Cell Wall Skeleton: A mucoprotein found in the cell wall of various types of bacteria. It has adjuvant and antitumor activities and has been used to augment the production of lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells.Nocardia: A genus of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria whose species are widely distributed and are abundant in soil. Some strains are pathogenic opportunists for humans and animals.Cell Wall: The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.Cercaria: The free-swimming larval forms of parasites found in an intermediate host.Rats, Inbred ACISarcoma, Experimental: Experimentally induced neoplasms of CONNECTIVE TISSUE in animals to provide a model for studying human SARCOMA.Pleural Cavity: Paired but separate cavity within the THORACIC CAVITY. It consists of the space between the parietal and visceral PLEURA and normally contains a capillary layer of serous fluid that lubricates the pleural surfaces.Prince Edward Island: An island in the Gulf of St. Lawrence constituting a province of Canada in the eastern part of the country. It is very irregular in shape with many deep inlets. Its capital is Charlottetown. Discovered by the French in 1534 and originally named Ile Saint-Jean, it was renamed in 1799 in honor of Prince Edward, fourth son of George III and future father of Queen Victoria. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p981 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p433)District of Columbia: A federal area located between Maryland and Virginia on the Potomac river; it is coextensive with Washington, D.C., which is the capital of the United States.Architectural Accessibility: Designs for approaching areas inside or outside facilities.Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)TexasSoybeans: An annual legume. The SEEDS of this plant are edible and used to produce a variety of SOY FOODS.Typhus, Endemic Flea-Borne: An infectious disease clinically similar to epidemic louse-borne typhus (TYPHUS, EPIDEMIC LOUSE-BORNE), but caused by RICKETTSIA TYPHI, which is transmitted from rat to man by the rat flea, XENOPSYLLA CHEOPIS.PubMed: A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.BooksPublishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.MEDLINE: The premier bibliographic database of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. MEDLINE® (MEDLARS Online) is the primary subset of PUBMED and can be searched on NLM's Web site in PubMed or the NLM Gateway. MEDLINE references are indexed with MEDICAL SUBJECT HEADINGS (MeSH).Serial Publications: Publications in any medium issued in successive parts bearing numerical or chronological designations and intended to be continued indefinitely. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983, p203)Biological Science Disciplines: All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.Coinfection: Simultaneous infection of a host organism by two or more pathogens. In virology, coinfection commonly refers to simultaneous infection of a single cell by two or more different viruses.Aminophylline: A drug combination that contains THEOPHYLLINE and ethylenediamine. It is more soluble in water than theophylline but has similar pharmacologic actions. It's most common use is in bronchial asthma, but it has been investigated for several other applications.Mice, Inbred C57BLHIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Bradycardia: Cardiac arrhythmias that are characterized by excessively slow HEART RATE, usually below 50 beats per minute in human adults. They can be classified broadly into SINOATRIAL NODE dysfunction and ATRIOVENTRICULAR BLOCK.Xanthines: Purine bases found in body tissues and fluids and in some plants.Mycobacterium: A genus of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria. Most species are free-living in soil and water, but the major habitat for some is the diseased tissue of warm-blooded hosts.GalactosamineGalactans: Polysaccharides composed of repeating galactose units. They can consist of branched or unbranched chains in any linkages.Mycobacterium smegmatis: A rapid-growing, nonphotochromogenic species of MYCOBACTERIUM originally isolated from human smegma and found also in soil and water. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Autophagy: The segregation and degradation of damaged or unwanted cytoplasmic constituents by autophagic vacuoles (cytolysosomes) composed of LYSOSOMES containing cellular components in the process of digestion; it plays an important role in BIOLOGICAL METAMORPHOSIS of amphibians, in the removal of bone by osteoclasts, and in the degradation of normal cell components in nutritional deficiency states.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Neoplastic Processes: The pathological mechanisms and forms taken by tissue during degeneration into a neoplasm and its subsequent activity.Colorectal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON or the RECTUM or both. Risk factors for colorectal cancer include chronic ULCERATIVE COLITIS; FAMILIAL POLYPOSIS COLI; exposure to ASBESTOS; and irradiation of the CERVIX UTERI.Predatory Behavior: Instinctual behavior pattern in which food is obtained by killing and consuming other species.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Chorioamnionitis: INFLAMMATION of the placental membranes (CHORION; AMNION) and connected tissues such as fetal BLOOD VESSELS and UMBILICAL CORD. It is often associated with intrauterine ascending infections during PREGNANCY.Adjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.Research Personnel: Those individuals engaged in research.Research Support as Topic: Financial support of research activities.Biomedical Research: Research that involves the application of the natural sciences, especially biology and physiology, to medicine.Research Design: A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.Allergy and Immunology: A medical specialty concerned with the hypersensitivity of the individual to foreign substances and protection from the resultant infection or disorder.Laboratory Animal Science: The science and technology dealing with the procurement, breeding, care, health, and selection of animals used in biomedical research and testing.Education, Veterinary: Use for general articles concerning veterinary medical education.Toll-Like Receptors: A family of pattern recognition receptors characterized by an extracellular leucine-rich domain and a cytoplasmic domain that share homology with the INTERLEUKIN 1 RECEPTOR and the DROSOPHILA toll protein. Following pathogen recognition, toll-like receptors recruit and activate a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCING ADAPTOR PROTEINS.Toll-Like Receptor 4: A pattern recognition receptor that interacts with LYMPHOCYTE ANTIGEN 96 and LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES. It mediates cellular responses to GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA.Salmonella Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus SALMONELLA.Salmonella: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that utilizes citrate as a sole carbon source. It is pathogenic for humans, causing enteric fevers, gastroenteritis, and bacteremia. Food poisoning is the most common clinical manifestation. Organisms within this genus are separated on the basis of antigenic characteristics, sugar fermentation patterns, and bacteriophage susceptibility.PolandFocal InfectionBacteremia: The presence of viable bacteria circulating in the blood. Fever, chills, tachycardia, and tachypnea are common acute manifestations of bacteremia. The majority of cases are seen in already hospitalized patients, most of whom have underlying diseases or procedures which render their bloodstreams susceptible to invasion.Escherichia coli Infections: Infections with bacteria of the species ESCHERICHIA COLI.Serotyping: Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.

Immunostimulation in the urinary bladder by local application of Nocardia rubra cell-wall skeletons (Rubratin) and bacillus Calmette-Guerin as therapy for superficial bladder cancer: a comparative study. (1/25)

Twelve patients with superficial bladder cancer were treated with intravesical instillations of Rubratin (ASTA Pharma AG, Frankfurt, Germany), a cell-wall preparation of Nocardia rubra. The objective was to compare the immunostimulating effect of Rubratin with that of bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG). Local immunostimulation was determined by cytokine induction in serially collected urine samples during the first 24 h after each instillation, leukocyte influx into the urine, and phenotypic analysis of the lymphocyte fraction. Levels of Rubratin-induced interleukin (IL)-1 beta, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha were significantly elevated compared with pretherapy levels. Rubratin induced leukocyte influx into the urine. T-cell activation (IL-2 receptor and human leukocyte antigen-DR expression) can be induced, and CD4:CD8 cell ratios can be increased. All parameters indicated that Rubratin-induced immunostimulation was less than that associated with BCG. In conclusion, although local Rubratin-induced immunostimulation occurs in a limited number of patients, the amount of immunocompetent cells attracted to the bladder seems to be less than that associated with BCG therapy, thus resulting in lower levels of cytokine production (which may reflect less clinical efficacy).  (+info)

Maturation of human dendritic cells by cell wall skeleton of Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guerin: involvement of toll-like receptors. (2/25)

The constituents of mycobacteria are an effective immune adjuvant, as observed with complete Freund's adjuvant. In this study, we demonstrated that the cell wall skeleton of Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG-CWS), a purified noninfectious material consisting of peptidoglycan, arabinogalactan, and mycolic acids, induces maturation of human dendritic cells (DC). Surface expression of CD40, CD80, CD83, and CD86 was increased by BCG-CWS on human immature DC, and the effect was similar to those of interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), heat-killed BCG, and viable BCG. BCG-CWS induced the secretion of TNF-alpha, IL-6, and IL-12 p40. CD83 expression was increased by a soluble factor secreted from BCG-CWS-treated DC and was completely inhibited by monoclonal antibodies against TNF-alpha. BCG-CWS-treated DC stimulated extensive allogeneic mixed lymphocyte reactions. The level of TNF-alpha secreted through BCG-CWS was partially suppressed in murine macrophages with no Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR 2) or TLR4 and was completely lost in TLR2 and TLR4 double-deficient macrophages. These results suggest that the BCG-CWS induces TNF-alpha secretion from DC via TLR2 and TLR4 and that the secreted TNF-alpha induces the maturation of DC per se.  (+info)

Immunization with a polyprotein vaccine consisting of the T-Cell antigens thiol-specific antioxidant, Leishmania major stress-inducible protein 1, and Leishmania elongation initiation factor protects against leishmaniasis. (3/25)

Development of an effective vaccine against Leishmania infection is a priority of tropical disease research. We have recently demonstrated protection against Leishmania major in the murine and nonhuman primate models with individual or combinations of purified leishmanial recombinant antigens delivered as plasmid DNA constructs or formulated with recombinant interleukin-12 (IL-12) as adjuvant. In the present study, we immunized BALB/c mice with a recombinant polyprotein comprising a tandem fusion of the leishmanial antigens thiol-specific antioxidant, L. major stress-inducible protein 1 (LmSTI1), and Leishmania elongation initiation factor (LeIF) delivered with adjuvants suitable for human use. Aspects of the safety, immunogenicity, and vaccine efficacy of formulations with each individual component, as well as the polyprotein referred to as Leish-111f, were assessed by using the L. major challenge model with BALB/c mice. No adverse reactions were observed when three subcutaneous injections of the Leish-111f polyprotein formulated with either MPL-squalene (SE) or Ribi 529-SE were given to BALB/c mice. A predominant Th1 immune response characterized by in vitro lymphocyte proliferation, gamma interferon production, and immunoglobulin G2A antibodies was observed with little, if any, IL-4. Moreover, Leish-111f formulated with MPL-SE conferred immunity to leishmaniasis for at least 3 months. These data demonstrate success at designing and developing a prophylactic leishmaniasis vaccine that proved effective in a preclinical model using multiple leishmanial antigens produced as a single protein delivered with a powerful Th1 adjuvant suitable for human use.  (+info)

Effect of vaccination with refined components of the organism on infection of mice with Mycobacterium leprae. (4/25)

Only native products of Mycobacterium leprae, whether cell wall, cytosol, or membrane derived, can confer protective immunity against challenge in the mouse footpad. Previously, recombinant proteins were shown to be ineffective. The cell wall skeleton-the mycolyl-arabinogalactan-peptidoglycan complex-devoid of proteins is not protective.  (+info)

Mycobacterium bovis BCG cell wall-specific differentially expressed genes identified by differential display and cDNA subtraction in human macrophages. (5/25)

We have analyzed the gene expression profile of monocytes in response to a highly purified cell wall fraction of Mycobacterium bovis BCG, a clinically approved adjuvant known as BCG cell wall skeleton (BCG-CWS). It is composed of mycolic acid, arabinogalactan, and peptidoglycan and confers Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2)- and TLR4-dependent signaling that induces monocytes to differentiate into antigen-presenting cells (APCs). Here we report differential gene expression analysis with BCG-CWS-stimulated versus nonstimulated monocytes. BCG-CWS exerted massive induction of genes regulated by TLR signaling. Marked gene regulatory characteristics in BCG-CWS-stimulated cells compared to lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated cells follow. (i) Spliced mRNAs encoding soluble forms of TREM-1 and TREM-2 (recently discovered inflammatory-signal-amplifying receptors) were regulated by BCG-CWS, resulting in their differential expression. (ii) The genes for zinc-iron transporter protein (ZIP)-like family proteins HKE-1 and LIV-1 were induced exclusively by BCG-CWS. (iii) Interleukin-23 (IL-23), rather than IL-12p70, was induced by BCG-CWS, while interferon-inducible genes were induced only by LPS. By Northern and reverse transcription-PCR analyses, we confirmed the differential expression of more than 30 BCG-CWS regulatory genes, and their expression was compared with that of LPS and other known TLR ligands. A battery of genes responded rapidly and for a short time to LPS but for a long time to BCG-CWS. Structural analysis of the identified novel or hypothetical proteins revealed that some are potential candidates as signaling mediators or transcriptional regulators. Hence, BCG-CWS may profoundly modulate APC responses in a way distinct from that of LPS, leading to possible advantages for its adjuvant-active therapeutic potential.  (+info)

The role of adjuvant on the regulatory effects of NK cells on B cell responses as revealed by a new model of NK cell deficiency. (6/25)

We have utilized a novel method to generate transgenic mice that are deficient in NK cells. The strategy entails introduction of the H and L chain genes encoding PK136, an antibody shown to be effective in the in vivo elimination of NK cells, into the mouse genome. Since the introduced H chain gene does not contain sequences encoding membrane exons, the transgenic Ig is not expressed on the cell surface, but is secreted by activated B cells. We show that these animals are chronically depleted of NK cells, but not B, T or NKT cells. Therefore, they are compromised in their ability to mediate NK-mediated cytotoxicity. In addition, the deficiency in NK cells reduces the level of switching to various downstream isotypes in response to T-independent type II antigens. However, this reduction is only apparent when antigens are injected in the presence of adjuvant. Since NKT cells are not depleted, the effect cannot be attributed to this subpopulation. These results help to resolve differences in previous findings regarding the role of NK cells in antibody responses.  (+info)

Protective immunity to vaccinia virus induced by vaccination with multiple recombinant outer membrane proteins of intracellular and extracellular virions. (7/25)

Infectious intracellular and extracellular forms of vaccinia virus have different outer membrane proteins, presenting multiple targets to the immune system. We investigated the immunogenicity of soluble forms of L1, an outer membrane protein of the intracellular mature virus, and of A33 and B5, outer membrane proteins of the extracellular enveloped virus. The recombinant proteins, in 10-microg amounts mixed with a Ribi- or saponin-type adjuvant, were administered subcutaneously to mice. Antibody titers to each protein rose sharply after the first and second boosts, reaching levels that surpassed those induced by percutaneous immunization with live vaccinia virus. Immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) antibody predominated after the protein immunizations, indicative of a T-helper cell type 2 response, whereas live vaccinia virus induced mainly IgG2a, indicative of a T-helper cell type 1 response. Mice immunized with any one of the recombinant proteins survived an intranasal challenge with 5 times the 50% lethal dose of the pathogenic WR strain of vaccinia virus. Measurements of weight loss indicated that the A33 immunization most effectively prevented disease. The superiority of protein combinations was demonstrated when the challenge virus dose was increased 20-fold. The best protection was obtained with a vaccine made by combining recombinant proteins of the outer membranes of intracellular and extracellular virus. Indeed, mice immunized with A33 plus B5 plus L1 or with A33 plus L1 were better protected than mice immunized with live vaccinia virus. Three immunizations with the three-protein combination were necessary and sufficient for complete protection. These studies suggest the feasibility of a multiprotein smallpox vaccine.  (+info)

Evaluation of lipopolysaccharide and capsular polysaccharide as subunit vaccines against experimental melioidosis. (8/25)

Burkholderia pseudomallei is the causative agent of melioidosis, which is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in endemic regions. Currently there is no human vaccine against melioidosis. In this study, LPS or capsular polysaccharide was used to immunize BALB/c mice. The different polysaccharide antigens induced antibody responses. Mice vaccinated with LPS developed predominantly IgM and IgG3 responses. Contrastingly, mice vaccinated with capsular polysaccharide developed a predominantly IgG2b response. After immunization, mice were challenged by the intra-peritoneal route and an increased mean time to death was observed compared with unvaccinated controls. Immunization with LPS provided an optimal protective response. Mice challenged by the aerosol route showed a small increase in the mean time to death compared with the unvaccinated controls. The passive transfer of antigen from immunized into naive mice provided protection against a subsequent challenge. This study is the first time antigens protective by active immunization have been identified and suggests that polysaccharides have potential as vaccine candidates against melioidosis.  (+info)

*Carbon group

Silicon in the form of silicon dioxide is used by diatoms and sea sponges to form their cell walls and skeletons. Silicon is ... and can disrupt metabolic processes inside cells. Lead and its compounds, such as lead acetate are highly toxic. Lead poisoning ...

*Cell wall

... encase their cells in a secreted skeleton of calcium carbonate. In each case, the wall is rigid and essentially inorganic. It ... Cells with secondary cell walls can be rigid, as in the gritty sclereid cells in pear and quince fruit. Cell to cell ... The secondary cell wall, a thick layer formed inside the primary cell wall after the cell is fully grown. It is not found in ... The composition of cell walls varies between species and may depend on cell type and developmental stage. The primary cell wall ...

*List of MeSH codes (A11)

... cell wall skeleton MeSH A11.284.187.167 - chromosomes, archaeal MeSH A11.284.187.178 - chromosomes, artificial MeSH A11.284. ... cho cells MeSH A11.251.210.505 - l cells (cell line) MeSH A11.251.210.520 - llc-pk1 cells MeSH A11.251.210.700 - 3t3 cells MeSH ... l cells MeSH A11.329.228.900 - 3t3 cells MeSH A11.329.228.900.080 - balb 3t3 cells MeSH A11.329.228.900.550 - nih 3t3 cells ... hela cells MeSH A11.251.210.190.400.500 - kb cells MeSH A11.251.210.190.465 - hl-60 cells MeSH A11.251.210.190.475 - ht29 cells ...

*Cell wall

... encase their cells in a secreted skeleton of calcium carbonate. In each case, the wall is rigid and essentially inorganic. It ... Cells with secondary cell walls can be rigid, as in the gritty sclereid cells in pear and quince fruit. Cell to cell ... Prokaryotic cell wallsEdit. Bacterial cell wallsEdit. Diagram of a typical gram-positive bacterium. The cell envelope comprises ... Cell envelope and Bacterial cell structure. Around the outside of the cell membrane is the bacterial cell wall. Bacterial cell ...

*Lipoarabinomannan

In addition to serving as a major cell wall component, it is thought to serve as a modulin with immunoregulatory and anti- ... a D-mannan core serving as a carbohydrate skeleton, and a terminal D-arabinan, also composing the carbohydrate skeleton. Many ... These include a glycosylphosphatidyl anchor which attaches the molecule to the cell wall, ... It activates natural killer cells which produce IFN-γ to activate macrophages. By impairing the function of these two molecules ...

*Root mucilage

... which supports plants just like a skeleton. This cell wall is used to produce everyday products such as timber, paper, and ... Unlike animal cells, plant cells have a cell wall that acts as a barrier surrounding the cell providing strength, ... These polysaccharides come from the Golgi apparatus and plant cell wall, which are rich in plant-specific polysaccharides. ... Albersheim, Peter; Darvill, Alan; Roberts, Keith; Sederoff, Ron; Staehelin, Andrew (2010-04-23). Plant Cell Walls. Garland ...

*Temple Bruer Preceptory

... and within it a niche or a cell was discovered which had been carefully walled up ; and within it the skeleton of a man, who ... in one of the walls at Thornton Abbey. Another skeleton of an aged man was found in these dungeons, with only a tooth in his ... In one of them a niche or cell was discovered which had been neatly walled up; ... The wall stones had assumed the colour of brick, and great numbers number of cinders were mixed with human sculls and bones, ...

*Bass trap

A simple panel resonator can be built to hang on a wall by building a wooden frame, adding several inches of mineral wool to ... Core: Semi-rigid glass-wool or mineral-wool insulation boards or dense open-cell foam are typically used. Frame: A steel ... exterior frame is preferred, although fire resistant wood skeleton frames are common. The frame acts as a housing, allowing ... Porous absorbers are most commonly made from fiberglass, mineral wool or open cell foam that resists the passage of air ...

*Arthuria dubia

The wall of the tubes is thick, up to 100 μm. In some areas the tubes are hispid. Cells with yellow granules are present in the ... The cells with yellow granules are distributed homogeneously, throughout the mesohyl. The skeleton consists of equiangular and ...

*Sea anemone

Since the anemone lacks a rigid skeleton, the contractile cells pull against the fluid in the gastrovascular cavity, forming a ... There may be a fold in the body wall, known as a parapet, at this point, and this parapet covers and protects the anemone when ... The ends of the slit lead to grooves in the wall of the pharynx known as siphonoglyphs; there are usually two of these grooves ... Cells in the outer layer (epidermis) and the inner layer (gastrodermis) have microfilaments that group into contractile fibers ...

*The Iron Shroud

Everything will be replaced in the end by the iron walls of the cell, as if there were an exchange of bodies between Vivenzio ... His bed, his bier, his iron shroud and even his skeleton which will eventually turn to dust, will disappear because they will ... With only two days left Vivenzio notices an inscription on the iron walls of his cell. The message was written by the engineer ... Unbeknownst to the victim, the ceiling and walls of the cell, made of smooth black iron, are imperceptibly contracting through ...

*Bird anatomy

These parabronchi have honeycombed walls. The cells of the honeycomb are dead-end air vesicles, called atria, which project ... The bird skeleton is highly adapted for flight. It is extremely lightweight but strong enough to withstand the stresses of ... The walls of these air sacs do not have a good blood supply and so do not play a direct role in gas exchange. They act like a ... A stylised dove skeleton. Key:. 1. skull. 2. cervical vertebrae. 3. furcula. 4. coracoid. 5. uncinate processes of ribs. 6. ...

*Menard Correctional Center

None of these cells had plumbing. Buckets were used instead. The exterior includes columns and an awning portraying skeleton ... A wall enclosed the 11½ acres of the prison grounds. The rear wall runs over the top of a hill that was one of the prison's ... The new cell house contained 500 cells, each housing two inmates. All of these cells had plumbing. In 1928, the bathhouse was ... The original North and South Cell Houses each contained 400 cells on four tiers. Inmates lived two to a cell. ...

*Marine life

Sponges are similar to other animals in that they are multicellular, heterotrophic, lack cell walls and produce sperm cells. ... Fish fall into two main groups: fish with bony skeletons and fish with cartilaginous skeletons. Over 33,000 species of fish ... They have unspecialized cells that can transform into other types and that often migrate between the main cell layers and the ... The eukaryotic cells emerged between 1.6-2.7 billion years ago. The next major change in cell structure came when bacteria were ...

*Marine invertebrates

Sponges are similar to other animals in that they are multicellular, heterotrophic, lack cell walls and produce sperm cells. ... Many sponges have internal skeletons of spongin and/or spicules of calcium carbonate or silicon dioxide. All sponges are ... They have unspecialized cells that can transform into other types and that often migrate between the main cell layers and the ... Animals are multicellular eukaryotes, and are distinguished from plants, algae, and fungi by lacking cell walls. Marine ...

*Anatomy

Unlike plant cells, animal cells have neither a cell wall nor chloroplasts. Vacuoles, when present, are more in number and much ... The skeleton consists of a skull, a hyoid bone, spine and ribs though a few species retain a vestige of the pelvis and rear ... The outer epithelial layer may include cells of several types including sensory cells, gland cells and stinging cells. There ... Keratinocytes make up to 95% of the cells in the skin.[16] The epithelial cells on the external surface of the body typically ...

*Anatomy

Unlike plant cells, animal cells have neither a cell wall nor chloroplasts. Vacuoles, when present, are more in number and much ... The skeleton consists of a skull, a hyoid bone, spine and ribs though a few species retain a vestige of the pelvis and rear ... The outer epithelial layer may include cells of several types including sensory cells, gland cells and stinging cells. There ... Keratinocytes make up to 95% of the cells in the skin.[16] The epithelial cells on the external surface of the body typically ...

*Spongites yendoi

The cell walls of the algae contain deposits of calcium carbonate which give it its firm consistency. The thallus of Spongites ... Spongites yendoi is a species of crustose red seaweed with a hard, calcareous skeleton in the family Corallinaceae. It is found ... The lowermost layer is up to eight filaments thick and these cells are mostly elongate. The cells are often fused. The ... Sloughing is probably a means of eliminating old reproductive structures and damaged surface cells, and reducing the risk of ...

*Sponge

... lack cell walls and produce sperm cells. Unlike other animals, they lack true tissues and organs, and have no body symmetry. ... However a few also have massive external skeletons made of aragonite, another form of calcium carbonate. All the cells have a ... Central cavity 3 Internal wall 4: Pore (all walls have pores) 5 Septum 6 Outer wall 7 Holdfast Although molecular clocks and ... Some types of cells have a single nucleus and membrane each, but are connected to other single-nucleus cells and to the main ...

*Silicon dioxide

Formation of the mineral may occur either within the cell wall of an organism (such as with phytoliths), or outside the cell ... The spicules forming the skeleton of many sponges. Crystalline minerals formed in the physiological environment often show ... For example, in the unit cell of α-quartz, the central tetrahedron shares all four of its corner O atoms, the two face-centered ... For well over a billion years, silicification in and by cells has been common in the biological world. In the modern world it ...

*Large-cell lung carcinoma with rhabdoid phenotype

... an uncommon mechanism of extension wherein tumor cells migrate along the lung walls and septa, but do not destroy air sacs. ... and skeleton. It has been reported recently that LCLC-RP can metastasize locally within the airways ("aerogeneous spread"), ... Chetty R (August 2000). "Combined large cell neuroendocrine, small cell and squamous carcinomas of the lung with rhabdoid cells ... Squamous cell lung carcinoma Small cell lung carcinoma Adenocarcinoma of the lung Large cell lung carcinoma Adenosquamous ...

*Clathrina clara

Cells with granules have not been observed. The skeleton comprises two size-classes of equiangular and equiradiate triactines. ... Small, flat but not tubular and has meshes consisting of a network of thin walled tubes which are a compact mass attached ...

*Purkinje fibers

... cells) conduct cardiac action potentials more quickly and efficiently than any other cells in the heart. Purkinje fibers allow ... Given no aberrant channels, the Purkinje fibers are distinctly shielded from each other by collagen or the cardiac skeleton. ... Further histologic examination reveals that these fibers are split in ventricles walls. The electrical origin of atrial ... The Purkinje fibers are specialised conducting fibers composed of electrically excitable cells that are larger than ...

*Silicon dioxide

Formation of the mineral may occur either within the cell wall of an organism (such as with phytoliths), or outside the cell ... The spicules forming the skeleton of many sponges.. Crystalline minerals formed in the physiological environment often show ... For well over a billion years, silicification in and by cells has been common in the biological world. In the modern world it ... For example, in the unit cell of α-quartz, the central tetrahedron shares all four of its corner O atoms, the two face-centered ...

*Onychophora

The body wall consists of a non-cellular outer skin, the cuticula; a single layer of epidermis cells forming an internal skin; ... Instead, their fluid-filled body cavity acts as a hydrostatic skeleton, similarly to many unrelated soft-bodied animals that ... This releases the sperm cells, which then move freely through the haemocoel, penetrate the external wall of the ovaries and ... The retina comprises numerous pigment cells and photoreceptors; the latter are easily modified flagellated cells, whose ...

*Lego Castle

8813 Battle at the Pass Minifigs: Skeleton, 4 Hero Knights, 4 Rogue Knights, Sir Kentis and Dracus. Consists of a castle wall ... Consists of a wagon with prison cell and catapult. 8875 King's Siege Tower Minifigs: Sir Jayko, King Mathias, Shadow Knight. ... The Royal Knights were the first Lego theme to have skeletons, starting with the first ever skeleton set "Skeleton Surprise". ... 8799 Knights' Castle Wall Minifigs: Jayko, Rascus, Santis. Consists of a castle wall. 8800 Vladek's Siege Engine Minifigs: ...

*Leaf

Its cells contain many more chloroplasts than the spongy layer. Cylindrical cells, with the chloroplasts close to the walls of ... Vein skeleton of a leaf. Veins contain lignin that make them harder to degrade for microorganisms. ... epidermal hair cells (trichomes), cells in the stomatal complex; guard cells and subsidiary cells. The epidermal cells are the ... Cells that bring water and minerals from the roots into the leaf.. Phloem. Cells that usually move sap, with dissolved sucrose( ...

*Equine anatomy

Vascular fold-like structures called laminae suspend the distal phalanx from the hoof wall. The skeleton of the horse has three ... Bones are also used to store minerals, and are the site of red blood cell formation. The Appendicular system includes the limbs ... Horses have 205 bones, which are divided into the appendicular skeleton (the legs) and the axial skeleton (the skull, vertebral ... As the horse puts weight onto the hoof, the hoof wall is pushed outwards and the frog compressed, driving blood out of the frog ...
Primary growth of AMC 60 fibrosarcoma inoculated into the hind leg of ACI/N rats resulted in occasional generation of concomitant resistance to growth of a second graft of the same tumor cells in the peritoneal or pleural cavity. Using this syngeneic tumor-host system, experiments were carried out to elucidate the effect of intratumoral injections of an immunomodulator, Nocardia rubra cell wall skeleton (N-CWS), on concomitant immunity. Rats bearing a solid tumor into which N-CWS was repeatedly injected showed a significant inhibitory effect on the proliferation of the tumor cells inoculated secondarily into the peritoneal cavity, i.e., concomitant immunity, as compared to control groups of normal, N-CWS-treated and solid tumor-bearing rats. Peritoneal macrophages, when harvested after i.p. tumor inoculation into the N-CWS treated solid tumor-bearing rats, were found to be significantly potentiated for tumoricidal activity against [5-125I]iodo-2′-deoxyuridine-labeled AMC tumor cells. These ...
The purpose of this study was to determine whether the presence of progressively growing pulmonary metastases influences the number and function of alveolar macrophages (AM). Female F344 rats were given i.v. injections of cells from a metastatic variant line of the syngeneic adenocarcinoma MADB-105. At Days 7, 14, 21, and 28 after injection, normal and tumor-bearing animals (3/group) were killed, and their AM were harvested by lavage. The functional integrity of AM was determined by their capacity to phagocytose opsonized erythrocytes and by their ability to respond to a variety of activating agents in vitro. Normal and metastasis-bearing rats were given i.v. injections of Nocardia rubra cell wall skeleton to determine whether the presence of large pulmonary metastases would interfere with AM activation in situ. The data demonstrated that the presence of progressively growing lung metastases led to a slight increase in the number of harvested AM and that these cells from tumor-bearing rats were ...
Galactosamine was found consistently as a minor component of the envelope of five species of slow-growing mycobacteria, including all the major human pathogens, but not three rapid-growing species. The amino sugar was a component of the arabinogalactan of the cell wall skeleton, and occurred at the level of about one residue per arabinogalactan chain. Its amino group was in the free, un-N-acetylated state. Examination of oligosaccharides released by partial acid hydrolysis of arabinogalactan by fast atom bombardment-MS and gas chromatography-MS identified a series of oligoarabinans, each possessing one GalN unit, linked to position 2 of arabinose. It is proposed that the GalN residues occur as stub branches of 1 → 5-linked arabinose chains in the arabinogalactan. Possible functions of GalN are discussed.. ...
Affiliation:地方独立行政法人大阪府立病院機構大阪国際がんセンター(研究所),その他部局等,主任研究員, Research Field:Experimental pathology,Integrative animal science,Biological pharmacy,Basic veterinary science/Basic zootechnical science,Virology, Keywords:樹状細胞,Toll-like receptor,アジュバント,癌,腫瘍免疫,自然免疫,BCG-CWS,腫瘍,免疫学,ワクチン, # of Research Projects:15, # of Research Products:126, Ongoing Project:Development of the lipopeptide based antitumor immunoadjuvants by drug design
Ore-ško-vić se po-ka-zao kao od-go-vo-ran čo-vjek, po svoj-stvi-ma mu da-jem po-zi-tiv-nu ocje-nu, ali po eko-nom-skoj dok-tri-ni ko-ju zas-tu-pa ne-ga-tiv-nu. Ne-ma ras-ta uz euro-krat-ske im-pe-ra-ti-ve. VILIM RIBIĆ sin-di-ka-lac
Answer Poison gas was used to blind the enemy on the other side . It is a very strong and dangerous chemical. Additional answer There are actually many different poison gases. The simplest is the element chlorine. But there are others which have different effects. But basically they all kill, not just blind.
(1982) Ribi et al. Zentralblatt fur Bakteriologie Mikrobiologie und Hygiene - Abt. 1 Orig. A. Factors contributing to protection against experimental tuberculosis have been studied with refined and well-characterized fractions from mycobacteria and with certain unrelated antigens. Mice were vacci...
Prostovoljci in zaposleni pri Greenpeaceu smo v središče Ljubljane, na Kongresni trg, pripeljal 25-metrsko napihljivo ribiško ladjo, s pomočjo katere smo osveščali prebivalce o pomenu varovanja morij in oceanov pred prekomernim ribolovom.
Mycobacterium vaccae is a nonpathogenic species of the Mycobacteriaceae family of bacteria that lives naturally in soil. Its name originates from the Latin word, vacca (cow), since it was first cultured from cow dung in Austria. Research areas being pursued with regard to killed Mycobacterium vaccae vaccine include immunotherapy for allergic asthma, cancer, depression, leprosy, psoriasis, dermatitis, eczema and tuberculosis. A research group at Henry Wellcome Laboratories for Integrative Neuroscience and Endocrinology, University of Bristol, Bristol, England, UK has shown that Mycobacterium vaccae stimulated a newly discovered group of neurons, increased levels of serotonin and decreased levels of anxiety in mice. Other researchers fed live Mycobacterium vaccae to mice, then measured their ability to navigate a maze compared to control mice not fed the bacteria. "Mice that were fed live M. vaccae navigated the maze twice as fast and with less demonstrated anxiety behaviors as control mice", ...
Okunojima, a small island in the Inland Sea of Japan, off the shore of Takehara city was notorious for the production of poison gases from 1927 to 1945. Of the gases produced there, yperite and lewisite were the most poisonous and caused severe residual damage." (Testimony of Dr. Christine M. Gosden on Chemical and Biological Weapons Threats to America: Are We Prepared? April 22nd, 1998). Pictures of the former gas poison factory on Okunojima (page in Japanese). Allegedly, the poison gas factory on Okunojima was so secret that trains driving past the island on the coast had their windows facing the sea barred. In 1945, the workers, who included many forced labourers from China and Korea, were liberated, as were the many rabbits used in experiments. The workers left. The rabbits stayed. Today Okunojima is a beautiful spot in the Inland Sea, with a museum on poison gas in general and its production on Okunojima in particular, with a holiday resort and a beach, and myriads of freely roaming, very ...
Adjuvant activity of monophosphoryl lipid A for nasal and oral immunization with soluble or liposome-associated antigen.: The effectiveness of monophosphoryl li
Sometimes, intelligence can happen in the dirtiest of places. A new study suggests that exposure to certain kinds of bacteria outside could help improve learning. Researchers at The Sage Colleges in New York studied Mycobacterium vaccae, which earlier studies showed might have antidepressant properties. In this new study, it seems that M. vaccae could help…
Virus-like particles (VLPs) offer a system to test the hypothesis that since antibody binding to native cover glycoprotein (Env) trimers ends up in HIV-1 neutralization that local Env trimers presented in membranes can be useful for causing neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) within a vaccine placing. models. The latest immunogenicity research in rabbits appear to have out all of the 3 for these leads. plus the Animal Wellbeing Act. Macaques were encased indoors in stainless steel galetas had a 12h/12h daily lumination cycle had been fed 2 times daily given water R595 cell wall membrane skeleton out of and man made trehalose dicorynomycolate. Adjuplex is made up of detergent-free carbomer and lecithin homopolymer. AS01B consists of liposomes containing deacylated QS21 and MPL. Normally immunogens and adjuvants had been co-formulated. In buy 1207456-01-6 some cases had been administered independently (Fig. 2). iv) Medication dosage Gp120 and gp41 had been administered in 100μg amounts. Doses ...
It seems that exposure to M vaccae, i.e. getting it "under your skin", boosts your immune system and improves your brain chemistry. So now there is a scientific "reason" for feeling good after youve worked in your garden or out in the yard, beyond the fresh air and sunshine. These bacteria get into your system and one result of the immune cascade is that serotonin production in your brain increases. More serotonin elevates your mood and has a few other positive mental effects that I recall studying some years ago ...
Activists posted a video on YouTube on Wednesday of four men being treated with oxygen. A voice off-screen gave the date and said Assads forces used poison gas in Harasta. It did not say if there were fatalities ...
Polypeptides and polynucleotides isolated from Mycobacterium vaccae are provided, together with compositions comprising such polypeptide and polynucleotides and methods for their use in the enhancement of immune responses to heterologous antigens.
he was exposed to poison gas, was hospitalized with lung injury, and was subsequently medically discharged from service and consigned to a pension. Returning to Tampa, he took employment as a reporter for the "Tampa Tribune," where he worked until 1936, when he moved to Hollywood. At some point after his exposure to the poison gas, he also developed acromegaly, a slowly progressive deforming of bones in the head, hands and feet, and internal and external soft tissues caused by disease of the pituitary gland, which onsets after the individual has reached his full genetic height (under normal pituitary influence), and production of growth hormones resume, but the bone structure can no longer produce symmetric growth (as in giantism). According to all authors, his acromegaly was a result of the poison gas, though typically, it is caused by a tumor on the pituitary. In any event, his worsening disfigurement is thought to have led to his first divorce and certainly was responsible for his being ...
Edit: Now that I think of it, maybe poison gas would double the effects of regular poison, but not poison or do damage to anything that isnt already. Toxic would get turned into regular poison with this move.. The poison status: Poisoning should do 1/8th of HP a turn (doesnt it already?). It would lower defense or special by 2 stages, or both by 1 stage. It could also lower evade or accuracy instead. In order to keep regular poison useful, perhaps Toxic wont give you the benefits of stat lowering.. Psywave: Instead of between 1 HP and 1.5x your level, make it 0.75x and 1.5x your level. String shot: This is only a maybe, but make it lower accuracy or trap the opponent like wrap as well as lower speed.. Multi attacks: Comet Punch, Pin missle, fury attack etc. They should be fixed in some way, but Im not sure how. Perhaps a stat lowering effect or a status effect, or something that effects switching.. Dizzy Punch: should have a 30 - 40% chance of confusing the enemy. Constrict: Should be ...
LEAD: A British laboratory has found traces of mustard gas in soil samples taken from Iraqi Kurdistan, lending credence to allegations that Iraq has been using chemical weapons in a drive to debilitate its Kurdish population.
a condition in which insufficient or no oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged on a ventilatory basis; caused by choking or drowning or electric shock or poison gas. ...
Background: Generation of monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MDDC) is induced in the presence of GM-CSF and IL-4, and a maturation stimulus is added to the monocyte culture to obtain mature Dendritic Cells (DCs) suitable for therapy. TNF-α is the most common cytokine used for activating DCs and generating mature MDDC either alone or in combination with other cytokines. Objective: To compare effects of traditional cytokine cocktail (TNF-α + IL-1β) versus TLR4-agonist monophosphoryl lipid A on the viability, phenotype, cytokine profile and functionality of MDDC. Methods: The study included 32 individuals; twenty Acute Myeloid Leukaemia (AML) cases in complete remission and 12 healthy volunteers. They were divided into 3 groups: Group 1: control group: 12 subjects to measure the baseline levels of all markers in the monocytic preparation; Group 2: cytokine cocktail (TNF-α) group, which included 10 AML subjects; Group 3: MPLA group which included 10 AML subjects. Results: TNF-α group showed higher
A terrorist attack on three Tokyo subway lines during this mornings rush hour permeated trains with what the police said appeared to be a form of nerve gas, killing at least six people and injured more than 1,200. No group immediately claimed responsibility, but the police said they believed that a simultaneous guerrilla attack from several different points was responsible.
A safe and rational microwave treatment device procedure that is proven is currently accessible globally. The bit of mind solution to lethal and harsh usage of poison gas. There is no longer any justification for homeowners to pay for and enable the gas and tenting poisoning of … [Read more...] ...
Schrödingers Cat is an evil plan to activate an infernal weapon based on a physical property deliberately jeopardizing the life of a mammal to illustrate a physical ramification and so is Quantum Suicide which "kills" a scientist, not a cat, with a cannon, not poison gas, based on the spin value of protons, not radioactive decay, in order to illustrate the difference between the Copenhagen interpretation and the many-worlds interpretation, not superposition transferred to a macroscopic scale ...
Female mice of inbred strain CBA do not reject syngeneic male skin grafts even though they mount a T-cell response against the male-specific HY antigen. We show that local immunostimulation performed by injecting cytokines and Toll-like receptor ligands in close vicinity to the graft causes rejection. We feel that this approach should be tested in tumor-bearing human patients in combination with antitumor vaccination. Relief of intratumor immunosuppression may increase considerably the fraction of patients who respond to vaccination directed against tumor antigens recognized by T cells. ...
The safety and immunogenicity of the vaccine with the antigen NY-ESO-1 in combination with the MPLA will be evaluated in a phase 1 clinical trial conducted in patients with malignancies that express the antigen (lung, ovarian and melanoma). This study will involve 15 patients, who will receive 250 mcg of NY-ESO-1 and 100 mcg of MPLA ...
Strasser, F; Blum, D; von Moos, R; Cathomas, R; Ribi, K; Aebi, S; Betticher, D; Hayoz, S; Klingbiel, D; Brauchli, P; Haefner, M; Mauri, S; Kaasa, S; Koeberle, D (2016). The effect of real-time electronic monitoring of patient-reported symptoms and clinical syndromes in outpatient workflow of medical oncologists: E-MOSAIC, a multicenter cluster-randomized phase III study (SAKK 95/06). Annals of Oncology, 27(2):324-332.. Body, J; Henry, D; von Moos, R; Rider, A; De Courcy, J; Murray, G; Bhowmik, D; Gatta, F; Arellano, J; Hechmati, G; Qian, Y (2015). Bone pain and bone targeting agent (Bta) treatment pattern in patients with bone metastases (Bms) from prostate cancer (Pc) in real world setting in Europe. Value in Health, 18(7):A493.. Koeberle, D; Betticher, D C; von Moos, R; Dietrich, D; Brauchli, P; Baertschi, D; Matter, K; Winterhalder, R; Borner, M; Anchisi, S; Moosmann, P; Kollar, A; Saletti, P; Roth, A; Frueh, M; Kueng, M; Popescu, R A; Schacher, S; Hess, V; Herrmann, R (2015). Bevacizumab ...
Howard Chinn sees them through his windshield on Chicago`s busy expressways--trucks bearing signs with skulls and crossbones and other symbols warning of danger from explosion, poison gas or
Theres not a lot of natural gas drilling in Kentucky, but nearby West Virginia, Ohio and Pennsylvania have become hotbeds as the Marcellus Shale is tapped. Now, in response to a study, the Occupational Health and Safety Administration and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health are warning natural gas workers that they could be exposed to unhealthy levels of silica dust.. Silicosis is a lung disease caused by silica dust, and has long been associated with mining. But when natural gas workers fracture-or "frack"-the shale rock, they use large amounts of silica sand. As Elizabeth Grossman reports for public health blog The Pump Handle, that can cause major health problems too.. ...
Welcome to the Bacillus Calmette-Guerin Vaccine, BCG information hub. Featuring active ingredients, dosages, related medications, and Bacillus Calmette-Guerin Vaccine, BCG forums.
One day, Pawnee Tribal member Walter Echo-Hawk stumbled upon a worrying scene. Next to his home, oil and gas workers were surveying for fracking. The U.S. government had approved 17 oil and gas leases on Pawnee land without consulting or even notifying the Tribal members. This is the story of how that happened, and how the Pawnee Nation fought back.. ...
RESEARCHERS have reported results of a clinical trial showing that a new vaccine - Mycobacterium vaccae - is effective in preventing tuberculosis in people with HIV infection. The DarDar Health Study, named for Dartmouth and Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, found that MV immunisation reduced the rate of definite tuberculosis by 39percent among 2000 HIV-infected patients in Tanzania.
Obscure al-Qaida Chemist Worries Experts By CHARLES J. HANLEY, AP Special Correspondent 7 minutes ago Hes a mystery in a red beard, with a strange alias and a degree in chemical engineering. In the hands of this alleged al-Qaida operative, its a specialty that summons visions of poison gas and mass terror. Al-Qaida is wedded to the spectacular, notes U.S. counterterrorism analyst Donald Van Duyn, and elusive Egyptian chemist Midhat Mursi was said to be exploring such possibilities when last seen, brewing up deadly compounds and gassing dogs in Afghanistan. Van Duyns FBI and other U.S. agencies are interested enough ...

Cell wall skeleton | definition of Cell wall skeleton by Medical dictionaryCell wall skeleton | definition of Cell wall skeleton by Medical dictionary

Cell wall skeleton explanation free. What is Cell wall skeleton? Meaning of Cell wall skeleton medical term. What does Cell ... Looking for online definition of Cell wall skeleton in the Medical Dictionary? ... Cell wall skeleton , definition of Cell wall skeleton by Medical dictionary https://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/ ... redirected from Cell wall skeleton). Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Encyclopedia. cytoskeleton. [si″to-skel´ĕ-ton] a ...
more infohttps://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Cell+wall+skeleton

Effector Mechanism in Concomitant Immunity Potentiated by Intratumoral Injecton of Nocardia rubra Cell Wall Skeleton | Cancer...Effector Mechanism in Concomitant Immunity Potentiated by Intratumoral Injecton of Nocardia rubra Cell Wall Skeleton | Cancer...

Effector Mechanism in Concomitant Immunity Potentiated by Intratumoral Injecton of Nocardia rubra Cell Wall Skeleton. Takeshi ... Effector Mechanism in Concomitant Immunity Potentiated by Intratumoral Injecton of Nocardia rubra Cell Wall Skeleton ... Effector Mechanism in Concomitant Immunity Potentiated by Intratumoral Injecton of Nocardia rubra Cell Wall Skeleton ... Effector Mechanism in Concomitant Immunity Potentiated by Intratumoral Injecton of Nocardia rubra Cell Wall Skeleton ...
more infohttp://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/45/12_Part_1/6371

Tumor-Secreted Lactic Acid Promotes IL-23/IL-17 Proinflammatory Pathway | The Journal of ImmunologyTumor-Secreted Lactic Acid Promotes IL-23/IL-17 Proinflammatory Pathway | The Journal of Immunology

Biologically active components from mycobacterial cell walls: I. Isolation and composition of cell wall skeleton and component ... Maturation of human dendritic cells by cell wall skeleton of Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin: involvement of toll- ... 3 Abbreviations used in this paper: DC, dendritic cell; PGN, peptidoglycan; BCG, bacillus Calmette-Guérin; CWS, cell wall ... The stained cells were analyzed by FACS. B, One hundred thousand tumor-infiltrating immune cells (CD45-positive cells, 86%) ...
more infohttp://www.jimmunol.org/content/180/11/7175?ijkey=26de0e2f980d3e7d704b3316a7674d0f28bcbd7d&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

CiNii Articles - SUGIMURA KazuhisaCiNii Articles - SUGIMURA Kazuhisa

Macrophage Dependency of T-lymphocyte Mitogenesis by ,I,Nocardia rubra,/I, Cell-Wall Skeleton (1977) ... Chemical and Immunological Studies on the Cell Walls of Propionibaeterium acnes Strain C7 and Corynebacterium parvum ATCC 11829 ... Mitogenic Activity of the Cell Walls of Mycobacteria, Nocardia, Corynebacteria and Anaerobic Coryneforms (1976) ... Adjuvant Activity of Synthetic CellWall Peptidoglycan Subunits on Monoazobenzenearsonate-N-acetyl-L-tyrosine and Bacterial α- ...
more infohttps://ci.nii.ac.jp/author?q=SUGIMURA+Kazuhisa

Frontiers | Stability of Cell Wall Composition and Saccharification Efficiency in Miscanthus across Diverse Environments |...Frontiers | Stability of Cell Wall Composition and Saccharification Efficiency in Miscanthus across Diverse Environments |...

To investigate the potential effects of differences between growth locations on the cell wall composition and saccharification ... To investigate the potential effects of differences between growth locations on the cell wall composition and saccharification ... Doblin, M. S., Pettolino, F., and Bacic, A. (2010). Plant cell walls: the skeleton of the plant world. Funct. Plant Biol. 37, ... forming a highly impermeable matrix that imparts strength to the plant cell wall and shields cell wall polysaccharides against ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpls.2016.02004/full

Frontiers | Addition of Aegilops U and M Chromosomes Affects Protein and Dietary Fiber Content of Wholemeal Wheat Flour | Plant...Frontiers | Addition of Aegilops U and M Chromosomes Affects Protein and Dietary Fiber Content of Wholemeal Wheat Flour | Plant...

Doblin, M. S., Pettolino, F., and Bacic, A. (2010). Plant cell walls: the skeleton of the plant world. Funct. Plant Biol. 37, ... 2012). Cell walls of developing wheat starchy endosperm: comparison of composition and RNA-Seq transcriptome. Plant Physiol. ... Bamforth, C. W. (2010). The enzymology of cell wall breakdown during malting and mashing: An Overview. Tech. Q. Mast. Brew. ... I. Chemical composition and ultrastructure of the cell walls. Aust. J. Biol. Sci. 26, 793-812. doi: 10.1071/BI9730793 ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpls.2017.01529/full

Basic Mechanisms and Clinical Treatment of Tumor Metastasis - 1st EditionBasic Mechanisms and Clinical Treatment of Tumor Metastasis - 1st Edition

Effect of Intrapleural Instillation of Nocardia Rubra Cell Wall Skeleton on Lung Cancer. I. Introduction. II. Materials and ... Induction of Cytotoxic Lymphoid Cells against Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cell Line. III. Induction of Cytotoxic Lymphoid Cells ... T and B Cells in Cancer Tissues. V. Functional Role of Infiltrating T Cells. VI. Carcinogenic Process and T Cell Response. VII ... Induction of Human Specific Killer T Cell against Autologous Cancer Cells and Its Propagation by T Cell Growth Factor. I. ...
more infohttps://www.elsevier.com/books/basic-mechanisms-and-clinical-treatment-of-tumor-metastasis/torisu/978-0-12-695680-1

How do human cells differ from plant cells? | Reference.comHow do human cells differ from plant cells? | Reference.com

The main difference between plant and human cells is that plant cells have a cell wall as well as a cell membrane and that some ... plant cells have chlorophyll. Another difference is that while there... ... the cell walls make the stems and leaves stand up nicely. A plant that needs water will wilt. Humans have skeletons, so cell ... A: The main difference between plant cells and animals cells is that plant cells possess a cell wall and animal cells do not. ...
more infohttps://www.reference.com/science/human-cells-differ-plant-cells-4ac2c1a6cd4ef7cd

Yu T[au] - PubMed - NCBIYu T[au] - PubMed - NCBI

The biological macromolecule Nocardia rubra cell-wall skeleton as an avenue for cell-based immunotherapy. ... Exp Cell Res. 2019 Feb 1. pii: S0014-4827(18)31020-6. doi: 10.1016/j.yexcr.2019.01.022. [Epub ahead of print] Review. ... Cell Death Differ. 2019 Feb 15. doi: 10.1038/s41418-018-0236-y. [Epub ahead of print] ... J Cell Physiol. 2019 Jan 29. doi: 10.1002/jcp.28182. [Epub ahead of print] ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?cmd=search&term=Yu+T%5Bau%5D&dispmax=50

Diatoms | Encyclopedia.comDiatoms | Encyclopedia.com

Diatoms also are distinct because they secrete complex outer cell walls, sometimes called skeletons. The skeleton of a diatom ... Diatoms also are distinct because they secrete complex outer cell walls, sometimes called skeletons. The skeleton of a diatom ... Diatoms also are distinct because they secrete complex outer cell walls, sometimes called skeletons. The skeleton of a diatom ... During division, diatoms construct new frustule cell walls. After a cell divides, the epitheca and hypotheca separate, one ...
more infohttps://www.encyclopedia.com/science-and-technology/biology-and-genetics/cell-biology/diatoms

Carbohydrates: Uses, health benefits, and risksCarbohydrates: Uses, health benefits, and risks

They also play a structural role in the plant cell wall and the tough outer skeleton of insects. ... Insulin is a hormone that makes our cells absorb blood sugar for energy or storage. As the cells absorb the blood sugar, blood ... In short, insulin and glucagon help maintain regular levels of blood glucose in cells, especially the brain cells. Insulin ... Y2 receptors in the bodys fat cells, stimulating the cells to grow in size and number. ...
more infohttps://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/161547.php?sr

Algae - The Canadian EncyclopediaAlgae - The Canadian Encyclopedia

The fibrillar component forms the rigid skeleton of the cell wall, and is most commonly cellulose. The amorphous components are ... Cell Walls. In general, cell walls comprise 2 components, an amorphous component which forms the matrix of the cell wall, and ... Algal cells may be naked or may be covered by complete, rigid cell walls; incomplete cell walls (eg, a lorica or theca); or a ... cell wall chemistry and structure, as well as aspects of cell ultrastructure. ...
more infohttps://thecanadianencyclopedia.com/en/article/algae/

Similar articles for PubMed (Select 17185603) - PubMed - NCBISimilar articles for PubMed (Select 17185603) - PubMed - NCBI

Effect of cell wall skeleton and monophosphoryl lipid A adjuvant on the immunogenicity of a murine B16 melanoma vaccine. ... A TLR4 agonist synergizes with dendritic cell-directed lentiviral vectors for inducing antigen-specific immune responses. ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?LinkName=pubmed_pubmed&from_uid=17185603

Empa - Communication - Using nanocellulose to create novel composite materialsEmpa - Communication - Using nanocellulose to create novel composite materials

It is found in the cell walls of plants where it serves to provide a supporting framework - a sort of skeleton. Cellulose is ... Caption: Cellulose serves as a supporting framework in the cell walls of plants, much like a skeleton. (iStock) ...
more infohttps://www.empa.ch/web/s604/cellulose

Table of Contents | Cancer ResearchTable of Contents | Cancer Research

Induction of a Tumor Necrosis Factor-like Activity by Nocardia rubra Cell Wall Skeleton ... Induction of a Tumor Necrosis Factor-like Activity by Nocardia rubra Cell Wall Skeleton ... Imbalance in the Nucleotide Pools of Myeloid Leukemia Cells and HL-60 Cells: Correlation with Cell-Cycle Phase, Proliferation, ... Imbalance in the Nucleotide Pools of Myeloid Leukemia Cells and HL-60 Cells: Correlation with Cell-Cycle Phase, Proliferation, ...
more infohttp://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/47/7

A potential role of probiotics in colorectal cancer prevention: review of possible mechanisms of action | SpringerLinkA potential role of probiotics in colorectal cancer prevention: review of possible mechanisms of action | SpringerLink

Zhang X, Ohta Y (1991) Binding of mutagens by fractions of the cell wall skeleton of lactic acid bacteria on mutagens. J Dairy ... Lactobacillus acidophilus LA 1 binds to cultured human intestinal cell lines and inhibits cell attachment and cell invasion by ... Short-chain fatty acid-initiated cell cycle arrest and apoptosis of colonic epithelial cells is linked to mitochondrial ... Propionibacteria induce apoptosis of colorectal carcinoma cells via short-chain fatty acids acting on mitochondria. Cell Death ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11274-013-1499-6

Silica Stories | Christina De La Rocha | SpringerSilica Stories | Christina De La Rocha | Springer

As biomineralized opal, it is the cell wall, skeleton, spicules, and scales of organisms ornamenting numerous lobes of the tree ...
more infohttps://www.springer.com/us/book/9783319540535

KAKEN - Research Projects | Innate immunityの活性化による抗がん免疫療法 (KAKENHI-PROJECT-14030096)KAKEN - Research Projects | Innate immunityの活性化による抗がん免疫療法 (KAKENHI-PROJECT-14030096)

... lessons from BCG-cell wall skeleton and Mycoplasma lipoprotein M161AgMicrobes Infect.. 4. 955-961 (2002). *. Related Report. ... et al.: Mycobacterium bovis BCG cell wall and LPS induce a novel gene, BIGM103, whose main frame encodes a 7-TM protein : ... High levels of RAE-1 isoforms on mouse tumor cell lines assessed by the anti-pan-Rae-1 polyclonal antibody confers tumor cell ... et al.: Human herpesvirus 6 variant A but not variant B induces fusion-from-without in a variety of human cells through a ...
more infohttps://kaken.nii.ac.jp/grant/KAKENHI-PROJECT-14030096/

ERC FUNDED PROJECTS | ERC: European Research CouncilERC FUNDED PROJECTS | ERC: European Research Council

Plants build their bodies using a hydrostatic skeleton that consists of pressurized cells encased by a cell wall. Consequently ... Cell growth depends on the balance between internal cell pressure - turgor, and strength of the cell wall. Cell growth is under ... Cell growth depends on the balance between internal cell pressure - turgor, and strength of the cell wall. Cell growth is under ... Plants build their bodies using a hydrostatic skeleton that consists of pressurized cells encased by a cell wall. Consequently ...
more infohttps://erc.europa.eu/projects-figures/erc-funded-projects/results?f%5B0%5D=funding_scheme%3AStarting%20Grant%20%28StG%29&f%5B1%5D=country%3ACzechia&%3Bf%5B1%5D=country%3ASwitzerland&%3Bamp%3Bf%5B1%5D=xml_domain%3ALS&%3Bamp%3Bf%5B2%5D=tid%253Aparents_all%3A72&%3Bamp%3Bf%5B3%5D=tid%253Aparents_all%3A70

ERC FUNDED PROJECTS | ERC: European Research CouncilERC FUNDED PROJECTS | ERC: European Research Council

Plants build their bodies using a hydrostatic skeleton that consists of pressurized cells encased by a cell wall. Consequently ... Cell growth depends on the balance between internal cell pressure - turgor, and strength of the cell wall. Cell growth is under ... Cell growth depends on the balance between internal cell pressure - turgor, and strength of the cell wall. Cell growth is under ... Plants build their bodies using a hydrostatic skeleton that consists of pressurized cells encased by a cell wall. Consequently ...
more infohttps://erc.europa.eu/projects-figures/erc-funded-projects/results?destination=projects-figures/erc-funded-projects/canbuild&%3Bamp%3Bf%5B0%5D=country%3AIceland&%3Bamp%3Bf%5B1%5D=country%3ACroatia&%3Bf%5B0%5D=call_year%3A2009&f%5B0%5D=country%3AAustria&f%5B1%5D=country%3ACzechia&f%5B2%5D=funding_scheme%3AStarting%20Grant%20%28StG%29&f%5B3%5D=country%3ACyprus&f%5B4%5D=tid%253Aparents_all%3A74&f%5B5%5D=tid%253Aparents_all%3A72

ERC FUNDED PROJECTS | ERC: European Research CouncilERC FUNDED PROJECTS | ERC: European Research Council

Plants build their bodies using a hydrostatic skeleton that consists of pressurized cells encased by a cell wall. Consequently ... Cell growth depends on the balance between internal cell pressure - turgor, and strength of the cell wall. Cell growth is under ... Cell growth depends on the balance between internal cell pressure - turgor, and strength of the cell wall. Cell growth is under ... Plants build their bodies using a hydrostatic skeleton that consists of pressurized cells encased by a cell wall. Consequently ...
more infohttps://erc.europa.eu/projects-figures/erc-funded-projects/results?f%5B0%5D=funding_scheme%3AStarting%20Grant%20%28StG%29&f%5B1%5D=country%3AGermany&f%5B2%5D=country%3ACzechia&f%5B3%5D=country%3AIceland&f%5B4%5D=call_year%3A2018&%3Bf%5B1%5D=country%3ANetherlands&%3Bamp%3Bf%5B1%5D=xml_panel%3ASH4&%3Bamp%3Bf%5B2%5D=tid%253Aparents_all%3A82&%3Bamp%3Bf%5B3%5D=tid%253Aparents_all%3A78&%3Bamp%3Bf%5B4%5D=tid%253Aparents_all%3A65

Cord Factor and Related Synthetic Trehalose Diesters | Springer for Research & DevelopmentCord Factor and Related Synthetic Trehalose Diesters | Springer for Research & Development

Biologically active components from mycobacterial cell walls. I. Isolation and composition of cell wall skeleton and components ... Antitumour activity of BCG cell-wall skeleton and related materials. Gann Monograph on Cancer Res. 21, 73 (1978)Google Scholar ... Biologically active components from mycobacterial cell walls. V. Granuloma formation in mouse lungs and guinea pig skin. Cell. ... Comparison of cell walls and trehalose 6,6′-dimycolate. Cancer Immunol. Immunother. 3, 179 (1978)CrossRefGoogle Scholar ...
more infohttps://rd.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-642-67809-7_7

24-Epibrassinolide-induced alterations in the root cell walls of Cucumis sativus L. under Ca(NO3)2 stress | Springer for...24-Epibrassinolide-induced alterations in the root cell walls of Cucumis sativus L. under Ca(NO3)2 stress | Springer for...

Doblin MS, Pettolino F, Bacic A (2010) Plant cell walls: the skeleton of the plant world. Funct Plant Biol 37(5):357-381. https ... The continuous transduction of EBL signal thickened the secondary cell wall of casparian band cells, thus resisting against ion ... Salt stress damaged several metabolic pathways, leading to cell wall reassemble. However, EBL promoted cell expansion and ... Salt stress alters the cell wall polysaccharides and anatomy of coffee (Coffea arabica L.) leaf cells. Carbohydr Polym 112:686- ...
more infohttps://rd.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00709-017-1187-8

Subcellular Localization of Toll-Like Receptor 3 in Human Dendritic Cells | The Journal of ImmunologySubcellular Localization of Toll-Like Receptor 3 in Human Dendritic Cells | The Journal of Immunology

Maturation of human dendritic cells by cell-wall skeleton of Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guerin: involvement of Toll- ... Ba/F3 cells or HEK293 cells expressing Flag-tagged human TLR3, or HeLa cells were lysed in lysis buffer. TLR3 protein was ... Electron micrograph of Ba/F3 cells (a) shows a large MVB (arrow) in Ba/F3 cells. Ba/F3 cells expressing Flag-tagged human TLR3 ... In monocyte-derived immature dendritic cells (iDCs), TLR3 predominantly resided inside the cells but not on the cell surface. ...
more infohttps://www.jimmunol.org/content/171/6/3154
  • The singular algal diatom cell lives protected inside the frustule halves like a pair of shoes snuggled within a shoebox. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The pores that perforate the frustules allow gases, nutrients, and metabolic waste products to be exchanged between the watery environment and the algal cell. (encyclopedia.com)
  • IL-23 is mainly produced by APCs, such as monocytes/macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs) 3 in response to stimulation with TLR2 and 4 ligands, such as peptidoglycan (PGN), LPS, and bacillus Calmette-Guérin cell wall skeleton (BCG-CWS) ( 13 , 14 , 15 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • A TLR4 agonist synergizes with dendritic cell-directed lentiviral vectors for inducing antigen-specific immune responses. (nih.gov)
  • Susceptibility of human dendritic cells to measles virus depends on their activation stages in conjunction with the level of CDw150:role of Toll stimulators in DC maturation and MV amplification'Microbes Infect. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Initially, the immune system protects the host from cancer development and, indeed, the infiltration of NK cells in cancers is associated with a favorable prognosis ( 1 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • However, the infiltration of innate-immune cells such as macrophages correlates with a poor prognosis, which suggests that these cells may be directly involved in tumor development and metastasis by inducing angiogenesis and tissue remodeling. (jimmunol.org)
  • They also showed that IL-23 is an important molecule that leads to the up-regulation of IL-17 and the matrix metalloprotease 9, to an increase in angiogenesis, and to a reduction in CD8 + T cell infiltration in the tumor microenvironment ( 16 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Adebola O, Corcoran O, Morgan WA (2013) Protective effects of prebiotics inulin and lactulose from cytotoxicity and genotoxicity in human colon adenocarcinoma cells. (springer.com)
  • Rats bearing a solid tumor into which N-CWS was repeatedly injected showed a significant inhibitory effect on the proliferation of the tumor cells inoculated secondarily into the peritoneal cavity, i.e. , concomitant immunity, as compared to control groups of normal, N-CWS-treated and solid tumor-bearing rats. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Peptide mimics of the CTLA4-binding domain stimulate T cell proliferation. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Peritoneal macrophages, when harvested after i.p. tumor inoculation into the N-CWS treated solid tumor-bearing rats, were found to be significantly potentiated for tumoricidal activity against [5- 125 I]iodo-2′-deoxyuridine-labeled AMC tumor cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Although the underlying mechanism by which concomitant resistance can be augmented by intratumoral injection of N-CWS remains undetermined, the existence of a tumor-specific trigger for induction of potentiated tumoricidal macrophages may indicate that N-CWS when injected repeatedly into the tumor tissue plays an important role in augmenting a pre-existing, weak, tumor-specific cell-mediated immune response leading to activation of macrophages. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In this study, we show that lactic acid secreted by tumor cells enhances the transcription of IL-23p19 and IL-23 production in monocytes/macrophages and in tumor-infiltrating immune cells that are stimulated with TLR2 and 4 ligands. (jimmunol.org)
  • Primary growth of AMC 60 fibrosarcoma inoculated into the hind leg of ACI/N rats resulted in occasional generation of concomitant resistance to growth of a second graft of the same tumor cells in the peritoneal or pleural cavity. (aacrjournals.org)
  • nevertheless their tumoricidal activity was observed tumor nonspecifically for the SL 1 tumor cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Additional experiments revealed that nonadherent peritoneal cells were only weakly tumoricidal and that the macrophage tumoricidal activity was completely abolished in the presence of carrageenan. (aacrjournals.org)
  • To this end, the microscope developed at the IPT regularly examines the growth density inside the cell culture vessels. (phys.org)
  • Using fully automated equipment for producing stem cells, Fraunhofer researchers have managed to adjust the process control to cell growth - delivering an adaptive system that is suitable for use in a number of sectors. (phys.org)
  • Cell growth is the decisive factor. (phys.org)
  • Within these various coverings is the plasmalemma, a living structure responsible for controlling the inflow and outflow of materials in the cell protoplasm. (thecanadianencyclopedia.com)
  • This causes the cells to revert to an embryonic state, from which they can theoretically differentiate into any cell type - even heart or nerve cells , which, owing to the risk to the patient, cannot be obtained by means of a biopsy. (phys.org)
  • Different species of diatom can be identified based upon the structure of these walls. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Whereas IL-12 mainly induces the development of IFN-γ-producing Th1 cells, IL-23 is involved in maintaining the Th17 cells that are generated in response to IL-6 and TGF-β ( 7 , 8 , 9 , 10 ) and activates memory T cells (CD44 high and CD62L low ) ( 11 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • This is why the project aimed to develop fully automated, modular equipment that achieves both a high throughput and a consistently high quality of stem cells. (phys.org)
  • To date, iPS cells are grown by lab specialists in a painstaking, time-consuming process. (phys.org)
  • They faced a number of challenges, the first being how to network the various biotech devices - liquid handling robot, a microscope, an incubator, and the automatic magazine for storing cells and containers - in a way that permitted the use of process-control technology in the first place. (phys.org)
  • Furthermore, it was shown that Th17 cells are gradually increased in the tumor microenvironment during tumor development ( 17 ) and that IL-17 up-regulates the production of a variety of proinflammatory cytokines ( 18 ) and proangiogenic factors ( 19 ) to promote tumor development ( 20 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • iPS cells such as these are necessary in the development of medications used in personalized medicine. (phys.org)
  • the cytoplasmic elements, including the tonofibrils, keratin, and other microfibrils, that function as a supportive system within a cell, especially an epithelial cell. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • How do the shapes of the cells help you tell about its function? (reference.com)