Tumor Markers, Biological: Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Carcinoembryonic Antigen: A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.CA-19-9 Antigen: Sialylated Lewis blood group carbohydrate antigen found in many adenocarcinomas of the digestive tract, especially pancreatic tumors.Antigens, Tumor-Associated, Carbohydrate: Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.CA-125 Antigen: Carbohydrate antigen most commonly seen in tumors of the ovary and occasionally seen in breast, kidney, and gastrointestinal tract tumors and normal tissue. CA 125 is clearly tumor-associated but not tumor-specific.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Tissue Polypeptide Antigen: Serological tumor marker composed of a molecular complex of cytokeratins 8, 18, and 19. It is used in the diagnosis and staging of bronchogenic carcinoma.Genetic Markers: A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.alpha-Fetoproteins: The first alpha-globulins to appear in mammalian sera during FETAL DEVELOPMENT and the dominant serum proteins in early embryonic life.Ovarian Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the OVARY. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. They are classified according to the tissue of origin, such as the surface EPITHELIUM, the stromal endocrine cells, and the totipotent GERM CELLS.Keratin-19: A type I keratin found associated with KERATIN-7 in ductal epithelia and gastrointestinal epithelia.Mucin-1: Carbohydrate antigen elevated in patients with tumors of the breast, ovary, lung, and prostate as well as other disorders. The mucin is expressed normally by most glandular epithelia but shows particularly increased expression in the breast at lactation and in malignancy. It is thus an established serum marker for breast cancer.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Pancreatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PANCREAS. Depending on the types of ISLET CELLS present in the tumors, various hormones can be secreted: GLUCAGON from PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS; INSULIN from PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and SOMATOSTATIN from the SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS. Most are malignant except the insulin-producing tumors (INSULINOMA).Neoplasm Metastasis: The transfer of a neoplasm from one organ or part of the body to another remote from the primary site.Tumor Burden: The total amount (cell number, weight, size or volume) of tumor cells or tissue in the body.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Neoplasm Staging: Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Neoplasm Proteins: Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.Lung Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Colonic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON.Adenocarcinoma: A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.Liver Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.Tumor Suppressor Protein p53: Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Early Detection of Cancer: Methods to identify and characterize cancer in the early stages of disease and predict tumor behavior.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Testicular Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the TESTIS. Germ cell tumors (GERMINOMA) of the testis constitute 95% of all testicular neoplasms.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Stomach Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the STOMACH.Prostatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE.Prostate-Specific Antigen: A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.Mice, Inbred BALB CCarcinoma, Squamous Cell: A carcinoma derived from stratified SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. It may also occur in sites where glandular or columnar epithelium is normally present. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Antigens, Polyomavirus Transforming: Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced new abnormal growth of TISSUES in animals to provide models for studying human neoplasms.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Neoplasm Recurrence, Local: The local recurrence of a neoplasm following treatment. It arises from microscopic cells of the original neoplasm that have escaped therapeutic intervention and later become clinically visible at the original site.Genes, Tumor Suppressor: Genes that inhibit expression of the tumorigenic phenotype. They are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. When tumor suppressor genes are inactivated or lost, a barrier to normal proliferation is removed and unregulated growth is possible.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Mice, Nude: Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal: Neoplasms composed of primordial GERM CELLS of embryonic GONADS or of elements of the germ layers of the EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in the gonads or present in an embryo or FETUS.Carcinoid Tumor: A usually small, slow-growing neoplasm composed of islands of rounded, oxyphilic, or spindle-shaped cells of medium size, with moderately small vesicular nuclei, and covered by intact mucosa with a yellow cut surface. The tumor can occur anywhere in the gastrointestinal tract (and in the lungs and other sites); approximately 90% arise in the appendix. It is now established that these tumors are of neuroendocrine origin and derive from a primitive stem cell. (From Stedman, 25th ed & Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1182)Antigens, Protozoan: Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Survival Rate: The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.Survival Analysis: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.HLA Antigens: Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Brain Neoplasms: Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.Neuroendocrine Tumors: Tumors whose cells possess secretory granules and originate from the neuroectoderm, i.e., the cells of the ectoblast or epiblast that program the neuroendocrine system. Common properties across most neuroendocrine tumors include ectopic hormone production (often via APUD CELLS), the presence of tumor-associated antigens, and isozyme composition.Cancer Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines designed to prevent or treat cancer. Vaccines are produced using the patient's own whole tumor cells as the source of antigens, or using tumor-specific antigens, often recombinantly produced.Cell Transformation, Neoplastic: Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Tumor Suppressor Proteins: Proteins that are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. Deficiencies or abnormalities in these proteins may lead to unregulated cell growth and tumor development.DNA, Neoplasm: DNA present in neoplastic tissue.Urinary Bladder Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the URINARY BLADDER.Phosphopyruvate Hydratase: A hydro-lyase that catalyzes the dehydration of 2-phosphoglycerate to form PHOSPHOENOLPYRUVATE. Several different isoforms of this enzyme exist, each with its own tissue specificity.Wilms Tumor: A malignant kidney tumor, caused by the uncontrolled multiplication of renal stem (blastemal), stromal (STROMAL CELLS), and epithelial (EPITHELIAL CELLS) elements. However, not all three are present in every case. Several genes or chromosomal areas have been associated with Wilms tumor which is usually found in childhood as a firm lump in a child's side or ABDOMEN.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Mice, Inbred C57BLAntigens, Viral, Tumor: Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Neovascularization, Pathologic: A pathologic process consisting of the proliferation of blood vessels in abnormal tissues or in abnormal positions.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays: In vivo methods of screening investigative anticancer drugs, biologic response modifiers or radiotherapies. Human tumor tissue or cells are transplanted into mice or rats followed by tumor treatment regimens. A variety of outcomes are monitored to assess antitumor effectiveness.Transplantation, Heterologous: Transplantation between animals of different species.Keratins: A class of fibrous proteins or scleroproteins that represents the principal constituent of EPIDERMIS; HAIR; NAILS; horny tissues, and the organic matrix of tooth ENAMEL. Two major conformational groups have been characterized, alpha-keratin, whose peptide backbone forms a coiled-coil alpha helical structure consisting of TYPE I KERATIN and a TYPE II KERATIN, and beta-keratin, whose backbone forms a zigzag or pleated sheet structure. alpha-Keratins have been classified into at least 20 subtypes. In addition multiple isoforms of subtypes have been found which may be due to GENE DUPLICATION.Antigens, Fungal: Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Gastrointestinal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, from the MOUTH to the ANAL CANAL.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols: The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.Ki-67 Antigen: A CELL CYCLE and tumor growth marker which can be readily detected using IMMUNOCYTOCHEMISTRY methods. Ki-67 is a nuclear antigen present only in the nuclei of cycling cells.Colorectal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON or the RECTUM or both. Risk factors for colorectal cancer include chronic ULCERATIVE COLITIS; FAMILIAL POLYPOSIS COLI; exposure to ASBESTOS; and irradiation of the CERVIX UTERI.H-2 Antigens: The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Mammary Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced mammary neoplasms in animals to provide a model for studying human BREAST NEOPLASMS.Combined Modality Therapy: The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Antigens, Helminth: Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.Tumor Microenvironment: The milieu surrounding neoplasms consisting of cells, vessels, soluble factors, and molecules, that can influence and be influenced by, the neoplasm's growth.Carcinoma, Hepatocellular: A primary malignant neoplasm of epithelial liver cells. It ranges from a well-differentiated tumor with EPITHELIAL CELLS indistinguishable from normal HEPATOCYTES to a poorly differentiated neoplasm. The cells may be uniform or markedly pleomorphic, or form GIANT CELLS. Several classification schemes have been suggested.Bone Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer located in bone tissue or specific BONES.Neoplasm Invasiveness: Ability of neoplasms to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue.Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen: Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.Neoplasm Transplantation: Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Receptors, Estrogen: Cytoplasmic proteins that bind estrogens and migrate to the nucleus where they regulate DNA transcription. Evaluation of the state of estrogen receptors in breast cancer patients has become clinically important.Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung: A heterogeneous aggregate of at least three distinct histological types of lung cancer, including SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA; ADENOCARCINOMA; and LARGE CELL CARCINOMA. They are dealt with collectively because of their shared treatment strategy.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Kidney Neoplasms: Tumors or cancers of the KIDNEY.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Disease-Free Survival: Period after successful treatment in which there is no appearance of the symptoms or effects of the disease.Uterine Cervical Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the UTERINE CERVIX.Epididymal Secretory Proteins: Proteins secreted by the epididymal epithelium. These proteins are both tissue- and species-specific. They are important molecular agents in the process of sperm maturation.ROC Curve: A graphic means for assessing the ability of a screening test to discriminate between healthy and diseased persons; may also be used in other studies, e.g., distinguishing stimuli responses as to a faint stimuli or nonstimuli.Carcinoma: A malignant neoplasm made up of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate the surrounding tissues and give rise to metastases. It is a histological type of neoplasm but is often wrongly used as a synonym for "cancer." (From Dorland, 27th ed)RNA, Neoplasm: RNA present in neoplastic tissue.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell: Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.HLA-DR Antigens: A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Neoplastic Cells, Circulating: Exfoliate neoplastic cells circulating in the blood and associated with metastasizing tumors.Skin Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the SKIN.Mice, SCID: Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Carcinoma, Small Cell: An anaplastic, highly malignant, and usually bronchogenic carcinoma composed of small ovoid cells with scanty neoplasm. It is characterized by a dominant, deeply basophilic nucleus, and absent or indistinct nucleoli. (From Stedman, 25th ed; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1286-7)Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Receptors, Progesterone: Specific proteins found in or on cells of progesterone target tissues that specifically combine with progesterone. The cytosol progesterone-receptor complex then associates with the nucleic acids to initiate protein synthesis. There are two kinds of progesterone receptors, A and B. Both are induced by estrogen and have short half-lives.Cisplatin: An inorganic and water-soluble platinum complex. After undergoing hydrolysis, it reacts with DNA to produce both intra and interstrand crosslinks. These crosslinks appear to impair replication and transcription of DNA. The cytotoxicity of cisplatin correlates with cellular arrest in the G2 phase of the cell cycle.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.DNA Methylation: Addition of methyl groups to DNA. DNA methyltransferases (DNA methylases) perform this reaction using S-ADENOSYLMETHIONINE as the methyl group donor.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Histocompatibility Antigens: A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.Rectal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the RECTUM.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Seminoma: A radiosensitive, malignant neoplasm of the testis, thought to be derived from primordial germ cells of the sexually undifferentiated embryonic gonad. There are three variants: classical (typical), the most common type; anaplastic; and spermatocytic. The classical seminoma is composed of fairly well differentiated sheets or cords of uniform polygonal or round cells (seminoma cells), each cell having abundant clear cytoplasm, distinct cell membranes, a centrally placed round nucleus, and one or more nucleoli. In the female, a grossly and histologically identical neoplasm, known as dysgerminoma, occurs. (Dorland, 27th ed)Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Kaplan-Meier Estimate: A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)Genetic Predisposition to Disease: A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.Esophageal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the ESOPHAGUS.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Histocompatibility Antigens Class II: Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.Head and Neck Neoplasms: Soft tissue tumors or cancer arising from the mucosal surfaces of the LIP; oral cavity; PHARYNX; LARYNX; and cervical esophagus. Other sites included are the NOSE and PARANASAL SINUSES; SALIVARY GLANDS; THYROID GLAND and PARATHYROID GLANDS; and MELANOMA and non-melanoma skin cancers of the head and neck. (from Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 4th ed, p1651)DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Serpins: A family of serine proteinase inhibitors which are similar in amino acid sequence and mechanism of inhibition, but differ in their specificity toward proteolytic enzymes. This family includes alpha 1-antitrypsin, angiotensinogen, ovalbumin, antiplasmin, alpha 1-antichymotrypsin, thyroxine-binding protein, complement 1 inactivators, antithrombin III, heparin cofactor II, plasminogen inactivators, gene Y protein, placental plasminogen activator inhibitor, and barley Z protein. Some members of the serpin family may be substrates rather than inhibitors of SERINE ENDOPEPTIDASES, and some serpins occur in plants where their function is not known.Genital Neoplasms, Female: Tumor or cancer of the female reproductive tract (GENITALIA, FEMALE).RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.HLA-A2 Antigen: A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Thoracic NeoplasmsReceptors, Antigen, B-Cell: IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Positron-Emission Tomography: An imaging technique using compounds labelled with short-lived positron-emitting radionuclides (such as carbon-11, nitrogen-13, oxygen-15 and fluorine-18) to measure cell metabolism. It has been useful in study of soft tissues such as CANCER; CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM; and brain. SINGLE-PHOTON EMISSION-COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY is closely related to positron emission tomography, but uses isotopes with longer half-lives and resolution is lower.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Germinoma: A malignant neoplasm of the germinal tissue of the GONADS; MEDIASTINUM; or pineal region. Germinomas are uniform in appearance, consisting of large, round cells with vesicular nuclei and clear or finely granular eosinophilic-staining cytoplasm. (Stedman, 265th ed; from DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, pp1642-3)Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Immunoradiometric Assay: Form of radioimmunoassay in which excess specific labeled antibody is added directly to the test antigen being measured.Neoplastic Stem Cells: Highly proliferative, self-renewing, and colony-forming stem cells which give rise to NEOPLASMS.Microsatellite Repeats: A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).Antigens, CD15: A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.Chemotherapy, Adjuvant: Drug therapy given to augment or stimulate some other form of treatment such as surgery or radiation therapy. Adjuvant chemotherapy is commonly used in the therapy of cancer and can be administered before or after the primary treatment.Adenoma: A benign epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.Immunoassay: A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.Receptor, erbB-2: A cell surface protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is overexpressed in a variety of ADENOCARCINOMAS. It has extensive homology to and heterodimerizes with the EGF RECEPTOR, the ERBB-3 RECEPTOR, and the ERBB-4 RECEPTOR. Activation of the erbB-2 receptor occurs through heterodimer formation with a ligand-bound erbB receptor family member.Thyroid Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the THYROID GLAND.Antigens, CD3: Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).Antigens, CD8: Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.GPI-Linked Proteins: A subclass of lipid-linked proteins that contain a GLYCOSYLPHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOL LINKAGE which holds them to the CELL MEMBRANE.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human: The beta subunit of human CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN. Its structure is similar to the beta subunit of LUTEINIZING HORMONE, except for the additional 30 amino acids at the carboxy end with the associated carbohydrate residues. HCG-beta is used as a diagnostic marker for early detection of pregnancy, spontaneous abortion (ABORTION, SPONTANEOUS); ECTOPIC PREGNANCY; HYDATIDIFORM MOLE; CHORIOCARCINOMA; or DOWN SYNDROME.Endometrial Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of ENDOMETRIUM, the mucous lining of the UTERUS. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. Their classification and grading are based on the various cell types and the percent of undifferentiated cells.Chromogranin A: A type of chromogranin which was first isolated from CHROMAFFIN CELLS of the ADRENAL MEDULLA but is also found in other tissues and in many species including human, bovine, rat, mouse, and others. It is an acidic protein with 431 to 445 amino acid residues. It contains fragments that inhibit vasoconstriction or release of hormones and neurotransmitter, while other fragments exert antimicrobial actions.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.O Antigens: The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Fluorouracil: A pyrimidine analog that is an antineoplastic antimetabolite. It interferes with DNA synthesis by blocking the THYMIDYLATE SYNTHETASE conversion of deoxyuridylic acid to thymidylic acid.Chorionic Gonadotropin: A gonadotropic glycoprotein hormone produced primarily by the PLACENTA. Similar to the pituitary LUTEINIZING HORMONE in structure and function, chorionic gonadotropin is involved in maintaining the CORPUS LUTEUM during pregnancy. CG consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is virtually identical to the alpha subunits of the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity (CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN, BETA SUBUNIT, HUMAN).Dysgerminoma: A malignant ovarian neoplasm, thought to be derived from primordial germ cells of the sexually undifferentiated embryonic gonad. It is the counterpart of the classical seminoma of the testis, to which it is both grossly and histologically identical. Dysgerminomas comprise 16% of all germ cell tumors but are rare before the age of 10, although nearly 50% occur before the age of 20. They are generally considered of low-grade malignancy but may spread if the tumor extends through its capsule and involves lymph nodes or blood vessels. (Dorland, 27th ed; DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1646)Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
... antigen) is a tumor marker that is used primarily in the management of pancreatic cancer. CA 19-9 is an antigen defined by ... In patients who lack the Lewis antigen (a blood type antigen on red blood cells), which is about 10% of the Caucasian ... the tumor surface marker Sialyl-Lewis A. CA 19-9 was discovered in the serum of patients with colon cancer and pancreatic ... "Serum tumor markers". American Family Physician. 68 (6): 1075-1082. PMID 14524394. CA-19-9 Antigen at the US National Library ...
... or marker) of MUC1. MUC1 is found on nearly all epithelial cells, but it is over expressed in cancer cells, and its associated ... and CA 15-3 measure different epitopes of the same protein antigen product of the MUC1 gene seen in breast cancer. CA 27.29 has ... e.g. The CanAg tumour antigen is a novel glycoform of MUC1. In the cell nucleus, the protein MUC1 regulates the activity of ... In cancer cells, increased expression of MUC1 promotes cancer cell invasion through beta-catenin, resulting in the initiation ...
"Cancer stem cell marker CD133+ tumour cells and clinical outcome in rectal cancer". Histopathology. 55 (3): 284-93. doi:10.1111 ... "Cells with characteristics of cancer stem/progenitor cells express the CD133 antigen in human endometrial tumors". Clin. Cancer ... Corbeil D, Fargeas CA, Huttner WB (2001). "Rat prominin, like its mouse and human orthologues, is a pentaspan membrane ... Cheng JX, Liu BL, Zhang X (2009). "How powerful is CD133 as a cancer stem cell marker in brain tumors?". Cancer Treat. Rev. 35 ...
Tumor-associated glycoprotein 72
... (TAG-72) is a glycoprotein found on the surface of many cancer cells, including ovary,[ ... TAG-72 is a tumor marker and can be measured with radioimmunoassays like CA 72-4, which uses the monoclonal antibodies indium ( ... TAG-72 antigen entry in the public domain NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms Scott, Andrew M.; Wolchok, Jedd D.; Old, Lloyd J. ( ... CA 72-4 and CEA are independent prognostic factors in colorectal cancer". Int. J. Cancer. 101 (6): 545-8. doi:10.1002/ijc.90009 ...
Tumor markers including alphafetoprotein (AFP), Beta Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (HCG), Carcinoembionic Antigen (CEA), CA 125 ... Veterinary oncology: focuses on treatment of cancer in animals. Leukemia, Lymphoma, Germ cell tumors and early stage solid ... American Cancer Society American Cancer Society Cancer Action Network American Cancer Society Center American Society of ... Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Patient Version. Bethesda (MD): National Cancer Institute (US). 2002-01-01. PMID ...
... and cancer antigen 125 (CA125). These tumour markers are found in primary liver cancers, as well as in other cancers and ... Liver cancer can also form from other structures within the liver such as the bile duct, blood vessels and immune cells. Cancer ... Jemal, A; Bray, F; Center, MM; Ferlay, J; Ward, E; Forman, D (Mar-Apr 2011). "Global cancer statistics". CA: A Cancer Journal ... ovarian cancer, lung cancer, renal cancer, prostate cancer. Because liver cancer is an umbrella term for many types of cancer, ...
Konstantopoulos K, Thomas SN (2009). "Cancer cells in transit: the vascular interactions of tumor cells". Annu Rev Biomed Eng. ... Jan 1998). "The effect of benign and malignant liver disease on the tumour markers CA19-9 and CEA". Ann Clin Biochem. 35 (1): ... "Clinical utility of biochemical markers in colorectal cancer: European Group on Tumour Markers (EGTM) guidelines". European ... However, the serum levels are raised in some types of cancer, which means that it can be used as a tumor marker in clinical ...
TPA Tumor antigen List of cancer types "Tumor markers Cancer screening". Retrieved December 28, 2013. Kilpatrick, E. S; Lind, M ... Tumor markers can be produced directly by the tumor or by non-tumor cells as a response to the presence of a tumor. Although ... CA 125 Breast: CEA, CA 15-3, Cyfra 21-1 Ovary: CEA, CA 19-9, CA 125, AFP, BHCG Uterine: CEA, CA 19-9, CA 125, Cyfra 21-1, SCC ... "Fuzzy logic-based tumor marker profiles improved sensitivity of the detection of progression in small-cell lung cancer patients ...
November 1991). "Cloning of a tumor-associated antigen: MOv18 and MOv19 antibodies recognize a folate-binding protein". Cancer ... changing shape and expressing different cell surface markers. The upregulated expression of the FR makes activated macrophages ... San Diego, CA. Abstract #2326. Messmann R, Amato R, Hernandez-McClain J, Conley B, Rogers H, Lu J, Low P, Bever S, Morgenstern ... Non-mucinous ovarian cancer (the majority of ovarian cancers) was the first tumor type to be associated with FR "over- ...
... and cancer antigen 125 (CA125). These tumour markers are found in primary liver cancers, as well as in other cancers and ... Several distinct types of tumors can develop in the liver because the liver is made up of various cell types. These growths can ... CA 19-9), carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) ... ovarian cancer, lung cancer, renal cancer, prostate cancer, etc ... Tumor markers, chemicals sometimes found in the blood of people with cancer, can be helpful in diagnosing and monitoring the ...
Examples: Prostate-specific antigen, and CA-125 Tumor marker Calzone, Kathleen A. "Genetic Biomarkers of Cancer Risk". Seminars ... Melanoma/Colorectal Cancer), CA-125 (Ovarian Cancer), CA19.9 (Pancreatic Cancer), CEA (Colorectal Cancer), EGFR (Non-small-cell ... "Circulating miRNAs as surrogate markers for circulating tumor cells and prognostic markers in metastatic breast cancer". ... Both these markers are associated with the number of tumor cells present in the blood, and as such, are hoped to provide a ...
Tumor markers, TNM staging, CT scans, MRI. Cancer survival has improved due to three main components including improved ... Carcinoembionic Antigen (CEA), CA 125, Prostate specific antigen (PSA). ... Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Patient Version. Bethesda (MD): National Cancer Institute (US). 2002-01-01. PMID ... Liver cancer. Jaundice, pain and mass in right upper abdomen.. Pancreatic cancer. Weight loss, jaundice.. Skin cancer. ...
... tumor antigen selectively modulates the sensitivity of ovarian cancer cells to genotoxic drug-induced apoptosis". Gynecologic ... "Characterization of the tumor marker muc16 (ca125) expressed by murine ovarian tumor cell lines and identification of a panel ... CA-125 (cancer antigen 125, carcinoma antigen 125, or carbohydrate antigen 125) also known as mucin 16 or MUC16 is a protein ... The protein was named "cancer antigen 125" because OC125 was the 125th antibody produced against the ovarian cancer cell line ...
Folate receptor 1
1991). "Cloning of a tumor-associated antigen: MOv18 and MOv19 antibodies recognize a folate-binding protein". Cancer Res. 51 ( ... "Folate-binding protein is a marker for ovarian cancer". Cancer Res. 51 (19): 5329-38. PMID 1717147. "Entrez Gene: FOLR1 folate ... Luhrs CA, Pitiranggon P, da Costa M, et al. (1987). "Purified membrane and soluble folate binding proteins from cultured KB ... Sadasivan E, Rothenberg SP (1989). "The complete amino acid sequence of a human folate binding protein from KB cells determined ...
Lloyd J. Old
... which targets the CA-IX molecule/G250 antigen, expressed on over 90 percent of clear cells renal cell carcinomas (RCC, kidney ... Discovery and naming of several members of the CT (cancer/testis) family of human tumor antigens, including New York-ESO-1 (NY- ... this discovery led directly to the wide use of cell surface markers to distinguish and classify normal and malignant cells and ... Identified the first cell surface antigens distinguishing cells of different lineages, introducing the concept of cell surface ...
... immunity against hCG has applications such as imaging of cancer cells, selective delivery of cytotoxic compounds to tumor cells ... "A novel human cancer vaccine elicits cellular responses to the tumor-associated antigen, human chorionic gonadotropin b". Clin ... CA 72-4 and CEA are independent prognostic factors in colorectal cancer". Int J Cancer. 101 (6): 545-548. doi:10.1002/ijc.90009 ... "Concentration of free hCGb subunit in serum as a prognostic marker for squamous-cell carcinoma of the oral cavity and ...
Blood tests for tumor markers, such as carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and carbohydrate antigen (CA) may be ordered, as their ... "The direct effect of estrogen on cell viability and apoptosis in human gastric cancer cells". Mol Cell Biochem. 395 (1-2): 99- ... If the mucus remains inside the tumour cell, it pushes the nucleus to the periphery: "signet-ring cell". Around 5% of gastric ... Parkin DM, Bray F, Ferlay J, Pisani P; Bray; Ferlay; Pisani (2005). "Global Cancer Statistics, 2002". CA: A Cancer Journal for ...
Thus, individual prostate cancer cells produce less PSA than healthy cells; the raised serum levels in prostate cancer patients ... Prostate-specific antigen has been shown to interact with protein C inhibitor. Tumor markers GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... Coltman CA (May 2004). "Prevalence of prostate cancer among men with a prostate-specific antigen level < or =4.0 ng per ... Prostate Cancer Can Prostate Cancer Be Found Early? National Cancer Institute: The Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) Test: ...
... group showed that LAG-3 maintained tolerance to self and tumor antigens not just via CD4+ cells but also via CD8+ cells, ... In 1999 Triebel showed that LAG-3 could be used as a cancer vaccine, through cancer cell lines transfected with LAG-3. In 2001 ... A group from the California Department of Public Health identified a subset of HIV-specific LAG3(+)CD8(+) T cells that ... Scientists at the University of Tokyo showed that LAG-3 was a marker of Tregs that secrete IL-10. In 2010 scientists at Swiss ...
"Histological types of cancer - CRS - Cancer Research Society". www.crs-src.ca. Baba, Alecsandru Ioan; Câtoi, Cornel. TUMOR CELL ... to the extent that nuclear appearance can be used as a marker in cancer diagnostics and staging. Cancer cells are created when ... of particular co-stimulated molecules that aid in the way antigens react with lymphocytes can impair the natural killer cells' ... Cancer stem cells linked to drug resistance Tumor Cells Become Drug Resistant by Reverting to a Stem Cell-Like State Laetitia ...
In a small trial, a tumor B-cell hybridoma vaccine against tumor stem cells elicited a specific tumor immune reaction thus ... CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians. 60 (3): 166-93. doi:10.3322/caac.20069. PMC 2888474 . PMID 20445000. Schapira, Anthony H.V ... "Detection of human herpesvirus-6 variants in pediatric brain tumors: Association of viral antigen in low grade gliomas". ... Another positive prognostic marker for glioblastoma patients is mutation of the IDH1 gene, which can be tested by DNA-based ...
... carbohydrate antigen 19.9) is a tumor marker that is frequently elevated in pancreatic cancer. However, it lacks sensitivity ... One to two percent of cases of pancreatic cancer are neuroendocrine tumors, which arise from the hormone-producing cells of the ... "Recent progress in pancreatic cancer". CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians. 63 (5): 318-48. doi:10.3322/caac.21190. PMC 3769458 ... Stage T1 pancreatic cancer Stage T2 pancreatic cancer Stage T3 pancreatic cancer Stage T4 pancreatic cancer Pancreatic cancer ...
"IL-10 elicits IFNγ-dependent tumor immune surveillance". Cancer Cell. 20 (6): 781-96. doi:10.1016/j.ccr.2011.11.003. PMID ... It also displays a potent ability to suppress the antigen-presentation capacity of antigen presenting cells; however, it is ... Akdis CA, Joss A, Akdis M, Faith A, Blaser K (September 2000). "A molecular basis for T cell suppression by IL-10: CD28- ... treated patients exhibit fold increases of peripheral CD8+ T cells expressing markers of activation, such as programmed death 1 ...
High PSMB7 expression is an unfavourable prognostic marker in breast cancer. In this, survival of resistant breast cancer cell ... in colorectal cancer, retinoblastoma (Rb). and von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor (VHL), as well as a number of proto-oncogenes ... Checler F, da Costa CA, Ancolio K, Chevallier N, Lopez-Perez E, Marambaud P (July 2000). "Role of the proteasome in Alzheimer's ... Yang Y, Früh K, Ahn K, Peterson PA (November 1995). "In vivo assembly of the proteasomal complexes, implications for antigen ...
2005). "Radial glia cells are candidate stem cells of ependymoma". Cancer Cell. 8 (4): 323-35. doi:10.1016/j.ccr.2005.09.001. ... Epithelial membrane antigen has been shown to help distinguish ependymomas from other pediatric CNS tumors. Neuraxis MR imaging ... expressing neuronal stem cell markers CD133 and nestin, as well as radial glial specific markers RC2 and brain lipid binding ... Cancer Research. 54 (1): 45-7. PMID 8261460. Birch, BD; Johnson, JP; Parsa, A; Desai, RD; Yoon, JT; Lycette, CA; Li, YM; Bruce ...
... is also useful to diagnose lung cancer and better than SCC and NSE tumor markers. With renal cell carcinoma (RCC), ... Tumor M2-PK), carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), carbohydrate antigens CA 19-9 and CA 724 in the diagnosis of gastrointestinal ... The combination of Tumor M2-PK with the appropriate classical tumor marker, such as CEA for bowel cancer, CA 19-9 for ... Tumor M2-PK can be elevated in many tumor types, rather than being an organ-specific tumor marker such as PSA. Increased stool ...
Management of prostate cancer
... allowing for an advantage in tumour cell killing. Neither selenium nor vitamin E have been found to be effective in preventing ... Lawton, CA; Won M; Pilepich MV; Asbell SO; Shipley WU; Hanks GE; Cox JD; Perez CA; Sause WT; Doggett SR; et al. (September 1991 ... or have similar effects on secondary markers in men with localized cancer in short term trials, such as pomegranate juice or ... "Comparison of the efficacy of local therapies for localized prostate cancer in the prostate-specific antigen era: a large ...
... in patients with small-cell lung cancer and other solid tumors". Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American ... Due to the fact that dendritic cells are the immune system's most important antigen-presenting cells, their activity must be ... ISBN 1-84110-100-1. Dias N, Stein CA (Nov 2002). "Potential roles of antisense oligonucleotides in cancer therapy. The example ... "OrthoMaM phylogenetic marker: Bcl-2 coding sequence". "Human Bcl2, Isoform 1". Hardwick JM, Soane L (2013). "Multiple functions ...
A case report of primary small cell carcinoma of the breast and review of the literature.
... an exceedingly rare and aggressive tumor, is often characterized by rapid progression and poor prognosis. We report a case of ... Primary small cell carcinoma (SCC) of the breast, ... carbohydrate antigen 125 (CA125), CA15-3, and CA19-9 were all ... However, the levels of serum tumor markers, including carcino-embryonic antigen (CEA), ... percentage of Ki67-positive cancer nuclei) was 70%. Furthermore, the SCC tumor cells were highly positive for neuroendocrine ...
Clinical Evaluation of HER-2/neu Protein in Malignant Pleural Effusion-Associated Lung Adenocarcinoma and as a Tumor Marker in...
... adenocarcinoma cell lung cancer; NSCLC, non-small cell lung cancer; CEA, carcinoembryonic antigen; CA 125, cancer antigen 125; ... of cancer cells (13) . The other is that overexpression of HER-2/neu confers to cancer cells resistance to various cancer ... and cell proliferation characteristics in non-small cell lung cancer cell lines. Cancer Res., 56: 206-209, 1996. ... Frequently studied markers include CEA, CA 125, CA 15-3, CA19-9, CA 72-4, CYFRA 21-1, neuron-specific enolase, and SCC (17 , 18 ...
Carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9) - Canadian Cancer Society
It may be found in the blood when it is shed by tumour cells. It is also found in trace amounts in the pancreas, liver, gall ... is a protein that is found in very small amounts on the surface of certain cancer cells. ... It is a protein found on the surface of certain cancer cells. It may be found in the blood when it is shed by cancer cells. ... The highest levels of this antigen are most commonly seen in people with advanced pancreatic cancer. CA19-9 is not usually high ...
CA 19-9 Blood Test (Pancreatic Cancer): MedlinePlus Medical Test
... other cancers, or certain noncancerous disorders. The test is often used to monitor treatment for pancreatic cancer. Learn more ... High levels of CA 19-9 can be a sign of pancreatic cancer, ... This test measures the amount of a protein called CA 19-9 in ... Tumor markers are substances made by cancer cells or by normal cells in response to cancer in the body. ... Test ID: CA19: Carbohydrate Antigen 19-9 (CA 19-9), Serum: Clinical and Interpretive; [cited 2018 Jul 6]; [about 4 screens]. ...
Endometrial, Ovarian, and Cervical Cancer
This chapter provides insight into gynecological cancer risks, symptoms, outcomes, and treatments. ... and Cervical Cancer Online Medical Reference - covering Definition through Treatment. Authored by Kristine Zanotti of the ... Germ Cell Subtype. Germ cell tumors account for 3% of all ovarian cancers and recapitulate the developing embryo or placental ... Human epididymis protein 4 (HE4) has also emerged as a marker for epithelial ovarian cancers. However, CA 125 and HE4 are not ...
Pancreatic Cancer Diagnosis - Pancreatic Cancer Action Network
... learn what tests are used to detect pancreatic cancer and what questions to ask your doctor. ... Blood Tests and Tumor Markers for Pancreatic Exocrine Tumors. There is no blood test or tumor marker to find or diagnose ... These tests measure substances some pancreatic cancer cells release into your blood, including:. *Carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA ... So, they cannot be used to diagnose pancreatic cancer.. Blood Tests and Tumor Markers for Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors. ...
A case of multiple metastatic low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma arising from an ovarian endometriotic lesion
The data from the tumor marker studies are as follows: cancer antigen (CA)-125, 118.4 IU/ml; CA 19-9, 38.7 IU/ml; ... Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors and primary mesenchymal tumors such as gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are also important ... Nineteen tumors with HPF less than 10 MF/10 HPF were classified as low grade and the remaining four tumors with 12 to 30 MF/10 ... There were many irregular small vessels around the tumor cells and hemorrhage was conspicuous (Fig. 3B). Benign endometrial ...
20 x Pancreatic Cancer Tumour Marker Professional GP CA19-9 Blood Test Kits | Home Health UK
... it is a protein that is produced by the tumour cells, making it useful as a tumour marker. ... Carbohydrate Antigen 19-9 (CA 19-9) is a protein that exists on the surface of certain cells. CA 19-9 does not cause cancer; ... Pancreatic Cancer Marker Test / 20 x Pancreatic Cancer Tumour Marker Professional GP CA19-9 Blood Test Kits. ... it is a protein that is produced by the tumour cells, making it useful as a tumour marker to follow the course of the cancer. ...
Measurement method utilizing internal standard substance - Wako Pure Chemical Industries, Ltd.
... and tumor marker sugar chain antigen sugar chain such as, for example, CA 19-9, PIVKA-II, CA 125, sugar chain possessed by a ... CA 125, sugar chain possessed by a substance having a particular sugar chain produced by cancer cell; for example, ABO sugar ... tumor marker sugar chain antigen sugar chain such as, for example, CA 19-9, PIVKA-II, ... tumor marker protein such as, for example, AFP, PSA, CEA, PG I, PG II; and the like], sugar chain ( ...
About Pancreatic Cancer - Lustgarten Foundation: Pancreatic Cancer Research
Two commercially available tumor marker tests are of use in patients with pancreatic cancer: cancer antigen 19-9 (CA 19-9) and ... Tumors can also resemble the endocrine cells of the pancreas. These types of rare tumors are called islet cell tumors, ... CA 19-9 is a substance found on the surface of certain types of cells and is shed by tumor cells, making it useful in following ... Different tumor markers in the blood are used to detect and monitor many types of cancer. Tumor markers are substances, usually ...
Adult Health GI Jeopardy Flashcards by Ellyn Mikkelson | Brainscape
Tumor markers related to cancers of the GI tract. carcinoembryonic antigen and CA 19-9, alpha-fetoprotein indicate sensitivity ... is also a protein that exists on the surface of certain cells and is shed by tumor cells making it useful as a tumor marker. It ... CEA not normally detected in blood and indicative of ca is present when detected. CA 19-9 ... with esophageal cancer affecting the middle portion of the esophagus would immediately report which of the following?. A) ...
Information about measuring the effectiveness of cancer screening tests and about weighing the strength of the evidence ... squamous cell carcinoma antigen, prostate specific antigen for men older than aged 50 years, cancer antigen 125 (CA-125) for ... analyses of serum tumor markers including carcinoembryonic antigen, cancer antigen 19-9 (CA19-9), ... stage IV colorectal cancer, stage IV gastroesophageal cancer, stage IV breast cancer, and advanced-stage pancreatic cancer). ...
CA 19-9 | definition of CA 19-9 by Medical dictionary
What is CA 19-9? Meaning of CA 19-9 medical term. What does CA 19-9 mean? ... Looking for online definition of CA 19-9 in the Medical Dictionary? CA 19-9 explanation free. ... a blood tumor marker for pancreatic, hepatobiliary and colorectal cancer. This tumor marker is used in diagnosis, evaluation of ... A tumour-associated carbohydrate antigen located on the sialylated Lewis A blood group antigen (individuals who are ...
Pancreas Cancer | UCSF Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center
... and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), made by organs, tissues, or tumor cells in the body. Certain substances are linked to ... Tumor marker test : A procedure in which a sample of blood, urine, or tissue is checked to measure the amounts of certain ... Copyright © 2020 University of California Regents. All Rights Reserved.. UCSF Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center. ... Whether or not the tumor can be removed by surgery.. * The stage of the cancer (the size of the tumor and whether the cancer ...
What Causes Pancreatic Cancer? Symptoms, Signs & Survival Rate
... and survival rates for pancreatic cancer. Different types of surgery, chemotherapy, radiation, biologic therapy or targeted ... therapy all may be indicated for treatment of pancreatic cancer. ... Tumor marker test : A procedure in which a sample of blood, ... and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), made by organs, tissues, or tumor cells in the body. Certain substances are linked to ... urine, or tissue is checked to measure the amounts of certain substances, such as CA 19-9, ...
Cancers | Free Full-Text | Signal-Targeted Therapies and Resistance Mechanisms in Pancreatic Cancer: Future Developments...
Innovative therapies aim to annihilate oncogenic dependency, or to normalize the tumoural stroma to allow immune cells to ... In this review, we will discuss the current state of clinical trials for targeted therapies against pancreatic cancer. We will ... Large scale transcriptomic and genomic analysis revealed that pancreatic cancers display great heterogeneity but failed to ... as the paradigmatic pro-tumoural signal downstream of oncogenic Kras in pancreatic cancer, would benefit from exploratory ...
Colon and rectal cancers | In-Depth Reports | St. Luke's Hospital
... substances that are released into the blood from cancer cells. Tumor markers include: *Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) ... current issues in cancer screening, and new guidance on cervical cancer screening and lung cancer screening. CA Cancer J Clin ... Colorectal cancer stages and treatment options are: Stage 0 (Carcinoma in situ) *In stage 0, cancer cells are fully contained ... Cancers of the colon and rectum, often collectively referred to as colorectal cancer , are life-threatening tumors that develop ...
Comparative Study of Cetuximab and Radiation Vs Surgery Before or After Radiation in Patients With Colorectal Carcinoma - Full...
Tumor markers for Colorectal Carcinoma are Carcinoembryonic antigen (CAE) and CA 19-9 and to assess the response of tumor ... cells and either kill them or deliver tumor-killing substances to them without harming normal cells.This is an anti-cancer drug ... Some block the ability of tumor cells to grow and spread. Others find tumor cells and help kill them or carry tumor-killing ... markers Carcinoembryonic antigen (CAE) and CA 19-9 will be used and periodically Colonoscopy has to be done. Colorectal Cancer ...
Recent approaches for directly profiling cell surface sialoform, Glycobiology | 10.1093/glycob/cwy046 | DeepDyve
"Recent approaches for directly profiling cell surface sialoform, Glycobiology" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service ... 1989 . Detection of glycoproteins as tumor-associated Hanganutziu-Deicher antigen in human gastric cancer cell line, NUGC4 . ... 2013 . European proficiency study with control serum for the tumor marker CA 19-9 measured on different test systems . Clin Lab ... they concluded that cell surface α2,6-SAs contribute to cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix adhesion of tumor cells. In ...
The prognostic value of serum CA 19-9 for patients with advanced lung adenocarcinoma | BMC Cancer | Full Text
We excluded patients who received no chemotherapy, or for whom we had no data on pre-treatment tumor markers. We also evaluated ... cancer invasive factors and mucin production. CA 19-9 and CYFRA 21-1 are independent prognostic markers in patients with ... either CA19-9+ or CYFRA 21-1+, n = 113), or double negative (CA 19-9−/CYFRA 21-1−, n = 74). Their respective OS were 10.0, 23.3 ... Combined use of CA 19-9 and CYFRA 21-1 provides further prognostic information in patients with advanced lung adenocarcinoma. ...
Cancer Screening Overview (PDQ®): Screening - Health Professional Information [NCI] | UW Health | Madison, WI
... an estimated 1,688,780 people in the United States will be diagnosed with cancer, and 600,920 will die of cancer. Estimates ... squamous cell carcinoma antigen, prostate specific antigen (PSA) for men older than aged 50 years, cancer antigen 125 (CA-125) ... analyses of serum tumor markers including carcinoembryonic antigen, cancer antigen 19-9 (CA19-9), ... stage IV colorectal cancer, stage IV gastroesophageal cancer, stage IV breast cancer, and advanced-stage pancreatic cancer). ...
Bile Duct Cancer (Cholangiocarcinoma) Treatment (PDQ®)-Patient Version - National Cancer Institute
Most bile duct cancers cannot be completely removed by surgery. Other treatments include radiation, chemotherapy, and ... Treatment of bile duct cancer depends on where the cancer has formed and if it can be removed by surgery (resectable) or not ( ... These are called tumor markers. Higher than normal levels of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and CA 19-9 may mean there is bile ... the cancer cells in the liver are actually bile duct cancer cells. The disease is metastatic bile duct cancer, not liver cancer ...
Safety and survival with GVAX pancreas prime and Listeria Monocytogenes-expressing mesothelin (CRS-207) boost vaccines for...
... granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor-secreting allogeneic pancreatic tumor cells, induces T-cell immunity to cancer ... in patients with abnormal baseline tumor marker CA 19-9 (, 37 U/mL), the following definitions to distinguish stable or ... Heterologous prime/boost of GVAX and Listeria-based vaccines induces robust antigen-specific T-cell immunity and delays tumor ... CD8 T-cell responses to mesothelin peptides were considered enhanced when post-treatment T-cell levels were , five per 1 × 105 ...
Lithuania Tumor Marker Sales Segment Forecasts: Supplier Shares & Strategies, Volume & Sales Forecasts, Emerging Tests,...
Lithuania Tumor Marker Sales Segment Forecasts for over 40 Tests: Supplier Shares and Strategies, Volume and Sales Forecasts, ... Prostatic Specific Antigen, S-100 Protein, Serotonin, Sialic Acid, Squamous Cell Carcinoma Ag, TDT, Thymidine Kinase, ... Cancer Diagnostic Tests Analyzed in the Report. Over 200 current and emerging assays, including Biochemical Markers, Oncogenes ... ACTH, AFP, Beta-2 Microglobulin, CA 15-3/27.29, CA 19-9, CA 125, Calcitonin, Cathepsin, CEA, Chromogranin, Colon-Specific ...
Tumor Markers - BLT System
Cancer Antigen (CA) 125. 002303 - A CA 125 test measures the amount of the protein CA 125 (cancer antigen 125) in your blood. A ... This is a lab test for Alpha-Fetoprotein tumor marker. AFP is found mainly in liver cancer and nonseminomatous germ cell tumors ... CA 27.29 - Cancer Antigen. 140293 - Quantitative measurement of Cancer Antigen 27.29. This testing is often done to help manage ... Cancer Antigen (CA) 15-3. 143404 - Quantitative measurement of cancer antigen 15-3. ...
2014 Analysis of the Japanese Hospital Tumor Marker Testing Market
42 tables and presents a comprehensive analysis of the Japanese hospital tumor marker testing ... Blood Group Antigens A,B,H. CA 50. CA 72-4/TAG-72. CA 195. CA-242. CA-549. CAM 26. CAR-3. Cathepsin-D. Chromogranin A and B. ... Biotechnology Biomarkers Biomaterials Biosimilars Stem Cell Diagnostics & Diseases In Vitro Diagnostics Incontinence Cancer ... Ovarian Cancer. 12. Bladder Cancer B. Major Current And Emerging Cancer Diagnostic Tests. 1. Introduction. 2. Tumor Marker ...
Understanding Colorectal Cancer | Knight Cancer Institute| OHSU
See why the OHSU Knight Cancer Institute is your resource for team-based colorectal cancer treatment and information. ... Learn all about colorectal cancer, including signs and symptoms, risk factors, screening, survival rates, types and stages. ... Blood can also contain a "tumor marker" - a protein called carcinoembryonic antigen or CA 19-9 sometimes produced by colorectal ... As the cancer grows, it may invade deeper layers, where its harder to treat. Sometimes cancer cells break off and spread ( ...
Recurrent Hyperammonemia After Abernethy Malformation Type 2 Closure: a Case Report
The tumor marker cancer antigen 19-9 (CA19-9) measured 58.47 U/ mL (normal range, 0-37U/mL). Serological evaluation for ... Her white blood-cell count was 3.9 x 109/L (normal range, 3.5-9.7 x 109/L), her hemoglobin level was 116 g/L (normal range, 110 ... Hepatol Res 2002; 23: 122-9. [ Links ] 20. Orii T, Ohkohchi N, Kato H, Doi H, Hirano T, Sekiguchi S, Akamatsu Y, et al. Liver ... 19. KCS, Matsutani S. Maruyama H. Fukamachi T. Nomoto H. Akiike T. Ebara M, et al. Portal systemic encephalopathy in two ...
CA 19-9 and CA 125 as potential predictors of disease recurrence in resectable lung adenocarcinoma
The serum tumor markers Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), Neuron-specific enolase (NSE), Cancer antigen 125 (CA 125), Human ... Objectives Among patients who underwent primary surgery for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), recurrent disease is frequent ... patients had at least one elevated tumor marker prior to surgery. In analysis of disease-free survival (DFS), CA 125 and/or CA ... The aim of this study was to examine the association of tumor markers in pre-operative serum with recurrent disease. Material ...
Pancreatic Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - MedicalRecords.com
... cancer) cells form in the tissues of the pancreas. The pancreas is a gland about 6 inches long that is shaped like a thin pear ... Pancreatic cancer is a disease in which malignant ( ... These are called tumor markers.. * MRI (magnetic resonance ... and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), made by organs, tissues, or tumor cells in the body. Certain substances are linked to ... such as CA 19-9, ... cancer cells in the liver are actually pancreatic cancer cells ...
2024 Serbia Tumor Marker Sales Segment Forecasts: Supplier Shares and Strategies, Emerging Tests, Technologies and Opportunities
2024 Serbia Tumor Marker Sales Segment Forecasts: Supplier Shares and Strategies, Emerging Tests, Technologies and ... Tissue Polypeptide Antigen, and others.. Instrumentation Review. - Analysis of major immunoassay analyzers used for cancer ... ACTH, AFP, Beta-2 Microglobulin, CA 15-3/2729, CA 19-9, CA 125, Calcitonin, Cathepsin, CEA, Chromogranin, Colon-Specific ... Prostatic Specific Antigen, S-100 Protein, Serotonin, Sialic Acid, Squamous Cell Carcinoma Ag, TDT, Thymidine Kinase, ...
CarcinoembryonicCarbohydrate antigenPancreasDiagnosisAlpha-fetoproteinGastrointestinalBiomarkersBenignNeuroendocrine tumorsSquamousSerum CA 19-9 lev27.29DuctalSuppressorBiopsyPatientsDetectionColorectal cancersExocrineMalignanciesMucinSensitivityLungLiverDiagnosed with colorectal cancerGermSymptomsStromalColon cancerAbnormalProstateEpithelial MembranUterineCancerousGastric cancersBile duct cMonoclonal antibodyPrognostic valuePeople with advanced pancreatic cancerBloodProteinsBreast and ovarianPresence of pancreatic cancer
- Tumor markers related to cancers of the GI tract carcinoembryonic antigen and CA 19-9, alpha-fetoprotein indicate sensitivity and specificity for colorectal and hepatocellular carcinomas. (brainscape.com)
- All participants were offered annual whole body screening by fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography, chest and abdominal computed tomography (CT), brain and pelvic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), analyses of serum tumor markers including carcinoembryonic antigen, cancer antigen 19-9 (CA19-9), squamous cell carcinoma antigen, prostate specific antigen for men older than aged 50 years, cancer antigen 125 (CA-125) for women, and FOB testing. (cancer.gov)
- Spontaneously Ruptured Giant Splenic Cyst with Elevated Serum Levels of CA 19-9 , CA 125 and Carcinoembryonic Antigen. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Tumor marker test : A procedure in which a sample of blood, urine, or tissue is checked to measure the amounts of certain substances, such as CA 19-9, and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), made by organs, tissues, or tumor cells in the body. (ucsf.edu)
- All participants were offered annual whole-body screening by fluorodeoxyglucosefluorine F 18-fludeoxyglucose positron emission tomography, chest and abdominal computed (CT), brain and pelvic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), analyses of serum tumor markers including carcinoembryonic antigen, cancer antigen 19-9 (CA19-9), squamous cell carcinoma antigen, prostate specific antigen (PSA) for men older than aged 50 years, cancer antigen 125 (CA-125) for women, and FOB testing. (uwhealth.org)
- Tumor markers for Colorectal Carcinoma are Carcinoembryonic antigen (CAE) and CA 19-9 and to assess the response of tumor markers Carcinoembryonic antigen (CAE) and CA 19-9 will be used and periodically Colonoscopy has to be done. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- 002139 - Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is a protein found in many types of cells but associated with tumors and the developing fetus. (mcssl.com)
- The serum tumor markers Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), Neuron-specific enolase (NSE), Cancer antigen 125 (CA 125), Human epididymis protein 4 (HE4) and Carbohydrate antigen (CA 19-9) were analyzed retrospectively and clinical follow-up data were collected from patient charts. (diva-portal.org)
- There are two common oncofetal antigens, alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). (encyclopedia.com)
- Carcinoembryonic antigen CA 72-4 is a more recently discovered oncofetal antigen just coming into usage. (encyclopedia.com)
- At follow-up, 2 years after surgery, concentrations of the tumor markers carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9) had increased. (springeropen.com)
- Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is a glycoprotein, which is present in normal mucosal cells but increased amounts are associated with adenocarcinoma, especially colorectal cancer. (healthxchange.com.sg)
- Blood tests to detect tumor markers, including carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and CA 19-9, may help your physician follow you during and after treatment. (dhr-rgv.com)
- Various tumor markers, including the carcinoembryonic antigen, cancer antigen 72-4, carbohydrate antigen 19-9, and cancer antigen 125 (CA-125) were within normal limits. (biomedcentral.com)
- The use of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA 19-9) tumor markers in screening for gastrointestinal cancer is still reaping the pros and cons. (medichealthy.com)
- Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) was initially discovered by Gold and Freedman in 1965 when they identified fetal colon and colorectal cancer. (medichealthy.com)
- Carcinoembryonic Antigen (CEA) is a marker for various types of cancer, especially gastrointestinal cancer. (medichealthy.com)
- Entry criteria included no measurable disease after surgery, no prior chemotherapy or radiation therapy, no active infection, and adequate hematologic, renal and hepatic function and tumor markers CA 19-9 and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) less than 2.5 times upper limit of normal. (medpagetoday.com)
- Clinical implications of elevated pretreatment carcinoembryonic antigen in patients with advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix. (koreascience.or.kr)
- Higher than normal levels of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and CA 19-9 may mean there is bile duct cancer. (missouricancer.com)
- The certain area beneath the ROC curve of PLSCR1 for CRC diagnosis is 0.75 which increases to 0.8 if combined with dimension of carcinoembryonic antigen. (scienceofgreathealth.com)
- Some potential colorectal tumor markers such as for example carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) CA 242 CA 19-9 CA 50 cells plasminogen activator tissue-polypeptide-specific antigen and cells inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 have already been extensively researched. (scienceofgreathealth.com)
- Biochemical analysis revealed Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) 172 U/L, Gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase ( γ -GT) 163 U/L, alkaline phosphates (ALP) 464 U/L, and C-reactive protein (CRP) 84.90 mg/L. The serum levels of various tumour markers were not increased: Alfa Feto Protein (AFP) 1.6, Carbohydrate Antigen 19-9 (CA19-9) 12.3, Carbohydrate Antigen 72-4 (CA72-4) 1.8, and Carcinoembryonic Antigen (CEA) 3.6. (hindawi.com)
- The mean levels of tumor markers, including carcinoembryonic antigen, cancer antigen 19-9 (CA19-9), and CA125, were markedly elevated. (elsevier.com)
- Also, the changes in the levels of tumor markers α-L-fucosidase (AFU), alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9), and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) were observed. (europeanreview.org)
- 1 , 3 Serum tumor markers such as carbohydrate antigen (CA) 19-9, alpha fetoprotein (AFP), and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) are variably expressed. (mhmedical.com)
- CA19-9 is the common term for carbohydrate antigen sialyl Lewis a. (cancer.ca)
- Carbohydrate Antigen 19-9 (CA 19-9) is a protein that exists on the surface of certain cells. (homehealth-uk.com)
- A tumour-associated carbohydrate antigen located on the sialylated Lewis A blood group antigen (individuals who are genotypically Lewis a-b-[Lea-b-] comprise 5% of the population and cannot synthesize the antigen). (thefreedictionary.com)
- Carbohydrate Antigen 19-9 (CA 19-9) is a substance produced by cancer cells of the pancreatic exocrine glands and can be detected on blood tests. (medichealthy.com)
- In the present study, we assessed whether serum levels of IGF-I and IGFBP-3 could be used as tumor markers in patients with colorectal cancers and evaluated its relationship with known tumor markers, carcinoembryogenic antigen (CEA) and carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9). (uhod.org)
- The carbohydrate antigen 125 (CA 125) is a glycoprotein with about a 200 kDa molecular weight and is the most frequently used biomarker for ovarian cancer detection [ 4 ]. (com.es)
- Carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA 19-9) is a marker for both colorectal and pancreatic carcinoma, and is used in monitoring patients with these cancers during palliative chemotherapy in conjunction with imaging tests [ 6 ]. (com.es)
- CA 19-9 (carbohydrate antigen 19-9, also called cancer antigen 19-9 or sialylated Lewis (a) antigen) is a tumor marker that is used primarily in the management of pancreatic cancer. (wikipedia.org)
- CA19-9 is commonly used as a tumour marker for some types of cancer of the pancreas. (cancer.ca)
- CA19-9 is also found in healthy adults in small amounts in the pancreas, liver, gallbladder and lungs. (cancer.ca)
- The pancreas is a glandular tissue comprised of two cell types: 1. (lustgarten.org)
- Pancreatic cancer occurs when abnormal cells grow out of control in the tissue of the pancreas and form a tumor. (lustgarten.org)
- Because the pancreas lies deep in the abdomen, a doctor performing an examination on a patient would not be able to feel a pancreatic tumor. (lustgarten.org)
- About two-thirds of all pancreatic cancers arise in the head of the pancreas. (lustgarten.org)
- Tumors can also resemble the endocrine cells of the pancreas. (lustgarten.org)
- have been recognized as special types of cysts in the pancreas because they are precursor lesions that can later progress to invasive cancers if left untreated. (lustgarten.org)
- M High levels of CA 19-9 were subsequently reported in other gastrointestinal malignancies, including pancreas, bile duct, oesophageal and gastric cancer, as well as non-gastrointestinal tumours. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Pancreatic cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the pancreas. (ucsf.edu)
- The digestive juices are produced by exocrine pancreas cells and the hormones are produced by endocrine pancreas cells. (ucsf.edu)
- Tests that examine the pancreas are used to detect (find), diagnose, and stage pancreatic cancer. (ucsf.edu)
- Pancreatic cancer is usually diagnosed with tests and procedures that produce pictures of the pancreas and the area around it. (ucsf.edu)
- The process used to find out if cancer cells have spread within and around the pancreas is called staging. (ucsf.edu)
- Safety and survival with GVAX pancreas prime and Listeria Monocytogenes-expressing mesothelin (CRS-207) boost vaccines for metastatic pancreatic ca. (nih.gov)
- GVAX pancreas, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor-secreting allogeneic pancreatic tumor cells, induces T-cell immunity to cancer antigens, including mesothelin. (nih.gov)
- Pancreatic cancer is the uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells in the pancreas. (labtestsonline.org)
- The cancerous cells form malignant tumors, which damage tissue, keep the pancreas from working the way it should, and may eventually spread (metastasize) to nearby or distant organs and tissues. (labtestsonline.org)
- By the time symptoms such as jaundice occur, the cancer has often spread throughout the pancreas and beyond. (labtestsonline.org)
- Symptoms are dependent on the size and location of the tumor within the pancreas. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
- Ampullary cancer is a malignant tumor located in the pancreas, near where it meets the wall of the small intestine. (cancerresearch.org)
- The standard surgery for pancreatic cancer is a pancreaticoduodenectomy, which includes the removal of the gallbladder, common bile duct, duodenum, part of the jejunum, and the head of the pancreas. (medpagetoday.com)
- Laparoscopic biopsy revealed pleomorphic giant cell carcinoma with the organ of origin the pancreas. (hindawi.com)
- In the literature, these rare tumours have been divided into two subtypes: osteoclast-like giant cell and pleomorphic giant cell carcinoma of the pancreas. (hindawi.com)
- In this report, we review the literature in the area and present a unique case of a patient with known alcohol abuse who developed metastatic pleomorphic giant cell cancer of the pancreas within months of a diagnosis of a pancreatic serous cystadenoma. (hindawi.com)
- The presence of CA 19-9 antigens could be indicative of tumour cells in the pancreas. (avignadiagnostics.com)
- Levels of CEA become elevated when inflammation or tumors arise in any endodermal tissue, including that of the gastrointestinal tract, respiratory tract, pancreas, and breast [ 1 ]. (com.es)
- Ovarian cancer is the most common cause of elevated CA 125, but cancers of the uterus, cervix, pancreas, liver, breast, lung, and digestive tract can also raise CA 125 levels. (nyhq.org)
- This chapter focuses on unusual solid tumors of the pancreas and discusses optimal diagnostic and therapeutic approaches for management. (mhmedical.com)
- Pancreatic cancer is a disease caused by malignant, cancerous cells forming in the tissues of the pancreas. (wikihow.com)
- Compared with cytokeratin 19 fragment CYFRA 21-1, the performance of HER-2/neu as a tumor marker in pleural effusion diagnosis was better. (aacrjournals.org)
- These findings indicate that HER-2/neu is important in the pathogenesis of MPE-associated ADCLC and is a potential tumor marker for a diagnosis of pleural effusion. (aacrjournals.org)
- therefore, several investigators have tried to improve diagnosis by measuring tumor markers in pleural fluids. (aacrjournals.org)
- To be sure of a pancreatic cancer diagnosis, your doctors must get information from imaging tests and tumor tissue samples. (pancan.org)
- After diagnosis, two blood tests may help your doctor see if your tumor is growing, staying the same or responding well to treatment. (pancan.org)
- Often, the diagnosis is not made until the cancer has spread to other areas of the body (stage IV). (lustgarten.org)
- Finally, a false-negative screening test may falsely reassure an individual with subsequent clinical signs or symptoms of cancer and thereby actually delay diagnosis and effective treatment. (cancer.gov)
- This tumor marker is used in diagnosis, evaluation of a patient's response to treatment, and surveillance of the disease. (thefreedictionary.com)
- However, inadequate sensitivity and specificity limit the use of CA 19-9 and CEA in the early screening and diagnosis of pancreatic cancer. (thefreedictionary.com)
- An in-depth report on the causes, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of colorectal cancer. (stlukes-stl.com)
- The cancer diagnostics market is on the verge of explosion, as the researchers approach major technological breakthroughs in tumor diagnosis and therapy, discover new specific antigens, and unlock the mystery of the genetic basis of the disease. (yahoo.com)
- About 90% of people with colon cancer live at least five years after a colorectal cancer diagnosis if the cancer is found before it spreads from its original site. (ohsu.edu)
- Colon cancer is the fourth most common cancer found in both men and women, despite the decline in overall diagnosis and an increase in the screening process. (asbestoscancer.com)
- it is the only procedure than can make a definite colorectal cancer diagnosis. (asbestoscancer.com)
- For a colon cancer diagnosis, a biopsy is typically performed during a colonoscopy. (asbestoscancer.com)
- The Cancer Antigen (CA) 19-9 test is often used to aid in the diagnosis of Pancreatic Cancer . (requestatest.com)
- When used for diagnosis, tumor markers are used in conjunction with other clinical parameters such as biopsy and radiological findings. (encyclopedia.com)
- However, some of these non-specific markers have found a place in monitoring cancer treatment rather than in diagnosis. (encyclopedia.com)
- Checking the level of cancer antigen (CA) 19-9 in your blood may give your doctor additional clues about your diagnosis. (prolifecancercentre.co.in)
- Pathological examination of an open muscle biopsy showed a poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma, supporting a diagnosis of gastric cancer metastases in multiple skeletal muscles. (springeropen.com)
- The patient died of respiratory failure with rapid collection of pleural effusion 54 days after admission, 18 days after establishment of the diagnosis of gastric cancer metastases. (springeropen.com)
- Emergency surgery due to acute abdomen was performed under the diagnosis of pedicle torsion of the ovarian tumor. (biomedcentral.com)
- Unfortunately, The early diagnosis is difficult because the symptoms of gastrointestinal cancer are not specific. (medichealthy.com)
- To evaluate the value of combined detection of serum CEA, CA19-9, CA24-2, AFP, CA72-4, SCC, TPA and TPS for the clinical diagnosis of upper gastrointestinal tract (GIT) cancer and to analyze the efficacy of these tumor markers (TMs) in evaluating curative effects and prognosis. (koreascience.or.kr)
- The combined detection of CEA+CA199+CA242+CA724 had higher sensitivity and specificity in gastric cancer (GC) and cardiac cancer, while CEA+CA199+CA242+SCC was the best combination of diagnosis for esophageal cancer (EC). (koreascience.or.kr)
- Tumour markers are used for the screening, diagnosis, and stratification of cancer disease. (cumhuriyet.edu.tr)
- Some of these biomarkers have shown favorable results to detecting adenomas and early stage colorectal cancer diagnosis. (omicsonline.org)
- Furthermore, the evolution of biomarkers is becoming more promising for the early diagnosis of colorectal cancer. (omicsonline.org)
- A working diagnosis of paraneoplastic neurological syndrome was made, and the patient is being managed with high-dose steroid therapy according to the Optic Neuritis Treatment Trial protocol during relapses, as well as with tumor surveillance. (biomedcentral.com)
- Colposcopy assisted biopsy revealed a diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma. (intjcancermanag.com)
- Therefore, when a patient presents with multiple osteolytic lesions, we need to consider metastasis from solid cancer in the differential diagnosis as well as multiple myeloma. (kjco.org)
- For many malignancies, the determination of serum tumor markers plays an important role in clinical diagnosis and prognosis. (com.es)
- Molecular markers that have been introduced into diagnosis and treatment of other solid tumors remain unreciprocated in this disease. (hindawi.com)
- The main markers are mucin antigens CA 19-9, CA 242, CA 50, and CA 72-4, but due to their relatively low specificity and sensitivity they are used in monitoring of disease progression rather than diagnosis [ 6 ]. (hindawi.com)
- Research is currently being conducted on the role of tumor markers in detection, diagnosis, and treatment of cancers, and new tumor markers are continuously being introduced. (nyhq.org)
- The disease is diagnosed at a stage when cancer has already metastasized beyond the ovary in approximately 70% of patients and only 30% of these patients with this advanced-stage ovarian cancer survive 5 years after initial diagnosis. (justia.com)
- Early diagnosis greatly enhances the chances of successful cancer treatment. (justia.com)
- Disease survival is among the poorest of all cancers with 5-year survival at only 6 % in Europe and ~79 % of patients dying within a year following diagnosis [ 1 , 2 ]. (oncotarget.com)
- Consider diagnosis with new-onset or long standing type 2 diabetes as a good reason to prospectively combine three tests for biomarkers that are used for indicating pancreatic cancer -- CA 19-9, and newer tests microRNA-196, and microRNA-200. (wikihow.com)
- 480012 - This is a lab test for Alpha-Fetoprotein tumor marker. (mcssl.com)
- Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is a glycoprotein with a molecular mass of 70 kDa, which is synthesized in large quantities during embryonic development of the fetal yolk sac and liver, and it can be used as a marker for hepatocellular or germ cell (non-seminoma) carcinoma, except in pregnant individuals [ 3 ]. (com.es)
- 002261 - The CA 19-9 is used to monitor gastrointestinal, pancreatic, liver and colorectal malignancies. (mcssl.com)
- The gastrointestinal tract is the most common location of cancer. (medichealthy.com)
- Colorectal cancer, pancreatic carcinoma, and gastric cancer are some types of gastrointestinal cancer with high mortality rates. (medichealthy.com)
- When symptoms appear, gastrointestinal cancer is generally already at a high stage. (medichealthy.com)
- On the other hand, CEA is not specific for gastrointestinal cancer. (medichealthy.com)
- CEA, CA19-9 and CA72-4 improve the diagnostic accuracy in gastrointestinal cancers. (koreascience.or.kr)
- Histopathological examination revealed a gastrointestinal stromal tumor(GIST). (bvsalud.org)
- Colon and rectal cancers begin in the digestive system, also called the GI (gastrointestinal) system. (docsnutritiondepot.com)
- We reviewed studies that had been published prior to March 2018 that assessed the prognostic values of ctDNA in patients with oesophageal and gastric cancers, gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) and CRC. (frontiersin.org)
- Gastrointestinal cancers, in particular gastric (stomach) and colorectal cancer (CRC), have high incidence and mortality rate. (frontiersin.org)
- See the PDQ summary on Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors Treatment (Adult) for more information. (advancedsurgicalconsultantsllc.com)
- Carcino embryonic antigen (CEA) is a highly glycosylated cell surface glycoprotein with a molecular weight of 150-300 kDa, and is normally produced in gastrointestinal tissue during fetal development, but its production stops before birth. (com.es)
- CA 19-9 can be elevated in many types of gastrointestinal cancer, such as colorectal cancer, esophageal cancer and hepatocellular carcinoma. (wikipedia.org)
- In this proof-of-concept study, a general tumor marker pattern was developed to detect cancer based on shared biomarkers, likely indicative of cancer-related features. (nature.com)
- Tumour biomarkers in heart failure: is there a role for CA-125? (cumhuriyet.edu.tr)
- Tumour biomarkers in heart failure: is t. (cumhuriyet.edu.tr)
- Currently available screening methods include digital rectal examination fecal occult blood test and colonoscopy Elvitegravir (6 7 However the diagnostic value of the Elvitegravir currently most reliable noninvasive screening test the fecal occult blood test is limited in terms of its low sensitivity and lack of patient compliance (8 9 To overcome this problem the identification of novel biomarkers that can aid the early detection of CRC is crucial. (scienceofgreathealth.com)
- Pamudurthy V, Bissonnette M, Konda V (2016) Biomarkers in Colorectal Cancer Screening. (omicsonline.org)
- This article will discuss the advances of biomarkers in stool, serum, and urine assays that enable early detection of colorectal cancer. (omicsonline.org)
- Studies assessed investigated various ctDNA biomarkers in patients with different stages of cancer undergoing surgical resection, chemotherapy and no treatment. (frontiersin.org)
- For oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma and oesophageal adenocarcinoma, methylation of certain genes such as APC and DAPK have been highlighted as promising biomarkers for prognostication, but these studies are limited and more comprehensive research is needed. (frontiersin.org)
- The utility of KRAS mutations in plasma circulating cell-free DNA (cfDNA) samples as non-invasive biomarkers for the detection of pancreatic cancer has never been evaluated in a large case-control series. (oncotarget.com)
- Combining cfDNA KRAS mutations and CA19-9 plasma levels on a limited set of case-control samples did not improve the overall performance of the biomarkers as compared to CA19-9 alone. (oncotarget.com)
- Whether the limited sensitivity and specificity observed in our series of KRAS mutations in plasma cfDNA as biomarkers for pancreatic cancer detection are attributable to methodological limitations or to the biology of cfDNA should be further assessed in large case-control series. (oncotarget.com)
- CA 19-9 is elevated in most patients with advanced pancreatic cancer, but it may also be elevated in other cancers and diseases such as bowel cancer, lung cancer and gall bladder cancer, as well as in benign diseases such as gall stones, pancreatitis, cystic fibrosis, and liver disease. (homehealth-uk.com)
- Because CA19-9 is also elevated in benign conditions (e.g., obstructive jaundice, liver disease, acute and chronic pancreatitis, diabetes, interstitial lung disease, collagen vascular disease, cholecystitis and cirrhosis of the liver), it is not widely used as a cancer marker. (thefreedictionary.com)
- They are common, mostly non-cancerous (benign) tumors. (stlukes-stl.com)
- The tumors that develop are usually benign, often taking shape of a polyp (a cluster of small cells) which can become cancerous overtime. (asbestoscancer.com)
- A total of 2,055 urinary profiles were analyzed, derived from a) a cancer group of patients (n = 969) with bladder, prostate, and pancreatic cancers, renal cell carcinoma, and cholangiocarcinoma and b) a control group of patients with benign diseases (n = 556), inflammatory diseases (n = 199) and healthy individuals (n = 331). (nature.com)
- Nearly all colon cancers begin as noncancerous (benign) polyps, which slowly develop into cancer. (dhr-rgv.com)
- Most islet cell tumors are noncancerous ( benign ) and do not spread. (labtestsonline.org)
- Other diagnoses that can mimic pancreatic cancer include other malignancies, benign tumors, chronic pancreatitis and autoimmune pancreatitis. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
- Benign prostatic hyperplasia (or BPH) is an enlargement of the prostate gland that is not associated with cancer. (cancerresearch.org)
- RATIONALE: Hemolymphangioma is a benign tumor comprised of the newly-formed lymph spaces and blood vessels, which can usually be found in the head and neck of the affected children. (bvsalud.org)
- Tumor markers are substances that are produced by cancer or other cells of the body in response to cancer or certain benign (non-cancerous) conditions. (com.es)
- An elevated PSA level in the blood may indicate prostate cancer, but other conditions such as benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostatitis can also raise PSA levels. (nyhq.org)
- There is not one specific blood test that can find or diagnose pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNETs) . (pancan.org)
- These types of rare tumors are called islet cell tumors, pancreatic endocrine neoplasms, or pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors, are generally less aggressive, and may be curable if detected early. (lustgarten.org)
- See the PDQ summary on Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors (Islet Cell Tumors) Treatment for information on endocrine pancreatic cancer. (ucsf.edu)
- Neuroendocrine tumors, also known as islet cell tumors, are more rare than exocrine tumors. (labtestsonline.org)
- Excludes basal and squamous cell skin cancers and in situ carcinomas except urinary bladder. (slideserve.com)
- Molecular detection of squamous cell carcinoma antigen transcripts in peripheral blood of cancer patients. (koreascience.or.kr)
- Prognostic value of preoperative serum CA 242 in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma cases. (koreascience.or.kr)
- Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma (BSCC) of the cervix is an uncommon tumor in female genital tract. (intjcancermanag.com)
- We described a case of basaloid squamous cell carcinoma in uterine cervix in a 62-year old woman with previous subtotal hysterectomy. (intjcancermanag.com)
- Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) accounts for the majority of uterine cervical cancer cases ( 1 ). (intjcancermanag.com)
- Among different histologic subtypes, basaloid squamous cell carcinoma (BSCC) tends to behave in an aggressive and highly invasive fashion. (intjcancermanag.com)
- We aimed to report a basaloid squamous cell carcinoma of cervix in a woman with previous subtotal hysterectomy. (intjcancermanag.com)
Serum CA 19-9 lev1
- Genetic tests can help screen for mutations associated with these syndromes.Familial Adenomatous Polyposis (FAP): Familial adenomatous polyposis is caused by mutations in a tumor suppressor gene called APC. (medigoo.com)
- BRCA1/BRCA2 genes (BReast CAncer genes 1,2) are tumor suppressor genes that produce proteins used in cellular repair of breast tissue. (cancerresearch.org)
- The mechanism involves both positive and negative regulation of expression of protooncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. (hindawi.com)
- The only way for your doctor to know if a mass or tumor is cancer is to get a tissue sample, called a biopsy . (pancan.org)
- Standard staging surgery for endometrial cancer generally includes hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, pelvic and para-aortic lymph node assessment, and general abdominopelvic survey with biopsy of suspicious appearing lesions. (clevelandclinicmeded.com)
- A biopsy is one of the most common procedures used to detect cancer in the body. (asbestoscancer.com)
- There are a few exceptions to this, such as tissue-bound receptors that must be measured in a biopsy from the solid tumor or proteins that are secreted into the urine. (encyclopedia.com)
- Tissue biopsy is needed to confirm the presence of pancreatic cancer. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
- Diagnostic procedures for cancer may include imaging, laboratory tests (including tests for tumor markers), tumor biopsy, endoscopic examination, surgery, or genetic testing. (nyhq.org)
- Overexpression of HER-2/neu in tumor tissues was found in 70% (23 of 32) of patients with MPE-associated ADCLC, 30% (13 of 43) with stage I/II non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), and 44% (14 of 32) with stage III NSCLC. (aacrjournals.org)
- The incidence of HER-2/neu overexpression in tumor tissues of patients with MPE-associated ADCLC was significantly higher than that of patients with stage I-III NSCLC without MPE. (aacrjournals.org)
- But this does not happen in all pancreatic cancer patients. (pancan.org)
- CA 19-9 is used as a tumour marker - CA19-9 levels are elevated in most patients with advanced pancreatic cancer. (homehealth-uk.com)
- Very small amounts of CA19-9 may also be found in healthy patients. (homehealth-uk.com)
- However, research focused on better diagnostic tests and newer treatments provides a more optimistic future for patients diagnosed with pancreatic cancer. (lustgarten.org)
- 8,9) However, elevated levels of CA 19-9 can also be detected in patients with nonmalignant diseases including pancreatic, liver, and biliary diseases. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Pancreatic cancer patients who didn't secrete CA 19-9 were also studied. (thefreedictionary.com)
- According to Emin u et al, 12 CA 19-9 the mean tumor size of patients with elevated CA 19-9 was greater than those with normal CA19-9 level (P = 0. (thefreedictionary.com)
- however, a slight increase of CA 19-9 levels can be observed in 20% of AIP patients as well, but rarely elevated above 200 U/ml [7, (thefreedictionary.com)
- To date, surgical resection provides the best chance of a cure for patients with pancreatic cancer. (mdpi.com)
- RATIONALE: Monoclonal antibodies, such as Cetuximab, can target tumor cells and either kill them or deliver tumor-killing substances to them without harming normal cells.This is an anti-cancer drug which has already been approved by the FDA for use in patients who have Colorectal Cancer. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Determine the response rate in patients with Colorectal Cancer treated with Cetuximab and Radiation Therapy Vs Surgery before or after Radiation Therapy. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- The 76 (31 %) patients who were CA 19-9 + had shorter overall survival (OS) than CA 19-9 − group (12.5 vs 26.2 months, P = 0.005). (biomedcentral.com)
- We stratified patients by CA 19-9 and CYFRA 21-1 as double positive (CA 19-9 + /CYFRA 21-1 + , n = 59), single positive (either CA19-9 + or CYFRA 21-1 + , n = 113), or double negative (CA 19-9 − /CYFRA 21-1 − , n = 74). (biomedcentral.com)
- Therefore, identification of another independent prognostic tumor marker would have great value in managing these patients. (biomedcentral.com)
- We hypothesized that CA 19-9 is a prognostic marker for ALAD patients. (biomedcentral.com)
- Objectives Among patients who underwent primary surgery for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), recurrent disease is frequent and cannot be accurately predicted solely from TNM stage and histopathological features. (diva-portal.org)
- Results Sixty-eight (64%) patients had at least one elevated tumor marker prior to surgery. (diva-portal.org)
- Some of these cases are caused by inherited genetic defects, and such patients usually have family histories of colorectal cancer. (medigoo.com)
- Independent validation in a set of 635 patients (293 cancer cases and 342 controls) showed an AUC of 0.82. (nature.com)
- Elevations of cancer antigen (CA) 125 and CA 19-9 have been reported in patients with mature cystic teratoma (MCT). (hacettepe.edu.tr)
- Elevated levels of CA19-9, an intracellular adhesion molecule, occur primarily in patients with pancreatic and biliary tract cancers, but may be raised in colorectal, gastric, hepatocellular, oesophageal and ovarian cancers. (healthxchange.com.sg)
- Our goal at Doctors Hospital at Renaissance is to empower our patients with the latest technological procedures to help detect and prevent colon cancer. (dhr-rgv.com)
- A rectal exam may reveal a mass in patients with rectal cancer, but not colon cancer. (dhr-rgv.com)
- However, this test is often negative in patients with colon cancer. (dhr-rgv.com)
- Patients can also develop diabetes as the tumor size begins to interfere with beta cell function. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
- Anaplastic lymphoma kinase, also called ALK, is a biomarker found in certain patients with lung cancer. (cancerresearch.org)
- This report deals only with Gemzar's efficacy in patients with resected cancer. (medpagetoday.com)
- ORLANDO, MAY 14-Gemzar (gemcitabine) as adjuvant monotherapy has doubled disease-free survival in patients with early-stage pancreatic cancer. (medpagetoday.com)
- The major toxicities of Gemzar therapy in the study were declines in peripheral blood values and platelets: 19 patients developed leucopenia, seven had anemia, and five had thrombocytopenia. (medpagetoday.com)
- The study enrolled 368 patients with resected pancreatic cancer from July 1998 through December 2004 at centers in Germany and Austria. (medpagetoday.com)
- The patients were stratified by tumor stage and then randomized to Gemzar or observation. (medpagetoday.com)
- Circulating Tumor DNA as a Sensitive Marker in Patients Undergoing Irreversible Electroporation for Pancreatic Cancer. (cdc.gov)
- Here, we investigated circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) which contained KRAS-mutated as a potential diagnostic tool for PDAC patients who underwent irreversible electroporation (IRE). (cdc.gov)
- A total of 573 patients with upper GIT cancer between January 2004 and December 2007 were enrolled in this study. (koreascience.or.kr)
- The prognostic value of CA 19-9 in the preoperative work-up of pancreatic cancer patients. (koreascience.or.kr)
- Evaluation of CA 72-4 as a new tumor marker in patients with gastric cancer. (koreascience.or.kr)
- ABBR: CEA A molecular marker found on normal fetal cells and in the bloodstream of patients with cancers of the colon, breast, lung, and other organs. (tabers.com)
- METHODS: Patients in the National Cancer Database with surgically resected pathologic stage I-IV small bowel adenocarcinomas between 2004 and 2015 were analyzed. (bvsalud.org)
- Our study enrolled 40 patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer histopathologically and 40 completely healthy, agematched subjects (control group). (uhod.org)
- Serum IGF-I levels were found significantly higher in patients with colorectal cancers compared to control group (p (uhod.org)
- Increased serum levels of IGFI might be considered as a significant predictor of tumor presence in patients with suspected colorectal cancer. (uhod.org)
- Patients presenting with raised tumour markets (AFP, CEA, CA19-9) may have relatively few symptoms. (singhealth.com.sg)
- Patients with a raised CA19-9 would require cross-sectional imaging to exclude pancreatic and biliary malignancy and a gastroscopy and colonoscopy where appropriate. (singhealth.com.sg)
- Studies focusing on gastric cancer patients showed that methylation of ctDNA in SOX17 and APC were independently associated with poor survival. (frontiersin.org)
- As most tumor markers are used to monitor treatment responses and recurrences of cancers, therefore more sensitive, specific and reproducible detection methods would be helpful for managing patients with cancers. (com.es)
- Patients occasionally exhibit elevated sedimentation of direct or indirect bilirubin, erythrocytes, and alkaline phosphatase and about a third of patients exhibit pathological glucose curve and/or anemia in case of protruding tumor [ 5 ]. (hindawi.com)
- Only about 15% of all PC patients are diagnosed at an early stage of the disease when the tumor is operable. (hindawi.com)
- A useful adjunct in the monitoring of patients with small cell lung cancer (SCLC). (directlabs.com)
- The objectives of this study were to describe the tumor response and outcomes of these patients. (nature.com)
- To study the efficacy of transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) combined with high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) in patients with middle-advanced liver cancer. (europeanreview.org)
- A total of 100 patients with middle-advanced liver cancer treated in our hospital from January 2015 to January 2018 were selected and randomly divided into TACE group (control group, n=50) and TACE combined with HIFU group (experimental group, n=50) according to different therapeutic regimens. (europeanreview.org)
- TACE combined with HIFU in the treatment of patients with middle-advanced liver cancer can restore the hepatic metabolism, enhance the immunity, improve the QOL, prolong the survival time of patients, and significantly reduce the tumor markers. (europeanreview.org)
- 3 In some patients, the combination of serum lipase and AFP can be quite helpful in assessing tumor burden in response to therapy. (mhmedical.com)
- Improved survival is observed in patients that undergo surgical resection, but this therapeutic option is limited to cases with localized tumors [ 3 ]. (oncotarget.com)
- CA 19-9 is an antigen defined by monoclonal antibody binding to CA 19-9, the tumor surface marker Sialyl-Lewis A. CA 19-9 was discovered in the serum of patients with colon cancer and pancreatic cancer in 1981. (wikipedia.org)
- In patients who lack the Lewis antigen (a blood type antigen on red blood cells), which is about 10% of the Caucasian population, CA 19-9 is not expressed, even in those with large tumors. (wikipedia.org)
- Extensive listings of companies, universities and research centers developing new cancer diagnostic tests and detection technologies. (yahoo.com)
- The determination of CA 19-9 cannot be used for the early detection of pancreatic carcinoma. (mcssl.com)
- Urinary profiling datasets, previously acquired by capillary electrophoresis coupled to mass-spectrometry were investigated to identify a general urinary marker pattern for detection of solid tumors by targeting common systemic events associated with tumor-related inflammation. (nature.com)
- The purpose of this review was to give an overview of published studies on blood markers aimed at the early detection of CRC and to summarize their performance characteristics. (aacrjournals.org)
- The objective of this article is to provide an overview on studies aimed at evaluating blood markers for early detection of CRC and to summarize performance characteristics of the various approaches. (aacrjournals.org)
- Extensive listings of over 500 companies, universities and research centers developing new tumor markers and detection technologies. (rnrmarketresearch.com)
- Early detection is the key to treatment of this type of cancer. (docsnutritiondepot.com)
- However unlike other cancers, the detailed knowledge of molecular processes accompanying the pathogenesis of PC has not so far led to identification of a reliable biomarker for early detection of the disease. (hindawi.com)
- We applied a KRAS amplicon-based deep sequencing strategy combined with analytical pipeline specifically designed for the detection of low-abundance mutations to screen plasma samples of 437 pancreatic cancer cases, 141 chronic pancreatitis subjects, and 394 healthy controls. (oncotarget.com)
- Early detection has therefore the potential to reduce the mortality associated with pancreatic cancer. (oncotarget.com)
- Most colorectal cancers are caught early, thanks to colonoscopies and other screening tests. (ohsu.edu)
- FAP also increases the risks for other types of cancers including stomach, thyroid, pancreatic, liver, and small intestine cancers.Hereditary Nonpolyposis Colorectal Cancer (HNPCC): Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC), also known as Lynch syndrome, accounts for 3 - 5% of all colorectal cancers. (medigoo.com)
- In most cases, colorectal cancers develop slowly over many years. (docsnutritiondepot.com)
- Agents that could increase IGFBP-3 levels might be promising for the treatment of colorectal cancers. (uhod.org)
- There is no blood test or tumor marker to find or diagnose pancreatic exocrine tumors , the most common type of pancreatic tumor. (pancan.org)
- It is important to distinguish between exocrine and endocrine tumors because each has different signs and symptoms, is diagnosed using different tests, has different treatments, and has different prognoses (likely course of the disease). (lustgarten.org)
- About 95% of pancreatic cancers begin in exocrine cells. (ucsf.edu)
- This summary provides information on exocrine pancreatic cancer. (ucsf.edu)
- This summary is about exocrine pancreatic cancer. (medicalrecords.com)
- Most pancreatic cancers (about 95%) begin in the cells that make up exocrine tissues. (labtestsonline.org)
- Islet cell tumors can be detected earlier than exocrine cancers because they can cause signs and symptoms if they produce excess pancreatic hormones, such as insulin or glucagon. (labtestsonline.org)
- Sensitivity increases with advancing colorectal cancer state. (healthxchange.com.sg)
- Special attention is drawn to the composition of the underlying study populations and to sensitivity by tumor stage. (aacrjournals.org)
- In scientific tests none of the serological markers possess demonstrated both high level of sensitivity and high specificity had a need to detect early stage CRC (10-13). (scienceofgreathealth.com)
- Screening modalities that are less invasive, have high sensitivity and specificity, inexpensive, and more accepted by the general population than the current gold standard screening tools may potentially prevent the deaths caused by colorectal cancer. (omicsonline.org)
- It was reported that using all three tests in harmony significantly improved the sensitivity for results specific to detecting pancreatic cancer. (wikihow.com)
- Before 2030, pancreatic cancer is expected to be the second-leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States, second only to lung cancer. (lustgarten.org)
- Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide. (biomedcentral.com)
- Conclusion High pre-operative serum CA 19-9 and/or CA 125 might indicate an increased incidence of recurrent disease in resectable lung adenocarcinomas. (diva-portal.org)
- These fibers are typically embedded in the lining of the lungs, and can cause tumors which eventually escalate to various types of lung cancer. (asbestoscancer.com)
- In the case of colon cancer, the theory is that some of the inhaled asbestos fibers by-pass the lung and are swallowed into the stomach or enter through the blood stream. (asbestoscancer.com)
- It can also be elevated in cases of colorectal cancer, lung cancer and gallbladder cancer . (requestatest.com)
- Finally, breast cancer with multiple metastases including those to bone, liver, and lung was diagnosed. (kjco.org)
- Overexpression of MUC1 is often associated with colon, breast, ovarian, lung and pancreatic cancers. (wikipedia.org)
- A pancreatic tumor blocking the bile duct can cause higher bilirubin and liver enzyme levels in the blood. (pancan.org)
- Having colitis or certain liver diseases can increase the risk of bile duct cancer. (cancer.gov)
- This type of cancer forms in the bile ducts inside the liver. (cancer.gov)
- This type of cancer is found in the hilum region, the area where the right and left bile ducts exit the liver and join to form the common hepatic duct. (cancer.gov)
- AFP is found mainly in liver cancer and nonseminomatous germ cell tumors. (mcssl.com)
- Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma occurs in the parts of the bile ducts within the liver and is sometimes classified as a type of liver cancer. (prolifecancercentre.co.in)
- People with HNPCC are prone to other cancers, including uterine and ovarian cancers, as well as cancers of the small intestine, liver, urinary tract, and central nervous system.Risk Factors: Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer in the U.S., with Americans facing a lifetime chance of 5 - 6% for this cancer. (medigoo.com)
- Used to detect tumors that mark cancers of the liver, testes, and ovaries. (directlabs.com)
- Because pancreatic cancer often causes the liver and/or gallbladder to swell, which are easier to palpate and detect, the condition may be misdiagnosed as liver cirrhosis or cholecystitis. (wikihow.com)
Diagnosed with colorectal cancer1
- If you have pancreatic cancer symptoms , your doctor must do a few things to see if you have pancreatic cancer. (pancan.org)
- These and other symptoms may be caused by pancreatic cancer. (ucsf.edu)
- There aren't any noticeable signs or symptoms in the early stages of pancreatic cancer. (ucsf.edu)
- Signs and symptoms of pancreatic cancer include jaundice , pain, and weight loss . (emedicinehealth.com)
- What Are the Signs and Symptoms of Pancreatic Cancer? (emedicinehealth.com)
- Pancreatic cancer may not cause early signs or symptoms. (emedicinehealth.com)
- Signs and symptoms may be caused by pancreatic cancer or by other conditions. (emedicinehealth.com)
- The signs and symptoms of pancreatic cancer, when present, are like the signs and symptoms of many other illnesses. (emedicinehealth.com)
- These and other signs and symptoms may be caused by bile duct cancer or by other conditions. (cancer.gov)
- Symptoms often do not appear until later stages, so these cancers are often referred to as "silent killers. (ohsu.edu)
- Early stages of colorectal cancer often have no symptoms. (ohsu.edu)
- As with most cancers, symptoms are dependent on the placement of the tumor. (asbestoscancer.com)
- With colon cancer, tumor placement on the bowel and metastasis can determine which symptoms will occur. (asbestoscancer.com)
- A CA 19-9 test is often ordered with other tests such as a CEA , Hepatic Function , or Bilirubin when a person is experiencing symptoms associated with Pancreatic Cancer. (requestatest.com)
- Many cases of colon cancer have no symptoms. (dhr-rgv.com)
- With proper screening, colon cancer can be detected before symptoms develop, when it is most curable. (dhr-rgv.com)
- These cancers are hard to detect at an early stage because symptoms are usually subtle or absent and tumors cannot usually be seen or felt during a physical exam. (labtestsonline.org)
- Early signs and symptoms of pancreatic cancer are often either absent or subtle. (labtestsonline.org)
- Since these symptoms are seen in other conditions besides cancer, they may be ignored or missed in the early stages. (labtestsonline.org)
- The symptoms of pancreatic cancer can be fairly non-specific. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
- Symptoms of gastric cancer include indigestion and stomach discomfort or pain. (advancedsurgicalconsultantsllc.com)
- Many tests are needed to determine whether a person has cancer, or if another condition (such as an infection) is mimicking the symptoms of cancer. (nyhq.org)
- Pancreatic cancer causes several nonspecific symptoms, and is often discovered during tests to find the cause of these symptoms. (wikihow.com)
- Cancer marker testing can be worthwhile if you and your doctors have some reasons to suspect there are symptoms of pancreatic cancer. (wikihow.com)
- Be aware that there is not one simple test or set of defined symptoms that can readily screen for/or detect pancreatic cancer. (wikihow.com)
- These cancers include bile duct cancer , colon cancer , and stomach cancer . (medlineplus.gov)
- Colorectal cancer includes colon cancer and rectal cancer. (ohsu.edu)
- Colorectal cancer or colon cancer is cancer that affects the colon or rectum due to the development of tumors along the lining of the large intestine. (asbestoscancer.com)
- Colon cancer can affect both men and women, with men being at a higher risk. (asbestoscancer.com)
- Age also plays a factor in the development of colon cancer, with 90% of cases being in individuals over 50 years old. (asbestoscancer.com)
- A study done by the Yale University School of Medicine determined a link between asbestos and colon cancer. (asbestoscancer.com)
- Results showed that smokers, who were exposed to asbestos over a period of 10 to 30 years, had a 36% higher rate of colon cancer. (asbestoscancer.com)
- Asbestos-exposed smokers found to have pleura related issues such as pleural thickening or calcification were shown to have a 54% higher risk of colon cancer than those heavy smokers who were not exposed to asbestos. (asbestoscancer.com)
- Diet and exercise also play a role in the development of colon cancer. (asbestoscancer.com)
- Polyps that aren't removed eventually can become cancerous, break through the wall of the colon or rectum, and spread to other areas.Colon cancer is a common type of cancer in the United States. (medigoo.com)
- In the largest study ever to examine this theory (88,757 subjects tracked over 16 years), it has been found that a fiber rich diet does not reduce the risk of colon cancer. (medigoo.com)
- Despite what many people may think, however, fiber probably has little, if any effect on colon cancer risk. (medigoo.com)
- In such cases, environmental or other factors trigger genetic changes in the intestine that lead to cancer.Inherited Genetic Factors: A small percentage of cases of colon cancer are due to inherited factors. (medigoo.com)
- About 50 - 80% of people who inherit the abnormal gene develop colon cancer by age 45. (medigoo.com)
- There is no single cause of colon cancer. (dhr-rgv.com)
- Certain genetic syndromes also increase the risk of developing colon cancer. (dhr-rgv.com)
- What you eat may play a role in your risk of colon cancer. (dhr-rgv.com)
- Colon cancer may be associated with a high-fat low-fiber diet and red meat. (dhr-rgv.com)
- A fecal occult blood test (FOBT) may detect small amounts of blood in the stool, which could suggest colon cancer. (dhr-rgv.com)
- Stage 0 colon cancer may be treated by removing the cancer cells, often during a colonoscopy. (dhr-rgv.com)
- The death rate for colon cancer has dropped in the last 15 years. (dhr-rgv.com)
- Colon cancer can almost always be caught by colonoscopy in its earliest and most curable stages. (dhr-rgv.com)
- Other associated genetic syndromes include Peutz-Jeghers syndrome with a 30 to 40 times increased risk, familial atypical multiple mole and melanoma syndrome with a 10 to 20 times increased risk, and hereditary nonpolyposis colon cancer (Lynch syndrome) with a 4 times increased risk. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
- Colon cancer is a cancer of the Large intestine (colon) or rectum (end of the colon) and the incidence is equal between men and women. (docsnutritiondepot.com)
- The death rate of colon cancer has dropped significantly in the past 15 yrs. (docsnutritiondepot.com)
- Almost all men and women age 50 and older should have a colon cancer screening. (docsnutritiondepot.com)
- Weight: Being overweight or obese raises the risk of colon cancer in both men and women, but the link seems to be stronger in men. (docsnutritiondepot.com)
- Selenium - High Selenium Blood Levels Decrease the Potential of Colon Cancer. (docsnutritiondepot.com)
- IGFBP-3 reduces tumorigenic potential of colon cancer cells in vitro. (uhod.org)
- Endometrial cancer usually manifests with abnormal uterine bleeding. (clevelandclinicmeded.com)
- The word cancer is used to describe any one of a group of diseases in which abnormal cells grow out of control, and can spread. (lustgarten.org)
- These abnormal cells are different from normal cells in both appearance and function. (lustgarten.org)
- Cancer happens when cells on the inside surface grow out of control, forming abnormal growths (polyps). (ohsu.edu)
- Cancer - colon.Colorectal cancer is a type of uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells that can develop in the colon, rectum or both. (medigoo.com)
- Bloody ascites was obtained, but abnormal cells were not confirmed cytologically. (biomedcentral.com)
- Blast cells are the immature white blood cells that become abnormal and accumulate in the bone marrow and blood in cases of leukemia. (cancerresearch.org)
- Multiple myeloma (MM) also known as plasma cell myeloma is a B-cell malignancy characterized by abnormal proliferation of plasma cells which produce a monoclonal immunoglobulin. (kjco.org)
- Endometrial cancer arises from the glandular tissue of the uterine lining. (clevelandclinicmeded.com)
- Uterine leiomyomas are common uterine tumors, and typical cases of leiomyoma are easily diagnosed by imaging study. (biomedcentral.com)
- We first show that a uterine leiomyoma can histologically mimic an adenomatoid tumor. (biomedcentral.com)
- However, uterine leiomyomas are commonly altered by degenerative changes, which can cause the misdiagnosis of tumors. (biomedcentral.com)
- The blood levels of this antigen may also be at a higher than normal level in healthy people and in people with non-cancerous conditions such as pancreatitis or bile duct obstruction. (cancer.ca)
- A higher than normal level of CA19-9 can be found in healthy people and can also be found in people with non-cancerous and cancerous conditions. (cancer.ca)
- Cancerous cells can also spread through the blood and lymphatic systems to other parts of the body. (lustgarten.org)
- One result is that cells may begin to grow out of control and eventually form a tumor - a mass of cancerous cells. (prolifecancercentre.co.in)
- Defects in genes that normally protect against cancer play the major role in causing polyp cells to continuously spread and become cancerous. (medigoo.com)
- For stages I, II, and III cancer, more extensive surgery is needed to remove the part of the colon that is cancerous. (dhr-rgv.com)
Bile duct c11
- Signs of bile duct cancer include jaundice and pain in the abdomen. (cancer.gov)
- Different procedures may be used to obtain a sample of tissue and diagnose bile duct cancer. (cancer.gov)
- Bile duct cancer is also called cholangiocarcinoma. (cancer.gov)
- Perihilar bile duct cancer is also called a Klatskin tumor or perihilar cholangiocarcinoma. (cancer.gov)
- Procedures that make pictures of the bile ducts and the nearby area help diagnose bile duct cancer and show how far the cancer has spread. (cancer.gov)
- In order to plan treatment, it is important to know if the bile duct cancer can be removed by surgery . (cancer.gov)
- Tests and procedures to detect, diagnose, and stage bile duct cancer are usually done at the same time. (cancer.gov)
- This condition, also known as bile duct cancer, is an uncommon form of cancer that occurs mostly in people older than age 50, though it can occur at any age. (prolifecancercentre.co.in)
- Techniques used to diagnose bile duct cancer include computerized tomography (CT) scans and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) combined with magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP). (prolifecancercentre.co.in)
- Expert-reviewed information summary about the treatment of bile duct cancer. (oncolink.org)
- This PDQ cancer information summary has current information about the treatment of bile duct cancer. (oncolink.org)
People with advanced pancreatic cancer1
- It may be found in the blood when it is shed by cancer cells. (cancer.ca)
- CA19-9 is usually measured by a blood test. (cancer.ca)
- What is a CA 19-9 blood test? (medlineplus.gov)
- Healthy people can have small amounts of CA 19-9 in their blood. (medlineplus.gov)
- You may need a CA 19-9 blood test if you've been diagnosed with pancreatic cancer or other type of cancer related to high levels of CA 19-9. (medlineplus.gov)
- You don't need any special preparations for a CA 19-9 blood test. (medlineplus.gov)
- High levels of these substances in blood can be a clue for doctors to look for pancreatic cancer. (pancan.org)
- Doctors can use these blood tests along with imaging tests to get more information to diagnose a pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor. (pancan.org)
- Provides simple positive or negative results for CA19-9 levels in blood. (homehealth-uk.com)
- CEA not normally detected in blood and indicative of ca is present when detected. (brainscape.com)
- abbreviation for cancer antigen 19-9 antigen, a blood tumor marker for pancreatic, hepatobiliary and colorectal cancer. (thefreedictionary.com)
- The home-based test uses a stool sample to check for the presence of blood and DNA changes that may indicate cancer. (stlukes-stl.com)
- Depending upon the tumor marker, it can be measured in blood, urine, stool or tissue. (encyclopedia.com)
- Each tumor marker has a unique life span in the blood. (encyclopedia.com)
- To monitor a treatment's success, enough time must have passed for the initial marker to be cleared from the blood. (encyclopedia.com)
- A sample of blood or other tissue is mixed with a substance containing specific antibodies to each tumor marker. (encyclopedia.com)
- Apart from the development of novel stool markers, the development of tests based on the analysis of blood samples becomes a focus of current research. (aacrjournals.org)
- CEA is a glycoprotein that is on the cell surface and can enter the blood circulation. (medichealthy.com)
- These hormones regulate sugar (glucose) transport into the body's cells, where it is used for energy and to help maintain normal blood sugar levels . (labtestsonline.org)
- Contains immature cells that divide to form more blood-forming stem cells, or mature into red blood cells, white blood cells (B cells and T cells), and platelets. (cancerresearch.org)
- Cell surface antigens can stimulate the production of antibodies by B lymphocytes and cytotoxic responses by white blood cells, e.g., granulocytes, monocytes, and lymphocytes. (tabers.com)
- Examples are the human blood group antigens. (tabers.com)
- Any of the major histocompatibility molecules present on almost all cells except human red blood cells. (tabers.com)
- The United States Preventative Services Task Force recommends screening for colorectal cancer beginning at age 50 years and continuing until age 75 years, using fecal occult blood testing, sigmoidoscopy, or colonoscopy [ 2 ]. (omicsonline.org)
- Tumor markers in the blood-are they an alarm signal of the organism? (lecturio.com)
- Are regular blood tests the best prophylaxis against cancer? (lecturio.com)
- The number of red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. (advancedsurgicalconsultantsllc.com)
- The CA 19-9 Antigen test checks the patient's blood sample for antigens that are associated with tumour. (avignadiagnostics.com)
- The CA 19-9 Antigen test is usually recommended by doctors to check the patient's blood sample for the presence of pancreatic cancer related antigens. (avignadiagnostics.com)
- Folic Acid is essential to the human body as it helps in the production of healthy red blood cells. (avignadiagnostics.com)
- A complete blood count (CBC) measures the size, number, and maturity of the different blood cells in a specific volume of blood. (nyhq.org)
- the hemoglobin portion of the CBC measures the oxygen-carrying capacity of the red blood cells while the hematocrit measures the percentage of red blood cells in the blood. (nyhq.org)
- White blood cells fight infection. (nyhq.org)
- Increased numbers of white blood cells, therefore, may indicate the presence of an infection. (nyhq.org)
- Tumor markers are substances either released by cancer cells into the blood or urine or substances created by the body in response to cancer cells. (nyhq.org)
- A generic term for a large (160 +) family of calcium- and phospholipid-binding proteins and phospholipase A2- and blood coagulation inhibitors, which interact with acidic membrane phospholipids in cell membranes. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Pancreatic cancer blocks the ducts that release this bile into your intestine, causing it to build up in the blood and turn skin and eyes yellowish. (wikihow.com)
- Antibodies are proteins that bind to antigens on harmful invaders in the body (eg, germs and viruses). (cancerresearch.org)
- Cellular antigens are proteins or oligosaccharides that mark and identify the cell surface as self or nonself . (tabers.com)
- This research demonstrated that PLSCR1 proteins levels had been significantly raised in both cancer cells and plasma of CRC individuals. (scienceofgreathealth.com)
- The purpose of this research was to research the manifestation of PLSCR1 proteins in CRC cells and to check the possible medical relevance of plasma PLSCR1 amounts for the recognition of CRC. (scienceofgreathealth.com)
- Methods: Immunohistochemical staining and en-zyme-linked immunosorbent assay (Elisa) was used to quantitatively identify the expression of heat shock proteins (HSP70, HSP90, Grp94) in the sarcoma cell line MCA207. (bvsalud.org)
- These substances can be proteins with carbohydrate or lipid portion, enzymes, antigens, or hormones. (lecturio.com)