Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.
Fibers composed of MICROFILAMENT PROTEINS, which are predominately ACTIN. They are the smallest of the cytoskeletal filaments.
An inheritable change in cells manifested by changes in cell division and growth and alterations in cell surface properties. It is induced by infection with a transforming virus.
Monomeric subunits of primarily globular ACTIN and found in the cytoplasmic matrix of almost all cells. They are often associated with microtubules and may play a role in cytoskeletal function and/or mediate movement of the cell or the organelles within the cell.
The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.
An ubiquitously-expressed lysosomal cysteine protease that is involved in protein processing. The enzyme has both endopeptidase and aminopeptidase activities.
Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.
Proteins transcribed from the E1A genome region of ADENOVIRUSES which are involved in positive regulation of transcription of the early genes of host infection.
Organic chemistry methodology that mimics the modular nature of various biosynthetic processes. It uses highly reliable and selective reactions designed to "click" i.e., rapidly join small modular units together in high yield, without offensive byproducts. In combination with COMBINATORIAL CHEMISTRY TECHNIQUES, it is used for the synthesis of new compounds and combinatorial libraries.
Species of the genus MASTADENOVIRUS, causing a wide range of diseases in humans. Infections are mostly asymptomatic, but can be associated with diseases of the respiratory, ocular, and gastrointestinal systems. Serotypes (named with Arabic numbers) have been grouped into species designated Human adenovirus A-F.
Proteins transcribed from the E4 region of ADENOVIRUSES. The E4 19K protein transactivates transcription of the adenovirus E2F protein and complexes with it.
Proteins transcribed from the E1B region of ADENOVIRUSES which are involved in regulation of the levels of early and late viral gene expression.
Proteins encoded by adenoviruses that are synthesized prior to, and in the absence of, viral DNA replication. The proteins are involved in both positive and negative regulation of expression in viral and cellular genes, and also affect the stability of viral mRNA. Some are also involved in oncogenic transformation.
A class of G-protein-coupled receptors that are specific for CANNABINOIDS such as those derived from CANNABIS. They also bind a structurally distinct class of endogenous factors referred to as ENDOCANNABINOIDS. The receptor class may play a role in modulating the release of signaling molecules such as NEUROTRANSMITTERS and CYTOKINES.
A psychoactive compound extracted from the resin of Cannabis sativa (marihuana, hashish). The isomer delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is considered the most active form, producing characteristic mood and perceptual changes associated with this compound.
The act of regarding attentively and studying facts and occurrences, gathering data through analyzing, measuring, and drawing conclusions, with the purpose of applying the observed information to theoretical assumptions. Observation as a scientific method in the acquisition of knowledge began in classical antiquity; in modern science and medicine its greatest application is facilitated by modern technology. Observation is one of the components of the research process.
Compounds having the cannabinoid structure. They were originally extracted from Cannabis sativa L. The most pharmacologically active constituents are TETRAHYDROCANNABINOL; CANNABINOL; and CANNABIDIOL.
OXAZINES with a fused BENZENE ring.
Compounds that interact with and stimulate the activity of CANNABINOID RECEPTORS.
A subclass of cannabinoid receptor found primarily on central and peripheral NEURONS where it may play a role modulating NEUROTRANSMITTER release.
Adaptive antiviral defense mechanisms, in archaea and bacteria, based on DNA repeat arrays called CLUSTERED REGULARLY INTERSPACED SHORT PALINDROMIC REPEATS (CRISPR elements) that function in conjunction with CRISPR-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS (Cas proteins). Several types have been distinguished, including Type I, Type II, and Type III, based on signature motifs of CRISPR-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS.
Protein components of the CRISPR-CAS SYSTEMS for anti-viral defense in ARCHAEA and BACTERIA. These are proteins that carry out a variety of functions during the creation and expansion of the CRISPR ARRAYS, the capture of new CRISPR SPACERS, biogenesis of SMALL INTERFERING RNA (CRISPR or crRNAs), and the targeting and silencing of invading viruses and plasmids. They include DNA HELICASES; RNA-BINDING PROTEINS; ENDONUCLEASES; and RNA and DNA POLYMERASES.
A species of thermophilic, gram-positive bacteria found in MILK and milk products.
A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria isolated from skin lesions, blood, inflammatory exudates, and the upper respiratory tract of humans. It is a group A hemolytic Streptococcus that can cause SCARLET FEVER and RHEUMATIC FEVER.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic BACTERIA. It is a commensal and pathogen only of humans, and can be carried asymptomatically in the NASOPHARYNX. When found in cerebrospinal fluid it is the causative agent of cerebrospinal meningitis (MENINGITIS, MENINGOCOCCAL). It is also found in venereal discharges and blood. There are at least 13 serogroups based on antigenic differences in the capsular polysaccharides; the ones causing most meningitis infections being A, B, C, Y, and W-135. Each serogroup can be further classified by serotype, serosubtype, and immunotype.
Repetitive nucleic acid sequences that are principal components of the archaeal and bacterial CRISPR-CAS SYSTEMS, which function as adaptive antiviral defense systems.
A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms occur in pairs or chains. No endospores are produced. Many species exist as commensals or parasites on man or animals with some being highly pathogenic. A few species are saprophytes and occur in the natural environment.
A minichromosome maintenance protein that is a key component of the six member MCM protein complex. It contains a NUCLEAR LOCALIZATION SIGNAL which may provide targeting of the protein complex and an extended N-terminus which is rich in SERINE residues.
A terminal section of a chromosome which has a specialized structure and which is involved in chromosomal replication and stability. Its length is believed to be a few hundred base pairs.
Product of the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor gene. It is a nuclear phosphoprotein hypothesized to normally act as an inhibitor of cell proliferation. Rb protein is absent in retinoblastoma cell lines. It also has been shown to form complexes with the adenovirus E1A protein, the SV40 T antigen, and the human papilloma virus E7 protein.
A negative regulator of the CELL CYCLE that undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION by CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES. It contains a conserved pocket region that binds E2F4 TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR and interacts with viral ONCOPROTEINS such as POLYOMAVIRUS TUMOR ANTIGENS; ADENOVIRUS E1A PROTEINS; and PAPILLOMAVIRUS E7 PROTEINS.
A minichromosome maintenance protein that is a key component of the six member MCM protein complex. It is also found in tightly-bound trimeric complex with MINICHROMOSOME MAINTENANCE COMPLEX COMPONENT 4 and MINICHROMOSOME MAINTENANCE COMPLEX COMPONENT 6.
The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.
A minichromosome maintenance protein that is a key component of the six member MCM protein complex. It is also found in tightly-bound trimeric complex with MINICHROMOSOME MAINTENANCE COMPLEX COMPONENT 4 and MINICHROMOSOME MAINTENANCE COMPLEX COMPONENT 7.
RNA molecules found in the nucleus either associated with chromosomes or in the nucleoplasm.
A species of SIMPLEXVIRUS that causes vesicular lesions of the mouth in monkeys. When the virus is transmitted to man it causes an acute encephalitis or encephalomyelitis, which is nearly always fatal.
Highly conserved nuclear RNA-protein complexes that function in RNA processing in the nucleus, including pre-mRNA splicing and pre-mRNA 3'-end processing in the nucleoplasm, and pre-rRNA processing in the nucleolus (see RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS, SMALL NUCLEOLAR).
RNA which does not code for protein but has some enzymatic, structural or regulatory function. Although ribosomal RNA (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) and transfer RNA (RNA, TRANSFER) are also untranslated RNAs they are not included in this scope.
A multicentric, malignant neoplastic vascular proliferation characterized by the development of bluish-red cutaneous nodules, usually on the lower extremities, most often on the toes or feet, and slowly increasing in size and number and spreading to more proximal areas. The tumors have endothelium-lined channels and vascular spaces admixed with variably sized aggregates of spindle-shaped cells, and often remain confined to the skin and subcutaneous tissue, but widespread visceral involvement may occur. Kaposi's sarcoma occurs spontaneously in Jewish and Italian males in Europe and the United States. An aggressive variant in young children is endemic in some areas of Africa. A third form occurs in about 0.04% of kidney transplant patients. There is also a high incidence in AIDS patients. (From Dorland, 27th ed & Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, pp2105-7) HHV-8 is the suspected cause.
The type species of RHADINOVIRUS, in the subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, isolated from squirrel monkeys. It produces malignant lymphomas (LYMPHOMA, MALIGNANT) in inoculated marmosets or owl monkeys.
A CELL CYCLE and tumor growth marker which can be readily detected using IMMUNOCYTOCHEMISTRY methods. Ki-67 is a nuclear antigen present only in the nuclei of cycling cells.
A species in the genus RHADINOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, isolated from patients with AIDS-related and "classical" Kaposi sarcoma.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Bone-marrow-derived, non-hematopoietic cells that support HEMATOPOETIC STEM CELLS. They have also been isolated from other organs and tissues such as UMBILICAL CORD BLOOD, umbilical vein subendothelium, and WHARTON JELLY. These cells are considered to be a source of multipotent stem cells because they include subpopulations of mesenchymal stem cells.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
Common name for the largest birds in the order PASSERIFORMES, family Corvidae. These omnivorous black birds comprise most of the species in the genus Corvus, along with ravens and jackdaws (which are often also referred to as crows).
A gram-positive organism found in the upper respiratory tract, inflammatory exudates, and various body fluids of normal and/or diseased humans and, rarely, domestic animals.
An envelope of loose gel surrounding a bacterial cell which is associated with the virulence of pathogenic bacteria. Some capsules have a well-defined border, whereas others form a slime layer that trails off into the medium. Most capsules consist of relatively simple polysaccharides but there are some bacteria whose capsules are made of polypeptides.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.
Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).

Gene expression profiles in HTLV-I-immortalized T cells: deregulated expression of genes involved in apoptosis regulation. (1/5211)

Human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I) is the etiologic agent of adult T-cell leukemia, an acute and often fatal T-cell malignancy. A key step in HTLV-I-induced leukemigenesis is induction of abnormal T-cell growth and survival. Unlike antigen-stimulated T cells, which cease proliferation after a finite number of cell division, HTLV-I-infected T cells proliferate indefinitely (immortalized), thus facilitating occurrence of secondary genetic changes leading to malignant transformation. To explore the molecular basis of HTLV-I-induced abnormal T-cell survival, we compared the gene expression profiles of normal and HTLV-I-immortalized T cells using 'gene array'. These studies revealed a strikingly altered expression pattern of a large number of genes along with HTLV-I-mediated T-cell immortalization. Interestingly, many of these deregulated genes are involved in the control of programmed cell death or apoptosis. These findings indicate that disruption of the cellular apoptosis-regulatory network may play a role in the HTLV-I-mediated oncogenesis.  (+info)

Epstein-barr virus regulates c-MYC, apoptosis, and tumorigenicity in Burkitt lymphoma. (2/5211)

Loss of the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) genome from Akata Burkitt lymphoma (BL) cells is coincident with a loss of malignant phenotype, despite the fact that Akata and other EBV-positive BL cells express a restricted set of EBV gene products (type I latency) that are not known to overtly affect cell growth. Here we demonstrate that reestablishment of type I latency in EBV-negative Akata cells restores tumorigenicity and that tumorigenic potential correlates with an increased resistance to apoptosis under growth-limiting conditions. The antiapoptotic effect of EBV was associated with a higher level of Bcl-2 expression and an EBV-dependent decrease in steady-state levels of c-MYC protein. Although the EBV EBNA-1 protein is expressed in all EBV-associated tumors and is reported to have oncogenic potential, enforced expression of EBNA-1 alone in EBV-negative Akata cells failed to restore tumorigenicity or EBV-dependent down-regulation of c-MYC. These data provide direct evidence that EBV contributes to the tumorigenic potential of Burkitt lymphoma and suggest a novel model whereby a restricted latency program of EBV promotes B-cell survival, and thus virus persistence within an immune host, by selectively targeting the expression of c-MYC.  (+info)

Reduced phosphorylation of p50 is responsible for diminished NF-kappaB binding to the major histocompatibility complex class I enhancer in adenovirus type 12-transformed cells. (3/5211)

Reduced cell surface levels of major histocompatibility complex class I antigens enable adenovirus type 12 (Ad12)-transformed cells to escape immunosurveillance by cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL), contributing to their tumorigenic potential. In contrast, nontumorigenic Ad5-transformed cells harbor significant cell surface levels of class I antigens and are susceptible to CTL lysis. Ad12 E1A mediates down-regulation of class I transcription by increasing COUP-TF repressor binding and decreasing NF-kappaB activator binding to the class I enhancer. The mechanism underlying the decreased binding of nuclear NF-kappaB in Ad12-transformed cells was investigated. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay analysis of hybrid NF-kappaB dimers reconstituted from denatured and renatured p50 and p65 subunits from Ad12- and Ad5-transformed cell nuclear extracts demonstrated that p50, and not p65, is responsible for the decreased ability of NF-kappaB to bind to DNA in Ad12-transformed cells. Hypophosphorylation of p50 was found to correlate with restricted binding of NF-kappaB to DNA in Ad12-transformed cells. The importance of phosphorylation of p50 for NF-kappaB binding was further demonstrated by showing that an NF-kappaB dimer composed of p65 and alkaline phosphatase-treated p50 from Ad5-transformed cell nuclear extracts could not bind to DNA. These results suggest that phosphorylation of p50 is a key step in the nuclear regulation of NF-kappaB in adenovirus-transformed cells.  (+info)

Downregulation of metallothionein-IIA expression occurs at immortalization. (4/5211)

Metallothioneins (MTs) may modulate a variety of cellular processes by regulating the activity of zinc-binding proteins. These proteins have been implicated in cell growth regulation, and their expression is abnormal in some tumors. In particular, MT-IIA is expressed 27-fold less in human colorectal tumors and tumor cell lines compared with normal tissue (Zhang et al., 1997). Here we demonstrate that MT-IIA downregulation occurs when human cells become immortal, a key event in tumorigenesis. After immortalization MT-IIA expression remains inducible but the basal activity of the MT-IIA promoter is decreased. MT-IIA downregulation at immortalization is one of the most common immortalization-related changes identified to date, suggesting that MT-IIA has a role in this process.  (+info)

The introduction of dominant-negative p53 mutants suppresses temperature shift-induced senescence in immortal human fibroblasts expressing a thermolabile SV40 large T antigen. (5/5211)

Immortal human fibroblasts, SVts8 cells, which express a heat-labile SV40 large T antigen, induces a senescence-like phenomenon in response to upward shift in temperature. Cells with arrested division show strong induction of senescence-associated beta-galactosidase. We examined how p53 and pRB are involved in this phenomenon since they are major targets of the T antigen. Transfection of cells with plasmids encoding the wild-type T antigen or human papilloma virus type 16 E6/E7 proteins completely abolished the arrest in cell division, a plasmid encoding the E6 protein suppressed it markedly, while a plasmid encoding E7 had no effect. Plasmids encoding dominant-negative p53 mutants also suppressed the arrest in cell division to various degrees. Upon temperature shift, p21 mRNA was upregulated 10-fold in SVts8 cells, but only slightly in clones expressing the wild-type T antigen or dominant-negative p53 mutants. These data demonstrate that p53 plays a major role in this senescence-like phenomenon.  (+info)

Binding of c-Rel to STAT5 target sequences in HTLV-I-transformed T cells. (6/5211)

The type I human T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV-I) induces abnormal growth and subsequent transformation of T cells, which is associated with the development of an acute T-cell malignancy termed adult T-cell leukemia. A characteristic of HTLV-I-transformed T cells is the constitutive nuclear expression of NF-kappaB/Rel family of transcription factors, which appears to be essential for the growth of these transformed cells. Although NF-kappaB/Rel factors are known to induce the expression of T-cell growth factor interleukin (IL)-2, it is unclear how they participate in the IL-2-independent growth of HTLV-I-transformed cells. In this study, we show that certain NF-kappaB/Rel members, predominantly c-Rel, interact with enhancer sequences for STAT5, a key transcription factor mediating IL-2-induced T-cell proliferation. Reporter gene assays reveal that the binding of c-Rel to the STAT5 site present in the Fc gammaR1 gene leads to potent transactivation of this enhancer. Binding of c-Rel to the Fc gammaR1 STAT site also occurs in human peripheral blood T cells immortalized with HTLV-I in vitro and is correlated with enhanced levels of proliferation of these cells. These results raise the possibility that NF-kappaB/Rel may participate in the growth control of HTLV-I-transformed T cells by regulating genes driven by both kappaB and certain STAT enhancers.  (+info)

Expression of hepatitis C virus cDNA in human hepatoma cell line mediated by a hybrid baculovirus-HCV vector. (7/5211)

Although great progress has been made in the characterization of the biochemical and biological features of hepatitis C virus (HCV) gene expression, the elucidation of the HCV life cycle and the evaluation of novel antiviral strategies have been hindered by the lack of a suitable cell culture system. In this context, the development of an efficient HCV cDNA delivery method would contribute to the understanding of HCV replication. To assess the functionality of baculovirus mediated gene delivery for HCV expression, we have constructed recombinant baculoviruses encoding HCV cDNA under the control of the cytomegalovirus promoter. Transduction of the human hepatoma cell line Huh-7 with Bac-HCV vectors was efficient and HCV cDNA expression was enhanced by treatment of the infected cells with dexamethasone. HCV structural and nonstructural polypeptides were processed correctly and were found to localize in the cytoplasm in a pattern characteristic of the endoplasmic reticulum. The expression of the HCV proteins was detected for 49 days after infection. Thus, these results indicate that the recombinant Bac-HCV vectors are a useful tool for the delivery of HCV cDNA and can facilitate the analysis of structural and functional properties of the HCV proteins. In addition, the Bac-HCV vectors can provide important information on the evaluation of novel anti-HCV antiviral strategies.  (+info)

A mutational analysis of the transforming functions of the E8 protein of bovine papillomavirus type 4. (8/5211)

The E8 protein of BPV-4 contributes to transformation of primary bovine cells (PalFs) by inducing anchorage-independent growth and by down-regulating gap junction intercellular communication, likely due to its binding to 16K ductin. We show here that, in addition, E8 confers on PalF cells the ability to grow in low serum and to escape from contact inhibition (focus formation). E8 also transactivates an exogenous human cyclin A gene promoter, suggesting that overexpression of cyclin A is responsible for the transformed phenotype. Mutant forms of E8 were generated to establish whether the transforming functions of the protein could be segregated. Mutations were introduced both in the hydrophobic domain and in the hydrophilic C-terminal "tail", and chimeras with BPV-1 E5 were constructed. Cells expressing either wild-type E8 or mutant forms were analyzed for their ability to grow in low serum and in suspension and to form foci. Wild-type E8 and its mutants were also analyzed for their ability to transactivate the cyclin A promoter. We show here that the transforming functions of E8 can be segregated and that both the hydrophilic C-terminal tail and the residue at position 17 in the hydrophobic domain are crucial for E8 functions and for the transactivation of the cyclin A promoter. These results support the hypothesis that the different aspects of cellular transformation brought about by E8 might be due to interaction with different cellular targets. They suggest that E8 might function differently from BPV-1 E5 and demonstrate that the separate domains of E5 and E8 are not functionally interchangeable.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - T cell growth factors from adult T cell leukemia virus-transformed cell lines. AU - Okai, Yasuji. AU - Oka, Takashi. AU - Akagi, Tadaatsu. AU - Kurata, Sayuri. AU - Fujiyoshi, Nobuo. PY - 1984/11/19. Y1 - 1984/11/19. N2 - Some characteristics of T cell growth factors derived from adult T cell leukemia virus (ATLV)-transformed cell lines, MT 1 and MT 2 were analyzed. MT 1 cells release significant interleukin 2 (IL 2) activity into the culture medium, which showed the same elution pattern of gel filtration and isoelectric focusing of IL 2 from lectin-stimulated normal human lymphocytes. This activity was also detected in the cell extract of MT 1. In contrast, MT 2 cell line did not produce IL 2 activity, but non-IL 2 type growth factor was observed. The significance of these factors from MT cell lines is discussed from the viewpoint of autokine in ATLV-transformed cells. ALTV-transformed cell T cell growth factor.. AB - Some characteristics of T cell growth factors derived from ...
Smith L.M, Petty H.R, Parham P., McConnell H.M. 1982. Cell surface properties of HLA antigens on Epstein-Barr virus-transformed cell lines. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America-Biological Sciences. 79:608-612. ...
Smith L.M, Petty H.R, Parham P., McConnell H.M. 1982. Cell surface properties of HLA antigens on Epstein-Barr virus-transformed cell lines. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America-Biological Sciences. 79:608-612. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The effect of malignant transformation on the sensitivity of murine fibroblasts to the antiviral effect of interferon. AU - Morris, A. G.. AU - Barrett, Alan. AU - Bird, R. M.. AU - Burke, D. C.. PY - 1979. Y1 - 1979. UR - UR - M3 - Article. AN - SCOPUS:0018286199. VL - 6. SP - 139. EP - 141. JO - FEMS Microbiology Letters. JF - FEMS Microbiology Letters. SN - 0378-1097. IS - 3. ER - ...
I guess thats probably a problem called gimble lock, that occures when calling h3dGetNodeTransform. Horde3D stores transformations internally as a matrix and not as the single transformation parameters. If you request them using h3dGetNodeTransform it tries to decompose the internal matrix. Thats something that should be avoided, as it suffers from mathematical issues and is not very fast. You could either store the single transformation parameters by yourself, change them and pass them again to h3dSetNodeTransform, or you use whole matrices instead and pass them via h3dSetNodeTransMat (use h3dGetNodeTransMats to query the nodes internal matrices ...
Reliable and risk-free cell immortalization from fibroblasts, epithelial cells, muscle cells from human, rat, mouse, porcine and bovine.
Vol 5: OCT4 as a target of miR-34a stimulates p63 but inhibits p53 to promote human cell transformation.. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Stephenson, J R. and Aaronson, S A., Antigenic properties of murine sarcoma virus-transformed balb/3t3 nonproducer cells. (1972). Subject Strain Bibliography 1972. 480 ...
Chicken vertebral chondrocytes, which normally grow in suspension, synthesize large amounts of cartilage extracellular matrix proteins, but little fibronectin. We have analyzed the effects of both substrate attachment and transformation with a temperature-sensitive mutant of Rous sarcoma virus on fibronectin gene expression in these cells. Our experiments show that viral transformation increases fibronectin synthesis to a greater extent than substrate attachment. Furthermore, transformed chondrocytes have lost the ability to decrease fibronectin synthesis in response to suspension culture, suggesting that transformation alters the normal attachment-responsive control of fibronectin gene expression. Finally, infected substrate-attached chondrocytes shifted to the nonpermissive temperature for transformation use fibronectin RNA more efficiently in protein synthesis than cells grown under the other conditions, suggesting for the first time a role for translational control of fibronectin gene ...
Linear simian virus 40 (SV40) DNA molecules of genome length and DNA fragments smaller than genome length when prepared with restriction endonucleases and tested for transforming activity on primary cultures of baby rat kidney cells. The linear molecules of genome length (prepared with endonucleases R-EcoRI, R-BamHI, and R-HpaII or R-HapII), a 74% fragment (EcoRI/HpaII or HapII-A), and a 59% fragment (BamHI/HapII-A) could all transform rat kidney cells with the same efficiency as circular SV40 DNA. All transformed lines tested contained the SV40-specific T-antigen in 90 to 100% of the cells, which was taken as evidence that the transformation was SV40 specific. The DNA fragments with transforming activity contained the entire early region of SV40 DNA. Endo R-HpaI, which introduced one break in the early region, apparently inactivated the transforming capacity of SV40 DNA, since no transformation was observed with any of the three HpaI fragments tested. Attempts were made to rescue infectious ...
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By using a monoclonal antibody we have identified a new polypeptide doublet (C4h and C4l) of Mr approximately 21 kD and pI 8 and 7, respectively, that is associated with and (at the immunofluorescence level) uniformly distributed on actin filament bundles in rat, mouse, and other vertebrate species. C4 is absent in neurones, erythrocytes, and skeletal muscle but the epitope is evolutionarily conserved as it is present in invertebrates such as molluscs and crustaceans. C4h is not found in cells such as lymphocytes and oncogenically transformed mesenchymal cells where actin stress fiber bundles are reduced in number or absent. C4l, on the other hand, is always present. C4h expression can also be blocked by switching normal nontransformed mesenchymal cells from adherent to suspension culture. Reexpression of C4h occurs 24 h after these cells are returned to normal adherent culture conditions, but can be blocked by either actinomycin D or cycloheximide, suggesting that the expression of this epitope ...
The apparent enhancement of 2-deoxy-D-glucose uptake by mouse 3T3 cells accompanying transformation by SV40 virus is not due primarily to an effect on the transport process but to enhanced phosphorylation of the sugar by intracellular kinases. Moreover, the effect is not specifically a function of the presence of the viral genome, but is a reflection of the overall growth rate and physiological state of the cell. ...
Viral transformation of T cells is an effective method for obtaining large numbers of T cells that are easily maintained in the laboratory
ACs top 3 transformation tips - After my recent 7 week transformation, many people have been asking me for tips on achieving a rapid transformation in muscle size and fat loss. There are no single tips that will ensure success in everyone as it totally depends on the person as to how good the results will be. However there are some helpful tips that I can offer that will help ensure success in anyone wanting to make a body transformation. So here are my top 3 tips: 1. Plan the full transformation before you start. With any transformation I do with a client I plan literally every workout before we even start. I do this on a spreadsheet that can be updated and adapted as time goes on. However the main thing is to know exactly what you are doing every day of every week. This will keep you incredibly focused and you will know what to expect from training each week. It also makes it incredibly easy to progress with performance and strength even whilst dropping fat. You will record every weight you use on
In article ,67p8ii$f6p at,, levy at (David N. Levy) wrote: ,How can you take primary fibroblast cells and infect or transfect them ,in order to transform them? Can you transfect the ad. E1A gene, or ,papillomavirus E7 or E6, or infect with SV40 or what? Thanks. Yep. AFAIR, thats how oncogenic properties of E1A and SV40 were found. But I might be wrong. What stuck in my head is that resulting cell line(s) in many respects has very little little in common with the primary cells. - Dima ...
Performix Super T ATTENTION: Do Not Buy Performix Super T Until You Read This SHOCKING Performix Super T Review & Find Out If It Really Works!
Sometimes the observations for a variable are not immediately suitable for analysis and instead need to be transformed using a mathematical function. Transformations are often used to normalise the distribution of a variable, but can be used to change the scale, offset the observations or even recode groups.. Excel cell formulas and custom VBA functions can be used to transform or calculate the data for a variable. Transformed and calculated data is treated just like any other variable as far as measurement scale and observation precision are concerned. Excel functions most commonly used for transformations are:. ...
By developing your own mods, you can transform Minecraft into whatever you want it to be -- and share your vision with millions of Minecraft players worldwide. Now, in just 24 lessons of one hour or less, you can learn all the mod development skills youll need, even if youve never programmed before.
Background aims. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLD) belong to the most dreaded complications of immunosuppression. The efficacy of EBV-specific T-cell transfer for PTLD has been previously shown, yet the optimal choice of EBV-derived antigens inducing polyclonal CD4þ and CD8þ T cells that cover a wide range of human leukocyte antigen types and efficiently control PTLD remains unclear. Methods. A pool of 125 T-cell epitopes from seven latent and nine lytic EBV-derived proteins (EBVmix) and peptide pools of EBNA1, EBNA3c, LMP2a and BZLF1 were used to determine T-cell frequencies and to isolate T cells through the use of the interferon (IFN)-g cytokine capture system. We further evaluated the phenotype and functionality of the generated T-cell lines in vitro. Results. EBVmix induced significantly higher T-cell frequencies and allowed selecting more CD4þIFN-gþ and CD8þIFN-gþ cells than single peptide pools. T cells of all specificities ...
Several aspects of the behaviour of polyoma virus-transformed BHK cells in culture have suggested that they are more deformable than BHK cells. This possibility was tested by applying negative pressure at the cell surface by means of a micropipette. It was found that PyBHK cells in early mitosis are twice as deformable as BHK cells in the same stage. In addition, the taut, non-ruffling margins of both cell types when fully spread are much less deformable than the extending, ruffling leading lamella. The degree of deformability of these cells is correlated with the distribution and organization of microfilaments and consistent with this, deformability increases greatly in the presence of cytochalasin B. The significance of deformability studies such as these is discussed. ...
Interleukin 10 (IL-10) is a pleiotropic factor that enhances proliferation of activated human B lymphocytes and induces them to secrete high amounts of immunoglobulins. Here we show that several human B cell lines were able to constitutively secrete human (h)IL-10. Whereas none of the pre-B nor the plasmocytic cell lines tested produced hIL-10, 25 of the 36 tested mature B cell lines (lymphoblastoid and Burkitt lymphoma cell lines) secreted hIL-10. Moreover, 24 of these 25 hIL-10-producing B cell lines contained the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) genome, suggesting a relationship between hIL-10 production by human B cell lines and EBV expression. Accordingly, whereas polyclonal activation via triggering of surface immunoglobulins or CD40 antigen induced highly purified normal human B lymphocytes to produce only low (0.3-0.4 ng/ml) but significant amounts of hIL-10, EBV infection induced them to secrete high amounts of hIL-10 (4-9 ng/ml). Furthermore, addition of exogenous hIL-10, simultaneously to EBV ...
Cells, transfections, virus propagation, and antiviral agent. The cell lines used in this work were the class I MHC-negative Epstein-Barr virus-transformed B cell line 721.221 (.221), .221 cells transfected with the CEACAM1 cDNA (15), and the murine thymoma BW cell line, which lacks expression of α and β chains of the TCR. Stable transfection of .221 cells expressing CEACAM6 and CEACAM5 was performed by electroporation (0.23 kV, Cap [μF] 250 μF). The cDNA for CEACAM6 was amplified by RT-PCR and cloned into pcDNA3 expression vector, and the CEACAM5 cDNA was a kind gift from W. Zimmermann, Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Muenchen, Germany) Human foreskin fibroblasts (HFFs) were used for propagation and infection of human CMV strain AD169 (American Type Culture Collection, Manassas, Virginia, USA), as previously described (16). After a 1-hour period of virus adsorption to cells, 300 μg/ml of the CMV DNA polymerase inhibitor phosphonoformate (PFA; Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, Missouri, USA) was ...
Peterkofsky, B and Prather, W B., Increased collagen synthesis in kirsten sarcoma virus-transformed balb 3t3 cells grown in the presence of dibutyryl cyclic amp. (1974). Subject Strain Bibliography 1974. 2377 ...
We describe a method for generating transformed B cell lines using Epstein-Barr virus. We also illustrate a novel assay that can...
A 52 kDa protein (p52) was identified, using differential extraction and electrophoretic criteria, as a major extracellular and substrate-associated component of normal rat kidney (NRK) fibroblasts. Cells transformed with Kirsten murine sarcoma virus (KNRK cells) did not express p52 constitutively, but were inducible for both p52 production and its substrate association during culture in sodium butyrate (NaB)-supplemented growth medium. Comparative analysis of the relative molecular mass, subcellular distribution, and isoelectric complexity (five variants ranging in pI from 5.4 to 6.2) of the 52 kDa species constitutively and inducibly expressed by NRK and KNRK/NaB cells respectively, indicated that they were, indeed, the same protein. p52 selectively localized to cellular fractions enriched in substrate focal contact sites and associated ventral undersurface components. NaB induction of p52 in KNRK cells occurred before cell spreading; other polar compounds, such as dimethyl sulphoxide, which ...
Click to launch & play an online audio visual presentation by Prof. Raymond Erikson on Three decades of protein phosphorylation and cancer: the identification and characterization of the src gene product, part of a collection of online lectures.
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Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Characterization of single stranded viral DNA sequences present during replication of adenovirus types 2 and 5. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Anyone could give me some idea where I can find a good protocol for the transformation assay using Rat2 cells. The one you look for transformed foci. Do I need to stain the cells? Alex ...
Primary cultures of cells tend to have a limited life span, which in turn limits the availability of a consistent population of cells to study
Balk, Samuel D. et al Thymidine and Hypoxanthine Requirements for the Proliferation of Normal and Rous Sarcoma Virus-infected Chicken Fibroblasts in the Presence of Methotrexate. Cancer Research 39.5 (1979): 1854-1856. Web. 23 Feb. 2018. ...
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Enzymopathies are a disturbance of enzyme function, including genetic deficiency or defect in specific enzymes. Current methods for the treatment of enzymopathi...
A study of people 90 and older found the key to extended life isnt a healthy diet but rather beneficial psychological traits including resilience and optimism.
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Whenever an Xtend function is invoked - whether for M2M Xtend transformations or M2T Xpand templates, a Java Model Exception is thrown ...
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If Y is uniformly distributed over the interval (0,1), i.e. f(y) = 1 for 0| y | 1. Show that U = -2 loge(Y) has a negative exponential
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Retinoic acid inhibits IL-6-dependent but not constitutive STAT3 activation in Epstein-Barr virus-immortalized B lymphocytes.. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Simian virus 40 (SV40)-mediated transformation of human diploid fibroblasts has provided an effective experimental system for studies of both senescence in cell culture and carcinogenesis. Previous interpretations may have been complicated, however, by the semipermissive virus-cell interaction. In earlier studies, we previously demonstrated that the human diploid fibroblast line HS74 can be efficiently transformed by DNA from replication-defective mutants of SV40 containing a deletion in the viral origin for DNA synthesis (SVori-). In the current study, we found that such SVori- transformants show a significantly increased life span in culture, as compared with either HS74 or an independent transformant containing an intact viral genome, but they nonetheless undergo senescence. We have clonally isolated six immortalized derivatives of one such transformant (SV/HF-5). Growth studies indicate that the immortalized cell lines do not invariably grow better than SV/HF-5 or HS74. Genetic studies ...
Here we describe the isolation and characterization of rCop-1, a novel CCN family protein whose expression was completely lost after cell transformation. Functional studies suggest that rCop-1is a negative regulator for cell transformation based on the following findings. The loss of rCop-1 expression correlates extremely well with cell transformation in culture, since cells transformed by a variety of mechanisms all lost rCop-1 expression. BALB/c A31 and Rat-1 are both immortalized but nontransformed, yet only the former expresses rCop-1. However, both A31 and REFs, the parental cells of Rat-1, lose rCop-1 expression when transformed by a variety of means. This suggests that the loss of rCop-1expression in cultured rodent fibroblasts may not be necessary for cell immortalization but may be so for cell transformation. Efficient retroviral gene transfer of rCop-1 exhibited a dramatic cytotoxic effect on the transformed cells but had little effect on the nontransformed cells.. The first member of ...
Highly efficient procedure for production of human monoclonal antibodies: Establishment of hybrids between Epstein-Barr virus-transformed B lymphocytes and heteromyeloma cells by use of GIT culture medium. (1988 ...
Kaposi Sarcoma (KS) is the most prevalent neoplasm within HIV-infected patients and transplant recipients. Kaposis Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus (KSHV) causes the disease by using a novel mechanism that reprograms endothelial cells making them susceptible targets for viral infection and dissemination. We and others reported that KSHV induces lymphatic differentiation of blood vascular endothelial cells (BECs), by inducing PROX1 up-regulation. Importantly, KSHV G-protein coupled receptor (vGPCR) has been identified as the major viral gene responsible for cellular transformation and disease maintenance. Given that PROX1 is an important mediator of KSHV-induced cell reprogramming, we set out to determine if it had other functional implications in KS pathogenesis. In this study, we report that the regulator of G-protein signaling (RGS)-4 is selectively expressed in BECs and not in LECs, and acts as a cellular agonist against the transformation function of vGPCR. In effect, we found that RGS4 is ...
TGF-beta has the ability to transform rat fibroblasts, but it also induces neigbouring normal cells to eliminate newly arizing transformed cells. Therefore, the transforming effect of TGF-beta can only be demonstrated when it is added to rat fibroblasts sparsely seeded in soft agar. Combination of monolayer and soft agar cultures revealed the unexpected result that transformation of rat fibroblasts by TGF-beta acts on a distinct subpopulation rather than reaching the total population. As a consequence, the comparison of transformed cells with the parental untransformed random cell population is not adequate to define alterations acquired during the transformation process ...
The biomaterial transformation process is defined as an event with one or more biomaterials as inputs and outputs. For example, DNA extraction from a blood sample is a biomaterial transformation process, where blood is the input biological material, DNA is the output material and the DNA extraction reagents and devices used in the process are other participants. An assay is a planned process with the objective to produce information about some evaluant (ID: obo:OBI_0000070) [8]. It has biological material as input and data as output. For example, a microarray based genotyping assay has DNA as input and raw image data as output, where reagents, instruments and software utilized in the process are other participants. Starting with the raw data generated from the assay, we move to the data transformation processes. A data transformation process is a protocol application that produces output data from input data (ID: obo:OBI_0200000) [8].. With the application of OBI concepts in MIGen, ...
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AppliedStemCell eCommerce Platform Patient Fibroblasts Immortalization Service [ASC-6020F] - Simian virus 40 (SV40) T antigen has been shown to be the simplest and most reliable agent for the immortalization of many different cell types and the mechanism
Im trying to customize the dita2webhelp transformation on XSL level. Since I have specialized classes I also need to modify the underlying xhtml transformation. I very much dislike the idea of mixing standard and custom source by directly modifying the xhtml and webhelp plugin. So I was hoping that there is a way to keep the custom files in my custom DITA-OT plugin just like I did for the pdf customization. Is this possible ...
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The SRC gene is similar to the v-src gene of Rous sarcoma virus. This proto-oncogene may play a role in the regulation of embryonic development and…
Here we show, for the first time, that forced expression of both PBX3 and MEIS1 can transform/immortalize normal HSPCs in vitro and induce a rapid AML in vivo. Although the binding ability of Meis1 with Pbx proteins has been reported previously to be essential for the synergistic effect between Meis1 and Hoxa9 and for the function of MLL-fusion proteins (18, 24, 25), no efforts have been exerted to investigate whether forced expression of both MEIS1 and PBX3 is sufficient to transform cells and induce leukemia, without forced expression of a HOXA gene. Indeed, because neither Meis1 nor Pbx3 alone can induce cell transformation and leukemogenesis (20, 21, 23, 26), they have been thought to mainly play supportive roles in facilitating HOXA proteins in regulating their downstream targets (18, 24-28). Therefore, our new finding reveals the functional importance of PBX3 and MEIS1 in cell transformation and leukemogenesis.. More strikingly, we further show that it is the coexpression of PBX3 and ...
Edvotek Series 200 Experiments. For 10 Transformations and controls. Time Required: Transformation -- 45 min.; Plating -- 5 min.; Incubation -- overnight; Transformation Efficiency …
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The following guide can be used for troubleshooting transformation reactions. You may also be interested in reviewing additional tips for Chemical Transformation or Electroporation
Abstract: Bundle gerbes are a higher version of line bundles, we present nonabelian bundle gerbes as a higher version of principal bundles. Connection, curving, curvature and gauge transformations are studied both in a global coordinate independent formalism and in local coordinates. These are the gauge fields needed for the construction of Yang-Mills theories with 2-form gauge potential ...
Nuclear transformation occurs when the atoms of one element change to become atoms of another element. This is most commonly seen with...
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Impediments to Change: In considering the forces for change, the business decision to be made, and their organizational consequences, leaders need to choose between treating the change in an incremental and linear way or in a.
Placing the edge of a mirror on the y-axis will form a reflection in the y-axis. This can also be thought of as folding over the y-axis ...
The year 2020 might have started well, but as days passed by, adversity rolled its dice, uncoiling one of the toughest times of life. The ongoing COVID-19
Transformation (genetics) - means of inserting DNA into a cell. Viral vector - commonly used tool to deliver genetic material ... Transduction is the process by which foreign DNA is introduced into a cell by a virus or viral vector. An example is the viral ... transferred are flanked by viral sequences that are used by viral proteins to recognize and package the viral genome into viral ... that carry the viral genes required for formation of infectious virions. In these producer cells, the viral proteins expressed ...
... role in viral life cycle and cell transformation". Journal of Cellular Physiology. 215 (2): 309-19. doi:10.1002/jcp.21326. PMC ... It has the ability to induce neoplastic transformation in a variety of cell types and can immortalize cells in culture. Its ... In MPyV, MTag is an efficient oncoprotein that can be sufficient to induce neoplastic transformation in some cells. The genes ... MTag is also required for viral persistence. However, MTag's best-studied functions center on its interaction with host cell ...
... role in viral life cycle and cell transformation". Journal of Cellular Physiology. 215 (2): 309-19. doi:10.1002/jcp.21326. PMC ... the cell must be in S phase (the part of the cell cycle in which the host cell's genome is normally replicated) in order to ... Viral proteins therefore promote dysregulation of the cell cycle and entry into S phase. This function is usually primarily ... In SV40, STag has a similar role in cellular transformation. In Merkel cell polyomavirus, it appears to play a significant role ...
"Three new types of viral oncogene of cellular origin specific for haematopoietic cell transformation". Nature. 281 (5731): 452- ... "Role of the v-erbA and v-erbB oncogenes of avian erythroblastosis virus in erythroid cell transformation". Cell. 34 (1): 7-9. ... He is a pioneer in cell reprogramming, showing that blood cells can be transdifferentiated by transcription factors. He is also ... In 1995 he pioneered this technique permitting the transdifferentiation of white blood cells into red blood cell precursors and ...
"Cell Cycle Control by Oncogenes and Tumor Suppressors: Driving the Transformation of Normal Cells into Cancerous Cells". Nature ... A viral gene whose function is to alter a pathway is dispensable in cells where the pathway is defective, but not in cells ... Attenuation involves deleting viral genes, or gene regions, to eliminate viral functions that are expendable in tumour cells, ... Cancer cells and virus-infected cells have similar alterations in their cell signalling pathways, particularly those that ...
"Adenovirus proteins from both E1B reading frames are required for transformation of rodent cells by viral infection and DNA ... For adenovirus replication to occur, the host cell must be induced into S phase by viral proteins interfering with cell cycle ... "Adenovirus proteins from both E1B reading frames are required for transformation of rodent cells by viral infection and DNA ... It blocks cell progression in response to cellular stress or DNA damage. Many viruses replicate by altering the cell cycle and ...
E4 proteins are expressed, and viral DNA amplification starts in the differentiated cells. Following this, the L1 and L2 viral ... Shope found through his research that rabbit epidermal cell transformation by SPV requires interaction with mesenchymal cells. ... The infected, differentiating cells travel towards the epithelial surface during the viral cycle's late stage. In the upper ... Viral replication proteins E1 and E2 are also required to form the papilloma and keep the episomal viral genome replication low ...
These two findings gave rise to the notion that viral replication and malignant transformation are separate processes in RSV. ... The function of env is to bind RSV to the host cell receptor and induce fusion with the target cell in a pH independent manner ... The virus buds or pushes on the plasma membrane, which allows it to leave the cell with a new outer membrane from the host cell ... RSV enters the host cell through fusion of the host cell membrane. In order for the RSV genome transcription to occur, a primer ...
... which is necessary for cell transformation of adenovirus non-permissive cells. He was among the first to demonstrate that ... Green, Maurice; Fujinaga, K (1966). "The mechanism of viral carcinogenesis by DNA mammalian viruses: viral-specific RNA in ... human cell molecular biology, infection and immunity, and neoplastic transformation. In subsequent years, the study of ... Green was asked to learn as much as he could as quickly as possible about the 31 distinct viral serotypes known at that time. ...
Renato Dulbecco (deceased), Nobel laureate (for viral transformation of cells).. See also[edit]. *San Diego Historical ... Pollack, Andrew (8 May 2008). "$271 Million for Research on Stem Cells in California". The New York Times.. ... The institute appointed genome biologist Eric Lander and stem cell biologist Irving Weissman as non-resident fellows in ...
The Salk Institute for Biological Studies where she worked on viral transformation and cellular immortalization of cancer cells ... "The giant cells" were cortical pyramidal cells of unusual size. There were also particularities in layer 3. In 1925 Vogt ... He found that Lenin's brain showed a great number of "giant cells", which Vogt saw as a sign of superior mental function. " ...
The Salk Institute for Biological Studies where she worked on viral transformation and cellular immortalization of cancer cells ...
Insertion of a vector into the target cell is usually called transformation for bacterial cells, transfection for eukaryotic ... Viral promoters are often used for constitutive expression in plasmids and in viral vectors because they normally force ... Cells containing vector with an insert may be identified using blue/white selection by growing cells in media containing an ... Viral vectors are generally genetically engineered viruses carrying modified viral DNA or RNA that has been rendered ...
Tax also causes aneuploidy (abnormal chromosome numbers), which is a possible cause of transformation (normal cells becoming ... including cyclins and cell cycle checkpoint proteins (p53 and Rb). Interesting, HTLV-1 Tax viral gene is known to dampen innate ... "The tax gene of human T-cell leukemia virus type 2 is essential for transformation of human T lymphocytes". Journal of Virology ... The cell cycle has four stages (G1, S, G2 and M) and Tax is known to accelerate the transition between G1 and S phase. Two DNA ...
Chemical methods rely on chemical reactions to deliver the DNA and include transformation with cells made competent using ... Viral methods use a variety of viral vectors to deliver the DNA, including adenovirus, lentivirus, and herpes simplex virus ... delivered via a transformation vector which allows the insert sequence to be replicated and/or expressed in the target cell. A ... Inserts are pre-packaged into phage particles, then inserted into the host cell with the ability to hold ~45 kbp. They are ...
... cell transformation, viral MeSH C04.697.645.500 - leukemic infiltration MeSH C04.697.650.560 - lymphatic metastasis MeSH ... b-cell, acute MeSH C04.557.337.428.500.125 - leukemia, B-Cell, chronic MeSH C04.557.337.428.500.500 - leukemia, pre-b-cell MeSH ... T-Cell, chronic MeSH C04.557.337.428.580 - leukemia, t-cell MeSH C04.557.337.428.580.100 - leukemia, t-cell, acute MeSH C04.557 ... T-Cell, chronic MeSH C04.557.337.428.580.400 - leukemia, t-cell, htlv-ii-associated MeSH C04.557.337.440 - leukemia, mast-cell ...
... cell transformation, neoplastic MeSH C23.550.727.152.110 - blast crisis MeSH C23.550.727.152.160 - cell transformation, viral ... plasma cell MeSH C23.550.382.875.500 - granuloma, plasma cell, orbital MeSH C23.550.382.875.750 - granuloma, plasma cell, ... neoplasm circulating cells MeSH C23.550.727.650.830 - neoplasm seeding MeSH C23.550.727.650.895 - neoplasms, unknown primary ... giant cell MeSH C23.550.382.750 - granuloma, lethal midline MeSH C23.550.382.875 - granuloma, ...
"Development and Malignant Transformation of Mast Cells and Interstitial Cells of Cajal through KIT Receptors" Masakatsu ... and Molecular Basis of the Neutralization of Viral Infectivity with Antibodies" Yukihiko Kitamura for " ... Regulation of Cell Cycle and Chromosome Segregation Noboru Karashima - History and Society in South India: The Cholas to ... Studies on the Mechanisms of Mobilization of Calcium Ion in Muscle Cells 2002 (92nd) Sumio Iijima Akiho Miyashiro 2001 (91st) ...
... of cells in the dermis, forming grossly visible lymphocystis nodules, as well as transformation and hypertrophy in cells of the ... Viral particles are uncoated and move to the nucleus of the cell, where DNA replication begins via a virally encoded DNA ... The concatameric viral DNA is subsequently packaged via a headful mechanism into virions. The lymphocystis viral genome is ... Viral DNA then moves to the cytoplasm for the second stage of DNA replication, which results in the formation of DNA ...
... "transformation" is typically used to describe non-viral DNA transfer in bacteria and non-animal eukaryotic cells, including ... Generally, the methods can be divided into two categories: non-viral and viral. Non-viral methods include physical methods such ... In animal cells, transfection is the preferred term as transformation is also used to refer to progression to a cancerous state ... Because the term transformation had another sense in animal cell biology (a genetic change allowing long-term propagation in ...
Nuclear entry of the viral dsDNA is covalently integrated into the cell's genome by the viral integrase, forming a provirus. ... Once the virus has entered the interior of the cell, the retroviral core undergoes structural transformations through the ... SFV can infect a wide range of cells, with in vitro experiments confirming that fibroblasts, epithelial cells, and neural cells ... Cells that expressed no signs of cytopathy from SFV were the Jurkat and Hut-78 T-cell lines. The phylogenetic tree analysis of ...
To study the control of cell division and gene expression. To Investigate malignant transformations. To obtain viral ... This leads to cell fusion since PEG induces cell agglutination and cell-to-cell contact. Though this type of cell fusion is the ... Cell fusion is an important cellular process in which several uninuclear cells (cells with a single nucleus) combine to form a ... Polyethylene glycol cell fusion is the simplest, but most toxic, way to fuse cells. In this type of cell fusion polyethylene ...
... the viral DNA must be entered into the host cell. The simplest consideration is viral transformation of a bacterial cell. This ... Hepatitis B and C are also the result of natural viral transformation of the host cells. Viral transformation can also be ... Natural transformation is the viral transformation of cells without the interference of medical science. This is the most ... The virus also can disrupt communication between cells and cause cells to divide at an increased rate. Viral transformation can ...
... within the cell and its DNA is packaged into viral capsids and transmitted to other cells. In tumors, the viral DNA has broken ... into MCC cell genomes indicates that the virus was present in the Merkel cell before it underwent cancerous transformation. The ... "Merkel cell polyomavirus-infected Merkel cell carcinoma cells require expression of viral T antigens". Journal of Virology. 84 ... Knock down of these viral proteins causes cells from MCV-positive MCC tumors to die whereas there is no effect on cells from ...
pDCs that undergo malignant transformation cause a rare hematologic disorder, blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm. In ... up to 1,000 times more than other cell type) of type I interferon (mainly IFN-α and IFN-β), which are critical anti-viral ... Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) are a rare type of immune cell that are known to secrete large quantities of type 1 ... MHC class I on pDC surfaces are able to activate CD8+ T cells, while MHC class II have been found to activate CD4+ T cells. ...
... transformation - transgressive phenotype - transport vesicle - transposon - Traube cell - trophic level - tropism - tubulin - ... viral classification - virus - viral evolution - visible light - vision - vitamin water cycle - wavelength - welfare biology - ... cell - cell cycle - cell-mediated immunity - cell membrane - cellular respiration - cellulose - central nervous system - ... stem cell - Stem cell chip - sticky end - stoma - stomach - streptomycin - structural biology - structural gene - substrate - ...
... for modifying the permeability of the cell plasma membrane. This technique is usually used in molecular biology and non-viral ... in a cell disruption process called transfection or transformation. Sonoporation employs the acoustic cavitation of ... gene therapy in order to allow uptake of large molecules such as DNA into the cell, ...
The BHK-21 cells are useful for transformations and for stable and temporary transfections. BHK cells are also used to study ... viral infections. High-glucose DMEM FBS fetal bovine serum 5% (when you freeze, add 10%) GLU glutamine 1% PSA regular ... Baby Hamster Kidney fibroblasts (BHK cells) are an adherent cell line used in molecular biology. The cells were derived in 1961 ... BHK-21 cells are susceptible to human adenovirus D, reovirus 3, and vesicular stomatitis virus (Indiana strain). BHK-21 cells ...
Generally, oncogenic retroviruses cause transformation of host cells mostly by insertional activation of a host protooncogene ... The viral proteins are synthesized initially as large precursors and are later processed into the mature proteins by ... but not in the trophectoderm cells or any cells of the endometrium. In situ hybridization analysis revealed that HYAL2 mRNA was ... placental differentiation and cell fusion in mammals. The morphological aspects of binucleate cell differentiation in ruminants ...
... more well-studied bacterial transformation systems that are also associated with species specific DNA transfer between cells ... the impact of viral infection is higher on archaea than on bacteria and virus-induced lysis of archaea accounts for up to one- ... Further information: Cell wall § Archaeal cell walls. Most archaea (but not Thermoplasma and Ferroplasma) possess a cell wall.[ ... Cell division is controlled in a cell cycle; after the cell's chromosome is replicated and the two daughter chromosomes ...
The phagocytosis theory is based on the notion that phagocytes are cells that have the power to englobe foreign bodies - and ... serum which was able to agglutinate the bacteria and neutralize the toxin was supplied by a horse inoculated with the viral ... the publication of Claude Bernard's posthumous essay regarding the nature of the agents implicated in some transformations that ... In 1985, the first human vaccine obtained by genetic engineering from animal cells, the vaccine against hepatitis B, was ...
Alberts B, Johnson A, Lewis J, Raff M, Roberts K, Walter P (2002). Molecular Biology of the Cell (Fourth ed.). New York: ... Inductions of transformation by a desoxyribonucleic acid fraction isolated from pneumococcus type III". The Journal of ... Hershey, AD; Chase, M (1952). "Independent functions of viral protein and nucleic acid in growth of bacteriophage". The Journal ... Reprint: Avery, OT; MacLeod, CM; McCarty, M (1979). "Studies on the chemical nature of the substance inducing transformation of ...
Instead, the naked viral RNA may alter the function of the cells through a mechanism similar to RNA interference, in which the ... Of special interest is the CaMV 35S promoter, which is a very strong promoter most frequently used in plant transformations. ... Plant viruses have had to evolve special techniques to allow the production of viral proteins by plant cells. For translation ... This is derived from the plant cell membrane as the virus particle buds off from the cell. Viruses can be spread by direct ...
The fat cells take up glucose through special glucose transporters (GLUT4), whose numbers in the cell wall are increased as a ... such as the advent of a concurrent acute viral infection), which sends the body reeling through a new cascade of events. Such ... The sensors for the second are the parafollicular cells in the thyroid gland. The parathyroid chief cells secrete parathyroid ... Instead of measuring it directly in the blood flowing past the juxtaglomerular cells, these cells respond to the sodium ...
"Cell Reports. 11 (6): 851-858. doi:10.1016/j.celrep.2015.04.001. PMC 4643944. PMID 25937277.. ... Brüssow, H. (2012). "On Viruses, Bats and Men: A Natural History of Food-Borne Viral Infections". Viruses: Essential Agents of ... which implied that some seemingly unlikely transformations occurred. The first is that laryngeal echolocation evolved twice in ... Aging Cell. 1 (2): 124-131. doi:10.1046/j.1474-9728.2002.00020.x. PMID 12882342.. ...
T cells can then recognize these clippings and undergo a cellular transformation resulting in their own activation.[17] ... cells of the adaptive immunity (T and B lymphocytes) and non-immune cells (epithelial and endothelial cells, and fibroblasts).[ ... "T cell proliferation by direct cross-talk between OX40 ligand on human mast cells and OX40 on human T cells: comparison of gene ... inducing greater release of danger signals by chemokine releasing cells such as helper T cells and mast cells. ...
"Suppression of cell transformation by the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p57KIP2 requires binding to proliferating cell ... HIV infected individuals who naturally suppress viral replication have elevated levels of p21 and its associated mRNA. p21 ... regulation of mitotic cell cycle. • intestinal epithelial cell maturation. • cellular response to ionizing radiation. • cell ... G2/M transition of mitotic cell cycle. • positive regulation of B cell proliferation. • negative regulation of cell growth. • ...
Cells. *Photoreceptor cells (Cone cell, Rod cell) → (Horizontal cell) → Bipolar cell → (Amacrine cell) → Retina ganglion cell ( ... Bennett J (2003). "Immune response following intraocular delivery of recombinant viral vectors". Gene Therapy. 10 (11): 977-982 ... as a historical maladaptive relic of the convoluted path of organ evolution and transformation. Vision is an important ... Parasol cell, Bistratified cell, Giant retina ganglion cells, Photosensitive ganglion cell) → Diencephalon: P cell, M cell, K ...
Virial theorem. *Vlasov equation. *Volatilisation. *VORPAL, Versatile Object-oriented Relativistic Plasma Analysis with Lasers ... Transformation optics. *Transmission medium. *Trisops, Force Free Plasma Vortices. *Tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy ... Colored-particle-in-cell. *Columbia Non-neutral Torus. *Comet tail. *Compact toroid ...
... and its transposition in human cells". Cell 91 (4): 501-510. PMID 9390559. doi:10.1016/S0092-8674(00)80436-5. ... Nielsen KM (1998). "Barriers to horizontal gene transfer by natural transformation in soil bacteria". APMIS Suppl. 84: 77-84. ... "Cauliflower Mosaic Viral Promoter - A Recipe for Disaster?". Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease 11: 194-7. Vaadatud 09.06 ... "Eukaryotic Cell 4 (6): 1102-15. PMC 1151995. PMID 15947202. doi:10.1128/EC.4.6.1102-1115.2005. Cite uses deprecated parameters ...
Leukemia and other blood cell disorders such as sickle cell anaemia became curable when E. Donnall Thomas performed the first ... Hepatitis C, a viral infection, became curable through treatment with antiviral medications.[14][15] ... Barnes E (December 2007). "Between remission and cure: patients, practitioners and the transformation of leukaemia in the late ... using a donor with a rare variant of a cell surface receptor) was performed on Timothy Ray Brown. A similar successful ...
The number of viral plaques are counted and can be used to calculate the total number of infectious viral particles in the ... The transformation is then spread on agar plates and incubated overnight. The titer of the transformation is determined by ... Each transformed host cell of a library will contain only one vector with one insert of DNA. The whole library can be plated ... The insert DNA is replicated with the viral DNA; thus, together they are packaged into viral particles. These particles are ...
All the cells in a multicellular organism derive from a single cell, differentiating into variant cell types in response to ... Natural bacterial transformation occurs in many bacterial species, and can be regarded as a sexual process for transferring DNA ... "Independent functions of viral protein and nucleic acid in growth of bacteriophage". The Journal of General Physiology. 36 (1 ... To become a cancer cell, a cell has to accumulate mutations in a number of genes (three to seven). A cancer cell can divide ...
... on host cells can prevent HIV viral entry.[153]. CancerEdit. While traditional chemotherapy can effectively kill cancer cells, ... Romano N, Macino G (November 1992). "Quelling: transient inactivation of gene expression in Neurospora crassa by transformation ... Researchers believed that viral RNA produced by transgenes could also inhibit viral replication.[195] The reverse experiment, ... Cullen LM, Arndt GM (June 2005). "Genome-wide screening for gene function using RNAi in mammalian cells". Immunology and Cell ...
The transformation of a normal cell into cancer is akin to a chain reaction caused by initial errors, which compound into more ... leading to the expression of viral oncogenes in the affected cell and its descendants. ... In order for a normal cell to transform into a cancer cell, the genes that regulate cell growth and differentiation must be ... Germ cell tumor: Cancers derived from pluripotent cells, most often presenting in the testicle or the ovary (seminoma and ...
... while the ectocervix is covered with multiple layers of cells topped with flat cells. The two types of epithelia meet the ... Nabothian cysts (or Nabothian follicles) form in the transformation zone where the lining of metaplastic epithelium has ... by inoculating against the viral strains involved in cancer development.[45] ... The cervical canal is a passage through which sperm must travel to fertilize an egg cell after sexual intercourse. Several ...
Jiang M, Milner J (2002). "Selective silencing of viral gene expression in HPV-positive human cervical carcinoma cells treated ... Romano N, Macino G (1992). "Quelling: transient inactivation of gene expression in Neurospora crassa by transformation with ... Lian S, Jakymiw A, Eystathioy T, Hamel J, Fritzler M, Chan E (2006). "GW bodies, microRNAs and the cell cycle". Cell Cycle 5 (3 ... Cullen L, Arndt G (2005). "Genome-wide screening for gene function using RNAi in mammalian cells". Immunol Cell Biol 83 (3): ...
Overexpression of miR-181b may play an important role in malignant transformation. miR-181b is downregulated in cancerous cells ... "Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus expresses an array of viral microRNAs in latently infected cells". Proceedings of the ... "miR-181a is an intrinsic modulator of T cell sensitivity and selection". Cell. 129 (1): 147-61. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2007.03.008 ... miR-181a is essential for the survival of Purkinje cells and its absence leads to a slow degeneration of these cells. It has ...
cell-cell junction maintenance. • bicellular tight junction assembly. • دورة الخلية. • viral process. • transforming growth ... elegans polarity determinant Par-6 links Rac and Cdc42 to PKCzeta signaling and cell transformation.". Curr. Biol. 10 (12): 697 ... PARD6A‏ (Par-6 family cell polarity regulator alpha) هوَ بروتين يُشَفر بواسطة جين PARD6A في الإنسان.[1][2][3] ... Cell Biol. 5 (2): 137-42. PMID 12545177. doi:10.1038/ncb923. *Brajenovic M، Joberty G، Küster B، Bouwmeester T، Drewes G (2004 ...
Virtual cell simulation to study the interaction of cells and various substrates.[46] ... The entire STMV particle consists of 60 identical copies of one protein that make up the viral capsid (coating), and a 1063 ... usually undergoing a chemical transformation. ... "Development of a Virtual Cell Model to Predict Cell Response to ... Molecular dynamics simulations were used to probe the mechanisms of viral assembly. ...
... transformation". Plant Cell Reports. 22 (9): 660-7. doi:10.1007/s00299-004-0755-5. PMID 14749892. S2CID 23198182.. ... tracking of AMPA receptors on cell membranes,[48] viral entry and the infection of individual influenza viruses and lentiviral ... GFP-labelled cancer cells have been used to model metastasis, the process by which cancer cells spread to distant organs.[56] ... In cell and molecular biology, the GFP gene is frequently used as a reporter of expression.[5] It has been used in modified ...
Numerous RNA viruses are capable of genetic recombination when at least two viral genomes are present in the same host cell.[16 ... In bacteria, transformation is a process of gene transfer that ordinarily occurs between individual cells of the same bacterial ... In B cellsEdit. Main article: Immunoglobulin class switching. B cells of the immune system perform genetic recombination, ... Cell. 1986 Nov 7;47(3):433-43. PMID: 3021340 *^ Cheng CP, Nagy PD. Mechanism of RNA recombination in carmo- and tombusviruses: ...
If the mutation inhibits programmed cell death, the cell can survive to become a cancer, a cell that does not function like a ... As well, smoke undergoes changes as it ages, which causes the transformation of the compound NO into the more toxic NO2. ... "Effect of mild-to-moderate smoking on viral load, cytokines, oxidative stress, and cytochrome P450 enzymes in HIV-infected ... If the mutation inhibits programmed cell death, the cell can survive to become a cancer cell. Similarly, acrolein, which is ...
... elegans polarity determinant Par-6 links Rac and Cdc42 to PKCzeta signaling and cell transformation". Current Biology. 10 (12 ... viral RNA genome replication. • small GTPase mediated signal transduction. • protein ubiquitination. • positive regulation of ... single organismal cell-cell adhesion. • cell differentiation. • positive regulation of epithelial cell proliferation involved ... Normal cancer cells and Cdc42-deficient cancer cells have also been compared in vivo. When both types of cells were injected ...
Plant and Cell Physiology. October 9, 2007, s. 1589-1600. Dostupné online. DOI:10.1093/pcp/pcm131. PMID 17925311. (anglicky). ... Chen I, Dubnau D. DNA uptake during bacterial transformation. Nat. Rev. Microbiol.. 2004, s. 241-9. DOI:10.1038/nrmicro844. ... Hershey, A., Chase, M. Independent functions of viral protein and nucleic acid in growth of bacteriophage. The Journal of ... Simian virus 40 DNA sequences in DNA of healthy adult mice derived from preimplantation blastocysts injected with viral DNA.. ...
This promotes further liver damage.[35] Non-parenchymal cells such as Kupffer cells, fat storing stellate cells, and leukocytes ... A) viral hepatitis is the most common, where histological features are similar to acute viral hepatitis. (B) in focal or non- ... This involves chemical transformations to (a) reduce fat solubility and (b) to change biological activity. Although almost all ... such as stem cell-derived hepatocyte-like cells, that are capable of detecting toxicity early in the drug development process.[ ...
Transformation involves the transfer of DNA from a donor cell to a recipient cell and the integration of the donor DNA into the ... Viruses require a host cell to replicate. Some of the diseases that are caused by viral pathogens include smallpox, influenza, ... Viruses may also undergo sexual interaction when two or more viral genomes enter the same host cell. This process involves ... They can either directly affect the cells of their host, produce endotoxins that damage the cells of their host, or cause a ...
Modulation of NKG2D-mediated cytotoxic functions of natural killer cells by viral protein R from HIV-1 primary isolates. J ... As a Ph.D. student, he worked on fundamental aspects of herpes simplex virus replication and transformation under the direction ... HIV Nef and Vpu protect HIV-infected CD4+ T cells from antibody-mediated cell lysis through down-modulation of CD4 and BST2. ... His postdoctoral work led to the identification of two HIV-1 non-structural proteins, named Viral Protein U (Vpu) and Viral ...
Adenovirus proteins from both E1B reading frames are required for transformation of rodent cells by viral infection and DNA ... To determine the requirements for the individual Ad2 E1B proteins during the transformation of rodent cells, viral mutants were ... It was completely defective for transformation of CREF cells in virion- and DNA-mediated assays. In HeLa cells, pm1722 ... was also extremely defective for the transformation of CREF cells in virion- and viral DNA-mediated assays. This result is in ...
Identification of new actin-associated polypeptides that are modified by viral transformation and changes in cell shape.. C ... Identification of new actin-associated polypeptides that are modified by viral transformation and changes in cell shape. ... C4h is not found in cells such as lymphocytes and oncogenically transformed mesenchymal cells where actin stress fiber bundles ... The Journal of Cell Biology Jul 1988, 107 (1) 153-161; DOI: 10.1083/jcb.107.1.153 ...
... viral mutants were constructed with genetic lesions disrupting the coding sequence of either the 175 amino acid residue (175R) ... To determine the requirements for the individual Ad2 E1B proteins during the transformation of rodent cells, ... Adenovirus proteins from both E1B reading frames are required for transformation of rodent cells by viral infection and DNA ... To determine the requirements for the individual Ad2 E1B proteins during the transformation of rodent cells, viral mutants were ...
Transfection refers to a DNA insertion into eukaryotic animal cells. also naturlicherweise occurring phenomenon brought on ... The transformation is in molecular biology, the non-viral transfer of absolutely free DNA into competent bacterial cells too as ... The transformation is in molecular biology, the non-viral transfer of absolutely free DNA into competent bacterial cells too as ... The transformation is in molecular biology, the non-viral transfer of absolutely free DNA into competent bacterial cells too as ...
The transformation is in molecular biology, the non-viral transfer of free DNA into competent bacterial cells too as in fungi. ... The transformation is in molecular biology, the non-viral transfer of free DNA into competent bacterial cells too as in fungi. ... Home > Sin categorizar > The transformation is in molecular biology, the non-viral transfer of free DNA into competent ... methods for the transformation required sind.Die simplest process of transformation may be the use chemically competent cells. ...
The transformation is in molecular biology, the non-viral transfer of cost-free DNA into competent bacterial cells also as in ... PreviousThe transformation is in molecular biology, the non-viral transfer of no cost DNA into competent bacterial cells also ... steps for the transformation crucial sind.Die simplest procedure of transformation will be the use chemically competent cells. ... The transformation happens in the cloning as a partial step. Within the cloning a DNA segment is incorporated into a vector ...
On rare occasions a clone of cells emerges from the population in crisis and gives rise to an immortalized cell line. The ... cells continue proliferating for a limited number of population doublings beyond the point at which normal cells undergo ... the growth curve of these transformed cells changed to that of normal young cells. ... Normal human diploid cells, TIG-1, ceased to proliferate at about the 62 population doubling level (PDL). Transformed clones ...
"Cell Transformation, Viral" by people in this website by year, and whether "Cell Transformation, Viral" was a major or minor ... "Cell Transformation, Viral" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH ( ... Cell Transformation, Viral*Cell Transformation, Viral. *Cell Transformations, Viral. *Transformations, Viral Cell ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Cell Transformation, Viral" by people in Profiles. ...
Induction of proliferation or transformation of neuroretina cells by the mil and myc viral oncogenes *C. Bechade ... permissionsfor article Induction of proliferation or transformation of neuroretina cells by the ,i,mil,/i, and ,i,myc,/i, viral ... Leukemia-initiating cell activity requires calcineurin in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia *S Gachet ... Rights & permissionsfor article Leukemia-initiating cell activity requires calcineurin in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia ...
Oncogenicity And Cell Transformation By Papovavirus SV40: The Role Of The Viral Genome. *Butel J ... Oncogenicity And Cell Transformation By Papovavirus SV40: The Role Of The Viral Genome. Advances in Cancer Research, 15(C), 1- ... The extent of the transcription of the viral genome seems to vary from one transformed cell line to the next. No relationships ... Fusion or cocultivation of the transformed cell with normal susceptible cells may sometimes succeed in the rescue of infectious ...
Adenoviridae Infections, Adenovirus E1B Proteins, Animals, Cell Transformation, Neoplastic, Cell Transformation, Viral, Humans ... Adenovirus E1B 55-kilodalton protein: multiple roles in viral infection and cell transformation. ... Adenovirus E1B 55-kilodalton protein: multiple roles in viral infection and cell transformation. ... Nerlov Group - Single Cell Biology of Hematopoietic Stem- and Progenitor Cells in Blood Cancer and Ageing ...
... transformed mouse fibroblasts or rat hepatoma cells) to S-adenosyl-1,8-diamino-3-thiooctane produced profound changes in the ... Cell Transformation, Viral * Cells, Cultured * Fibroblasts / metabolism * Liver Neoplasms, Experimental / metabolism * Mice ... Exposure of mammalian cells (transformed mouse fibroblasts or rat hepatoma cells) to S-adenosyl-1,8-diamino-3-thiooctane ... When SV-3T3 cells were exposed to 5 mM alpha-(difluoromethyl)ornithine and 50 microM S-adenosyl-1,8-diamino-3-thiooctane, the ...
Transformation (genetics) - means of inserting DNA into a cell. Viral vector - commonly used tool to deliver genetic material ... Transduction is the process by which foreign DNA is introduced into a cell by a virus or viral vector. An example is the viral ... transferred are flanked by viral sequences that are used by viral proteins to recognize and package the viral genome into viral ... that carry the viral genes required for formation of infectious virions. In these producer cells, the viral proteins expressed ...
... increased viral replication and disease. This review examines the effect(s) of cannabinoids and their antagonists in viral ... The anti-inflammatory activity of cannabinoids may compromise host inflammatory responses to acute viral infections, but may be ... increased transformation of endothelial cells. primary human dermal microvascular cells. [39]. Cowpox. In vivo. Marijuana ... Vero cells, increased CPE. [34]. HSV-2. both. Δ9-THC. decreased T cell proliferation. B6C3H F1 mice immunized then T cells ...
Viral titers were quantitated in infected Rat‐2 cells by measuring expressed proteins. Viral stocks were adjusted to give ... Transformation of hematopoietic cells by BCR/ABL requires activation of a PI‐3k/Akt‐dependent pathway. Tomasz Skorski, Alfonso ... expressing cells. For example, compared with cells expressing wild‐type BCR/ABL, Bcl‐2 levels are decreased in cells expressing ... Preparation of viral stocks. Helper‐free retroviral stocks were prepared by transient hyper‐expression in COS‐1 cells of ...
... role in viral life cycle and cell transformation". Journal of Cellular Physiology. 215 (2): 309-19. doi:10.1002/jcp.21326. PMC ... It has the ability to induce neoplastic transformation in a variety of cell types and can immortalize cells in culture. Its ... In MPyV, MTag is an efficient oncoprotein that can be sufficient to induce neoplastic transformation in some cells. The genes ... MTag is also required for viral persistence. However, MTags best-studied functions center on its interaction with host cell ...
Renato Dulbecco (deceased), Nobel laureate (for viral transformation of cells).. See also[edit]. *San Diego Historical ... Pollack, Andrew (8 May 2008). "$271 Million for Research on Stem Cells in California". The New York Times.. ... The institute appointed genome biologist Eric Lander and stem cell biologist Irving Weissman as non-resident fellows in ...
Transformation of fibroblasts by several retroviruses that produce transforming gene products associated with protein kinase ... Cell Transformation, Viral. Chick Embryo. Fibroblasts / metabolism. Malate Dehydrogenase / isolation & purification. Molecular ... Phosphorylated 34K, isolated from Rous sarcoma virus-transformed cells, was also present in two forms; hence, in the cell ... 0/Proteins; 0/Viral Proteins; EC Dehydrogenase; EC 2.7.-/Protein Kinases; EC Protein pp60(v- ...
There is increasing evidence that changes in the transcriptional program of cellular genes in virus-transformed cells can ... contribute to virus transformation. It is, therefore, important to study altered expression patterns of cellular genes in ... Cell Line, Transformed. Cell Transformation, Viral*. Gene Expression Regulation*. Genes, jun. Genes, myc. Genome, Viral*. Heat- ... In Ad2-infected KB cells, c-myc gene transcription was decreased. In 293 cells and in three adenovirus-transformed hamster cell ...
Viral transformation of epithelial cells.. Regan JA, Laimins LA.. Methods Mol Biol. 2013;945:449-65. doi: 10.1007/978-1-62703- ... Topoisomerase IIβ-binding protein 1 activates expression of E2F1 and p73 in HPV-positive cells for genome amplification upon ... Human papillomavirus E1 helicase interacts with the WD repeat protein p80 to promote maintenance of the viral genome in ... An interaction between human papillomavirus 16 E2 and TopBP1 is required for optimum viral DNA replication and episomal genome ...
Plasmid Inhibition Transformation Assay.. The spacer sequence from the F. novicida crRNA#1 (nucleotides 818163-818196 in the F ... Cas9-mediated targeting of viral RNA in eukaryotic cells. Aryn A. Price, Timothy R. Sampson, Hannah K. Ratner, Arash Grakoui, ... Therefore, FnCas9 can be programmed by a single rgRNA to target the RNA of a human virus in eukaryotic cells, leading to viral ... A) Huh-7.5 cells were transfected with FnCas9 ± NLS, the 5′ UTR-targeting rgRNA, and HCV. At 72 h, viral luciferase was ...
Alteration of cell-surface proteins by viral transformation and by proteolysis. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1973; 70: 3170-4. * ... Density and cell cycle dependence of cell surface proteins in hamster fibroblasts. Cell 1974; 3: 113-20. *CrossRef, ... A common cell-type specific surface antigen in cultured human glial cells and fibroblasts: loss in malignant cells. J Exp Med ... Identification and isolation of a 140 kd cell surface glycoprotein with properties expected of a fibronectin receptor. Cell ...
Liver Cell Transformation in Chronic HBV Infection. Next Article in Special Issue. Viral Hybrid Vectors for Somatic Integration ... This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Viral Vector Systems for Gene Therapy) ...
Autoantibodies; Biochemistry; Biophysics; Cell Transformation, Viral; RNA Processing, Post-Transcriptional; Gene Expression; ...
Autoantibodies; Biochemistry; Biophysics; Cell Transformation, Viral; RNA Processing, Post-Transcriptional; Gene Expression; ... Lee N, Moss WN, Yario TA, Steitz JA: EBV noncoding RNA binds nascent RNA to drive host PAX5 to viral DNA. Cell. 2015 Feb 12; ... Cazalla D, Xie M, Steitz JA: A primate herpesvirus uses the integrator complex to generate viral microRNAs. Mol Cell. 2011 Sep ... Stem Cell Center, Yale: Transcriptional Regulation of Stem and Progenitor Cells. Yale Cancer Center: Virus and Other Infection- ...
1992) Interaction of p107 with cyclin-A independent of complex-formation with viral oncoproteins. Science 255:85-87. ... cell cycle progression, and cell transformation is unknown. A negative cell cycle role for RBR3 would be consistent with other ... The ability of plant cells to undergo transformation and regeneration is associated with cell cycle activity (29, 32, 33), and ... These data support the transformation results, and indicate the positive role of RBR3 in cell transformation could be mediated ...
While the loss of viral genome could account for the lack of cellular transformation, it is clear that MM cells are distinct ... Cells were passaged every 3 days at 2 × 104 cells/well in 24-well plates. (B) KMM cells grew faster than MM cells in regular ... Cells seeded at 105 cells/well in 6-well plates were counted daily. (D) KMM cells formed foci, while MM cells were contact ... KMM cells had more cells in S phase (50% vs. 40%) and fewer cells in G0/G1 phase (35% vs. 42%) than MM cells (Supplemental ...
To assess the amounts of infectious Ab-MLV in pSRα-based viral stocks, 105 NIH 3T3 cells were plated on 60-mm-diameter petri ... Cells and viruses.NIH 3T3 cells, Ab-MLV-transformed NIH 3T3 cells, and 293T cells (11) were grown in Dulbeccos modified ... Transformation and Oncogenesis. The Extreme Carboxyl Terminus of v-Abl Is Required for Lymphoid Cell Transformation by Abelson ... induces transformation of pre-B cells in vivo and in vitro and can transform immortalized fibroblast cell lines in vitro. ...
... invention further provides methods for making the antibodies in a non-human animal and for expressing the antibodies in cells ... including hybridomas and recombinant host cell systems. Kits and pharmaceutical compositions comprising the antibodies are also ... In addition, nucleic acid molecules may be introduced into mammalian cells by viral vectors. Methods of transforming cells are ... Sequences encoding particular antibodies can be used for transformation of a suitable host cell. Transformation can be by any ...
  • Adenovirus proteins from both E1B reading frames are required for transformation of rodent cells by viral infection and DNA transfection. (
  • To determine the requirements for the individual Ad2 E1B proteins during the transformation of rodent cells, viral mutants were constructed with genetic lesions disrupting the coding sequence of either the 175 amino acid residue (175R) or the 495 amino acid residue (495R) E1B proteins. (
  • The "late region" contains genes encoding the viral capsid proteins. (
  • Like STag, MTag has no enzymatic activity of its own, but has a number of protein-protein interaction sites that mediate interactions with proteins in the host cell. (
  • However, MTag's best-studied functions center on its interaction with host cell proteins to activate cellular signaling pathways. (
  • Given the ability of specific Cas9 proteins to be reprogrammed to target and cleave DNA in numerous biological systems ( 7 , 9 , 10 ), we hypothesized that FnCas9 could be retargeted to a distinct RNA in eukaryotic cells and lead to its inhibition. (
  • FANCD2 Binds Human Papillomavirus Genomes and Associates with a Distinct Set of DNA Repair Proteins to Regulate Viral Replication. (
  • Some primate herpesviruses [Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), Herpesvirus saimiri (HVS), and Kaposi sarcoma virus (KSHV)] produce noncoding RNAs that associate with host cell proteins to form snRNPs. (
  • Retinoblastoma-related (RBR) proteins are negative cell cycle regulators conserved in animals and plants ( 1 - 5 ). (
  • RBR proteins repress cell cycle progression primarily through the inhibition of E2 promoter binding factor (E2F)-dependent transcription, which is required to express many genes involved in S-phase and cell cycle progression, including the minichromosome maintenance 2-7(MCM2-7) family of DNA replication factors ( 4 , 6 - 11 ). (
  • In overexpression studies, all 3 mammalian pocket proteins inhibit E2F-dependent gene expression, recruit chromatin remodeling complexes, actively repress transcription, and arrest cell growth ( 3 , 12 , 13 ). (
  • Although the kinase activity of the protein is required for these events, most previously studied mutants encoding truncated v-Abl proteins that lack the extreme carboxyl terminus retain high transforming capacity in NIH 3T3 cells but transform lymphocytes poorly. (
  • However, v-Abl proteins lacking portions of the COOH terminus are highly compromised for pre-B-cell transformation in vitro ( 21 , 29 , 39 ), and deletion of the region that interacts with JAK proteins abolishes the ability of v-Abl to confer cytokine-independent growth to several hematopoietic cell lines ( 7 ). (
  • To understand the way in which COOH-terminal sequences influence lymphoid cell transformation, we have analyzed a series of mutations encoding v-Abl proteins that are missing portions of the region. (
  • Viral proteins, in complexes termed "capsomers," form the surface of the icosahedron. (
  • Embedded in the envelope are surface proteins, usually glycoproteins that help the virus interact with the surface of the cell it is infecting. (
  • In these viruses, cell-surface interactions are mediated by the capsid proteins. (
  • The viral latent proteins are necessary for permanent B cell growth, but it is unknown whether they are sufficient. (
  • 1998. Stress protein expression in primary and immortalized cultures of human thyroid cells: A model system for the study of stress proteins in the pathogenesis of autoimmune thyroid disease . (
  • HCMV, EBV, KSHV) express viral proteins when the cells divide that tether the viral genome to chromosomes so that episomes are partitioned to daughter cells (ref. 3 and Figure 1B ). (
  • In latently infected cells, the virus must limit expression of viral proteins so as to avoid detection by the immune system. (
  • Moreover, viral proteins enhance glucose uptake and controls tumor microenvironment, promoting metastasizing of the tumor cells. (
  • Phosphorylation of cellular and viral proteins, which has been observed during lytic infection of cells by herpesviruses, seems to be a common phenomenon which involves a number of different protein kinase activities ( 21 ). (
  • The transport via exosomes of EBV-regulated miRNAs and viral proteins contributes to the construction and modification of the inflammatory tumor microenvironment. (
  • In particular, high-molecular substances, such as viral proteins or antibodies, can be radioactively labeled and examined in the animal model efficiently and with a minimal influence on the biological activity. (
  • This process requires expression of the viral latent proteins and of the 3 miR-BHRF1 microRNAs. (
  • Following transfection with this vector, Chinese hamster ovary cells express on their surfaces proteins immunologically similar to the major EBV membrane antigen. (
  • The lytic cycle or productive infection results in staged expression of a host of viral proteins with the ultimate objective of producing infectious virions. (
  • A very limited, distinct set of viral proteins are produced during latent cycle infection. (
  • The vector system of claim 10, wherein the target antigens are virally encoded proteins and the antibodies are to at least two different viral encoded proteins. (
  • Kaposi's Sarcoma associated Herpesvirus (KSHV) encodes two transmembrane proteins (MIR1 and MIR2) that downregulate cell surface molecules (MHC-I, B7.2, and ICAM-1) which are involved in the immune recognition of infected cells. (
  • The pathway of this downregulation is novel: the target proteins are efficiently synthesized, matured and reach the cell surface normally. (
  • We found that expression of MIR1 and MIR2 leads to ubiquitination of the cytosolic tail of their target proteins and that this ubiquitination is essential for their removal from the cell surface. (
  • MIR proteins thus define a novel class of membrane-bound E3 ubiquitin ligases that modulate the trafficking of host cell membrane proteins. (
  • Several mechanisms including insertional mutagenesis, proinflammatory effects, oncogenic viral proteins, immune suppression, and altered epithelial/stromal interactions have been proposed for a role of XMRV in prostate cancer. (
  • Proto-oncogenes typically encode proteins involved in positive control of the cell division cycle, such as growth factor receptors, signal transduction proteins, and transcription factors. (
  • Adenovirus E1A induces cell proliferation, oncogenic transformation and promotes viral replication through interaction with p300/CBP, TRRAP/p400 multi-protein complex and the retinoblastoma (pRb) family proteins through distinct domains in the E1A N-terminal region. (
  • Between the two CtBP family proteins, CtBP2 appears to restrict viral replication more than CtBP1 in human cells. (
  • However, late gene expression, expression of structural proteins and vegetative DNA synthesis is restricted to terminally differentiated cells of the epidermis which implies a link between cellular differentiation and viral gene expression. (
  • Interaction with RBX1 and CUL1 inhibits ubiquitination of the proteins targeted by SCF( FBXW7 ) ubiquitin ligase complex, and may be linked to unregulated host cell proliferation. (
  • the interaction enhances ATF7 -mediated viral transactivation activity which requires the zinc binding domains of both proteins (By similarity). (
  • The study of the transforming proteins derived from DNA tumor viruses in experimental models of transformation has provided fundamental insights into the process of cell transformation. (
  • Cellular transformation by SV40 large T antigen: interaction with host proteins. (
  • Fusion of this gene and FUS on chromosome 16 or EWSR1 on chromosome 22 induced by translocation generates chimeric proteins in angiomatoid fibrous histiocytoma and clear cell sarcoma. (
  • Transduction is a common tool used by molecular biologists to stably introduce a foreign gene into a host cell's genome (both bacterial and mammalian cells). (
  • If the prophage is induced (by UV light for example), the phage genome is excised from the bacterial chromosome and initiates the lytic cycle, which culminates in lysis of the cell and the release of phage particles. (
  • If the viral genome results in spare capacity, viral packaging mechanisms may incorporate bacterial genetic material into the new virion. (
  • [8] The institute appointed genome biologist Eric Lander and stem cell biologist Irving Weissman as non-resident fellows in November 2009. (
  • We now demonstrate that Cas9 from the Gram-negative bacterium Francisella novicida (FnCas9) can be reprogrammed to target a specific RNA substrate, the genome of the +ssRNA virus, hepatitis C virus, in eukaryotic cells. (
  • Topoisomerase IIβ-binding protein 1 activates expression of E2F1 and p73 in HPV-positive cells for genome amplification upon epithelial differentiation. (
  • Unlike cells, which contain all the structures needed for growth and reproduction, viruses are composed of only an outer coat (capsid), the genome, and, in some cases, a few enzymes. (
  • geographical variation of the viral genome. (
  • known genes, origins of replication and gene expression control regions explain most of the viral genome but there are still a few sections of unknown function. (
  • 125 of these and 116 from previous reports were combined to produce a multiple sequence alignment of 241 EBV genomes, which we have used to analyze variation within the viral genome. (
  • Formal demonstration came from Siliciano and colleagues ( 3 ), who detected integrated, latent HIV-1 genome in resting peripheral blood CD4 + T cells of HIV-1 patients. (
  • Although the majority of HIV-1-infected lymphoblast CD4 cells die as a consequence of apoptosis or cytopathic effects of HIV-1, some infected cells survive clonal contraction and return to the resting state as memory cells bearing an integrated HIV-1 genome. (
  • In this study, we provide proof of concept that resting nonproductively infected CD4 + T cells carrying a replication-competent HIV-1 genome can be generated in vitro after Ag-driven proliferation. (
  • HPV, adenoviruses, and polyomaviruses induce the host cell transformation while infecting nonpermissive cells and integrating into the host genome (see Table 1 ). (
  • Capsid responsible for delivery of virus genome inside the cells of the host. (
  • On infecting the B-lymphocyte, the linear virus genome circularizes and the virus subsequently persists within the cell as an episome. (
  • EBNA-1 protein binds to a replication origin (oriP) within the viral genome and mediates replication and partitioning of the episome during division of the host cell. (
  • During latency, a small subset of viral genes is expressed to ultimately allow for the viral genome to persist in host nuclei as episomes. (
  • E1-- DNA-dependent ATPase, ATP dependent helicase: allow unwinding of the viral genome and act as an elongation factor for DNA replication. (
  • The ratio of these found in the heterotrimeric complex formed before complexing with E1 regulates transcription of viral genome. (
  • Plays a role in viral genome replication by driving entry of quiescent cells into the cell cycle. (
  • Stimulation of progression from G1 to S phase allows the virus to efficiently use the cellular DNA replicating machinery to achieve viral genome replication. (
  • Replication of dl1520 in HeLa cells was significantly reduced compared to wild-type. (
  • In neurons, where innate antiviral/pro-resolution responses include the activation of NOS-1, inhibition of Ca 2+ activity by cannabinoids, increased viral replication and disease. (
  • If, however, innate and adaptive immunity successfully suppress viral replication, specific life-long immunity may result. (
  • MTag plays a role in viral DNA replication and in the transition from early to late gene expression, and its absence can cause defects in viral capsid assembly. (
  • Human Papillomavirus and the DNA Damage Response: Exploiting Host Repair Pathways for Viral Replication. (
  • Abelson murine leukemia virus (Ab-MLV) is a replication-defective retrovirus that transforms pre-B cells and NIH 3T3 cells in vitro and induces a pre-B cell lymphoma in vivo (reviewed in reference 40 ). (
  • During the resting phase, expression of cellular activation markers disappeared and cell proliferation and viral replication ceased, but resumed following restimulation of rested cells with Ag or mAbs directed to CD3/CD28. (
  • Although highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) 2 suppresses viral replication to undetectable levels, HIV-1 continuously replicates throughout the course of the infection ( 1 ). (
  • Required for viral replication (By similarity). (
  • Studying viral protein kinases might therefore lead to an understanding of the mechanisms of virus replication and virus-cell interactions. (
  • Both cancerous cells and viruses depend on the metabolic resources provided by the host to supply the energy and biochemical building blocks necessary for their replication. (
  • We find that inhibition of certain virally-up-regulated pathways blocks normal viral replication. (
  • In our cancer project, we have begun to identify activities specifically induced by oncogenesis that appear to be important for cancer-cell replication. (
  • To specifically dissect the role of CtBP interaction with E1A, we engineered a mutation (DL→AS) within the CtBP-binding motif, PLDLS, and investigated the effect of the mutation on immortalization and Ras cooperative transformation of primary cells and viral replication. (
  • During productive infection, CtBP-E1A interaction enhances viral replication in human cells. (
  • The interaction enhances viral replication in human cells. (
  • this interaction seems to potentiate viral replication (PubMed:23747199, PubMed:7479821). (
  • Montagnier and F. K. Sanders, investigating viral RNA (a virus that carries its genetic material in RNA rather than DNA), discovered a double-stranded RNA virus that had been made by the replication of a single-stranded RNA. (
  • Merkel cell polyomavirus small T antigen controls viral replication and oncoprotein expression by targeting the cellular ubiquitin ligase SCFFbw7. (
  • Adenovirus E1B 55-kilodalton protein: multiple roles in viral infection and cell transformation. (
  • neurons are frequently the target of viral infection. (
  • The outcome on the viral infection will depend on whether inflammation is beneficial or pathogenic in the specific case. (
  • Pathology may result from damage to tissues by viral-induced cellular apoptosis or necrosis, or alternatively, host immune responses may result in immunopathology or the perceived symptoms of the infection. (
  • The pathogenesis of viral infection and rational antiviral drug design. (
  • The type 1/type2 classification of EBV remains the major form of variation and is defined mostly by EBNA2 and EBNA3, but the type 2 SNPs at the EBNA3 locus extend into the adjacent gp350 and gp42 genes, whose products mediate infection of B cells by EBV. (
  • Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), an oncogenic human herpesvirus, induces cell proliferation after infection of resting B lymphocytes, its reservoir in vivo. (
  • This set of experiments demonstrated that B cells generated with the Δ123 virus express all tested latent genes with some expressed at higher levels than in the controls at day 11 post-infection (Fig. 5A). (
  • However, HIV-1 also establishes a status of nonproductive infection known as viral latency. (
  • Herpesvirus latency requires the virus to establish a persistent infection in cells without destruction by the immune system. (
  • For example, alphaherpesviruses express long noncoding RNAs that are transcribed antisense to other viral RNAs expressed during lytic infection ( Figure 1C ). (
  • Herpesviruses are able to establish persistent infection transforming the host cells. (
  • Among the potential viral protein substrates we examined, the EBV early antigen (EA-D, BMRF1), a DNA polymerase accessory factor and an important transactivator during lytic infection, was found to be phosphorylated by BGLF4 in vitro. (
  • This modification is believed to contribute to the shutoff of host cell functions during HSV-1 infection. (
  • HTLV-I infection is associated with the aggressive and lethal adult T cell leukemia (ATL), as well as chronic inflammatory disorders, such as the tropical spastic paraparesis/HTLV-I-associated myelopathy and others ( 13 , 14 , 15 ). (
  • a family of enzymes involved in the innate immune response to viral infection. (
  • 4. List type of host damage caused by viral infection a. (
  • What are the four types of allergic reactions resulted from viral infection a. (
  • Formally, this phase of infection does not inevitably lead to lysis of the host cell as EBV virions are produced by budding from the infected cell. (
  • A major focus of our laboratory is on human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), a herpes virus, which is the leading cause of congenital viral infection, occurring in approximately %1 of all live births. (
  • The speed of metabolic flux is crucial to understanding metabolic network behavior and how it is affected by a cellular perturbation, e.g. viral infection or oncogenic transformation. (
  • Increased understanding of these mechanisms and the roles they play during viral infection and cancer-cell transformation will continue to illuminate potential therapeutic avenues. (
  • Evasion of host immune response recognition plays a key role in the establishment of systemic viral infection. (
  • Infection of a target cell by KSHV. (
  • During this phase, the infected cell is hijacked to mass-produce viruses that are released into the extracellular space, enabling rapid spread to cells at a distance from the initial infection. (
  • In addition to this mode of infection, KSHV can also infect its target cells through direct physical contact with an infected cell actively replicating the virus. (
  • We are identifying the cellular and viral requirement for initiation of this contact-dependent infection route, which is important for host colonization by herpesviruses. (
  • These ligands are absent on healthy cells but present on cells experiencing stresses such as infection or transformation. (
  • While it is well known that viral infection induces the expression of NKG2D ligands the mechanisms for this induction are not well studied. (
  • Transformation of chick cells was inhibited when the drug was added to chick cells prior to infection. (
  • We demonstrate that XMRV infection can accelerate cellular proliferation, enhance transformation, and increase invasiveness of slow growing prostate cancer cells. (
  • We propose that downregulation of p27Kip1 by XMRV infection facilitates transition of G1 to S, thereby accelerates growth of prostate cancer cells. (
  • So, in humans, there are two unique ways in which oncogenesis occurs, by true viral infection and by mutation of proto-oncogenes that already exist in human cells. (
  • Inactivation of the ability of RB1 to arrest the cell cycle is critical for cellular transformation, uncontrolled cellular growth and proliferation induced by viral infection. (
  • E3GL_ADE06 ] Binds and retains class I heavy chains in the endoplasmic reticulum during the early period of virus infection, thereby impairing their transport to the cell surface. (
  • The RNA interference (RNAi) technique has been widely used as a tool for gene-functional studies and also has great potential for developing therapies against viral infection, genetic disorders and cancers. (
  • However, while persistent infection is key to viral oncogenesis, many long-term persisting viruses do not cause cancer. (
  • It has been proposed that telomere shortening in these cells is the property that limits their proliferation. (
  • MTag is essential for viral proliferation, though some of its functions overlap with those of STag. (
  • In particular, although only RB is considered a bona fide tumor suppressor, both p107 and p130 can functionally compensate for RB inactivation or loss in certain contexts and restrain cell proliferation ( 15 ). (
  • Src kinase is regulated by growth factors, cytokines, cell adhesion, and antigen receptor activation ( 15 , 16 ) and is involved in controlling a myriad of fundamental cellular processes, including cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and survival ( 15 ). (
  • Overexpression of ErbB2 or cyclin D1 in p27 +/− primary murine mammary epithelial cells resulted in increased proliferation, cyclin D1 nuclear localization, and colony formation in soft agar compared to those in p27 +/+ cells. (
  • In contrast, ErbB2- or cyclin D1-overexpressing p27 −/− cells displayed reduced proliferation, anchorage-independent growth, Cdk4 activity, cyclin D1 expression, and cyclin D1 nuclear localization compared to wild-type cells. (
  • A cyclin D1 mutation in its nuclear export sequence (T286A) partially rescued nuclear localization of cyclin D1 in p27 −/− cells but did not increase proliferation or Cdk4 kinase activity. (
  • Overexpression of E2F1, however, increased proliferation to the same degree in p27 +/+ , p27 +/− , and p27 −/− cells. (
  • Among these interleukin-2 (IL-2) has been the most extensively studied and has been shown to support the proliferation of activated T cells. (
  • The major colony stimulating factor produced by activated T cells, a granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), supports the proliferation and terminal differentiation of cells committed to the myeloid lineage. (
  • B-cell stimulating factor (BSF-1) supports proliferation of activated B cells and may induce the proliferation of a variety of additional cell types. (
  • Interleukin 3 promotes the in vitro proliferation of murine pluripotent hematopoietic stem cells. (
  • Interleukin 2 and 3 regulate the in vitro proliferation of two distinguishable populations of 20 alpha hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase positive cells. (
  • Changes in the expression of certain species of gangliosides have been described to occur during cell proliferation, differentiation, and ontogenesis. (
  • Seric core protein is able to bind C1QR1 at the T-cell surface, resulting in down-regulation of T-lymphocytes proliferation. (
  • Viral production resumes following Ag-driven or homeostatic proliferation and cytokine stimulation. (
  • Signal Transduction and Control of Cell Proliferation and Differentiation. (
  • One of the important adoptive responses by the cancer cells is their metabolic change to cope up with continuous requirement of cell survival and proliferation. (
  • Tumor DNA viruses enhance "aerobic" glycolysis upon virus-induced cell transformation, supporting rapid cell proliferation and showing the Warburg effect. (
  • Cancer cells have to fulfill their needs for continuous proliferation. (
  • The resulting T-cell proliferation leads to malignant transformation and to the development of adult T-cell leukemia (ATL). (
  • These data provide new insight into the direct regulation of OX40 by Tax and add to our understanding of the possible role of the OX40/OX40 ligand system in the proliferation of HTLV-I + T cells. (
  • Interactions of these members with their ligands have been shown to be involved in cell proliferation, activation, as well as induction of apoptosis. (
  • Rather, signaling through OX40 generates strong costimulatory effects, which induce T cell proliferation ( 7 , 8 ), modulate cytokine production ( 9 ), and influence T cell migration into tissues ( 10 , 11 ). (
  • 1 2 The ocular resident cells may undergo oedema, damage, necrosis, or proliferation. (
  • Mutations in these genes tend to relax control mechanisms and accelerate cell division , leading to the cell proliferation that is characteristic of cancer. (
  • This increase in TP53 , in turn, would arrest the cell proliferation and direct its death but this effect is counteracted by the viral protein E1B-55K. (
  • While it is clear that cancer arises from the accumulation of genetic mutations that endow the malignant cell with the properties of uncontrolled growth and proliferation, the precise combinations of mutations that program human tumor cell growth remain unknown. (
  • Triggers cell proliferation and transformation. (
  • Successive packaging after initiation from the original pac site leads to several kilobases of bacterial genes being packaged into new viral particles that are transferred to new bacterial strains. (
  • Alterations in the levels of expression of specific cellular genes in adenovirus-infected and -transformed cells. (
  • There is increasing evidence that changes in the transcriptional program of cellular genes in virus-transformed cells can contribute to virus transformation. (
  • It is, therefore, important to study altered expression patterns of cellular genes in adenovirus-infected and -transformed cells. (
  • We have used 40 different cellular genes or gene segments as hybridization probes to analyze the cytoplasmic RNA from adenovirus type 2 (Ad2)-infected KB cells, from Ad5-transformed human cells (293) or from several Ad2- or adenovirus type 12 (Ad12)-transformed hamster cell lines. (
  • Many of the genes probed were not expressed in human or hamster cells. (
  • Transcription of the ADPRT and the heat shock protein 70 genes was increased in Ad2-infected KB cells and in 293 cells. (
  • Current efforts are aimed at understanding how splicing influences downstream events in gene expression via the exon junction complex (EJC), how microRNA biogenesis is regulated during the nuclear maturation steps, and what is the mechanism and function of readthrough transcripts that arise from ~10% of human genes when cells are exposed to stress (osmotic, heat shock or oxidative). (
  • Retinoblastoma-related (RBR) genes inhibit the cell cycle primarily by repressing adenovirus E2 promoter binding factor (E2F) transcription factors, which drive the expression of numerous genes required for DNA synthesis and cell cycle progression. (
  • Our results indicate a cell cycle pathway in maize, in which 2 RBR genes have specific and opposing functions. (
  • Thus, the paradigm that RBR genes are negative cell cycle regulators cannot be considered universal. (
  • The viral genes modulate the physiological machinery of infected cells that lead to cell transformation and development of cancer. (
  • Studies of DNA viruses have led to the identification of viral genes responsible for cancer induction and paving the way to our current understanding of cancer at the molecular level [ 2 ]. (
  • EBV encodes miRNAs targeting both viral and host genes involved in the immune response. (
  • Tax also acts as a transactivator of an increasing number of host cellular genes, most of which are associated with cell growth. (
  • In addition to learning more about the fundamental mechanisms by which tumour development occurs, we are also identifying cellular genes that become critical for the survival of HPV-transformed cells with the objective of developing targeted therapies for these cancers. (
  • We are currently using CRISPR-Cas9 engineering to test whether APOBEC genes are required for HPV-driven transformation in cell-based models. (
  • EBNA2 Drives Formation of New Chromosome Binding Sites and Target Genes for B-Cell Master Regulatory Transcription Factors RBP-jκ and EBF1. (
  • Their technique became standard in laboratories investigating oncogenes (genes that have the potential to make normal cells turn cancerous) and cell transformations. (
  • Montagnier established that reverse transcriptase translates the genetic instructions of the virus from the viral (RNA) form to DNA, allowing the genes of the virus to become permanently established in the cells of the host organism. (
  • In contrast to the findings in Wilms' tumor, where mutations in the WT1 gene usually behave according to Knudson's two hit model for tumor suppressor genes, seven of eight leukemia-associated WT1 mutations are heterozygous, implying a dominant or dominant-negative mode of action in hematopoietic cells. (
  • We then measured the expression of self-renewal genes, transformation growth factor-beta (TGF-β) and leukemia-inhibitory factor (LIF), in shRNA-transduced HeLa-SFCs and found that expression of all three TGF-β isoforms was significantly downregulated while LIF remained unchanged. (
  • 11 , 12 Although it is not clear whether oncogene expression in CSCs is different from that in other cancer cells, it is believed that these genes are vital for them. (
  • Viral early genes E6 and E7 from high-risk HPV types are responsible for the transformation of epithelial cells, and their continuous expression is essential for ongoing cervical cancer cell survival as they function as oncogenes. (
  • Viral Hybrid Vectors for Somatic Integration - Are They the Better Solution? (
  • Transfection of vectors expressing Stat3β together with Src blocked cell transformation by Src as measured in a quantitative focus formation assay using NIH 3T3 cells. (
  • Improvement of plastid transformation efficiency in potato by using vectors with homologous flanking sequences. (
  • Repopulation of B-lymphocytes with restricted gene expression using haematopoietic stem cells engineered with lentiviral vectors. (
  • The present study compares the frequency of immortalization of cells from two different human lineages, lung fibroblasts and mammary epithelial cells. (
  • Dasatinib exhibits antitumor effects in cultured human cell lines derived from epithelial tumors, including prostate and lung carcinomas. (
  • Therefore, we studied the roles of p27 and cyclin D1 in ErbB2-mediated mammary epithelial cell transformation. (
  • With the exception of varicella-zoster virus (VZV), all human herpesviruses spread through saliva, mucosal or skin lesions, or genital secretions and infect oropharyngeal or genital tract mucosal epithelial cells or skin. (
  • VZV is spread by the respiratory route or by contact with vesicular lesions and infects epithelial cells in the oropharynx, upper respiratory tract, or conjunctiva. (
  • Three human alphaherpesviruses, herpes simplex viruses 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2) and VZV, establish latency in sensory neurons and reactivate from neurons to infect epithelial cells in the mucosa or skin, resulting in a vesicular rash. (
  • These two viruses are associated with several B cell and epithelial cell malignancies in which tumor cells are latently infected with EBV (Hodgkin lymphoma, Burkitt lymphoma, gastric carcinoma, nasopharyngeal carcinoma) or KSHV (primary effusion lymphoma, multicentric Castleman disease, Kaposi sarcoma). (
  • Our results suggest that CtBP-E1A interaction suppresses immortalization and Ras co-operative transformation of primary rodent epithelial cells without significantly influencing the tumorigenic activities of transformed cells in immunodeficient and immunocompetent animals. (
  • All of these isolates are tropic for squamous epithelial cells but the receptors are unknown. (
  • Viral DNA in nasopharyngeal carcinoma has revealed that Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) can infect epithelial cells and is associated with their transformation to cancer. (
  • Human breast cancer cells generated by oncogenic transformation of primary mammary epithelial cells. (
  • In MPyV, MTag is an efficient oncoprotein that can be sufficient to induce neoplastic transformation in some cells. (
  • Chronic myeloid or chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) is a clonal myeloproliferative disorder that arises from the neoplastic transformation of undifferentiated hematopoietic stem cells [ 1 ]. (
  • The PI‐3k/Akt pathway is essential for BCR/ABL leukemogenesis as indicated by experiments demonstrating that wortmannin, a PI‐3k specific inhibitor at low concentrations, suppressed BCR/ABL‐dependent colony formation of murine marrow cells, and that a kinase‐deficient Akt mutant with dominant‐negative activity inhibited BCR/ABL‐dependent transformation of murine bone marrow cells in vitro and suppressed leukemia development in SCID mice. (
  • The v-Abl protein tyrosine kinase encoded by Abelson murine leukemia virus (Ab-MLV) induces transformation of pre-B cells in vivo and in vitro and can transform immortalized fibroblast cell lines in vitro. (
  • Regulation of T cell differentiation: In vitro induction of 20 alpha hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase in splenic lymphocytes is mediated by a unique lymphokine. (
  • In this study, we attempted to model HIV-1 latency using human primary CD4 + T cells infected in vitro with HIV-1 after activation with Ag-loaded dendritic cells and then brought back to quiescence through a resting phase in the presence of IL-7. (
  • Latently infected cells persist in HAART-treated patients with undetectable viremia, and HIV-1 can be rescued in vitro from the cells of these patients ( 4 , 5 , 6 ). (
  • Both human T cell leukemia virus type I and simian Herpesvirus saimiri (HVS) transform human T cells in vitro. (
  • Keller, R. Cytostatic elimination of syngeneic rat tumor cells in vitro by nonspecifically activated macrophages. (
  • Background: Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infects resting B-lymphocytes and transforms them into immortal proliferating lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) in vitro. (
  • When EBV infects B-lymphocytes in vitro , lymphoblastoid cell lines eventually emerge that are capable of indefinite growth. (
  • In vitro transformation and invasion was carried out by soft agar colony formation, and Matrigel cell invasion assay, respectively. (
  • Derivation of human tumor cells in vitro without widespread genomic instability. (
  • When bacteriophages (viruses that infect bacteria) that are lytic infect bacterial cells, they harness the replicational, transcriptional, and translation machinery of the host bacterial cell to make new viral particles (virions). (
  • The role of such viruses as Merkel cell polyoma, papilloma, Kaposi's sarcoma and Epstein-Barr virus in human cancer highlight challenges to prevent and treat these diseases. (
  • They conduct basic research defining new molecular structures of viruses and virus-encoded enzymes, new mechanisms within cells for molecular and organelle trafficking and function, and new mechanisms that control cell growth. (
  • Here we show that the B cell transforming capacity of the Δ123 EBV mutant is reduced by more than 20-fold, relative to wild type or revertant viruses. (
  • In this review we will focus on how DNA viruses alter the glucose metabolism of transformed cells. (
  • Because of their relatively small genomes and striking biological effects, it is generally assumed that DNA tumor viruses have evolved to target the minimal number of cellular nodes and pathways required for transformation. (
  • In their life cycle, viruses replicate, inducing the cytopathic effect in the host cells and forming new viral particles. (
  • Particle-mediated delivery is not sensitive to permeability of the cell membrane by specific reagents and lacks the potentially deleterious effects of viruses and lipofection. (
  • Many viruses have evolved complex strategies for this evasion (one example being the down-regulation of cell surface MHC-I). Such strategies are readily observable among the herpesviruses, a family of large DNA viruses that efficiently produce persistent infections and disease in their host. (
  • His investigation of interferon, one of the body's defenses against viruses, also opened avenues for medical cures for viral diseases. (
  • Visible morphologic changes in cells infected with viruses. (
  • Viral cytopathogenic effects provide a valuable method for identifying and classifying the infecting viruses. (
  • It is feasible that the continued insult provided by replicating viruses eventually results in malignant transformation of the infected cell. (
  • By carefully interrogating the differences between these viruses, I believe it will be possible to elucidate which viral phenotypes are associated with oncogenic progression. (
  • Our findings provide evidence that oncogenesis-associated activation of Stat3 signaling is part of the process of malignant transformation. (
  • GLUT1 is overexpressed in most tumors and also very early after malignant transformation of benign cells. (
  • The vector system of claim 5, wherein the target antigen results in malignant transformation as a result of overexpression of the protein, an HTLV1 protein or an HIV viral encoded protein. (
  • It excludes malignant transformation, which is CELL TRANSFORMATION, VIRAL. (
  • Table 1 indicates some of the well characterized pathways involved and their potential impact on viral infections. (
  • Transcriptional activator that activates both the viral long terminal repeat (LTR) and cellular promoters via activation of CREB, NF-kappa-B, SRF and AP-1 pathways. (
  • We are identifying the cellular pathways and epigenetic events controlling viral episome generation and maintenance during latency. (
  • TAX_HTL1F ] Transcriptional activator that activates both the viral long terminal repeat (LTR) and cellular promoters via activation of CREB, NF-kappa-B, SRF and AP-1 pathways. (
  • Chen's group previously invented a method to convert astroglial cells into neurons using viral particles. (
  • After 48 hours at 68 C (154.4 F), viral titers dropped from 10((8)) to two infectious particles/ml. (
  • The AAV particle standard that contains 3.6x10^9 viral particles was dissolved in 500µl as described in the protocol of the Progen AAV Titration ELISA and a absorption spectrum was measured. (
  • These purified and concentrated viral particles could be used for biophysical measurements, there for the possibility to detect the viral particles by absorption was interesting for us. (
  • Whether or not this case pores are formed in the membrane by means of /report-writing-service/ which can pass into the cells, the DNA, or regardless of whether other mechanisms cause the recording is unclear. (
  • No matter whether this case pores are formed in the membrane by means of which can pass in to the cells, the DNA, or whether or not other mechanisms cause the recording is unclear. (
  • Readers are directed to the excellent accompanying reviews in this issue which expertly discuss the clinical trials, cell biology, mechanisms of action, impact on inflammation, clinical applications, and so forth. (
  • To understand the mechanisms responsible for poor lymphoid transformation, mutants expressing a v-Abl protein lacking portions of the COOH terminus were compared for their ability to transform pre-B cells. (
  • Thus, this system may allow us to study the biology of HIV-1 latency, as well as the mechanisms of CD4 + T cell death following HIV-1 reactivation. (
  • During the contraction phase at the end of the immune response, the vast majority of activated CD4 + T cells die in response to intrinsic mechanisms triggered by Ag withdrawal and consequent decline of growth factors and Bcl-2, as well as extrinsic mechanisms involving Fas (CD95)-Fas ligand (CD178) interaction and caspase 3 activation ( 11 ). (
  • Understanding of the mechanisms of latency is leading to novel approaches to destroy latently infected cells or inhibit reactivation from latency. (
  • Although IL-2-independent growth in human T cell leukemia virus type I-transformed T cells is associated with constitutive phosphorylation of JAK/STAT kinases, we now demonstrate that different mechanisms may be responsible for the ability of HVS-transformed T cells to proliferate in the absence of exogenous cytokines. (
  • The biochemical mechanisms that induce target cell lysis in cell mediated cytotoxicity systems-cytotoxic T-lymphocytes, natural killer cells, natural cytotoxicity cells, antibody dependent cell mediated cytotoxicity systems, and cytotoxic activated macrophages-are unknown. (
  • Utilizing molecular genetic techniques, we are now beginning to dissect the mechanisms responsible for viral and cancer-induced metabolic changes. (
  • In this review, we provide a general overview on the metabolism of glycolipids, both in normal and tumor cells, as well as examining glycolipid-mediated immune modulation and the main successes achieved in immunotherapies using gangliosides as molecular targets. (
  • It is well known that tumor cells differ from normal cells by glucose metabolism. (
  • Protein kinases are known to be involved in the regulation of a wide variety of eukaryotic cellular functions including cell metabolism, cell cycle control, hormone response, and control of transcription and translation. (
  • This will improve our understanding of viral pathogenesis and provide insights into basic cellular and immunological processes. (
  • The invention further provides methods for making the antibodies in a non-human animal and for expressing the antibodies in cells. (
  • Type I Allergic Reaction: IgE antibodies fixed to mast cells react with the complete virus or with viral components b. (
  • Additionally, factors that are associated with higher transmission risks include the presence of antibodies against the viral oncoprotein Tax (anti-Tax), a higher proviral load in peripheral blood lymphocytes, and increased cervicovaginal or seminal secretions. (
  • In contrast, the response of cells expressing the CB 2 receptor may influence not only the responses in that cell, but may alter the course of the host innate and adaptive immune response to the pathogen, suppressing inflammation and the development of virus-specific cellular and humoral responses. (
  • The immune system regulates the growth and differentiation of a variety of hematopoietic and lymphoid lineages through the production of a series of lymphokines by activated T cells. (
  • This has resulted in successful immune cell- or antibody-responses against glycolipids, with promising results having been obtained in clinical trials. (
  • Enhances TRAIL mediated apoptosis, suggesting that it might play a role in immune-mediated liver cell injury. (
  • To ensure its survival and maintain its B cell transformation function, EBV has developed powerful strategies to evade host immune responses. (
  • Epstein-Barr virus microRNAs reduce immune surveillance by virus-specific CD8+T cells. (
  • Previous research, such as conventional stem cell therapy, requires brain surgery and therefore is much more invasive and prone to immune-system rejection and other problems. (
  • A balance is eventually struck between occasional viral reactivation and host immune surveillance removing cells that activate viral gene expression. (
  • Natural Killer cells are a crucial part of the innate immune system. (
  • Lymphocyte Transformation Induced by Autologous Cells XVI: Effect of Steroids on the Human AMLR Part III: Hormones, Aging, and the Immune Response 8. (
  • Cyclic Nucleotides in Neurohumoral and Hormonal Regulation of Cells of the Immune System 15. (
  • In consequence, infected cells are masked for immune recognition by cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (By similarity). (
  • Inhibition of Src protein expression by small interfering RNA also induced apoptosis, indicating that these bone sarcoma cell lines are dependent on Src activity for survival. (
  • 2005. Activation of CD40 in cervical carcinoma cells facilitates CTL responses and augments chemotherapy-induced apoptosis . (
  • Production of IL-7 during the contraction phase promotes the establishment and maintenance of immunological memory through the up-regulation of Bcl-2 expression, which counteracts the intrinsic pathway of activated CD4 + T cell apoptosis ( 10 , 12 , 13 ). (
  • Hence, they acquire various hallmarks during the process of tumor progression, such as self-sufficiency in growth signals, insensitivity to growth-inhibitory (antigrowth) signals, evasion of programmed cell death (apoptosis), limitless replicative potential, sustained angiogenesis, and tissue invasion and metastases [ 1 ]. (
  • Inhibits the action of at least three cellular tumor suppressors p53/ TP53 , RB1 and DLG1 , and suppresses their abilities to dictate apoptosis in primary cells. (
  • Some oncogenic mutations cause inhibition of programmed cell death ( apoptosis ), so that cancerous cells are less likely to be destroyed by the body's defences. (
  • Here, we show that human T lymphocytes (HTL) can be stably transfected with SV40 large T and that expression of T antigen extended the life span of T cell cultures. (
  • SV40 T-antigen-expressing human cells generally have an extension of lifespan until a period called 'crisis' begins. (
  • EBV nuclear antigen 3C (EBNA3C) is an encoded latent antigen required for growth transformation of primary human B-lymphocytes. (
  • EBNA-1 possesses a glycine - alanine repeat that impairs antigen processing and MHC class I-restricted antigen presentation thereby inhibiting the CD8-restricted cytotoxic T-cell response against virus infected cells. (
  • The vector system of claim 1 , wherein the target antigen is a virally encoded protein, or a protein whose expression results in malignant cellular transformation. (
  • Simian virus 40 small T antigen activates AMPK and triggers autophagy to protect cancer cells from nutrient deprivation. (
  • The role of the SV40 ST antigen in cell growth promotion and transformation. (
  • Cancer cells differ from normal cells by genetic, metabolic, and histological features. (
  • A network of genetic events sufficient to convert normal human cells to a tumorigenic state. (
  • Human fibroblasts whose lifespan in culture has been extended by expression of a viral oncogene eventually undergo a growth crisis marked by failure to proliferate. (
  • Exposure of mammalian cells (transformed mouse fibroblasts or rat hepatoma cells) to S-adenosyl-1,8-diamino-3-thiooctane produced profound changes in the intracellular polyamine content. (
  • Transformation of fibroblasts by several retroviruses that produce transforming gene products associated with protein kinase activity results in the phosphorylation of a normal cellular protein with an Mr of 34,000 (the 34K protein). (
  • The cell cultures studied were chick embryo fibroblasts (CEF), normal rat kidney cells infected with temperature-sensitive mutant (LA31-NRK) and a wild type RSV (B77-NRK). (
  • Transfection refers to a DNA insertion into eukaryotic animal cells. (
  • Recombinant vaccinia virus vTF7-3, which expresses the T7 RNA polymerase, was used to infect 293 and 293T cells after transient transfection with a plasmid containing BGLF4 under the control of the T7 promoter. (
  • It is likely that many of the viral functions linked to oncogenesis were evolutionarily beneficial as papillomavirus adapted to novel environmental niches on the host (e.g. external genitalia vs. cervix). (
  • T cell transformation requires the HTLV-I Tax oncoprotein, which is the activator of viral gene expression. (
  • The OX40L promoter was shown to be activated by the Tax oncoprotein ( 32 ) and expression of Tax in the OX40-negative T cell line, Jurkat, results in OX40 surface expression ( 33 ). (
  • In Ad2-infected KB cells, c-myc gene transcription was decreased. (
  • In 293 cells and in three adenovirus-transformed hamster cell lines (T637, BHK21-Ad2E1A-E1B, and BHK21-Ad2 HindIII-G), the transcription of the c-jun gene was increased, whereas c-myc transcription was decreased in the latter two cell lines. (
  • These results suggest major alterations in transcription patterns in adenovirus-infected and -transformed cells. (
  • 3) Finding that a viral noncoding RNA can direct a host transcription factor to the viral DNA. (
  • As a result, there are textual errors in the captions for Fig 8, "Binding of EBNA2 to viral and host loci is influenced by EBNA-LP," and Fig 9, "EBNA-LP enhances binding of host transcription factors RBPJ and EBF1 to viral but not host promoters. (
  • Herpesvirus saimiri microRNAs Preferentially Target Host Cell-Cycle Regulators. (
  • A viral microRNA cluster strongly potentiates the transforming properties of a human herpesvirus. (
  • Three human betaherpesviruses, human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6), and HHV-7, establish latency in mononuclear cells and can reactivate to cause visceral disease. (
  • Two human gammaherpesviruses, EBV and Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), establish latency in B cells. (
  • 36. A method according to claim 31, wherein the hepatitis B virus comprises a hepatitis B virus having one or more mutations in a viral reverse transcriptase gene. (
  • 2008. Epstein-Barr virusencoded microRNA miR-BART2 down-regulates the viral DNA polymerase BALF5. (
  • A Viral microRNA Cluster Regulates the Expression of PTEN, p27 and of a bcl-2 Homolog. (
  • EBV was recently found to encode microRNAs (miRNAs) that are expressed in infected B cells and in some EBV-associated lymphomas.Therefore, the BHRF1 miRNAs accelerate B cell expansion at lower latent gene expression levels.Thus, the EBV BHRF1 miRNAs may represent new therapeutic targets for the treatment of some EBV-associated lymphomas. (
  • EBV was recently found to encode microRNAs (miRNAs) that are expressed in infected B cells and in some EBV-associated lymphomas. (
  • In addition, EBV codes for at least twenty microRNAs which are expressed in latently infected cells. (
  • The Confocal and Light Microscopy Core provides state-of-the-art imaging microscopy technology for fixed and live cells and tissues, along with scientific and technical expertise to assist in experimental design and optimal image collection. (
  • Cells Tissues Organs 189(1-4), pp. 268-274. (
  • Cells and Tissues in Culture: Methods, Biology, and Physiology, Volume 3 focuses on the applications of the methods of tissue culture to various fields of investigation, including virology, immunology, and preventive medicine. (
  • The selection first offers information on molecular organization of cells and tissues in culture and tissue culture in radiobiology. (
  • The publication then considers the effects of invading organisms on cells and tissues in culture and cell, tissue, and organ cultures in virus research. (
  • The selection is a vital source of data for readers interested in the culture of cells and tissues. (
  • But when brain tissues are damaged by strokes or trauma, the astroglial cells react by multiplying-sometimes so much that they clog up the nervous system by forming a scar. (
  • Current methods for introducing DNA and RNA into cells and tissues include viral transformation, lipofection, electroporation, direct injection through microcapillaries, and biolistics. (
  • Expression of WT1 is highest during embryogenesis, where it is found in multipotent progenitor cells of a restricted range of tissues, mainly in the genitourinary system. (
  • Cell Transformation, Viral" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (
  • Cytopathogenic Effect, Viral" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (
  • In HeLa cells, pm1722 replicated as well as wild-type virus but produced an extreme cytopathic effect and fragmentation of host-cell DNA. (
  • Further, this targeting results in inhibition of viral protein production. (
  • This inhibition of Src signaling was accompanied by blockade of cell migration and invasion. (
  • These studies indicated that the inhibition of RSV is in the early stage of viral growth, possible penetration or uncoating. (
  • The inhibition of cell growth was even greater than that for sphere formation after E6 silence, suggesting that the loss of self-renewing ability may be more important. (
  • However, the aberrant and elevated expression of gangliosides has been also observed in different types of cancer cells, thereby promoting tumor survival. (
  • Moreover, gangliosides are actively released from the membrane of tumor cells, having a strong impact on impairing anti-tumor immunity. (
  • Differentially expressed tumor-associated carbohydrates represent a general phenomenon observed in many types of cancer cells. (
  • The role of activated marcophages in specific and nonspecific cytostasis of tumor cells. (
  • Krahenbuhl, J.L. Effects of activated macrophages of tumor target cells in discrete phases of the cell cycle. (
  • Mechanism of macrophage-mediated tumor cell cytotoxicity. (
  • Presence of allograft- rejection resistance in simian virus 40-transformed hamster cells and its possible role in tumor development. (
  • Plasma Epstein-Barr viral deoxyribonucleic acid quantitation complements tumor-node-metastasis staging prognostication in nasopharyngeal carcinoma. (
  • Accumulating evidence supports the concept that cancer stem cells (CSCs) are responsible for tumor initiation and maintenance. (
  • The concept of cancer stem cells (CSCs) is that tumors contain a small proportion of self-renewal and pluripotent cancer cells that are responsible for tumor initiation and maintenance. (
  • Identification of a 39,000-dalton protein in cells transformed by the FBJ murine osteosarcoma virus. (
  • A recently published study evaluated the thermostability of murine retroviruses inocculated into factor concentrates, using a cell transformation assay (5). (
  • Loss of cell cycle control can result in pathological processes such as cellular transformation (reviewed in reference 47 ). (
  • Interacts with, and activates STAT3 leading to cellular transformation. (
  • Illicit dmage to host via: Cell Lysis, production of toxic substances, cellular transformation, indirect production of toxic substances, and host cell alterations (nuclear and cytoplasmic). (
  • In contrast to these factors, which primarily act on mature cells, interleukin-3 (IL-3) acts on relatively immature hematopoietic/lymphoid cells. (
  • Interleukin-3 regulation of the growth of normal and transformed hematopoietic cells: Cancer Cells 3/Growth Factors and Transformation. (
  • Chronic myeloid leukemia is a myeloproliferative disorder that may be treated with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). (
  • 5 However, the type of mutation suggested a different mechanism of action of mutant WT1 in differentiating hematopoietic cells compared with metanephric blastema. (
  • In complementation assays using mouse marrow progenitor cells, the ability of transformation‐defective SH2 domain BCR/ABL mutants to induce growth factor‐independent colony formation and leukemia in SCID mice was markedly enhanced by expression of constitutively active Akt. (
  • 2016. Clonal heterogeneity in the neuronal and glial differentiation of dental pulp stem/progenitor cells . (
  • 3 In the adult, expression of this tissue-specific gene continues in specific cell types of the kidney and gonad and, at much lower levels, in the bone marrow, where it is confined to CD34 + progenitor cells. (
  • Proteomics and Transcriptomics of BJAB Cells Expressing the Epstein-Barr Virus Noncoding RNAs EBER1 and EBER2. (
  • Viral noncoding RNAs: more surprises. (
  • Here we show that B-cells infected by a virus that lacks these non-coding RNAs (Î"123) grew more slowly. (
  • Human Papillomaviruses Preferentially Recruit DNA Repair Factors to Viral Genomes for Rapid Repair and Amplification. (
  • To determine if this Stat3 activation by Src could induce Stat3-mediated gene expression, luciferase reporter constructs based on synthetic and authentic promoters were transfected into NIH 3T3 cells. (
  • This protein binds the cAMP response element (CRE) (consensus: 5-GTGACGT[AC][AG]-3), a sequence present in many viral and cellular promoters. (
  • 2 ) reported that cells harboring the provirus in clinical samples were found at frequency considerably higher than cells expressing viral RNA, thus providing the first indirect evidence for the existence of latently infected cells in HIV-1 patients. (
  • Currently, the study of HIV-1 latency relies primarily on clinical samples and chronically infected cell lines, which present severe limitations such as the very low frequency of latently infected cells in the former and the lack of physiological relevance of the latter (for a review see Ref. 8 ). (
  • Mathematical models for HSV ( 1 ) and EBV ( 2 ) reactivation from chronic carriers estimate that reactivation is a frequent event, but only a very small percentage of latently infected cells reactivate at any one time. (
  • These results suggest that distinct signal transduction cascades can participate in the transition of T cells to IL-2 independence. (
  • Herpesviruses that maintain latency in dividing cells (e.g. (
  • These results show that dasatinib inhibits migration and invasion of diverse sarcoma cell types and selectively blocks the survival of bone sarcoma cells. (
  • Noncoding RNA-protein complexes (ncRNPs) are ubiquitous in eukaryotic cells and inhabit specific cellular compartments. (
  • Cyclin D/Cdk4 complexes phosphorylate the retinoblastoma gene product (pRb) early in the G 1 phase of the cell cycle, while cyclin E/Cdk2 complexes phosphorylate pRb in late G 1 . (
  • In this manner, cyclin/Cdk complexes are pivotal in regulating the progression of the cell cycle (reviewed in references 48 and 49 ). (
  • The C-terminal region of E1A suppresses E1A/Ras co-transformation and interacts with FOXK1/K2, DYRK1A/1B/HAN11 and CtBP1/2 (CtBP) protein complexes. (
  • Automated chemical synthesis of a protein growth factor for hemopoietic cells, interleukin 3. (
  • The disclosure relates to a method of inhibiting synthesis of viral DNA in a mammal infected with a hepatitis B virus. (
  • It also includes inhibiting hepatitis B viral DNA synthesis in the mammal using the Phyllanthus component or substance. (
  • Growth Factor Synthesis by a Human Teratocarcinoma cell line: Implications for Autocrine Growth in the Human Embryo? (
  • It includes shutdown of cellular RNA and protein synthesis, cell fusion, release of lysosomal enzymes, changes in cell membrane permeability, diffuse changes in intracellular structures, presence of viral inclusion bodies, and chromosomal aberrations. (
  • We deleted this invR sequence and showed that this abolished the ability of the virus to transform human B cells into lymphoblastoid cell lines. (
  • Jenuwein T, Müller D, Curran T, Müller R. Extended life span and tumorigenicity of nonestablished mouse connective tissue cells transformed by the fos oncogene of FBR-MuSV. (
  • The cellular counterpart of viral Src , denoted as c-Src, was the first proto-oncogene to be identified ( 10 - 13 ). (
  • These results suggest that p27 +/− mammary epithelium may be more susceptible to oncogene-induced tumorigenesis, whereas p27 -null glands, due to severely impaired cyclin D1/Cdk4 function, are more resistant to transformation. (
  • An oncogene is a special type of gene that is capable of transforming host cells and triggering carcinogenesis. (
  • oncogene A dominant mutant allele of a cellular gene (a proto-oncogene ) that disrupts cell growth and division and is capable of transforming a normal cell into a cancerous cell. (
  • We further demonstrated that HeLa-SFCs expressed a higher level (6.9-fold) of the human papillomavirus oncogene E6, compared with that of parental HeLa cells. (
  • Here, we show that FnCas9 can be directed by an engineered RNA-targeting guide RNA to target and inhibit a human +ssRNA virus, hepatitis C virus, within eukaryotic cells. (
  • Identification of the biochemical effector mechanism(s) utilized by activated macrophages to induce stasis and lysis of transformed target cells is complicated by the large armamentarium of potential cytotoxic effector molecules that can be elaborated by macrophages. (
  • Thus, this miRNA cluster simultaneously enhances expansion of the virus reservoir and reduces the viral antigenic load, two features that have the potential to facilitate persistence of the virus in the infected host. (
  • Its phosphorylation enhances its transactivation and transcriptional activities, and enhances cell transformation. (
  • The new virus capsule that contains part bacterial DNA then infects another bacterial cell. (
  • HIV-1 typically infects cells during blast transformation and clonal expansion ( 14 , 15 ). (
  • Poliovirus-wild type infects intestinal cells/neurons Note: Most virus gain entry to the body via the respiratory pathway (lungs). (
  • The virus infects the basal cells of the dermal layer, and early gene expression can be detected in these cells (in situ hybridization). (
  • It happens when a phage is in the lytic stage, at the moment that the viral DNA is packaged into phage heads. (
  • Injection of concentrated EBV derived from cells of the Kaplan line of infectious mononucleosis (IM) origin resulted in malignant lymphoproliferation in one out of three cotton-top marmosets 6 weeks after inoculation. (
  • The papillomaviral lifecycle perturbs the normal differentiation cycle of the infected cell, forcing cells to divide far beyond their normal lifespan. (
  • Cultured "hairy cells" infected with Epstein-Barr virus: evidence for B-lymphocyte origin. (
  • Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is linked to a broad spectrum of B-cell malignancies. (
  • Pathmanathan R, Prasad U, Sadler R, Flynn K, Raab-Traub N. Clonal proliferations of cells infected with Epstein-Barr virus in preinvasive lesions related to nasopharyngeal carcinoma. (
  • Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) can immortalize B-cll cells activated by cytokines. (
  • Importantly, KSHV latency is observed in the malignant cells isolated from Kaposi's sarcoma and primary effusion lymphoma, two pathologies associated with KSHV infections. (
  • C4h expression can also be blocked by switching normal nontransformed mesenchymal cells from adherent to suspension culture. (
  • Reexpression of C4h occurs 24 h after these cells are returned to normal adherent culture conditions, but can be blocked by either actinomycin D or cycloheximide, suggesting that the expression of this epitope is regulated at the transcriptional level. (
  • p27 Kip1 has classically been regarded as a cell cycle inhibitor based on its potent inhibitory activity of cyclin E/Cdk2 ( 42 ) and the observation that its forced expression results in G 1 arrest (reviewed in reference 49 ). (
  • Therefore, the BHRF1 miRNAs accelerate B cell expansion at lower latent gene expression levels. (
  • Recent recognition that the BHRF1 protein is important for B cell transformation prompted us to assess expression of this gene [18]. (
  • High efficiency plastid transformation in potato and regulation of transgene expression in leaves and tubers by alternative 5? (
  • It also includes inhibiting expression of at least one hepatitis B viral gene in the mammal using the Phyllanthus component or substance. (
  • In a T cell line, OX40 surface expression was shown to be induced by HTLV-I Tax alone. (
  • In addition, we show that in the OX40 + cell line, Co, Tax is able to further increase OX40 surface expression. (
  • However, unlike the other known TNF receptor family members, OX40 has a restricted cellular expression only on activated lymphocytes, predominantly CD4 + T cells ( 3 , 5 , 6 ). (
  • Thus, in these cells we observed increased phosphotransferase activity of Lck as well as constitutive tyrosine phosphorylation of the TCR-associated ZAP-70 kinase and expression of the related Syk protein tyrosine kinase. (
  • It is also postulated that a program in which all viral protein expression is shut off exists. (
  • The growth transformation of these cell lines is the consequence of viral protein expression. (
  • These cells showed an expression pattern of CD44 high /CD24 low that resembles the CSC surface biomarker of breast cancer. (
  • In maize, the equivalent cysteine residue is required for interaction of RBR1 and RBR3 with viral oncoproteins and RepA ( 18 , 19 ). (
  • Although all mutants lacking sequences within the COOH terminus were compromised for lymphoid transformation, loss of amino acids in the central region of the COOH terminus, including those implicated in JAK interaction and DNA binding, decreased transformation twofold or less. (
  • this interaction inhibits TAX to transactivate viral long terminal repeat (LTR) promoter (PubMed:14679154). (
  • We found that E1A-CtBP interaction suppresses immortalization and transformation. (
  • Another major focus in my laboratory is to elucidate novel metabolic activities induced by the transformation of cells from normal to cancerous. (
  • It has been known for decades that this cancerous transformation induces gross metabolic changes. (
  • Two groups of viral protein kinase activities, US3 and UL13, have been identified in alphaherpesviruses. (
  • Possibly the salt remedy contributes for the reality that repel among the negatively charged DNA plus the negatively charged cell membrane much less? (
  • Possibly the salt treatment contributes to the fact that repel amongst the negatively charged DNA and the negatively charged cell membrane much less? (
  • Possibly the salt therapy contributes towards the truth that repel amongst the negatively charged DNA along with the negatively charged cell membrane much less? (
  • A particular subclass of glycolipids is the gangliosides, which are sialylated GSLs mainly expressed in the outer layer of the plasma membrane of essentially all vertebrate cells. (
  • E1 and E2 glycoproteins form a heterodimer that is involved in virus attachment to the host cell, virion internalization through clathrin-dependent endocytosis and fusion with host membrane. (