Gram-Negative Anaerobic Straight, Curved, and Helical Rods
Gram-Positive Asporogenous Rods
Characterization and cloning of celR, a transcriptional regulator of cellulase genes from Thermomonospora fusca. (1/307)CelR, a protein that regulates transcription of cellulase genes in Thermomonospora fusca (Actinomycetaceae) was purified to homogeneity. A 6-kilobase NotI-SacI fragment of T. fusca DNA containing the celR gene was cloned into Esherichia coli and sequenced. The celR gene encodes a 340-residue polypeptide that is highly homologous to members of the GalR-LacI family of bacterial transcriptional regulators. CelR specifically binds to a 14-base pair inverted repeat, which has sequence similarity to the binding sites of other family members. This site is present in regions upstream of all six cellulase genes in T. fusca. The binding of CelR to the celE promoter is inhibited specifically by low concentrations of cellobiose (0.2-0.5 mM), the major end product of cellulases. The other sugars tested did not affect binding at equivalent or 50-fold higher concentrations. The results suggest that CelR may act as a repressor, and that the mechanism of induction involves a direct interaction of CelR with cellobiose. (+info)
Growth of Azospirillum irakense KBC1 on the aryl beta-glucoside salicin requires either salA or salB. (2/307)The rhizosphere nitrogen-fixing bacterium Azospirillum irakense KBC1 is able to grow on pectin and beta-glucosides such as cellobiose, arbutin, and salicin. Two adjacent genes, salA and salB, conferring beta-glucosidase activity to Escherichia coli, have been identified in a cosmid library of A. irakense DNA. The SalA and SalB enzymes preferentially hydrolyzed aryl beta-glucosides. A Delta(salA-salB) A. irakense mutant was not able to grow on salicin but could still utilize arbutin, cellobiose, and glucose for growth. This mutant could be complemented by either salA or salB, suggesting functional redundancy of these genes in salicin utilization. In contrast to this functional homology, the SalA and SalB proteins, members of family 3 of the glycosyl hydrolases, show a low degree of amino acid similarity. Unlike SalA, the SalB protein exhibits an atypical truncated C-terminal region. We propose that SalA and SalB are representatives of the AB and AB' subfamilies, respectively, in glycosyl hydrolase family 3. This is the first genetic implication of this beta-glucosidase family in the utilization of beta-glucosides for microbial growth. (+info)
Carbon and electron flow in Clostridium cellulolyticum grown in chemostat culture on synthetic medium. (3/307)Previous results indicated poor sugar consumption and early inhibition of metabolism and growth when Clostridium cellulolyticum was cultured on medium containing cellobiose and yeast extract. Changing from complex medium to a synthetic medium had a strong effect on (i) the specific cellobiose consumption, which was increased threefold; and (ii) the electron flow, since the NADH/NAD+ ratios ranged from 0.29 to 2.08 on synthetic medium whereas ratios as high as 42 to 57 on complex medium were observed. These data indicate a better control of the carbon flow on mineral salts medium than on complex medium. By continuous culture, it was shown that the electron flow from glycolysis was balanced by the production of hydrogen gas, ethanol, and lactate. At low levels of carbon flow, pyruvate was preferentially cleaved to acetate and ethanol, enabling the bacteria to maximize ATP formation. A high catabolic rate led to pyruvate overflow and to increased ethanol and lactate production. In vitro, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, lactate dehydrogenase, and ethanol dehydrogenase levels were higher under conditions giving higher in vivo specific production rates. Redox balance is essentially maintained by NADH-ferredoxin reductase-hydrogenase at low levels of carbon flow and by ethanol dehydrogenase and lactate dehydrogenase at high levels of carbon flow. The same maximum growth rate (0.150 h-1) was found in both mineral salts and complex media, proving that the uptake of nutrients or the generation of biosynthetic precursors occurred faster than their utilization. On synthetic medium, cellobiose carbon was converted into cell mass and catabolized to produce ATP, while on complex medium, it served mainly as an energy supply and, if present in excess, led to an accumulation of intracellular metabolites as demonstrated for NADH. Cells grown on synthetic medium and at high levels of carbon flow were able to induce regulatory responses such as the production of ethanol and lactate dehydrogenase. (+info)
Cellobiose transport by mixed ruminal bacteria from a Cow. (4/307)The transport of cellobiose in mixed ruminal bacteria harvested from a holstein cow fed an Italian ryegrass hay was determined in the presence of nojirimycin-1-sulfate, which almost inhibited cellobiase activity. The kinetic parameters of cellobiose uptake were 14 microM for the Km and 10 nmol/min/mg of protein for the Vmax. Extracellular and cell-associated cellobiases were detected in the rumen, with both showing higher Vmax values and lower affinities than those determined for cellobiose transport. The proportion of cellobiose that was directly transported before it was extracellularly degraded into glucose increased as the cellobiose concentration decreased, reaching more than 20% at the actually observed levels of cellobiose in the rumen, which were less than 0.02 mM. The inhibitor experiment showed that cellobiose was incorporated into the cells mainly by the phosphoenolpyruvate phosphotransferase system and partially by an ATP-dependent and proton-motive-force-independent active transport system. This finding was also supported by determinations of phosphoenolpyruvate phosphotransferase-dependent NADH oxidation with cellobiose and the effects of artificial potentials on cellobiose transport. Cellobiose uptake was sensitive to a decrease in pH (especially below 6.0), and it was weakly but significantly inhibited in the presence of glucose. (+info)
Characterization of the binding protein-dependent cellobiose and cellotriose transport system of the cellulose degrader Streptomyces reticuli. (5/307)Streptomyces reticuli has an inducible ATP-dependent uptake system specific for cellobiose and cellotriose. By reversed genetics a gene cluster encoding components of a binding protein-dependent cellobiose and cellotriose ABC transporter was cloned and sequenced. The deduced gene products comprise a regulatory protein (CebR), a cellobiose binding lipoprotein (CebE), two integral membrane proteins (CebF and CebG), and the NH2-terminal part of an intracellular beta-glucosidase (BglC). The gene for the ATP binding protein MsiK is not linked to the ceb operon. We have shown earlier that MsiK is part of two different ABC transport systems, one for maltose and one for cellobiose and cellotriose, in S. reticuli and Streptomyces lividans. Transcription of polycistronic cebEFG and bglC mRNAs is induced by cellobiose, whereas the cebR gene is transcribed independently. Immunological experiments showed that CebE is synthesized during growth with cellobiose and that MsiK is produced in the presence of several sugars at high or moderate levels. The described ABC transporter is the first one of its kind and is the only specific cellobiose/cellotriose uptake system of S. reticuli, since insertional inactivation of the cebE gene prevents high-affinity uptake of cellobiose. (+info)
Microbial reduction of Fe(III) in acidic sediments: isolation of Acidiphilium cryptum JF-5 capable of coupling the reduction of Fe(III) to the oxidation of glucose. (6/307)To evaluate the microbial populations involved in the reduction of Fe(III) in an acidic, iron-rich sediment, the anaerobic flow of supplemental carbon and reductant was evaluated in sediment microcosms at the in situ temperature of 12 degrees C. Supplemental glucose and cellobiose stimulated the formation of Fe(II); 42 and 21% of the reducing equivalents that were theoretically obtained from glucose and cellobiose, respectively, were recovered in Fe(II). Likewise, supplemental H(2) was consumed by acidic sediments and yielded additional amounts of Fe(II) in a ratio of approximately 1:2. In contrast, supplemental lactate did not stimulate the formation of Fe(II). Supplemental acetate was not consumed and inhibited the formation of Fe(II). Most-probable-number estimates demonstrated that glucose-utilizing acidophilic Fe(III)-reducing bacteria approximated to 1% of the total direct counts of 4', 6-diamidino-2-phenylindole-stained bacteria. From the highest growth-positive dilution of the most-probable-number series at pH 2. 3 supplemented with glucose, an isolate, JF-5, that could dissimilate Fe(III) was obtained. JF-5 was an acidophilic, gram-negative, facultative anaerobe that completely oxidized the following substrates via the dissimilation of Fe(III): glucose, fructose, xylose, ethanol, glycerol, malate, glutamate, fumarate, citrate, succinate, and H(2). Growth and the reduction of Fe(III) did not occur in the presence of acetate. Cells of JF-5 grown under Fe(III)-reducing conditions formed blebs, i.e., protrusions that were still in contact with the cytoplasmic membrane. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence of JF-5 demonstrated that it was closely related to an Australian isolate of Acidiphilium cryptum (99.6% sequence similarity), an organism not previously shown to couple the complete oxidation of sugars to the reduction of Fe(III). These collective results indicate that the in situ reduction of Fe(III) in acidic sediments can be mediated by heterotrophic Acidiphilium species that are capable of coupling the reduction of Fe(III) to the complete oxidation of a large variety of substrates including glucose and H(2). (+info)
Identification of Ruminococcus flavefaciens as the predominant cellulolytic bacterial species of the equine cecum. (7/307)Detection and quantification of cellulolytic bacteria with oligonucleotide probes showed that Ruminococcus flavefaciens was the predominant species in the pony and donkey cecum. Fibrobacter succinogenes and Ruminococcus albus were present at low levels. Four isolates, morphologically resembling R. flavefaciens, differed from ruminal strains by their carbohydrate utilization and their end products of cellobiose fermentation. (+info)
The bvr locus of Listeria monocytogenes mediates virulence gene repression by beta-glucosides. (8/307)The beta-glucoside cellobiose has been reported to specifically repress the PrfA-dependent virulence genes hly and plcA in Listeria monocytogenes NCTC 7973. This led to the hypothesis that beta-glucosides, sugars of plant origin, may act as signal molecules, preventing the expression of virulence genes if L. monocytogenes is living in its natural habitat (soil). In three other laboratory strains (EGD, L028, and 10403S), however, the effect of cellobiose was not unique, and all fermentable carbohydrates repressed hly. This suggested that the downregulation of virulence genes by beta-glucosides is not a specific phenomenon but, rather, an aspect of a global regulatory mechanism of catabolite repression (CR). We assessed the effect of carbohydrates on virulence gene expression in a panel of wild-type isolates of L. monocytogenes by using the PrfA-dependent phospholipase C gene plcB as a reporter. Utilization of any fermentable sugar caused plcB repression in wild-type L. monocytogenes. However, an EGD variant was identified in which, as in NCTC 7973, plcB was only repressed by beta-glucosides. Thus, the regulation of L. monocytogenes virulence genes by sugars appears to be mediated by two separate mechanisms, one presumably involving a CR pathway and another specifically responding to beta-glucosides. We have identified in L. monocytogenes a 4-kb operon, bvrABC, encoding an antiterminator of the BglG family (bvrA), a beta-glucoside-specific enzyme II permease component of the phosphoenolpyruvate-sugar phosphotransferase system (bvrB), and a putative ADP-ribosylglycohydrolase (bvrC). Low-stringency Southern blots showed that this locus is absent from other Listeria spp. Transcription of bvrB was induced by cellobiose and salicin but not by arbutin. Disruption of the bvr operon by replacing part of bvrAB with an interposon abolished the repression by cellobiose and salicin but not that by arbutin. Our data indicate that the bvr locus encodes a beta-glucoside-specific sensor that mediates virulence gene repression upon detection of cellobiose and salicin. Bvr is the first sensory system found in L. monocytogenes that is involved in environmental regulation of virulence genes. (+info)
Cellobiose is a disaccharide sugar composed of two glucose molecules linked together by a beta-1,4-glycosidic bond. It is commonly found in plant cell walls and is a major component of cellulose, a complex carbohydrate that provides structural support to plant cells. In the medical field, cellobiose is not typically used as a therapeutic agent, but it can be used as a dietary supplement for individuals with certain medical conditions, such as diabetes, who require additional sources of carbohydrates. It is also used as a substrate in the production of certain enzymes and antibiotics. Cellobiose is not absorbed by the human body and is instead fermented by gut bacteria, producing short-chain fatty acids and gases. In some cases, excessive consumption of cellobiose can lead to digestive symptoms such as bloating, gas, and diarrhea.
Carbohydrate dehydrogenases are a group of enzymes that catalyze the oxidation of carbohydrates, such as glucose, fructose, and galactose, to produce aldehydes or ketones. These enzymes play important roles in various metabolic pathways, including glycolysis, the citric acid cycle, and the pentose phosphate pathway. There are several types of carbohydrate dehydrogenases, including glucose dehydrogenase, lactate dehydrogenase, and alcohol dehydrogenase. These enzymes are found in a variety of tissues, including the liver, muscle, and brain, and are involved in a range of physiological processes, such as energy metabolism, detoxification, and the synthesis of important molecules like nucleotides and amino acids. In the medical field, carbohydrate dehydrogenases are often used as diagnostic markers for various diseases and conditions. For example, elevated levels of lactate dehydrogenase in the blood can be an indicator of liver or muscle damage, while elevated levels of glucose dehydrogenase can be a sign of certain types of cancer or genetic disorders. Additionally, some carbohydrate dehydrogenases are used as targets for the development of new drugs and therapies.
Cellulose is a complex carbohydrate that is the primary structural component of plant cell walls. It is a long, fibrous polysaccharide made up of glucose molecules linked together by beta-1,4-glycosidic bonds. In the medical field, cellulose is used in a variety of ways. For example, it is often used as a thickening agent in medications, such as tablets and capsules, to help them maintain their shape and prevent them from dissolving too quickly in the stomach. It is also used as a binding agent in some medications to help them stick together and form a solid mass. In addition, cellulose is used in wound dressings and other medical products to help absorb excess fluid and promote healing. It is also used in some dietary supplements to help slow down the absorption of other ingredients, such as vitamins and minerals. Overall, cellulose is an important component of many medical products and plays a crucial role in their function and effectiveness.
Beta-glucosidase is an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of beta-1,4-glycosidic bonds in carbohydrates, specifically those that contain glucose. It is found in a variety of organisms, including bacteria, fungi, and plants, and plays an important role in the metabolism of carbohydrates. In the medical field, beta-glucosidase is used in the treatment of certain digestive disorders, such as lactose intolerance and galactosemia. It is also used in the production of certain foods and beverages, such as beer and certain types of cheese, where it helps to break down complex carbohydrates into simpler sugars that can be more easily digested and absorbed by the body. In addition, beta-glucosidase has been studied for its potential use in the treatment of certain types of cancer, as it has been shown to have anti-tumor effects in some laboratory studies. However, more research is needed to fully understand its potential therapeutic applications in this area.
Cellulase is a group of enzymes that break down cellulose, a complex carbohydrate found in plant cell walls. In the medical field, cellulase is used to treat certain digestive disorders, such as constipation and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), by breaking down the cellulose in plant-based foods and making them easier to digest. Cellulase supplements are available over-the-counter and may be recommended by a healthcare provider for individuals who have difficulty digesting certain types of fiber. However, it is important to note that cellulase supplements should not be used as a substitute for a healthy diet or medical treatment for digestive disorders.
Dextrins are a type of polysaccharide that are formed by partial hydrolysis of starch. They are composed of glucose molecules linked together by alpha-1,4-glycosidic bonds, with some alpha-1,6-glycosidic bonds present as well. Dextrins are often used as thickening agents in food and pharmaceutical products, and they have also been studied for their potential health benefits, including their ability to lower blood sugar levels and improve cholesterol levels. In the medical field, dextrins are sometimes used as a source of glucose for patients who are unable to produce enough glucose on their own, such as those with diabetes or liver disease. They may also be used as a thickening agent in medications or as a filler in certain medical devices.
In the medical field, disaccharides are two monosaccharide units (simple sugars) that are joined together by a glycosidic bond. Disaccharides are commonly found in foods and are broken down by the body into their constituent monosaccharides during digestion. Some common examples of disaccharides include sucrose (table sugar), lactose (milk sugar), and maltose (malt sugar). Disaccharides are an important source of energy for the body and are also used in the production of various foods and beverages.
Glucan 1,4-beta-glucosidase is an enzyme that hydrolyzes beta-1,4-glycosidic bonds in glucans, which are polysaccharides composed of glucose molecules linked by beta-1,4-glycosidic bonds. This enzyme is found in various organisms, including fungi, bacteria, and plants, and plays a crucial role in the degradation and metabolism of glucans. In the medical field, glucan 1,4-beta-glucosidase has been studied for its potential therapeutic applications. For example, it has been shown to have anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects, making it a potential candidate for the treatment of inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and inflammatory bowel disease. Additionally, it has been studied for its potential use in the treatment of cancer, as it has been shown to inhibit the growth of certain cancer cells and enhance the efficacy of chemotherapy.
Cellulose 1,4-beta-Cellobiosidase is an enzyme that hydrolyzes the beta-1,4-glycosidic bond in cellulose, a complex carbohydrate found in plant cell walls. This enzyme is important in the degradation of cellulose by microorganisms, such as fungi and bacteria, which play a crucial role in the decomposition of plant material and the recycling of nutrients in the environment. In the medical field, cellulose 1,4-beta-Cellobiosidase has been studied for its potential use in the treatment of certain diseases, such as diabetes and obesity, by promoting the breakdown of dietary fiber and improving glucose metabolism.
Tetroses are a type of sugar molecule that contains four carbon atoms. They are a subcategory of aldoses, which are sugars that contain an aldehyde group. Tetroses are important intermediates in the metabolism of glucose and other sugars in the body. They are also used as precursors for the synthesis of other important molecules, such as amino acids and nucleotides. In the medical field, tetrose metabolism is often studied in the context of diabetes and other metabolic disorders.
Basidiomycota is a phylum of fungi that includes mushrooms, toadstools, and other types of fungi that produce a distinctive reproductive structure called a basidium. These fungi are important decomposers in many ecosystems and are also used in the production of food, medicine, and other products. In the medical field, Basidiomycota are of interest because some species can cause infections in humans and animals. These infections, known as mycoses, can range from superficial skin infections to more serious systemic infections that can be life-threatening. Some common examples of Basidiomycota that can cause infections include Cryptococcus neoformans, which can cause meningitis and other central nervous system infections, and Histoplasma capsulatum, which can cause histoplasmosis, a respiratory infection. In addition to causing infections, some species of Basidiomycota have potential medical applications. For example, certain species of mushrooms have been found to have anti-cancer properties, and some species of yeast in the Basidiomycota phylum are used in the production of bread, beer, and other fermented foods.
Clostridium is a genus of Gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria that are commonly found in soil, water, and the gastrointestinal tracts of animals, including humans. Some species of Clostridium are capable of producing potent toxins that can cause serious illness or death in humans and animals. In the medical field, Clostridium is known for causing a number of serious infections, including gas gangrene, botulism, and tetanus. These infections are typically caused by the production of toxins by Clostridium bacteria, which can damage tissues and organs in the body. Treatment for Clostridium infections typically involves antibiotics to kill the bacteria and antitoxins to neutralize the toxins produced by the bacteria. In some cases, surgery may also be necessary to remove infected tissue or repair damage caused by the infection. Overall, Clostridium is a serious and potentially life-threatening pathogen that requires prompt and appropriate medical attention to prevent complications and improve outcomes.
Glucosidases are a group of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of glycosidic bonds in carbohydrates. In the medical field, glucosidases are important in the metabolism of carbohydrates, particularly in the breakdown of complex carbohydrates into simpler sugars that can be absorbed and used by the body. There are several types of glucosidases, including alpha-glucosidases, beta-glucosidases, and glucoamylases. Alpha-glucosidases are found in the small intestine and are responsible for breaking down complex carbohydrates, such as starches, into simpler sugars like glucose. Beta-glucosidases are found in the liver and are involved in the metabolism of certain drugs and toxins. Glucoamylases are found in the saliva and are responsible for breaking down starches into maltose, which can then be further broken down by enzymes in the small intestine. In the medical field, glucosidases are used in the treatment of certain conditions, such as diabetes, where the body is unable to produce enough insulin to properly regulate blood sugar levels. Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors are a type of medication that work by slowing down the breakdown of carbohydrates in the small intestine, which can help to lower blood sugar levels in people with type 2 diabetes. Beta-glucosidases are also used in the treatment of certain liver diseases, such as Wilson's disease, where the liver is unable to properly metabolize certain toxins.
Cellulases are a group of enzymes that break down cellulose, a complex carbohydrate found in plant cell walls. In the medical field, cellulases are used to treat certain digestive disorders, such as constipation and inflammatory bowel disease, by breaking down cellulose into simpler sugars that can be more easily absorbed by the body. They are also used in the production of biofuels and in the textile industry for removing stains and improving the texture of fabrics.
Clostridium thermocellum is a type of anaerobic bacteria that is commonly found in soil and decaying plant material. It is known for its ability to break down cellulose, a complex carbohydrate found in plant cell walls, into simpler sugars through a process called thermocellulose digestion. This process is of interest in the medical field because it has potential applications in the production of biofuels and other valuable products from renewable resources. Additionally, research is being conducted on the use of C. thermocellum as a probiotic to promote gut health and prevent certain diseases.
In the medical field, glucosides refer to a class of organic compounds that are composed of a sugar molecule (glucose) attached to another molecule, usually an alcohol or an amino acid. Glucosides are commonly found in plants and are often used as natural sweeteners or as medicinal compounds. There are several types of glucosides, including monoglucosides, diglucosides, and triglucosides, depending on the number of glucose molecules attached to the other molecule. Some common examples of glucosides include glycyrrhizin (found in licorice root), digitoxin (found in foxglove), and caffeine (found in coffee and tea). In the body, glucosides can be hydrolyzed by enzymes to release the sugar molecule and the other molecule, which can then have various effects on the body. For example, some glucosides have been shown to have medicinal properties, such as improving heart function, reducing inflammation, and treating certain types of cancer. However, some glucosides can also be toxic in high doses, so their use must be carefully monitored by medical professionals.
Glycoside hydrolases are a group of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of glycosidic bonds in carbohydrates. These enzymes are involved in a wide range of biological processes, including digestion, metabolism, and signaling. In the medical field, glycoside hydrolases are often used as diagnostic tools to study carbohydrate metabolism and to develop new treatments for diseases related to carbohydrate metabolism, such as diabetes and obesity. They are also used in the production of biofuels and other industrial products.
Glucosyltransferases are a group of enzymes that transfer glucose molecules from a donor substrate to an acceptor substrate. These enzymes play important roles in various biological processes, including the synthesis of complex carbohydrates, glycosylation of proteins and lipids, and the metabolism of drugs and toxins. In the medical field, glucosyltransferases are often studied in the context of diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and inflammatory disorders. For example, certain types of cancer cells overexpress specific glucosyltransferases, which can contribute to the growth and spread of the tumor. Similarly, changes in the activity of glucosyltransferases have been implicated in the development of diabetes and other metabolic disorders. In addition, glucosyltransferases are also important targets for drug development. For example, inhibitors of specific glucosyltransferases have been shown to have anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory effects, and are being investigated as potential therapeutic agents.
In the medical field, a trisaccharide is a type of carbohydrate that is composed of three monosaccharide units. Trisaccharides are often found in complex carbohydrates, such as starches and glycogen, and they can also be found in some dietary fibers. They are an important source of energy for the body and are also involved in a variety of biological processes, including the regulation of blood sugar levels and the immune response. Trisaccharides can be further broken down into smaller units by enzymes in the digestive system, allowing the body to absorb and utilize the energy they provide.
Carboxymethylcellulose sodium (CMC sodium) is a water-soluble polymer that is commonly used in the medical field as a thickening agent, emulsifier, and stabilizer. It is derived from cellulose, which is a natural polymer found in plant cell walls. CMC sodium is often used in pharmaceuticals to improve the texture and consistency of various products, such as tablets, capsules, and ointments. It can also be used as a binder to help hold ingredients together in a cohesive mixture. In addition to its use in pharmaceuticals, CMC sodium is also used in medical devices, such as wound dressings and catheters, to improve their handling and performance. It is also used in food and beverage products as a thickener and stabilizer. CMC sodium is generally considered safe for use in humans and is listed as a food additive by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). However, it may cause allergic reactions in some people, and its use in certain medical products may be contraindicated in individuals with certain medical conditions.
Carbohydrate metabolism refers to the series of chemical reactions that occur within cells to break down carbohydrates (such as glucose) into energy that can be used by the body. This process involves several metabolic pathways, including glycolysis, the citric acid cycle (also known as the Krebs cycle), and oxidative phosphorylation. During glycolysis, glucose is broken down into two molecules of pyruvate, which can then enter the citric acid cycle to produce energy in the form of ATP (adenosine triphosphate). The citric acid cycle also produces carbon dioxide and other metabolic intermediates that can be used in other metabolic pathways. Oxidative phosphorylation is the final stage of carbohydrate metabolism, in which the energy produced by the citric acid cycle is used to generate ATP through a process called chemiosmosis. This process occurs in the mitochondria of cells and is essential for the production of large amounts of energy that the body needs to function properly. Carbohydrate metabolism is closely regulated by hormones such as insulin and glucagon, which help to maintain blood glucose levels within a narrow range. Disorders of carbohydrate metabolism, such as diabetes, can result from defects in these regulatory mechanisms or from problems with the enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism.
Xylose is a type of sugar that is found in the cell walls of plants. It is a monosaccharide, which means it is a simple sugar made up of one molecule of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. In the medical field, xylose is sometimes used as a diagnostic tool to test for certain conditions, such as celiac disease or malabsorption syndromes. In these tests, a person is given a solution containing xylose and then their blood is tested to see how well their body is able to absorb it. If the body is not able to absorb xylose properly, it may be a sign of an underlying medical condition.
Glucose is a simple sugar that is a primary source of energy for the body's cells. It is also known as blood sugar or dextrose and is produced by the liver and released into the bloodstream by the pancreas. In the medical field, glucose is often measured as part of routine blood tests to monitor blood sugar levels in people with diabetes or those at risk of developing diabetes. High levels of glucose in the blood, also known as hyperglycemia, can lead to a range of health problems, including heart disease, nerve damage, and kidney damage. On the other hand, low levels of glucose in the blood, also known as hypoglycemia, can cause symptoms such as weakness, dizziness, and confusion. In severe cases, it can lead to seizures or loss of consciousness. In addition to its role in energy metabolism, glucose is also used as a diagnostic tool in medical testing, such as in the measurement of blood glucose levels in newborns to detect neonatal hypoglycemia.
Maltose is a disaccharide sugar composed of two molecules of glucose joined together by a glycosidic bond. It is commonly found in grains, especially barley, and is often used as a sweetener in food and beverages. In the medical field, maltose is used as a source of energy for the body and is sometimes used as a diagnostic tool to test for certain medical conditions, such as lactose intolerance. It is also used in the production of certain medications and as a food additive.
Xylans are a type of polysaccharide (complex carbohydrate) that are commonly found in plants, particularly in the cell walls of plants. In the medical field, xylans are often used as dietary supplements or as ingredients in various medical products. Xylans are known for their prebiotic properties, meaning they can promote the growth of beneficial bacteria in the gut. This can help improve digestive health and reduce the risk of certain diseases, such as inflammatory bowel disease and colorectal cancer. Xylans are also used in medical products such as wound dressings, dental products, and pharmaceuticals. They can help improve the texture and stability of these products, as well as enhance their absorption and bioavailability. Overall, xylans have a number of potential health benefits and are an important component of many medical and dietary products.
In the medical field, culture media refers to a nutrient-rich substance used to support the growth and reproduction of microorganisms, such as bacteria, fungi, and viruses. Culture media is typically used in diagnostic laboratories to isolate and identify microorganisms from clinical samples, such as blood, urine, or sputum. Culture media can be classified into two main types: solid and liquid. Solid media is usually a gel-like substance that allows microorganisms to grow in a three-dimensional matrix, while liquid media is a broth or solution that provides nutrients for microorganisms to grow in suspension. The composition of culture media varies depending on the type of microorganism being cultured and the specific needs of that organism. Culture media may contain a variety of nutrients, including amino acids, sugars, vitamins, and minerals, as well as antibiotics or other agents to inhibit the growth of unwanted microorganisms. Overall, culture media is an essential tool in the diagnosis and treatment of infectious diseases, as it allows healthcare professionals to identify the specific microorganisms causing an infection and select the most appropriate treatment.
Anaerobiosis is a condition in which an organism cannot survive in the presence of oxygen. In the medical field, anaerobiosis is often associated with infections caused by anaerobic bacteria, which are bacteria that do not require oxygen to grow and survive. These bacteria are commonly found in the human body, particularly in areas such as the mouth, gut, and female reproductive tract, where oxygen levels are low. Anaerobic bacteria can cause a range of infections, including dental caries, periodontitis, and pelvic inflammatory disease. Treatment for anaerobic infections typically involves the use of antibiotics that are effective against anaerobic bacteria.
Arbutin is a natural compound found in various plants, including white willow bark, bearberry, and birch bark. It is a hydroquinone derivative that has been used in the medical field for its skin-lightening and anti-inflammatory properties. In dermatology, arbutin is used as an ingredient in skin care products to reduce the appearance of hyperpigmentation, such as age spots, freckles, and melasma. It works by inhibiting the activity of an enzyme called tyrosinase, which is responsible for producing melanin, the pigment that gives skin its color. By reducing melanin production, arbutin can help lighten the skin and improve its overall appearance. Arbutin is also used in some over-the-counter acne treatments due to its anti-inflammatory properties. It can help reduce redness and swelling associated with acne, as well as prevent the formation of new pimples. However, it is important to note that arbutin can cause skin irritation and allergic reactions in some people, and it may not be suitable for everyone. It is always recommended to consult with a healthcare professional before using any new skincare product, especially if you have sensitive skin or a history of allergies.
Cellobiose dehydrogenase (acceptor)
Glucose-methanol-choline oxidoreductase family
Devendra Prasad Gupta
PTS Lactose-N,N'-Diacetylchitobiose Family
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de Ruijter, J. C.<...
Soil microbial activity, mycelial lengths and physiological groups of bacteria in a heavy-metal polluted area | Lund University...
Biochemical Test and Identification of Proteus mirabilis
- While the disaccharides sucrose, lactose, maltose, and cellobiose have the same chemical formula, C 12 H 22 O 11 , and all have at least one glucose molecule as part of their structure, they differ substantially in their properties. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
- Even maltose and cellobiose, which are made up of two covalently bonded glucose units, differ due to the nature of the linkage, with maltose easily hydrolyzed to its monosaccharides in the human body whereas cellobiose cannot be digested. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
- Effects of heavy metals and soil pH around a smelter detected, including decreased abundance of certain degradative capacities such as: acid formation from maltose, cellobiose, arabinose or xylose, or hydrolysation of starch, pectin, xylan, or cellulose. (lu.se)
- Treatment of cellulose with acetic anhydride and sulfuric acid gives cellobiose octoacetate, which is no longer a hydrogen bond donor (though it is still a hydrogen bond acceptor) and is soluble in nonpolar organic solvents. (wikipedia.org)
- The current study addressed the toxic effect of Bentazon and MCPA on aerobic and anaerobic Bacteria that are involved in cellulose and cellobiose degradation in an agricultural soil. (uni-bayreuth.de)
- Microbial processes (e.g. fermentations, ferric iron reduction) that were linked to anaerobic cellulose, and cellobiose degradation were reduced in the presence of both herbicides at concentrations above and at those that occur in crop field soil. (uni-bayreuth.de)
- Collectively, the results suggested that the metabolism of anaerobic cellulose-degrading Bacteria were impaired by in situ-typical herbicide concentrations, whereas in situ concentrations did not impair metabolism of aerobic cellulose- and cellobiose-degrading soil Bacteria. (uni-bayreuth.de)
- In this work, electronic structure theory, also called quantum mechanics, was used to predict the probabilities of the various shapes of cellobiose, the shortest prototype of the main molecule in cotton, cellulose. (usda.gov)
- The probabilities of the various overall shapes of cellobiose depended on the orientations of the hydroxyl and primary alcohol groups that are part of the two glucose units that compose cellobiose. (usda.gov)
- The enzyme was active toward the substrates salicin (495.0 ± 49.0 U mg-1), pNPG (340.5 ± 18.6 U mg-1), cellobiose (89.3 ± 5.1 U mg-1), and lactose (45.1 ± 0.5 U mg-1), so it had broad specificity. (bvsalud.org)
- Solopova used fluorescent labels to make the cells that use the new sugar source (in her case cellobiose ) stand out. (rug.nl)
- She used this setup to investigate how cells respond to the switch from glucose to cellobiose. (rug.nl)
- What happens is not that the bacteria switch from one system to another, but that a small group of cells which are prepared to use cellobiose begin to dominate the population', Kuipers explains. (rug.nl)
- In each division, the two daughter cells will inherit part of the cell membrane and proteins from the 'mother' cell, and these will contain cellobiose transporters if the cells were grown on this sugar source. (rug.nl)
- Solopova tested how well cells that are adapted to cellobiose respond to a subsequent switch to galactose. (rug.nl)
- A chemical interaction between cellobiose and the resin (e.g. grafting of siloxane fragments onto the cellobiose) was established by using various physicochemical analysis techniques: nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), photoelectron spectrometry (XPS), electronic paramagnetic resonance (EPR), Flash pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (FP/GC/MS) and IR. (oskar-bordeaux.fr)
- 20 Jun 2023 --- The European Commission has greenlit the use and sale of a new natural, vegan sugar coined cellobiose from Savanna Ingredients. (foodingredientsfirst.com)
- The EC recently implemented the new rule in regulation (EU) 2023/943: "Cellobiose may be placed on the market in the Union. (foodingredientsfirst.com)
- Cellobiose can be sold and consumed in Germany and Europe from June 2023. (foodingredientsfirst.com)
- ΔH f values for the isomeric analogs of non-reducing sugars with two anomeric centers are about - 150 kcal, about 8 kcal lower than for the analogs of the reducing dimers (nigerose, maltose, laminarabiose, cellobiose and galabiose (α-D-galactosyl-D-galactose)) by all three types of calculation. (elsevierpure.com)
- The glycoside hydrolase family 94 (previously known as glycosyltransferase family 36) includes cellobiose phosphorylase (EC:126.96.36.199) or cellobiose:phosphate alpha-D-glucosyltransferase, or CepA. (unl.edu)
- Cellobiose has a mild sweetening power of 20% compared to sucrose. (foodingredientsfirst.com)
- For any protein or RNA transcripts, a negative value represents higher expression on cellobiose, while a positive value represents higher expression in any of the other corresponding substrate. (biomedcentral.com)
- Cellobiose is included in the Union list of novel foods in the implementing Regulation (EU) 2017/2470. (foodingredientsfirst.com)
- cellobiose = 155 reactions were found. (brenda-enzymes.org)
- Cellobiose is extracted exclusively in Germany from domestic sugar beet. (foodingredientsfirst.com)
- The Federal Ministry of Food and Agriculture funded the development of cellobiose as a research project of Savanna Ingredients within the framework of the National Reduction Strategy for Salt, Fat and Sugar. (foodingredientsfirst.com)
- A cellobiose sugar test of urine was used to document intestinal permeability, and RAP was measured by ECG . (medscape.com)
- This latter sugar is called cellobiose. (nih.gov)
- aapecier cc ouentt _ rrr aan = 50 cellobiose is oxidized to an acidic group the sugar-acid "cellobiuronic acid" is obtained. (nih.gov)
- The glycosyltransferase family 36 includes cellobiose phosphorylase (EC:188.8.131.52), cellodextrin phosphorylase (EC:184.108.40.206), chitobiose phosphorylase (EC:2.4.1. (unl.edu)
- PTS system, cellobiose-specific IIC component [Ensembl]. (ntu.edu.sg)
- Because cellobiose has a CH2OH group attached to C5 and xylobiose does not, it was also of special interest to compare the energy surfaces of xylobiose and cellobiose. (usda.gov)
- Disacárido que consta de dos unidades de glucosa en enlace glicosídico beta (1-4). (bvsalud.org)
- Cellobiose has eight free alcohol (OH) groups, one acetal linkage and one hemiacetal linkage, which give rise to strong inter- and intramolecular hydrogen bonds. (wikipedia.org)
- In this work, we selectively incorporate the 13 C and/or 18 O isotopes into cellobiose to study the mechanisms for free radical-induced dissociation of glycans. (montclair.edu)
- In this work, we selectively incorporate the 13C and/or 18O isotopes into cellobiose to study the mechanisms for free radical-induced dissociation of glycans. (montclair.edu)
- The activity of the free enzyme (FE) and immobilized enzyme (IE) was determined with 2 g/L of cellobiose, from 40 to 75 degrees C at pH 3.0-7.0 for FE and from 40 to 70 degrees C at pH 2.2-7.0 for IE. (bvsalud.org)