Anemia, Sickle Cell: A disease characterized by chronic hemolytic anemia, episodic painful crises, and pathologic involvement of many organs. It is the clinical expression of homozygosity for hemoglobin S.Life Expectancy: Based on known statistical data, the number of years which any person of a given age may reasonably expected to live.Sickle Cell Trait: The condition of being heterozygous for hemoglobin S.Blood Coagulation Disorders, Inherited: Hemorrhagic and thrombotic disorders that occur as a consequence of inherited abnormalities in blood coagulation.Hemoglobin, Sickle: An abnormal hemoglobin resulting from the substitution of valine for glutamic acid at position 6 of the beta chain of the globin moiety. The heterozygous state results in sickle cell trait, the homozygous in sickle cell anemia.Hematologic Diseases: Disorders of the blood and blood forming tissues.Antisickling Agents: Agents used to prevent or reverse the pathological events leading to sickling of erythrocytes in sickle cell conditions.DenmarkCohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Cellular Phone: Analog or digital communications device in which the user has a wireless connection from a telephone to a nearby transmitter. It is termed cellular because the service area is divided into multiple "cells." As the user moves from one cell area to another, the call is transferred to the local transmitter.Brain Neoplasms: Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Electrolytes: Substances that dissociate into two or more ions, to some extent, in water. Solutions of electrolytes thus conduct an electric current and can be decomposed by it (ELECTROLYSIS). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Laboratories: Facilities equipped to carry out investigative procedures.Cathode Ray Tube: A vacuum tube equipped with an electron emitting CATHODE and a fluorescent screen which emits visible light when excited by the cathode ray. Cathode ray tubes are used as imaging devises for TELEVISIONS; COMPUTER TERMINALS; TEXT TELECOMMUNICATION DEVICES; oscilloscopes; and other DATA DISPLAY devices.Nanotechnology: The development and use of techniques to study physical phenomena and construct structures in the nanoscale size range or smaller.MarylandBioelectric Energy Sources: Electric power supply devices which convert biological energy, such as chemical energy of metabolism or mechanical energy of periodic movements, into electrical energy.Electrodes: Electric conductors through which electric currents enter or leave a medium, whether it be an electrolytic solution, solid, molten mass, gas, or vacuum.PubMed: A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.Cytomegalovirus: A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily BETAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting the salivary glands, liver, spleen, lungs, eyes, and other organs, in which they produce characteristically enlarged cells with intranuclear inclusions. Infection with Cytomegalovirus is also seen as an opportunistic infection in AIDS.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Cytomegalovirus Infections: Infection with CYTOMEGALOVIRUS, characterized by enlarged cells bearing intranuclear inclusions. Infection may be in almost any organ, but the salivary glands are the most common site in children, as are the lungs in adults.BooksPublishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.MEDLINE: The premier bibliographic database of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. MEDLINE® (MEDLARS Online) is the primary subset of PUBMED and can be searched on NLM's Web site in PubMed or the NLM Gateway. MEDLINE references are indexed with MEDICAL SUBJECT HEADINGS (MeSH).Stem Cell Research: Experimentation on STEM CELLS and on the use of stem cells.Peer Review: An organized procedure carried out by a select committee of professionals in evaluating the performance of other professionals in meeting the standards of their specialty. Review by peers is used by editors in the evaluation of articles and other papers submitted for publication. Peer review is used also in the evaluation of grant applications. It is applied also in evaluating the quality of health care provided to patients.Journal Impact Factor: A quantitative measure of the frequency on average with which articles in a journal have been cited in a given period of time.Peer Review, Research: The evaluation by experts of the quality and pertinence of research or research proposals of other experts in the same field. Peer review is used by editors in deciding which submissions warrant publication, by granting agencies to determine which proposals should be funded, and by academic institutions in tenure decisions.Science: The study of natural phenomena by observation, measurement, and experimentation.Mass Media: Instruments or technological means of communication that reach large numbers of people with a common message: press, radio, television, etc.Mesylates: Organic salts or esters of methanesulfonic acid.Urology: A surgical specialty concerned with the study, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases of the urinary tract in both sexes, and the genital tract in the male. Common urological problems include urinary obstruction, URINARY INCONTINENCE, infections, and UROGENITAL NEOPLASMS.Carcinoma, Renal Cell: A heterogeneous group of sporadic or hereditary carcinoma derived from cells of the KIDNEYS. There are several subtypes including the clear cells, the papillary, the chromophobe, the collecting duct, the spindle cells (sarcomatoid), or mixed cell-type carcinoma.Kidney Neoplasms: Tumors or cancers of the KIDNEY.Leydig Cells: Steroid-producing cells in the interstitial tissue of the TESTIS. They are under the regulation of PITUITARY HORMONES; LUTEINIZING HORMONE; or interstitial cell-stimulating hormone. TESTOSTERONE is the major androgen (ANDROGENS) produced.Erectile Dysfunction: The inability in the male to have a PENILE ERECTION due to psychological or organ dysfunction.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Blastocyst: A post-MORULA preimplantation mammalian embryo that develops from a 32-cell stage into a fluid-filled hollow ball of over a hundred cells. A blastocyst has two distinctive tissues. The outer layer of trophoblasts gives rise to extra-embryonic tissues. The inner cell mass gives rise to the embryonic disc and eventual embryo proper.Extraembryonic Membranes: The thin layers of tissue that surround the developing embryo. There are four extra-embryonic membranes commonly found in VERTEBRATES, such as REPTILES; BIRDS; and MAMMALS. They are the YOLK SAC, the ALLANTOIS, the AMNION, and the CHORION. These membranes provide protection and means to transport nutrients and wastes.Embryonic Stem Cells: Cells derived from the BLASTOCYST INNER CELL MASS which forms before implantation in the uterine wall. They retain the ability to divide, proliferate and provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Zebrafish: An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.Ectoderm: The outer of the three germ layers of an embryo.Embryonic Development: Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS.Giant Cell Arteritis: A systemic autoimmune disorder that typically affects medium and large ARTERIES, usually leading to occlusive granulomatous vasculitis with transmural infiltrate containing multinucleated GIANT CELLS. The TEMPORAL ARTERY is commonly involved. This disorder appears primarily in people over the age of 50. Symptoms include FEVER; FATIGUE; HEADACHE; visual impairment; pain in the jaw and tongue; and aggravation of pain by cold temperatures. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed)Polymyalgia Rheumatica: A syndrome in the elderly characterized by proximal joint and muscle pain, high erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and a self-limiting course. Pain is usually accompanied by evidence of an inflammatory reaction. Women are affected twice as commonly as men and Caucasians more frequently than other groups. The condition is frequently associated with GIANT CELL ARTERITIS and some theories pose the possibility that the two diseases arise from a single etiology or even that they are the same entity.MedlinePlus: NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE service for health professionals and consumers. It links extensive information from the National Institutes of Health and other reviewed sources of information on specific diseases and conditions.Temporal Arteries: Arteries arising from the external carotid or the maxillary artery and distributing to the temporal region.Arteritis: INFLAMMATION of any ARTERIES.Takayasu Arteritis: A chronic inflammatory process that affects the AORTA and its primary branches, such as the brachiocephalic artery (BRACHIOCEPHALIC TRUNK) and CAROTID ARTERIES. It results in progressive arterial stenosis, occlusion, and aneurysm formation. The pulse in the arm is hard to detect. Patients with aortitis syndrome often exhibit retinopathy.Blood Sedimentation: Measurement of rate of settling of erythrocytes in anticoagulated blood.

E-CELL: software environment for whole-cell simulation. (1/1036)

MOTIVATION: Genome sequencing projects and further systematic functional analyses of complete gene sets are producing an unprecedented mass of molecular information for a wide range of model organisms. This provides us with a detailed account of the cell with which we may begin to build models for simulating intracellular molecular processes to predict the dynamic behavior of living cells. Previous work in biochemical and genetic simulation has isolated well-characterized pathways for detailed analysis, but methods for building integrative models of the cell that incorporate gene regulation, metabolism and signaling have not been established. We, therefore, were motivated to develop a software environment for building such integrative models based on gene sets, and running simulations to conduct experiments in silico. RESULTS: E-CELL, a modeling and simulation environment for biochemical and genetic processes, has been developed. The E-CELL system allows a user to define functions of proteins, protein-protein interactions, protein-DNA interactions, regulation of gene expression and other features of cellular metabolism, as a set of reaction rules. E-CELL simulates cell behavior by numerically integrating the differential equations described implicitly in these reaction rules. The user can observe, through a computer display, dynamic changes in concentrations of proteins, protein complexes and other chemical compounds in the cell. Using this software, we constructed a model of a hypothetical cell with only 127 genes sufficient for transcription, translation, energy production and phospholipid synthesis. Most of the genes are taken from Mycoplasma genitalium, the organism having the smallest known chromosome, whose complete 580 kb genome sequence was determined at TIGR in 1995. We discuss future applications of the E-CELL system with special respect to genome engineering. AVAILABILITY: The E-CELL software is available upon request. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The complete list of rules of the developed cell model with kinetic parameters can be obtained via our web site at:  (+info)

Effector cells of both nonhemopoietic and hemopoietic origin are required for interferon (IFN)-gamma- and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha-dependent host resistance to the intracellular pathogen, Toxoplasma gondii. (2/1036)

Although interferon (IFN)-gamma-activated, mononuclear phagocytes are considered to be the major effectors of resistance to intracellular pathogens, it is unclear how they control the growth of microorganisms that reside in nonhemopoietic cells. Pathogens within such cells may be killed by metabolites secreted by activated macrophages or, alternatively, directly controlled by cytokine-induced microbicidal mechanisms triggered within infected nonphagocytic cells. To distinguish between these two basic mechanisms of cell-mediated immunity, reciprocal bone marrow chimeras were constructed between wild-type and IFN-gamma receptor-deficient mice and their survival assessed following infection with Toxoplasma gondii, a protozoan parasite that invades both hemopoietic and nonhemopoietic cell lineages. Resistance to acute and persistent infection was displayed only by animals in which IFN-gamma receptors were expressed in both cellular compartments. Parallel chimera experiments performed with tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor-deficient mice also indicated a codependence on hemopoietic and nonhemopoietic lineages for optimal control of the parasite. In contrast, in mice chimeric for inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), an enzyme associated with IFN-gamma-induced macrophage microbicidal activity, expression by cells of hemopoietic origin was sufficient for host resistance. Together, these findings suggest that, in concert with bone marrow-derived effectors, nonhemopoietic cells can directly mediate, in the absence of endogenous iNOS, IFN-gamma- and TNF-alpha-dependent host resistance to intracellular infection.  (+info)

Cellular microbiology: can we learn cell physiology from microorganisms? (3/1036)

Cellular microbiology is a new discipline that is emerging at the interface between cell biology and microbiology. The application of molecular techniques to the study of bacterial pathogenesis has made possible discoveries that are changing the way scientists view the bacterium-host interaction. Today, research on the molecular basis of the pathogenesis of infective diarrheal diseases of necessity transcends established boundaries between cell biology, bacteriology, intestinal pathophysiology, and immunology. The use of microbial pathogens to address questions in cell physiology is just now yielding promising applications and striking results.  (+info)

Phase imaging by atomic force microscopy: analysis of living homoiothermic vertebrate cells. (4/1036)

Atomic force microscope-based phase imaging in air is capable of elucidating variations in material properties such as adhesion, friction, and viscoelasticity. However, the interpretation of phase images of specimens in a fluid environment requires clarification. In this report, we systematically analyzed atomic force microscope-derived phase images of mica, glass, and collagen under the same conditions as used for living cells at various tapping forces; the resulting data provide critical information for the interpretation of phase images of living cells. The peripheral regions of COS-1 cells consistently show a more negative phase shift than the glass substrate in phase images at set-point amplitude: free amplitude (Asp/A0) = 0.6-0.8. In addition, at all Asp/A0 values suitable for phase imaging, tapping frequency appears to be high enough to ensure that phase shifts are governed primarily by stiffness. Consequently, phase imaging is capable of high resolution studies of the cellular surface by detecting localized variations in stiffness. We demonstrate that phase imaging of a bifurcating fiber in COS-1 cell cytoplasm is readily capable of a lateral resolution of approximately 30 nm.  (+info)

Single micro electrode dielectrophoretic tweezers for manipulation of suspended cells and particles. (5/1036)

Cells or particles in aqueous suspension close to a single capacitively coupled micro electrode (CCME) driven with high frequency electric fields experience dielectrophoretic forces. The effects near the CCME can be used for trapping and manipulation of single cells using externally metallised glass pipettes and might be used to develop a microscope based on force or capacitance measurements in conductive media.  (+info)

Functional roles of S100 proteins, calcium-binding proteins of the EF-hand type. (6/1036)

A multigenic family of Ca2+-binding proteins of the EF-hand type known as S100 comprises 19 members that are differentially expressed in a large number of cell types. Members of this protein family have been implicated in the Ca2+-dependent (and, in some cases, Zn2+- or Cu2+-dependent) regulation of a variety of intracellular activities such as protein phosphorylation, enzyme activities, cell proliferation (including neoplastic transformation) and differentiation, the dynamics of cytoskeleton constituents, the structural organization of membranes, intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis, inflammation, and in protection from oxidative cell damage. Some S100 members are released or secreted into the extracellular space and exert trophic or toxic effects depending on their concentration, act as chemoattractants for leukocytes, modulate cell proliferation, or regulate macrophage activation. Structural data suggest that many S100 members exist within cells as dimers in which the two monomers are related by a two-fold axis of rotation and that Ca2+ binding induces in individual monomers the exposure of a binding surface with which S100 dimers are believed to interact with their target proteins. Thus, any S100 dimer is suggested to expose two binding surfaces on opposite sides, which renders homodimeric S100 proteins ideal for crossbridging two homologous or heterologous target proteins. Although in some cases different S100 proteins share their target proteins, in most cases a high degree of target specificity has been described, suggesting that individual S100 members might be implicated in the regulation of specific activities. On the other hand, the relatively large number of target proteins identified for a single S100 protein might depend on the specific role played by the individual regions that in an S100 molecule contribute to the formation of the binding surface. The pleiotropic roles played by S100 members, the identification of S100 target proteins, the analysis of functional correlates of S100-target protein interactions, and the elucidation of the three-dimensional structure of some S100 members have greatly increased the interest in S100 proteins and our knowledge of S100 protein biology in the last few years. S100 proteins probably are an example of calcium-modulated, regulatory proteins that intervene in the fine tuning of a relatively large number of specific intracellular and (in the case of some members) extracellular activities. Systems, including knock-out animal models, should be now used with the aim of defining the correspondence between the in vitro regulatory role(s) attributed to individual members of this protein family and the in vivo function(s) of each S100 protein.  (+info)

The osmotic migration of cells in a solute gradient. (7/1036)

The effect of a nonuniform solute concentration on the osmotic transport of water through the boundaries of a simple model cell is investigated. A system of two ordinary differential equations is derived for the motion of a single cell in the limit of a fast solute diffusion, and an analytic solution is obtained for one special case. A two-dimensional finite element model has been developed to simulate the more general case (finite diffusion rates, solute gradient induced by a solidification front). It is shown that the cell moves to regions of lower solute concentration due to the uneven flux of water through the cell boundaries. This mechanism has apparently not been discussed previously. The magnitude of this effect is small for red blood cells, the case in which all of the relevant parameters are known. We show, however, that it increases with cell size and membrane permeability, so this effect could be important for larger cells. The finite element model presented should also have other applications in the study of the response of cells to an osmotic stress and for the interaction of cells and solidification fronts. Such investigations are of major relevance for the optimization of cryopreservation processes.  (+info)

A polarization model overcoming the geometric restrictions of the laplace solution for spheroidal cells: obtaining new equations for field-induced forces and transmembrane potential. (8/1036)

We present a new model for a variety of electric polarization effects on oblate and prolate homogeneous and single-shell spheroids. For homogeneous spheroids the model is identical to the Laplace model. For single-shell spheres of cell-like geometry the calculated difference of the induced dipole moments is in the thousandths range. To solve Laplace's equation for nonspherical single-shell objects it is necessary to assume a confocal shell, which results in different cell membrane properties in the pole and equator regions, respectively. Our alternative model addresses this drawback. It assumes that the disturbance of the external field due to polarization may project into the medium to a characteristic distance, the influential radius. This parameter is related to the axis ratio of the spheroid over the depolarizing factors and allows us to determine the geometry for a finite resistor-capacitor model. From this model the potential at the spheroid's surface is obtained and, consequently, the local field inside a homogeneous spheroid is determined. In the single-shell case, this is the effective local field of an equivalent homogeneous spheroid. Finally, integration over the volume yields the frequency-dependent induced dipole moment. The resistor-capacitor approach allowed us to find simple equations for the critical and characteristic frequencies, force plateaus and peak heights of deformation, dielectrophoresis and electrorotation for homogeneous and single-shell spheroids, and a more generalized equation for the induced transmembrane potential of spheroidal cells.  (+info)

Two purified serum protein fractions, fetuin and serum albumin, will replace whole or dialyzed serum in supporting the growth of single S3 HeLa cells in an otherwise chemically defined nutrient solution.. In the serum-free medium, single S3 cells will form macroscopic colonies with essentially 100 per cent efficiency.. The generation time of S3 cells in the serum-free medium is approximately 50 per cent greater than that observed in an optimal, serum-containing medium.. All components of the serum-free medium are available commercially, except fetuin, which can easily be prepared in substantial quantities.. The problem of the purity of the protein preparations and of their possible roles in promoting cell growth is discussed.. ...
The question how living biological cells adapt their local or global mechanical properties when they have to move or deform, is intriguing and a field of intensive study worldwide.
The aim of CELLmicrocosmos is the interactive 3D stereoscopic visualization of biological cells for a better understanding of their internal structures and their functioning.
Hotel address:55 Shatan Back Street (Shatan Hou Jie)(55),Beijing. Located in downtown Beijing, the King Parkview Hotel (Huayu Binguan) offers guests easy access to the Forbidden City, Beijing Drum Tower (Gulou), Jingshan Park and Beihai Park. The Popular Wangfujing pedestrian street is just a ten-minute walk away.
Binding, Transport and Storage of Metal Ions in Biological Cells Binding, Transport and Storage of Metal Ions in Biological Cells ...
Binding, Transport and Storage of Metal Ions in Biological Cells Binding, Transport and Storage of Metal Ions in Biological Cells ...
The aim of CELLmicrocosmos is the interactive 3D stereoscopic visualization of biological cells for a better understanding of their internal structures and their functioning.
In this paper we summarize and discuss the modern technology and systems, studied and established by our research group, for performing the detection and special analysis incorporated with the super-h
Licet hoc documentum exscribere vel distribuere vel demutare sub GNU Liberarum Litterarum Licentiae conditionibus in editione 1.2 aut in ulla editione recentiori a Fundatione Liberarum Programmationis Partium publicata; praeterquam Sectiones Immutabiles et Verba Involucra Adversa et Aversa. Licentiae exemplar praesto est in sectione intitulata GNU Free Documentation License. Free Documentation Licensetruetrue ...
Watch this video to learn how the XploRA™ from Horiba brings chemical identification directly to your microscope. The XploRA can be coupled to both upright and inverted microscopes, allowing analysis of all sample types, ranging from semiconductors and nano-materials, through to biological cells and tissues.
The use of a combination of calibrated microbead populations with one or more calibrated biological cell populations to correct calibration of a flow cytometer for size and fluorescence intensity determinations of biological cell samples. The use of calibrated biological cells permits correction for factors related to the instrument and calibration microbeads so long as the excitation and emission spectra of the calibration microbeads, the calibration cells and the cell samples are all the same, respectively.
This abstract was presented today at the 2014 Association for Research in Vision and Opthalmology (ARVO) meetings in Orlando, Florida by J Scott Lauritzen, Noah T. Nelson, Crystal L. Sigulinsky, Nathan Sherbotie, John Hoang, Rebecca L. Pfeiffer, James R. Anderson, Carl B. Watt, myself and Robert E. Marc.. Purpose: Despite large-scale efforts aimed at mapping the mammalian nervous system, the entire synaptic cohort of a single mammalian neuron of any class has never been mapped. To this end we reconstructed all chemical and electrical synaptic partners of a single ON cone bipolar cell in the inner plexiform layer (IPL) of the rabbit retina. We then searched all members of the same cell class for repeating network motifs and explored postsynaptic cell sampling topologies from this bipolar cell.. Methods: Cells in retinal connectome 1 (RC1) were annotated with Viking viewer, and explored via graph visualization of connectivity and 3D rendering (Anderson et al., 2011 J Microscopy). Small molecule ...
To achieve ideal timelines, you must accelerate every individual function and handoff utilizing a precise blend of innovative technologies, proven strategies and exceptional project management. The right combination will enable you to successfully go from transfection to IND in less than 12 months. This ambitious goal requires a true team effort from every department.. Speed to IND for Biologics, the first event in CBIs Bioprocessing Series, provides a comprehensive, cross-functional format that brings together experts from every department to share their perspectives, achievements and lessons learned as a community working towards the common goal of accelerating speed while managing and mitigating risk.. With 32 expert presenters, 20 case studies/new data presentations and just two days out of the office, you wont want to miss this first-of-its-kind event!. ... internet news portal provides the latest news on science including: Physics, Space Science, Earth Science, Health and Medicine
IGTP Campus Can Ruti Ctra de Can Ruti, Camí de les Escoles s/n 08916 Badalona Barcelona, Spain Tel. (+34) 934 978 655 · comunicacio(ELIMINAR) © IGTP. All rights reserved ...
让按照Park Systems(市场上发展最快的原子力显微镜公司)的原子力显微镜原理工作的原子力显微镜、原子显微镜系统和扫描离子电导显微镜获得更宽广的量程。
Cell cycle models used in biology can be very complex. These models have parameters with initially unknown values. The values of the parameters vastly aect the accuracy of the models in representing real biological cells. Typically people search for the best parameters to these models using computers only as tools to run simulations. In this thesis methods and results are described for a computer program that searches for parameters to a series of related models using well tested algorithms. The code for this program uses ODRPACK for parameter estimation and LSODAR to solve the dierential equations that comprise the model ...
The future of cell culture development? Part II GEN has a new article that touches on post translational modifications, which one of the major issues facing biomanufacturers, especially those that produce (or hope to produce) biosimilars. As usual glycosylation is the major theme, but the.... ...
IGTP Campus Can Ruti Ctra de Can Ruti, Camí de les Escoles s/n 08916 Badalona Barcelona, Spain Tel. (+34) 934 978 655 · comunicacio(ELIMINAR) © IGTP. All rights reserved ...
View Notes - Chapter 4 Cell Structure and Function from BSC BSC1005 at Broward College. Chapter 4 Cell Structure and Function: An Overview I. Pastures of the Seas A. Vast populations of single-celled
Cell Structure and organelles Worksheet . Beautiful Cell Structure and organelles Worksheet . Chapter 4 Cell Structure and Function Worksheet Answers
It is also perfectly suitable for the disruption of biological cells as well as for DNA/RNA and protein extraction. With its high performance and great flexibility the mixer mill MM 400 is a unique product in the market. You may also be interested in the High Energy Ball Mill Emax, an entirely new type of mill for high energy input.. read more ...
View Notes - BiologyTes2 from BIO 1320 at Texas State. Biology Test Chapters 4 & 5 Chapter 4 - Cell Structure and Function Cells are measured in micrometers and how tall they are Cells are
Get an answer for What hypothesis could you form to explain what would happen to the cell or organism if at least two cell structures were damaged or destroyed? and find homework help for other Science questions at eNotes
Articles in Pathobiology , the study or practice of pathology with more emphasis on the biological than on the medical aspects. It is concerned primarily on the cause of disease, the modifications in cellular function and changes in cellular structure produced in any cell, organ, or part of the body by disease.
Dynamic live cell analysis gives information not possible with static analysis. However, it will not replace static analysis, which will remain very useful (examples above with immunostaining).
Population covered by mobile cellular network is the percentage of people that live in areas served by a mobile cellular signal regardless of whether they use it.This page has the latest values, historical data, forecasts, charts, statistics, an economic calendar and news for Population covered by mobile cellular network (%) in Sweden.
Single cell analysis is becoming increasingly important as it is clear that ensemble measurements mask the diversity of the biology in cell populations. Single...
Cell Structure and Function: Questions 299-307 of 413. Get to the point NEET (NTA-National Eligibility cum Medical Entrance Test) Biology questions for your exams.
If it takes up space and has mass then it matters - actually it is matter. There are numerous terms that relate to the basic or fundamental unit of matter - the atom. ELEMENTS are pure substances which means that they consist of only one type of atom. A COMPOUND consists of two or more different kind of atoms or ions in definite proportions ...
Københavns Universitet er med cirka 40.000 studerende og 9.000 medarbejdere en af Nordens største forsknings- og uddannelsesinstitutioner.
2004-2014• LIVR • Vrije Universiteit Brussel • Faculteit Geneeskunde & Farmacie • Laarbeeklaan 103 • 1090 Jette • Tel.: 02/477.44.09• [email protected] ...
2004-2014• LIVR • Vrije Universiteit Brussel • Faculteit Geneeskunde & Farmacie • Laarbeeklaan 103 • 1090 Jette • Tel.: 02/477.44.09• [email protected] ...
Signals and Systems Telecom: Worldwide Cellular Network Operator KPIs of 29 pages is now available with at starting price of US$ 1000 for a single user PDF. Talk to us for other pricing options.
Prologue E. D. 2519 Screamer Cell The edge of Zeta Quadrant The Known Universe Hoping to slow the nanite devices devouring him, Ekis ran multiple diagnostic routines in concurrent loops. His body-no, no body remained, only cells, and precious few of them-the devices would never tire. When the last biological cell transmuted, the devices, their objective achieved, would disintegrate and Ekis would cease to be. The stars visible through the observation window were so distant one could perceive no sense of movement or change. When the airlock was first ejected from Dark Landing, hed watched the station grow smaller and smaller until even his imagination could no longer sustain its image. His thoughts drifted and his concentration lapsed. What point to continue? In answer to his question, the airlock jolted as if it had bumped into something. Impossible! One did not bump into something in space. One smashed into it, or it smashed into you. Chapter 1: Carry On E. D. 2519 Dark Landing Station Zeta ...
A SON element which is operative to carry out at least two different SON functions is provided, wherein each of the SON functions is associated with at least one SON related action, and wherein a SON
Study Flashcards On BIO 101 Chapter 4 Cell Structure at Quickly memorize the terms, phrases and much more. makes it easy to get the grade you want!
Cell Structure and Function: Questions 26-32 of 413. Get to the point NEET (National Eligibility cum Medical Entrance Test) Biology questions for your exams.
By first recording ptychography overview images of whole cells at 65 nm resolution (Figure 32a and b), cellular structures were located precisely at a comparatively low dose of 103 Gy. Ptychography is a coherent diffractive imaging technique whereby the electron density of the scattering material is determined from a series of two-dimensional scattering patterns via iterative reconstruction algorithms and redundant information from overlapping scanning positions. Subsequently, scanning X-ray nanodiffraction (approximate dose 108 Gy) was employed to record reciprocal space scattering patterns from regions of interest (ROIs). For this technique, the sample was scanned through the beam at a step size comparable to the beam size. The intensity values in the individual scattering patterns were integrated to derive dark-field-images (Figure 32c) at an intermediate resolution, which corresponds to the beam size in the order of 100 nm. Further analysis of each individual pattern revealed a local ...
Looking for Cell structure? Find out information about Cell structure. Cells are divided into several compartments, each with a characteristic structure, biochemical composition, and function . These compartments are called... Explanation of Cell structure
A team of biophysicists in the UK has used a form of ink-jet printing to create "jets" of living cells for the first time. Suwan Jayasinghe of University College London and colleagues at Kings College London say their technique, which does not destroy the cells, could be used to grow biological tissue or even human organs. The technique involves jetting biological cells from a needle at fields of up… read more. ...
Pape, C, Beier, T, Li, P, Jain, V, Brock, D D and Kreshuk, A (2017). Solving Large Multicut Problems for Connectomics via Domain Decomposition. Bioimage Computing Workshop. ICCV. 1-10 ...
Pape, C, Beier, T, Li, P, Jain, V, Brock, D D and Kreshuk, A (2017). Solving Large Multicut Problems for Connectomics via Domain Decomposition. Bioimage Computing Workshop. ICCV. 1-10 ... A new art installation at Espace EDF Fondation uses biomimetic components made from materials more associated with industrial
Cell Biology: a branch of biology that studies the different structures and functions of the cell and focuses mainly on the idea of the cell as the basic u
... who have lost their stem cells after birth. Other conditions[13] treated with stem cell transplants include sickle-cell disease ... Peripheral blood stem cells[26] are now the most common source of stem cells for HSCT. They are collected from the blood ... Sources and storage of cells[edit]. To limit the risks of transplanted stem cell rejection or of severe graft-versus-host ... Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is the transplantation of multipotent hematopoietic stem cells, usually derived ...
"sickle cell disease". Genetics Home Reference. Retrieved 2016-11-11.. *^ MD, Kenneth R. Bridges. "How Does Sickle Cell Cause ... Sickle cell anemia is a genetic disease that causes deformed red blood cells with a rigid, crescent shape instead of the normal ... "Complications and Treatments , Sickle Cell Disease". CDC. Retrieved 2016-11-11.. *^ a b c d "Marfan Syndrome". National ... Photomicrograph of normal-shaped and sickle-shape red blood cells from a patient with sickle cell disease ...
5-cell. truncated 5-cell. rectified 5-cell. cantellated 5-cell. bitruncated 5-cell. cantitruncated 5-cell. runcinated 5-cell. ... 16-cell • Tesseract. Demitesseract. 24-cell. 120-cell • 600-cell. Uniform 5-polytope. 5-simplex. 5-orthoplex • 5-cube. 5- ... runcitruncated 5-cell. omnitruncated 5-cell. Schläfli. symbol. {3,3,3}. 3r{3,3,3}. t{3,3,3}. 2t{3,3,3}. r{3,3,3}. 2r{3,3,3}. rr ... The birectified 5-cell can be seen as the intersection of two regular 5-cells in dual positions. = ∩ . ...
Hydrogen fuel cells background information Fuel cells operate similar to a battery in that electricity is harnessed from ... Fuel Cells Bulletin 2006, 2006, 2 *^ Xuan, J.; Leung, M. K. H.; Leung, D. Y. C.; Ni, M. A review of biomass-derived fuel ... Biodiesel to hydrogen-cell power[edit]. A microreactor has been developed to convert biodiesel into hydrogen steam to power ... The difference in fuel cells when compared to batteries is their ability to be powered by the constant flow of hydrogen found ...
... cells are most commonly used not as individual cells, but as a confluent monolayer on a cell culture insert filter (e.g ... 2005). "The Caco-2 cell line as a model of the intestinal barrier: influence of cell and culture-related factors on Caco-2 cell ... PAMPA - a non cell-based permeability assay. References[edit]. *^ Fogh J and Trempe G in Human Tumor Cells In Vitro (J. Fogh, ... Impact of Caco-2 Cells on the Medical Field[edit]. The considerable impact of the Caco-2 cell monolayer model can be measured ...
Mechanism of cell death[edit]. Cells that undergo an extreme amount of stress experience cell death either through apoptosis or ... "Cannabisin B induces autophagic cell death by inhibiting the AKT/mTOR pathway and S phase cell cycle arrest in HepG2 cells". ... Tavassoly, Iman (2015). Dynamics of Cell Fate Decision Mediated by the Interplay of Autophagy and Apoptosis in Cancer Cells. ... Programmed cell death[edit]. One of the mechanisms of programmed cell death (PCD) is associated with the appearance of ...
Bioenergy applications in microbial fuel cells[edit]. In microbial fuel cells (MFCs), bacterial nanowires generate electricity ... Long-range electron transfer via pili networks allows viable cells that are not in direct contact with an anode to contribute ... By connecting to other cells above them, nanowires allow bacteria located in anoxic conditions to still use oxygen as their ... generates conductivity that drives the conversion of organic compounds to electricity in microbial fuel cells.[18] Biofilms ...
positive regulation of heterotypic cell-cell adhesion. • negative regulation of mitotic cell cycle. • endothelial cell ... but it is produced also by a broad variety of cell types including lymphoid cells, mast cells, endothelial cells, cardiac ... NK cells, neutrophils, mast cells, eosinophils, and neurons.[5] TNFα is a member of the TNF superfamily, consisting of various ... Cell Biol. 6 (2): 97-105. doi:10.1038/ncb1086. PMID 14743216.. *^ Micheau O, Tschopp J (July 2003). "Induction of TNF receptor ...
Mechanism of cell death[edit]. Cells that undergo an extreme amount of stress experience cell death either through apoptosis or ... Mizushima N, Komatsu M (November 2011). "Autophagy: renovation of cells and tissues". Cell. 147 (4): 728-41. doi:10.1016/j.cell ... Tavassoly I (2015). Dynamics of Cell Fate Decision Mediated by the Interplay of Autophagy and Apoptosis in Cancer Cells. ... Programmed cell death[edit]. One of the mechanisms of programmed cell death (PCD) is associated with the appearance of ...
Cell culture[edit]. Puromycin is used in cell biology as a selective agent in cell culture systems. It is toxic to prokaryotic ... "Mol Biol Cell. 8 (8): 1559-1573. doi:10.1091/mbc.8.8.1559. PMC 276176. PMID 9285825.. ... "In Hopsu-Havu, Väinö K.; Järvinen, Mikko; Kirschke, Heidrun (eds.). Proteolysis in Cell Functions. IOS Press. pp. 88-95. ISBN ... Puromycin acts quickly and can kill up to 99% of nonresistant cells within 2 days.[citation needed] ...
Other primary wet cells are the Leclanche cell, Grove cell, Bunsen cell, Chromic acid cell, Clark cell, and Weston cell. The ... From top to bottom: a large 4.5-volt (3R12) battery, a D Cell, a C cell, an AA cell, an AAA cell, an AAAA cell, an A23 battery ... fuel cells, flow cells and voltaic piles.[30] Wet cell. A wet cell battery has a liquid electrolyte. Other names are flooded ... A dry cell uses a paste electrolyte, with only enough moisture to allow current to flow. Unlike a wet cell, a dry cell can ...
The role of PA in the cell[edit]. The role of PA in the cell can be divided into three categories: *PA is the precursor for the ... PA concentrations are maintained at extremely low levels in the cell by the activity of potent LPPs.[6] These convert PA into ... As PA is rapidly converted to DAG, it is very short-lived in the cell. This means that it is difficult to measure PA production ... However, PLD activity can be measured by the addition of primary alcohols to the cell.[15] PLD then carries out a ...
Jamin, M, H Raveh-Barak, B Podbilewicz, FA Rey (2014) "Structural basis of eukaryotic cell-cell fusion" (Cell, Volume 157, ... Multicellular organisms arise in various ways, for example by cell division or by aggregation of many single cells.[2] Colonial ... In some multicellular groups, which are called Weismannists, a separation between a sterile somatic cell line and a germ cell ... Animals have evolved a considerable diversity of cell types in a multicellular body (100-150 different cell types), compared ...
Cell Tropism[edit]. Hepadnaviruses, as their "hepa" name implies, infect liver cells and cause hepatitis. This is true not only ... The virus binds to specific receptors on cells and the core particle enters the cell cytoplasm. This is then translocated to ... "Cell Host & Microbe. 22 (3): 387-399.e6. doi:10.1016/j.chom.2017.07.019. PMC 5604429 . PMID 28867387.. ... step of the dynamic phase-in which an exterior viral protein stably interacts with a host cell protein-determines cell tropism ...
For cells that are supposed to operate within a specific discharge window, new cells with more capacity may cause the old cells ... A fuel cell UPS has been developed in recent years using hydrogen and a fuel cell as a power source, potentially providing long ... Consider a series-parallel battery arrangement with all good cells, and one becomes shorted or dead:. *The failed cell will ... or individual chemical cells wired in series. Isolating a single cell and installing a jumper in place of it allows the one ...
Histologically, it forms clusters of goblet cells containing mucin with a minor admixture of Paneth cells and endocrine cells. ... Goblet cell carcinoid[edit]. Main article: Goblet cell carcinoid. This is considered to be a hybrid between an exocrine and ... Carcinoid (also carcinoid tumor) is a slow-growing[1] type of neuroendocrine tumor originating in the cells of the ... The term 'crypt cell carcinoma' has been used for them, and though perhaps more accurate than considering them carcinoids, has ...
... they regulate other immune cell functions (e.g., CD4+ T cell, dendritic cell, B cell, mast cell, neutrophil, and basophil ... Mast cells[edit]. See article: Mast cell. Mast cells are a type of granulocyte that are present in tissues;[3] they mediate ... Basophils are one of the least abundant cells in bone marrow and blood (occurring at less than two percent of all cells). Like ... Granulocytes are derived from stem cells residing in the bone marrow. The differentiation of these stem cells from pluripotent ...
In the case of mesenchymal stem cells, these cell types include osteoblasts (bone cells), adipocytes (fat cells), and ... Stem cell treatment[edit]. Autologous stem-cell transplantation using mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) has been used to improve ... Ligament cells differ in size, respond to different cues in the cell environment, and express different cell surface markers, ... MSCs are multipotent stem cells, meaning they can differentiate into multiple cell types. ...
Cell studies[edit]. Crocin and crocetin may provide neuroprotection in rats by reducing the production of various neurotoxic ... "Anti-inflammatory effects of crocin and crocetin in rat brain microglial cells". European Journal of Pharmacology. 648 (1-3): ... is an experimental drug that increases the movement of oxygen from red blood cells into hypoxic (oxygen-starved) tissues.[8] ... increasing the susceptibility of hypoxic cancer cells to radiation therapy, in patients with a form of brain cancer known as ...
Cells[edit]. A123 had LiFePO4 Cells in the form 18650, 26650 and Pouch Cells with 14 and 20Ah. The company EVLithium reports ... Cylindrical cells made in China that are used by BMW and others were declared as not affected.[16] ... "McLaren Snags First F1 KERS Win; Custom A123Systems Cells with More Than 20,000 W/kg". Retrieved July 27, 2009.. ... "Chrysler to use A123 cells in its electric vehicles". Retrieved April 1, 2012.. ...
Stem cell transplants are a recent research target, because stem cells are easy to manipulate and stem cells transplanted into ... Brain cell death. There is speculation of several mechanisms by which the brain cells could be lost.[56] One mechanism consists ... "Stem Cell Research Aims to Tackle Parkinson's Disease". Archived from the original on 17 April 2010. Retrieved 16 April 2010.. ... Other cell-death mechanisms include proteasomal and lysosomal system dysfunction and reduced mitochondrial activity.[56] Iron ...
"Unconventional mechanisms of protein transport to the cell surface of eukaryotic cells". Annual Review of Cell and ... Eukaryotic cells, including human cells, have a highly evolved process of secretion. Proteins targeted for the outside are ... Many human cell types have the ability to be secretory cells. They have a well-developed endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi ... The classical mechanism of cell secretion is via secretory portals at the cell plasma membrane called porosomes.[1] Porosomes ...
Fuel cell application[edit]. Carbon paper is also used in fuel cell applications. However, this carbon paper has nothing to do ... "Fuel Cells Etc - Tech Article.. *^ Riggs, Ransom (December 10, 2009). "Makin' Copies: The Complete History". Mental Floss. ...
... cell walls[edit]. The crude cell extracts of all Equisetum species tested contain mixed-linkage glucan : Xyloglucan ... Due to the correlation between MXE activity and cell age, MXE has been proposed to promote the cessation of cell expansion.[ ... In addition, the cell walls of all Equisetum species tested contain mixed-linkage glucan (MLG), a polysaccharide which, until ... The presence of MXE activity in Equisetum suggests that they have evolved MLG along with some mechanism of cell wall ...
Hematopoietic cell transplantation[edit]. On January 13, 2011, City of Hope performed its 10,000th hematopoietic stem cell ... Southern California Islet Cell Consortium, Islet Cell Transplant Center, Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation. ... By 2016, this has grown to over 13,000 stem cell transplants. National Comprehensive Cancer Network[edit]. City of Hope is a ... Gallegos, Emma (2010-01-21). "City of Hope receives contract to take stem cell research from 'bench to clinic'". Pasadena-Star ...
In LCIS, cells that look like cancer cells are growing in the lobules of the milk-producing glands of the breast, but they ... Angiosarcoma starts in cells that line blood vessels or lymph vessels. It can involve the breast tissue or the skin of the ... The type of breast cancer is determined by the specific cells in the breast that are affected. Most breast cancers are ... For example, most breast cancers are a type of carcinoma called adenocarcinoma, which starts in cells that make up glands ( ...
People who inherit one sickle cell gene and one normal gene have sickle cell trait (SCT). Learn more. ... People who inherit one sickle cell gene and one normal gene have sickle cell trait (SCT). People with SCT usually do not have ... How Sickle Cell Trait is Inherited. *If both parents have SCT, there is a 50% (or 1 in 2) chance that any child of theirs also ... Did you know theres more than one way to inherit sickle cell trait? Learn how it is inherited » pdf icon[PDF - 3 MB] ...
... is a group of inherited red blood cell disorders. In SCD, the red blood cells become hard and sticky and look like a C-shaped ... Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a group of inherited red blood cell disorders. In SCD, the red blood cells become hard and sticky ... Sickle Cell Disease: When to Transfuse. Learn about indications for blood transfusion in patients with sickle cell disease, the ... Sickle Cell Disease: Give Blood, Save a Life. This podcast highlights the importance of blood donations from African Americans ...
How much do you know about sickle cell disease? Take this quiz to find out! ...
Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a common inherited blood disorder in the United States, affecting an estimated 70,000 to 100,000 ... Sickle Cell Trait (SCT). HbAS. People who have SCT inherit one sickle cell gene ("S") from one parent and one normal gene ("A ... Bone marrow is a soft, fatty tissue inside the center of the bones where blood cells are made. A bone marrow or stem cell ... People who have this form of SCD inherit two sickle cell genes ("S"), one from each parent. This is commonly called sickle cell ...
... or someone you know with sickle cell disease, stay as healthy as possible. ... People with sickle cell disease should drink 8 to 10 glasses of water every day and eat healthy food. Try not to get too hot, ... People with sickle cell disease can live full lives and enjoy most of the activities that other people do. The following tips ... Sickle cell disease is a complex disease. Good quality medical care from doctors and nurses who know a lot about the disease ...
Cancer stem cells[edit]. Main article: Cancer stem cell. The first malignant cell, that gives rise to the tumor, is often ... When a cancer cell divides, both daughter cells inherit the genetic and epigenetic abnormalities of the parent cell, and may ... Thus, a cell that acquires a mutation that increases its fitness will generate more daughter cells than competitor cells that ... At the level of the cell, there is selection for increased cell proliferation and survival, such that a mutant cell that ...
Frequently asked questions about cell phones and your health. Provided by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. ... Do cell phones give off (emit) radiation?. Yes - cell phones and cordless phones use radiofrequency radiation (RF) to send ... Should people stop using cell phones?. At this time we do not have the science to link health problems to cell phone use. ... Most of us depend on cell phones every day. Some people wonder if cell phones can cause health problems. Heres what you should ...
HPV and Men - STD information from CDC
A new study out today in the journal Nature Communications shows that cells normally associated with protecting the brain from ... It is possible that when the microglias synapse pruning function is interrupted or when the cells mistakenly remove the wrong ... "These findings show that a precisely choreographed interaction between multiple cells types is necessary to carry out the ... The Brains Gardeners: Immune Cells Prune Connections Between Neurons. Monday, March 07, 2016 ...
Targeting HIF2α in Clear-Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma. [Cancer Cell. 2016] ... Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is characterized by inactivation of the von Hippel-Lindau tumour suppressor gene (VHL ... Targeting renal cell carcinoma with a HIF-2 antagonist.. Chen W1,2,3, Hill H1,2, Christie A1, Kim MS1,4, Holloman E1,2, Pavia- ... decreased tumor cell density (XP164 and XP469), reduced nuclear to cytoplasmic ratio (XP469), cell ballooning (filled arrow), ...
The antinuclear antibody test looks for antibodies that bind to a part of the cell called the nucleus. The screening test ...
Our nationwide cohort study with objective register based data on both exposure and cancer outcome practically eliminates loss to follow-up, which was only 2.2%, and provides accurate and virtually complete nationwide ascertainment of cancers. Compared with the follow-up to 2002,8 the additional five years of follow-up increased the number of person years in people with a mobile phone subscription for at least 10 years by a factor of seven (1.2 million versus 170 000 person years). Also, the number of cases of tumours of the central nervous system in long term subscribers increased from 28 to 316-that is, by a factor greater than 10. These marked increases allowed calculation of more robust estimates and allowed both analyses of subtypes of intracranial tumours of the central nervous system and separate investigation of men and women. A further improvement is that we had information on socioeconomic indicators for each individual, which was not available previously.7 8 This allowed the ...
demonstrated the batteries in coin-cells and. *is working with industry partners to use the electrolytes for a high voltage ... As both these requirements are easily met for Li cells and researchers are active in the area we can reliably predict massive ... The team demonstrated the batteries in coin-cells and is working with industry partners to use the electrolytes for a high ... Unprecedented cycling stabilities were obtained for both Li,,NMC811 (90% retention at the 450th cycle) and Li,,LCP cells (93% ...
NKG2D plays a major role in controlling immune responses through the regulation of natural killer (NK) cells, αβ and γδ T-cell ... Infected cells were incubated with donor PBMC for 5 h and NK degranulation assessed by % CD107+ cells within the CD3−, CD56+ ... Infected cells were used as targets for IFN-α treated NK cells in a 51Cr release assay at an E∶T ratio of 1∶50. The results ... U373 cells stably transfected with MICA-YFP were infected with control or US18-V5, US19-V5 or US20-V5 expressing adenovirus for ...
But if cancer cells were accumulating harmful mutations faster than they could ... ... Cancer first develops as a single cell going rogue, with mutations that trigger aggressive growth at all costs to the health of ... Single cell sequencing sheds light on why cancers form in specific cell types. November 28, 2018 While many cells in our bodies ... Cancer cell during cell division. Credit: National Institutes of Health Cancer first develops as a single cell going rogue, ...
Mast cell stabilizers work to prevent allergy cells called mast cells from breaking open and releasing chemicals that help ... Mast Cell Stabilizers. Mast cell stabilizers work to prevent allergy cells called mast cells from breaking open and releasing ... Mast cell stabilizers are not rescue medicines. They work slowly over time, taking two to six weeks to become effective. Mast ... cell stabilizers come in metered dose inhalers and in a solution for nebulizers. They must be taken two to four times a day to ...
cells (Fig. 3) fire simultaneously is zero and gap junction, , strengthens to one, while if one -cell fires but not the other, ... For example, if cell A (red) here is assumed to fire in response to a strong (this occurs with probability ) while cell B is ... cells A and B (Fig. 3) share this middle gap junction in common; thus, in comparing how often the two -cells are found ... cell A, say, can be considered quite reasonably as an "outcome" to be associated with gap junction , and similarly with -cell B ...
Cell Scientists To Watch. Cell scientist to watch: Elçin Ünal and Gloria Brar. See more of our Cell Scientists To Watch on our ... Special issue on Plant Cell Biology Have you seen our special issue on Plant Cell Biology, guest edited by Jenny Russinova? ... Journal of Cell Science publishes cutting-edge science, encompassing all aspects of cell biology. ... News from Journal of Cell Science. Registration is now open for the 2019 JCS Meeting on the Organelle-Cytoskeleton Interface ...
... treatment and resreatch studies about kidney and renal cell carcinoma for the medical professionals while caring for their ... The safety and efficacy of nivolumab for treating metastatic renal cell carcinoma is comparable to that found in the CheckMate ... Study reveals a 38% decreased risk of death in patients with papillary metastatic renal cell carcinoma who undergo ... was associated with decreased odds of death versus radical nephrectomy among patients with cT1b but not cT2 renal cell ...
Artemisinin alone is fairly effective at killing cancer cells. It kills approximately 100 cancer cells for every healthy cell, ... and partly because cancer cells are not as good as healthy cells at cleaning up free-floating iron.. "Cancer cells get sloppy ... Cancer drug designers are faced with the unique challenge that cancer cells develop from our own normal cells, meaning that ... The compound Sasaki and his colleagues developed kills 12,000 cancer cells for every healthy cell, meaning it could be turned ...
Manufacturing of genetically modified T cells. To produce CAR T cells for infusion, peripheral blood (PB) mononuclear cells ( ... Infusion of donor-derived CD19-redirected virus-specific T cells for B-cell malignancies relapsed after allogeneic stem cell ... the recipients of T cells in our trial had low levels of B cells at the time of infusion (Supplemental Figure 6) and B cell ... The CAR T cells in our studies were detected by PCR methods and typically not by flow cytometry. The infused T cells can ...
Cell culture and generation of the Canx-/--bEND.3 cell line. The bEND.3 cell line was purchased from ATCC (CRL-2299) and ... T cell activation and cell proliferation assays. Purified CD4+ T cells from healthy control WT mice were cultured in 24-well ... bEND.3 cells, followed by FACS analysis of the T cells crossing the endothelial cell layer into the bottom chamber (Figure 7E ... with a cell suspension of 1 × 106 cells/ml in the final preparation. Cells were activated with plate-bound CD3 antibodies (5 μg ...
human embryonic stem cell. hPSC. human pluripotent stem cell. iPSC. induced pluripotent stem cell. mCLING. membrane-binding ... S1 G), cells were plated on irradiated MEFs at 20,000 cells/cm2. H9 cells used for analysis on MEFs had been historically ... In both single cells and in cell aggregates, delivery of the apicosome to the cell surface results in a fully formed lumen that ... S3 J top (cell 1) and bottom (cell 2), showing delayed apicosome formation. Video 10 shows time-lapse imaging of a cell ...
E1A was expressed at high levels in CN706-infected human PSA-producing LNCaP cells but not in CN706-infected DU145 cells, which ... The titer of CN706 was significantly higher in LNCaP cells compared to several human cell lines that do not produce PSA (HBL100 ... ras in an Epithelial Compartment that Includes the Stem Cells Is Sufficient to Promote Squamous Cell Carcinogenesis ... A Selective Cytotoxic for Prostate-specific Antigen-positive Prostate Cancer Cells. Ron Rodriguez, Eric R. Schuur, Ho Yeong Lim ...
  • Microglia (green) with purple representing the P2Y12 receptor which the study shows is a critical regulator in the process of pruning connections between nerve cells. (
  • This activating receptor recognizes eight distinct ligands (the MHC Class I polypeptide-related sequences (MIC) A andB, and UL16-binding proteins (ULBP)1-6) induced by cellular stress to promote recognition cells perturbed by malignant transformation or microbial infection. (
  • Following B-cell receptor activation, 2 waves of tyrosine kinase phosphorylation occur. (
  • The recruitment of pericytes in particular depends on PDGF-B secreted by the endothelial cells, and in mutants lacking this signal protein or its receptor , pericytes in many regions are missing. (
  • Janovjak, Grusch and colleagues re-engineered receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), essential cell surface receptors that sense growth factors and hormones, to be under the control of light. (
  • Lutzner cells develop because of clonal gene rearrangements in the T-cell receptor or antibody. (
  • In Lutzner cells, there is a mutation in the T-cell receptor that inhibits antigens like CD8 and CD7, but stimulates the over production of other antigens like CD4. (
  • CD4+ is the receptor that is selected for and increases in number in Lutzner cells. (
  • More specifically, they are used in studies of the cell cycle and cancer-associated cell signalling pathways since they express abnormally high levels of the Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). (
  • RBL cells are used in allergy studies due to the strong response of the cells to IgE and its FcεRI receptor. (
  • Nonetheless, OK cells have been used extensively to study functional interactions between the parathyroid hormone 1 receptor (PTH1R) and the sodium-hydrogen exchange regulatory factor 1 (NHERF1). (
  • J.RT3-T3.5 cells have a mutation in the T cell receptor beta chain locus precluding expression of this chain. (
  • They do not express surface CD3 or produce the T cell receptor alpha/beta heterodimer. (
  • Since they are deficient in the TCR complex, these cells are a useful tool for transfection studies using T cell receptor alpha and beta chain genes and are widely used in labs in which T cell receptor gene transfer technologies are studied. (
  • The D1.1 cell line does not express CD4 molecule, an important co-receptor in the activation pathway of helper T cells. (
  • The J.gamma1 subline contains no detectable phospholipase C-gamma1 (PLC-γ1) protein and therefore has profound defects in T cell receptor (TCR) calcium mobilization, and nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT) activation (an important transcription factor in T cells). (
  • Kit (CD117) is the receptor of Stem Cell Factor. (
  • The intracellular aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), which is activated by certain aromatic compounds, is specifically expressed in Treg17 cells. (
  • The mechanism of Treg17 cell action is expression of chemokine receptor CCR6, which facilitates trafficking into areas of Th17 inflammation. (
  • B cells lacking CXCR5, the receptor for CXCL13, still enter the white pulp, but are mislocalized and disorganized. (
  • Numbers of molecules enhance or dampen IL-9 production and contribute to TH9 development such as: Activin A that can fully substitute the role of TGF-β in TH9 cells, then Jagged2, programmed cell death ligand (PD-L2), cyclooxy- genase (COX)-2, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 4 (TNFRSF4 or OX40), and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP). (
  • Primary B cell development takes place in the bone marrow, where immature B cells must generate a functional B cell receptor (BCR) and overcome negative selection induced by reactivity with autoantigens. (
  • B cell development in the spleen takes place in discrete steps and is determined by the quality of B cell receptor-derived signals. (
  • Höfer D, Puschel B, Drenckhahn D. Taste receptor-like cells in the rat gut identified by expression of α-gustducin. (
  • Briefly, Wnt signaling proteins bind to their receptors, the Frizzled receptor family, and cause activation of molecular cascades within the cell. (
  • The peptide-loaded MHC engages with the cognate T cell receptor (TCR) found on the T cells. (
  • Magnetic field-induced T cell receptor clustering by nanoparticles enhances T cell activation and stimulates antitumor activity. (
  • Follicular B helper T cells (also known as just follicular helper T cells or TFH), are antigen-experienced CD4+ T cells found in the periphery within B cell follicles of secondary lymphoid organs such as lymph nodes, spleens and Peyer's patches, and are identified by their constitutive expression of the B cell follicle homing receptor CXCR5. (
  • In germinal centers, antigen-experienced TFH cells rapidly upregulate the expression of CD40L, which binds and stimulates the B cell surface receptor CD40. (
  • They also upregulate CCR7, a chemotactic receptor that induces the dendritic cell to travel through the blood stream to the spleen or through the lymphatic system to a lymph node. (
  • Cellular prion protein (PrP) is another example of a cell surface receptor on M cells. (
  • After leaving the bone marrow, the B cell acts as an antigen presenting cell (APC) and internalizes offending antigens, which are taken up by the B cell through receptor-mediated endocytosis and processed. (
  • However, scientists are now beginning to appreciate that, in addition to serving as the brain's first line of defense, these cells also have a nurturing side, particularly as it relates to the connections between neurons. (
  • The formation and removal of the physical connections between neurons is a critical part of maintaining a healthy brain and the process of creating new pathways and networks among brain cells enables us to absorb, learn, and memorize new information. (
  • In excitable cells such as neurons, cardiac myocytes and smooth muscles, gap junctions provide efficient low-resistance pathways through which membrane voltage changes can be shared across the tissue. (
  • The role of patterned electrical impulses has been investigated in the literature using co-cultures of neurons and myelinating cells. (
  • The co-culturing method, however, prevents the uncoupling of the direct effect of patterned electrical impulses on myelinating cells from the indirect effect mediated by neurons. (
  • The New York Times ( Cells That Read Minds ) and The Wall Street Journal ( How Mirror Neurons Help Us to Empathize ) published a couple of articles at the beginning of this month about mirror neurons. (
  • Mirror neurons make these complex cells look like numbskulls. (
  • So, mirror neurons are, essentially, psychic cells that allow you to anticipate the actions of others and mimic their emotions. (
  • Because neurons and glia in culture are remarkably similar to those in situ, culture systems make it possible to identify significant cell interactions and to elucidate their mechanisms. (
  • To qualify as a guidepost cell, neurons hypothesized to be influenced by a guidance cell are examined during development. (
  • Ti1 pioneer neurons is a common example neurons that require guidepost cells to reach its final destination. (
  • In this migrational pathway, olfactory neurons move from the nasal cavities to the mitral cells in the olfactory bulb. (
  • Lot cells", the first neurons to appear in the telencephalon, are considered to be guideposts because they have cellular substrates to attract LOX axons. (
  • In order to make connections with GABAergic neurons in different regions of the hippocampus (stratum oriens, stratum radiatum, and inner molecular layer), pioneer entorhinal neurons make synaptic contacts with Cajal-Retzius cells. (
  • The last set of glial cells, located in the induseum griseum, control the positioning of pioneer cingulate neurons in the corpus callosum region. (
  • These cells are identified in the hippocampus of test subjects by monitoring individual neurons while the test subject is moved around in a cue controlled spatial environment. (
  • Head direction (HD) cells are neurons found in a number of brain regions that increase their firing rates above baseline levels only when the animal's head points in a specific direction. (
  • Neural crest cells are found in the dorsal neural tube from which nerves and glia alike grow and Neural crest cells are the precursors to many various tissue types including enteric neurons and glia. (
  • They migrate throughout the body and create a large number of differentiated cells such as neurons, glial cells, pigment-containing cells in skin, skeletal tissue cells in the head, and many more. (
  • The CNCCs themselves are the precursors to vascular smooth muscle cells and cardiac neurons. (
  • The intercalated (ITC) cells of the amygdala are a group of GABAergic neurons situated between the basolateral and central nuclei of the amygdala that are important for inhibitory control over the amygdala. (
  • ITC cells are thought to play a role as the 'off switch' for the amygdala, inhibiting the amygdala's central nucleus output neurons and its basolateral nucleus neurons. (
  • Non-proliferative (non-dividing) cells in multicellular eukaryotes generally enter the quiescent G0 state from G1 and may remain quiescent for long periods of time, possibly indefinitely (as is often the case for neurons). (
  • The polarity of the neuron thus facilitates the directional flow of information, which is required for communication between neurons and effector cells. (
  • Moreover, it has been suggested that these cells might in fact be responding as specialized feature detector neurons that only function in the holistic context of a face construct. (
  • The opposite of the grandmother cell theory is the distributed representation theory, that states that a specific stimulus is coded by its unique pattern of activity over a large group of neurons widely distributed in the brain. (
  • The CD4 antibody allows the identification of human helper/inducer CD4+ T cell (HLA Class II reactive) and recognizes a 60,000 Da surface antigen. (
  • Irradiated GM-CSF-secreting cancer cell vaccines induce antitumor immune responses by recruiting antigen-presenting cells, such as DCs, to immunization sites. (
  • Both continue their development in the bone marrow through an antigen-independent process called primary lymphopoiesis (PL). Recognized stages of PL are pro-B cell, pre-B cell, immature B cell, and mature B cell. (
  • Once the mutated cell is developed, it patiently waits in the thymus until an antigen presents itself. (
  • When a cutaneous lymphocyte antigen is expressed in the skin, the CD4+ Lutzner cell travels to the epidermis and dermis layers of the skin in order to bind to the antigen. (
  • These cells have antibodies present on the surface of the extracellular membrane, which contribute to the destruction of the invader or antigen. (
  • Invaders are allowed to grow and produce lesions, and as the lesions increase in size the T-cell antigen is lost. (
  • Once this antigen is lost, the T-cell antibodies will never be able to detect the pathogen, allowing the pathogen to increase in size and cause an infection to occur. (
  • COS cells are obtained by immortalizing CV-1 cells with a version of the SV40 virus that can produce large T antigen but has a defect in genomic replication. (
  • When an expression construct with an SV40 promoter is introduced into COS cells, the vector can be replicated substantially by the large T antigen. (
  • These COS cells are genetically modified to produce the T antigen from their own genome. (
  • Sca-1 is a murine hematopoietic stem cell antigen. (
  • Supposedly, this separation from the sites of earliest antigen processing and capture provide a protected environment in which opsonized antigens can be displayed for a long time without being proteolyzed or removed by phagocytic cells. (
  • To become selected as a future memory cell, GC B cells must bind the antigen presented on FDCs, otherwise they enter apoptosis. (
  • Noncognate[clarification needed] B cells play a significant role as an antigen transporter to FDCs. (
  • Activated B-cells with low affinity to antigen captured on FDCs surface as well as autoreactive B-cells undergo apoptosis, whereas B cells bound to FDCs through the antigen complex, survive due to apoptosis blockage caused by interaction with FDCs. (
  • All transitional B cells are heat-stable antigen (HSA) relative to their mature counterparts and express the phenotypic surface markers AA4. (
  • Also, these lab grown cells have shown altered gene expression causing a differing phenotype as well as differing antigen levels. (
  • Artificial antigen presenting cells (aAPCs) are a new technology and approach to cancer immunotherapy. (
  • Antigen presenting cells are the sentinels of the immune system and patrol the body for pathogens. (
  • When they encounter foreign pathogens, the antigen presenting cells alert the T cells-"the soldiers of the immune system"-that there is something foreign in the body with specific cell surface molecules. (
  • Modeled after APCs, aAPCs need to have at least two signals to stimulate antigen specific T cells. (
  • When Signal 2 is not expressed, but T cells receive Signal 1, the antigen-specific T cells become anergic and do not perform effector function. (
  • Materials which have been used include poly (glycolic acid), poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid), iron-oxide, liposomes, lipid bilayers, sepharose, polystyrene and Polyisocyanopeptides aAPCs remove the need to harvest patient specific APCs such as dendritic cells (DCs) and the process of activating the DCs in the stimulation of antigen-specific T cells. (
  • Induction of human cytotoxic T lymphocytes by artificial antigen-presenting cells. (
  • Particle shape dependence of CD8+ T cell activation by artificial antigen presenting cells. (
  • Nanoscale artificial antigen presenting cells for T cell immunotherapy. (
  • Linking form to function: Biophysical aspects of artificial antigen presenting cell design. (
  • Like ILC2, ILC 3 can express MHC II and be appropriating the function of antigen presenting cells. (
  • Dendritic cells (DCs) are most powerful antigen presenting cells for the induction of antigen specific T cell response and because of this function DCs are the crucial component of vaccination. (
  • They should prime naive T cells as well as induce transition from chronically activated non-protective CD8+ T cells to healthy CD8+ T cells able to produce cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs), that recognise and eliminate cancer cells in an antigen-specific way and also provide long-lived memory CD8+ T cells that will act to prevent relapse. (
  • Most critical step in vaccination is the effective presentation of cancer antigens to T cells and because of DCs are the most efficient antigen presenting cells, they are the promising option for improvement of therapeutic vaccines. (
  • It is an active cellular immunotherapy, which involves obtaining antigen-presenting autologous dendritic cells from the patient following a leukapheresis procedure. (
  • The cells are incubated ex vivo in the presence of a recombinant fusion protein PA2024 containing a prostate antigen, prostate acid phosphatase and GM-CSF, an immune-cell activator. (
  • Dendritic cells (DCs) are antigen-presenting cells (also known as accessory cells) of the mammalian immune system. (
  • Their main function is to process antigen material and present it on the cell surface to the T cells of the immune system. (
  • Once they have come into contact with a presentable antigen, they become activated into mature dendritic cells and begin to migrate to the lymph node. (
  • Here they act as antigen-presenting cells: they activate helper T-cells and killer T-cells as well as B-cells by presenting them with antigens derived from the pathogen, alongside non-antigen specific costimulatory signals. (
  • Unlike their neighbor cells, M cells have the unique ability to take up antigen from the lumen of the small intestine via endocytosis, phagocytosis, or transcytosis. (
  • Antigens are delivered to antigen-presenting cells, such as dendritic cells, and B lymphocytes. (
  • M cells express the protease cathepsin E, similar to other antigen-presenting cells. (
  • Pieces of the antigen (which are now known as antigenic peptides) are loaded onto MHC II molecules, and presented on its extracellular surface to CD4+ T cells (sometimes called T helper cells). (
  • These T cells bind to the MHC II-antigen molecule and cause activation of the B cell. (
  • This process favors, by selection for the ability to bind antigen with higher affinity, the activation and growth of B cell clones able to secrete antibodies of higher affinity for the antigen. (
  • Unlike their precursors, they cannot switch antibody classes, cannot act as antigen-presenting cells because they no longer display MHC-II, and do not take up antigen because they no longer display significant quantities of immunoglobulin on the cell surface. (
  • In other words, every B cell is specific to a single antigen, but each cell can produce several thousand matching antibodies per second. (
  • Journal of Cell Science publishes cutting-edge science, e ncompassing all aspects of cell biology. (
  • they are supported by an outstanding Editorial Advisory Board that reflects all relevant areas in cell biology, including recently emerging fields. (
  • Announcing our next special issue on Cell Biology of the Immune System , guest edited by Ana-Maria Lennon-Duménil. (
  • Have you seen our special issue on Plant Cell Biology, guest edited by Jenny Russinova? (
  • He has over 25 years experience in cell biology with specific interests in cell culture technology, neuroscience and stem cell research. (
  • The research professor of reproductive biology at Stanford University keeps the cells warm and moist deep inside the Lorry I. Lokey Stem Cell Research Building, one of the nation's largest stem cell facilities. (
  • The Cells for Sight Team is aiming to understand the biology and therapeutic potential of stem cells (and the cells with which they interact) to develop and deliver novel cell-based therapies and anti-scarring strategies for patients with blinding corneal and conjunctival disease. (
  • Surgical removal showed that their blood vessels had broken up, and after 11 days, most of the tumour cells had died, Blaschuk told a meeting of the American Society for Cell Biology in Washington DC this week. (
  • Department of Molecular Biosciences and the Institute for Cell and Molecular Biology, the University of Texas at Austin, Patterson Labs, 2401 Speedway, Austin, TX 78712, USA. (
  • Creative Bioarray is a leading company specialized in cell biology. (
  • Invertebrate zoology is not studied in isolation and thus the 704 pages contain many terms that one would normally come across from the related fields of Biochemistry, Cell Biology, Ecology, Earth History, Genetics, Paleontology, Physiology, Taxonomy and Zoogeography. (
  • Cells from these lines are also often transfected to produce recombinant proteins for molecular biology, biochemistry, and cell biology experiments. (
  • HEK 293 cells have been widely used in cell biology research for many years, because of their reliable growth and propensity for transfection. (
  • Seminars in cell & developmental biology. (
  • Molecules and Cells is a peer-reviewed open access scientific journal of molecular and cellular biology. (
  • Nagata T, Nemoto Y, Hasezawa S (1992) Tobacco BY-2 cell line as the "HeLa" cell in the cell biology of higher plants. (
  • Trends in Cell Biology. (
  • MDCK cells are used for a wide variety of cell biology studies including cell polarity, cell-cell adhesions (termed adherens junctions), collective cell motility, as well as responses to growth factors. (
  • Plant Cell Biology: From Astronomy to Zoology. (
  • And in some very rare types of breast cancer, the cancer cells may not form a lump or tumor at all. (
  • Often the tumor will regrow from those resistant cells, the patient will relapse, and the therapy that had been previously used will no longer kill the cancer cells. (
  • Scientists are looking into a possible link between cell phone use and certain types of tumor. (
  • Cancer cells need a lot of iron to maintain the rapid division necessary for tumor growth. (
  • The RCRF takes care of the rest of the coordination to make sure your de-identified tumor sample is sent to the Broad Institute of MIT / Harvard laboratories for cell processing and hopeful growth. (
  • In a Phase I human gene therapy trial, eight immunocompetent prostate cancer (PCA) patients were treated with autologous, GM-CSF-secreting, irradiated tumor vaccines prepared from ex vivo retroviral transduction of surgically harvested cells. (
  • Vaccine site biopsies manifested infiltrates of dendritic cells and macrophages among prostate tumor vaccine cells. (
  • T-cell responses, evaluated by assessing delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) reactions against untransduced autologous tumor cells, were evident in two of eight patients before vaccination and in seven of eight patients after treatment. (
  • A distinctive eosinophilic vasculitis was evident near autologous tumor cells at vaccine sites, and at DTH sites. (
  • IL-8, another cytokine, is released after tumor cell death, subsequently stimulating CSCs to regrow the tumor and resist chemotherapy. (
  • Curcumin has been found to suppress tumor cells along the Notch pathway. (
  • This pathway plays a key role in regulating normal stem cells, with aberrant signaling stimulating CSCs, resulting once again in tumor recurrence and resistance to chemotherapy. (
  • T-cell antibodies bind to antigens such as virus infected cells or tumor cells. (
  • There are many different cellular components involved in the cycle of apoptosis such as, BCR/ABL, Bcl-2, Bax protein, and cytochrome C. The tumor suppressor gene p53 is also important in the cell cycle regulation of K562 cells. (
  • As specific cancer antigens have been discovered, these antigens can be loaded to aAPCs to successfully stimulate and expand tumor-specific cytotoxic T cells. (
  • We can used specific TAAs, tumor lysates,created DC-cancer cell fusions, electroporation/transfection of DCs with total cancer cell-mRNA or tumor derived exosomes (TDEs) by the stimulation.There is also possibility of aditonal co-stimulating with cytokine "cocktails" to assure strong maturation. (
  • Since the size and growth pattern of the tumor cannot be used to determine malignancy, although larger tumors have higher incidence of malignancy, Hürthle cell adenomas and carcinomas have to be separated by the presence, in the case of carcinomas, or absence, in the case of adenomas, of both capsular invasion and vascular invasion. (
  • A Hürthle cell adenoma or a minimally invasive tumor can be treated by a thyroid lobectomy, although some surgeons will perform a total thyroidectomy to prevent the tumor from reappearing and metastasizing. (
  • People who inherit one sickle cell gene and one normal gene have sickle cell trait (SCT). (
  • If both parents have SCT, there is a 50% (or 1 in 2) chance that any child of theirs also will have SCT, if the child inherits the sickle cell gene from one of the parents. (
  • People who have this form of SCD inherit a sickle cell gene ("S") from one parent and from the other parent a gene for an abnormal hemoglobin called "C". Hemoglobin is a protein that allows red blood cells to carry oxygen to all parts of the body. (
  • People who have this form of SCD inherit one sickle cell gene ("S") from one parent and one gene for beta thalassemia, another type of anemia, from the other parent. (
  • People who have these forms of SCD inherit one sickle cell gene ("S") and one gene from an abnormal type of hemoglobin ("D", "E", or "O"). Hemoglobin is a protein that allows red blood cells to carry oxygen to all parts of the body. (
  • People who have SCT inherit one sickle cell gene ("S") from one parent and one normal gene ("A") from the other parent. (
  • Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is characterized by inactivation of the von Hippel-Lindau tumour suppressor gene (VHL). (
  • These data suggest that both T-cell and B-cell immune responses to human PCA can be generated by treatment with irradiated, GM-CSF gene-transduced PCA vaccines. (
  • The JCaM1.6 cell line is deficient in Lck kinase activity due to the deletion of part of the lck gene (exon 7) from the Lck transcript. (
  • The cells are non-adherent and rounded, are positive for the bcr:abl fusion gene, and bear some proteomic resemblance to both undifferentiated granulocytes and erythrocytes. (
  • For CML to develop an abnormal gene called BCR-ABL is formed, which turns the myeloid cell into a CML cell. (
  • In haploid cells, there is only one copy of each gene, so mutated phenotypes are immediately exposed. (
  • Cells that undergo such a change in fate as migratory border cells have two distinct alternatives: reorganize the existing proteins or bring about massive changes in gene expression. (
  • This migration of the border cells appears to be important for two reasons - the formation of a structure called a micropyle, which is important for sperm entry, and for expressing the torso-like gene, which is an anterior-posterior patterning signal. (
  • IRF4 binds to the promoter of Il-9 gene in TH9 cells and it is dependent on STAT6. (
  • Recent studies have however shown that TFH have distinct gene expression profiles, supporting the theory that TFH are a subset of CD4+ T cells distinct from Th-1, Th-2, Th-17 or Tregs. (
  • There is also a minor sub-class within this population of GC Tfh cells that express the gene Foxp3, encoding for a transcription factor. (
  • For example, a laser beam or a controllable gene promoter for a toxin gene can be used to destroy a selected amount of cells. (
  • Conventional cytotoxic chemotherapy is incapable of such delicate and "intelligent" behavior, as it preferentially targets fast-replicating cells by damaging their DNA in the vulnerable mitosis stage of cell division, regardless of whether they are benign, healthy or cancerous cells. (
  • Since these mutated antibodies are created early on, they are able to undergo mitosis and produce new T-cell lymphocytes that also contain the novel antigens. (
  • In general, binucleation has negative effects on cell viability and subsequent mitosis. (
  • A large percentage of binucleated cells arising from normal cells remain in interphase and never enter mitosis again. (
  • Cells that contain many mutations before they become binucleate are much more likely to proceed through subsequent rounds of mitosis. (
  • One study found that more than 50% of binucleated cells never entered mitosis again while greater than 95% of cancer cells were able to proceed through mitosis. (
  • Subsequent rounds of mitosis in binucleated cells have much higher rates of errors in chromosomal disjunction making it much more likely for cells to accumulate mutations. (
  • This cell line is used for a variety of application in biomedical research but is particularly popular as a model for mitosis. (
  • This makes these cells particularly suited to studying mitosis. (
  • PtK2 cells are relatively large and when grown in a monolayer stay flat throughout the cell cycle unlike many cells that round up during mitosis. (
  • Inhibiting these is an important regulation mechanism of cancer, because it prevents cells from progressing into mitosis. (
  • As the rate of mitosis increases, defects in the nuclear spindles form, which results in atypical chromosomes, such as those found in HAP1 cells. (
  • As the DTC undergoes mitosis, the cells move proximally along the organism and passing from the mitotic-proliferative region into the meiotic cycle. (
  • During interphase, the cell grows, accumulating nutrients needed for mitosis, preparing it for cell division and duplicating its DNA. (
  • The cell cycle consists of four distinct phases: G1 phase, S phase (synthesis), G2 phase (collectively known as interphase) and M phase (mitosis). (
  • Vaccination activated new T-cell and B-cell immune responses against PCA antigens. (
  • They develop in the lymph nodes, spleen, and bone marrow when antigens stimulate lymphocytes to form the precursor cells that give rise to them (see B cell ). (
  • Lin is a series of lineage marker antigens that identify mature murine blood cells. (
  • The blood groups represent antigens on the surface of the red blood cells which might react with antibodies in the recipient. (
  • There are two important antigens in the system: A and B. Red cells without A or B are called type O, and red cells with both are called AB. (
  • These are not truly universal, as other red cell antigens can further complicate transfusions. (
  • Antigens are recognized via expression of cell surface receptors such as glycoprotein-2 (GP2) that detect and specifically bind to bacteria. (
  • M cells do not secrete mucus or digestive enzymes, and have a thinner glycocalyx, which allows them to have easy access to the intestinal lumen for endocytosis of antigens. (
  • The main function of M cells is the selective endocytosis of antigens, and transporting them to intraepithelial macrophages and lymphocytes, which then migrate to lymph nodes where an immune response can be initiated. (
  • They divide rapidly and are still capable of internalizing antigens and presenting them to T cells. (
  • Vánky, F. (1976), "Properties of the K562 cell line, derived from a patient with chronic myeloid leukemia", International Journal of Cancer, 18 (4): 421-31, doi:10.1002/ijc.2910180405, PMID 789258 Andersson, L.C. (
  • Transmission electron micrograph of an adult stem cell displaying typical ultrastructural characteristics. (
  • Adult stem cells are frequently used in various medical therapies (e.g., bone marrow transplantation ). (
  • Adult stem cells were recently found in the mouse utricle, a part of the inner ear involved in balance and motion. (
  • They're very dynamic, much more than any other cell in the adult brain," Nimmerjahn told me for a piece I wrote last year for Nature . (
  • stem cells, they can be found in juvenile as well as adult animals and human bodies. (
  • embryos show promise of being agents of healing What about non-destructive, adult stem cells What is the value of human life before birth The Bible, the consistent, unanimous teachings of Christianty, and modern scientific breakthroughs are all brought together in this enlightening and timely booklet. (
  • What about non-destructive, adult stem cells? (
  • While hESC are derived from a developing embryo, iPSC are generated with forced expression of key transcription factors to convert adult somatic cells to ESC-like cells, a process termed reprogramming. (
  • The cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult female North American opossum (Didelphis virginiana). (
  • One example is the transformation of iris cells to lens cells in the process of maturation and transformation of retinal pigment epithelium cells into the neural retina during regeneration in adult newt eyes. (
  • Some types of mature, specialized adult cells can naturally revert to stem cells. (
  • For instance, multilineage-differentiating stress-enduring (Muse) cells are stress-tolerant adult human stem cells that can self-renew. (
  • Spore-like cells were said to be a specific class of stem cells in adult organisms, including humans, which are small, versatile, and most frequently remain in a dormant "spore-like" state as the rest of the cells of the organism divide, grow, and die. (
  • 2001. Identification and initial characterization of spore-like cells in adult mammals. (
  • Stem cell Adult stem cell Spore Vacanti, Martin P. (
  • In 2004, considerable evidence was provided for the existence of germline stem cells in adult mouse ovaries capable of generating oocytes to form new follicles. (
  • However, foetal stem cells attained from the amniotic fluid are more stable and more plastic than their adult counterparts making it easier for them to be reprogrammed to a pluripotent state. (
  • Famously isolated from cervical cancer victim Henrietta Lacks in 1951, they became the first immortalized cell line, helped in the development of the polio vaccine, and have become a biotechnology foundational resource for any in vitro drug development or cancer studies. (
  • Network with industry experts, gain insight into how the pharmaceutical industry is utilizing 3D Cell Culture technologies to enhance research and development, discuss the potential for novel in-vitro cell culture models to replace animal models, and discover novel 3D cell culture systems, organ-on-chip, 3D imaging of organoids and other technologies in development. (
  • To uncouple these effects and focus on the direct response of Schwann cells, we developed an in vitro model where an electroconductive carbon fiber acts as an artificial axon. (
  • This breakthrough and the subsequent generation of specialized human cells in vitro led to a paradigm shift within the sci- ti?c community, which transformed this specialized endeavour from a topic of scienti?c interest to a line of investigation with the potential to generate cells - pable of treating serious ailments, including diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and neurodegenerative disorders. (
  • These regulatory Th17 cells are generated by TGF-beta plus IL-6 in vitro. (
  • Since their recent discovery, HAP1 cells cultured in vitro have been established as a dependable screening tool for targeted genetics screens. (
  • As a consequence, HEK 293 cells should not be used as an in vitro model of typical kidney cells. (
  • They showed that opposing gradients of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) and Nodal, two transforming growth factor family members that act as morphogens, are sufficient to induce molecular and cellular mechanisms required to organize, in vivo or in vitro, uncommitted cells of the zebrafish blastula animal pole into a well-developed embryo. (
  • This capacity to continue to regenerate new cells has been shown in in vitro conditions for some animals in which all other cells have died, especially if the animal died from exposure to cold elements. (
  • Scientists have been able to demonstrate the induction of EpiSC-like cells in vitro from mouse ESCs, which are referred to as Epiblast-like cells (EpiLC). (
  • CD3 is a pan-T marker expressed by normal and neoplastic T cells and uniquely allows the identification of all T cell lymphocytes. (
  • T cell lymphocytes (CD3+) constitute more than % of circulating lymphocytes and play a central role in both humoral and cell-mediated immunity. (
  • CD3 T cell can be further broadly classified as T helper lymphocytes that are CD3+CD4+ and cytotoxic T lymphocytes that are CD3+CD8+. (
  • Identification and enumeration of CD3 T lymphocytes, CD4 T lymphocytes and CD8 T lymphocytes is important in many immunological experiments that involve T cell characterization or study of T cell function. (
  • T lymphocytes (T cells) play critical roles in the regulation of immune responses, and are responsible for mediating many of the effector mechanisms of the immune system. (
  • Lymphocytes are a type of white blood cell. (
  • They are a form of T-lymphocytes that has been mutated This atypical form of T-lymphocytes contains T-cell receptors on the surface and is found in both the dermis and epidermis layers of the skin. (
  • Since Lutzner cells are a mutated form of T-lymphocytes, they develop in bone marrow and are transported to the thymus is order to mature. (
  • Lutzner cells are an atypical form of T-cell lymphocytes and are normally CD4+. (
  • Healthy myeloid cells produce red blood cells, platelets and white blood cells (apart from lymphocytes). (
  • Plasma cells are large lymphocytes with a considerable nucleus-to-cytoplasm ratio and a characteristic appearance on light microscopy. (
  • The study is another example of a dramatic shift in scientists' understanding of the role that the immune system, specifically cells called microglia, plays in maintaining brain function. (
  • NKG2D plays a major role in controlling immune responses through the regulation of natural killer (NK) cells, αβ and γδ T-cell function. (
  • Microglia are immune cells that live in the brain. (
  • Decoy cells are mostly prevalent in immunocompromised individuals, such as transplant recipients who are treated with immunosuppressive medication in order for their immune system not to reject the foreign transplanted organ. (
  • The neoplastic T-cells produce cytokines which active the expression of eosinophils and suppress the ability of T-cells to initiate an immune response. (
  • Helper T cells are essential part of body's immune system. (
  • Treg17 cells with regulatory phenotype with in vivo immune-suppressive properties in the gut have also been identified as rTh17 cells. (
  • Regulatory B cells (Bregs) represent a small population of B cells which participates in immunomodulations and in suppression of immune responses. (
  • These cells regulate the immune system by different mechanisms. (
  • and it inhibits or suppresses inflammatory reactions mediated by T cells, especially Th1 type immune reactions. (
  • Adaptive natural killer (NK) cells is a sub-population of natural killer cells, a cell type of the innate immune system. (
  • Immunotherapy aims to utilize the body's own defense mechanism-the immune system-to recognize mutated cancer cells and to kill them the way the immune system would recognize and kill a virus. (
  • Specifically, germinal center-dependent memory B cells are the drivers of recall antibody production during a secondary immune response. (
  • The cells are then returned to the patient to generate an immune response. (
  • Tuft cells are differentiated from stem cells in the bases of intestinal glands and their increase is seen as a type-2 immune response via ILC2s, which secrete IL-13, causing an increase in the number of tuft cells. (
  • Once activated, they migrate to the lymph nodes where they interact with T cells and B cells to initiate and shape the adaptive immune response. (
  • Decoy cells are virus infected urothelial cells with a distinct morphology of enlarged nuclei and intranuclear inclusions. (
  • While they are lymphocytic B-cells they are more like lymphoblasts in morphology. (
  • They usually involve the removal of amniotic fluid by amniocentesis and their distinction from other cells may be based on their morphology or other characteristics. (
  • Recently, overexpression of PR-domain Zinc Finger Protein 14 (PRDM14) in EpiLC was shown to cause a reversion back to an ESC-like state (with levels of Alkaline Phosphatase staining recovered to that observed in ESCs as well as more ESC-like cell morphology), with Klf2 being required for the mechanism to occur. (
  • This knowledge is based on four concentrations of 2,4-D and comparison morphology of the sixth day of cultivation.Thus, 2,4-D is a stress factor in any quantity and cell division is unregulated. (
  • Little is known about the endocannabinoid (eCB) system in squamous cell carcinoma of the oral tongue (SCCOT). (
  • The earliest form of squamous cell cancer is called Bowen disease (or squamous cell carcinoma in situ). (
  • The earliest form (squamous cell carcinoma in situ) can appear as a scaly, crusted, and large reddish patch that can be larger than 1 inch (2.5 centimeters). (
  • When a cancer cell divides, both daughter cells inherit the genetic and epigenetic abnormalities of the parent cell, and may also acquire new genetic and epigenetic abnormalities in the process of cellular reproduction. (
  • Thus restoring natural cellular function through the use of microcurrents or electrical connectivity holds much promise for the future of diabetes treatment and pancreatic islet cell repair. (
  • Viewed through a microscope, a pair of presumed cartilage cells were seen linked together via an intercellular bridge in a manner consistent with cellular division. (
  • My hypothesis is that we can induce cellular rejuvenation without changing the function of the cells. (
  • One of the challenges of implementing a cellular manufacturing system is the actual establishment of manufacturing cells. (
  • The newly developed receptors trigger complex cellular programs in both cancer and blood endothelial cells. (
  • The offset of these cellular components from their balance point causes morphological changes, which result in the K562 cells being arrested in the G2/M phase of the cell cycle. (
  • These play a role in cellular stress, metabolism, and autophagy, by interacting with deacetylases activity in the cell. (
  • The researchers were able to identify the minimal conditions and factors that would be sufficient for starting the cascade of molecular and cellular processes to instruct pluripotent cells to organize the embryo. (
  • One prospective use of these cells includes cellular therapies aimed at dropping inflammation and scarring. (
  • Upon cellular interaction and cross-signaling with their cognate follicular (Fo B) B cells, TFH cells trigger the formation and maintenance of germinal centers through the expression of CD40 ligand (CD40L) and the secretion of IL-21 and IL-4. (
  • Navizon - cloud service with API to locate wireless devices using a global database of WiFi access points and Cell-ID locations openBmap - a free and open map of wireless communicating objects (e.g. cellular antenna, Wi-Fi access points. (
  • A Hürthle cell is larger than a follicular cell, and its cellular material stains pink. (
  • A neuron receives signals from neighboring cells through branched, cellular extensions called dendrites. (
  • Guidepost cells are typically immature glial cells and neuron cells, that have yet to grown an axon. (
  • Given the fact that only a small fraction of immature B cells survive the transition to the mature naive stage, the transitional B cell compartment is widely believed to represent a key negative selection checkpoint for autoreactive B cells. (
  • 105(11):4390-8 Expansion of functionally immature transitional B cells is associated with human-immunodeficient states characterized by impaired humoral immunity. (
  • 2002) CD23 defines two distinct subsets of immature B cells which differ in their responses to T cell help signals. (
  • The differentation of Immature Schwann cells occurs after birth and is dependent on the axons in which the glia are associated. (
  • A subpopulation of dental pulp stem cells has been described as human immature dental pulp stem cells (IDPSC). (
  • 2000 First discovery of DPSCs reported by Dr. Songtao Shi of NIH 2005 NIH announces discovery of DPSCs by Dr. Irina Kerkis 2006 IDPSC Kerkis reported discovery of Immature Dental Pulp Stem Cells (IDPSC), a pluripotent sub-population of DPSC using dental pulp organ culture. (
  • Most of these B cells will become plasmablasts (or "immature plasma cells"), and eventually plasma cells, and begin producing large volumes of antibodies. (
  • The most immature blood cell that is considered of plasma cell lineage is the plasmablast. (
  • Following the discovery of interleukin-17 (IL-17) producing T helper (Th17) cells as a distinct lineage of T helper cells it became clear that these cells play an important role in the host defense and participate in the pathogenesis of many inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. (
  • S2 cells were derived from a primary culture of late stage (20-24 hours old) Drosophila melanogaster embryos by Dr. Imogene Schneider, likely from a macrophage-like lineage. (
  • While the lineage of non-Myelinating Schwann cells is known from neural crest cells, the exact development of PSCs from non-Myelinating Schwann cells is not fully understood. (
  • Janovjak, Grusch and colleagues linked those parts of mammalian RTKs that activate cell signaling to a light-oxygen-voltage-sensing domain, a reversible light sensor that they identified in a yellow-green alga. (
  • DNA is removed from a mammalian egg using suction through a pipette during research at Advanced Cell Technology in Worcester, Massachusetts. (
  • Mammalian spore-like cells - A reservoir of spare parts for old-age? (
  • Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cells are a model mammalian cell line used in biomedical research. (
  • Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs), also called photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (pRGC), or melanopsin-containing retinal ganglion cells (mRGCs), are a type of neuron in the retina of the mammalian eye. (
  • This produces what is known as a reconstituted embryo, in which the cytoplasm is the original egg's cytoplasm, and the nucleus is the nucleus of the cell that you isolated. (
  • Their enlargement is due to glycogen and lipid accumulation in the cytoplasm allowing these cells to provide a rich source of nutrition for the developing embryo. (
  • Organelles of type I alveolar cells such as the endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus and mitochondria are clustered around the nucleus leaving large areas of free cytoplasm. (
  • An Opalski cell is a large (up to 35 μm in diameter) altered glial cell, originated from degenerating astrocytes, with small, eccentric, pyknotic, densely staining nuclei (single or multiple) displaced to the periphery, and fine granular cytoplasm, found in the cortical and subcortical regions (basal ganglia and thalamus) of the brains of people with Wilson disease and acquired hepatolenticular degeneration. (
  • The CNCCs, with the assistance of their filopodia and lamellipodia (actin containing extensions of cytoplasm that allow a cell to probe its path of migration), leave the neural tube and migrate along a dorsolateral pathway to the circumpharyngeal ridge. (
  • During the final stage, cytokinesis, the chromosomes and cytoplasm separate into two new daughter cells. (
  • M phase is itself composed of two tightly coupled processes: karyokinesis, in which the cell's chromosomes are divided, and cytokinesis, in which the cell's cytoplasm divides forming two daughter cells. (
  • I-cells also called inclusion cells are abnormal fibroblasts having a large number of dark inclusions in the cytoplasm of the cell (mainly in the central area). (
  • Key features of these oncocytic cells include an eosinophilic granular cytoplasm and a vesicular nucleus with a large nucleolus. (
  • The cytoplasm of the oncocytes in Hürthle cell adenomas and carcinomas is characterized by an eosinophilic granular nature, which is commonly due to the oncocytes' high content of mitochondria. (
  • Some of these cells can contain up to 5,000 mitochondria, which fills the cytoplasm to the point of nearly excluding other organelles. (
  • Stem cell research" redirects here. (
  • For the journal, see Stem Cell Research (journal) . (
  • The other major factor driving the growth of personalized cell therapy market is increasing government initiatives and funding for stem cell research. (
  • For example, in 2015, the National Institutes of Health invested around US$ 1,429 million in stem cell research, as stem cells research offers great potential for better understanding of human development it is expected that this factor will fuel growth of the personalized cell therapy market in the near future. (
  • Stem cell research in the United States remains at the center of controversy and was a hotly debated topic during the recent election. (
  • Signi?cant advances in stem cell research and their potentials for therap- tic applications have attracted the attention of the scienti?c community and captured the imagination of society as a whole. (
  • But it's not the lesson that opponents of stem-cell research believe. (
  • The response to Hwang's missteps among scientists internationally shows that ethical self-regulation is alive and well in the world of stem-cell research. (
  • Opponents of stem-cell research are already using this incident to call for tighter controls on the use of human eggs for research. (
  • The first frozen egg bank opened this month, women are waiting later in life to try to have children, and the field of stem-cell research is blossoming. (
  • Scientists believe that stem cell research can be used to treat medical conditions including Parkinson's disease, spinal cord injury, stroke, burns, heart disease, diabetes, osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. (
  • 1998 - President Bill Clinton requests a National Bioethics Advisory Commission to study the question of stem cell research. (
  • intelligent experts and perfect platform to ensure our performance in stem cell research. (
  • Exploring the controvertial themes of the turn of the 21st century, artist Sylvain Chamberlain provokes thought and questions the ethics of clones, genome engineering, and stem cell research. (
  • Reactive DTH site biopsies manifested infiltrates of effector cells consisting of CD45RO+ T-cells, and degranulating eosinophils consistent with activation of both Th1 and Th2 T-cell responses. (
  • For example, the type III secretion system effector protein SopB activates the transition of M cells from enterocytes. (
  • The neuron then propagates an electrical signal down a specialized axon extension to the synapse, where neurotransmitters are released to propagate the signal to another neuron or effector cell (e.g., muscle or gland). (
  • Plasma cells, also called plasma B cells, plasmocytes, plasmacytes, or effector B cells, are white blood cells that secrete large volumes of antibodies. (
  • IL-1, a family of cytokines, are involved in response to injury and infection, with IL-1 β playing a key role in cancer cell growth and the stimulation of CSCs. (
  • These cells are divided in many subsets based upon their ability to produce different cytokines. (
  • Cytokines play a major role in development of TH9 cells. (
  • Development of TH9 cells requires a balanced cytokines signaling for its establishment. (
  • Signal 3 is the APC secretion of stimulatory cytokines such as IL-2 which enhances T cell stimulation, though this is not required for T cell activation. (
  • Besides their worldwide availability, some of the advantages for using Saos-2 cell line are that they have well-documented characterization data, the possibility to obtain large amounts of cells in short time, and the fact that Saos-2 cells can be fully differentiated in a manner that the osteoblastic cells naturally do. (
  • Identification and characterization of circulating human transitional B cells. (
  • 189, 735-740 Identification and characterization of circulating human transitional B cells. (
  • The cells will exhibit a decidualized phenotype and display upregulation of common decidualization markers such as prolactin and IGFBP1. (
  • The "small cleaved cells" are usually centrocytes that express B-cell markers such as CD20. (
  • Bregs shared many markers with various B cells subsets due to their origin. (
  • Eye field cells with a retinal fate express several transcription factor markers including Rx1, Pax6, and Lhx2. (
  • In addition, all of these markers can occur on their own or in some combination in other types of cells. (
  • In four-dimensional geometry, a cantellated 24-cell is a convex uniform 4-polytope, being a cantellation (a 2nd order truncation) of the regular 24-cell. (
  • The cantellated 24-cell or small rhombated icositetrachoron is a uniform 4-polytope. (
  • The difference can be seen in the vertex figures, with edges representing faces in the 4-polytope: The cantitruncated 24-cell or great rhombated icositetrachoron is a uniform 4-polytope derived from the 24-cell. (
  • In geometry, a truncated 24-cell is a uniform 4-polytope (4-dimensional uniform polytope) formed as the truncation of the regular 24-cell. (
  • The truncated 24-cell or truncated icositetrachoron is a uniform 4-dimensional polytope (or uniform 4-polytope), which is bounded by 48 cells: 24 cubes, and 24 truncated octahedra. (
  • 48-cell, or tetracontoctachoron is a 4-dimensional uniform polytope (or uniform 4-polytope) derived from the 24-cell. (
  • The truncated 120-cell or truncated hecatonicosachoron is a uniform 4-polytope, constructed by a uniform truncation of the regular 120-cell 4-polytope. (
  • Truncated 120-cell (Norman W. Johnson) Tuncated hecatonicosachoron / Truncated dodecacontachoron / Truncated polydodecahedron Truncated-icosahedral hexacosihecatonicosachoron (Acronym thi) (George Olshevsky, and Jonathan Bowers) The bitruncated 120-cell or hexacosihecatonicosachoron is a uniform 4-polytope. (
  • In four-dimensional geometry, a runcinated 120-cell (or runcinated 600-cell) is a convex uniform 4-polytope, being a runcination (a 3rd order truncation) of the regular 120-cell. (
  • The runcinated 120-cell or small disprismatohexacosihecatonicosachoron is a uniform 4-polytope. (
  • Runcinated 120-cell / Runcinated 600-cell (Norman W. Johnson) Runcinated hecatonicosachoron / Runcinated dodecacontachoron / Runcinated hexacosichoron / Runcinated polydodecahedron / Runcinated polytetrahedron Small diprismatohexacosihecatonicosachoron (acronym: sidpixhi) (George Olshevsky, Jonathan Bowers) The runcitruncated 120-cell or prismatorhombated hexacosichoron is a uniform 4-polytope. (
  • Runcicantellated 120-cell (Norman W. Johnson) Prismatorhombated hecatonicosachoron (Acronym: prahi) (George Olshevsky, Jonathan Bowers) The omnitruncated 120-cell or great disprismatohexacosihecatonicosachoron is a convex uniform 4-polytope, composed of 2640 cells: 120 truncated icosidodecahedra, 600 truncated octahedra, 720 decagonal prisms, and 1200 hexagonal prisms. (
  • In geometry, the runcinated 24-cell or small prismatotetracontoctachoron is a uniform 4-polytope bounded by 48 octahedra and 192 triangular prisms. (
  • The runcitruncated 24-cell or prismatorhombated icositetrachoron is a uniform 4-polytope derived from the 24-cell. (
  • The omnitruncated 24-cell or great prismatotetracontoctachoron is a uniform 4-polytope derived from the 24-cell. (
  • People with SCT usually do not have any of the symptoms of sickle cell disease (SCD), but they can pass the trait on to their children. (
  • Sickle cell disease impacts people from around the world. (
  • Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a group of inherited red blood cell disorders. (
  • This podcast highlights the importance of blood donations from African Americans to help people with sickle cell disease who might need one or more blood transfusions. (
  • Learn about indications for blood transfusion in patients with sickle cell disease, the complications associated with these transfusions, and how you can help reduce the risk for these complications in your patients. (
  • CDC, together with the American Society of Hematology (ASH) external icon and the Sickle Cell Disease Association of America (SCDAA) external icon , created the Sickle Cell Trait Toolkit. (
  • What is Sickle Cell Disease? (
  • People with sickle cell disease can live full lives and enjoy most of the activities that other people do. (
  • The following tips will help you, or someone you know with sickle cell disease, stay as healthy as possible. (
  • Sickle cell disease is a complex disease. (
  • Common illnesses, like the flu, can quickly become dangerous for a child with sickle cell disease. (
  • People with sickle cell disease should drink 8 to 10 glasses of water every day and eat healthy food. (
  • New clinical research studies external icon are happening all the time to find better treatments and, hopefully, a cure for sickle cell disease. (
  • The safety and efficacy of nivolumab for treating metastatic renal cell carcinoma is comparable to that found in the CheckMate 025 trial. (
  • The researchers have found a simple way to create an energy source for fuel cells using CO2 in the air. (
  • The oldest red blood cells ever identified have been found in the body of Ötzi the Iceman, a 5,300-year-old mummy found in the Alps in 1991. (
  • Kupffer cells, named after Karl Wilhelm von Kupffer (1829-1902), are found in the bloodstream and in the liver, attached to the walls of the sinusoids . (
  • I found this site informative and easy to understand for students who have difficulty understanding the basics of the cell structure. (
  • In renal transplant recipients, such cells may be found in up to 40 percent of cases. (
  • In our experience, these features make decoy cells different from tubular cells and transitional cells found in all other conditions. (
  • Decoy cells themselves do not cause any disease, and they may be found in the urine of healthy individuals. (
  • Decoy cells were found in 30 patients (20 male and 10 female), age median 40 (range 16-69) years, at a mean of day 115 (range day 5-747) post transplantation, whereas their presence was recorded for a mean of 141 (range 77-771) days. (
  • Lutzner cells are more predominant in Mycosis Fungoides, but are also found in Sézary Syndrome. (
  • Pavement cells are a cell type found in the outmost epidermal layer of plants. (
  • This type of cell is most commonly found in cancer cells and may arise from a variety of causes. (
  • This leads to the cells pulling chromosomes in many directions that end in multiple nuclei found in one cell. (
  • Type II alveolar cells are typically found at the blood-air barrier. (
  • It was also found that unlike place cells, the speed cells are independent of visual cues. (
  • Facet cells (also known as capping cells) are a type of cell usually found in the transitional epithelium of the bladder. (
  • Jurkat J6 cells have been found to produce a xenotropic murine leukemia virus (X-MLV) (referred to as XMRV) that could potentially affect experimental outcomes. (
  • Deiters cells (or phalangeal cells) are a cell type found within the inner ear. (
  • The border cells of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster are a cluster of 6-8 migratory cells found in the fly's ovary and derived from the follicular epithelium. (
  • As in the mouse, human transitional cells can be found in the bone marrow, peripheral blood, and spleen. (
  • The cells found in the CA1, parahippocampal gyrus, and presubiculum regions often provide a longer response even after the stimulus is removed for up to several minutes in complete darkness. (
  • Spatial view cells update their representations by the use of idiothetic inputs in the dark and these cells are commonly found in the CA1, parahippocampal gyrus, and presubiculum regions. (
  • These signs point to the possible damage to spatial view cells found in the hippocampus. (
  • HD cells are found in many brain areas, including the cortical regions of postsubiculum (also known as the dorsal presubiculum), retrosplenial cortex, and entorhinal cortex, and subcortical regions including the thalamus (the anterior dorsal and the lateral dorsal thalamic nuclei), lateral mammillary nucleus, dorsal tegmental nucleus and striatum. (
  • Some HD cells exhibit anticipatory behaviour: the best match between HD activity and the animal's actual head direction has been found to be up to 95 ms in future. (
  • Perisynaptic schwann cells (also known as Terminal schwann cells or Teloglia) are Neuroglia found at the Neuromuscular junction (NMJ) with known functions in synaptic transmission, synaptogenesis, and nerve regeneration. (
  • It was found that these newly discovered cells were present in nerve degeneration models, showing their non-neural nature. (
  • Memory cells are found in the primary motor cortex (M1), a region located in the posterior portion of the frontal lobe of the brain. (
  • MHC class I are found on all cells and stimulate cytotoxic T cells (CD8 cells), and MHC class II are found on APCs and stimulate helper T cells (CD4 cells). (
  • Neural crest cells are a group of temporary, multipotent (can give rise to some other types of cells but not all) cells that are pinched off during the formation of the neural tube (precursor to the spinal cord and brain) and therefore are found at the dorsal (top) region of the neural tube during development. (
  • found the giants' receptive field sizes to be about three times the diameter of those of parasol ganglion cells. (
  • Periodontal ligament stem cells are stem cells found near the periodontal ligament of the teeth. (
  • They are uniquely found predominantly at the border of the T cell zone that merges with the B cell follicles and germinal centers. (
  • Tuft cells have also been found to secrete endogenous opioids. (
  • The transcription factor Gfi1b has been found to be expressed in tuft cells. (
  • Tuft cells are found in the intestine, pancreas and the respiratory tract, from nose to alveoli. (
  • Interestingly, microbes found on intestinal epithelium are known to direct M cell development. (
  • Some scientists have identified these mutations as deletions in the mitochondrial DNA of Hürthle cells found in neoplasms and Hashimoto's thyroiditis. (
  • In 2005, a UCLA and Caltech study found evidence of different cells that fire in response to particular people, such as Bill Clinton or Jennifer Aniston. (
  • The researchers believe that they have found evidence for sparseness, rather than for grandmother cells. (
  • Further evidence for the theory that a small neural network provides facial recognition was found from analysis of cell recording studies of macaque monkeys. (
  • The only cure for SCD is bone marrow or stem cell transplant. (
  • A bone marrow or stem cell transplant is a procedure that takes healthy cells that form blood from one person-the donor-and puts them into someone whose bone marrow is not working properly. (
  • Bone marrow or stem cell transplants are very risky, and can have serious side effects, including death. (
  • Bone marrow or stem cell transplants are used only in cases of severe SCD for children who have minimal organ damage from the disease. (
  • It has various applications such as platelet transfusions, bone marrow transplantation, whole blood transfusions, packed red cell transfusions, and organ transplantation. (
  • As drug therapy is not always effective, research experts have discovered special cells in bone marrow that can be developed into injectable cell therapy to treat IBD. (
  • Lutzner cells begin developing in bone marrow then travel to the thymus via the secretion of the hormone thymosin. (
  • HAP1 cells are derived from leukemic cells, which develop from mutated myeloid cells in the bone marrow. (
  • A section of the mastoid process of the temporal bone of the cranium shows it to be hollowed out into a number of spaces, the mastoid cells, which exhibit great variety in their size and number. (
  • Unlike DCs, FDCs are not derived from the bone-marrow hematopoietic stem cell, but are of mesenchymal origin. (
  • Artificial heart valves and working tracheas, as well as muscle, fat, bone, heart, neural and liver cells have all been engineered using amniotic stem cells. (
  • Osteochondroprogenitor cells are important for bone formation and maintenance. (
  • Osteoprogenitor cells can be identified by their associations with existing bone or cartilage structures, or their placement in the embryo, as the sites for osteogenesis and chondrogenesis are now known. (
  • Osteoblasts are cells that group together to form units, called osteons, to produce bone. (
  • Recently they have been shown to reside for much longer periods in the bone marrow as long-lived plasma cells (LLPC). (
  • a secondary response produces longer-lived cells that produce IgG and IgA, and frequently travel to the bone marrow. (
  • While this constant reorganization of neural networks - called neuroplasticity - has been well understood for some time, the basic mechanisms by which connections between brain cells are made and broken has eluded scientists. (
  • The next step is to integrate the growth of stem cell-derived hair cells with the recovery of neural synapses to complete the auditory pathway. (
  • Guidepost cells are cells which assist in the subcellular organization of both neural axon growth and migration. (
  • To test the guidance cell in question, neural axon growth and migration is first examined in the presence of the guidance cell. (
  • Then, the guidance cell is destroyed to further examine neural axon growth and migration in the absence of the guidance cell. (
  • These cells share a common ancestor with both Myelinating and Non-Myelinating Schwann Cells called Neural Crest cells. (
  • Perisynaptic (Terminal) Schwann Cells were first discovered by Louis-Antoine Ranvier in 1878 when he observed branching networks surrounding the motor end plate (neural portion of NMJ). (
  • As described above, PSCs are a type of non-myelinating Schwann cell, which develop from neural crest cells. (
  • Schwann cell precursors (a first derivative of Neural crest cells) are present as the nerve axon grows from the dorsal neural tube, but it has been shown that these glial precursors are not essential to axonal growth. (
  • During embryogenesis, retinal cells originate from the anterior portion of the neural plate termed the eye field. (
  • Cardiac neural crest cells (CNCCs) are a type of neural crest cells that migrate to the circumpharyngeal ridge (an arc-shape ridge above the pharyngeal arches) and then into the 3rd, 4th and 6th pharyngeal arches and the cardiac outflow tract (OFT). (
  • The type of breast cancer is determined by the specific cells in the breast that are affected. (
  • The eBalance produces a specific set of bioelectric signals that send pulses targeted at insulin producing beta cells and the protein, glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4) contained therein. (
  • This article is about the cell type. (
  • T cells are a type of lymphocyte. (
  • One type of T cell is the CD4 cell, or "helper cell. (
  • Normal results vary depending on the type of T-cell tested. (
  • Squamous cell cancer is the second most common type of cancer in the United States. (
  • A keratoacanthoma is a mild type of squamous cell cancer that grows rapidly. (
  • They can reprogram themselves to carry out the function of virtually any other type of cell, and play a vital role in early development. (
  • These cells are like blank slates, and they have the potential to turn into any type of cell. (
  • Unipotent stem cells can self-renew as well as give rise to a single mature cell type. (
  • The fate of binucleated cells depends largely on the type of cell they originated from. (
  • Two types of alveolar cell exist: type I alveolar cells and type II alveolar cells. (
  • Type I alveolar cells are squamous (giving more surface area to each cell) and cover approximately 90-95% of the alveolar surface. (
  • Type I cells are involved in the process of gas exchange between the alveoli and blood. (
  • Type II alveolar cells cover a small fraction of the alveolar surface area. (
  • Dogiel cells, also known as cells of Dogiel, refers to a type of multipolar neuronal cells within the prevertebral sympathetic ganglia. (
  • CD4+ T cells polarized with IL-23 and IL-6 are pathogenic upon adoptive transfer in type 1 diabetes while cells polarized with TGF-beta and IL-6 are not pathogenic. (
  • K562 cells are of the erythroleukemia type, and the line is derived from a 53-year-old female chronic myelogenous leukemia patient in blast crisis. (
  • Before the development of haploid cells, much of this research was limited to microbes and other simple cells, but now the research can be applied to its target cell type: the human cell. (
  • In 1976 CC left the PCE because the party banned cell-type organization, considering that the upcoming legalization made that kind of organization an anachronism. (
  • Small cleaved cells are a distinctive type of cell that appears in certain types of lymphoma. (
  • TH9 cells (T helper type 9 cells, CD4+IL-9+IL-13−IFNγ − ) are a sub-population of CD4+T cells that produce interleukin-9 (IL-9). (
  • The reversible transformation of cells of one differentiated cell type to another is called metaplasia. (
  • As such, the centers of the 48 cells form the root system of type F4. (
  • Another type of membraneless fuel cell is a Mixed Reactant Fuel Cell (MRFC). (
  • Culture conditions may also be adjusted to promote the growth of a particular cell type. (
  • Except in unusual cases like infants or seriously immunocompromised individuals, all people will have antibodies to any ABO blood type that isn't present on their own red blood cells, and will have an immediate hemolytic reaction to a unit that is not compatible with their ABO type. (
  • Scientists have identified the mesenchymal type of stem cell inside dental pulp. (
  • Generally the goal of this type of sample cell is to improve detection sensitivity by increasing the total optical path length that travels through a small, constant sample volume. (
  • The output of the cell is the input of an optical detector (a specialized type of transducer), which senses specific changes in the properties of the beam that occur during interaction with the test sample. (
  • The Pfund cell was one of the earliest examples of this type of spectroscopic technique and is noted for having used multiple passes. (
  • The feathered cells are named after Jorge Ramón y Cajal Fañanás, a son of Santiago Ramón y Cajal, who first described this type of glial cell in 1916. (
  • Cell polarization is associated with a type of symmetry breaking, that occurs in the cytoskeleton and guides the direction of growth of the future daughter cell. (
  • A Lucas cell is a type of scintillation counter. (
  • Cell ablation can also be used as a tool to produce transgenic organisms lacking a cell type and as a cure for certain disorders such as cancer and leukemia. (
  • Endothelial cells have a remarkable capacity to adjust their number and arrangement to suit local requirements. (
  • It is hoped that by blocking the formation of new blood vessels through drugs that act on endothelial cells, it may be possible to block the growth of tumors (discussed in Chapter 23). (
  • The wall is lined by an exceedingly thin single sheet of endothelial cells, the endothelium, separated from the surrounding outer layers by a basal lamina. (
  • In the finest branches of the vascular tree-the capillaries and sinusoids-the walls consist of nothing but endothelial cells and a basal lamina ( Figure 22-23 ), together with a few scattered-but functionally important- pericytes . (
  • The endothelial cells, although inconspicuous, are the fundamental component. (
  • The wall is formed by a single endothelial cell surrounded by a basal lamina. (
  • Thus, endothelial cells line the entire vascular system, from the heart to the smallest capillary, and control the passage of materials-and the transit of white blood cells-into and out of the bloodstream. (
  • Human umbilical artery endothelial cells (HUAECs) are cells derived from the endothelium of arteries from the umbilical cord. (
  • They are used as a laboratory model system for the study of the function and pathology of endothelial cells (e.g., atherosclerosis). (
  • Human Umbilical Artery Endothelial Cells(HUVEC) Catalog #8010 at ScienCell Research Laboratories, inc. (
  • The kit can thus distinguish both the CD4 T helper cells as well as the CD8 cytotoxic T Cells. (
  • Multiple studies have identified the identification and enumeration of CD4 T helper cells to be important in characterizing and monitoring immunodeficiency such as HIV, immunosuppression, and autoimmune diseases. (
  • GATA-3 in TH9 cells development represses transcriptional factor FOXP3, which would other wise let to other T helper cell subpopulation. (
  • The viruses that induce the emergence of decoy cells, may causes disease, but again mainly in immunocompromised individuals. (
  • In a steady state, TGF-beta and AhR ligands induce low expression of IL-22 along with high expression of AhR, c-MAF, IL-10, and IL-21 that might play a protective role in cell regeneration and host microbiome homeostasis. (
  • The ability to induce these changes in K562 cell cycle and cell cycle regulation provides targets for cancer drugs. (
  • IL-1 may induce IL-9 in some cases, and IL-33 is able to induce IL-9 in T cells generally. (
  • STAT5, downstream factor of IL-2, induce TH9 cells IL-9. (
  • There are subpopulations of glial cells that provide guidance cues for axonal growth. (
  • The first set of cells, called the "mid-line glial zipper", regulate the midline fusion and guidance of pioneer axons to the septum towards the contralateral hemisphere. (
  • Fañanas cells (also known as Feathered cells of Fañanas) are glial cells of the cerebellar cortex. (
  • Microscopic studies show that the Fañanas cell represents a satellite glial cell whose protrusions do not contain glial filaments like GFAP. (
  • With regard to the typical "feathered" microscopic structure of the cells, Fañanas glial cells occur in subforms with one, two or multiple "feathers" of cytoplasmatic extensions, that are studded with small, rounded sprouts. (
  • These changes can also drive the leukemic cells to a state of stress, which allows for increased sensitivity of the cells to drugs that initiate apoptosis. (
  • Apoptosis is an important mechanism in regulating K562 cells and can be induced by the changes in the metabolic state of the cells. (
  • When the levels of these components are thrown off, they can either no longer inhibit apoptosis of the cancer cells, a role fulfilled by BCR/ABL, or they cause apoptosis to be induced, in the same vein as Bax and cytochrome C. These components are key in the mitochondria, and due to this, it has been supported that apoptosis uses the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway. (
  • it is often a biochemical alternative to the self-destruction of such a damaged cell by apoptosis. (
  • K562 cells can spontaneously develop characteristics similar to early-stage erythrocytes, granulocytes and monocytes and are easily killed by natural killer cells as they lack the MHC complex required to inhibit NK activity. (
  • T1 B cells are distinguished from the other subsets by the following surface marker characteristics: they are IgMhiIgD-CD21-CD23-, whereas T2 B cells retain high levels of surface IgM but are also IgD+CD21+ and CD23+. (
  • The SCCs share common morphological and biochemical characteristics with the taste cells located in taste buds of the oro-pharyngeal cavity. (
  • The majority of stem cells present in the amniotic fluid share many characteristics, which suggests they may have a common origin. (
  • When a signaling molecule binds to RTKs at the cell surface, two receptors bind to each other in a process called dimerization. (
  • The abnormal quantity of T-cell receptors occurs because they are selected for since they express new qualities. (
  • However, the Neurgulin1 signaling pathway needs to be activated, with the expression of ErbB4 receptors on the surface of TCAs, for the connection to occur between corridor cells and TCAs. (
  • Jurkat cells are an immortalized line of human T lymphocyte cells that are used to study acute T cell leukemia, T cell signaling, and the expression of various chemokine receptors susceptible to viral entry, particularly HIV. (
  • Simultaneously, they upregulate cell-surface receptors that act as co-receptors in T-cell activation such as CD80 (B7.1), CD86 (B7.2), and CD40 greatly enhancing their ability to activate T-cells. (
  • In a multicellular aggregate of hPSCs, intracellular apicosomes from multiple cells are trafficked to generate a common lumenal cavity. (
  • The transport of a solute in or out of the cell, for example, is difficult to study because the specialized cells in a multicellular organism behave differently. (
  • It is one of few cell culture models that is suited for 3D cell culture and multicellular rearrangements known as branching morphogenesis. (
  • Totipotent stem cells that develop into cells that make up all the cells in an embryo and fetus. (
  • Originally it was proposed that the MSCs were discarded from the embryo at the end of their life cycle but since the cells remained viable in the amniotic fluid and were able to proliferate in culture this hypothesis was overturned. (
  • After the blastocyst stage, once an embryo implanted in endometrium (in case of rodent), the inner cell mass (ICM) of a fertilized embryo segregates into two layers: hypoblast and epiblast. (
  • Neoplasms are mosaics of different mutant cells with both genetic and epigenetic changes that distinguish them from normal cells. (
  • It is possible that when the microglia's synapse pruning function is interrupted or when the cells mistakenly remove the wrong connections - perhaps due to genetic factors or because the cells are too occupied elsewhere fighting an infection or injury - the result is impaired signaling between brain cells. (
  • Why haven't cancer cells undergone genetic meltdowns? (
  • How do cancer cells avoid complete genetic meltdown? (
  • For example, when they isolated 39 cells from B8 (a fast-growing clone) and 40 cells from E3 (slow growing clone), and monitored their growth from a single cell for seven days, approximately 23 percent of B8 and 50 percent of E3 cells died out within seven days, due to either damage caused during cell isolation or genetic defects. (
  • Hair cell loss is caused by exposure to excessive noise, aging, genetic mutations, autoimmune disease, and ototoxic medications such as aminoglycoside antibiotics. (
  • In mammals, attempts to regenerate damaged inner ear hair cells by genetic means have previously resulted in limited success. (
  • The acronym "COS" is derived from the cells being CV-1 (simian) in Origin, and carrying the SV40 genetic material. (
  • HAP1 cells are a cell line used for biomedical and genetic research. (
  • Due to their haploidy, HAP1 cells are very useful in biomedical research and genetic experiments. (
  • As genetic ablation may lead to cell ablation, it can be used as a synonymous term at appropriate times. (
  • may be used if squamous cell cancer has spread to organs or lymph nodes or if the cancer cannot be treated with surgery. (
  • Bregs can develop from different subsets of B cells. (
  • Likewise, regulatory B cell subsets have also been demonstrated to inhibit Th1 responses through IL-10 production during chronic infectious diseases such as visceral leishmaniasis. (
  • Differential expression of CD21 identifies developmentally and functionally distinct subsets of human transitional B cells. (
  • The retina is generated from the precursor cells within the inner layer of the optic cup, as opposed to the retinal pigment epithelium that originate from the outer layer of the optic cup. (
  • In general, the developing retina is organized so that the least-committed precursor cells are located in the periphery of the retina, while the committed cells are located in the center of the retina. (
  • At this time, Fz4 expression is localized in the periphery and is suggested to play a role in precursor cell maintenance. (
  • In LCIS, cells that look like cancer cells are growing in the lobules of the milk-producing glands of the breast, but they don't grow through the wall of the lobules. (
  • Cancer therapies act as a form of artificial selection, killing sensitive cancer cells, but leaving behind resistant cells . (
  • Thus, at the level of the cell there is selection for cancer. (
  • Can using a cell phone cause cancer? (
  • Cancer cell during cell division. (
  • Cancer first develops as a single cell going rogue, with mutations that trigger aggressive growth at all costs to the health of the organism. (
  • But if cancer cells were accumulating harmful mutations faster than they could be purged, wouldn't the population eventually die out? (
  • To get at the heart of the matter, a team of scientists from Beijing and Taipei wanted to get a new hint at cancer vulnerability from a mutational perspective by probing the most famous cultured cancer cells, HeLa cells. (
  • Their results indicate that heterogeneity in cell growth can be generated in a very short period of time in cancer cells and is heritable and genetically determined. (
  • Therefore, despite single-cell origin, the progeny quickly generated aneuploidy within only 20-30 cell divisions, again illustrating frequent cytogenetic change in cancer cells. (
  • Despite the level of mutations occurring, reduction in growth rates, and chromosome numbers no longer representing that of normal humans, cancer cells still find a way to survive. (
  • It also explains why, even if chemotherapy treatment successfully killed 90 percent of a cancer cell population, it may still not be enough. (
  • In future work , the scientists want to exploit their cancer cell fitness and growth rate findings to understand how cancer cells can become even more vulnerable to recent breakthroughs with checkpoint inhibitor drugs. (
  • Researchers at the University of Washington have updated a traditional Chinese medicine to create a compound that is more than 1,200 times more specific in killing certain kinds of cancer cells than currently available drugs, heralding the possibility of a more effective chemotherapy drug with minimal side effects. (
  • The scientists attached a chemical homing device to artemisinin that targets the drug selectively to cancer cells, sparing healthy cells. (
  • It was highly selective at killing the cancer cells. (
  • The researchers also have preliminary results showing that the compound is similarly selective and effective for human breast and prostate cancer cells, and that it effectively and safely kills breast cancer in rats, Sasaki said. (
  • Cancer drug designers are faced with the unique challenge that cancer cells develop from our own normal cells, meaning that most ways to poison cancer cells also kill healthy cells. (
  • Most available chemotherapies are very toxic, destroying one normal cell for every five to 10 cancer cells killed, Sasaki said. (
  • The compound Sasaki and his colleagues developed kills 12,000 cancer cells for every healthy cell, meaning it could be turned into a drug with minimal side effects. (
  • Artemisinin alone is fairly effective at killing cancer cells. (
  • It kills approximately 100 cancer cells for every healthy cell, about ten times better than current chemotherapies. (
  • The compound is so selective for cancer cells partly due to their rapid multiplication, which requires high amounts of iron, and partly because cancer cells are not as good as healthy cells at cleaning up free-floating iron. (
  • Cancer cells get sloppy at maintaining free iron, so they are more sensitive to artemisinin," Sasaki said. (
  • Cancer cells are already under significant stress from their high iron contents and other imbalances, Sasaki said. (
  • This compound works on a general property of cancer cells, their high iron content. (
  • Changes in T cell populations have also been implicated in chronic inflammation associated with the disease states such as cancer and atherosclerosis as well as in viral infection, bacterial infections, parasitic infections, sepsis, tuberculosis, burns, trauma, malnutrition, and stress. (
  • The Cancer Cell Line project is an opportunity for patients to contribute to research in a big way - a personal way. (
  • Cancer cells are very prolific. (
  • Squamous cell skin cancer affects the epidermis, the top layer of skin. (
  • Squamous cell cancer may occur in undamaged skin. (
  • Actinic keratosis is a precancerous skin lesion that may become a squamous cell cancer. (
  • A sore that does not heal can be a sign of squamous cell cancer. (
  • A skin biopsy must be done to confirm squamous cell skin cancer or other skin cancers. (
  • Curettage and electrodessication: Scraping away cancer cells and using electricity to kill any that remain. (
  • Freezing the cancer cells, which kills them. (
  • Medicines: Skin creams containing imiquimod or 5-fluorouracil for superficial squamous cell cancer. (
  • There is also a risk that squamous cell skin cancer may spread to other parts of the body. (
  • Basal cell cancer is the most common form of cancer in the United States. (
  • Most skin cancers are basal cell cancer. (
  • With basal cancer, cells in this layer are the ones that become cancerous. (
  • Basal cell cancer is almost always slow-growing. (
  • Basal cell cancer usually grows slowly and is often painless. (
  • Basal cell skin cancer almost never spreads beyond the original location. (
  • Researchers globally are realizing the potential of 3D cell culture for various applications, including testing and discovering new drugs to treat cancer, organ-on-chip models to study the human physiology in an organ specific context, and 3D cell printing to produce organ models. (
  • A new study finds turmeric extract selectively and safely killing cancer stem cells in a way that chemo and radiation can not. (
  • Curcumin's selective cytotoxicity, on the other hand, targets the most dangerous cells - the cancer stem cells - which leaving unharmed the normal cells, as we will now learn more about below. (
  • Individualized treatment for various diseases such as cancer and autoimmune diseases by injecting living cells into a patient's body is known as personalized cell therapy. (
  • It is expected that rising prevalence of chronic diseases and rapid spurt in incidence rate of cancer cases will fuel the growth of the global personalized cell therapy market. (
  • Better healthcare amenities along with high adoption rate of new technology for the treatment of cancer in the developed region is expected to boost overall sales of autologous cell therapy products in regions such as North America and Europe. (
  • Harald Janovjak, Assistant Professor at IST Austria, together with Michael Grusch, Associate Professor at the Institute of Cancer Research of the Medical University of Vienna, "remote-controlled" the behaviour of cancer cells with light, as reported in EMBO Journal . (
  • In contrast to cancer, where uncontrolled activation of cell signaling results in features linked to malignancy, light activation of signaling may rescue cell survival and function in degenerative disease. (
  • Studying stem cells may help explain how serious conditions such as birth defects and cancer come about. (
  • Loktionov A (2007) Cell exfoliation in the human colon: myth, reality and implications for colorectal cancer screening. (
  • Decoy cells owe their name to their strong resemblance to cancer cells, and may as such confuse the diagnosis of either viral infection or urothelial malignancy. (
  • As such, decoy cells may strongly resemble malign cancer cells, from which they also derive their name. (
  • This is because they can be mistaken for cancer cells, or the other way around where cancer cells can be mistaken for decoy cells. (
  • Lutzner cells can form cutaneous T-cell lymphoma, which is a form of skin cancer. (
  • Binucleation occurs at a much higher rate in cancer cells. (
  • Other identifying features of cancer cells include multipolar spindles, micronuclei, and chromatin bridge. (
  • K562 cells are part of the NCI-60 cancer cell line panel used by the National Cancer Institute. (
  • Chromosomal abnormalities are common in cancer cells. (
  • HAP1 cells are malignant neoplastic cells, also known as cancer cells. (
  • Like all cancer cell lines, it is immortal and can divide indefinitely. (
  • These T cells can be then re-infused or adoptively transferred into the patient for effective cancer therapy. (
  • There are different ways applied to generate cancer cells-specific DCs. (
  • Hürthle cell cancer tends to occur in older patients. (
  • By definition, autologous cells are obtained from one's own body, just as one may bank his or her own blood for elective surgical procedures. (
  • This study will evaluate a treatment regimen that alternates two different 3-drug regimens every eight weeks for patients that have previously completed autologous stem cell transplant. (
  • Patients must have completed a stem cell transplant regimen for newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (MM) consisting of (at least) induction chemotherapy and single or tandem autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT) within eight months of study enrollment. (
  • Primary B-cell immunodeficiencies refer to diseases resulting from impaired antibody production due to either molecular defects intrinsic to B-cells or a failure of interaction between B-cells and T-cells. (
  • Schwann cells in peripheral nerves receive molecular signals from axons to coordinate the process of myelination. (
  • Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular Cell Research (2014):Sep 6. (
  • Because it is easy to control the temperature of the evaporating material in Knudsen cells, they are commonly used in molecular-beam epitaxy. (
  • With the Nissl-method, Fañanas cells can be identified by their slightly bigger, roundish and ovally shaped nuclei, scattered in the molecular and granular layer. (
  • These cells share the common function of secreting a low molecular weight polypeptide hormone. (
  • This is commonly called sickle cell anemia and is usually the most severe form of the disease. (
  • Two forms of COS cell lines commonly used are COS-1 and COS-7. (
  • Schneider 2 cells, usually abbreviated as S2 cells, are one of the most commonly used Drosophila melanogaster cell lines. (
  • Multiple-pass or long path absorption cells are commonly used in spectroscopy to measure low-concentration components or to observe weak spectra in gases or liquids. (
  • At present the White cell is still the most commonly used multipass cell and provides many advantages. (
  • This cell is also commonly used and has some advantages over the White cell: It is simpler than the White cell with only two mirrors that are easier to position and less susceptible to mechanical disturbance of the cell Can be more stable than the White cell However, the Herriot cell does not accept high numerical aperture beams. (
  • These cells are derived from the inner coelomic epithelium, and help in excretory functions, as most commonly demonstrated in earthworms. (
  • Study reveals a 38% decreased risk of death in patients with papillary metastatic renal cell carcinoma who undergo cytoreductive nephrectomy vs those who do not. (
  • Instead of requiring additional cells to revert between the two isoforms, from all-trans-retinal back into 11-cis-retinal before it can undergo another phototransduction, like the photoreceptor cones which rely on müller cells and retinal pigment epithelium cells for this conversion, melanopsin is able to isomerize all-trans-retinal into 11-cis-retinal when stimulated with light without help from additional cells. (
  • Similarly, a human lymphoma cell line is also known to undergo transition from adenocarcinoma cells to M cells. (
  • Some B cells will undergo a process known as affinity maturation. (