Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
Analog or digital communications device in which the user has a wireless connection from a telephone to a nearby transmitter. It is termed cellular because the service area is divided into multiple "cells." As the user moves from one cell area to another, the call is transferred to the local transmitter.
Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
Substances that dissociate into two or more ions, to some extent, in water. Solutions of electrolytes thus conduct an electric current and can be decomposed by it (ELECTROLYSIS). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Facilities equipped to carry out investigative procedures.
A vacuum tube equipped with an electron emitting CATHODE and a fluorescent screen which emits visible light when excited by the cathode ray. Cathode ray tubes are used as imaging devises for TELEVISIONS; COMPUTER TERMINALS; TEXT TELECOMMUNICATION DEVICES; oscilloscopes; and other DATA DISPLAY devices.
The development and use of techniques to study physical phenomena and construct structures in the nanoscale size range or smaller.
Electric power supply devices which convert biological energy, such as chemical energy of metabolism or mechanical energy of periodic movements, into electrical energy.
Electric conductors through which electric currents enter or leave a medium, whether it be an electrolytic solution, solid, molten mass, gas, or vacuum.
A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.
A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily BETAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting the salivary glands, liver, spleen, lungs, eyes, and other organs, in which they produce characteristically enlarged cells with intranuclear inclusions. Infection with Cytomegalovirus is also seen as an opportunistic infection in AIDS.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
Infection with CYTOMEGALOVIRUS, characterized by enlarged cells bearing intranuclear inclusions. Infection may be in almost any organ, but the salivary glands are the most common site in children, as are the lungs in adults.
"The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.
The premier bibliographic database of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. MEDLINE® (MEDLARS Online) is the primary subset of PUBMED and can be searched on NLM's Web site in PubMed or the NLM Gateway. MEDLINE references are indexed with MEDICAL SUBJECT HEADINGS (MeSH).
Experimentation on STEM CELLS and on the use of stem cells.
An organized procedure carried out by a select committee of professionals in evaluating the performance of other professionals in meeting the standards of their specialty. Review by peers is used by editors in the evaluation of articles and other papers submitted for publication. Peer review is used also in the evaluation of grant applications. It is applied also in evaluating the quality of health care provided to patients.
A quantitative measure of the frequency on average with which articles in a journal have been cited in a given period of time.
The evaluation by experts of the quality and pertinence of research or research proposals of other experts in the same field. Peer review is used by editors in deciding which submissions warrant publication, by granting agencies to determine which proposals should be funded, and by academic institutions in tenure decisions.
The study of natural phenomena by observation, measurement, and experimentation.
Instruments or technological means of communication that reach large numbers of people with a common message: press, radio, television, etc.
Organic salts or esters of methanesulfonic acid.
A surgical specialty concerned with the study, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases of the urinary tract in both sexes, and the genital tract in the male. Common urological problems include urinary obstruction, URINARY INCONTINENCE, infections, and UROGENITAL NEOPLASMS.
A heterogeneous group of sporadic or hereditary carcinoma derived from cells of the KIDNEYS. There are several subtypes including the clear cells, the papillary, the chromophobe, the collecting duct, the spindle cells (sarcomatoid), or mixed cell-type carcinoma.
Tumors or cancers of the KIDNEY.
Steroid-producing cells in the interstitial tissue of the TESTIS. They are under the regulation of PITUITARY HORMONES; LUTEINIZING HORMONE; or interstitial cell-stimulating hormone. TESTOSTERONE is the major androgen (ANDROGENS) produced.
The inability in the male to have a PENILE ERECTION due to psychological or organ dysfunction.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Measurement of blood flow based on induction at one point of the circulation of a known change in the intravascular heat content of flowing blood and detection of the resultant change in temperature at a point downstream.
A technique encompassing morphometry, densitometry, neural networks, and expert systems that has numerous clinical and research applications and is particularly useful in anatomic pathology for the study of malignant lesions. The most common current application of image cytometry is for DNA analysis, followed by quantitation of immunohistochemical staining.
The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.
Methods utilizing the principles of MICROFLUIDICS for sample handling, reagent mixing, and separation and detection of specific components in fluids.
A value equal to the total volume flow divided by the cross-sectional area of the vascular bed.
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.
A species of nematode that is widely used in biological, biochemical, and genetic studies.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
A post-MORULA preimplantation mammalian embryo that develops from a 32-cell stage into a fluid-filled hollow ball of over a hundred cells. A blastocyst has two distinctive tissues. The outer layer of trophoblasts gives rise to extra-embryonic tissues. The inner cell mass gives rise to the embryonic disc and eventual embryo proper.
The thin layers of tissue that surround the developing embryo. There are four extra-embryonic membranes commonly found in VERTEBRATES, such as REPTILES; BIRDS; and MAMMALS. They are the YOLK SAC, the ALLANTOIS, the AMNION, and the CHORION. These membranes provide protection and means to transport nutrients and wastes.
Cells derived from the BLASTOCYST INNER CELL MASS which forms before implantation in the uterine wall. They retain the ability to divide, proliferate and provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.
An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.
The outer of the three germ layers of an embryo.
Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS.

E-CELL: software environment for whole-cell simulation. (1/1036)

MOTIVATION: Genome sequencing projects and further systematic functional analyses of complete gene sets are producing an unprecedented mass of molecular information for a wide range of model organisms. This provides us with a detailed account of the cell with which we may begin to build models for simulating intracellular molecular processes to predict the dynamic behavior of living cells. Previous work in biochemical and genetic simulation has isolated well-characterized pathways for detailed analysis, but methods for building integrative models of the cell that incorporate gene regulation, metabolism and signaling have not been established. We, therefore, were motivated to develop a software environment for building such integrative models based on gene sets, and running simulations to conduct experiments in silico. RESULTS: E-CELL, a modeling and simulation environment for biochemical and genetic processes, has been developed. The E-CELL system allows a user to define functions of proteins, protein-protein interactions, protein-DNA interactions, regulation of gene expression and other features of cellular metabolism, as a set of reaction rules. E-CELL simulates cell behavior by numerically integrating the differential equations described implicitly in these reaction rules. The user can observe, through a computer display, dynamic changes in concentrations of proteins, protein complexes and other chemical compounds in the cell. Using this software, we constructed a model of a hypothetical cell with only 127 genes sufficient for transcription, translation, energy production and phospholipid synthesis. Most of the genes are taken from Mycoplasma genitalium, the organism having the smallest known chromosome, whose complete 580 kb genome sequence was determined at TIGR in 1995. We discuss future applications of the E-CELL system with special respect to genome engineering. AVAILABILITY: The E-CELL software is available upon request. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The complete list of rules of the developed cell model with kinetic parameters can be obtained via our web site at:  (+info)

Effector cells of both nonhemopoietic and hemopoietic origin are required for interferon (IFN)-gamma- and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha-dependent host resistance to the intracellular pathogen, Toxoplasma gondii. (2/1036)

Although interferon (IFN)-gamma-activated, mononuclear phagocytes are considered to be the major effectors of resistance to intracellular pathogens, it is unclear how they control the growth of microorganisms that reside in nonhemopoietic cells. Pathogens within such cells may be killed by metabolites secreted by activated macrophages or, alternatively, directly controlled by cytokine-induced microbicidal mechanisms triggered within infected nonphagocytic cells. To distinguish between these two basic mechanisms of cell-mediated immunity, reciprocal bone marrow chimeras were constructed between wild-type and IFN-gamma receptor-deficient mice and their survival assessed following infection with Toxoplasma gondii, a protozoan parasite that invades both hemopoietic and nonhemopoietic cell lineages. Resistance to acute and persistent infection was displayed only by animals in which IFN-gamma receptors were expressed in both cellular compartments. Parallel chimera experiments performed with tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor-deficient mice also indicated a codependence on hemopoietic and nonhemopoietic lineages for optimal control of the parasite. In contrast, in mice chimeric for inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), an enzyme associated with IFN-gamma-induced macrophage microbicidal activity, expression by cells of hemopoietic origin was sufficient for host resistance. Together, these findings suggest that, in concert with bone marrow-derived effectors, nonhemopoietic cells can directly mediate, in the absence of endogenous iNOS, IFN-gamma- and TNF-alpha-dependent host resistance to intracellular infection.  (+info)

Cellular microbiology: can we learn cell physiology from microorganisms? (3/1036)

Cellular microbiology is a new discipline that is emerging at the interface between cell biology and microbiology. The application of molecular techniques to the study of bacterial pathogenesis has made possible discoveries that are changing the way scientists view the bacterium-host interaction. Today, research on the molecular basis of the pathogenesis of infective diarrheal diseases of necessity transcends established boundaries between cell biology, bacteriology, intestinal pathophysiology, and immunology. The use of microbial pathogens to address questions in cell physiology is just now yielding promising applications and striking results.  (+info)

Phase imaging by atomic force microscopy: analysis of living homoiothermic vertebrate cells. (4/1036)

Atomic force microscope-based phase imaging in air is capable of elucidating variations in material properties such as adhesion, friction, and viscoelasticity. However, the interpretation of phase images of specimens in a fluid environment requires clarification. In this report, we systematically analyzed atomic force microscope-derived phase images of mica, glass, and collagen under the same conditions as used for living cells at various tapping forces; the resulting data provide critical information for the interpretation of phase images of living cells. The peripheral regions of COS-1 cells consistently show a more negative phase shift than the glass substrate in phase images at set-point amplitude: free amplitude (Asp/A0) = 0.6-0.8. In addition, at all Asp/A0 values suitable for phase imaging, tapping frequency appears to be high enough to ensure that phase shifts are governed primarily by stiffness. Consequently, phase imaging is capable of high resolution studies of the cellular surface by detecting localized variations in stiffness. We demonstrate that phase imaging of a bifurcating fiber in COS-1 cell cytoplasm is readily capable of a lateral resolution of approximately 30 nm.  (+info)

Single micro electrode dielectrophoretic tweezers for manipulation of suspended cells and particles. (5/1036)

Cells or particles in aqueous suspension close to a single capacitively coupled micro electrode (CCME) driven with high frequency electric fields experience dielectrophoretic forces. The effects near the CCME can be used for trapping and manipulation of single cells using externally metallised glass pipettes and might be used to develop a microscope based on force or capacitance measurements in conductive media.  (+info)

Functional roles of S100 proteins, calcium-binding proteins of the EF-hand type. (6/1036)

A multigenic family of Ca2+-binding proteins of the EF-hand type known as S100 comprises 19 members that are differentially expressed in a large number of cell types. Members of this protein family have been implicated in the Ca2+-dependent (and, in some cases, Zn2+- or Cu2+-dependent) regulation of a variety of intracellular activities such as protein phosphorylation, enzyme activities, cell proliferation (including neoplastic transformation) and differentiation, the dynamics of cytoskeleton constituents, the structural organization of membranes, intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis, inflammation, and in protection from oxidative cell damage. Some S100 members are released or secreted into the extracellular space and exert trophic or toxic effects depending on their concentration, act as chemoattractants for leukocytes, modulate cell proliferation, or regulate macrophage activation. Structural data suggest that many S100 members exist within cells as dimers in which the two monomers are related by a two-fold axis of rotation and that Ca2+ binding induces in individual monomers the exposure of a binding surface with which S100 dimers are believed to interact with their target proteins. Thus, any S100 dimer is suggested to expose two binding surfaces on opposite sides, which renders homodimeric S100 proteins ideal for crossbridging two homologous or heterologous target proteins. Although in some cases different S100 proteins share their target proteins, in most cases a high degree of target specificity has been described, suggesting that individual S100 members might be implicated in the regulation of specific activities. On the other hand, the relatively large number of target proteins identified for a single S100 protein might depend on the specific role played by the individual regions that in an S100 molecule contribute to the formation of the binding surface. The pleiotropic roles played by S100 members, the identification of S100 target proteins, the analysis of functional correlates of S100-target protein interactions, and the elucidation of the three-dimensional structure of some S100 members have greatly increased the interest in S100 proteins and our knowledge of S100 protein biology in the last few years. S100 proteins probably are an example of calcium-modulated, regulatory proteins that intervene in the fine tuning of a relatively large number of specific intracellular and (in the case of some members) extracellular activities. Systems, including knock-out animal models, should be now used with the aim of defining the correspondence between the in vitro regulatory role(s) attributed to individual members of this protein family and the in vivo function(s) of each S100 protein.  (+info)

The osmotic migration of cells in a solute gradient. (7/1036)

The effect of a nonuniform solute concentration on the osmotic transport of water through the boundaries of a simple model cell is investigated. A system of two ordinary differential equations is derived for the motion of a single cell in the limit of a fast solute diffusion, and an analytic solution is obtained for one special case. A two-dimensional finite element model has been developed to simulate the more general case (finite diffusion rates, solute gradient induced by a solidification front). It is shown that the cell moves to regions of lower solute concentration due to the uneven flux of water through the cell boundaries. This mechanism has apparently not been discussed previously. The magnitude of this effect is small for red blood cells, the case in which all of the relevant parameters are known. We show, however, that it increases with cell size and membrane permeability, so this effect could be important for larger cells. The finite element model presented should also have other applications in the study of the response of cells to an osmotic stress and for the interaction of cells and solidification fronts. Such investigations are of major relevance for the optimization of cryopreservation processes.  (+info)

A polarization model overcoming the geometric restrictions of the laplace solution for spheroidal cells: obtaining new equations for field-induced forces and transmembrane potential. (8/1036)

We present a new model for a variety of electric polarization effects on oblate and prolate homogeneous and single-shell spheroids. For homogeneous spheroids the model is identical to the Laplace model. For single-shell spheres of cell-like geometry the calculated difference of the induced dipole moments is in the thousandths range. To solve Laplace's equation for nonspherical single-shell objects it is necessary to assume a confocal shell, which results in different cell membrane properties in the pole and equator regions, respectively. Our alternative model addresses this drawback. It assumes that the disturbance of the external field due to polarization may project into the medium to a characteristic distance, the influential radius. This parameter is related to the axis ratio of the spheroid over the depolarizing factors and allows us to determine the geometry for a finite resistor-capacitor model. From this model the potential at the spheroid's surface is obtained and, consequently, the local field inside a homogeneous spheroid is determined. In the single-shell case, this is the effective local field of an equivalent homogeneous spheroid. Finally, integration over the volume yields the frequency-dependent induced dipole moment. The resistor-capacitor approach allowed us to find simple equations for the critical and characteristic frequencies, force plateaus and peak heights of deformation, dielectrophoresis and electrorotation for homogeneous and single-shell spheroids, and a more generalized equation for the induced transmembrane potential of spheroidal cells.  (+info)

Two purified serum protein fractions, fetuin and serum albumin, will replace whole or dialyzed serum in supporting the growth of single S3 HeLa cells in an otherwise chemically defined nutrient solution.. In the serum-free medium, single S3 cells will form macroscopic colonies with essentially 100 per cent efficiency.. The generation time of S3 cells in the serum-free medium is approximately 50 per cent greater than that observed in an optimal, serum-containing medium.. All components of the serum-free medium are available commercially, except fetuin, which can easily be prepared in substantial quantities.. The problem of the purity of the protein preparations and of their possible roles in promoting cell growth is discussed.. ...
I am theoretical physicist by training. However, I early jumped into biology to study genome evolution and regulatory network structure in bacteria and I obtained a PhD in Bioinformatics form the University of Basel. During my postdoc training at the EPFL I worked on stochastic gene expression in single mammalian cells. Afterwards, I started my own research group at the University of Edinburgh and recently moved to the IGBMC.. Research Interests. The main research activity in my group is to develop stochastic and biophysical models of eukaryotic gene regulation. Our work lays at the interface between bioinformatics and biophysics combining tools and methods from both fields to develop mechanistic models of gene regulation based on both large-scale genome-wide data and single-cell imaging data. Some of our ongoing projects are:. ...
In this study, we identified spatial constraints as a regulator of cell cycle progression in growing tissues via a spatial checkpoint at the G1-S transition. Furthermore, we demonstrated that in the observed ranges, cross-sectional cell area is a characteristic measure for the activation state of this checkpoint. Such a checkpoint in tissues is analogous to findings in yeast, in which a size checkpoint controls the duration of G1 phase (4). However, it is in contrast to mechanisms identified in single mammalian cells, in which it was suggested that the cellular growth rate determines cell cycle progression (11). The relative importance of environmental aspects required for cell cycle progression changes for cells in crowded tissues: Although for single cells it may be sufficient to integrate an abundance of nutrients by, e.g., the growth rate, tissues also need to incorporate cell-cell and cell-substrate interactions, which is reflected by the area in which cells spread. These differences might ...
The question how living biological cells adapt their local or global mechanical properties when they have to move or deform, is intriguing and a field of intensive study worldwide.
The aim of CELLmicrocosmos is the interactive 3D stereoscopic visualization of biological cells for a better understanding of their internal structures and their functioning.
Hotel address:55 Shatan Back Street (Shatan Hou Jie)(55),Beijing. Located in downtown Beijing, the King Parkview Hotel (Huayu Binguan) offers guests easy access to the Forbidden City, Beijing Drum Tower (Gulou), Jingshan Park and Beihai Park. The Popular Wangfujing pedestrian street is just a ten-minute walk away.
If you have a question about this talk, please contact Matt Humphries.. If you would like to attend this seminar, please contact us to arrange site access. Srinjan received his BA/MSci from the University of Cambridge and his PhD from Harvard University. He then returned to Cambridge to complete his postdoc and is currently transitioning to a Group Leader position at the Wellcome Trust-MRC Cambridge Stem Cell Institute. Srinjan implements biophysical and computational methods such as single-cell Hi-C and live cell 3D single-molecule imaging to study the architecture of the genome at the level of a single mammalian cell. In particular, he is studying how transcription factors and protein complexes (such as NuRD) regulate the folding of the genome as pluripotent stem cells differentiate.. This talk is part of the Babraham Seminar series.. ...
In this paper we summarize and discuss the modern technology and systems, studied and established by our research group, for performing the detection and special analysis incorporated with the super-h
Licet hoc documentum exscribere vel distribuere vel demutare sub GNU Liberarum Litterarum Licentiae conditionibus in editione 1.2 aut in ulla editione recentiori a Fundatione Liberarum Programmationis Partium publicata; praeterquam Sectiones Immutabiles et Verba Involucra Adversa et Aversa. Licentiae exemplar praesto est in sectione intitulata GNU Free Documentation License. Free Documentation Licensetruetrue ...
In the post-genomic era, a great deal of work has focused on understanding how DNA sequence is used to programme complex nuclear, cellular and tissue functions throughout differentiation and development. There are many approaches to these issues, but we have concentrated on understanding how a single mammalian gene cluster is activated or silenced as stem cells undergo lineage commitment, differentiation and maturation. In particular we have analysed the alpha globin cluster, which is expressed in a cell-type- and developmental stage-specific manner in the haemopoietic system. Our studies include analysis of the transcriptional programme that accompanies globin gene activation, focusing on the expression of relevant transcription factors and cofactors. Binding of these factors to the chromosomal domain containing the alpha globin cluster has been characterized by ChIP (chromatin immunoprecipitation). In addition, we have monitored the epigenetic modifications (e.g. nuclear position, timing of
Identification and segmentation Accession Description Mode Fields Ground Truth BBBC001 Human HT29 colon-cancer cells Fluorescent 6
Watch this video to learn how the XploRA™ from Horiba brings chemical identification directly to your microscope. The XploRA can be coupled to both upright and inverted microscopes, allowing analysis of all sample types, ranging from semiconductors and nano-materials, through to biological cells and tissues.
The use of a combination of calibrated microbead populations with one or more calibrated biological cell populations to correct calibration of a flow cytometer for size and fluorescence intensity determinations of biological cell samples. The use of calibrated biological cells permits correction for factors related to the instrument and calibration microbeads so long as the excitation and emission spectra of the calibration microbeads, the calibration cells and the cell samples are all the same, respectively.
This abstract was presented today at the 2014 Association for Research in Vision and Opthalmology (ARVO) meetings in Orlando, Florida by J Scott Lauritzen, Noah T. Nelson, Crystal L. Sigulinsky, Nathan Sherbotie, John Hoang, Rebecca L. Pfeiffer, James R. Anderson, Carl B. Watt, myself and Robert E. Marc.. Purpose: Despite large-scale efforts aimed at mapping the mammalian nervous system, the entire synaptic cohort of a single mammalian neuron of any class has never been mapped. To this end we reconstructed all chemical and electrical synaptic partners of a single ON cone bipolar cell in the inner plexiform layer (IPL) of the rabbit retina. We then searched all members of the same cell class for repeating network motifs and explored postsynaptic cell sampling topologies from this bipolar cell.. Methods: Cells in retinal connectome 1 (RC1) were annotated with Viking viewer, and explored via graph visualization of connectivity and 3D rendering (Anderson et al., 2011 J Microscopy). Small molecule ...
To achieve ideal timelines, you must accelerate every individual function and handoff utilizing a precise blend of innovative technologies, proven strategies and exceptional project management. The right combination will enable you to successfully go from transfection to IND in less than 12 months. This ambitious goal requires a true team effort from every department.. Speed to IND for Biologics, the first event in CBIs Bioprocessing Series, provides a comprehensive, cross-functional format that brings together experts from every department to share their perspectives, achievements and lessons learned as a community working towards the common goal of accelerating speed while managing and mitigating risk.. With 32 expert presenters, 20 case studies/new data presentations and just two days out of the office, you wont want to miss this first-of-its-kind event!. ... internet news portal provides the latest news on science including: Physics, Space Science, Earth Science, Health and Medicine
IGTP Campus Can Ruti Ctra de Can Ruti, Camí de les Escoles s/n 08916 Badalona Barcelona, Spain Tel. (+34) 93 554 3050 · comunicacio(ELIMINAR) © IGTP. All rights reserved ...
让按照Park Systems(市场上发展最快的原子力显微镜公司)的原子力显微镜原理工作的原子力显微镜、原子显微镜系统和扫描离子电导显微镜获得更宽广的量程。
Cell cycle models used in biology can be very complex. These models have parameters with initially unknown values. The values of the parameters vastly aect the accuracy of the models in representing real biological cells. Typically people search for the best parameters to these models using computers only as tools to run simulations. In this thesis methods and results are described for a computer program that searches for parameters to a series of related models using well tested algorithms. The code for this program uses ODRPACK for parameter estimation and LSODAR to solve the dierential equations that comprise the model ...
The future of cell culture development? Part II GEN has a new article that touches on post translational modifications, which one of the major issues facing biomanufacturers, especially those that produce (or hope to produce) biosimilars. As usual glycosylation is the major theme, but the.... ...
IGTP Campus Can Ruti Ctra de Can Ruti, Camí de les Escoles s/n 08916 Badalona Barcelona, Spain Tel. (+34) 934 978 655 · comunicacio(ELIMINAR) © IGTP. All rights reserved ...
View Notes - Chapter 4 Cell Structure and Function from BSC BSC1005 at Broward College. Chapter 4 Cell Structure and Function: An Overview I. Pastures of the Seas A. Vast populations of single-celled
Single Cell Analysis Market, report categorizes the report by Product, Technique, Application, End User. It provides information about - Global Industry Insights, Trends, Outlook, and Opportunity Analysis, 2018-2026
/PRNewswire/ -- The global Single Cell analysis market is expected to reach USD 5.0 billion by 2024, according to a new report published by Grand View...
Cell Structure and organelles Worksheet . Beautiful Cell Structure and organelles Worksheet . Chapter 4 Cell Structure and Function Worksheet Answers
It is also perfectly suitable for the disruption of biological cells as well as for DNA/RNA and protein extraction. With its high performance and great flexibility the mixer mill MM 400 is a unique product in the market. You may also be interested in the High Energy Ball Mill Emax, an entirely new type of mill for high energy input.. read more ...
دانلود کتاب راهنمای الکتروفیزیولوژی کلینیک مایو Mayo Clinic Electrophysiology Manual, 1ed is the first comprehensive guide to the electrical activity of biological cells and tissues and the techniques of elect
View Notes - BiologyTes2 from BIO 1320 at Texas State. Biology Test Chapters 4 & 5 Chapter 4 - Cell Structure and Function Cells are measured in micrometers and how tall they are Cells are
Get an answer for What hypothesis could you form to explain what would happen to the cell or organism if at least two cell structures were damaged or destroyed? and find homework help for other Science questions at eNotes
Originally published in 1987, the purpose of this title was to develop a conceptual framework for understanding individual humans as complex, functional entitie
Articles in Pathobiology , the study or practice of pathology with more emphasis on the biological than on the medical aspects. It is concerned primarily on the cause of disease, the modifications in cellular function and changes in cellular structure produced in any cell, organ, or part of the body by disease.
Dynamic live cell analysis gives information not possible with static analysis. However, it will not replace static analysis, which will remain very useful (examples above with immunostaining).
TY - GEN. T1 - Separation of non-spherical biological cells with center of gravity offset by a shear flow. AU - Mikami, Fumihiko. AU - Tanishita, Kazuo. PY - 1995. Y1 - 1995. N2 - The numerical simulation of cell movement in a shear flow is performed to propose a new cell sorting method using a dumbbell model which describes non-spherical biological cells with center of gravity offset. A dumbbell is found to rotate or glide, depending on the center of gravity offset and the strength of shear flow. In rotating motion, the dumbbell rotates and falls vertically, accompanied by a periodical horizontal drift. In gliding motion, the dumbbell orients and glides in a fluid, where the gliding angle is determined by the center of gravity offset.. AB - The numerical simulation of cell movement in a shear flow is performed to propose a new cell sorting method using a dumbbell model which describes non-spherical biological cells with center of gravity offset. A dumbbell is found to rotate or glide, depending ...
Population covered by mobile cellular network is the percentage of people that live in areas served by a mobile cellular signal regardless of whether they use it.This page has the latest values, historical data, forecasts, charts, statistics, an economic calendar and news for Population covered by mobile cellular network (%) in Sweden.
Single cell analysis is becoming increasingly important as it is clear that ensemble measurements mask the diversity of the biology in cell populations. Single...
Dette håndskrift præsenterer en sprøjtestøbning metode til at konstruere mikrokar der rekapitule- fysiologiske egenskaber endotel. Den ...
Medical researchers might realize a range of breakthroughs if they could look deep inside living biological cells, but existing methods for imaging either
Cell Structure and Function: Questions 299-307 of 413. Get to the point NEET (NTA-National Eligibility cum Medical Entrance Test) Biology questions for your exams.
If it takes up space and has mass then it matters - actually it is matter. There are numerous terms that relate to the basic or fundamental unit of matter - the atom. ELEMENTS are pure substances which means that they consist of only one type of atom. A COMPOUND consists of two or more different kind of atoms or ions in definite proportions ...
DNA and Cell Biology期刊最新论文,,顶级期刊最新论文图文内容,出版社网站每日同步更新,点击标题直达论文原文,自定义关注的期刊,覆盖PubMed的论文库,快速方便精准的找到您想要的论文
Københavns Universitet er med cirka 40.000 studerende og 9.000 medarbejdere en af Nordens største forsknings- og uddannelsesinstitutioner.
2004-2014• LIVR • Vrije Universiteit Brussel • Faculteit Geneeskunde & Farmacie • Laarbeeklaan 103 • 1090 Jette • Tel.: 02/477.44.09• [email protected] ...
2004-2014• LIVR • Vrije Universiteit Brussel • Faculteit Geneeskunde & Farmacie • Laarbeeklaan 103 • 1090 Jette • Tel.: 02/477.44.09• [email protected] ...
An all-electrical system is developed to actuate and detect single biological cells in a microfluidic channel for diagnostic applications. Interdigitated electrodes fabricated on the channel floor transfer a high frequency signal for capacitance detection and a low frequency signal for dielectrophoretic actuation. In the fluid-filled channel, a pressure-driven flow propels single biological cells, which induce time-dependent capacitance signatures as they pass over the electrodes. With a sub-attofarad (~0.15 aF RMS, 53 Hz bandwidth) capacitance resolution, this system detects biological cells (e.g., 1 yeast cell ~ 50 aF) and their deflections (1 micrometer ~ 5 aF) from exerted dielectrophoretic forces (, 5 pN). Electrical detection of cell actuation by strong DEP forces provides an avenue for both inducing and monitoring the deformation of viscoelastic cells. A strong and repulsive dielectrophoretic force can be used to press a biological cell into a channel wall. When this occurs, the ...
Icy is a collaborative platform for biological image analysis that extends reproducible research principles by facilitating and stimulating the contribution and sharing of algorithm-based tools and protocols between researchers. Current research in biology uses evermore complex computational and imaging tools. Here we describe Icy, a collaborative bioimage informatics platform that combines a community website for contributing and sharing tools and material, and software with a high-end visual programming framework for seamless development of sophisticated imaging workflows. Icy extends the reproducible research principles, by encouraging and facilitating the reusability, modularity, standardization and management of algorithms and protocols. Icy is free, open-source and available at .
Signals and Systems Telecom: Worldwide Cellular Network Operator KPIs of 29 pages is now available with at starting price of US$ 1000 for a single user PDF. Talk to us for other pricing options.
Flow Cytometry and Cell Sorting A Practical Guide Labome - Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) is a specialised type of flow cytometry. It provides methods for sorting a heterogeneous mixture of biological cells into two or more containers, one cell at a time, based upon the specific light scattering and fluorescent characteristics.
Prologue E. D. 2519 Screamer Cell The edge of Zeta Quadrant The Known Universe Hoping to slow the nanite devices devouring him, Ekis ran multiple diagnostic routines in concurrent loops. His body-no, no body remained, only cells, and precious few of them-the devices would never tire. When the last biological cell transmuted, the devices, their objective achieved, would disintegrate and Ekis would cease to be. The stars visible through the observation window were so distant one could perceive no sense of movement or change. When the airlock was first ejected from Dark Landing, hed watched the station grow smaller and smaller until even his imagination could no longer sustain its image. His thoughts drifted and his concentration lapsed. What point to continue? In answer to his question, the airlock jolted as if it had bumped into something. Impossible! One did not bump into something in space. One smashed into it, or it smashed into you. Chapter 1: Carry On E. D. 2519 Dark Landing Station Zeta ...
Professor Maria Santore will present her talk, From the Surfaces of Cells to Materials Innovation: Synthetic Systems that Mimic the Behaviors of Biological Cells. When cells contact other cells or foreign objects, their... more ...
Dette manuskriptet presenterer en injeksjon metode for å konstruere microvessels at rekapitulere fysiologiske egenskapene til...
PDEBUG_CHAN(DFRAME, DEBUG_DEBUG, word %c - %s%s\n, (i & 1) ? b : a, text, (crc_a_ok[i % 5]) ? ok : BAD CRC ...
A SON element which is operative to carry out at least two different SON functions is provided, wherein each of the SON functions is associated with at least one SON related action, and wherein a SON
Study Flashcards On BIO 101 Chapter 4 Cell Structure at Quickly memorize the terms, phrases and much more. makes it easy to get the grade you want!
Cell Structure and Function: Questions 26-32 of 413. Get to the point NEET (National Eligibility cum Medical Entrance Test) Biology questions for your exams.
... who have lost their stem cells after birth. Other conditions[13] treated with stem cell transplants include sickle-cell disease ... Peripheral blood stem cells[26] are now the most common source of stem cells for HSCT. They are collected from the blood ... Sources and storage of cells[edit]. To limit the risks of transplanted stem cell rejection or of severe graft-versus-host ... Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is the transplantation of multipotent hematopoietic stem cells, usually derived ...
Molecular genetic testing on a blood specimen or cells from a cheek swab is available to identify mutations in the RSK2 gene. ... The protein is involved in cell signaling pathways that are required for learning, the formation of long-term memories, and the ... There is some experimental evidence that RSK2 regulates synaptic transmission and plasticity in neuronal cell types.[3] ... RSK2 is highly expressed in the brain, specifically in the neocortex, hippocampus, and Purkinje cells, all of which are ...
"sickle cell disease". Genetics Home Reference. Retrieved 2016-11-11.. *^ MD, Kenneth R. Bridges. "How Does Sickle Cell Cause ... Sickle cell anemia is a genetic disease that causes deformed red blood cells with a rigid, crescent shape instead of the normal ... "Complications and Treatments , Sickle Cell Disease". CDC. Retrieved 2016-11-11.. *^ a b c d "Marfan Syndrome". National ... Photomicrograph of normal-shaped and sickle-shape red blood cells from a patient with sickle cell disease ...
5-cell. truncated 5-cell. rectified 5-cell. cantellated 5-cell. bitruncated 5-cell. cantitruncated 5-cell. runcinated 5-cell. ... 16-cell • Tesseract. Demitesseract. 24-cell. 120-cell • 600-cell. Uniform 5-polytope. 5-simplex. 5-orthoplex • 5-cube. 5- ... runcitruncated 5-cell. omnitruncated 5-cell. Schläfli. symbol. {3,3,3}. 3r{3,3,3}. t{3,3,3}. 2t{3,3,3}. r{3,3,3}. 2r{3,3,3}. rr ... The birectified 5-cell can be seen as the intersection of two regular 5-cells in dual positions. = ∩ . ...
Hydrogen fuel cells background information Fuel cells operate similar to a battery in that electricity is harnessed from ... Fuel Cells Bulletin 2006, 2006, 2 *^ Xuan, J.; Leung, M. K. H.; Leung, D. Y. C.; Ni, M. A review of biomass-derived fuel ... Biodiesel to hydrogen-cell power[edit]. A microreactor has been developed to convert biodiesel into hydrogen steam to power ... The difference in fuel cells when compared to batteries is their ability to be powered by the constant flow of hydrogen found ...
... cells are most commonly used not as individual cells, but as a confluent monolayer on a cell culture insert filter (e.g ... 2005). "The Caco-2 cell line as a model of the intestinal barrier: influence of cell and culture-related factors on Caco-2 cell ... PAMPA - a non cell-based permeability assay. References[edit]. *^ Fogh J and Trempe G in Human Tumor Cells In Vitro (J. Fogh, ... Impact of Caco-2 Cells on the Medical Field[edit]. The considerable impact of the Caco-2 cell monolayer model can be measured ...
Rather, NK cells destroy compromised host cells, such as tumor cells or virus-infected cells, recognizing such cells by a ... Mast cells[edit]. Main article: Mast cell. Mast cells are a type of innate immune cell that reside in connective tissue and in ... Natural killer cells[edit]. Main article: Natural killer cell. Natural killer cells (NK cells) are a component of the innate ... γδ T cells[edit]. Main article: gamma/delta T cells. Like other 'unconventional' T cell subsets bearing invariant T cell ...
Mechanism of cell death[edit]. Cells that undergo an extreme amount of stress experience cell death either through apoptosis or ... "Cannabisin B induces autophagic cell death by inhibiting the AKT/mTOR pathway and S phase cell cycle arrest in HepG2 cells". ... Tavassoly, Iman (2015). Dynamics of Cell Fate Decision Mediated by the Interplay of Autophagy and Apoptosis in Cancer Cells. ... Programmed cell death[edit]. One of the mechanisms of programmed cell death (PCD) is associated with the appearance of ...
Bioenergy applications in microbial fuel cells[edit]. In microbial fuel cells (MFCs), bacterial nanowires generate electricity ... Long-range electron transfer via pili networks allows viable cells that are not in direct contact with an anode to contribute ... By connecting to other cells above them, nanowires allow bacteria located in anoxic conditions to still use oxygen as their ... generates conductivity that drives the conversion of organic compounds to electricity in microbial fuel cells.[18] Biofilms ...
positive regulation of heterotypic cell-cell adhesion. • negative regulation of mitotic cell cycle. • endothelial cell ... but it is produced also by a broad variety of cell types including lymphoid cells, mast cells, endothelial cells, cardiac ... NK cells, neutrophils, mast cells, eosinophils, and neurons.[5] TNFα is a member of the TNF superfamily, consisting of various ... Cell Biol. 6 (2): 97-105. doi:10.1038/ncb1086. PMID 14743216.. *^ Micheau O, Tschopp J (July 2003). "Induction of TNF receptor ...
Mechanism of cell death[edit]. Cells that undergo an extreme amount of stress experience cell death either through apoptosis or ... Mizushima N, Komatsu M (November 2011). "Autophagy: renovation of cells and tissues". Cell. 147 (4): 728-41. doi:10.1016/j.cell ... Tavassoly I (2015). Dynamics of Cell Fate Decision Mediated by the Interplay of Autophagy and Apoptosis in Cancer Cells. ... Programmed cell death[edit]. One of the mechanisms of programmed cell death (PCD) is associated with the appearance of ...
Cell culture[edit]. Puromycin is used in cell biology as a selective agent in cell culture systems. It is toxic to prokaryotic ... "Mol Biol Cell. 8 (8): 1559-1573. doi:10.1091/mbc.8.8.1559. PMC 276176. PMID 9285825.. ... "In Hopsu-Havu, Väinö K.; Järvinen, Mikko; Kirschke, Heidrun (eds.). Proteolysis in Cell Functions. IOS Press. pp. 88-95. ISBN ... Puromycin acts quickly and can kill up to 99% of nonresistant cells within 2 days.[citation needed] ...
Other primary wet cells are the Leclanche cell, Grove cell, Bunsen cell, Chromic acid cell, Clark cell, and Weston cell. The ... From top to bottom: a large 4.5-volt (3R12) battery, a D Cell, a C cell, an AA cell, an AAA cell, an AAAA cell, an A23 battery ... fuel cells, flow cells and voltaic piles.[30] Wet cell. A wet cell battery has a liquid electrolyte. Other names are flooded ... A dry cell uses a paste electrolyte, with only enough moisture to allow current to flow. Unlike a wet cell, a dry cell can ...
The role of PA in the cell[edit]. The role of PA in the cell can be divided into three categories: *PA is the precursor for the ... PA concentrations are maintained at extremely low levels in the cell by the activity of potent LPPs.[6] These convert PA into ... As PA is rapidly converted to DAG, it is very short-lived in the cell. This means that it is difficult to measure PA production ... However, PLD activity can be measured by the addition of primary alcohols to the cell.[15] PLD then carries out a ...
Jamin, M, H Raveh-Barak, B Podbilewicz, FA Rey (2014) "Structural basis of eukaryotic cell-cell fusion" (Cell, Volume 157, ... Multicellular organisms arise in various ways, for example by cell division or by aggregation of many single cells.[2] Colonial ... In some multicellular groups, which are called Weismannists, a separation between a sterile somatic cell line and a germ cell ... Animals have evolved a considerable diversity of cell types in a multicellular body (100-150 different cell types), compared ...
Cell Tropism[edit]. Hepadnaviruses, as their "hepa" name implies, infect liver cells and cause hepatitis. This is true not only ... The virus binds to specific receptors on cells and the core particle enters the cell cytoplasm. This is then translocated to ... "Cell Host & Microbe. 22 (3): 387-399.e6. doi:10.1016/j.chom.2017.07.019. PMC 5604429 . PMID 28867387.. ... step of the dynamic phase-in which an exterior viral protein stably interacts with a host cell protein-determines cell tropism ...
For cells that are supposed to operate within a specific discharge window, new cells with more capacity may cause the old cells ... A fuel cell UPS has been developed in recent years using hydrogen and a fuel cell as a power source, potentially providing long ... Consider a series-parallel battery arrangement with all good cells, and one becomes shorted or dead:. *The failed cell will ... or individual chemical cells wired in series. Isolating a single cell and installing a jumper in place of it allows the one ...
Histologically, it forms clusters of goblet cells containing mucin with a minor admixture of Paneth cells and endocrine cells. ... Goblet cell carcinoid[edit]. Main article: Goblet cell carcinoid. This is considered to be a hybrid between an exocrine and ... Carcinoid (also carcinoid tumor) is a slow-growing[1] type of neuroendocrine tumor originating in the cells of the ... The term 'crypt cell carcinoma' has been used for them, and though perhaps more accurate than considering them carcinoids, has ...
... they regulate other immune cell functions (e.g., CD4+ T cell, dendritic cell, B cell, mast cell, neutrophil, and basophil ... Mast cells[edit]. See article: Mast cell. Mast cells are a type of granulocyte that are present in tissues;[3] they mediate ... Basophils are one of the least abundant cells in bone marrow and blood (occurring at less than two percent of all cells). Like ... Granulocytes are derived from stem cells residing in the bone marrow. The differentiation of these stem cells from pluripotent ...
In the case of mesenchymal stem cells, these cell types include osteoblasts (bone cells), adipocytes (fat cells), and ... Stem cell treatment[edit]. Autologous stem-cell transplantation using mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) has been used to improve ... Ligament cells differ in size, respond to different cues in the cell environment, and express different cell surface markers, ... MSCs are multipotent stem cells, meaning they can differentiate into multiple cell types. ...
Cell studies[edit]. Crocin and crocetin may provide neuroprotection in rats by reducing the production of various neurotoxic ... "Anti-inflammatory effects of crocin and crocetin in rat brain microglial cells". European Journal of Pharmacology. 648 (1-3): ... is an experimental drug that increases the movement of oxygen from red blood cells into hypoxic (oxygen-starved) tissues.[8] ... increasing the susceptibility of hypoxic cancer cells to radiation therapy, in patients with a form of brain cancer known as ...
Cells[edit]. A123 had LiFePO4 Cells in the form 18650, 26650 and Pouch Cells with 14 and 20Ah. The company EVLithium reports ... Cylindrical cells made in China that are used by BMW and others were declared as not affected.[16] ... "McLaren Snags First F1 KERS Win; Custom A123Systems Cells with More Than 20,000 W/kg". Retrieved July 27, 2009.. ... "Chrysler to use A123 cells in its electric vehicles". Retrieved April 1, 2012.. ...
Cell phone promotion[edit]. For the film's home media release, Universal partnered with cell-phone company Hop-On to produce " ... "Universal Studios Home Video and Hop-On Introduce the World's First Disposable, Fully Recyclable Cell Phone: The Jurassic Park ... An investigation by the San Francisco Chronicle revealed that sample versions of Hop-On's cell phones were actually modified ... "the world's first disposable cell phone", which would have been available through an in-package offer upon purchase of the film ...
Stem cell transplants are a recent research target, because stem cells are easy to manipulate and stem cells transplanted into ... Brain cell death. There is speculation of several mechanisms by which the brain cells could be lost.[56] One mechanism consists ... "Stem Cell Research Aims to Tackle Parkinson's Disease". Archived from the original on 17 April 2010. Retrieved 16 April 2010.. ... Other cell-death mechanisms include proteasomal and lysosomal system dysfunction and reduced mitochondrial activity.[56] Iron ...
"Unconventional mechanisms of protein transport to the cell surface of eukaryotic cells". Annual Review of Cell and ... Eukaryotic cells, including human cells, have a highly evolved process of secretion. Proteins targeted for the outside are ... Many human cell types have the ability to be secretory cells. They have a well-developed endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi ... The classical mechanism of cell secretion is via secretory portals at the cell plasma membrane called porosomes.[1] Porosomes ...
Fuel cell application[edit]. Carbon paper is also used in fuel cell applications. However, this carbon paper has nothing to do ... "Fuel Cells Etc - Tech Article.. *^ Riggs, Ransom (December 10, 2009). "Makin' Copies: The Complete History". Mental Floss. ...
... cell walls[edit]. The crude cell extracts of all Equisetum species tested contain mixed-linkage glucan : Xyloglucan ... Due to the correlation between MXE activity and cell age, MXE has been proposed to promote the cessation of cell expansion.[ ... In addition, the cell walls of all Equisetum species tested contain mixed-linkage glucan (MLG), a polysaccharide which, until ... The presence of MXE activity in Equisetum suggests that they have evolved MLG along with some mechanism of cell wall ...
Hematopoietic cell transplantation[edit]. On January 13, 2011, City of Hope performed its 10,000th hematopoietic stem cell ... Southern California Islet Cell Consortium, Islet Cell Transplant Center, Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation. ... By 2016, this has grown to over 13,000 stem cell transplants. National Comprehensive Cancer Network[edit]. City of Hope is a ... Gallegos, Emma (2010-01-21). "City of Hope receives contract to take stem cell research from 'bench to clinic'". Pasadena-Star ...
Disguised cell-sites[edit]. Disguised cell sites sometimes can be introduced into environments that require a low-impact visual ... Main article: Cell on wheels. A special form of the radio tower is the telescopic mast. These can be erected very quickly. ... "Stealth Cell towers and the 2004 U.S. Presidential Elections". Lightwatcher. Archived from the original on 2007-02-17.. ... Radio, television and cell towers have been documented to pose a hazard to birds. Reports have been issued documenting known ...
DEP as a cell characterisation tool[edit]. DEP is mainly used for characterising cells measuring the changes in their ... Instruments capable of separating cancer cells from healthy cells have been made [18][20][21][22] as well as isolating single ... or to force contact between selected single cells to study cell-cell interaction.[25] ... DEP has been applied for the separation of live and dead cells, with the remaining live cells still viable after separation [24 ...
In LCIS, cells that look like cancer cells are growing in the lobules of the milk-producing glands of the breast, but they ... Angiosarcoma starts in cells that line blood vessels or lymph vessels. It can involve the breast tissue or the skin of the ... The type of breast cancer is determined by the specific cells in the breast that are affected. Most breast cancers are ... For example, most breast cancers are a type of carcinoma called adenocarcinoma, which starts in cells that make up glands ( ...
Cancer stem cells[edit]. Main article: Cancer stem cell. The first malignant cell, that gives rise to the tumor, is often ... When a cancer cell divides, both daughter cells inherit the genetic and epigenetic abnormalities of the parent cell, and may ... Thus, a cell that acquires a mutation that increases its fitness will generate more daughter cells than competitor cells that ... At the level of the cell, there is selection for increased cell proliferation and survival, such that a mutant cell that ...
Stem Cell Transplant Patients can get fungal diseases like Aspergillosis ... Stem cells from your own body (also called an autologous transplant).. *Stem cells from a donor (also called an allogeneic ... As a stem cell transplant patient, you have new opportunities for a healthy and full life. Stem cell transplants have many ... Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). If you receive stem cells from a donor, the transplanted stem cells may attack your body. ...
Frequently asked questions about cell phones and your health. Provided by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. ... Do cell phones give off (emit) radiation?. Yes - cell phones and cordless phones use radiofrequency radiation (RF) to send ... Should people stop using cell phones?. At this time we do not have the science to link health problems to cell phone use. ... Most of us depend on cell phones every day. Some people wonder if cell phones can cause health problems. Heres what you should ...
A new study out today in the journal Nature Communications shows that cells normally associated with protecting the brain from ... It is possible that when the microglias synapse pruning function is interrupted or when the cells mistakenly remove the wrong ... "These findings show that a precisely choreographed interaction between multiple cells types is necessary to carry out the ... The Brains Gardeners: Immune Cells Prune Connections Between Neurons. Monday, March 07, 2016 ...
Our nationwide cohort study with objective register based data on both exposure and cancer outcome practically eliminates loss to follow-up, which was only 2.2%, and provides accurate and virtually complete nationwide ascertainment of cancers. Compared with the follow-up to 2002,8 the additional five years of follow-up increased the number of person years in people with a mobile phone subscription for at least 10 years by a factor of seven (1.2 million versus 170 000 person years). Also, the number of cases of tumours of the central nervous system in long term subscribers increased from 28 to 316-that is, by a factor greater than 10. These marked increases allowed calculation of more robust estimates and allowed both analyses of subtypes of intracranial tumours of the central nervous system and separate investigation of men and women. A further improvement is that we had information on socioeconomic indicators for each individual, which was not available previously.7 8 This allowed the ...
demonstrated the batteries in coin-cells and. *is working with industry partners to use the electrolytes for a high voltage ... As both these requirements are easily met for Li cells and researchers are active in the area we can reliably predict massive ... The team demonstrated the batteries in coin-cells and is working with industry partners to use the electrolytes for a high ... Unprecedented cycling stabilities were obtained for both Li,,NMC811 (90% retention at the 450th cycle) and Li,,LCP cells (93% ...
NKG2D plays a major role in controlling immune responses through the regulation of natural killer (NK) cells, αβ and γδ T-cell ... Infected cells were incubated with donor PBMC for 5 h and NK degranulation assessed by % CD107+ cells within the CD3−, CD56+ ... Infected cells were used as targets for IFN-α treated NK cells in a 51Cr release assay at an E∶T ratio of 1∶50. The results ... U373 cells stably transfected with MICA-YFP were infected with control or US18-V5, US19-V5 or US20-V5 expressing adenovirus for ...
How to prevent the spread of tumor cells via the lymph vessels. What role do the lymphatic vessels play in the metastasis of ... the so-called lymph endothelial cells. Endothelial cells control many important properties of the blood and lymph vessels and ... Malignant cells often remain in the body after cancer surgery and can be the starting point for a relapse oft he disease. " ... The aim of the work was to identify new ways to block the dangerous colonization and spread of tumor cells. The researchers ...
But if cancer cells were accumulating harmful mutations faster than they could ... ... Cancer first develops as a single cell going rogue, with mutations that trigger aggressive growth at all costs to the health of ... Single cell sequencing sheds light on why cancers form in specific cell types. November 28, 2018 While many cells in our bodies ... Cancer cell during cell division. Credit: National Institutes of Health Cancer first develops as a single cell going rogue, ...
cells (Fig. 3) fire simultaneously is zero and gap junction, , strengthens to one, while if one -cell fires but not the other, ... For example, if cell A (red) here is assumed to fire in response to a strong (this occurs with probability ) while cell B is ... cells A and B (Fig. 3) share this middle gap junction in common; thus, in comparing how often the two -cells are found ... cell A, say, can be considered quite reasonably as an "outcome" to be associated with gap junction , and similarly with -cell B ...
Cell Scientists To Watch. Cell scientist to watch: Elçin Ünal and Gloria Brar. See more of our Cell Scientists To Watch on our ... Special issue on Plant Cell Biology Have you seen our special issue on Plant Cell Biology, guest edited by Jenny Russinova? ... Journal of Cell Science publishes cutting-edge science, encompassing all aspects of cell biology. ... News from Journal of Cell Science. Registration is now open for the 2019 JCS Meeting on the Organelle-Cytoskeleton Interface ...
... treatment and resreatch studies about kidney and renal cell carcinoma for the medical professionals while caring for their ... The safety and efficacy of nivolumab for treating metastatic renal cell carcinoma is comparable to that found in the CheckMate ... Study reveals a 38% decreased risk of death in patients with papillary metastatic renal cell carcinoma who undergo ... was associated with decreased odds of death versus radical nephrectomy among patients with cT1b but not cT2 renal cell ...
Artemisinin alone is fairly effective at killing cancer cells. It kills approximately 100 cancer cells for every healthy cell, ... and partly because cancer cells are not as good as healthy cells at cleaning up free-floating iron.. "Cancer cells get sloppy ... Cancer drug designers are faced with the unique challenge that cancer cells develop from our own normal cells, meaning that ... The compound Sasaki and his colleagues developed kills 12,000 cancer cells for every healthy cell, meaning it could be turned ...
Manufacturing of genetically modified T cells. To produce CAR T cells for infusion, peripheral blood (PB) mononuclear cells ( ... Infusion of donor-derived CD19-redirected virus-specific T cells for B-cell malignancies relapsed after allogeneic stem cell ... the recipients of T cells in our trial had low levels of B cells at the time of infusion (Supplemental Figure 6) and B cell ... The CAR T cells in our studies were detected by PCR methods and typically not by flow cytometry. The infused T cells can ...
Flow cytometry allows the identification and characterization of rare cells by perfoming multiple quantitative measurements on ... side scatter shows the live cell gate, which eliminated dead cells. (C) Gated on live cells, this density plot of the FITC dump ... Flow cytometry is the method of choice for detecting rare-cell populations-including stem cells, circulating endothelial cells ... cells (red dots), representing predominantly lymphocytes. Some CD34- CD13+ cells are monocytes caught in P1. In the blast cell ...
Cell. 1996 May 17;85(4):489-500. doi: 10.1016/s0092-8674(00)81250-7. ...
Cell culture and generation of the Canx-/--bEND.3 cell line. The bEND.3 cell line was purchased from ATCC (CRL-2299) and ... T cell activation and cell proliferation assays. Purified CD4+ T cells from healthy control WT mice were cultured in 24-well ... bEND.3 cells, followed by FACS analysis of the T cells crossing the endothelial cell layer into the bottom chamber (Figure 7E ... with a cell suspension of 1 × 106 cells/ml in the final preparation. Cells were activated with plate-bound CD3 antibodies (5 μg ...
human embryonic stem cell. hPSC. human pluripotent stem cell. iPSC. induced pluripotent stem cell. mCLING. membrane-binding ... S1 G), cells were plated on irradiated MEFs at 20,000 cells/cm2. H9 cells used for analysis on MEFs had been historically ... In both single cells and in cell aggregates, delivery of the apicosome to the cell surface results in a fully formed lumen that ... S3 J top (cell 1) and bottom (cell 2), showing delayed apicosome formation. Video 10 shows time-lapse imaging of a cell ...
E1A was expressed at high levels in CN706-infected human PSA-producing LNCaP cells but not in CN706-infected DU145 cells, which ... The titer of CN706 was significantly higher in LNCaP cells compared to several human cell lines that do not produce PSA (HBL100 ... ras in an Epithelial Compartment that Includes the Stem Cells Is Sufficient to Promote Squamous Cell Carcinogenesis ... A Selective Cytotoxic for Prostate-specific Antigen-positive Prostate Cancer Cells. Ron Rodriguez, Eric R. Schuur, Ho Yeong Lim ...
PI cannot permeate cell membranes and so cannot be used as evidence for nucleus-bound DNA," he said, pointing to 2019 eLife ... "What else is DNA-like enough to bind these two markers and be localized inside a cell-like structure if it isnt DNA? Still ... "One line of evidence is that when we stain these cell-like structures with certain stains, they light up in the same pattern as ... Chondrocyte cells are found in cartilage only, and they produce the cartilage matrix. Modern chondrocytes contain DNA, so their ...
Stem cell division and differentiation A: stem cell; B: progenitor cell; C: differentiated cell; 1: symmetric stem cell ... mesenchymal stem cell, adipose-derived stem cell, endothelial stem cell, dental pulp stem cell, etc.).[37][38] Muse cells ( ... from adult cells. These are not adult stem cells, but adult cells (e.g. epithelial cells) reprogrammed to give rise to cells ... Pluripotent stem cells are the descendants of totipotent cells and can differentiate into nearly all cells,[6] i.e. cells ...
Little is known about the endocannabinoid (eCB) system in squamous cell carcinoma of the oral tongue (SCCOT). Here we have ... Altered mRNA Expression of Genes Involved in Endocannabinoid Signalling in Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oral Tongue. ... Squamous cell carcinoma of the oral tongue, endocannabinoids, cyclooxygenase-2, N-acyl- osphatidylethanolamine phospholipase D ...
CD8 T cells in flow cytometry applications. - Find MSDS or SDS, a COA, data sheets and more information. ... Human CD4/CD8 T Cell Kit This FlowCellect Human CD4/CD8 T Cell Assay provides a rapid & simple method to asses the percentage ... FlowCellect™ Human CD4/CD8 T Cell Kit. Overview. Millipores FlowCellect™ Human CD4/CD8 T Cell Assay provides a rapid and ... T cell lymphocytes (CD3+) constitute more than % of circulating lymphocytes and play a central role in both humoral and cell- ...
RCRF Cancer Cell Line Project. RCRF Cancer Cell Line project partnership with the NLMSF established to include leiomyosarcoma ... The Cancer Cell Line project is an opportunity for patients to contribute to research in a big way - a personal way. ... Harvard laboratories for cell processing and hopeful growth. ... RCRF Broad Institute Cancer Cell Line Project. *MyPART Network ... Harvard laboratories for cell processing and hopeful growth. ...
The kind of stem cells we are studying are called allogeneic human mesenchymal stem cells or MSCs. MSCs are cells in the body ... Mesenchymal stem cell trials for pulmonary diseases. J Cell Biochem. 2014 Jun;115(6):1023-32. doi: 10.1002/jcb.24783. Review. ... Mesenchymal stem cell therapy in lung disorders: pathogenesis of lung diseases and mechanism of action of mesenchymal stem cell ... All study participants will receive stem cells.. Biological: Mesenchymal Stem Cells A single dose, one time infusion (in the ...
LNCaP PCA cells (43) , PC-3 PCA cells (44) , DU 145 PCA cells (45) , A549 lung carcinoma cells (46) , LS-174T colon carcinoma ... B, Lane 1, PC-3 PCA cells; Lane 2, LNCaP PCA cells; Lane 3, A549 lung carcinoma cells; Lane 4, LS-174T colon carcinoma cells; ... cells (47) , KLE endometrial carcinoma cells (48) , Jurkat T-cell leukemia cells (49) , and MDA-MB-435 breast carcinoma cells ( ... Lane 5, DU 145 PCA cells; Lane 6, KLE endometrial carcinoma cells; Lane 7, Jurkat T-cell leukemia cells; Lane 8, MDA-MB-435s ...
Induction treatment for locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the oral cavity, larynx, oropharynx or hypopharynx in ... Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma locally advanced induction TPF (DOCEtaxel ciSplatin fluorouracil) (part 1). ... Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma locally advanced induction TPF (DOCEtaxel ciSplatin fluorouracil) (part 1) ... Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma locally advanced cARBOplatin (weekly) chemoradiation (part 2 of TPF) ...
It is made up of various organs, cells and proteins. ... germs and cell changes that could make you ill. ... It mostly fights using immune cells such as natural killer cells and phagocytes ("eating cells"). The main job of the innate ... When these antigens attach to special receptors on the immune cells (immune system cells), a whole series of processes are ... Sometimes the immune system mistakenly thinks that the bodys own cells are foreign cells. It then attacks healthy, harmless ...
Biotech will continue to drive demand for automated cell culture systems market; what other factors will create opportunities ... Automated Cell Culture Systems Market. 2020 Analysis and Review: Automated Cell Culture Systems Market by Cell Culture - Finite ... Automated Cell Culture Systems Market Outlook & Key Findings. *Automated cell culture systems market is expected to witness a ... Automated Cell Culture Systems Market - The Way Forward. The research report by FMI states that the global automated cell ...
  • In their search for ways to prevent the development of metastases, the research team focused on the cells that line the lymph vessels from the inside, the so-called lymph endothelial cells. (
  • Endothelial cells control many important properties of the blood and lymph vessels and produce numerous signaling molecules and growth factors. (
  • The researchers found that the messenger substance angiopoietin 2 ensures the survival of lymph endothelial cells in tumors. (
  • Flow cytometry is the method of choice for detecting rare-cell populations-including stem cells, circulating endothelial cells, circulating tumor cells, and residual disease cells-in blood, bone marrow, and a wide variety of other samples. (
  • The newly developed receptors trigger complex cellular programs in both cancer and blood endothelial cells. (
  • NK cells are effector lymphocytes of the innate immune system that control several types of tumors and microbial infections by limiting their spread and subsequent tissue damage … NK cells are also regulatory cells engaged in reciprocal interactions with dendritic cells, macrophages, T cells and endothelial cells. (
  • 2. Stochastic differentiation: when one stem cell develops into two differentiated daughter cells, another stem cell undergoes mitosis and produces two stem cells identical to the original. (
  • Nerve cells, an example of a cell type after differentiation. (
  • Potency specifies the differentiation potential (the potential to differentiate into different cell types) of the stem cell. (
  • The Notch signaling pathway, also involved in embryogenesis, plays a key role in regulating cell differentiation, proliferation and programmed cell death (apoptosis), as well as the functioning of normal stem cells. (
  • Having established appropriate growth conditions for differentiation of adult stem cells into hair cells, the researchers attempted to determine if embryonic stem cells could also grow into hair cells. (
  • This was done by initiating the differentiation of embryonic stem cells into aggregates called embroid bodies. (
  • The process resulted in the differentiation of cells that expressed markers indicating hair cell growth. (
  • Scientists who research stem cells are trying to identify how undifferentiated stem cells become differentiated as serious medical conditions, such as cancer and birth defects, are due to abnormal cell division and differentiation. (
  • Divided into four convenient sections, topics include a focus on producing iPSC from diverse somatic sources, media systems for expanding ESC and iPSC with detailed protocols for directed differentiation into specific lineages, commonly used cellular and molecular characterization methods, and the potential application of labeled stem cells with specific methods for cloning, gene delivery and cell engineering. (
  • If this kind of cell and their progenitors with a capacity to divide exist in the pancreas of man, and if we can identify the factors that are responsible to induce their proliferation and differentiation, then these latter processes might be stimulated in vitro but also, by noninvasive means, in vivo," said senior study author Harry Heimberg, an associate professor at the Diabetes Research Center of Vrije Universiteit Brussel in Belgium. (
  • [4] Differentiation of mature B cells into plasma cells is dependent upon the transcription factors Blimp-1 / PRDM1 and IRF4 . (
  • The lifespan, class of antibodies produced, and the location that the plasma cell moves to also depends on signals, such as cytokines , received from the T cell during differentiation. (
  • [6] Differentiation through a T cell-independent antigen stimulation (stimulation of a B cell that does not require the involvement of a T cell) can happen anywhere in the body [2] and results in short-lived cells that secrete IgM antibodies. (
  • Since B cell maturation also involves somatic hypermutation (a process completed before differentiation into a plasma cell), these antibodies frequently have a very high affinity for their antigen. (
  • High-throughput single-cell technologies are developing rapidly, providing new insights into development, differentiation and cellular decision making at an unprecedented resolution. (
  • In carcinogenesis ECM degradation triggers metastasis by controlling migration and differentiation including cancer stem cell (CSC) charact. (
  • By regulating the balance between cell proliferation and differentiation, they maintain. (
  • Performing experiments in mice, the researchers employed a well-established model of measuring neuroplasticity by observing how cells reorganize their connections when visual information received by the brain is reduced from two eyes to one. (
  • Using these animals, the researchers were able to confirm that cancer cells often migrate via the lymph vessels first into nearby lymph nodes and from there continue to metastasize into vital organs. (
  • Researchers at the University of Washington have updated a traditional Chinese medicine to create a compound that is more than 1,200 times more specific in killing certain kinds of cancer cells than currently available drugs, heralding the possibility of a more effective chemotherapy drug with minimal side effects. (
  • In the study, the UW researchers tested their artemisinin-based compound on human leukemia cells. (
  • The researchers also have preliminary results showing that the compound is similarly selective and effective for human breast and prostate cancer cells, and that it effectively and safely kills breast cancer in rats, Sasaki said. (
  • Researchers globally are realizing the potential of 3D cell culture for various applications, including testing and discovering new drugs to treat cancer, organ-on-chip models to study the human physiology in an organ specific context, and 3D cell printing to produce organ models. (
  • Researchers at the Eaton-Peabody Laboratory have successfully isolated adult stem cells from the tissue of the mouse utricle. (
  • The researchers have found a simple way to create an energy source for fuel cells using CO2 in the air. (
  • The Cells for Sight Stem Cell Therapy Research Unit is a MHRA licensed state-of-the-art GMP facility is available to internal and external researchers (academic and commercial) for the manufacture of Advanced Therapy Medicinal Products. (
  • Despite repeated incidents like this one, it took the researchers a while to conquer their disbelief, according to Blakeslee's article, "Cells That Read Minds. (
  • Not so long ago, the study of most stem cells, other than those that regenerated the haematopoietic system, was rather obscure and limited to a relatively small number of researchers and laboratories. (
  • Researchers should check cell identity and behaviour, and carefully characterize reagents. (
  • And serum is just one of many factors that researchers have to consider when studying cells. (
  • At a US National Institutes of Health (NIH) workshop on cell culture and reproducibility last year, Richard Neve, a cancer biologist at the biopharmaceutical company Gilead Sciences in Foster City, California, worried that researchers could become overwhelmed. (
  • Journals and funders now ask researchers to disclose whether they have checked to make sure that, say, cell lines representing corneal or skin tissue are not actually a fast-growing line derived from human cervical cancer. (
  • Stem-cell researchers, who know these cells are sensitive to even small changes in growth conditions, are also enthusiasts. (
  • THURSDAY, Jan. 24 (HealthDay News) -- An international team of researchers has finally managed to locate stem cells in the pancreas -- in mice, at least. (
  • Two years later, Michael Specter took a look at the Bush Administration's approach to science , and found that, despite Proposition 71 and other small-bore efforts, stem-cell researchers were foundering under federal constraints. (
  • WASHINGTON, July 1 (Reuters) - Researchers have identified the early master cells that make up the human heart and said on Wednesday they could someday be used to make patches to fix damaged hearts. (
  • Through advancements in single-cell sequencing and mass cytometry, researchers can now readily collect hundreds of thousands to tens of millions of single-cell profiles across multiple molecular levels (transcriptomic, proteomic and epigenomic). (
  • The goal of this meeting is to bring together a community of researchers to exchange ideas and information about new methodologies for single-cell data analysis and how single-cell data is changing our biological insights. (
  • The maths behind the rugged beauty of a coastline may help to keep cell biology in order, say researchers in Germany. (
  • Using innovative techniques and a wide range of experiments, researchers have demonstrated that prostate cancer cells have the ability to alter their shape, thereby promoting metastasis. (
  • Aside from the differences in quantity of AIM1, by tracking the protein with dye, the researchers also found changes in the way that the protein was positioned within the cell. (
  • Researchers recently made a very interesting discovery: With enough NK cells in your system, you will not contract influenza. (
  • Although stem cells hold promise as direct therapy for human diseases, many researchers are even more enthusiastic about the opportunity to use stem cells to study disease fundamentals. (
  • Learn how clinicians and researchers are involving diabetes patients in the search for a cure by developing new stem cell lines from their DNA. (
  • Answer: Researchers use a microscopic glass pipette to extract the 46 chromosomes of DNA from the nuclei of a skin cell. (
  • Researchers at the University of Vermont have discovered two new proteins on red blood cells that confirm the testable existence. (
  • Before carrying out this latest research, the researchers had already found that stem cells are present in the foetal human inner ear, but had not yet developed a technique for extracting these. (
  • In this study, the researchers wanted to isolate these cells and look at whether they could be grown in the laboratory and had the potential to develop into functioning hair cells and nerve cells. (
  • The researchers dissolved samples of the cochlear tissue to release the individual cells and grew these cells in petri dishes with various combinations of chemicals that are used to support the growth of stem cells. (
  • The researchers identified stem cells by examining the genes that were switched on in these cells, and the proteins that were produced by them. (
  • The researchers searched for types of stem cell that typically expresses genes called SOX2 and OCT4. (
  • Once the researchers confirmed that they had isolated stem cells, they investigated how long they could keep these cells alive in the laboratory, and whether the cells had the ability to develop into the sensory hair cells and nerve cells found in the ear. (
  • The researchers tested these "electrophysiological properties" of the laboratory hair cells and nerve cells by applying currents across their membranes to see if they behaved similarly to the same types of cell taken from a human cochlea. (
  • The researchers successfully extracted cells from the human foetal cochleas, and identified the nutrients and chemicals that best supported the growth of these cells. (
  • The researchers found that they could make the cells develop into what looked like nerve cells by treating them in certain ways and using specific combinations of growth factors. (
  • Researchers have been exploring ways to hijack the functionality of a virus to deliver new beneficial genes to cells. (
  • German researchers have used lasers to make a tiny little tractor beam suitable for manipulating and imaging single living cells. (
  • Stem cells are biological cells that can differentiate into other types of cells and can divide to produce more of the same type of stem cells. (
  • In a developing embryo , stem cells can differentiate into all the specialized cells-ectoderm, endoderm and mesoderm (see induced pluripotent stem cells )-but also maintain the normal turnover of regenerative organs, such as blood, skin, or intestinal tissues. (
  • the capacity to differentiate into specialized cell types. (
  • Totipotent (a.k.a. omnipotent) stem cells can differentiate into embryonic and extraembryonic cell types. (
  • Secondary lymphopoiesis (SL) begins when mature B cells enter the extrafollicular area of lymphoid tissue and differentiate into short-lived plasma cells and memory cells after first being stimulated by antigen-presenting cells. (
  • Memory cells travel to the primary follicle, where, after exposure to dendritic cells, they differentiate into centroblasts (immunoglobulin class-switch). (
  • Centroblasts progress to centrocytes with high-affinity antibody production, and then they differentiate further to long-term memory cells and plasmablasts. (
  • They can also differentiate into various kinds of specialized cells when they are appropriately stimulated. (
  • These cells can differentiate into any cells in the body. (
  • S tem cells are undifferentiated cells of various origin with the unique characteristic of self-renewal th rough growth and with the potential to differentiate into cells with a specific function. (
  • These cells differentiate as an embryo develops, becoming destined for certain fates as heart cells, nerve cells and so on. (
  • B cells differentiate into plasma cells that produce antibody molecules closely modelled after the receptors of the precursor B cell. (
  • First, the B cells have to encounter a foreign antigen, and are then required to be activated by T helper cells before they differentiate to specific cells. (
  • Upon stimulation by a T cell, which usually occurs in germinal centers of secondary lymphoid organs like the spleen and lymph nodes , the activated B cell begins to differentiate into more specialized cells. (
  • Germinal center B cells may differentiate into memory B cells or plasma cells. (
  • [4] A cell may stay in this state for several days, and then either die or irrevocably differentiate into a mature, fully differentiated plasma cell. (
  • Since NK cells have the ability to differentiate between normal, healthy cells and abnormal cells, such as those infected by a virus or that have turned cancerous, scientists are looking for ways to enhance NK cell function as a way to improve the effectiveness of cancer treatments. (
  • The study is another example of a dramatic shift in scientists' understanding of the role that the immune system, specifically cells called microglia, plays in maintaining brain function. (
  • However, scientists are now beginning to appreciate that, in addition to serving as the brain's first line of defense, these cells also have a nurturing side, particularly as it relates to the connections between neurons. (
  • While this constant reorganization of neural networks - called neuroplasticity - has been well understood for some time, the basic mechanisms by which connections between brain cells are made and broken has eluded scientists. (
  • To get at the heart of the matter, a team of scientists from Beijing and Taipei wanted to get a new hint at cancer vulnerability from a mutational perspective by probing the most famous cultured cancer cells, HeLa cells. (
  • In future work , the scientists want to exploit their cancer cell fitness and growth rate findings to understand how cancer cells can become even more vulnerable to recent breakthroughs with checkpoint inhibitor drugs. (
  • See more of our Cell Scientists To Watch on our interviews page. (
  • The scientists attached a chemical homing device to artemisinin that targets the drug selectively to cancer cells, sparing healthy cells. (
  • This enhances the ability for scientists to study basic biological mechanisms such as cell number monitoring, cell viability, proliferation and morphology. (
  • Doctors and scientists are excited about stem cells because they could help in many different areas of health and medical research. (
  • The response to Hwang's missteps among scientists internationally shows that ethical self-regulation is alive and well in the world of stem-cell research. (
  • Scientists believe that stem cell research can be used to treat medical conditions including Parkinson's disease, spinal cord injury, stroke, burns, heart disease, diabetes, osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. (
  • Only South Korean scientists claim to have successfully created human embryos via therapeutic cloning and have harvested stem cells from them. (
  • Scientists believe stem cells can be used to generate cells and tissues that could be used for cell-based therapies as the need for donated organs and tissues outweighs the supply. (
  • 2000 - The National Institutes of Health (NIH) issues guidelines for the use of embryonic stem cells in research, specifying that scientists receiving federal funds can use only extra embryos that would otherwise be discarded. (
  • Witnesses were absent for the comings and goings of the first life some four billion years ago, but scientists are pretty sure the typical Earth creature in those days consisted of no more than a single cell. (
  • Until now, scientists had all but abandoned hopes that the pancreas made its own stem cells because they had failed to find evidence to support the theory. (
  • In recent years, when it comes to stem-cell research, rather than furthering discovery, our government has forced what I believe is a false choice between sound science and moral values," Obama announced, flanked by six eminent research scientists. (
  • To explore how these shapeshifting cells moved, the scientists teamed up with Steven An, Ph.D., an expert in cellular mechanics. (
  • Scientists have long been aware that Nedd4-1 is one of the most prevalent ubiquitination enzymes in nerve cells and is produced with great frequency in the developmental phase when nerve cells grow and form their dendrites. (
  • What could studying the development of these cells tell scientists? (
  • Answer: Scientists can create the cell type that has the genetic marker for the disease they are studying. (
  • The LAT has the best reporting on what the move will mean for scientists studying stem cells and the headaches that the Bush-era restrictions caused. (
  • Scientists believe that stem cell transplantation might be able to replace some of these damaged cells and therefore treat hearing loss. (
  • Carcinomas are tumors that start in the epithelial cells that line organs and tissues throughout the body. (
  • Cells of almost all solid tissues are connected with gap junctions which permit the direct transfer of ions and small molecules, integral to regulating coordinated function in the tissue. (
  • embryonic stem cells , which are isolated from the inner cell mass of blastocysts , and adult stem cells , which are found in various tissues . (
  • In adult organisms, stem cells and progenitor cells act as a repair system for the body, replenishing adult tissues. (
  • Stem cells can now be artificially grown and transformed (differentiated) into specialized cell types with characteristics consistent with cells of various tissues such as muscles or nerves. (
  • Only cells from an earlier stage of the embryo, known as the morula , are totipotent, able to become all tissues in the body and the extraembryonic placenta. (
  • Certain non-mammalian vertebrates, such as birds, can regenerate hair cells through the proliferation of stem cells that are thought to reside in the sensory tissues of the ear. (
  • Compromise of the various stem cells that maintain these tissues can lead to blindness. (
  • Stem cells may one day be used to make cells and tissues for therapy of many diseases. (
  • Human serum harbours thousands of distinct proteins originating from a wide range of cells and tissues, as well as thousands of small-molecule metabolites, all in varying concentrations. (
  • Adult stem cells are undifferentiated cells, found throughout the body after development that multiply by cell division to replenish dying cells and regenerate damaged tissues. (
  • These abilities could allow prostate cancer cells to spread to different tissues in an animal and presumably a person. (
  • Scientific research may show that stem cells can be used to create healthy tissues to replace dysfunctional ones in people with diseases. (
  • While many of the genetic and epigenetic abnormalities in neoplasms are probably neutral evolution , many have been shown to increase the proliferation of the mutant cells, or decrease their rate of death ( apoptosis ). (
  • At the level of the cell, there is selection for increased cell proliferation and survival, such that a mutant cell that acquires one of the hallmarks of cancer [3] (see below), will have a competitive advantage over cells that have not acquired the hallmark. (
  • B-cell disorders are divided into defects of B-cell development/immunoglobulin production ( immunodeficiencies ) and excessive/uncontrolled proliferation ( lymphomas , leukemias ). (
  • In cancer cells, activation of the engineered receptors causes changes in cell morphology, proliferation and gene expression, characteristic of increased cancer malignancy. (
  • Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) self-organize into apicobasally polarized cysts, reminiscent of the lumenal epiblast stage, providing a model to explore key morphogenic processes in early human embryos. (
  • In the strictest sense, this requires stem cells to be either totipotent or pluripotent -to be able to give rise to any mature cell type, although multipotent or unipotent progenitor cells are sometimes referred to as stem cells. (
  • Pluripotent, embryonic stem cells originate as inner cell mass (ICM) cells within a blastocyst. (
  • Incucyte S3 live-cell analysis system was devised lately for defining spontaneous neuronal activity as well as connectivity from hiPSC (human-induced pluripotent stem cells)-derived neurons after transducing GECI (genetically encoded calcium indicator). (
  • The amazing thing is that if you take an aged cell that is fully committed to a certain function, and you transplant its nucleus into an immature egg cell called an oocyte, then you revert its function to a pluripotent, embryonic one, which means it can become any other cell of the body-and you also revert the age of that cell to the youngest age possible. (
  • How can you make a pluripotent cell in the lab? (
  • Historically, the way pluripotency was induced from non-pluripotent cells was by doing the procedure I've just described: so-called "somatic cell nuclear transfer. (
  • You take a non-pluripotent cell, let's say a liver cell or a fibroblast or any other cell. (
  • Since embryonic cells are naturally endowed with a pluripotency program, if you then take that embryo and put it in culture, you can establish pluripotent stem cell lines. (
  • Shinya Yamanaka, a Japanese researcher that got a Nobel prize for his work three years ago, demonstrated another technique, called induced pluripotent stem cells, or iPS. (
  • He showed that if you simply boost the expression of four particular transcription factors inside a non-pluripotent cell for a few weeks, you also could create an embryonic-like program. (
  • The uproar over stem cells really began in 1998 with the s- cessful derivation of pluripotent human embryonic stem (ES) cells by James Thomson and co-workers. (
  • Pluripotent stem cells (ex: embryonic stem cells) can give rise to any type of cell in the body. (
  • Human pluripotent stem cells such as human embryonic stem cells (hESC) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) with their unique developmental plasticity hold immense potential as cellular models for drug discovery and in regenerative medicine as a source for cell replacement. (
  • Pluripotent Stem Cells: Methods and Protocols highlights the best methods and systems for the entire work flow. (
  • They are called induced pluripotent stem cells or iPS calls and Chien wants to try and turn iPS cells into the heart progenitor cells -- but says working with true human embryonic stem cells is important. (
  • Journal of Cell Science publishes cutting-edge science, e ncompassing all aspects of cell biology. (
  • they are supported by an outstanding Editorial Advisory Board that reflects all relevant areas in cell biology, including recently emerging fields. (
  • Announcing our next special issue on Cell Biology of the Immune System , guest edited by Ana-Maria Lennon-Duménil. (
  • Have you seen our special issue on Plant Cell Biology, guest edited by Jenny Russinova? (
  • Growing incidences of chronic diseases have resulted in upswing in research related to cell biology and cytology. (
  • He has over 25 years experience in cell biology with specific interests in cell culture technology, neuroscience and stem cell research. (
  • The research professor of reproductive biology at Stanford University keeps the cells warm and moist deep inside the Lorry I. Lokey Stem Cell Research Building, one of the nation's largest stem cell facilities. (
  • The Cells for Sight Team is aiming to understand the biology and therapeutic potential of stem cells (and the cells with which they interact) to develop and deliver novel cell-based therapies and anti-scarring strategies for patients with blinding corneal and conjunctival disease. (
  • Surgical removal showed that their blood vessels had broken up, and after 11 days, most of the tumour cells had died, Blaschuk told a meeting of the American Society for Cell Biology in Washington DC this week. (
  • Creative Bioarray is a leading company specialized in cell biology. (
  • Invertebrate zoology is not studied in isolation and thus the 704 pages contain many terms that one would normally come across from the related fields of Biochemistry, Cell Biology, Ecology, Earth History, Genetics, Paleontology, Physiology, Taxonomy and Zoogeography. (
  • A lot of what we know about the regenerative attributes of progenitor cells comes from the great resources of development biology and embryology. (
  • In new experiments, Sebastien Huet and Aurélien Bancaud of the European Molecular Biology Laboratory in Heidelberg, Germany, tracked the movement of molecules within cells in a lab dish, then compared the pattern of movement against mathematical models. (
  • And in some very rare types of breast cancer, the cancer cells may not form a lump or tumor at all. (
  • Often the tumor will regrow from those resistant cells, the patient will relapse, and the therapy that had been previously used will no longer kill the cancer cells. (
  • The aim of the work was to identify new ways to block the dangerous colonization and spread of tumor cells. (
  • Based on these findings, approaches may be developed to prevent the dangerous spread of tumor cells. (
  • The Heidelberg and Mannheim research team led by Hellmut Augustin has now succeeded in developing a suitable model system, as Nicolas Gengenbacher, first author of the current publication, reports: "The key to this was a direct transplantation of tumor tissue from one mouse to another without prior cell culture. (
  • Cancer cells need a lot of iron to maintain the rapid division necessary for tumor growth. (
  • The RCRF takes care of the rest of the coordination to make sure your de-identified tumor sample is sent to the Broad Institute of MIT / Harvard laboratories for cell processing and hopeful growth. (
  • In a Phase I human gene therapy trial, eight immunocompetent prostate cancer (PCA) patients were treated with autologous, GM-CSF-secreting, irradiated tumor vaccines prepared from ex vivo retroviral transduction of surgically harvested cells. (
  • Vaccine site biopsies manifested infiltrates of dendritic cells and macrophages among prostate tumor vaccine cells. (
  • T-cell responses, evaluated by assessing delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) reactions against untransduced autologous tumor cells, were evident in two of eight patients before vaccination and in seven of eight patients after treatment. (
  • A distinctive eosinophilic vasculitis was evident near autologous tumor cells at vaccine sites, and at DTH sites. (
  • In Jul 2020, Incucyte Live-Cell Analysis System and Incucyte 3D Multi-Tumor Spheroid Assays were used for evaluating 3D spheroids' development with either non-invasive reagents or label-free in real time. (
  • IL-8, another cytokine, is released after tumor cell death, subsequently stimulating CSCs to regrow the tumor and resist chemotherapy. (
  • Curcumin has been found to suppress tumor cells along the Notch pathway. (
  • This pathway plays a key role in regulating normal stem cells, with aberrant signaling stimulating CSCs, resulting once again in tumor recurrence and resistance to chemotherapy. (
  • Research confirms that when you are deficient in NK cells, you're far more susceptible to viral infections, and likely tumor formation as well. (
  • Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are thought to play an important role in tumor recurrence and drug resistance, and present a major challenge in cancer therapy. (
  • Most cancers contain a subpopulation of highly tumorigenic cells, known as cancer stem cells (CSCs) or tumor-initiating cells (TICs). (
  • The initiation and progression of malignant tumors is driven by distinct subsets of tumor-initiating or cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) which develop therapy/apoptosis resistance and self-renewal capacity. (
  • Following the formation of these bodies, the cells were enriched with specific growth factors to form progenitor cells that expressed genes indicating the development of the inner ear. (
  • The cells that developed were examined to see whether they looked like sensory hair cells or nerve cells, and whether they expressed genes and proteins that were typical of these types of cells. (
  • They found that the cells they isolated expressed genes typical of stem cells, such as OCT4, and genes typical of ear cell progenitors, such as SOX2. (
  • B and T cells, type 2 dendritic cells, and natural killer (NK) cells share a common ancestor, ie, common lymphoid progenitor (CLP). (
  • It has been postulated that a population of cells localized in the supporting cell layer in mammalian ears may contain progenitor cells that could lead to hair cell regeneration. (
  • Spheres are cloned cell colonies generated from a single stem cell and are made up primarily of progenitor cells that are capable of differentiating into different cell types. (
  • The next step was to graft the progenitor cells into the developing ears of embryonic chickens. (
  • In mice, the progenitor cells that Chien's team found exist for just 48 hours. (
  • Banks of human heart progenitor cells might be grown and used for treatments eventually, he said, especially if they can be matched to all the different human tissue and blood types. (
  • Transmission electron micrograph of an adult stem cell displaying typical ultrastructural characteristics. (
  • Adult stem cells are frequently used in various medical therapies (e.g., bone marrow transplantation ). (
  • This study is being done to test if it is safe to give stem cells to adult patients with Cystic Fibrosis (CF). The kind of stem cells we are studying are called allogeneic human mesenchymal stem cells or MSCs. (
  • Various types of living cells such as mature and immature solid tissue cells, adult stem cells, blood and bone marrow cells, and embryonic stem cells are used for personalized cell therapy. (
  • Adult stem cells are undifferentiated cells that are found in organ tissue and have the capacity to produce specialized cell types for that particular organ. (
  • Adult stem cells were recently found in the mouse utricle, a part of the inner ear involved in balance and motion. (
  • There are two main types of stem cells: embryonic stem cells and adult stem cells. (
  • They're very dynamic, much more than any other cell in the adult brain," Nimmerjahn told me for a piece I wrote last year for Nature . (
  • Since 1998, extensive research endeavours have been devoted to the study of both embryonic and adult stem cells. (
  • Early reports suggested that adult stem cells had a higher plasticity than previously believed, perhaps even comparable with that demonstrated by embryonic stem cells, but several observations of the so-called transdifferentiation capacity and plasticity of adult stem cells have not been repeated. (
  • These reports, however, encouraged on-going debates about the capacity of adult versus embryonic stem cells and their potential use in regenerative medicine. (
  • Stem cell research focuses on embryonic stem cells and adult stem cells. (
  • Adult stem cells are already designated for a certain organ or tissue. (
  • Some adult stem cells can be coaxed into or be reprogrammed into turning into a different type of specialized cell within the tissue type - for example, a heart stem cell can give rise to a functional heart muscle cell, but it is still unclear whether they can give rise to all different cell types of the body. (
  • The primary role of adult stem cells is to maintain and repair the tissue in which they are found. (
  • stem cells, they can be found in juvenile as well as adult animals and human bodies. (
  • Creative Bioarray provides adult stem cells from various tissue/organs of human, mouse and rat. (
  • embryos show promise of being agents of healing What about non-destructive, adult stem cells What is the value of human life before birth The Bible, the consistent, unanimous teachings of Christianty, and modern scientific breakthroughs are all brought together in this enlightening and timely booklet. (
  • What about non-destructive, adult stem cells? (
  • While hESC are derived from a developing embryo, iPSC are generated with forced expression of key transcription factors to convert adult somatic cells to ESC-like cells, a process termed reprogramming. (
  • A recent study out of Harvard found that the major source of new beta cells in adult mice was preexisting beta cells, not stem cells. (
  • Conservatives are pretending that adult stem cells are more powerful than embryonic ones. (
  • Perforin, hinting at the functional basis of its name, perforates the cell membrane of the cell targeted for elimination, allowing the proteins and other chemicals to enter, thereby inducing apoptosis (programmed cell death) that destroys the virus along with the infected cell. (
  • This leukemia cell is tearing itself apart by a process called apoptosis. (
  • Stem cell transplants have many benefits, but they also have risks. (
  • Because stem cell transplants destroy and rebuild your immune system, they increase your risk for fungal infections. (
  • Could stem cell transplants cure Crohns disease? (
  • A new trial is underway to test whether stem cell transplants could put an end to Crohn's disease. (
  • Little is known about the endocannabinoid (eCB) system in squamous cell carcinoma of the oral tongue (SCCOT). (
  • Stem cells from your own body (also called an autologous transplant). (
  • Of all stem cell types, autologous harvesting involves the least risk. (
  • By definition, autologous cells are obtained from one's own body, just as one may bank his or her own blood for elective surgical procedures. (
  • Embryonic cell lines and autologous embryonic stem cells generated through somatic cell nuclear transfer or dedifferentiation have also been proposed as promising candidates for future therapies. (
  • This study will evaluate a treatment regimen that alternates two different 3-drug regimens every eight weeks for patients that have previously completed autologous stem cell transplant. (
  • Patients must have completed a stem cell transplant regimen for newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (MM) consisting of (at least) induction chemotherapy and single or tandem autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT) within eight months of study enrollment. (
  • Better healthcare amenities along with high adoption rate of new technology for the treatment of cancer in the developed region is expected to boost overall sales of autologous cell therapy products in regions such as North America and Europe. (
  • This activating receptor recognizes eight distinct ligands (the MHC Class I polypeptide-related sequences (MIC) A andB, and UL16-binding proteins (ULBP)1-6) induced by cellular stress to promote recognition cells perturbed by malignant transformation or microbial infection. (
  • Gap junctions are clusters of intercellular channels between cells formed by the membrane proteins connexins (Cx), that mediate rapid intercellular communication via direct electric contact and diffusion of metabolites [1]. (
  • The cell then swallows this bundle of iron and proteins. (
  • The cancer cell, unaware of the toxic compound lurking on its surface, waits for the protein machinery to deliver iron molecules and engulfs everything - iron, proteins and toxic compound. (
  • It is made up of various organs, cells and proteins. (
  • The body's own cells have proteins on their surface, too. (
  • But those proteins don't usually trigger the immune system to fight the cells. (
  • CXCR1 and CXCR2 are proteins expressed on cells, including CSCs, which respond to the aforementioned cytokines in a deleterious manner. (
  • The function of a skin cell is to express certain proteins, keratins for example that protect the skin. (
  • In the engineered receptors, the dimerization step and subsequently cell signaling can now be turned on and off by light as the algal proteins sense light and bind to each other. (
  • The mystery is how the cell maintains these distinct compartments of gene activity, despite the highly dynamic behaviour of the proteins that regulate DNA. (
  • This could help to explain how the cell tweaks the behaviour of the proteins that control DNA, says Huet. (
  • Our experiments show that loss of AIM1 proteins gives prostate cancer cells the ability to change shape, migrate, and invade. (
  • The group is particularly interested in effector proteins that target host cells and accumulate in mitochondria. (
  • For example, most breast cancers are a type of carcinoma called adenocarcinoma , which starts in cells that make up glands (glandular tissue). (
  • Microglia have been long understood to be the sentinels of the central nervous system, patrolling the brain and spinal cord and springing into action to stamp out infections or gobble up dead cell tissue. (
  • In addition to blood vessels that supply oxygen and nutrients, the lymph vessels are responsible for transporting cells of the immune system and tissue fluid. (
  • Besides excitable cells, gap junctions are found between cells in almost every solid tissue [1]. (
  • Gap junctions are the only electrical contacts between the beta-cells in the tissue of these excitable islets. (
  • In excitable cells such as neurons, cardiac myocytes and smooth muscles, gap junctions provide efficient low-resistance pathways through which membrane voltage changes can be shared across the tissue. (
  • Adipose tissue (fat cells), which requires extraction by liposuction. (
  • These stem cells can become any tissue in the body, excluding a placenta. (
  • Multipotent stem cells can give rise to multiple types of cells, but all within a particular tissue, organ, or physiological system. (
  • FBS composition can affect how thick an engineered tissue becomes, cause spontaneous artefacts that mimic cell activity and even influence how surface receptors respond to a given compound. (
  • Stem cells are the body's master cells, the source of all cells and tissue in the body. (
  • Discuss that stem cells are special cells in the human body that can develop into virtually any type of body tissue. (
  • This research has shown that stem cells can be isolated from tissue from part of the human foetal inner ear (the cochlear), and can then be grown in the laboratory so that they develop into cells with hair cell and nerve cell-like characteristics. (
  • A dark blob reminiscent of a cell nucleus was also identified, along with elongated structures presumed to be "morphologically consistent" with chromosomes, according to the new paper. (
  • This produces what is known as a reconstituted embryo, in which the cytoplasm is the original egg's cytoplasm, and the nucleus is the nucleus of the cell that you isolated. (
  • Fractals -- rough shapes that look the same at all scales--could explain how the cell's nucleus holds molecules that manage our DNA in the right location. (
  • However, such membrane barriers do not occur in the cell nucleus, which instead contains several distinct regions, each with different properties. (
  • This means that their DNA, or genetic material, is contained within the nucleus of cells. (
  • The other type of cells, called prokaryotic, do not have a nucleus. (
  • Eukaryotic cells are about 10 times the size of their counterparts, and the DNA in the nucleus is organized into chromosomes. (
  • By Papanicolaou stain, most decoy cells have an enlarged nucleus that bears a basophilic inclusion which is surrounded by chromatin that confers a ground-glass or gelatinous appearance. (
  • By phase-contrast microscopy, decoy cells show the same abnormalities described for stained specimens, namely, enlargement of the nucleus with a ground-glass or vesicular appearance, altered chromatin, enlarged nucleoli, the presence of a halo, and at times also cytoplasmic vacuoles. (
  • Irradiated GM-CSF-secreting cancer cell vaccines induce antitumor immune responses by recruiting antigen-presenting cells, such as DCs, to immunization sites. (
  • [5] Unlike their precursors, they cannot switch antibody classes , cannot act as antigen-presenting cells because they no longer display MHC-II, and do not take up antigen because they no longer display significant quantities of immunoglobulin on the cell surface. (
  • Stem Cells @ Lunch is a fortnightly lunchtime seminar series, hosted by the Centre for Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine. (
  • Thus the dawn of regenerative medicine has spawned from the somewhat esoteric study of stem cells. (
  • Regenerative (reparative) medicine uses cell-based therapies to treat disease. (
  • Stem cells and regenerative medicine is a fast emerging field with rapid strides of progress and focus on human health. (
  • A lot more experimental and technological work has to be done before regenerative stem cell transplantation is a routine occurrence. (
  • Both continue their development in the bone marrow through an antigen-independent process called primary lymphopoiesis (PL). Recognized stages of PL are pro-B cell, pre-B cell, immature B cell, and mature B cell. (
  • It has various applications such as platelet transfusions, bone marrow transplantation, whole blood transfusions, packed red cell transfusions, and organ transplantation. (
  • As drug therapy is not always effective, research experts have discovered special cells in bone marrow that can be developed into injectable cell therapy to treat IBD. (
  • After leaving the bone marrow, the B cell acts as an antigen presenting cell (APC) and internalizes offending antigens, which are taken up by the B cell through receptor-mediated endocytosis and processed. (
  • Recently they have been shown to reside for much longer periods in the bone marrow as long-lived plasma cells (LLPC). (
  • a secondary response produces longer-lived cells that produce IgG and IgA, and frequently travel to the bone marrow. (
  • Cells in pre-malignant and malignant neoplasms ( tumors ) evolve by natural selection . (
  • The earliest ideas about neoplastic evolution come from Boveri [8] who proposed that tumors originated in chromosomal abnormalities passed on to daughter cells. (
  • The ability of cancer cells to spread through both pathways in the body and form daughter tumors, so-called metastases, has been known for a long time. (
  • The new study not only advances the understanding of the evolution of HeLa cells, and of tumors in general, but of the cells of multicellular organisms in culture in general. (
  • CN706 destroyed large LNCaP tumors (1 × 10 9 cells) and abolished PSA production in nu/nu mouse xenograft models with a single intratumoral injection. (
  • Malignant cells often remain in the body after cancer surgery and can be the starting point for a relapse oft he disease. (
  • Malignant plasma cells ( plasmacytoma ), many displaying characteristic "clockface nuclei", also seen in normal plasma cells. (
  • T lymphocytes (T cells) play critical roles in the regulation of immune responses, and are responsible for mediating many of the effector mechanisms of the immune system. (
  • Reactive DTH site biopsies manifested infiltrates of effector cells consisting of CD45RO+ T-cells, and degranulating eosinophils consistent with activation of both Th1 and Th2 T-cell responses. (
  • Plasma cells , also called plasma B cells , plasmocytes , plasmacytes , or effector B cells , are white blood cells that secrete large volumes of antibodies . (
  • Microglia (green) with purple representing the P2Y12 receptor which the study shows is a critical regulator in the process of pruning connections between nerve cells. (
  • A new study out today in the journal Nature Communications shows that cells normally associated with protecting the brain from infection and injury also play an important role in rewiring the connections between nerve cells. (
  • It now seems that targeting nerve cells might be an effective way to fight tumours - and even prevent them developing in the first place. (
  • Most nerve cells in the brain are comparatively pedestrian. (
  • Brain researcher Hiroshi Kawabe has discovered the workings of a process that had been completely overlooked until now, and that allows nerve cells in the brain to grow and form complex networks. (
  • The study, which has now been published in the journal Neuron, shows that an enzyme which usually controls the destruction of protein components has an unexpected function in nerve cells: it controls the structure of the cytoskeleton and thus ensures that nerve cells can form the tree-like extensions that are necessary for signal transmission in the brain. (
  • In order to be able to receive signals from other cells, nerve cells form complex extensions called dendrites (from the Greek "Ë dendron' meaning tree). (
  • During this phase, dendrites, with a total length of many hundred kilometers, grow from the 100 billion nerve cells in our brain. (
  • The result is a highly-complex network of nerve cells that controls all bodily functions - from breathing to complicated learning processes. (
  • As long as Nedd4-1 is active, the nerve cell dendrites can grow normally," reports Kawabe. (
  • In its absence, the dendrite growth comes to a standstill and previously formed dendrites collapse, with dramatic consequences for the function of nerve cell networks in the brain. (
  • This explains why nerve cells can also form dendrites without Nedd4-1 - albeit significantly fewer in number and shorter. (
  • But very little work has been carried out on its role in nerve cell development, which would have been the obvious thing to do. (
  • Image Caption: In the brain of mice, which cannot produce Nedd4-1, the extensions of nerve cells are shorter and of much simpler construction (example top) than in the brain of normal mice (example bottom). (
  • Answer: They can renew indefinitely and have the ability to give rise to any one of the different cell types in our body-nerve cell, liver cell, pancreatic cell, muscle cell, etc. (
  • Most cases of deafness are caused by the loss of hair cells in the ears and the nerve cells that transmit messages from these cells to the brain. (
  • In order to function correctly, both nerve cells and hair cells need to be able to set up electrical currents across their membranes. (
  • These nerve-like cells also had switched-on genes that are typically expressed in nerve cells. (
  • The 150-kDa polypeptide was expressed by LNCaP and PC-3 PCA cells, as well as by normal prostate epithelial cells, but not by prostate stromal cells. (
  • Because many such antigens may also be present in normal prostate epithelial cells as well as PCA cells, one major therapeutic challenge for induction of anti-PCA immune responses may be the need to overcome immune tolerance against normal prostate antigens. (
  • Decoy cells are virally infected epithelial cells that can be found in the urine. (
  • A new patent filing suggests that the tech giant has fuel cells in mind for future computers and gadgets. (
  • Replacing diesel systems with fuel cells could give refrigerated a clean-energy makeover. (
  • This is a great way to understand the science behind microbial fuel cells and make a little renewable energy at home. (
  • This is a three-day course which provides a comprehensive and up to date introduction to fuel cells for use in automotive engineering applications. (
  • Following a brief description of fuel cells and how they work, how they integrate and add value, and how hydrogen is produced, stored and distributed, the course will provide the status of the technology from fundamentals through to practical implementation. (
  • Day 1 will have a brief introduction to fuel cells and then go through fundamentals of fuel cells: the thermodynamic principles involving the electrochemical potential, the kinetics of electrode reactions, principles of electrocatalysis, and electrochemical methods of characterization. (
  • Day 2 will focus on fuel cells stacks incorporating polymer electrolyte membranes (PEMFCs). (
  • Day 3 will focus on those aspects which relate to the use of fuel cells in systems specifically designed for transportation and discusses typical system architectures, performance requirements, critical parameters and specifications, and system controls. (
  • No prior knowledge of fuel cells is assumed. (
  • Monash University has demonstrated that Goretex can replace platinum in fuel cells, potentially revolutionising pollution-free transport. (
  • Hydrogen fuel cells offer the theoretical possibility of eliminating tailpipe pollution. (
  • Provided the hydrogen is produced using clean energy sources, cars driven by hydrogen fuel cells would be almost carbon-neutral as well. (
  • With prices fluctuating wildly but reaching as high as $81,000/ kg this year, platinum makes fuel cells containing it highly expensive. (
  • Dr Bjorn Winther-Jensen has used material better known for its resistance to moisture to remove the need for platinum in fuel cells. (
  • Goretex is already used for medical implants and cable insulation, so its use in fuel cells is not as big a jump as it may first appear. (
  • And besides the cost advantages, plastic/Goretex fuel cells do not appear to suffer the same carbon monoxide degradation that plagues platinum cells. (
  • Fuel cells using Goretex instead of platinum may make hydrogen cars viable. (
  • Fuel cells were first developed over 100 years ago, but their uses have been limited to specific applications because of costs. (
  • More recently, developers have improved on their design, efficiency, and costs, and fuel cells are starting to take their place in the next generation of integrated electric grids . (
  • Asim Hussain, senior director of marketing and customer experience at Bloom Energy , talks about the development of solid oxide fuel cells, first for NASA, and then as an increasingly reliable power source for businesses and utilities. (
  • Most cells are in contact not with blood directly but with the interstitial fluid that bathes organs, says Adam Elhofy, chief science officer at Essential Pharmaceuticals in Ewing, New Jersey, a company developing a serum replacement for multiple cell types. (
  • Experimentally, embryonic and non-embryonic induced stem cells are thought to potentially repair organs or replenish important cell losses such as in Parkinson's disease. (
  • Plant cells contain a variety of different organelles, or microscopic organs, each performing different functions. (
  • The CD8 antibody allows the identification of CD8, a 68 kDa transmembrane glycoprotein expressed by class I major histocompatibility complex restricted, mature suppressor/cytotoxic T cells, the great majority of cortical thymocytes and approximately 30% of medullary thymocytes. (
  • The kit can thus distinguish both the CD4 T helper cells as well as the CD8 cytotoxic T Cells. (
  • CD3 T cell can be further broadly classified as T helper lymphocytes that are CD3+CD4+ and cytotoxic T lymphocytes that are CD3+CD8+. (
  • Conventional cytotoxic chemotherapy is incapable of such delicate and "intelligent" behavior, as it preferentially targets fast-replicating cells by damaging their DNA in the vulnerable mitosis stage of cell division, regardless of whether they are benign, healthy or cancerous cells. (
  • NK cells are cytotoxic, meaning they're capable of killing cells. (
  • For polyomavirus BK, only the restoration of immunologic function and the subsequent reconstitution of cells with antiviral activity such as natural killer cells and cytotoxic T cells has proven to be effective. (
  • Cancer therapies act as a form of artificial selection, killing sensitive cancer cells, but leaving behind resistant cells . (
  • The goal of therapeutic cloning research is not to make babies, but to make embryonic stem cells, which can be harvested and used for cell-based therapies. (
  • If the findings are confirmed in humans, they could pave the way for dramatic new therapies for diabetes, namely the regeneration of beta cells so the body could once again produce its own insulin. (
  • Embryonic stem cells are produced from the inner cells of embryos. (
  • Embryonic stem cells are harvested from four to six-day-old embryos. (
  • These embryos are either leftover embryos in fertility clinics or embryos created specifically for harvesting stem cells by therapeutic cloning. (
  • Cloning human embryos for stem cells is very controversial. (
  • Questions of ethics arise because embryos are destroyed as the cells are extracted, such as: When does human life begin? (
  • Using iPSC overcomes ethical issues concerning the use of developing embryos and it can be generated from patient-specific cells for downstream applications. (
  • Stem cells for research are drawn from blastocysts-embryos that are a few days old, consist of several dozen cells, and are smaller by far than the pinhead on which theology's angels dance. (
  • Chien's team worked with embryonic stem cells, which are found in days-old embryos and which at first can give rise to every cell type. (
  • Answers may include: Embryonic stem cells involve fertilized human embryos which are used solely to extract stem cells. (
  • However, in prostate cancer cells, the protein was not found near the borders of the cells and was not paired with beta-actin. (
  • By using state-of-the-art quantitative single-cell analyses, he was able to investigate the properties of the cytoskeletons of AIM1-lacking prostate cancer cells. (
  • A PSA test can lead to a hunt for prostate cancer cells. (
  • Join us in February 2019, as we look at the latest developments in the 3D Cell Culture field. (
  • The formation and removal of the physical connections between neurons is a critical part of maintaining a healthy brain and the process of creating new pathways and networks among brain cells enables us to absorb, learn, and memorize new information. (
  • The New York Times ( Cells That Read Minds ) and The Wall Street Journal ( How Mirror Neurons Help Us to Empathize ) published a couple of articles at the beginning of this month about mirror neurons. (
  • Mirror neurons make these complex cells look like numbskulls. (
  • So, mirror neurons are, essentially, psychic cells that allow you to anticipate the actions of others and mimic their emotions. (
  • Thus restoring natural cellular function through the use of microcurrents or electrical connectivity holds much promise for the future of diabetes treatment and pancreatic islet cell repair. (
  • Diabetes is primarily a failing of the pancreatic beta cells to produce insulin. (
  • The very existence of pancreatic stem cells is controversial. (
  • The finding reduced the urgency to track down pancreatic stem cells. (
  • The mechanical properties of epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) and a pancreatic cancer subpopulation with stem cell properties have been increasingly recognized as potent modulators of the effective o. (
  • Most of these B cells will become plasmablasts (or "immature plasma cells"), and eventually plasma cells, and begin producing large volumes of antibodies. (
  • The most immature blood cell that is considered of plasma cell lineage is the plasmablast . (
  • The global personalized cell therapy market was valued at US$ 3,536.2 million in 2016 and is expected to witness a robust CAGR of 25.3% during the forecast period (2017 - 2024). (
  • These data suggest that both T-cell and B-cell immune responses to human PCA can be generated by treatment with irradiated, GM-CSF gene-transduced PCA vaccines. (
  • 5 , 6 As reported by Live Science, 7 a specific gene called KLRD1 "could serve as a proxy for a person's levels of natural killer cells. (
  • KLRD1 is a receptor gene found on the surface of NK cells, and the level of KLRD1 found in a person's blood prior to exposure to the influenza virus was able to predict with 86 percent accuracy whether that individual would contract the flu. (
  • CD3 is a pan-T marker expressed by normal and neoplastic T cells and uniquely allows the identification of all T cell lymphocytes. (
  • When these antigens attach to special receptors on the immune cells (immune system cells), a whole series of processes are triggered in the body. (
  • Defects occurring at the CLP stage or those affecting processes common to B- and T-cell development result in combined immunodeficiency involving B, T, and NK cells (see Combined B-Cell and T-Cell Disorders ). (
  • Included will be the set of governing equations that define the physical processes involved in single cells. (
  • This site is great for better understanding of the cell and the processes involved. (
  • This is a super site to learn about cells and cell processes. (
  • Answer: By studying the development of these cells they can discover the processes that lead to the malfunction of that cell, which could lead to disease, such as diabetes. (
  • In May 2020, HORIBA Medical entered into collaboration with CellaVision regarding automated digital cell morphology solution. (
  • Decoy cells are virus infected urothelial cells with a distinct morphology of enlarged nuclei and intranuclear inclusions. (
  • Blaschuk of McGill University in Montreal, Quebec, has developed a new compound that exploits such flaws by dissolving the weak biological glue that holds the cells of a tumour's blood vessels together. (
  • During this meeting, we will discuss challenges and applications of single-cell omics across different fields of biological research. (
  • The program is aimed at those interested in single-cell analysis from a wide-range of biological problems. (
  • Barack Obama signed an executive order this morning reversing George W. Bush's August, 2001, decision to ban federal funding for new embryonic stem-cell lines. (
  • In October, 2004, Connie Bruck reported on Proposition 71 in California , an ultimately successful ballot initiative authorizing the state to fund new embryonic stem-cell lines. (
  • What is an embryonic stem cell? (
  • Two novel human cytomegalovirus NK cell evasion functions target MICA for lysosomal degradation. (
  • Our observations suggest that human cells that have been cultured for a sufficiently long period still generate deleterious mutations in the form of CNVs at a high rate and with a high intensity. (
  • E1A was expressed at high levels in CN706-infected human PSA-producing LNCaP cells but not in CN706-infected DU145 cells, which are human prostate cells that do not express PSA. (
  • The titer of CN706 was significantly higher in LNCaP cells compared to several human cell lines that do not produce PSA (HBL100, PANC-1, MCF-7, DU145, and OVCAR3). (
  • This FlowCellect Human CD4/CD8 T Cell Assay provides a rapid & simple method to asses the percentage of CD4 & CD8 T cells in flow cytometry applications. (
  • The CD4 antibody allows the identification of human helper/inducer CD4+ T cell (HLA Class II reactive) and recognizes a 60,000 Da surface antigen. (
  • For example, in 2015, the National Institutes of Health invested around US$ 1,429 million in stem cell research, as stem cells research offers great potential for better understanding of human development it is expected that this factor will fuel growth of the personalized cell therapy market in the near future. (
  • This breakthrough and the subsequent generation of specialized human cells in vitro led to a paradigm shift within the sci- ti?c community, which transformed this specialized endeavour from a topic of scienti?c interest to a line of investigation with the potential to generate cells - pable of treating serious ailments, including diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and neurodegenerative disorders. (
  • Opponents of stem-cell research are already using this incident to call for tighter controls on the use of human eggs for research. (
  • 1999 - The National Bioethics Advisory Commission recommends that the government allow federal funds to be used to support research on human embryonic stem cells. (
  • Whether these excess blastocysts are simply discarded, as the opponents of stem-cell research would apparently prefer, or whether a few hundred of them become the basis for a biomedical alchemy that could benefit millions, the amount of actual human suffering entailed would be the same: zero. (
  • Chien's team worked entirely with human cells and found the human heart develops differently from hearts in mice -- a surprising finding. (
  • And it turns out the human heart develops from patches of these early heart stem cells. (
  • Finding a cell that can make all the parts of the heart, including the contracting muscle, the smooth muscle and the vessels, brings us much closer to the possibility of repairing human hearts with new cells," Dr. Doug Melton, who helps direct the stem cell institute, said in a statement. (
  • Using human embryonic stem cells is controversial as some people object to destroying a human embryo. (
  • Harare (AFP) - Zimbabwean lawyers on Wednesday decried reported assaults and the death of suspects in police custody, as well as conditions in holding cells they called unfit for human habitation. (
  • Human rights organisations have denounced prison conditions in Zimbabwe, saying suspects are often held in overcrowded cells without functioning bathroom facilities, and issued threadbare and often lice-infested blankets. (
  • While plant cells share some characteristics with the cells found in the human body, such as a plasma layer, they are also different in many important ways. (
  • This laboratory study tried to identify human stem cells that could potentially be used in treatments for deafness. (
  • Scanning electron micrograph of human red blood cells. (
  • Human neutrophils are white blood cells that serve as professional phagocytes: their primary function is to eat and kill bacteria and they arrive quickly at the site of a bacterial infection. (
  • Totipotent stem cells that develop into cells that make up all the cells in an embryo and fetus. (
  • Is President Obama's decision to fund embryo-destructive stem-cell research purely scientific? (
  • CLP differentiates into 2 intermediate progenitors: early B cells and T/NK/dendritic trilineage cells. (
  • Network with industry experts, gain insight into how the pharmaceutical industry is utilizing 3D Cell Culture technologies to enhance research and development, discuss the potential for novel in-vitro cell culture models to replace animal models, and discover novel 3D cell culture systems, organ-on-chip, 3D imaging of organoids and other technologies in development. (
  • Although NK cells might appear to be redundant in several conditions of immune challenge in humans, NK cell manipulation seems to hold promise in efforts to improve hematopoietic and solid organ transplantation, promote antitumor immunotherapy and control inflammatory and autoimmune disorders. (
  • Decoy cells are mostly prevalent in immunocompromised individuals, such as transplant recipients who are treated with immunosuppressive medication in order for their immune system not to reject the foreign transplanted organ. (
  • When decoy cells derive from the urothelium, the heavily enlarged and altered nuclei as well as the irregular shape of the cell body can mimic the changes observed in neoplastic cells. (
  • In LCIS, cells that look like cancer cells are growing in the lobules of the milk-producing glands of the breast, but they don't grow through the wall of the lobules. (
  • What role do the lymphatic vessels play in the metastasis of cancer cells? (
  • This interrupted the transport pathways for cancer cells to detach and prevented them from spreading to nearby lymph nodes. (
  • Why haven't cancer cells undergone genetic meltdowns? (
  • But if cancer cells were accumulating harmful mutations faster than they could be purged, wouldn't the population eventually die out? (
  • How do cancer cells avoid complete genetic meltdown? (
  • Their results indicate that heterogeneity in cell growth can be generated in a very short period of time in cancer cells and is heritable and genetically determined. (
  • Therefore, despite single-cell origin, the progeny quickly generated aneuploidy within only 20-30 cell divisions, again illustrating frequent cytogenetic change in cancer cells. (
  • Despite the level of mutations occurring, reduction in growth rates, and chromosome numbers no longer representing that of normal humans, cancer cells still find a way to survive. (
  • It was highly selective at killing the cancer cells. (
  • Cancer drug designers are faced with the unique challenge that cancer cells develop from our own normal cells, meaning that most ways to poison cancer cells also kill healthy cells. (
  • Most available chemotherapies are very toxic, destroying one normal cell for every five to 10 cancer cells killed, Sasaki said. (
  • The compound Sasaki and his colleagues developed kills 12,000 cancer cells for every healthy cell, meaning it could be turned into a drug with minimal side effects. (
  • Artemisinin alone is fairly effective at killing cancer cells. (
  • It kills approximately 100 cancer cells for every healthy cell, about ten times better than current chemotherapies. (
  • The compound is so selective for cancer cells partly due to their rapid multiplication, which requires high amounts of iron, and partly because cancer cells are not as good as healthy cells at cleaning up free-floating iron. (
  • Cancer cells get sloppy at maintaining free iron, so they are more sensitive to artemisinin," Sasaki said. (
  • Cancer cells are already under significant stress from their high iron contents and other imbalances, Sasaki said. (
  • This compound works on a general property of cancer cells, their high iron content. (
  • to fight disease-causing changes in the body, such as cancer cells. (
  • Harald Janovjak, Assistant Professor at IST Austria, together with Michael Grusch, Associate Professor at the Institute of Cancer Research of the Medical University of Vienna, "remote-controlled" the behaviour of cancer cells with light, as reported in EMBO Journal . (
  • How long does it take for a population of cancer cells growing in a dish to double? (
  • This 24 hour series begins every midnight and shows cell division in a population of cultured cancer cells. (
  • Decoy cells owe their name to their strong resemblance to cancer cells, and may as such confuse the diagnosis of either viral infection or urothelial malignancy. (
  • As such, decoy cells may strongly resemble malign cancer cells, from which they also derive their name. (
  • This is because they can be mistaken for cancer cells, or the other way around where cancer cells can be mistaken for decoy cells. (
  • More than 80% of all cases of hearing loss can be attributed to the degeneration and death of sensory hair cells. (
  • During further mitotic expansion of such cysts, all cells retain expression of pluripotency markers. (
  • This self-renewal demands control of cell cycle as well as upkeep of multipotency or pluripotency, which all depends on the stem cell. (
  • Stem cells from a donor (also called an allogeneic transplant). (
  • Allogeneic means the cells come from another person (a donor). (
  • Somatic evolution is the accumulation of mutations and epimutations in somatic cells (the cells of a body, as opposed to germplasm and stem cells ) during a lifetime, and the effects of those mutations and epimutations on the fitness of those cells. (
  • The islets of Langerhans in the pancreas are clusters of largely alpha-, beta- and delta-cells that respectively control secretion of the hormones: glucagon, insulin and somatostatin, central to energy regulation. (
  • Under certain physiologic or experimental conditions, stem cells can be induced to become mature cells with special functions such as the beating cells of the heart muscle or insulin-producing cells of the pancreas. (
  • This is the first conclusive evidence that there are stem cells in the pancreas, but any potential benefit is a very long way away," said Juan Dominguez-Bendala, director of Stem Cell Development for Translational Research at the Diabetes Research Institute of the University of Miami Miller School of Medicine. (
  • Kupffer cells Specialized macrophages that dispose of old blood cells and particulate matter. (
  • It is generally believed that they are responsible for synchrony of the membrane voltage oscillations among beta-cells, and thereby pulsatility of insulin secretion. (
  • Here, we show that lumen formation begins on the interior of single cells, with the formation of an apicosome: a highly organized intracellular membrane-bound apical lumenal compartment studded with microvilli and a primary cilium. (
  • In animals, including humans, the cells' exteriors are a plasma membrane. (
  • Plants too have this membrane, but it's not the outermost shell of a cell. (
  • They directly connect the cytoplasm of two cells, which allows various molecules, ions and electrical impulses to directly pass through a regulated gate between those cells. (
  • Once inside the cell, the iron reacts with artemisinin to release poisonous molecules called free radicals. (
  • Pieces of the antigen (which are now known as antigenic peptides ) are loaded onto MHC II molecules, and presented on its extracellular surface to CD4+ T cells (sometimes called T helper cells ). (
  • To stop important biochemical reactions going awry, cells must make sure that the correct molecules meet and interact with each other at the right time and in the right place. (
  • Cells mostly achieve this by corralling molecules into cellular compartments bound by fatty membranes. (
  • By tracking fluorescent molecules injected into live mouse cells in a lab dish, Huet and Bancaud found that the molecules did indeed move as if they were having to navigate obstacles. (
  • 2 NK cells also help regulate your immune system by producing cytokines, signaling molecules that stimulate and regulate other immune system cells. (
  • The cell identifies these ubiquitinated molecules as "waste" and degrades them. (
  • Janovjak, Grusch and colleagues re-engineered receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), essential cell surface receptors that sense growth factors and hormones, to be under the control of light. (
  • When a signaling molecule binds to RTKs at the cell surface, two receptors bind to each other in a process called dimerization. (
  • Tumour cells can invade surrounding nerves and travel along the body's electrical superhighway, seeding themselves anew in distant sites. (
  • It is widely believed that targeting the tumour-initiating cancer stem cell (CSC) component of malignancy has great therapeutic potential, particularly in therapy-resistant disease. (
  • Tumour progression is dependent on the interaction between tumour cells and cells of the surrounding microenvironment. (