxidants: Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.Reactive Oxygen Species: Molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. These reactive oxygen intermediates include SINGLET OXYGEN; SUPEROXIDES; PEROXIDES; HYDROXYL RADICAL; and HYPOCHLOROUS ACID. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of PHAGOCYTES, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS.Hydrogen Peroxide: A strong oxidizing agent used in aqueous solution as a ripening agent, bleach, and topical anti-infective. It is relatively unstable and solutions deteriorate over time unless stabilized by the addition of acetanilide or similar organic materials.Lipid Peroxidation: Peroxidase catalyzed oxidation of lipids using hydrogen peroxide as an electron acceptor.Superoxide Dismutase: An oxidoreductase that catalyzes the reaction between superoxide anions and hydrogen to yield molecular oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. The enzyme protects the cell against dangerous levels of superoxide. EC 1.15.1.1.Glutathione: A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.Malondialdehyde: The dialdehyde of malonic acid.Oxidants: Electron-accepting molecules in chemical reactions in which electrons are transferred from one molecule to another (OXIDATION-REDUCTION).Catalase: An oxidoreductase that catalyzes the conversion of HYDROGEN PEROXIDE to water and oxygen. It is present in many animal cells. A deficiency of this enzyme results in ACATALASIA.Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances: Low-molecular-weight end products, probably malondialdehyde, that are formed during the decomposition of lipid peroxidation products. These compounds react with thiobarbituric acid to form a fluorescent red adduct.Protein Carbonylation: The appearance of carbonyl groups (such as aldehyde or ketone groups) in PROTEINS as the result of several oxidative modification reactions. It is a standard marker for OXIDATIVE STRESS. Carbonylated proteins tend to be more hydrophobic and resistant to proteolysis.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Glutathione Peroxidase: An enzyme catalyzing the oxidation of 2 moles of glutathione in the presence of hydrogen peroxide to yield oxidized glutathione and water. EC 1.11.1.9.F2-Isoprostanes: Isoprostanes derived from the free radical oxidation of ARACHIDONIC ACID. Although similar in structure to enzymatically synthesized prostaglandin F2alpha (DINOPROST), they occur through non-enzymatic oxidation of cell membrane lipids.Paraquat: A poisonous dipyridilium compound used as contact herbicide. Contact with concentrated solutions causes irritation of the skin, cracking and shedding of the nails, and delayed healing of cuts and wounds.Deoxyguanosine: A nucleoside consisting of the base guanine and the sugar deoxyribose.Acetylcysteine: The N-acetyl derivative of CYSTEINE. It is used as a mucolytic agent to reduce the viscosity of mucous secretions. It has also been shown to have antiviral effects in patients with HIV due to inhibition of viral stimulation by reactive oxygen intermediates.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Aldehydes: Organic compounds containing a carbonyl group in the form -CHO.tert-Butylhydroperoxide: A direct-acting oxidative stress-inducing agent used to examine the effects of oxidant stress on Ca(2+)-dependent signal transduction in vascular endothelial cells. It is also used as a catalyst in polymerization reactions and to introduce peroxy groups into organic molecules.Glutathione Disulfide: A GLUTATHIONE dimer formed by a disulfide bond between the cysteine sulfhydryl side chains during the course of being oxidized.NF-E2-Related Factor 2: A basic-leucine zipper transcription factor that was originally described as a transcriptional regulator controlling expression of the BETA-GLOBIN gene. It may regulate the expression of a wide variety of genes that play a role in protecting cells from oxidative damage.Ascorbic Acid: A six carbon compound related to glucose. It is found naturally in citrus fruits and many vegetables. Ascorbic acid is an essential nutrient in human diets, and necessary to maintain connective tissue and bone. Its biologically active form, vitamin C, functions as a reducing agent and coenzyme in several metabolic pathways. Vitamin C is considered an antioxidant.Free Radical Scavengers: Substances that influence the course of a chemical reaction by ready combination with free radicals. Among other effects, this combining activity protects pancreatic islets against damage by cytokines and prevents myocardial and pulmonary perfusion injuries.NADPH Oxidase: A flavoprotein enzyme that catalyzes the univalent reduction of OXYGEN using NADPH as an electron donor to create SUPEROXIDE ANION. The enzyme is dependent on a variety of CYTOCHROMES. Defects in the production of superoxide ions by enzymes such as NADPH oxidase result in GRANULOMATOUS DISEASE, CHRONIC.Isoprostanes: A series of prostaglandin-like compounds that are produced by the attack of free-radical species on unsaturated fatty acids, especially ARACHIDONIC ACID, of cellular MEMBRANES. Once cleaved from the lipid membrane by the action of phospholipases they can circulate into various bodily fluids and eventually be excreted. Although these compounds resemble enzymatically synthesized prostaglandins their stereoisometric arrangement is usually different than the "naturally occurring" compounds.Superoxides: Highly reactive compounds produced when oxygen is reduced by a single electron. In biological systems, they may be generated during the normal catalytic function of a number of enzymes and during the oxidation of hemoglobin to METHEMOGLOBIN. In living organisms, SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE protects the cell from the deleterious effects of superoxides.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Vitamin E: A generic descriptor for all TOCOPHEROLS and TOCOTRIENOLS that exhibit ALPHA-TOCOPHEROL activity. By virtue of the phenolic hydrogen on the 2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol nucleus, these compounds exhibit varying degree of antioxidant activity, depending on the site and number of methyl groups and the type of ISOPRENOIDS.DNA Damage: Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Heme Oxygenase-1: A ubiquitous stress-responsive enzyme that catalyzes the oxidative cleavage of HEME to yield IRON; CARBON MONOXIDE; and BILIVERDIN.Vitamin K 3: A synthetic naphthoquinone without the isoprenoid side chain and biological activity, but can be converted to active vitamin K2, menaquinone, after alkylation in vivo.Peroxiredoxins: A family of ubiquitously-expressed peroxidases that play a role in the reduction of a broad spectrum of PEROXIDES like HYDROGEN PEROXIDE; LIPID PEROXIDES and peroxinitrite. They are found in a wide range of organisms, such as BACTERIA; PLANTS; and MAMMALS. The enzyme requires the presence of a thiol-containing intermediate such as THIOREDOXIN as a reducing cofactor.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Cyclic N-Oxides: Heterocyclic compounds in which an oxygen is attached to a cyclic nitrogen.Glutathione Reductase: Catalyzes the oxidation of GLUTATHIONE to GLUTATHIONE DISULFIDE in the presence of NADP+. Deficiency in the enzyme is associated with HEMOLYTIC ANEMIA. Formerly listed as EC 1.6.4.2.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Lipid Peroxides: Peroxides produced in the presence of a free radical by the oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids in the cell in the presence of molecular oxygen. The formation of lipid peroxides results in the destruction of the original lipid leading to the loss of integrity of the membranes. They therefore cause a variety of toxic effects in vivo and their formation is considered a pathological process in biological systems. Their formation can be inhibited by antioxidants, such as vitamin E, structural separation or low oxygen tension.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Cell Death: The termination of the cell's ability to carry out vital functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, responsiveness, and adaptability.Nitric Oxide: A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.Free Radicals: Highly reactive molecules with an unsatisfied electron valence pair. Free radicals are produced in both normal and pathological processes. They are proven or suspected agents of tissue damage in a wide variety of circumstances including radiation, damage from environment chemicals, and aging. Natural and pharmacological prevention of free radical damage is being actively investigated.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Mice, Inbred C57BLDiamide: A sulfhydryl reagent which oxidizes sulfhydryl groups to the disulfide form. It is a radiation-sensitizing agent of anoxic bacterial and mammalian cells.Thioredoxins: Hydrogen-donating proteins that participates in a variety of biochemical reactions including ribonucleotide reduction and reduction of PEROXIREDOXINS. Thioredoxin is oxidized from a dithiol to a disulfide when acting as a reducing cofactor. The disulfide form is then reduced by NADPH in a reaction catalyzed by THIOREDOXIN REDUCTASE.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Buthionine Sulfoximine: A synthetic amino acid that depletes glutathione by irreversibly inhibiting gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase. Inhibition of this enzyme is a critical step in glutathione biosynthesis. It has been shown to inhibit the proliferative response in human T-lymphocytes and inhibit macrophage activation. (J Biol Chem 1995;270(33):1945-7)Cytoprotection: The process by which chemical compounds provide protection to cells against harmful agents.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Dinoprost: A naturally occurring prostaglandin that has oxytocic, luteolytic, and abortifacient activities. Due to its vasocontractile properties, the compound has a variety of other biological actions.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Membrane Potential, Mitochondrial: The voltage difference, normally maintained at approximately -180mV, across the INNER MITOCHONDRIAL MEMBRANE, by a net movement of positive charge across the membrane. It is a major component of the PROTON MOTIVE FORCE in MITOCHONDRIA used to drive the synthesis of ATP.Peroxides: A group of compounds that contain a bivalent O-O group, i.e., the oxygen atoms are univalent. They can either be inorganic or organic in nature. Such compounds release atomic (nascent) oxygen readily. Thus they are strong oxidizing agents and fire hazards when in contact with combustible materials, especially under high-temperature conditions. The chief industrial uses of peroxides are as oxidizing agents, bleaching agents, and initiators of polymerization. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Sulfhydryl Compounds: Compounds containing the -SH radical.Iron: A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.Reactive Nitrogen Species: Nitrogenous products of NITRIC OXIDE synthases, ranging from NITRIC OXIDE to NITRATES. These reactive nitrogen intermediates also include the inorganic PEROXYNITROUS ACID and the organic S-NITROSOTHIOLS.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Colonic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.alpha-Tocopherol: A natural tocopherol and one of the most potent antioxidant tocopherols. It exhibits antioxidant activity by virtue of the phenolic hydrogen on the 2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol nucleus. It has four methyl groups on the 6-chromanol nucleus. The natural d form of alpha-tocopherol is more active than its synthetic dl-alpha-tocopherol racemic mixture.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Endothelium, Vascular: Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Thioctic Acid: An octanoic acid bridged with two sulfurs so that it is sometimes also called a pentanoic acid in some naming schemes. It is biosynthesized by cleavage of LINOLEIC ACID and is a coenzyme of oxoglutarate dehydrogenase (KETOGLUTARATE DEHYDROGENASE COMPLEX). It is used in DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS.Glutamate-Cysteine Ligase: One of the enzymes active in the gamma-glutamyl cycle. It catalyzes the synthesis of gamma-glutamylcysteine from glutamate and cysteine in the presence of ATP with the formation of ADP and orthophosphate. EC 6.3.2.2.Xanthine Oxidase: An iron-molybdenum flavoprotein containing FLAVIN-ADENINE DINUCLEOTIDE that oxidizes hypoxanthine, some other purines and pterins, and aldehydes. Deficiency of the enzyme, an autosomal recessive trait, causes xanthinuria.Hematocrit: The volume of packed RED BLOOD CELLS in a blood specimen. The volume is measured by centrifugation in a tube with graduated markings, or with automated blood cell counters. It is an indicator of erythrocyte status in disease. For example, ANEMIA shows a low value; POLYCYTHEMIA, a high value.Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental: Diabetes mellitus induced experimentally by administration of various diabetogenic agents or by PANCREATECTOMY.AcetophenonesReverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Heme Oxygenase (Decyclizing): A mixed function oxidase enzyme which during hemoglobin catabolism catalyzes the degradation of heme to ferrous iron, carbon monoxide and biliverdin in the presence of molecular oxygen and reduced NADPH. The enzyme is induced by metals, particularly cobalt. EC 1.14.99.3.PeroxidasesEnzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Spin Labels: Molecules which contain an atom or a group of atoms exhibiting an unpaired electron spin that can be detected by electron spin resonance spectroscopy and can be bonded to another molecule. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Chemical and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Caspase 3: A short pro-domain caspase that plays an effector role in APOPTOSIS. It is activated by INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 9. Isoforms of this protein exist due to multiple alternative splicing of its MESSENGER RNA.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Longevity: The normal length of time of an organism's life.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Protective Agents: Synthetic or natural substances which are given to prevent a disease or disorder or are used in the process of treating a disease or injury due to a poisonous agent.Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: Transfer of HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS from BONE MARROW or BLOOD between individuals within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS). Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has been used as an alternative to BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION in the treatment of a variety of neoplasms.Glutathione Transferase: A transferase that catalyzes the addition of aliphatic, aromatic, or heterocyclic FREE RADICALS as well as EPOXIDES and arene oxides to GLUTATHIONE. Addition takes place at the SULFUR. It also catalyzes the reduction of polyol nitrate by glutathione to polyol and nitrite.Peroxynitrous Acid: A potent oxidant synthesized by the cell during its normal metabolism. Peroxynitrite is formed from the reaction of two free radicals, NITRIC OXIDE and the superoxide anion (SUPEROXIDES).Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Stress, Physiological: The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.NF-kappa B: Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.Oxidoreductases: The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.Dietary Supplements: Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Aconitate Hydratase: An enzyme that catalyzes the reversible hydration of cis-aconitate to yield citrate or isocitrate. It is one of the citric acid cycle enzymes. EC 4.2.1.3.Cell Aging: The decrease in the cell's ability to proliferate with the passing of time. Each cell is programmed for a certain number of cell divisions and at the end of that time proliferation halts. The cell enters a quiescent state after which it experiences CELL DEATH via the process of APOPTOSIS.Neuroprotective Agents: Drugs intended to prevent damage to the brain or spinal cord from ischemia, stroke, convulsions, or trauma. Some must be administered before the event, but others may be effective for some time after. They act by a variety of mechanisms, but often directly or indirectly minimize the damage produced by endogenous excitatory amino acids.Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Metalloporphyrins: Porphyrins which are combined with a metal ion. The metal is bound equally to all four nitrogen atoms of the pyrrole rings. They possess characteristic absorption spectra which can be utilized for identification or quantitative estimation of porphyrins and porphyrin-bound compounds.Tumor Suppressor Protein p53: Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Cytochrome P-450 CYP2E1: An ethanol-inducible cytochrome P450 enzyme that metabolizes several precarcinogens, drugs, and solvents to reactive metabolites. Substrates include ETHANOL; INHALATION ANESTHETICS; BENZENE; ACETAMINOPHEN and other low molecular weight compounds. CYP2E1 has been used as an enzyme marker in the study of alcohol abuse.Tyrosine: A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.Peroxiredoxin III: A THIOREDOXIN-dependent hydroperoxidase that is localized in the mitochondrial matrix. The enzyme plays a crucial role in protecting mitochondrial components from elevated levels of HYDROGEN PEROXIDE.Cysteine: A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III: A CALCIUM-dependent, constitutively-expressed form of nitric oxide synthase found primarily in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS.Aryldialkylphosphatase: An enzyme which catalyzes the hydrolysis of an aryl-dialkyl phosphate to form dialkyl phosphate and an aryl alcohol. It can hydrolyze a broad spectrum of organophosphate substrates and a number of aromatic carboxylic acid esters. It may also mediate an enzymatic protection of LOW DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS against oxidative modification and the consequent series of events leading to ATHEROMA formation. The enzyme was previously regarded to be identical with Arylesterase (EC 3.1.1.2).Retinal Pigment Epithelium: The single layer of pigment-containing epithelial cells in the RETINA, situated closely to the tips (outer segments) of the RETINAL PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS. These epithelial cells are macroglia that perform essential functions for the photoreceptor cells, such as in nutrient transport, phagocytosis of the shed photoreceptor membranes, and ensuring retinal attachment.Comet Assay: A genotoxicological technique for measuring DNA damage in an individual cell using single-cell gel electrophoresis. Cell DNA fragments assume a "comet with tail" formation on electrophoresis and are detected with an image analysis system. Alkaline assay conditions facilitate sensitive detection of single-strand damage.NAD(P)H Dehydrogenase (Quinone): A flavoprotein that reversibly catalyzes the oxidation of NADH or NADPH by various quinones and oxidation-reduction dyes. The enzyme is inhibited by dicoumarol, capsaicin, and caffeine.Benzene DerivativesAnalysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Endothelial Cells: Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Glutaredoxins: A family of thioltransferases that contain two active site CYSTEINE residues, which either form a disulfide (oxidized form) or a dithiol (reduced form). They function as an electron carrier in the GLUTHIONE-dependent synthesis of deoxyribonucleotides by RIBONUCLEOTIDE REDUCTASES and may play a role in the deglutathionylation of protein thiols. The oxidized forms of glutaredoxins are directly reduced by the GLUTATHIONE.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Ubiquinone: A lipid-soluble benzoquinone which is involved in ELECTRON TRANSPORT in mitochondrial preparations. The compound occurs in the majority of aerobic organisms, from bacteria to higher plants and animals.Herbicides: Pesticides used to destroy unwanted vegetation, especially various types of weeds, grasses (POACEAE), and woody plants. Some plants develop HERBICIDE RESISTANCE.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Thioredoxin-Disulfide Reductase: A FLAVOPROTEIN enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of THIOREDOXINS to thioredoxin disulfide in the presence of NADP+. It was formerly listed as EC 1.6.4.5Reperfusion Injury: Adverse functional, metabolic, or structural changes in ischemic tissues resulting from the restoration of blood flow to the tissue (REPERFUSION), including swelling; HEMORRHAGE; NECROSIS; and damage from FREE RADICALS. The most common instance is MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION INJURY.Mitochondrial Proteins: Proteins encoded by the mitochondrial genome or proteins encoded by the nuclear genome that are imported to and resident in the MITOCHONDRIA.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Hyperglycemia: Abnormally high BLOOD GLUCOSE level.Nitrates: Inorganic or organic salts and esters of nitric acid. These compounds contain the NO3- radical.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Peroxiredoxin VI: A peroxiredoxin that is a cytosolic bifunctional enzyme. It functions as a peroxiredoxin via a single redox-active cysteine and also contains a Ca2+-independent acidic phospholipase A2 activity.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Glycosylation End Products, Advanced: Products derived from the nonenzymatic reaction of GLUCOSE and PROTEINS in vivo that exhibit a yellow-brown pigmentation and an ability to participate in protein-protein cross-linking. These substances are involved in biological processes relating to protein turnover and it is believed that their excessive accumulation contributes to the chronic complications of DIABETES MELLITUS.Ethanol: A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.Transplantation, Homologous: Transplantation between individuals of the same species. Usually refers to genetically disparate individuals in contradistinction to isogeneic transplantation for genetically identical individuals.Random Allocation: A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Hydroxyl Radical: The univalent radical OH. Hydroxyl radical is a potent oxidizing agent.Methionine Sulfoxide Reductases: Reductases that catalyze the reaction of peptide-L-methionine -S-oxide + thioredoxin to produce peptide-L-methionine + thioredoxin disulfide + H(2)O.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.MaleatesPolyphenols: A large class of organic compounds having more than one PHENOL group.In Situ Nick-End Labeling: An in situ method for detecting areas of DNA which are nicked during APOPTOSIS. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase is used to add labeled dUTP, in a template-independent manner, to the 3 prime OH ends of either single- or double-stranded DNA. The terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase nick end labeling, or TUNEL, assay labels apoptosis on a single-cell level, making it more sensitive than agarose gel electrophoresis for analysis of DNA FRAGMENTATION.Homeostasis: The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.Peroxidase: A hemeprotein from leukocytes. Deficiency of this enzyme leads to a hereditary disorder coupled with disseminated moniliasis. It catalyzes the conversion of a donor and peroxide to an oxidized donor and water. EC 1.11.1.7.Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II: A CALCIUM-independent subtype of nitric oxide synthase that may play a role in immune function. It is an inducible enzyme whose expression is transcriptionally regulated by a variety of CYTOKINES.Nitrites: Salts of nitrous acid or compounds containing the group NO2-. The inorganic nitrites of the type MNO2 (where M=metal) are all insoluble, except the alkali nitrites. The organic nitrites may be isomeric, but not identical with the corresponding nitro compounds. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.L-Lactate Dehydrogenase: A tetrameric enzyme that, along with the coenzyme NAD+, catalyzes the interconversion of LACTATE and PYRUVATE. In vertebrates, genes for three different subunits (LDH-A, LDH-B and LDH-C) exist.Heat-Shock Response: A constellation of responses that occur when an organism is exposed to excessive heat. Responses include synthesis of new proteins and regulation of others.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Autophagy: The segregation and degradation of damaged or unwanted cytoplasmic constituents by autophagic vacuoles (cytolysosomes) composed of LYSOSOMES containing cellular components in the process of digestion; it plays an important role in BIOLOGICAL METAMORPHOSIS of amphibians, in the removal of bone by osteoclasts, and in the degradation of normal cell components in nutritional deficiency states.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Mitochondria, Heart: The mitochondria of the myocardium.Glucosephosphate DehydrogenaseCytochromes c: Cytochromes of the c type that are found in eukaryotic MITOCHONDRIA. They serve as redox intermediates that accept electrons from MITOCHONDRIAL ELECTRON TRANSPORT COMPLEX III and transfer them to MITOCHONDRIAL ELECTRON TRANSPORT COMPLEX IV.Quercetin: A flavonol widely distributed in plants. It is an antioxidant, like many other phenolic heterocyclic compounds. Glycosylated forms include RUTIN and quercetrin.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Diquat: A contact herbicide used also to produce desiccation and defoliation. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)DNA Fragmentation: Splitting the DNA into shorter pieces by endonucleolytic DNA CLEAVAGE at multiple sites. It includes the internucleosomal DNA fragmentation, which along with chromatin condensation, are considered to be the hallmarks of APOPTOSIS.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.DNA Repair: The reconstruction of a continuous two-stranded DNA molecule without mismatch from a molecule which contained damaged regions. The major repair mechanisms are excision repair, in which defective regions in one strand are excised and resynthesized using the complementary base pairing information in the intact strand; photoreactivation repair, in which the lethal and mutagenic effects of ultraviolet light are eliminated; and post-replication repair, in which the primary lesions are not repaired, but the gaps in one daughter duplex are filled in by incorporation of portions of the other (undamaged) daughter duplex. Excision repair and post-replication repair are sometimes referred to as "dark repair" because they do not require light.Electrophoresis, Gel, Two-Dimensional: Electrophoresis in which a second perpendicular electrophoretic transport is performed on the separate components resulting from the first electrophoresis. This technique is usually performed on polyacrylamide gels.DNA, Mitochondrial: Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.Stilbenes: Organic compounds that contain 1,2-diphenylethylene as a functional group.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Hepatocytes: The main structural component of the LIVER. They are specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that are organized into interconnected plates called lobules.Advanced Oxidation Protein Products: A class of dityrosine-containing protein-derived molecules formed by OXIDATIVE STRESS. Their accumulation in plasma is associated with certain pathological conditions.Streptozocin: An antibiotic that is produced by Stretomyces achromogenes. It is used as an antineoplastic agent and to induce diabetes in experimental animals.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Gene Expression Regulation, Fungal: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in fungi.Hypertension: Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.Myocytes, Cardiac: Striated muscle cells found in the heart. They are derived from cardiac myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, CARDIAC).Adaptation, Physiological: The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Curcumin: A yellow-orange dye obtained from tumeric, the powdered root of CURCUMA longa. It is used in the preparation of curcuma paper and the detection of boron. Curcumin appears to possess a spectrum of pharmacological properties, due primarily to its inhibitory effects on metabolic enzymes.Vasodilation: The physiological widening of BLOOD VESSELS by relaxing the underlying VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Phytotherapy: Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.Xanthine: A purine base found in most body tissues and fluids, certain plants, and some urinary calculi. It is an intermediate in the degradation of adenosine monophosphate to uric acid, being formed by oxidation of hypoxanthine. The methylated xanthine compounds caffeine, theobromine, and theophylline and their derivatives are used in medicine for their bronchodilator effects. (Dorland, 28th ed)bcl-2-Associated X Protein: A member of the Bcl-2 protein family and homologous partner of C-BCL-2 PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN. It regulates the release of CYTOCHROME C and APOPTOSIS INDUCING FACTOR from the MITOCHONDRIA. Several isoforms of BCL2-associated X protein occur due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of the mRNA for this protein.Atherosclerosis: A thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES that occurs with formation of ATHEROSCLEROTIC PLAQUES within the ARTERIAL INTIMA.
  • Radioactive 125 I seed inhibits the cell growth, migration, and invasion of nasopharyngeal carcinoma by triggering DNA damage and inactivating VEGF-A/ERK signaling," PLoS ONE , vol. 8, no. 9, Article ID e74038, 2013. (hindawi.com)
  • Ginger inhibits 5-LO enzymes essential for prostate cell growth (9). (canceractive.com)
  • Where OC-14 and c- Fos -overexpressing cells were exposed to 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine, which inhibits DNMT activity, a significant but incomplete reversal of the MMRP was observed. (aacrjournals.org)
  • We have also reported that although exposure of colon cancer HCT-116 or HT-29 cells to FuOx (5-FU+Oxaliplatin) inhibits their growth, the same treatment leads to enrichment of CSC/CSLC phenotype ( 4, 5 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • In the present study, a high-throughput quantitative proteomics approach was applied to identify differentially expressed proteins of HCT116 colorectal cancer cell line with artesunate (ART) treatment. (mdpi.com)
  • However, Fas, Bcl-2 family proteins, and caspases were not involved in PRIMA-1-induced cell death. (aacrjournals.org)
  • ERO1-Lα and -β are highly expressed in organs with a high demand for secretion, consistent with their roles in oxidative folding of ER proteins. (ptglab.com)
  • Six unique proteins were found differentially expressed in PcDNA3.1( IGFBP7 )-transfected RKO cells, including albumin (ALB), 60 kDa heat shock protein(HSP60), Actin cytoplasmic 1 or 2, pyruvate kinase muscle 2(PKM2), beta subunit of phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase(FARSB) and hypothetical protein. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These results indicate that kaempferol suppresses non-small cell lung cancer migration by modulating the expression of EMT proteins. (banglajol.info)
  • Over the past several decades, a tube formation assay using growth factor-reduced Matrigel has been typically employed to demonstrate the angiogenic activity of vascular endothelial cells in vitro 1-5 . (jove.com)
  • In vitro survival assays showed that 10 mM ascorbate exposure (2 h) clonogenically inactivated 40-80% of exponentially growing colon cancer cell lines (HCT116 and HT29). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • 8 Insight into the anti-inflammatory mechanism of action of banaba may be gained from results of an in vitro experiment in a cardiomyocyte cell line in which an aqueous extract blocked activation of nuclear factor-kappaB by tumor necrosis factor in a time-dependent manner. (drugs.com)
  • In vitro studies indicated that Cl-amidine may act as a tumor suppressor by upregulating miR-16, a putative tumor suppressor miRNA with cell cycle targets, and causing G1 cell cycle arrest. (sc.edu)
  • DPP-23 effectively inhibited the growth of cancer cells in vitro and in vivo (xenografts in Balb/c nude mice). (aacrjournals.org)
  • The aim of the present study is to determine whether E171 exposure induces ROS formation and DNA damage in an in vitro model using human Caco-2 and HCT116 cells and to investigate the contribution of the separate MPs and NPs TiO 2 fractions to these effects. (nih.gov)
  • Herein, we show that the enzymatic activity of DNMT1, the primary DNA methyltransferase in mammalian cells, is inhibited by DNA intercalators, such as doxorubicin, in an in vitro assay. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Because epithelial cell DNA damage associated with colitis is at least in part a result of an oxidative burst from overactive leukocytes, we tested the hypothesis that Cl-amidine can inhibit leukocyte activation, as well as subsequent target epithelial cell DNA damage in vitro and in vivo. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Lipopolysaccharide plus 12-O tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate induction of migration and invasion of glioma cells in vitro and in vivo: Differential inhibitory effects of flavonoids. (banglajol.info)
  • We investigated the in vitro effects of STS on a panel of colon carcinoma cell lines grown under normal or conditions mimicking starvation for 48 hours. (nih.gov)
  • Sarsaparilla ( Smilax Glabra Rhizome) has growth-inhibitory effects on several cancer cell lines in vitro and in vivo , with little toxicity on normal cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • SW was shown to markedly inhibit the growth of a broad spectrum of cancer cell lines in the in vitro and in vivo assays. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Bunse L, Pusch S, Bunse T et al (2018) Suppression of antitumor T cell immunity by the oncometabolite (R)-2-hydroxyglutarate. (springer.com)
  • Furthermore, OC-14 cells contain increased activator protein 1 activity, and inhibition of activator protein 1 reversed the MMRP. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The available results of HDAC inhibition via sulforaphane are correlated with malignant cells of the breast. (ijcrr.com)
  • Here we have investigated the effect of targeted inhibition of SK-1 on cell damage and elucidated the mechanisms involved. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Glycoalkaloids (α-solamargine and α-solasonine), nitrogen-containing secondary plant metabolites found in eggplants and numerous Solanaceous plants including potatoes, and tomatoes expressed a strong inhibition of the growth of the liver tumor cells in culture and tumor growth in vivo. (blogspot.com)
  • These findings suggested that PAE exposure is associated with oxidative stress, adiponectin, and inflammatory cytokines in diabetic patients. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Herein, we examine the effect of p53 R273H , a commonly occurring mutated p53 form, on the expression of phase 2 ROS-detoxifying enzymes and on the ability of cells to readopt a reducing environment after exposure to oxidative stress. (biologists.org)
  • Upon exposure of cells to oxidative stress or chemopreventive compounds, multiple cysteine residues on Keap1 are thought to be alkylated with electrophilic groups present in many Nrf2 inducers, such as tert -butylhydroquinone and sulforophane ( 10 , 12 , 19 , 61 , 67 ). (asm.org)
  • Persistent exposure of sinonasal tract to gastric duodenal refluxate may increase genomic instability in surviving cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The p53 protein becomes stabilized and activated in response to a number of stimuli, including exposure of cells to DNA-damaging agents and oncogene activation. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) was used to measure the levels of 8-OH-Gua as its nucleoside, 8-OH-dG in the cell lines after exposure to H 2 O 2 followed by 30 min repair period. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Publication date: Available online 16 April 2019Source: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: BiologyAuthor(s): Iriana Moratto Carrara, Gabriella Pasqual Melo, Sara Santos Bernardes, Fernando Souza Neto, Leandra Naira Zambelli Ramalho, Poliana Camila Marinello, Rodrigo Cabral Luiz, Rubens Cecchini, Alessandra Lourenço CecchiniAbstractCumulative ultraviolet (UV) exposure is associated with squamous skin cell carcinoma. (medworm.com)
  • The latent has been accomplished through the recent studies on the human colon malignant cells as well as human prostate cells, resulting in an excessive histone acetylation has been reported on the exposure sulforaphane . (ijcrr.com)
  • Treatment of HCT 116 cells with 0.5 μM RRx-001 for 24 h significantly increased transcripts of interferon (IFN)-responsive genes and this induction was sustained for up to 4 weeks after transient exposure to RRx-001. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Transient exposure of HCT 116 cells to low-dose RRx-001 induced transcription of silenced retroviral genes present in the cancer cell DNA with subsequent synthesis of IFN in response to this "pseudo-pathogenic" stimulus, mimicking an antiviral defense. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Gene expression analysis of the OC-14 cells and c- Fos -overexpressing cells showed increased DNMT1 expression. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Bacteria cope with and adapt to stress by modulating gene expression in response to specific environmental cues. (omictools.com)
  • ER stress was a positive regulator of PRNP gene transcription in MCF-7 cells and luciferase reporter assays identified one ER stress response element (ERSE) conserved among primates and rodents and three primate-specific ERSEs that regulated PRNP gene expression. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Among the various transactivators of the ER stress-regulated unfolded protein response (UPR), ATF6α and XBP1 transactivated PRNP gene expression, but the ability of these varied in different cell types. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These results establish PRNP as a novel ER stress-regulated gene that could increase survival in breast cancers. (biomedcentral.com)
  • COMPARE and hierarchical cluster analyses of microarray-based transcriptomic mRNA expression data of 59 tumor cell lines revealed a specific gene expression profile predicting sensitivity or resistance towards honokiol. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • cells are derived from HCT116 +/+ cells by replacing the GATA1 p53 initiation Met located in exon 2 with the initiation Met of the neomycin or hygromycin resistance gene. (welbourneprimary.com)
  • Hydrogen peroxide is freely diffusible through cell membranes, can not be excluded from cells and is required for normal operation of many enzymes that maintain and promote health. (ispub.com)
  • Carbohydrate digestion is facilitated by enteric enzymes, such as α-glucosidase and α-amilase, in the brush border of the small intestine cells. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The failure of p53 R273H mutant-expressing cells to restore a reducing oxidative environment was accompanied by increased survival, a known consequence of mutant p53 expression. (biologists.org)
  • It decreased maximal oxygen consumption and spare respiratory capacity, which could reduce the mitochondrial function that is correlated with cell survival potential. (umf.org.nz)
  • Further analysis showed that the efficacy of the novel sulfur compound against colon cancer cell growth and induction of apoptotic cell death was attributed to the compound's function in modulating of NF-kappaB, a protein that controls transcription of DNA, cytokine production and cell survival. (blogspot.com)
  • It improves insulin response, preserves functionality and survival of β-cells, and protects against diabetes complications. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In this work we describe a novel approach that combines ex vivo drug sensitivity assays and digital image analysis to estimate chemosensitivity and heterogeneity of patient-derived multiple myeloma (MM) cells. (jove.com)
  • The Total ROS/Superoxide Detection Kit contains sufficient reagents for at least 200 microscopy assays or 50 flow cytometry assays using live cells (adherent or in suspension) or 2x96 microplate assays. (enzolifesciences.com)
  • During the past decades, most screening approaches for identification of new cancer drug candidates have used cell-free assays for detection of specific interactions with known molecular targets ( 2 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • ELISA assays showed that RRx-001 increased secretion of type I and III IFNs by HCT 116 cells, and these IFNs were confirmed to be bioactive. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These proteomic findings will contribute to improving our understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms of ART for its therapeutic cytotoxic effect towards cancer cells. (mdpi.com)
  • However, no mechanistic details are known about the contribution of mutant p53 to excessive ROS accumulation in cancer cells. (biologists.org)
  • Reductive carboxylation of 2-oxoglutarate by IDH2 (in the reverse Krebs cycle direction), which consumes NADPH, may follow glutaminolysis of glutamine to 2-oxoglutarate in cancer cells. (hindawi.com)
  • In another study, 6-shogaol has been reported to exhibit anti-invasive effects in cancer cells by reducing MMP-9 expression through NF-κB activation (5). (canceractive.com)
  • A 2015 study ( Anasuya Ray, Smreti Vasudevan, Suparna Sengupta, ) looked at inhibitory activity of this ginger-derived compound 6-shogaol against breast cancer cells both the normal and the stem cell versions. (canceractive.com)
  • Transfection of a normal chromosome 1p36 region into human colon cancer cells decreases tumorigenicity, suggesting the presence of a tumor suppressor in this region ( 13 ). (pnas.org)
  • We show that the HCC1937 breast cancer cells have diminished ability to incise 8-OH-Gua and they accumulate higher levels of 8-OH-dG in the nuclear genome after H 2 O 2 treatment despite a 30 min repair period when compared to the nonmalignant mammary cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • K858, a novel inhibitor of mitotic kinesin Eg5 and antitumor agent, induces cell death in cancer cells. (genereg.jp)
  • 1 mM) of ascorbate (a.k.a., vitamin C) have been shown to selectively kill cancer cells through a mechanism that is dependent on the generation of H 2 O 2 at doses that are safely achievable in humans using intravenous administration. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Because intravenous iron sucrose is often administered to colon cancer patients to help mitigate anemia, the current study assessed the ability of pharmacological ascorbate to kill colon cancer cells in the presence and absence of iron sucrose. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • When colon cancer cells were treated in the presence or absence of 250 µM iron sucrose, then rinsed, and treated with 10 mM ascorbate, the cells demonstrated increased levels of labile iron that resulted in significantly increased clonogenic cell killing, compared to pharmacological ascorbate alone. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Because dormant cancer cells in hypoxic and nutrient-deprived regions of solid tumors provide a major obstacle to treatment, compounds targeting those cells might have clinical benefits. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The aim of this study was to develop a novel antitumor agent that is safe for normal cells with the ability to selectively target cancer cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • DPP-23 represents a promising novel therapeutic agent for the selective production of ROS in cancer cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • This study supports a molecular basis for the development of agents that stimulate the UPR via the production of ROS in cancer cells and for further evaluation in early-phase clinical trials. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In this new study, the research team wanted to find out whether a fasting-mimicking diet could enhance the high-dose vitamin C tumor-fighting action by creating an environment that would be unsustainable for cancer cells but still safe for normal cells. (debuglies.com)
  • Longo and his colleagues detected this strong effect only in cancer cells that had a mutation that is regarded as one of the most challenging targets in cancer research. (debuglies.com)
  • By itself, a vitamin C treatment appears to trigger the KRAS-mutated cells to protect cancer cells by increasing levels of ferritin, a protein that binds iron. (debuglies.com)
  • But by reducing levels of ferritin, the scientists managed to increase vitamin C's toxicity for the cancer cells. (debuglies.com)
  • Studies suggested that garlic may have a potential in killing bowel cancer cells before they can spread to form colonization. (blogspot.com)
  • The parent generation of cancer cells make up less than 1% of the cells of most tumors but often prove to be the most virulent type of cancer cell. (zennutrients.com)
  • These parent cancer cells are named, cancer stem cells, or CSCs. (zennutrients.com)
  • Besides its successful targeting of CSCs, 6-shogaol has also shown potent anticancer activity against other cancer cells. (zennutrients.com)
  • Similar results were seen in colon cancer cells with HCT-116, positive for transforming growth factor beta 1 and beta 2. (zennutrients.com)
  • The present study was done to determine whether kaempferol, a natural polyphenol of the flavonoid family, affects Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) in non-small cell lung cancer cells. (banglajol.info)
  • RRx-001 inhibited the growth of colon cancer cells (HCT 116) and decreased levels of the DNA methyltransferases DNMT1 and DNMT3a in a time and dose-dependent manner. (biomedcentral.com)
  • CR) colon cancer cells, highly enriched in CSCs, were used for this study. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Although EPA alone was effective, combination of EPA and FuOx was more potent in (i) inhibiting cell growth, colonosphere formation, and sphere-forming frequency, (ii) increasing sphere disintegration, (iii) suppressing the growth of SCID mice xenografts of CR colon cancer cells, and (iv) decreasing proinflammatory metabolites in mice. (aacrjournals.org)
  • ROS-ID ® Total ROS/Superoxide detection Kit and a set of ROS scavengers/inhibitors were used to profile ROS production in HeLa cells treated with antimycin A, (AMA, specific superoxide inducer), t-butyl-peroxide (TBHP, specific peroxide inducer), and pyocyanin (general ROS inducer). (enzolifesciences.com)
  • Profiling of ROS formation by flow cytometry in Hela cells. (enzolifesciences.com)
  • Top) HeLa Cells Loaded with ROS/RNS 3-Plex Detection Reagent for 2 h, 37°C and Induced for 20 min, 37°C. (enzolifesciences.com)
  • A sample from each lot of ROS-ID ® Total ROS/Superoxide detection kit is used to stain HeLa cells using the procedures described in the user manual. (enzolifesciences.com)
  • Flow Cyt: HeLa cells. (abcam.com)
  • E) HeLa cells were treated as indicated with DMSO or 2 µM Rigosertib (Rig) prior to stimulation with EGF for 5 min (+) and lysis. (nih.gov)
  • Sample: HeLa cells were fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde at RT for 15 min. (genetex.com)
  • Thus, some authors argued that the neurodegeneration phenotype could be due to accumulation of oxidized damage, since cells from XP-G (with a XP/CS phenotype), CS-A and CS-B patients were sensitive to oxidative stress 9 . (nature.com)
  • The final established phenotype is exemplified by human glioblastoma cells, which, despite their low respiration, maintain a constant pyruvate flux through PDH and hence partial OXPHOS [ 9 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • RESULTS: To discover the molecular mechanisms of alkali-salt stress response in cotton, a comprehensive transcriptome analysis was carried out after alkali-salt stress treatment in three accessions of Gossypium hirsutum with contrasting phenotype. (bvsalud.org)
  • and we refer to this process as an oxidative multimodality-resistant phenotype (MMRP). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Furthermore, increased glycolysis and glutaminolysis are present in tumourigenic cells by means of increased expression of glucose and amino acid transporters resulting in increased production of ATP. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Differentially expressed protein profiles between PcDNA3.1( IGFBP7 )-transfected RKO cells and the empty vector transfected controls were generated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and mass spectrometry (MS) identification. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In this study the transcriptional response of Pseudomonas putida KT2440 to oxidative, osmotic, and membrane stress conditions at two time points was investigated via identification of differentially expressed mRNAs and sRNAs. (omictools.com)
  • This study describes a real-time analysis of ß-phenylethylamine and tryptamine toxicity on a human intestinal epithelial cell line. (bvsalud.org)
  • p21 is not only a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor but also acts as a direct participant in regulating genes involved in growth arrest, senescence, and aging, thus providing an additional layer of control over the cell cycle ( 10 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Subsequently, these stable clones were subjected to colony formation and cell cycle analyses and identification of factors involved in G1 arrest. (hepatmon.com)
  • More interestingly, we found that when AP-2α2 was knocked down, DLEC1 over-expression neither suppressed cancer cell growth nor induced G1 arrest, yet, instead promoted cell growth and decreased cells in the G1 fraction. (hepatmon.com)
  • G1 arrest in cell cycle is known to be strictly regulated by a series of transcriptional factors. (hepatmon.com)
  • The expression of Nrf2 is stimulated by oxidative stress, electrophiles and chemical activators (PMID: 25761198, PMID: 27638861 and PMID: 28587109). (abcam.com)
  • Pyruvate imported into mitochondria is the precursor of not only acetyl-CoA but also citrate, which is required for fatty acid synthesis and hence for phospholipid synthesis, so it is essential for cell growth [ 1 - 5 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Oxidative stress, known as adverse effects of oxidants on physiological functions, has long been shown to play important roles in both acute toxicity induced by many environmental insults and the pathogenesis of cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and other aging-related diseases ( 27 , 31 , 48 , 51 , 64 ). (asm.org)
  • This paper reports a novel oxidative chemical method for the synthesis of high-value carbon dots (CDs) from cheap and abundant low-quality high‑sulfur coals for use in high-end applications. (medworm.com)
  • KEY RESULTS: Knock-down of SK-1 by shRNA strongly inhibited DNA synthesis and colony formation of carcinoma cells. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The STS-dependent increase in both Complex I and Complex II-dependent O(2) consumption was associated with increased oxidative stress and reduced ATP synthesis. (nih.gov)