Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.
An inheritable change in cells manifested by changes in cell division and growth and alterations in cell surface properties. It is induced by infection with a transforming virus.
Change brought about to an organisms genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (TRANSFECTION; TRANSDUCTION, GENETIC; CONJUGATION, GENETIC, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell's genome.
The heritable modification of the properties of a competent bacterium by naked DNA from another source. The uptake of naked DNA is a naturally occuring phenomenon in some bacteria. It is often used as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.
Eukaryotic cell line obtained in a quiescent or stationary phase which undergoes conversion to a state of unregulated growth in culture, resembling an in vitro tumor. It occurs spontaneously or through interaction with viruses, oncogenes, radiation, or drugs/chemicals.
Transforming protein coded by jun oncogenes (GENES, JUN). This is a gag-onc fusion protein of about 65 kDa derived from avian sarcoma virus. v-jun lacks a negative regulatory domain that regulates transcription in c-jun.
Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Family of retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (ras) originally isolated from Harvey (H-ras, Ha-ras, rasH) and Kirsten (K-ras, Ki-ras, rasK) murine sarcoma viruses. Ras genes are widely conserved among animal species and sequences corresponding to both H-ras and K-ras genes have been detected in human, avian, murine, and non-vertebrate genomes. The closely related N-ras gene has been detected in human neuroblastoma and sarcoma cell lines. All genes of the family have a similar exon-intron structure and each encodes a p21 protein.
A tyrosine-specific protein kinase encoded by the v-src oncogene of ROUS SARCOMA VIRUS. The transforming activity of pp60(v-src) depends on both the lack of a critical carboxy-terminal tyrosine phosphorylation site at position 527, and the attachment of pp60(v-src) to the plasma membrane which is accomplished by myristylation of its N-terminal glycine.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
Genes whose gain-of-function alterations lead to NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION. They include, for example, genes for activators or stimulators of CELL PROLIFERATION such as growth factors, growth factor receptors, protein kinases, signal transducers, nuclear phosphoproteins, and transcription factors. A prefix of "v-" before oncogene symbols indicates oncogenes captured and transmitted by RETROVIRUSES; the prefix "c-" before the gene symbol of an oncogene indicates it is the cellular homolog (PROTO-ONCOGENES) of a v-oncogene.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Products of viral oncogenes, most commonly retroviral oncogenes. They usually have transforming and often protein kinase activities.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
A continuous cell line of high contact-inhibition established from NIH Swiss mouse embryo cultures. The cells are useful for DNA transfection and transformation studies. (From ATCC [Internet]. Virginia: American Type Culture Collection; c2002 [cited 2002 Sept 26]. Available from http://www.atcc.org/)
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
A multiprotein complex composed of the products of c-jun and c-fos proto-oncogenes. These proteins must dimerize in order to bind to the AP-1 recognition site, also known as the TPA-responsive element (TRE). AP-1 controls both basal and inducible transcription of several genes.
Substances that increase the risk of NEOPLASMS in humans or animals. Both genotoxic chemicals, which affect DNA directly, and nongenotoxic chemicals, which induce neoplasms by other mechanism, are included.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Group of alpharetroviruses (ALPHARETROVIRUS) producing sarcomata and other tumors in chickens and other fowl and also in pigeons, ducks, and RATS.
Transforming protein encoded by ras oncogenes. Point mutations in the cellular ras gene (c-ras) can also result in a mutant p21 protein that can transform mammalian cells. Oncogene protein p21(ras) has been directly implicated in human neoplasms, perhaps accounting for as much as 15-20% of all human tumors. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
Small, monomeric GTP-binding proteins encoded by ras genes (GENES, RAS). The protooncogene-derived protein, PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN P21(RAS), plays a role in normal cellular growth, differentiation and development. The oncogene-derived protein (ONCOGENE PROTEIN P21(RAS)) can play a role in aberrant cellular regulation during neoplastic cell transformation (CELL TRANSFORMATION, NEOPLASTIC). This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
Cell lines developed from disaggregated BALB/c mouse embryos. They are extremely sensitive to CONTACT INHIBITION, and highly susceptible to transformation by SV40 VIRUS and murine sarcoma virus (SARCOMA VIRUSES, MURINE).
Retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (src) originally isolated from the Rous sarcoma virus (RSV). The proto-oncogene src (c-src) codes for a protein that is a member of the tyrosine kinase family and was the first proto-oncogene identified in the human genome. The human c-src gene is located at 20q12-13 on the long arm of chromosome 20.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Transforming protein coded by myc oncogenes. The v-myc protein has been found in several replication-defective avian retrovirus isolates which induce a broad spectrum of malignancies.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-myc genes. They are normally involved in nucleic acid metabolism and in mediating the cellular response to growth factors. Elevated and deregulated (constitutive) expression of c-myc proteins can cause tumorigenesis.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
A genus of the family Muridae having three species. The present domesticated strains were developed from individuals brought from Syria. They are widely used in biomedical research.
A type of XIPAPILLOMAVIRUS causing alimentary carcinoma in cattle. It is related to Bovine papillomavirus 3.
Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.
Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.
Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.
7,8,8a,9a-Tetrahydrobenzo(10,11)chryseno (3,4-b)oxirene-7,8-diol. A benzopyrene derivative with carcinogenic and mutagenic activity.
A BETARETROVIRUS that causes pulmonary adenomatosis in sheep (PULMONARY ADENOMATOSIS, OVINE).
A 6-kDa polypeptide growth factor initially discovered in mouse submaxillary glands. Human epidermal growth factor was originally isolated from urine based on its ability to inhibit gastric secretion and called urogastrone. Epidermal growth factor exerts a wide variety of biological effects including the promotion of proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal and EPITHELIAL CELLS. It is synthesized as a transmembrane protein which can be cleaved to release a soluble active form.
A genus of potentially oncogenic viruses of the family POLYOMAVIRIDAE. These viruses are normally present in their natural hosts as latent infections. The virus is oncogenic in hosts different from the species of origin.
A family of transforming proteins isolated from retroviruses such as MOUSE SARCOMA VIRUSES. They are viral-derived members of the raf-kinase family of serine-theonine kinases.
An oncogene protein that was originally isolated from a spontaneous musculo-aponeurotic FIBROSARCOMA in CHICKEN and shown to be the transforming gene of the avian retrovirus AS42. It is a basic leucine zipper TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR and the founding member of the MAF TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Retroviral proteins that have the ability to transform cells. They can induce sarcomas, leukemias, lymphomas, and mammary carcinomas. Not all retroviral proteins are oncogenic.
A family of ribosomal protein S6 kinases that are structurally distinguished from RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 KINASES, 70-KDA by their apparent molecular size and the fact they contain two functional kinase domains. Although considered RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 KINASES, members of this family are activated via the MAP KINASE SIGNALING SYSTEM and have been shown to act on a diverse array of substrates that are involved in cellular regulation such as RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 and CAMP RESPONSE ELEMENT-BINDING PROTEIN.
A cyclin-dependent kinase that forms a complex with CYCLIN C and is active during the G1 PHASE of the CELL CYCLE. It plays a role in the transition from G1 to S PHASE and in transcriptional regulation.
Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Arrest of cell locomotion or cell division when two cells come into contact.
Family of retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (myc) originally isolated from an avian myelocytomatosis virus. The proto-oncogene myc (c-myc) codes for a nuclear protein which is involved in nucleic acid metabolism and in mediating the cellular response to growth factors. Truncation of the first exon, which appears to regulate c-myc expression, is crucial for tumorigenicity. The human c-myc gene is located at 8q24 on the long arm of chromosome 8.
Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL with very effective tumor promoting activity. It stimulates the synthesis of both DNA and RNA.
Proteins transcribed from the E1A genome region of ADENOVIRUSES which are involved in positive regulation of transcription of the early genes of host infection.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-jun genes (GENES, JUN). They are involved in growth-related transcriptional control. There appear to be three distinct functions: dimerization (with c-fos), DNA-binding, and transcriptional activation. Oncogenic transformation can take place by constitutive expression of c-jun.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.
A species of DELTAPAPILLOMAVIRUS infecting cattle.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
Cellular proteins encoded by the H-ras, K-ras and N-ras genes. The proteins have GTPase activity and are involved in signal transduction as monomeric GTP-binding proteins. Elevated levels of p21 c-ras have been associated with neoplasia. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
High molecular weight insoluble polymers which contain functional anionic groups that are capable of undergoing exchange reactions with cations.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Normal cellular genes homologous to viral oncogenes. The products of proto-oncogenes are important regulators of biological processes and appear to be involved in the events that serve to maintain the ordered procession through the cell cycle. Proto-oncogenes have names of the form c-onc.
Family of RNA viruses that infects birds and mammals and encodes the enzyme reverse transcriptase. The family contains seven genera: DELTARETROVIRUS; LENTIVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE B, MAMMALIAN; ALPHARETROVIRUS; GAMMARETROVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE D; and SPUMAVIRUS. A key feature of retrovirus biology is the synthesis of a DNA copy of the genome which is integrated into cellular DNA. After integration it is sometimes not expressed but maintained in a latent state (PROVIRUSES).
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
A nitrosoguanidine derivative with potent mutagenic and carcinogenic properties.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Proteins from the family Retroviridae. The most frequently encountered member of this family is the Rous sarcoma virus protein.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
The ability of bacterial cells to take up exogenous DNA and be genetically transformed by it.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
Glandular tissue in the BREAST of human that is under the influence of hormones such as ESTROGENS; PROGESTINS; and PROLACTIN. In WOMEN, after PARTURITION, the mammary glands secrete milk (MILK, HUMAN) for the nourishment of the young.
Experimentally induced new abnormal growth of TISSUES in animals to provide models for studying human neoplasms.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
A superfamily of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that are activated by diverse stimuli via protein kinase cascades. They are the final components of the cascades, activated by phosphorylation by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES, which in turn are activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES).
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
A group of replication-defective viruses, in the genus GAMMARETROVIRUS, which are capable of transforming cells, but which replicate and produce tumors only in the presence of Murine leukemia viruses (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE).
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Tests to experimentally measure the tumor-producing/cancer cell-producing potency of an agent by administering the agent (e.g., benzanthracenes) and observing the quantity of tumors or the cell transformation developed over a given period of time. The carcinogenicity value is usually measured as milligrams of agent administered per tumor developed. Though this test differs from the DNA-repair and bacterial microsome MUTAGENICITY TESTS, researchers often attempt to correlate the finding of carcinogenicity values and mutagenicity values.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
ONCOGENE PROTEINS from papillomavirus that deregulate the CELL CYCLE of infected cells and lead to NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION. Papillomavirus E7 proteins have been shown to interact with various regulators of the cell cycle including RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN and certain cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors.
Proteins transcribed from the E1B region of ADENOVIRUSES which are involved in regulation of the levels of early and late viral gene expression.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
An 11-kDa AT-hook motif-containing (AT-HOOK MOTIFS) protein that binds to the minor grove of AT-rich regions of DNA. It is the full-length product of the alternatively-spliced HMGA1 gene and may function as an architectural chromatin binding protein that is involved in transcriptional regulation.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-fos genes (GENES, FOS). They are involved in growth-related transcriptional control. c-fos combines with c-jun (PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-JUN) to form a c-fos/c-jun heterodimer (TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1) that binds to the TRE (TPA-responsive element) in promoters of certain genes.
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
Inorganic salts or organic esters of arsenious acid.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Species of the genus MASTADENOVIRUS, causing a wide range of diseases in humans. Infections are mostly asymptomatic, but can be associated with diseases of the respiratory, ocular, and gastrointestinal systems. Serotypes (named with Arabic numbers) have been grouped into species designated Human adenovirus A-F.
Proteins coded by oncogenes. They include proteins resulting from the fusion of an oncogene and another gene (ONCOGENE PROTEINS, FUSION).
A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A replication-defective strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) capable of transforming lymphoid cells and producing a rapidly progressing lymphoid leukemia after superinfection with FRIEND MURINE LEUKEMIA VIRUS; MOLONEY MURINE LEUKEMIA VIRUS; or RAUSCHER VIRUS.
Transforming proteins coded by fos oncogenes. These proteins have been found in the Finkel-Biskis-Jinkins (FBJ-MSV) and Finkel-Biskis-Reilly (FBR-MSV) murine sarcoma viruses which induce osteogenic sarcomas in mice. The FBJ-MSV v-fos gene encodes a p55-kDa protein and the FBR-MSV v-fos gene encodes a p75-kDa fusion protein.
Protein encoded by the bcl-1 gene which plays a critical role in regulating the cell cycle. Overexpression of cyclin D1 is the result of bcl-1 rearrangement, a t(11;14) translocation, and is implicated in various neoplasms.
Chemical agents that increase the rate of genetic mutation by interfering with the function of nucleic acids. A clastogen is a specific mutagen that causes breaks in chromosomes.
A signal transducing adaptor protein that is encoded by the crk ONCOGENE from TYPE C AVIAN RETROVIRUSES. It contains SRC HOMOLOGY DOMAINS and is closely related to its cellular homolog, PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN C-CRK.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
Dimers (homo and hetero) of FLAVONOIDS.
A potent mutagen and carcinogen. It is a public health concern because of its possible effects on industrial workers, as an environmental pollutant, an as a component of tobacco smoke.
Transforming proteins coded by rel oncogenes. The v-rel protein competes with rel-related proteins and probably transforms cells by acting as a dominant negative version of c-rel. This results in the induction of a broad range of leukemias and lymphomas.
The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
An aurora kinase that localizes to the CENTROSOME during MITOSIS and is involved in centrosome regulation and formation of the MITOTIC SPINDLE. Aurora A overexpression in many malignant tumor types suggests that it may be directly involved in NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.
An intracellular signaling system involving the MAP kinase cascades (three-membered protein kinase cascades). Various upstream activators, which act in response to extracellular stimuli, trigger the cascades by activating the first member of a cascade, MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKKs). Activated MAPKKKs phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES which in turn phosphorylate the MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs). The MAPKs then act on various downstream targets to affect gene expression. In mammals, there are several distinct MAP kinase pathways including the ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) pathway, the SAPK/JNK (stress-activated protein kinase/c-jun kinase) pathway, and the p38 kinase pathway. There is some sharing of components among the pathways depending on which stimulus originates activation of the cascade.
A ubiquitously expressed raf kinase subclass that plays an important role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. The c-raf Kinases are MAP kinase kinase kinases that have specificity for MAP KINASE KINASE 1 and MAP KINASE KINASE 2.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
A genus of gram negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria found in soil, plants, and marine mud.
Tumors or cancer of the SKIN.
Retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (jun) originally isolated from the avian sarcoma virus 17 (ASV 17). The proto-oncogene jun (c-jun) codes for a nuclear protein which is involved in growth-related transcriptional control. Insertion of c-jun into ASV-17 or the constitutive expression of the c-jun protein produces tumorgenicity. The human c-jun gene is located at 1p31-32 on the short arm of chromosome 1.
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
A cytologic technique for measuring the functional capacity of tumor stem cells by assaying their activity. It is used primarily for the in vitro testing of antineoplastic agents.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
The Madder plant family of the order Rubiales, subclass Asteridae, class Magnoliopsida includes important medicinal plants that provide QUININE; IPECAC; and COFFEE. They have opposite leaves and interpetiolar stipules.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
An amino acid that occurs in endogenous proteins. Tyrosine phosphorylation and dephosphorylation plays a role in cellular signal transduction and possibly in cell growth control and carcinogenesis.
A subgroup of mitogen-activated protein kinases that activate TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1 via the phosphorylation of C-JUN PROTEINS. They are components of intracellular signaling pathways that regulate CELL PROLIFERATION; APOPTOSIS; and CELL DIFFERENTIATION.
A broad category of carrier proteins that play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They generally contain several modular domains, each of which having its own binding activity, and act by forming complexes with other intracellular-signaling molecules. Signal-transducing adaptor proteins lack enzyme activity, however their activity can be modulated by other signal-transducing enzymes
A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.
The external, nonvascular layer of the skin. It is made up, from within outward, of five layers of EPITHELIUM: (1) basal layer (stratum basale epidermidis); (2) spinous layer (stratum spinosum epidermidis); (3) granular layer (stratum granulosum epidermidis); (4) clear layer (stratum lucidum epidermidis); and (5) horny layer (stratum corneum epidermidis).
Agents that reduce the frequency or rate of spontaneous or induced tumors independently of the mechanism involved.
A serine-threonine protein kinase family whose members are components in protein kinase cascades activated by diverse stimuli. These MAPK kinases phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES and are themselves phosphorylated by MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES. JNK kinases (also known as SAPK kinases) are a subfamily.
The GENETIC TRANSLATION products of the fusion between an ONCOGENE and another gene. The latter may be of viral or cellular origin.
A protein-serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION in response to GROWTH FACTORS or INSULIN. It plays a major role in cell metabolism, growth, and survival as a core component of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Three isoforms have been described in mammalian cells.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
A genus of the family RETROVIRIDAE with type C morphology, that causes malignant and other diseases in wild birds and domestic fowl.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Product of the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor gene. It is a nuclear phosphoprotein hypothesized to normally act as an inhibitor of cell proliferation. Rb protein is absent in retinoblastoma cell lines. It also has been shown to form complexes with the adenovirus E1A protein, the SV40 T antigen, and the human papilloma virus E7 protein.
Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria isolated from soil and the stems, leafs, and roots of plants. Some biotypes are pathogenic and cause the formation of PLANT TUMORS in a wide variety of higher plants. The species is a major research tool in biotechnology.
The type species of RHADINOVIRUS, in the subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, isolated from squirrel monkeys. It produces malignant lymphomas (LYMPHOMA, MALIGNANT) in inoculated marmosets or owl monkeys.
One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.
Salts and esters of the 14-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acid--myristic acid.
Membrane-associated tyrosine-specific kinases encoded by the c-src genes. They have an important role in cellular growth control. Truncation of carboxy-terminal residues in pp60(c-src) leads to PP60(V-SRC) which has the ability to transform cells. This kinase pp60 c-src should not be confused with csk, also known as c-src kinase.
The quantity of volume or surface area of CELLS.
The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.
The decrease in the cell's ability to proliferate with the passing of time. Each cell is programmed for a certain number of cell divisions and at the end of that time proliferation halts. The cell enters a quiescent state after which it experiences CELL DEATH via the process of APOPTOSIS.
Proteins encoded by adenoviruses that are synthesized prior to, and in the absence of, viral DNA replication. The proteins are involved in both positive and negative regulation of expression in viral and cellular genes, and also affect the stability of viral mRNA. Some are also involved in oncogenic transformation.
A radiation-protective agent that can inhibit DNA damage by binding to the DNA. It also increases the susceptibility of blood cells to complement-mediated lysis.
Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.
A carcinogen that is often used in experimental cancer studies.
CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
A member of the Rho family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. It is associated with a diverse array of cellular functions including cytoskeletal changes, filopodia formation and transport through the GOLGI APPARATUS. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.
A non-essential amino acid occurring in natural form as the L-isomer. It is synthesized from GLYCINE or THREONINE. It is involved in the biosynthesis of PURINES; PYRIMIDINES; and other amino acids.
A group of FLAVONOLS based on kaempferol. They are derived from naringenin and can be hydroxylated to QUERCETIN or reduced to leucopelargonidin.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
A PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE family that was originally identified by homology to the Rous sarcoma virus ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(V-SRC). They interact with a variety of cell-surface receptors and participate in intracellular signal transduction pathways. Oncogenic forms of src-family kinases can occur through altered regulation or expression of the endogenous protein and by virally encoded src (v-src) genes.
Proteins that are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. Deficiencies or abnormalities in these proteins may lead to unregulated cell growth and tumor development.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to INTERLEUKIN-6 family members. STAT3 is constitutively activated in a variety of TUMORS and is a major downstream transducer for the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR GP130.
Penetrating electromagnetic radiation emitted when the inner orbital electrons of an atom are excited and release radiant energy. X-ray wavelengths range from 1 pm to 10 nm. Hard X-rays are the higher energy, shorter wavelength X-rays. Soft x-rays or Grenz rays are less energetic and longer in wavelength. The short wavelength end of the X-ray spectrum overlaps the GAMMA RAYS wavelength range. The distinction between gamma rays and X-rays is based on their radiation source.
Tumor suppressor genes located on the short arm of human chromosome 17 and coding for the phosphoprotein p53.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
A c-jun amino-terminal kinase that is activated by environmental stress and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Several isoforms of the protein with molecular sizes of 43 and 48 KD exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.
Mapping of the KARYOTYPE of a cell.
Proteins associated with the inner surface of the lipid bilayer of the viral envelope. These proteins have been implicated in control of viral transcription and may possibly serve as the "glue" that binds the nucleocapsid to the appropriate membrane site during viral budding from the host cell.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)

Gene expression profiles in HTLV-I-immortalized T cells: deregulated expression of genes involved in apoptosis regulation. (1/5211)

Human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I) is the etiologic agent of adult T-cell leukemia, an acute and often fatal T-cell malignancy. A key step in HTLV-I-induced leukemigenesis is induction of abnormal T-cell growth and survival. Unlike antigen-stimulated T cells, which cease proliferation after a finite number of cell division, HTLV-I-infected T cells proliferate indefinitely (immortalized), thus facilitating occurrence of secondary genetic changes leading to malignant transformation. To explore the molecular basis of HTLV-I-induced abnormal T-cell survival, we compared the gene expression profiles of normal and HTLV-I-immortalized T cells using 'gene array'. These studies revealed a strikingly altered expression pattern of a large number of genes along with HTLV-I-mediated T-cell immortalization. Interestingly, many of these deregulated genes are involved in the control of programmed cell death or apoptosis. These findings indicate that disruption of the cellular apoptosis-regulatory network may play a role in the HTLV-I-mediated oncogenesis.  (+info)

Epstein-barr virus regulates c-MYC, apoptosis, and tumorigenicity in Burkitt lymphoma. (2/5211)

Loss of the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) genome from Akata Burkitt lymphoma (BL) cells is coincident with a loss of malignant phenotype, despite the fact that Akata and other EBV-positive BL cells express a restricted set of EBV gene products (type I latency) that are not known to overtly affect cell growth. Here we demonstrate that reestablishment of type I latency in EBV-negative Akata cells restores tumorigenicity and that tumorigenic potential correlates with an increased resistance to apoptosis under growth-limiting conditions. The antiapoptotic effect of EBV was associated with a higher level of Bcl-2 expression and an EBV-dependent decrease in steady-state levels of c-MYC protein. Although the EBV EBNA-1 protein is expressed in all EBV-associated tumors and is reported to have oncogenic potential, enforced expression of EBNA-1 alone in EBV-negative Akata cells failed to restore tumorigenicity or EBV-dependent down-regulation of c-MYC. These data provide direct evidence that EBV contributes to the tumorigenic potential of Burkitt lymphoma and suggest a novel model whereby a restricted latency program of EBV promotes B-cell survival, and thus virus persistence within an immune host, by selectively targeting the expression of c-MYC.  (+info)

Reduced phosphorylation of p50 is responsible for diminished NF-kappaB binding to the major histocompatibility complex class I enhancer in adenovirus type 12-transformed cells. (3/5211)

Reduced cell surface levels of major histocompatibility complex class I antigens enable adenovirus type 12 (Ad12)-transformed cells to escape immunosurveillance by cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL), contributing to their tumorigenic potential. In contrast, nontumorigenic Ad5-transformed cells harbor significant cell surface levels of class I antigens and are susceptible to CTL lysis. Ad12 E1A mediates down-regulation of class I transcription by increasing COUP-TF repressor binding and decreasing NF-kappaB activator binding to the class I enhancer. The mechanism underlying the decreased binding of nuclear NF-kappaB in Ad12-transformed cells was investigated. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay analysis of hybrid NF-kappaB dimers reconstituted from denatured and renatured p50 and p65 subunits from Ad12- and Ad5-transformed cell nuclear extracts demonstrated that p50, and not p65, is responsible for the decreased ability of NF-kappaB to bind to DNA in Ad12-transformed cells. Hypophosphorylation of p50 was found to correlate with restricted binding of NF-kappaB to DNA in Ad12-transformed cells. The importance of phosphorylation of p50 for NF-kappaB binding was further demonstrated by showing that an NF-kappaB dimer composed of p65 and alkaline phosphatase-treated p50 from Ad5-transformed cell nuclear extracts could not bind to DNA. These results suggest that phosphorylation of p50 is a key step in the nuclear regulation of NF-kappaB in adenovirus-transformed cells.  (+info)

Downregulation of metallothionein-IIA expression occurs at immortalization. (4/5211)

Metallothioneins (MTs) may modulate a variety of cellular processes by regulating the activity of zinc-binding proteins. These proteins have been implicated in cell growth regulation, and their expression is abnormal in some tumors. In particular, MT-IIA is expressed 27-fold less in human colorectal tumors and tumor cell lines compared with normal tissue (Zhang et al., 1997). Here we demonstrate that MT-IIA downregulation occurs when human cells become immortal, a key event in tumorigenesis. After immortalization MT-IIA expression remains inducible but the basal activity of the MT-IIA promoter is decreased. MT-IIA downregulation at immortalization is one of the most common immortalization-related changes identified to date, suggesting that MT-IIA has a role in this process.  (+info)

The introduction of dominant-negative p53 mutants suppresses temperature shift-induced senescence in immortal human fibroblasts expressing a thermolabile SV40 large T antigen. (5/5211)

Immortal human fibroblasts, SVts8 cells, which express a heat-labile SV40 large T antigen, induces a senescence-like phenomenon in response to upward shift in temperature. Cells with arrested division show strong induction of senescence-associated beta-galactosidase. We examined how p53 and pRB are involved in this phenomenon since they are major targets of the T antigen. Transfection of cells with plasmids encoding the wild-type T antigen or human papilloma virus type 16 E6/E7 proteins completely abolished the arrest in cell division, a plasmid encoding the E6 protein suppressed it markedly, while a plasmid encoding E7 had no effect. Plasmids encoding dominant-negative p53 mutants also suppressed the arrest in cell division to various degrees. Upon temperature shift, p21 mRNA was upregulated 10-fold in SVts8 cells, but only slightly in clones expressing the wild-type T antigen or dominant-negative p53 mutants. These data demonstrate that p53 plays a major role in this senescence-like phenomenon.  (+info)

Binding of c-Rel to STAT5 target sequences in HTLV-I-transformed T cells. (6/5211)

The type I human T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV-I) induces abnormal growth and subsequent transformation of T cells, which is associated with the development of an acute T-cell malignancy termed adult T-cell leukemia. A characteristic of HTLV-I-transformed T cells is the constitutive nuclear expression of NF-kappaB/Rel family of transcription factors, which appears to be essential for the growth of these transformed cells. Although NF-kappaB/Rel factors are known to induce the expression of T-cell growth factor interleukin (IL)-2, it is unclear how they participate in the IL-2-independent growth of HTLV-I-transformed cells. In this study, we show that certain NF-kappaB/Rel members, predominantly c-Rel, interact with enhancer sequences for STAT5, a key transcription factor mediating IL-2-induced T-cell proliferation. Reporter gene assays reveal that the binding of c-Rel to the STAT5 site present in the Fc gammaR1 gene leads to potent transactivation of this enhancer. Binding of c-Rel to the Fc gammaR1 STAT site also occurs in human peripheral blood T cells immortalized with HTLV-I in vitro and is correlated with enhanced levels of proliferation of these cells. These results raise the possibility that NF-kappaB/Rel may participate in the growth control of HTLV-I-transformed T cells by regulating genes driven by both kappaB and certain STAT enhancers.  (+info)

Expression of hepatitis C virus cDNA in human hepatoma cell line mediated by a hybrid baculovirus-HCV vector. (7/5211)

Although great progress has been made in the characterization of the biochemical and biological features of hepatitis C virus (HCV) gene expression, the elucidation of the HCV life cycle and the evaluation of novel antiviral strategies have been hindered by the lack of a suitable cell culture system. In this context, the development of an efficient HCV cDNA delivery method would contribute to the understanding of HCV replication. To assess the functionality of baculovirus mediated gene delivery for HCV expression, we have constructed recombinant baculoviruses encoding HCV cDNA under the control of the cytomegalovirus promoter. Transduction of the human hepatoma cell line Huh-7 with Bac-HCV vectors was efficient and HCV cDNA expression was enhanced by treatment of the infected cells with dexamethasone. HCV structural and nonstructural polypeptides were processed correctly and were found to localize in the cytoplasm in a pattern characteristic of the endoplasmic reticulum. The expression of the HCV proteins was detected for 49 days after infection. Thus, these results indicate that the recombinant Bac-HCV vectors are a useful tool for the delivery of HCV cDNA and can facilitate the analysis of structural and functional properties of the HCV proteins. In addition, the Bac-HCV vectors can provide important information on the evaluation of novel anti-HCV antiviral strategies.  (+info)

A mutational analysis of the transforming functions of the E8 protein of bovine papillomavirus type 4. (8/5211)

The E8 protein of BPV-4 contributes to transformation of primary bovine cells (PalFs) by inducing anchorage-independent growth and by down-regulating gap junction intercellular communication, likely due to its binding to 16K ductin. We show here that, in addition, E8 confers on PalF cells the ability to grow in low serum and to escape from contact inhibition (focus formation). E8 also transactivates an exogenous human cyclin A gene promoter, suggesting that overexpression of cyclin A is responsible for the transformed phenotype. Mutant forms of E8 were generated to establish whether the transforming functions of the protein could be segregated. Mutations were introduced both in the hydrophobic domain and in the hydrophilic C-terminal "tail", and chimeras with BPV-1 E5 were constructed. Cells expressing either wild-type E8 or mutant forms were analyzed for their ability to grow in low serum and in suspension and to form foci. Wild-type E8 and its mutants were also analyzed for their ability to transactivate the cyclin A promoter. We show here that the transforming functions of E8 can be segregated and that both the hydrophilic C-terminal tail and the residue at position 17 in the hydrophobic domain are crucial for E8 functions and for the transactivation of the cyclin A promoter. These results support the hypothesis that the different aspects of cellular transformation brought about by E8 might be due to interaction with different cellular targets. They suggest that E8 might function differently from BPV-1 E5 and demonstrate that the separate domains of E5 and E8 are not functionally interchangeable.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - T cell growth factors from adult T cell leukemia virus-transformed cell lines. AU - Okai, Yasuji. AU - Oka, Takashi. AU - Akagi, Tadaatsu. AU - Kurata, Sayuri. AU - Fujiyoshi, Nobuo. PY - 1984/11/19. Y1 - 1984/11/19. N2 - Some characteristics of T cell growth factors derived from adult T cell leukemia virus (ATLV)-transformed cell lines, MT 1 and MT 2 were analyzed. MT 1 cells release significant interleukin 2 (IL 2) activity into the culture medium, which showed the same elution pattern of gel filtration and isoelectric focusing of IL 2 from lectin-stimulated normal human lymphocytes. This activity was also detected in the cell extract of MT 1. In contrast, MT 2 cell line did not produce IL 2 activity, but non-IL 2 type growth factor was observed. The significance of these factors from MT cell lines is discussed from the viewpoint of autokine in ATLV-transformed cells. ALTV-transformed cell T cell growth factor.. AB - Some characteristics of T cell growth factors derived from ...
Smith L.M, Petty H.R, Parham P., McConnell H.M. 1982. Cell surface properties of HLA antigens on Epstein-Barr virus-transformed cell lines. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America-Biological Sciences. 79:608-612. ...
Smith L.M, Petty H.R, Parham P., McConnell H.M. 1982. Cell surface properties of HLA antigens on Epstein-Barr virus-transformed cell lines. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America-Biological Sciences. 79:608-612. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The effect of malignant transformation on the sensitivity of murine fibroblasts to the antiviral effect of interferon. AU - Morris, A. G.. AU - Barrett, Alan. AU - Bird, R. M.. AU - Burke, D. C.. PY - 1979. Y1 - 1979. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0018286199&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0018286199&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Article. AN - SCOPUS:0018286199. VL - 6. SP - 139. EP - 141. JO - FEMS Microbiology Letters. JF - FEMS Microbiology Letters. SN - 0378-1097. IS - 3. ER - ...
I guess thats probably a problem called gimble lock, that occures when calling h3dGetNodeTransform. Horde3D stores transformations internally as a matrix and not as the single transformation parameters. If you request them using h3dGetNodeTransform it tries to decompose the internal matrix. Thats something that should be avoided, as it suffers from mathematical issues and is not very fast. You could either store the single transformation parameters by yourself, change them and pass them again to h3dSetNodeTransform, or you use whole matrices instead and pass them via h3dSetNodeTransMat (use h3dGetNodeTransMats to query the nodes internal matrices ...
Reliable and risk-free cell immortalization from fibroblasts, epithelial cells, muscle cells from human, rat, mouse, porcine and bovine.
Vol 5: OCT4 as a target of miR-34a stimulates p63 but inhibits p53 to promote human cell transformation.. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Stephenson, J R. and Aaronson, S A., Antigenic properties of murine sarcoma virus-transformed balb/3t3 nonproducer cells. (1972). Subject Strain Bibliography 1972. 480 ...
Chicken vertebral chondrocytes, which normally grow in suspension, synthesize large amounts of cartilage extracellular matrix proteins, but little fibronectin. We have analyzed the effects of both substrate attachment and transformation with a temperature-sensitive mutant of Rous sarcoma virus on fibronectin gene expression in these cells. Our experiments show that viral transformation increases fibronectin synthesis to a greater extent than substrate attachment. Furthermore, transformed chondrocytes have lost the ability to decrease fibronectin synthesis in response to suspension culture, suggesting that transformation alters the normal attachment-responsive control of fibronectin gene expression. Finally, infected substrate-attached chondrocytes shifted to the nonpermissive temperature for transformation use fibronectin RNA more efficiently in protein synthesis than cells grown under the other conditions, suggesting for the first time a role for translational control of fibronectin gene ...
Linear simian virus 40 (SV40) DNA molecules of genome length and DNA fragments smaller than genome length when prepared with restriction endonucleases and tested for transforming activity on primary cultures of baby rat kidney cells. The linear molecules of genome length (prepared with endonucleases R-EcoRI, R-BamHI, and R-HpaII or R-HapII), a 74% fragment (EcoRI/HpaII or HapII-A), and a 59% fragment (BamHI/HapII-A) could all transform rat kidney cells with the same efficiency as circular SV40 DNA. All transformed lines tested contained the SV40-specific T-antigen in 90 to 100% of the cells, which was taken as evidence that the transformation was SV40 specific. The DNA fragments with transforming activity contained the entire early region of SV40 DNA. Endo R-HpaI, which introduced one break in the early region, apparently inactivated the transforming capacity of SV40 DNA, since no transformation was observed with any of the three HpaI fragments tested. Attempts were made to rescue infectious ...
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This work proposes to test, and when possible establish, an equivalence between two different artificial neural networks by attempting to construct a data-driven transformation between them, using manifold-learning techniques and employing diffusion maps with a Mahalanobis-like metric. We propose to test, and when possible establish, an equivalence between two different artificial neural networks by attempting to construct a data-driven transformation between them, using manifold-learning techniques. In particular, we employ diffusion maps with a Mahalanobis-like metric. If the construction succeeds, the two networks can be thought of as belonging to the same equivalence class. We first discuss transformation functions between only the outputs of the two networks; we then also consider transformations that take into account outputs (activations) of a number of internal neurons from each network. In general, Whitneys theorem dictates the number of measurements from one of the networks required to
By using a monoclonal antibody we have identified a new polypeptide doublet (C4h and C4l) of Mr approximately 21 kD and pI 8 and 7, respectively, that is associated with and (at the immunofluorescence level) uniformly distributed on actin filament bundles in rat, mouse, and other vertebrate species. C4 is absent in neurones, erythrocytes, and skeletal muscle but the epitope is evolutionarily conserved as it is present in invertebrates such as molluscs and crustaceans. C4h is not found in cells such as lymphocytes and oncogenically transformed mesenchymal cells where actin stress fiber bundles are reduced in number or absent. C4l, on the other hand, is always present. C4h expression can also be blocked by switching normal nontransformed mesenchymal cells from adherent to suspension culture. Reexpression of C4h occurs 24 h after these cells are returned to normal adherent culture conditions, but can be blocked by either actinomycin D or cycloheximide, suggesting that the expression of this epitope ...
The apparent enhancement of 2-deoxy-D-glucose uptake by mouse 3T3 cells accompanying transformation by SV40 virus is not due primarily to an effect on the transport process but to enhanced phosphorylation of the sugar by intracellular kinases. Moreover, the effect is not specifically a function of the presence of the viral genome, but is a reflection of the overall growth rate and physiological state of the cell. ...
Viral transformation of T cells is an effective method for obtaining large numbers of T cells that are easily maintained in the laboratory
ACs top 3 transformation tips - After my recent 7 week transformation, many people have been asking me for tips on achieving a rapid transformation in muscle size and fat loss. There are no single tips that will ensure success in everyone as it totally depends on the person as to how good the results will be. However there are some helpful tips that I can offer that will help ensure success in anyone wanting to make a body transformation. So here are my top 3 tips: 1. Plan the full transformation before you start. With any transformation I do with a client I plan literally every workout before we even start. I do this on a spreadsheet that can be updated and adapted as time goes on. However the main thing is to know exactly what you are doing every day of every week. This will keep you incredibly focused and you will know what to expect from training each week. It also makes it incredibly easy to progress with performance and strength even whilst dropping fat. You will record every weight you use on
In article ,67p8ii$f6p at maze.dpo.uab.edu,, levy at uab.edu (David N. Levy) wrote: ,How can you take primary fibroblast cells and infect or transfect them ,in order to transform them? Can you transfect the ad. E1A gene, or ,papillomavirus E7 or E6, or infect with SV40 or what? Thanks. Yep. AFAIR, thats how oncogenic properties of E1A and SV40 were found. But I might be wrong. What stuck in my head is that resulting cell line(s) in many respects has very little little in common with the primary cells. - Dima ...
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AI can transform the customer experience. Here are 6 ways how AI for customer experience can accelerate growth for the tech-based business across the globe.
Sometimes the observations for a variable are not immediately suitable for analysis and instead need to be transformed using a mathematical function. Transformations are often used to normalise the distribution of a variable, but can be used to change the scale, offset the observations or even recode groups.. Excel cell formulas and custom VBA functions can be used to transform or calculate the data for a variable. Transformed and calculated data is treated just like any other variable as far as measurement scale and observation precision are concerned. Excel functions most commonly used for transformations are:. ...
Financial Institutions are continuously evolving to meet demand created by various drivers within the industry. These transformations are often the key to a businesss ability to thrive in the industry.
Theres no end to haow much you can transform when you allow your life to look and feel like its much more of a dream-come-true!
By developing your own mods, you can transform Minecraft into whatever you want it to be -- and share your vision with millions of Minecraft players worldwide. Now, in just 24 lessons of one hour or less, you can learn all the mod development skills youll need, even if youve never programmed before.
Background aims. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLD) belong to the most dreaded complications of immunosuppression. The efficacy of EBV-specific T-cell transfer for PTLD has been previously shown, yet the optimal choice of EBV-derived antigens inducing polyclonal CD4þ and CD8þ T cells that cover a wide range of human leukocyte antigen types and efficiently control PTLD remains unclear. Methods. A pool of 125 T-cell epitopes from seven latent and nine lytic EBV-derived proteins (EBVmix) and peptide pools of EBNA1, EBNA3c, LMP2a and BZLF1 were used to determine T-cell frequencies and to isolate T cells through the use of the interferon (IFN)-g cytokine capture system. We further evaluated the phenotype and functionality of the generated T-cell lines in vitro. Results. EBVmix induced significantly higher T-cell frequencies and allowed selecting more CD4þIFN-gþ and CD8þIFN-gþ cells than single peptide pools. T cells of all specificities ...
Several aspects of the behaviour of polyoma virus-transformed BHK cells in culture have suggested that they are more deformable than BHK cells. This possibility was tested by applying negative pressure at the cell surface by means of a micropipette. It was found that PyBHK cells in early mitosis are twice as deformable as BHK cells in the same stage. In addition, the taut, non-ruffling margins of both cell types when fully spread are much less deformable than the extending, ruffling leading lamella. The degree of deformability of these cells is correlated with the distribution and organization of microfilaments and consistent with this, deformability increases greatly in the presence of cytochalasin B. The significance of deformability studies such as these is discussed. ...
Interleukin 10 (IL-10) is a pleiotropic factor that enhances proliferation of activated human B lymphocytes and induces them to secrete high amounts of immunoglobulins. Here we show that several human B cell lines were able to constitutively secrete human (h)IL-10. Whereas none of the pre-B nor the plasmocytic cell lines tested produced hIL-10, 25 of the 36 tested mature B cell lines (lymphoblastoid and Burkitt lymphoma cell lines) secreted hIL-10. Moreover, 24 of these 25 hIL-10-producing B cell lines contained the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) genome, suggesting a relationship between hIL-10 production by human B cell lines and EBV expression. Accordingly, whereas polyclonal activation via triggering of surface immunoglobulins or CD40 antigen induced highly purified normal human B lymphocytes to produce only low (0.3-0.4 ng/ml) but significant amounts of hIL-10, EBV infection induced them to secrete high amounts of hIL-10 (4-9 ng/ml). Furthermore, addition of exogenous hIL-10, simultaneously to EBV ...
In this report we present evidence that simian virus 40 T antigen encodes a biological activity that is functionally equivalent to the transforming activity lost by deletion of the E1A p300-binding region. T-antigen constructs from which the pRb-binding region has been deleted are virtually unable to induce foci of transformed cells in a ras cooperation assay in primary baby rat kidney cells. Nevertheless, such a construct can cooperate with an E1A N-terminal deletion mutant, itself devoid of transforming activity, to induce foci in this assay. The heterologous trans-cooperating activity observed between E1A and T-antigen deletion products is as efficient as trans cooperation between mutants expressing individual E1A domains. The cooperating function can be impaired by a deletion near the N terminus of T antigen. Such a deletion impairs neither the p53-binding function nor the activity of the pRb-binding region.. ...
Cells, transfections, virus propagation, and antiviral agent. The cell lines used in this work were the class I MHC-negative Epstein-Barr virus-transformed B cell line 721.221 (.221), .221 cells transfected with the CEACAM1 cDNA (15), and the murine thymoma BW cell line, which lacks expression of α and β chains of the TCR. Stable transfection of .221 cells expressing CEACAM6 and CEACAM5 was performed by electroporation (0.23 kV, Cap [μF] 250 μF). The cDNA for CEACAM6 was amplified by RT-PCR and cloned into pcDNA3 expression vector, and the CEACAM5 cDNA was a kind gift from W. Zimmermann, Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Muenchen, Germany) Human foreskin fibroblasts (HFFs) were used for propagation and infection of human CMV strain AD169 (American Type Culture Collection, Manassas, Virginia, USA), as previously described (16). After a 1-hour period of virus adsorption to cells, 300 μg/ml of the CMV DNA polymerase inhibitor phosphonoformate (PFA; Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, Missouri, USA) was ...
Peterkofsky, B and Prather, W B., Increased collagen synthesis in kirsten sarcoma virus-transformed balb 3t3 cells grown in the presence of dibutyryl cyclic amp. (1974). Subject Strain Bibliography 1974. 2377 ...
We describe a method for generating transformed B cell lines using Epstein-Barr virus. We also illustrate a novel assay that can...
A 52 kDa protein (p52) was identified, using differential extraction and electrophoretic criteria, as a major extracellular and substrate-associated component of normal rat kidney (NRK) fibroblasts. Cells transformed with Kirsten murine sarcoma virus (KNRK cells) did not express p52 constitutively, but were inducible for both p52 production and its substrate association during culture in sodium butyrate (NaB)-supplemented growth medium. Comparative analysis of the relative molecular mass, subcellular distribution, and isoelectric complexity (five variants ranging in pI from 5.4 to 6.2) of the 52 kDa species constitutively and inducibly expressed by NRK and KNRK/NaB cells respectively, indicated that they were, indeed, the same protein. p52 selectively localized to cellular fractions enriched in substrate focal contact sites and associated ventral undersurface components. NaB induction of p52 in KNRK cells occurred before cell spreading; other polar compounds, such as dimethyl sulphoxide, which ...
Click to launch & play an online audio visual presentation by Prof. Raymond Erikson on Three decades of protein phosphorylation and cancer: the identification and characterization of the src gene product, part of a collection of online lectures.
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Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Characterization of single stranded viral DNA sequences present during replication of adenovirus types 2 and 5. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Since RGB and CMYK spaces are both device-dependent spaces, there is no simple or general conversion formula that converts between them. Conversions are generally done through color management systems, using color profiles that describe the spaces being converted. An ICC profile defines the bidirectional conversion between a neutral profile connection color space (CIE XYZ or Lab) and a colorspace we are interested in, in this case both RGB and CMYK. The precision of the conversion depends on the profile itself, the exact methodology, and because the gamuts do not generally match, the rendering intent and constraints such as ink limit.. ICC profiles, internally built out of lookup tables and other transformation functions, are capable of handling many effects of ink blending. One example is the dot gain, which show up as non-linear components in the color-to-density mapping. More complex interactions such as Neugebauer blending can be modelled in higher-dimension lookup tables.. The problem of ...
Anyone could give me some idea where I can find a good protocol for the transformation assay using Rat2 cells. The one you look for transformed foci. Do I need to stain the cells? Alex ...
Primary cultures of cells tend to have a limited life span, which in turn limits the availability of a consistent population of cells to study
Balk, Samuel D. et al Thymidine and Hypoxanthine Requirements for the Proliferation of Normal and Rous Sarcoma Virus-infected Chicken Fibroblasts in the Presence of Methotrexate. Cancer Research 39.5 (1979): 1854-1856. Web. 23 Feb. 2018. ...
Does the longevity phenotype offer an advantage in wound healing (WH)? In an attempt to answer this question, we explored skin wound healing in the long-lived transgenic αMUPA mice, a unique model of genetically extended life span. These mice spontaneously eat less, preserve their body mass, are mor …
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Whenever an Xtend function is invoked - whether for M2M Xtend transformations or M2T Xpand templates, a Java Model Exception is thrown ...
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When you test the transformation, the Data Processor transformation does not run the mapplet called by the RunMapplet action. You can specify a value to use as a temporary output string when you test the transformation during design time ...
If Y is uniformly distributed over the interval (0,1), i.e. f(y) = 1 for 0| y | 1. Show that U = -2 loge(Y) has a negative exponential
Renato Dulbecco (deceased), Nobel laureate (for viral transformation of cells).. See also[edit]. *San Diego Historical ... Pollack, Andrew (8 May 2008). "$271 Million for Research on Stem Cells in California". The New York Times.. ... The institute appointed genome biologist Eric Lander and stem cell biologist Irving Weissman as non-resident fellows in ...
Renato Dulbecco (deceased), Nobel laureate (for viral transformation of cells). Melvin Cohn (deceased), co-founder, pioneer in ... Cell, 125 (2): 209-12, doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.04.005, PMID 16630805 "Current Comments" (PDF). Garfield.library.upenn.edu. ... There is talk here of the possibility, once the secret of how the cell is triggered to manufacture antibodies is discovered, ... Pollack, Andrew (8 May 2008). "$271 Million for Research on Stem Cells in California". The New York Times. "Sanford Consortium ...
Transformation (genetics) - means of inserting DNA into a cell. Viral vector - commonly used tool to deliver genetic material ... Transduction is the process by which foreign DNA is introduced into a cell by a virus or viral vector. An example is the viral ... transferred are flanked by viral sequences that are used by viral proteins to recognize and package the viral genome into viral ... that carry the viral genes required for formation of infectious virions. In these producer cells, the viral proteins expressed ...
... role in viral life cycle and cell transformation". Journal of Cellular Physiology. 215 (2): 309-19. doi:10.1002/jcp.21326. PMC ... It has the ability to induce neoplastic transformation in a variety of cell types and can immortalize cells in culture. Its ... In MPyV, MTag is an efficient oncoprotein that can be sufficient to induce neoplastic transformation in some cells. The genes ... MTag is also required for viral persistence. However, MTag's best-studied functions center on its interaction with host cell ...
... role in viral life cycle and cell transformation". Journal of Cellular Physiology. 215 (2): 309-19. doi:10.1002/jcp.21326. PMC ... the cell must be in S phase (the part of the cell cycle in which the host cell's genome is normally replicated) in order to ... Viral proteins therefore promote dysregulation of the cell cycle and entry into S phase. This function is usually primarily ... In SV40, STag has a similar role in cellular transformation. In Merkel cell polyomavirus, it appears to play a significant role ...
"Three new types of viral oncogene of cellular origin specific for haematopoietic cell transformation". Nature. 281 (5731): 452- ... "Role of the v-erbA and v-erbB oncogenes of avian erythroblastosis virus in erythroid cell transformation". Cell. 34 (1): 7-9. ... He is a pioneer in cell reprogramming, showing that blood cells can be transdifferentiated by transcription factors. He is also ... In 1995 he pioneered this technique permitting the transdifferentiation of white blood cells into red blood cell precursors and ...
The Salk Institute for Biological Studies where she worked on viral transformation and cellular immortalization of cancer cells ... "giant cells", which Vogt saw as a sign of superior mental function. "The giant cells" were cortical pyramidal cells of unusual ...
"Adenovirus proteins from both E1B reading frames are required for transformation of rodent cells by viral infection and DNA ... For adenovirus replication to occur, the host cell must be induced into S phase by viral proteins interfering with cell cycle ... "Adenovirus proteins from both E1B reading frames are required for transformation of rodent cells by viral infection and DNA ... It blocks cell progression in response to cellular stress or DNA damage. Many viruses replicate by altering the cell cycle and ...
... responsible for the expression of viral genes and their functions in regulating cell growth and oncogenic transformation. His ... Cell, 1980, p. 20:65 Herbomel P, et al., « Two distinct enhancers with different cell specificities coexist in the regulatory ... Cell, 1984, p. 39:653 Yaniv M., « Small DNA tumour viruses and their contributions to our understanding of transcription ... Yaniv is the author of more than 300 publications in the most prestigious biology journals such as Cell, Nature, PNAS, EMBO ...
The Salk Institute for Biological Studies where she worked on viral transformation and cellular immortalization of cancer cells ...
To study the control of cell division and gene expression. To Investigate malignant transformations. To obtain viral ... This leads to cell fusion since PEG induces cell agglutination and cell-to-cell contact. Though this type of cell fusion is the ... Cell fusion is an important cellular process in which several uninuclear cells (cells with a single nucleus) combine to form a ... Polyethylene glycol cell fusion is the simplest, but most toxic, way to fuse cells. In this type of cell fusion polyethylene ...
These two findings gave rise to the notion that viral replication and malignant transformation are separate processes in RSV. ... The function of env is to bind RSV to the host cell receptor and induce fusion with the target cell in a pH independent manner ... The virus buds or pushes on the plasma membrane, which allows it to leave the cell with a new outer membrane from the host cell ... RSV enters the host cell through fusion of the host cell membrane. In order for the RSV genome transcription to occur, a primer ...
... which is necessary for cell transformation of adenovirus non-permissive cells. He was among the first to demonstrate that ... Green, Maurice; Fujinaga, K (1966). "The mechanism of viral carcinogenesis by DNA mammalian viruses: viral-specific RNA in ... human cell molecular biology, infection and immunity, and neoplastic transformation. In subsequent years, the study of ... Green was asked to learn as much as he could as quickly as possible about the 31 distinct viral serotypes known at that time. ...
Nuclear entry of the viral dsDNA is covalently integrated into the cell's genome by the viral integrase, forming a provirus. ... Once the virus has entered the interior of the cell, the retroviral core undergoes structural transformations through the ... SFV can infect a wide range of cells, with in vitro experiments confirming that fibroblasts, epithelial cells, and neural cells ... Cells that expressed no signs of cytopathy from SFV were the Jurkat and Hut-78 T-cell lines. The phylogenetic tree analysis of ...
Introducing DNA into bacterial cells can be done by transformation via uptake of naked DNA, conjugation via cell-cell contact ... or by transduction via viral vector. Introducing DNA into eukaryotic cells, such as animal cells, by physical or chemical means ... DNA coding for a protein of interest is now inside a cell, and the protein can now be expressed. A variety of systems, such as ... Roberts K, Raff M, Alberts B, Walter P, Lewis J, Johnson A (2002). Molecular Biology of the Cell. Garland Science. ISBN 978-0- ...
The cells after transformation are exposed to the selective media, and only cells containing the plasmid may survive. In this ... In cancers, these episomes passively replicate together with host chromosomes when the cell divides. When these viral episomes ... In the laboratory, plasmids may be introduced into a cell via transformation. Plasmids are considered replicons, units of DNA ... Daughter cells that retain a copy of the plasmid survive, while a daughter cell that fails to inherit the plasmid dies or ...
It is reported that JDP2 inhibits Ras-dependent cell transformation in NIH3T3 cells and tumor development in xenografts ... Studies using high throughput viral insertional mutagenesis analysis also revealed that JDP2 functions as an oncogene. JDP2- ... This iPSC-like cells expressed stem cell-like characteristics including alkaline phosphatase activity and some stem cell ... Heinrich R, Livne E, Ben-Izhak O, Aronheim A (Feb 2004). "The c-Jun dimerization protein 2 inhibits cell transformation and ...
... cells are a type of lymphocyte cell involved in the innate immune system's response to viral infection and tumor transformation ... Because NK cells target self cells, they have an intricate mechanism by which they differentiate self and non-self cells in ... Because natural killer cells target virally infected host cells and tumor cells, inhibitory KIR receptors are important in ... KIR3DS1 NK cell receptors bind directly to the MHC class I molecules on the surface of target cells. Human killer cell ...
The cells after transformation are exposed to the selective media, and only cells containing the plasmid may survive. In this ... In cancers, these episomes passively replicate together with host chromosomes when the cell divides. When these viral episomes ... Daughter cells that retain a copy of the plasmid survive, while a daughter cell that fails to inherit the plasmid dies or ... Many of the genes carried by a plasmid are beneficial for the host cells, for example: enabling the host cell to survive in an ...
Insertion of a vector into the target cell is usually called transformation for bacterial cells, transfection for eukaryotic ... Viral promoters are often used for constitutive expression in plasmids and in viral vectors because they normally force ... Cells containing vector with an insert may be identified using blue/white selection by growing cells in media containing an ... Viral vectors are generally genetically engineered viruses carrying modified viral DNA or RNA that has been rendered ...
Tax also causes aneuploidy (abnormal chromosome numbers), which is a possible cause of transformation (normal cells becoming ... including cyclins and cell cycle checkpoint proteins (p53 and Rb). Interesting, HTLV-1 Tax viral gene is known to dampen innate ... "The tax gene of human T-cell leukemia virus type 2 is essential for transformation of human T lymphocytes". Journal of Virology ... The cell cycle has four stages (G1, S, G2 and M) and Tax is known to accelerate the transition between G1 and S phase. Two DNA ...
Understanding how the interaction between virus and cell alters the viral particle and how virus entry is facilitated by the ... "Transformation of a Human Poliovirus Receptor Gene into Mouse Cells". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the ... The study of viral disease is therefore only feasible with the generation of a small animal model. Though not susceptible to ... Infection of cultured cells with human rhinovirus 1A results in the cleavage of the integral component IPS-1 (MAVS, Cardif). In ...
"Development and Malignant Transformation of Mast Cells and Interstitial Cells of Cajal through KIT Receptors" Masakatsu ... and Molecular Basis of the Neutralization of Viral Infectivity with Antibodies" Yukihiko Kitamura for " ... Regulation of Cell Cycle and Chromosome Segregation Noboru Karashima - History and Society in South India: The Cholas to ... Studies on the Mechanisms of Mobilization of Calcium Ion in Muscle Cells 2002 (92nd) Sumio Iijima Akiho Miyashiro 2001 (91st) ...
Chemical methods rely on chemical reactions to deliver the DNA and include transformation with cells made competent using ... Viral methods use a variety of viral vectors to deliver the DNA, including adenovirus, lentivirus, and herpes simplex virus ... delivered via a transformation vector which allows the insert sequence to be replicated and/or expressed in the target cell. A ... Inserts are pre-packaged into phage particles, then inserted into the host cell with the ability to hold ~45 kbp. They are ...
... cell transformation, viral MeSH C04.697.645.500 - leukemic infiltration MeSH C04.697.650.560 - lymphatic metastasis MeSH ... b-cell, acute MeSH C04.557.337.428.500.125 - leukemia, B-Cell, chronic MeSH C04.557.337.428.500.500 - leukemia, pre-b-cell MeSH ... T-Cell, chronic MeSH C04.557.337.428.580 - leukemia, t-cell MeSH C04.557.337.428.580.100 - leukemia, t-cell, acute MeSH C04.557 ... T-Cell, chronic MeSH C04.557.337.428.580.400 - leukemia, t-cell, htlv-ii-associated MeSH C04.557.337.440 - leukemia, mast-cell ...
... cell transformation, neoplastic MeSH C23.550.727.152.110 - blast crisis MeSH C23.550.727.152.160 - cell transformation, viral ... plasma cell MeSH C23.550.382.875.500 - granuloma, plasma cell, orbital MeSH C23.550.382.875.750 - granuloma, plasma cell, ... neoplasm circulating cells MeSH C23.550.727.650.830 - neoplasm seeding MeSH C23.550.727.650.895 - neoplasms, unknown primary ... giant cell MeSH C23.550.382.750 - granuloma, lethal midline MeSH C23.550.382.875 - granuloma, ...
... while increased CK1-specific activity is observed after stimulation of cells with insulin or after viral transformation. On ... Treatment of cancer cells with peptide δ-361 finally resulted to microtubule destabilization and cell death. Fine-mapping of ... Cell. 151 (7): 1443-56. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2012.11.027. PMID 23245942. Heallen T, Zhang M, Wang J, Bonilla-Claudio M, Klysik E ... Cell. 162 (4): 780-94. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2015.07.013. PMC 4538707. PMID 26276632. Rosenbluh J, Nijhawan D, Cox AG, Li X, Neal ...
"Cell Cycle Control by Oncogenes and Tumor Suppressors: Driving the Transformation of Normal Cells into Cancerous Cells". Nature ... A viral gene whose function is to alter a pathway is dispensable in cells where the pathway is defective, but not in cells ... Attenuation involves deleting viral genes, or gene regions, to eliminate viral functions that are expendable in tumour cells, ... Cancer cells and virus-infected cells have similar alterations in their cell signalling pathways, particularly those that ...
In order to propagate such viral vectors, a cell line that expresses the missing genes is required. Since HEK 293 cells express ... Graham and coworkers provided evidence that HEK 293 cells and other human cell lines generated by adenovirus transformation of ... 293 cells, or less precisely as HEK cells, are a specific cell line originally derived from human embryonic kidney cells grown ... As a consequence, HEK 293 cells should not be used as an in vitro model of typical kidney cells. HEK 293 cells have a complex ...
The spirochetes may also induce host cells to secrete quinolinic acid, which stimulates the NMDA receptor on nerve cells, which ... Unlike viral meningitis, Lyme lymphocytic meningitis tends to not cause fever, last longer, and recur.[33][30] Lymphocytic ... and lymphocyte transformation tests.[115] ... viral-like symptoms such as headache and fever, and/or palsy in ... The EM (Erythema migrans) rash is often accompanied by symptoms of a viral-like illness, including fatigue, headache, body ...
... more well-studied bacterial transformation systems that are also associated with species specific DNA transfer between cells ... the impact of viral infection is higher on archaea than on bacteria and virus-induced lysis of archaea accounts for up to one- ... Further information: Cell wall § Archaeal cell walls. Most archaea (but not Thermoplasma and Ferroplasma) possess a cell wall.[ ... Cell division is controlled in a cell cycle; after the cell's chromosome is replicated and the two daughter chromosomes ...
The phagocytosis theory is based on the notion that phagocytes are cells that have the power to englobe foreign bodies - and ... serum which was able to agglutinate the bacteria and neutralize the toxin was supplied by a horse inoculated with the viral ... the publication of Claude Bernard's posthumous essay regarding the nature of the agents implicated in some transformations that ... In 1985, the first human vaccine obtained by genetic engineering from animal cells, the vaccine against hepatitis B, was ...
Alberts B, Johnson A, Lewis J, Raff M, Roberts K, Walter P (2002). Molecular Biology of the Cell (Fourth ed.). New York: ... Inductions of transformation by a desoxyribonucleic acid fraction isolated from pneumococcus type III". The Journal of ... Hershey, AD; Chase, M (1952). "Independent functions of viral protein and nucleic acid in growth of bacteriophage". The Journal ... Reprint: Avery, OT; MacLeod, CM; McCarty, M (1979). "Studies on the chemical nature of the substance inducing transformation of ...
cell membrane. The semipermeable membrane surrounding the cytoplasm of a cell.. cell nucleus. The "control room" for the cell. ... A process that leads to the transformation of one set of chemical substances to another.. chemistry. A branch of the physical ... The decomposition of a viral capsid. An informal and simplified description of the way a virus infectious material enters the ... cell plate. Grown in the cell's center, it fuses with the parental plasma membrane, creating a new cell wall that enables cell ...
Instead, the naked viral RNA may alter the function of the cells through a mechanism similar to RNA interference, in which the ... Of special interest is the CaMV 35S promoter, which is a very strong promoter most frequently used in plant transformations. ... Plant viruses have had to evolve special techniques to allow the production of viral proteins by plant cells. For translation ... This is derived from the plant cell membrane as the virus particle buds off from the cell. Viruses can be spread by direct ...
The fat cells take up glucose through special glucose transporters (GLUT4), whose numbers in the cell wall are increased as a ... such as the advent of a concurrent acute viral infection), which sends the body reeling through a new cascade of events. Such ... The sensors for the second are the parafollicular cells in the thyroid gland. The parathyroid chief cells secrete parathyroid ... Instead of measuring it directly in the blood flowing past the juxtaglomerular cells, these cells respond to the sodium ...
"Cell Reports. 11 (6): 851-858. doi:10.1016/j.celrep.2015.04.001. PMC 4643944. PMID 25937277.. ... Brüssow, H. (2012). "On Viruses, Bats and Men: A Natural History of Food-Borne Viral Infections". Viruses: Essential Agents of ... which implied that some seemingly unlikely transformations occurred. The first is that laryngeal echolocation evolved twice in ... Aging Cell. 1 (2): 124-131. doi:10.1046/j.1474-9728.2002.00020.x. PMID 12882342.. ...
T cells can then recognize these clippings and undergo a cellular transformation resulting in their own activation.[17] ... cells of the adaptive immunity (T and B lymphocytes) and non-immune cells (epithelial and endothelial cells, and fibroblasts).[ ... "T cell proliferation by direct cross-talk between OX40 ligand on human mast cells and OX40 on human T cells: comparison of gene ... inducing greater release of danger signals by chemokine releasing cells such as helper T cells and mast cells. ...
"Suppression of cell transformation by the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p57KIP2 requires binding to proliferating cell ... HIV infected individuals who naturally suppress viral replication have elevated levels of p21 and its associated mRNA. p21 ... regulation of mitotic cell cycle. • intestinal epithelial cell maturation. • cellular response to ionizing radiation. • cell ... G2/M transition of mitotic cell cycle. • positive regulation of B cell proliferation. • negative regulation of cell growth. • ...
Cells. *Photoreceptor cells (Cone cell, Rod cell) → (Horizontal cell) → Bipolar cell → (Amacrine cell) → Retina ganglion cell ( ... Bennett J (2003). "Immune response following intraocular delivery of recombinant viral vectors". Gene Therapy. 10 (11): 977-982 ... as a historical maladaptive relic of the convoluted path of organ evolution and transformation. Vision is an important ... Parasol cell, Bistratified cell, Giant retina ganglion cells, Photosensitive ganglion cell) → Diencephalon: P cell, M cell, K ...
Virial theorem. *Vlasov equation. *Volatilisation. *VORPAL, Versatile Object-oriented Relativistic Plasma Analysis with Lasers ... Transformation optics. *Transmission medium. *Trisops, Force Free Plasma Vortices. *Tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy ... Colored-particle-in-cell. *Columbia Non-neutral Torus. *Comet tail. *Compact toroid ...
... and its transposition in human cells". Cell 91 (4): 501-510. PMID 9390559. doi:10.1016/S0092-8674(00)80436-5. ... Nielsen KM (1998). "Barriers to horizontal gene transfer by natural transformation in soil bacteria". APMIS Suppl. 84: 77-84. ... "Cauliflower Mosaic Viral Promoter - A Recipe for Disaster?". Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease 11: 194-7. Vaadatud 09.06 ... "Eukaryotic Cell 4 (6): 1102-15. PMC 1151995. PMID 15947202. doi:10.1128/EC.4.6.1102-1115.2005. Cite uses deprecated parameters ...
Leukemia and other blood cell disorders such as sickle cell anaemia became curable when E. Donnall Thomas performed the first ... Hepatitis C, a viral infection, became curable through treatment with antiviral medications.[14][15] ... Barnes E (December 2007). "Between remission and cure: patients, practitioners and the transformation of leukaemia in the late ... using a donor with a rare variant of a cell surface receptor) was performed on Timothy Ray Brown. A similar successful ...
The number of viral plaques are counted and can be used to calculate the total number of infectious viral particles in the ... The transformation is then spread on agar plates and incubated overnight. The titer of the transformation is determined by ... Each transformed host cell of a library will contain only one vector with one insert of DNA. The whole library can be plated ... The insert DNA is replicated with the viral DNA; thus, together they are packaged into viral particles. These particles are ...
All the cells in a multicellular organism derive from a single cell, differentiating into variant cell types in response to ... Natural bacterial transformation occurs in many bacterial species, and can be regarded as a sexual process for transferring DNA ... "Independent functions of viral protein and nucleic acid in growth of bacteriophage". The Journal of General Physiology. 36 (1 ... To become a cancer cell, a cell has to accumulate mutations in a number of genes (three to seven). A cancer cell can divide ...
... on host cells can prevent HIV viral entry.[153]. CancerEdit. While traditional chemotherapy can effectively kill cancer cells, ... Romano N, Macino G (November 1992). "Quelling: transient inactivation of gene expression in Neurospora crassa by transformation ... Researchers believed that viral RNA produced by transgenes could also inhibit viral replication.[195] The reverse experiment, ... Cullen LM, Arndt GM (June 2005). "Genome-wide screening for gene function using RNAi in mammalian cells". Immunology and Cell ...
The transformation of a normal cell into cancer is akin to a chain reaction caused by initial errors, which compound into more ... leading to the expression of viral oncogenes in the affected cell and its descendants. ... In order for a normal cell to transform into a cancer cell, the genes that regulate cell growth and differentiation must be ... Germ cell tumor: Cancers derived from pluripotent cells, most often presenting in the testicle or the ovary (seminoma and ...
... while the ectocervix is covered with multiple layers of cells topped with flat cells. The two types of epithelia meet the ... Nabothian cysts (or Nabothian follicles) form in the transformation zone where the lining of metaplastic epithelium has ... by inoculating against the viral strains involved in cancer development.[45] ... The cervical canal is a passage through which sperm must travel to fertilize an egg cell after sexual intercourse. Several ...
Jiang M, Milner J (2002). "Selective silencing of viral gene expression in HPV-positive human cervical carcinoma cells treated ... Romano N, Macino G (1992). "Quelling: transient inactivation of gene expression in Neurospora crassa by transformation with ... Lian S, Jakymiw A, Eystathioy T, Hamel J, Fritzler M, Chan E (2006). "GW bodies, microRNAs and the cell cycle". Cell Cycle 5 (3 ... Cullen L, Arndt G (2005). "Genome-wide screening for gene function using RNAi in mammalian cells". Immunol Cell Biol 83 (3): ...
Such indexing gives the unit-cell parameters, the lengths and angles of the unit-cell, as well as its space group. Since ... such as viral capsids and molecular machines, which may be carried out with a cryo-electron microscope. Moreover, the strong ... "A Heuristic Model of the Creation and Transformation of Light]. Annalen der Physik (in German). 17 (6): 132. Bibcode:1905AnP... ... Crystal symmetry, unit cell, and image scaling[edit]. Further information: Space group ...
Overexpression of miR-181b may play an important role in malignant transformation. miR-181b is downregulated in cancerous cells ... "Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus expresses an array of viral microRNAs in latently infected cells". Proceedings of the ... "miR-181a is an intrinsic modulator of T cell sensitivity and selection". Cell. 129 (1): 147-61. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2007.03.008 ... miR-181a is essential for the survival of Purkinje cells and its absence leads to a slow degeneration of these cells. It has ...
cell-cell junction maintenance. • bicellular tight junction assembly. • دورة الخلية. • viral process. • transforming growth ... elegans polarity determinant Par-6 links Rac and Cdc42 to PKCzeta signaling and cell transformation.". Curr. Biol. 10 (12): 697 ... PARD6A‏ (Par-6 family cell polarity regulator alpha) هوَ بروتين يُشَفر بواسطة جين PARD6A في الإنسان.[1][2][3] ... Cell Biol. 5 (2): 137-42. PMID 12545177. doi:10.1038/ncb923. *Brajenovic M، Joberty G، Küster B، Bouwmeester T، Drewes G (2004 ...
Virtual cell simulation to study the interaction of cells and various substrates.[46] ... The entire STMV particle consists of 60 identical copies of one protein that make up the viral capsid (coating), and a 1063 ... usually undergoing a chemical transformation. ... "Development of a Virtual Cell Model to Predict Cell Response to ... Molecular dynamics simulations were used to probe the mechanisms of viral assembly. ...
... transformation". Plant Cell Reports. 22 (9): 660-7. doi:10.1007/s00299-004-0755-5. PMID 14749892. S2CID 23198182.. ... tracking of AMPA receptors on cell membranes,[48] viral entry and the infection of individual influenza viruses and lentiviral ... GFP-labelled cancer cells have been used to model metastasis, the process by which cancer cells spread to distant organs.[56] ... In cell and molecular biology, the GFP gene is frequently used as a reporter of expression.[5] It has been used in modified ...
Numerous RNA viruses are capable of genetic recombination when at least two viral genomes are present in the same host cell.[16 ... In bacteria, transformation is a process of gene transfer that ordinarily occurs between individual cells of the same bacterial ... In B cellsEdit. Main article: Immunoglobulin class switching. B cells of the immune system perform genetic recombination, ... Cell. 1986 Nov 7;47(3):433-43. PMID: 3021340 *^ Cheng CP, Nagy PD. Mechanism of RNA recombination in carmo- and tombusviruses: ...
If the mutation inhibits programmed cell death, the cell can survive to become a cancer, a cell that does not function like a ... As well, smoke undergoes changes as it ages, which causes the transformation of the compound NO into the more toxic NO2. ... "Effect of mild-to-moderate smoking on viral load, cytokines, oxidative stress, and cytochrome P450 enzymes in HIV-infected ... If the mutation inhibits programmed cell death, the cell can survive to become a cancer cell. Similarly, acrolein, which is ...
... elegans polarity determinant Par-6 links Rac and Cdc42 to PKCzeta signaling and cell transformation". Current Biology. 10 (12 ... viral RNA genome replication. • small GTPase mediated signal transduction. • protein ubiquitination. • positive regulation of ... single organismal cell-cell adhesion. • cell differentiation. • positive regulation of epithelial cell proliferation involved ... Normal cancer cells and Cdc42-deficient cancer cells have also been compared in vivo. When both types of cells were injected ...
Plant and Cell Physiology. October 9, 2007, s. 1589-1600. Dostupné online. DOI:10.1093/pcp/pcm131. PMID 17925311. (anglicky). ... Chen I, Dubnau D. DNA uptake during bacterial transformation. Nat. Rev. Microbiol.. 2004, s. 241-9. DOI:10.1038/nrmicro844. ... Hershey, A., Chase, M. Independent functions of viral protein and nucleic acid in growth of bacteriophage. The Journal of ... Simian virus 40 DNA sequences in DNA of healthy adult mice derived from preimplantation blastocysts injected with viral DNA.. ...
Adenovirus proteins from both E1B reading frames are required for transformation of rodent cells by viral infection and DNA ... To determine the requirements for the individual Ad2 E1B proteins during the transformation of rodent cells, viral mutants were ... It was completely defective for transformation of CREF cells in virion- and DNA-mediated assays. In HeLa cells, pm1722 ... was also extremely defective for the transformation of CREF cells in virion- and viral DNA-mediated assays. This result is in ...
Identification of new actin-associated polypeptides that are modified by viral transformation and changes in cell shape.. C ... Identification of new actin-associated polypeptides that are modified by viral transformation and changes in cell shape. ... C4h is not found in cells such as lymphocytes and oncogenically transformed mesenchymal cells where actin stress fiber bundles ... The Journal of Cell Biology Jul 1988, 107 (1) 153-161; DOI: 10.1083/jcb.107.1.153 ...
... viral mutants were constructed with genetic lesions disrupting the coding sequence of either the 175 amino acid residue (175R) ... To determine the requirements for the individual Ad2 E1B proteins during the transformation of rodent cells, ... Adenovirus proteins from both E1B reading frames are required for transformation of rodent cells by viral infection and DNA ... To determine the requirements for the individual Ad2 E1B proteins during the transformation of rodent cells, viral mutants were ...
Transfection refers to a DNA insertion into eukaryotic animal cells. also naturlicherweise occurring phenomenon brought on ... The transformation is in molecular biology, the non-viral transfer of absolutely free DNA into competent bacterial cells too as ... The transformation is in molecular biology, the non-viral transfer of absolutely free DNA into competent bacterial cells too as ... The transformation is in molecular biology, the non-viral transfer of absolutely free DNA into competent bacterial cells too as ...
The transformation is in molecular biology, the non-viral transfer of free DNA into competent bacterial cells too as in fungi. ... The transformation is in molecular biology, the non-viral transfer of free DNA into competent bacterial cells too as in fungi. ... Home > Sin categorizar > The transformation is in molecular biology, the non-viral transfer of free DNA into competent ... methods for the transformation required sind.Die simplest process of transformation may be the use chemically competent cells. ...
The transformation is in molecular biology, the non-viral transfer of cost-free DNA into competent bacterial cells also as in ... PreviousThe transformation is in molecular biology, the non-viral transfer of no cost DNA into competent bacterial cells also ... steps for the transformation crucial sind.Die simplest procedure of transformation will be the use chemically competent cells. ... The transformation happens in the cloning as a partial step. Within the cloning a DNA segment is incorporated into a vector ...
On rare occasions a clone of cells emerges from the population in crisis and gives rise to an immortalized cell line. The ... cells continue proliferating for a limited number of population doublings beyond the point at which normal cells undergo ... the growth curve of these transformed cells changed to that of normal young cells. ... Normal human diploid cells, TIG-1, ceased to proliferate at about the 62 population doubling level (PDL). Transformed clones ...
"Cell Transformation, Viral" by people in this website by year, and whether "Cell Transformation, Viral" was a major or minor ... "Cell Transformation, Viral" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH ( ... Cell Transformation, Viral*Cell Transformation, Viral. *Cell Transformations, Viral. *Transformations, Viral Cell ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Cell Transformation, Viral" by people in Profiles. ...
Oncogenicity And Cell Transformation By Papovavirus SV40: The Role Of The Viral Genome. *Butel J ... Oncogenicity And Cell Transformation By Papovavirus SV40: The Role Of The Viral Genome. Advances in Cancer Research, 15(C), 1- ... The extent of the transcription of the viral genome seems to vary from one transformed cell line to the next. No relationships ... Fusion or cocultivation of the transformed cell with normal susceptible cells may sometimes succeed in the rescue of infectious ...
Induction of proliferation or transformation of neuroretina cells by the mil and myc viral oncogenes *C. Bechade ... permissionsfor article Induction of proliferation or transformation of neuroretina cells by the ,i,mil,/i, and ,i,myc,/i, viral ... Leukemia-initiating cell activity requires calcineurin in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia *S Gachet ... Rights & permissionsfor article Leukemia-initiating cell activity requires calcineurin in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia ...
Adenoviridae Infections, Adenovirus E1B Proteins, Animals, Cell Transformation, Neoplastic, Cell Transformation, Viral, Humans ... Adenovirus E1B 55-kilodalton protein: multiple roles in viral infection and cell transformation. ... Adenovirus E1B 55-kilodalton protein: multiple roles in viral infection and cell transformation. ... Nerlov Group - Single Cell Biology of Hematopoietic Stem- and Progenitor Cells in Blood Cancer and Ageing ...
... elicits T-cell lymphomas in chickens. The GaHV-2 genome encodes an oncoprotein, Meq, with similarity to the Jun/Fos family of ... Cell Transformation, Viral* * Cells, Cultured * Chickens / virology* * Herpesvirus 2, Gallid / genetics* * Herpesvirus 2, ... Marek disease virus serotype-1, also know as Gallid herpesvirus 2 (GaHV-2), elicits T-cell lymphomas in chickens. The GaHV-2 ... indicating that heterodimerization of Meq alone is not sufficient for transformation. In addition, the recovery of the ...
... transformed mouse fibroblasts or rat hepatoma cells) to S-adenosyl-1,8-diamino-3-thiooctane produced profound changes in the ... Cell Transformation, Viral * Cells, Cultured * Fibroblasts / metabolism * Liver Neoplasms, Experimental / metabolism * Mice ... Exposure of mammalian cells (transformed mouse fibroblasts or rat hepatoma cells) to S-adenosyl-1,8-diamino-3-thiooctane ... When SV-3T3 cells were exposed to 5 mM alpha-(difluoromethyl)ornithine and 50 microM S-adenosyl-1,8-diamino-3-thiooctane, the ...
Transformation of fibroblasts by several retroviruses that produce transforming gene products associated with protein kinase ... Cell Transformation, Viral. Chick Embryo. Fibroblasts / metabolism. Malate Dehydrogenase / isolation & purification. Molecular ... Phosphorylated 34K, isolated from Rous sarcoma virus-transformed cells, was also present in two forms; hence, in the cell ... 0/Proteins; 0/Viral Proteins; EC Dehydrogenase; EC 2.7.-/Protein Kinases; EC Protein pp60(v- ...
There is increasing evidence that changes in the transcriptional program of cellular genes in virus-transformed cells can ... contribute to virus transformation. It is, therefore, important to study altered expression patterns of cellular genes in ... Cell Line, Transformed. Cell Transformation, Viral*. Gene Expression Regulation*. Genes, jun. Genes, myc. Genome, Viral*. Heat- ... In Ad2-infected KB cells, c-myc gene transcription was decreased. In 293 cells and in three adenovirus-transformed hamster cell ...
... increased viral replication and disease. This review examines the effect(s) of cannabinoids and their antagonists in viral ... The anti-inflammatory activity of cannabinoids may compromise host inflammatory responses to acute viral infections, but may be ... increased transformation of endothelial cells. primary human dermal microvascular cells. [39]. Cowpox. In vivo. Marijuana ... Vero cells, increased CPE. [34]. HSV-2. both. Δ9-THC. decreased T cell proliferation. B6C3H F1 mice immunized then T cells ...
Viral titers were quantitated in infected Rat‐2 cells by measuring expressed proteins. Viral stocks were adjusted to give ... Transformation of hematopoietic cells by BCR/ABL requires activation of a PI‐3k/Akt‐dependent pathway. Tomasz Skorski, Alfonso ... expressing cells. For example, compared with cells expressing wild‐type BCR/ABL, Bcl‐2 levels are decreased in cells expressing ... Preparation of viral stocks. Helper‐free retroviral stocks were prepared by transient hyper‐expression in COS‐1 cells of ...
Plasmid Inhibition Transformation Assay.. The spacer sequence from the F. novicida crRNA#1 (nucleotides 818163-818196 in the F ... Cas9-mediated targeting of viral RNA in eukaryotic cells. Aryn A. Price, Timothy R. Sampson, Hannah K. Ratner, Arash Grakoui, ... Therefore, FnCas9 can be programmed by a single rgRNA to target the RNA of a human virus in eukaryotic cells, leading to viral ... A) Huh-7.5 cells were transfected with FnCas9 ± NLS, the 5′ UTR-targeting rgRNA, and HCV. At 72 h, viral luciferase was ...
Alteration of cell-surface proteins by viral transformation and by proteolysis. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1973; 70: 3170-4. * ... Density and cell cycle dependence of cell surface proteins in hamster fibroblasts. Cell 1974; 3: 113-20. *CrossRef, ... A common cell-type specific surface antigen in cultured human glial cells and fibroblasts: loss in malignant cells. J Exp Med ... Identification and isolation of a 140 kd cell surface glycoprotein with properties expected of a fibronectin receptor. Cell ...
Renato Dulbecco (deceased), Nobel laureate (for viral transformation of cells).. See also[edit]. *San Diego Historical ... Pollack, Andrew (8 May 2008). "$271 Million for Research on Stem Cells in California". The New York Times.. ... The institute appointed genome biologist Eric Lander and stem cell biologist Irving Weissman as non-resident fellows in ...
Autoantibodies; Biochemistry; Biophysics; Cell Transformation, Viral; RNA Processing, Post-Transcriptional; Gene Expression; ...
Autoantibodies; Biochemistry; Biophysics; Cell Transformation, Viral; RNA Processing, Post-Transcriptional; Gene Expression; ... Lee N, Moss WN, Yario TA, Steitz JA: EBV noncoding RNA binds nascent RNA to drive host PAX5 to viral DNA. Cell. 2015 Feb 12; ... Cazalla D, Xie M, Steitz JA: A primate herpesvirus uses the integrator complex to generate viral microRNAs. Mol Cell. 2011 Sep ... Stem Cell Center, Yale: Transcriptional Regulation of Stem and Progenitor Cells. Yale Cancer Center: Virus and Other Infection- ...
Viral transformation of epithelial cells.. Regan JA, Laimins LA.. Methods Mol Biol. 2013;945:449-65. doi: 10.1007/978-1-62703- ... Topoisomerase IIβ-binding protein 1 activates expression of E2F1 and p73 in HPV-positive cells for genome amplification upon ... Human papillomavirus E1 helicase interacts with the WD repeat protein p80 to promote maintenance of the viral genome in ... An interaction between human papillomavirus 16 E2 and TopBP1 is required for optimum viral DNA replication and episomal genome ...
Liver Cell Transformation in Chronic HBV Infection. Next Article in Special Issue. Viral Hybrid Vectors for Somatic Integration ... This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Viral Vector Systems for Gene Therapy) ...
1992) Interaction of p107 with cyclin-A independent of complex-formation with viral oncoproteins. Science 255:85-87. ... cell cycle progression, and cell transformation is unknown. A negative cell cycle role for RBR3 would be consistent with other ... The ability of plant cells to undergo transformation and regeneration is associated with cell cycle activity (29, 32, 33), and ... These data support the transformation results, and indicate the positive role of RBR3 in cell transformation could be mediated ...
... invention further provides methods for making the antibodies in a non-human animal and for expressing the antibodies in cells ... including hybridomas and recombinant host cell systems. Kits and pharmaceutical compositions comprising the antibodies are also ... In addition, nucleic acid molecules may be introduced into mammalian cells by viral vectors. Methods of transforming cells are ... Sequences encoding particular antibodies can be used for transformation of a suitable host cell. Transformation can be by any ...
While the loss of viral genome could account for the lack of cellular transformation, it is clear that MM cells are distinct ... Cells were passaged every 3 days at 2 × 104 cells/well in 24-well plates. (B) KMM cells grew faster than MM cells in regular ... Cells seeded at 105 cells/well in 6-well plates were counted daily. (D) KMM cells formed foci, while MM cells were contact ... KMM cells had more cells in S phase (50% vs. 40%) and fewer cells in G0/G1 phase (35% vs. 42%) than MM cells (Supplemental ...
To assess the amounts of infectious Ab-MLV in pSRα-based viral stocks, 105 NIH 3T3 cells were plated on 60-mm-diameter petri ... Cells and viruses.NIH 3T3 cells, Ab-MLV-transformed NIH 3T3 cells, and 293T cells (11) were grown in Dulbeccos modified ... Transformation and Oncogenesis. The Extreme Carboxyl Terminus of v-Abl Is Required for Lymphoid Cell Transformation by Abelson ... induces transformation of pre-B cells in vivo and in vitro and can transform immortalized fibroblast cell lines in vitro. ...
Cell isolation and culture: Ficoll, cell selection, EBV transformation, viral transduction .... *Process and product ... The Flow Core provides cell sorting, including bulk enrichment, rare population, and single cell plate sorting, performed by ... Connell and OReilly Families Cell Manipulation Core. The Connell and OReilly Families Cell Manipulation Core Facility assists ... Manufacturing Practices for cell and tissue processing. Services include the processing of hematopoietic stem cells for ...
  • Adenovirus proteins from both E1B reading frames are required for transformation of rodent cells by viral infection and DNA transfection. (nih.gov)
  • To determine the requirements for the individual Ad2 E1B proteins during the transformation of rodent cells, viral mutants were constructed with genetic lesions disrupting the coding sequence of either the 175 amino acid residue (175R) or the 495 amino acid residue (495R) E1B proteins. (nih.gov)
  • Given the ability of specific Cas9 proteins to be reprogrammed to target and cleave DNA in numerous biological systems ( 7 , 9 , 10 ), we hypothesized that FnCas9 could be retargeted to a distinct RNA in eukaryotic cells and lead to its inhibition. (pnas.org)
  • Some primate herpesviruses [Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), Herpesvirus saimiri (HVS), and Kaposi sarcoma virus (KSHV)] produce noncoding RNAs that associate with host cell proteins to form snRNPs. (yale.edu)
  • FANCD2 Binds Human Papillomavirus Genomes and Associates with a Distinct Set of DNA Repair Proteins to Regulate Viral Replication. (nih.gov)
  • Retinoblastoma-related (RBR) proteins are negative cell cycle regulators conserved in animals and plants ( 1 - 5 ). (pnas.org)
  • RBR proteins repress cell cycle progression primarily through the inhibition of E2 promoter binding factor (E2F)-dependent transcription, which is required to express many genes involved in S-phase and cell cycle progression, including the minichromosome maintenance 2-7(MCM2-7) family of DNA replication factors ( 4 , 6 - 11 ). (pnas.org)
  • In overexpression studies, all 3 mammalian pocket proteins inhibit E2F-dependent gene expression, recruit chromatin remodeling complexes, actively repress transcription, and arrest cell growth ( 3 , 12 , 13 ). (pnas.org)
  • Although the kinase activity of the protein is required for these events, most previously studied mutants encoding truncated v-Abl proteins that lack the extreme carboxyl terminus retain high transforming capacity in NIH 3T3 cells but transform lymphocytes poorly. (asm.org)
  • However, v-Abl proteins lacking portions of the COOH terminus are highly compromised for pre-B-cell transformation in vitro ( 21 , 29 , 39 ), and deletion of the region that interacts with JAK proteins abolishes the ability of v-Abl to confer cytokine-independent growth to several hematopoietic cell lines ( 7 ). (asm.org)
  • To understand the way in which COOH-terminal sequences influence lymphoid cell transformation, we have analyzed a series of mutations encoding v-Abl proteins that are missing portions of the region. (asm.org)
  • Viral proteins, in complexes termed "capsomers," form the surface of the icosahedron. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Embedded in the envelope are surface proteins, usually glycoproteins that help the virus interact with the surface of the cell it is infecting. (encyclopedia.com)
  • In these viruses, cell-surface interactions are mediated by the capsid proteins. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The viral latent proteins are necessary for permanent B cell growth, but it is unknown whether they are sufficient. (nih.gov)
  • 1998. Stress protein expression in primary and immortalized cultures of human thyroid cells: A model system for the study of stress proteins in the pathogenesis of autoimmune thyroid disease . (cardiff.ac.uk)
  • Moreover, viral proteins enhance glucose uptake and controls tumor microenvironment, promoting metastasizing of the tumor cells. (hindawi.com)
  • The transport via exosomes of EBV-regulated miRNAs and viral proteins contributes to the construction and modification of the inflammatory tumor microenvironment. (springer.com)
  • HCMV, EBV, KSHV) express viral proteins when the cells divide that tether the viral genome to chromosomes so that episomes are partitioned to daughter cells (ref. 3 and Figure 1B ). (jci.org)
  • In latently infected cells, the virus must limit expression of viral proteins so as to avoid detection by the immune system. (jci.org)
  • Phosphorylation of cellular and viral proteins, which has been observed during lytic infection of cells by herpesviruses, seems to be a common phenomenon which involves a number of different protein kinase activities ( 21 ). (asm.org)
  • In particular, high-molecular substances, such as viral proteins or antibodies, can be radioactively labeled and examined in the animal model efficiently and with a minimal influence on the biological activity. (dkfz.de)
  • These activated pathways regulate the function and expression of proteins involved in cell proliferation and survival ( 10 , 16 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • This process requires expression of the viral latent proteins and of the 3 miR-BHRF1 microRNAs. (ebscohost.com)
  • Following transfection with this vector, Chinese hamster ovary cells express on their surfaces proteins immunologically similar to the major EBV membrane antigen. (uni-regensburg.de)
  • Two related but differentially expressed potential membrane proteins of Epstein-Barr virus are encoded by the same reading frame in the EcoRI D het region of the viral genome. (uni-regensburg.de)
  • Rabbit antisera to these peptides were used for immunoprecipitation of the native viral proteins from Epstein-Barr virus-positive cell lines from various sources. (uni-regensburg.de)
  • Both predicted membrane proteins could be precipitated from cell lines that had been transformed in vitro with EBV or from cell lines derived from infectious mononucleosis patients. (uni-regensburg.de)
  • The lytic cycle or productive infection results in staged expression of a host of viral proteins with the ultimate objective of producing infectious virions. (wikidoc.org)
  • A very limited, distinct set of viral proteins are produced during latent cycle infection. (wikidoc.org)
  • The vector system of claim 10, wherein the target antigens are virally encoded proteins and the antibodies are to at least two different viral encoded proteins. (sumobrain.com)
  • Several mechanisms including insertional mutagenesis, proinflammatory effects, oncogenic viral proteins, immune suppression, and altered epithelial/stromal interactions have been proposed for a role of XMRV in prostate cancer. (prohealth.com)
  • Adenovirus E1A induces cell proliferation, oncogenic transformation and promotes viral replication through interaction with p300/CBP, TRRAP/p400 multi-protein complex and the retinoblastoma (pRb) family proteins through distinct domains in the E1A N-terminal region. (osti.gov)
  • Between the two CtBP family proteins, CtBP2 appears to restrict viral replication more than CtBP1 in human cells. (osti.gov)
  • Interaction with RBX1 and CUL1 inhibits ubiquitination of the proteins targeted by SCF( FBXW7 ) ubiquitin ligase complex, and may be linked to unregulated host cell proliferation. (rcsb.org)
  • the interaction enhances ATF7 -mediated viral transactivation activity which requires the zinc binding domains of both proteins (By similarity). (rcsb.org)
  • Kaposi's Sarcoma associated Herpesvirus (KSHV) encodes two transmembrane proteins (MIR1 and MIR2) that downregulate cell surface molecules (MHC-I, B7.2, and ICAM-1) which are involved in the immune recognition of infected cells. (berkeley.edu)
  • The pathway of this downregulation is novel: the target proteins are efficiently synthesized, matured and reach the cell surface normally. (berkeley.edu)
  • We found that expression of MIR1 and MIR2 leads to ubiquitination of the cytosolic tail of their target proteins and that this ubiquitination is essential for their removal from the cell surface. (berkeley.edu)
  • MIR proteins thus define a novel class of membrane-bound E3 ubiquitin ligases that modulate the trafficking of host cell membrane proteins. (berkeley.edu)
  • However, late gene expression, expression of structural proteins and vegetative DNA synthesis is restricted to terminally differentiated cells of the epidermis which implies a link between cellular differentiation and viral gene expression. (kenyon.edu)
  • We now demonstrate that Cas9 from the Gram-negative bacterium Francisella novicida (FnCas9) can be reprogrammed to target a specific RNA substrate, the genome of the +ssRNA virus, hepatitis C virus, in eukaryotic cells. (pnas.org)
  • [8] The institute appointed genome biologist Eric Lander and stem cell biologist Irving Weissman as non-resident fellows in November 2009. (wikipedia.org)
  • Topoisomerase IIβ-binding protein 1 activates expression of E2F1 and p73 in HPV-positive cells for genome amplification upon epithelial differentiation. (nih.gov)
  • During latent infections there is minimal to no expression of infected viral genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • The genome remains within the host cell until the virus is ready for replication. (wikipedia.org)
  • The viral DNA can then either lay dormant until stimulated by a source such as UV light or it can be immediately taken up by the host's genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike cells, which contain all the structures needed for growth and reproduction, viruses are composed of only an outer coat (capsid), the genome, and, in some cases, a few enzymes. (encyclopedia.com)
  • geographical variation of the viral genome. (imperial.ac.uk)
  • known genes, origins of replication and gene expression control regions explain most of the viral genome but there are still a few sections of unknown function. (imperial.ac.uk)
  • 125 of these and 116 from previous reports were combined to produce a multiple sequence alignment of 241 EBV genomes, which we have used to analyze variation within the viral genome. (imperial.ac.uk)
  • Formal demonstration came from Siliciano and colleagues ( 3 ), who detected integrated, latent HIV-1 genome in resting peripheral blood CD4 + T cells of HIV-1 patients. (jimmunol.org)
  • Although the majority of HIV-1-infected lymphoblast CD4 cells die as a consequence of apoptosis or cytopathic effects of HIV-1, some infected cells survive clonal contraction and return to the resting state as memory cells bearing an integrated HIV-1 genome. (jimmunol.org)
  • In this study, we provide proof of concept that resting nonproductively infected CD4 + T cells carrying a replication-competent HIV-1 genome can be generated in vitro after Ag-driven proliferation. (jimmunol.org)
  • HPV, adenoviruses, and polyomaviruses induce the host cell transformation while infecting nonpermissive cells and integrating into the host genome (see Table 1 ). (hindawi.com)
  • Capsid responsible for delivery of virus genome inside the cells of the host. (coursehero.com)
  • On infecting the B-lymphocyte, the linear virus genome circularizes and the virus subsequently persists within the cell as an episome. (wikidoc.org)
  • EBNA-1 protein binds to a replication origin (oriP) within the viral genome and mediates replication and partitioning of the episome during division of the host cell. (wikidoc.org)
  • Plays a role in viral genome replication by driving entry of quiescent cells into the cell cycle. (rcsb.org)
  • Stimulation of progression from G1 to S phase allows the virus to efficiently use the cellular DNA replicating machinery to achieve viral genome replication. (rcsb.org)
  • During latency, a small subset of viral genes is expressed to ultimately allow for the viral genome to persist in host nuclei as episomes. (berkeley.edu)
  • E1-- DNA-dependent ATPase, ATP dependent helicase: allow unwinding of the viral genome and act as an elongation factor for DNA replication. (kenyon.edu)
  • The ratio of these found in the heterotrimeric complex formed before complexing with E1 regulates transcription of viral genome. (kenyon.edu)
  • Replication of dl1520 in HeLa cells was significantly reduced compared to wild-type. (nih.gov)
  • In neurons, where innate antiviral/pro-resolution responses include the activation of NOS-1, inhibition of Ca 2+ activity by cannabinoids, increased viral replication and disease. (mdpi.com)
  • If, however, innate and adaptive immunity successfully suppress viral replication, specific life-long immunity may result. (mdpi.com)
  • Human Papillomavirus and the DNA Damage Response: Exploiting Host Repair Pathways for Viral Replication. (nih.gov)
  • Abelson murine leukemia virus (Ab-MLV) is a replication-defective retrovirus that transforms pre-B cells and NIH 3T3 cells in vitro and induces a pre-B cell lymphoma in vivo (reviewed in reference 40 ). (asm.org)
  • Table 1: Cellular effects of viral infections Cytocidal infections are often associated with changes in cell morphology, physiology and are thus important for the complete viral replication and transformation. (wikipedia.org)
  • During the resting phase, expression of cellular activation markers disappeared and cell proliferation and viral replication ceased, but resumed following restimulation of rested cells with Ag or mAbs directed to CD3/CD28. (jimmunol.org)
  • Although highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) 2 suppresses viral replication to undetectable levels, HIV-1 continuously replicates throughout the course of the infection ( 1 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Required for viral replication (By similarity). (rcsb.org)
  • Studying viral protein kinases might therefore lead to an understanding of the mechanisms of virus replication and virus-cell interactions. (asm.org)
  • Both cancerous cells and viruses depend on the metabolic resources provided by the host to supply the energy and biochemical building blocks necessary for their replication. (rochester.edu)
  • We find that inhibition of certain virally-up-regulated pathways blocks normal viral replication. (rochester.edu)
  • In our cancer project, we have begun to identify activities specifically induced by oncogenesis that appear to be important for cancer-cell replication. (rochester.edu)
  • To specifically dissect the role of CtBP interaction with E1A, we engineered a mutation (DL→AS) within the CtBP-binding motif, PLDLS, and investigated the effect of the mutation on immortalization and Ras cooperative transformation of primary cells and viral replication. (osti.gov)
  • During productive infection, CtBP-E1A interaction enhances viral replication in human cells. (osti.gov)
  • The interaction enhances viral replication in human cells. (osti.gov)
  • this interaction seems to potentiate viral replication (PubMed:23747199, PubMed:7479821). (rcsb.org)
  • Montagnier and F. K. Sanders, investigating viral RNA (a virus that carries its genetic material in RNA rather than DNA), discovered a double-stranded RNA virus that had been made by the replication of a single-stranded RNA. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Adenovirus E1B 55-kilodalton protein: multiple roles in viral infection and cell transformation. (ox.ac.uk)
  • neurons are frequently the target of viral infection. (mdpi.com)
  • The outcome on the viral infection will depend on whether inflammation is beneficial or pathogenic in the specific case. (mdpi.com)
  • Pathology may result from damage to tissues by viral-induced cellular apoptosis or necrosis, or alternatively, host immune responses may result in immunopathology or the perceived symptoms of the infection. (mdpi.com)
  • This type of infection usually causes few obvious changes within the cell but can lead to long chronic diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • This infection causes a host cell to become malignant and can be either cytocidal (usually in the case of RNA viruses) or persistent (usually in the case of DNA viruses). (wikipedia.org)
  • The pathogenesis of viral infection and rational antiviral drug design. (harvard.edu)
  • The type 1/type2 classification of EBV remains the major form of variation and is defined mostly by EBNA2 and EBNA3, but the type 2 SNPs at the EBNA3 locus extend into the adjacent gp350 and gp42 genes, whose products mediate infection of B cells by EBV. (imperial.ac.uk)
  • Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), an oncogenic human herpesvirus, induces cell proliferation after infection of resting B lymphocytes, its reservoir in vivo. (nih.gov)
  • This set of experiments demonstrated that B cells generated with the Δ123 virus express all tested latent genes with some expressed at higher levels than in the controls at day 11 post-infection (Fig. 5A). (nih.gov)
  • However, HIV-1 also establishes a status of nonproductive infection known as viral latency. (jimmunol.org)
  • This possibility was later supported by observations with abortively transformed cells, which behave as transformed only for several generations after infection, but then return to normality ( 8 ). (nobelprize.org)
  • Herpesviruses are able to establish persistent infection transforming the host cells. (hindawi.com)
  • HTLV-I infection is associated with the aggressive and lethal adult T cell leukemia (ATL), as well as chronic inflammatory disorders, such as the tropical spastic paraparesis/HTLV-I-associated myelopathy and others ( 13 , 14 , 15 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • a family of enzymes involved in the innate immune response to viral infection. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • Herpesvirus latency requires the virus to establish a persistent infection in cells without destruction by the immune system. (jci.org)
  • For example, alphaherpesviruses express long noncoding RNAs that are transcribed antisense to other viral RNAs expressed during lytic infection ( Figure 1C ). (jci.org)
  • Among the potential viral protein substrates we examined, the EBV early antigen (EA-D, BMRF1), a DNA polymerase accessory factor and an important transactivator during lytic infection, was found to be phosphorylated by BGLF4 in vitro. (asm.org)
  • This modification is believed to contribute to the shutoff of host cell functions during HSV-1 infection. (asm.org)
  • 4. List type of host damage caused by viral infection a. (coursehero.com)
  • What are the four types of allergic reactions resulted from viral infection a. (coursehero.com)
  • Formally, this phase of infection does not inevitably lead to lysis of the host cell as EBV virions are produced by budding from the infected cell. (wikidoc.org)
  • A major focus of our laboratory is on human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), a herpes virus, which is the leading cause of congenital viral infection, occurring in approximately %1 of all live births. (rochester.edu)
  • The speed of metabolic flux is crucial to understanding metabolic network behavior and how it is affected by a cellular perturbation, e.g. viral infection or oncogenic transformation. (rochester.edu)
  • Increased understanding of these mechanisms and the roles they play during viral infection and cancer-cell transformation will continue to illuminate potential therapeutic avenues. (rochester.edu)
  • We demonstrate that XMRV infection can accelerate cellular proliferation, enhance transformation, and increase invasiveness of slow growing prostate cancer cells. (prohealth.com)
  • We propose that downregulation of p27Kip1 by XMRV infection facilitates transition of G1 to S, thereby accelerates growth of prostate cancer cells. (prohealth.com)
  • Inactivation of the ability of RB1 to arrest the cell cycle is critical for cellular transformation, uncontrolled cellular growth and proliferation induced by viral infection. (rcsb.org)
  • Evasion of host immune response recognition plays a key role in the establishment of systemic viral infection. (berkeley.edu)
  • Infection of a target cell by KSHV. (berkeley.edu)
  • During this phase, the infected cell is hijacked to mass-produce viruses that are released into the extracellular space, enabling rapid spread to cells at a distance from the initial infection. (berkeley.edu)
  • In addition to this mode of infection, KSHV can also infect its target cells through direct physical contact with an infected cell actively replicating the virus. (berkeley.edu)
  • We are identifying the cellular and viral requirement for initiation of this contact-dependent infection route, which is important for host colonization by herpesviruses. (berkeley.edu)
  • These ligands are absent on healthy cells but present on cells experiencing stresses such as infection or transformation. (berkeley.edu)
  • While it is well known that viral infection induces the expression of NKG2D ligands the mechanisms for this induction are not well studied. (berkeley.edu)
  • Transformation of chick cells was inhibited when the drug was added to chick cells prior to infection. (unt.edu)
  • E3GL_ADE06 ] Binds and retains class I heavy chains in the endoplasmic reticulum during the early period of virus infection, thereby impairing their transport to the cell surface. (proteopedia.org)
  • The RNA interference (RNAi) technique has been widely used as a tool for gene-functional studies and also has great potential for developing therapies against viral infection, genetic disorders and cancers. (nature.com)
  • Alterations in the levels of expression of specific cellular genes in adenovirus-infected and -transformed cells. (biomedsearch.com)
  • There is increasing evidence that changes in the transcriptional program of cellular genes in virus-transformed cells can contribute to virus transformation. (biomedsearch.com)
  • It is, therefore, important to study altered expression patterns of cellular genes in adenovirus-infected and -transformed cells. (biomedsearch.com)
  • We have used 40 different cellular genes or gene segments as hybridization probes to analyze the cytoplasmic RNA from adenovirus type 2 (Ad2)-infected KB cells, from Ad5-transformed human cells (293) or from several Ad2- or adenovirus type 12 (Ad12)-transformed hamster cell lines. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Many of the genes probed were not expressed in human or hamster cells. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Transcription of the ADPRT and the heat shock protein 70 genes was increased in Ad2-infected KB cells and in 293 cells. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Current efforts are aimed at understanding how splicing influences downstream events in gene expression via the exon junction complex (EJC), how microRNA biogenesis is regulated during the nuclear maturation steps, and what is the mechanism and function of readthrough transcripts that arise from ~10% of human genes when cells are exposed to stress (osmotic, heat shock or oxidative). (yale.edu)
  • Retinoblastoma-related (RBR) genes inhibit the cell cycle primarily by repressing adenovirus E2 promoter binding factor (E2F) transcription factors, which drive the expression of numerous genes required for DNA synthesis and cell cycle progression. (pnas.org)
  • Our results indicate a cell cycle pathway in maize, in which 2 RBR genes have specific and opposing functions. (pnas.org)
  • Thus, the paradigm that RBR genes are negative cell cycle regulators cannot be considered universal. (pnas.org)
  • However, it was not known whether the antigens were expressed by viral genes or by derepressed cellular genes. (nobelprize.org)
  • Hence, it was uncertain whether cells were transformed by the expression of viral genes persisting in the cells or alternatively if the virus altered the cells by a hit-and-run mechanism, changing the expression of cellular genes and then leaving. (nobelprize.org)
  • The viral genes that remain unexpressed in the transformed cells, such as those for capsid protein in SV 40 -transformed cells, were also interesting, although in a different way. (nobelprize.org)
  • The viral genes modulate the physiological machinery of infected cells that lead to cell transformation and development of cancer. (hindawi.com)
  • Studies of DNA viruses have led to the identification of viral genes responsible for cancer induction and paving the way to our current understanding of cancer at the molecular level [ 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • EBV encodes miRNAs targeting both viral and host genes involved in the immune response. (springer.com)
  • Tax also acts as a transactivator of an increasing number of host cellular genes, most of which are associated with cell growth. (jimmunol.org)
  • In addition to learning more about the fundamental mechanisms by which tumour development occurs, we are also identifying cellular genes that become critical for the survival of HPV-transformed cells with the objective of developing targeted therapies for these cancers. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • We are currently using CRISPR-Cas9 engineering to test whether APOBEC genes are required for HPV-driven transformation in cell-based models. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • This correlation-based clustering heat map using log 2 -transformed FPKM values demonstrates a predominant expression pattern resembling latency I for most of the BLs while two eBLs (eBL_23 and eBL_25) and cell lines have elevated expression in other genes. (aacrjournals.org)
  • eBL_02 and eBL_20 show intermediate level lytic genes such as BMRF1, BALF2, and BSLF2/BMLF1 in addition to the two eBLs that cluster with cell lines. (aacrjournals.org)
  • EBNA2 Drives Formation of New Chromosome Binding Sites and Target Genes for B-Cell Master Regulatory Transcription Factors RBP-jκ and EBF1. (ebscohost.com)
  • Their technique became standard in laboratories investigating oncogenes (genes that have the potential to make normal cells turn cancerous) and cell transformations. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Montagnier established that reverse transcriptase translates the genetic instructions of the virus from the viral (RNA) form to DNA, allowing the genes of the virus to become permanently established in the cells of the host organism. (encyclopedia.com)
  • In contrast to the findings in Wilms' tumor, where mutations in the WT1 gene usually behave according to Knudson's two hit model for tumor suppressor genes, seven of eight leukemia-associated WT1 mutations are heterozygous, implying a dominant or dominant-negative mode of action in hematopoietic cells. (bloodjournal.org)
  • We then measured the expression of self-renewal genes, transformation growth factor-beta (TGF-β) and leukemia-inhibitory factor (LIF), in shRNA-transduced HeLa-SFCs and found that expression of all three TGF-β isoforms was significantly downregulated while LIF remained unchanged. (nature.com)
  • 11 , 12 Although it is not clear whether oncogene expression in CSCs is different from that in other cancer cells, it is believed that these genes are vital for them. (nature.com)
  • Viral early genes E6 and E7 from high-risk HPV types are responsible for the transformation of epithelial cells, and their continuous expression is essential for ongoing cervical cancer cell survival as they function as oncogenes. (nature.com)
  • It has been proposed that telomere shortening in these cells is the property that limits their proliferation. (isharonline.org)
  • In particular, although only RB is considered a bona fide tumor suppressor, both p107 and p130 can functionally compensate for RB inactivation or loss in certain contexts and restrain cell proliferation ( 15 ). (pnas.org)
  • Src kinase is regulated by growth factors, cytokines, cell adhesion, and antigen receptor activation ( 15 , 16 ) and is involved in controlling a myriad of fundamental cellular processes, including cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and survival ( 15 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Changes in the expression of certain species of gangliosides have been described to occur during cell proliferation, differentiation, and ontogenesis. (frontiersin.org)
  • Seric core protein is able to bind C1QR1 at the T-cell surface, resulting in down-regulation of T-lymphocytes proliferation. (uniprot.org)
  • Overexpression of ErbB2 or cyclin D1 in p27 +/− primary murine mammary epithelial cells resulted in increased proliferation, cyclin D1 nuclear localization, and colony formation in soft agar compared to those in p27 +/+ cells. (asm.org)
  • In contrast, ErbB2- or cyclin D1-overexpressing p27 −/− cells displayed reduced proliferation, anchorage-independent growth, Cdk4 activity, cyclin D1 expression, and cyclin D1 nuclear localization compared to wild-type cells. (asm.org)
  • A cyclin D1 mutation in its nuclear export sequence (T286A) partially rescued nuclear localization of cyclin D1 in p27 −/− cells but did not increase proliferation or Cdk4 kinase activity. (asm.org)
  • Overexpression of E2F1, however, increased proliferation to the same degree in p27 +/+ , p27 +/− , and p27 −/− cells. (asm.org)
  • Among these interleukin-2 (IL-2) has been the most extensively studied and has been shown to support the proliferation of activated T cells. (springer.com)
  • The major colony stimulating factor produced by activated T cells, a granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), supports the proliferation and terminal differentiation of cells committed to the myeloid lineage. (springer.com)
  • B-cell stimulating factor (BSF-1) supports proliferation of activated B cells and may induce the proliferation of a variety of additional cell types. (springer.com)
  • Interleukin 3 promotes the in vitro proliferation of murine pluripotent hematopoietic stem cells. (springer.com)
  • Interleukin 2 and 3 regulate the in vitro proliferation of two distinguishable populations of 20 alpha hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase positive cells. (springer.com)
  • Viral production resumes following Ag-driven or homeostatic proliferation and cytokine stimulation. (jimmunol.org)
  • One of the important adoptive responses by the cancer cells is their metabolic change to cope up with continuous requirement of cell survival and proliferation. (hindawi.com)
  • Tumor DNA viruses enhance "aerobic" glycolysis upon virus-induced cell transformation, supporting rapid cell proliferation and showing the Warburg effect. (hindawi.com)
  • Cancer cells have to fulfill their needs for continuous proliferation. (hindawi.com)
  • The resulting T-cell proliferation leads to malignant transformation and to the development of adult T-cell leukemia (ATL). (rcsb.org)
  • Signal Transduction and Control of Cell Proliferation and Differentiation. (indigo.ca)
  • These data provide new insight into the direct regulation of OX40 by Tax and add to our understanding of the possible role of the OX40/OX40 ligand system in the proliferation of HTLV-I + T cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • Interactions of these members with their ligands have been shown to be involved in cell proliferation, activation, as well as induction of apoptosis. (jimmunol.org)
  • Rather, signaling through OX40 generates strong costimulatory effects, which induce T cell proliferation ( 7 , 8 ), modulate cytokine production ( 9 ), and influence T cell migration into tissues ( 10 , 11 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • This inhibition of the IGF-IR pathway correlates with suppression of proliferation of osteosarcoma cell lines and with apoptosis induction as measured by monitoring of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase and its cleavage product and by quantitative measurement of apoptosis-associated CK18Asp396. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signaling pathway has been found to be critical for tumor cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis ( 8 - 10 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • 1 2 The ocular resident cells may undergo oedema, damage, necrosis, or proliferation. (bmj.com)
  • This increase in TP53 , in turn, would arrest the cell proliferation and direct its death but this effect is counteracted by the viral protein E1B-55K. (rcsb.org)
  • Viral Hybrid Vectors for Somatic Integration - Are They the Better Solution? (mdpi.com)
  • Transfection of vectors expressing Stat3β together with Src blocked cell transformation by Src as measured in a quantitative focus formation assay using NIH 3T3 cells. (asm.org)
  • Improvement of plastid transformation efficiency in potato by using vectors with homologous flanking sequences. (cnr.it)
  • Repopulation of B-lymphocytes with restricted gene expression using haematopoietic stem cells engineered with lentiviral vectors. (ebscohost.com)
  • The PI‐3k/Akt pathway is essential for BCR/ABL leukemogenesis as indicated by experiments demonstrating that wortmannin, a PI‐3k specific inhibitor at low concentrations, suppressed BCR/ABL‐dependent colony formation of murine marrow cells, and that a kinase‐deficient Akt mutant with dominant‐negative activity inhibited BCR/ABL‐dependent transformation of murine bone marrow cells in vitro and suppressed leukemia development in SCID mice. (embopress.org)
  • The v-Abl protein tyrosine kinase encoded by Abelson murine leukemia virus (Ab-MLV) induces transformation of pre-B cells in vivo and in vitro and can transform immortalized fibroblast cell lines in vitro. (asm.org)
  • Regulation of T cell differentiation: In vitro induction of 20 alpha hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase in splenic lymphocytes is mediated by a unique lymphokine. (springer.com)
  • In this study, we attempted to model HIV-1 latency using human primary CD4 + T cells infected in vitro with HIV-1 after activation with Ag-loaded dendritic cells and then brought back to quiescence through a resting phase in the presence of IL-7. (jimmunol.org)
  • Latently infected cells persist in HAART-treated patients with undetectable viremia, and HIV-1 can be rescued in vitro from the cells of these patients ( 4 , 5 , 6 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • The induction of the cancer-like state in vitro was called transformation. (nobelprize.org)
  • It was known at the time that papova viruses leave their footprints in the cells of the cancers they induce and those they transform in vitro , in the form of characteristic antigens. (nobelprize.org)
  • Both human T cell leukemia virus type I and simian Herpesvirus saimiri (HVS) transform human T cells in vitro. (cnrs.fr)
  • Keller, R. Cytostatic elimination of syngeneic rat tumor cells in vitro by nonspecifically activated macrophages. (springer.com)
  • Background: Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infects resting B-lymphocytes and transforms them into immortal proliferating lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) in vitro. (ebscohost.com)
  • When EBV infects B-lymphocytes in vitro , lymphoblastoid cell lines eventually emerge that are capable of indefinite growth. (wikidoc.org)
  • In vitro transformation and invasion was carried out by soft agar colony formation, and Matrigel cell invasion assay, respectively. (prohealth.com)
  • In this review, we provide a general overview on the metabolism of glycolipids, both in normal and tumor cells, as well as examining glycolipid-mediated immune modulation and the main successes achieved in immunotherapies using gangliosides as molecular targets. (frontiersin.org)
  • In this review we will focus on how DNA viruses alter the glucose metabolism of transformed cells. (hindawi.com)
  • It is well known that tumor cells differ from normal cells by glucose metabolism. (hindawi.com)
  • Protein kinases are known to be involved in the regulation of a wide variety of eukaryotic cellular functions including cell metabolism, cell cycle control, hormone response, and control of transcription and translation. (asm.org)
  • Our findings provide evidence that oncogenesis-associated activation of Stat3 signaling is part of the process of malignant transformation. (asm.org)
  • Transforming infections are also referred to as malignant transformation. (wikipedia.org)
  • GLUT1 is overexpressed in most tumors and also very early after malignant transformation of benign cells. (dkfz.de)
  • Once in the animal, the viral DNA can cause several problems, including the transformation of normal cells into malignant cancer cells. (petfinder.com)
  • IGF-IR thereby plays an important role in malignant transformation. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The vector system of claim 1 , wherein the target antigen is a virally encoded protein, or a protein whose expression results in malignant cellular transformation. (sumobrain.com)
  • The vector system of claim 5, wherein the target antigen results in malignant transformation as a result of overexpression of the protein, an HTLV1 protein or an HIV viral encoded protein. (sumobrain.com)
  • Once established, the virus can begin to multiply, but it can do so only by multiplying cells of the host organism, forming malignant tumors. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Importantly, KSHV latency is observed in the malignant cells isolated from Kaposi's sarcoma and primary effusion lymphoma, two pathologies associated with KSHV infections. (berkeley.edu)
  • It excludes malignant transformation, which is CELL TRANSFORMATION, VIRAL. (umassmed.edu)
  • The present study compares the frequency of immortalization of cells from two different human lineages, lung fibroblasts and mammary epithelial cells. (isharonline.org)
  • With the exception of varicella-zoster virus (VZV), all human herpesviruses spread through saliva, mucosal or skin lesions, or genital secretions and infect oropharyngeal or genital tract mucosal epithelial cells or skin. (jci.org)
  • VZV is spread by the respiratory route or by contact with vesicular lesions and infects epithelial cells in the oropharynx, upper respiratory tract, or conjunctiva. (jci.org)
  • Three human alphaherpesviruses, herpes simplex viruses 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2) and VZV, establish latency in sensory neurons and reactivate from neurons to infect epithelial cells in the mucosa or skin, resulting in a vesicular rash. (jci.org)
  • Our results suggest that CtBP-E1A interaction suppresses immortalization and Ras co-operative transformation of primary rodent epithelial cells without significantly influencing the tumorigenic activities of transformed cells in immunodeficient and immunocompetent animals. (osti.gov)
  • All of these isolates are tropic for squamous epithelial cells but the receptors are unknown. (kenyon.edu)
  • Viral DNA in nasopharyngeal carcinoma has revealed that Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) can infect epithelial cells and is associated with their transformation to cancer. (medscape.com)
  • Transfection refers to a DNA insertion into eukaryotic animal cells. (mito-hollyhock.net)
  • The term can also be understood as DNA transfection using a viral vector. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recombinant vaccinia virus vTF7-3, which expresses the T7 RNA polymerase, was used to infect 293 and 293T cells after transient transfection with a plasmid containing BGLF4 under the control of the T7 promoter. (asm.org)
  • Table 1 indicates some of the well characterized pathways involved and their potential impact on viral infections. (mdpi.com)
  • Cytocidal infections can cause fusion of adjacent cells, disruption of transport pathways including ions and other cell signals, disruption of DNA, RNA and protein synthesis, and nearly always leads to cell death. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because of their relatively small genomes and striking biological effects, it is generally assumed that DNA tumor viruses have evolved to target the minimal number of cellular nodes and pathways required for transformation. (hindawi.com)
  • Transcriptional activator that activates both the viral long terminal repeat (LTR) and cellular promoters via activation of CREB, NF-kappa-B, SRF and AP-1 pathways. (rcsb.org)
  • We are identifying the cellular pathways and epigenetic events controlling viral episome generation and maintenance during latency. (berkeley.edu)
  • TAX_HTL1F ] Transcriptional activator that activates both the viral long terminal repeat (LTR) and cellular promoters via activation of CREB, NF-kappa-B, SRF and AP-1 pathways. (proteopedia.org)
  • Lastly, biologic effects include the viruses' ability to affect the activity of antigens and immunologlobulins in the host cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chronic infections have similar cellular effects as acute cytocidal infections but there is a limited number of progeny and viruses involved in transformation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The role of such viruses as Merkel cell polyoma, papilloma, Kaposi's sarcoma and Epstein-Barr virus in human cancer highlight challenges to prevent and treat these diseases. (harvard.edu)
  • They conduct basic research defining new molecular structures of viruses and virus-encoded enzymes, new mechanisms within cells for molecular and organelle trafficking and function, and new mechanisms that control cell growth. (harvard.edu)
  • Here we show that the B cell transforming capacity of the Δ123 EBV mutant is reduced by more than 20-fold, relative to wild type or revertant viruses. (nih.gov)
  • It also permitted us to resolve one of the main questions about the role of viruses in transformation. (nobelprize.org)
  • In their life cycle, viruses replicate, inducing the cytopathic effect in the host cells and forming new viral particles. (hindawi.com)
  • These two viruses are associated with several B cell and epithelial cell malignancies in which tumor cells are latently infected with EBV (Hodgkin lymphoma, Burkitt lymphoma, gastric carcinoma, nasopharyngeal carcinoma) or KSHV (primary effusion lymphoma, multicentric Castleman disease, Kaposi sarcoma). (jci.org)
  • His investigation of interferon, one of the body's defenses against viruses, also opened avenues for medical cures for viral diseases. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Particle-mediated delivery is not sensitive to permeability of the cell membrane by specific reagents and lacks the potentially deleterious effects of viruses and lipofection. (jneurosci.org)
  • Many viruses have evolved complex strategies for this evasion (one example being the down-regulation of cell surface MHC-I). Such strategies are readily observable among the herpesviruses, a family of large DNA viruses that efficiently produce persistent infections and disease in their host. (berkeley.edu)
  • Visible morphologic changes in cells infected with viruses. (umassmed.edu)
  • Viral cytopathogenic effects provide a valuable method for identifying and classifying the infecting viruses. (umassmed.edu)
  • This will improve our understanding of viral pathogenesis and provide insights into basic cellular and immunological processes. (berkeley.edu)
  • Chronic myeloid or chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) is a clonal myeloproliferative disorder that arises from the neoplastic transformation of undifferentiated hematopoietic stem cells [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Whether or not this case pores are formed in the membrane by means of /report-writing-service/ which can pass into the cells, the DNA, or regardless of whether other mechanisms cause the recording is unclear. (mito-hollyhock.net)
  • No matter whether this case pores are formed in the membrane by means of which can pass in to the cells, the DNA, or whether or not other mechanisms cause the recording is unclear. (oseling.com)
  • Readers are directed to the excellent accompanying reviews in this issue which expertly discuss the clinical trials, cell biology, mechanisms of action, impact on inflammation, clinical applications, and so forth. (mdpi.com)
  • To understand the mechanisms responsible for poor lymphoid transformation, mutants expressing a v-Abl protein lacking portions of the COOH terminus were compared for their ability to transform pre-B cells. (asm.org)
  • Thus, this system may allow us to study the biology of HIV-1 latency, as well as the mechanisms of CD4 + T cell death following HIV-1 reactivation. (jimmunol.org)
  • During the contraction phase at the end of the immune response, the vast majority of activated CD4 + T cells die in response to intrinsic mechanisms triggered by Ag withdrawal and consequent decline of growth factors and Bcl-2, as well as extrinsic mechanisms involving Fas (CD95)-Fas ligand (CD178) interaction and caspase 3 activation ( 11 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Understanding of the mechanisms of latency is leading to novel approaches to destroy latently infected cells or inhibit reactivation from latency. (jci.org)
  • Although IL-2-independent growth in human T cell leukemia virus type I-transformed T cells is associated with constitutive phosphorylation of JAK/STAT kinases, we now demonstrate that different mechanisms may be responsible for the ability of HVS-transformed T cells to proliferate in the absence of exogenous cytokines. (cnrs.fr)
  • The biochemical mechanisms that induce target cell lysis in cell mediated cytotoxicity systems-cytotoxic T-lymphocytes, natural killer cells, natural cytotoxicity cells, antibody dependent cell mediated cytotoxicity systems, and cytotoxic activated macrophages-are unknown. (springer.com)
  • Utilizing molecular genetic techniques, we are now beginning to dissect the mechanisms responsible for viral and cancer-induced metabolic changes. (rochester.edu)
  • After 48 hours at 68 C (154.4 F), viral titers dropped from 10((8)) to two infectious particles/ml. (cdc.gov)
  • Chen's group previously invented a method to convert astroglial cells into neurons using viral particles. (medicalxpress.com)
  • The AAV particle standard that contains 3.6x10^9 viral particles was dissolved in 500µl as described in the protocol of the Progen AAV Titration ELISA and a absorption spectrum was measured. (igem.org)
  • These purified and concentrated viral particles could be used for biophysical measurements, there for the possibility to detect the viral particles by absorption was interesting for us. (igem.org)
  • Cell Transformation, Viral" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (childrensmercy.org)
  • Cytopathogenic Effect, Viral" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (umassmed.edu)
  • Neuroimmunomodulation of Reactions to Viral or Pseudoviral Antigens 13. (routledge.com)
  • In contrast, the response of cells expressing the CB 2 receptor may influence not only the responses in that cell, but may alter the course of the host innate and adaptive immune response to the pathogen, suppressing inflammation and the development of virus-specific cellular and humoral responses. (mdpi.com)
  • This has resulted in successful immune cell- or antibody-responses against glycolipids, with promising results having been obtained in clinical trials. (frontiersin.org)
  • Enhances TRAIL mediated apoptosis, suggesting that it might play a role in immune-mediated liver cell injury. (uniprot.org)
  • The immune system regulates the growth and differentiation of a variety of hematopoietic and lymphoid lineages through the production of a series of lymphokines by activated T cells. (springer.com)
  • To ensure its survival and maintain its B cell transformation function, EBV has developed powerful strategies to evade host immune responses. (springer.com)
  • Epstein-Barr virus microRNAs reduce immune surveillance by virus-specific CD8+T cells. (springer.com)
  • A balance is eventually struck between occasional viral reactivation and host immune surveillance removing cells that activate viral gene expression. (wikidoc.org)
  • Previous research, such as conventional stem cell therapy, requires brain surgery and therefore is much more invasive and prone to immune-system rejection and other problems. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Natural Killer cells are a crucial part of the innate immune system. (berkeley.edu)
  • Lymphocyte Transformation Induced by Autologous Cells XVI: Effect of Steroids on the Human AMLR Part III: Hormones, Aging, and the Immune Response 8. (routledge.com)
  • Cyclic Nucleotides in Neurohumoral and Hormonal Regulation of Cells of the Immune System 15. (routledge.com)
  • In consequence, infected cells are masked for immune recognition by cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (By similarity). (proteopedia.org)
  • Human fibroblasts whose lifespan in culture has been extended by expression of a viral oncogene eventually undergo a growth crisis marked by failure to proliferate. (isharonline.org)
  • Exposure of mammalian cells (transformed mouse fibroblasts or rat hepatoma cells) to S-adenosyl-1,8-diamino-3-thiooctane produced profound changes in the intracellular polyamine content. (nih.gov)
  • Transformation of fibroblasts by several retroviruses that produce transforming gene products associated with protein kinase activity results in the phosphorylation of a normal cellular protein with an Mr of 34,000 (the 34K protein). (biomedsearch.com)
  • The cell cultures studied were chick embryo fibroblasts (CEF), normal rat kidney cells infected with temperature-sensitive mutant (LA31-NRK) and a wild type RSV (B77-NRK). (unt.edu)
  • Inhibition of Src protein expression by small interfering RNA also induced apoptosis, indicating that these bone sarcoma cell lines are dependent on Src activity for survival. (aacrjournals.org)
  • 2005. Activation of CD40 in cervical carcinoma cells facilitates CTL responses and augments chemotherapy-induced apoptosis . (cardiff.ac.uk)
  • Production of IL-7 during the contraction phase promotes the establishment and maintenance of immunological memory through the up-regulation of Bcl-2 expression, which counteracts the intrinsic pathway of activated CD4 + T cell apoptosis ( 10 , 12 , 13 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Hence, they acquire various hallmarks during the process of tumor progression, such as self-sufficiency in growth signals, insensitivity to growth-inhibitory (antigrowth) signals, evasion of programmed cell death (apoptosis), limitless replicative potential, sustained angiogenesis, and tissue invasion and metastases [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Inhibits the action of at least three cellular tumor suppressors p53/ TP53 , RB1 and DLG1 , and suppresses their abilities to dictate apoptosis in primary cells. (rcsb.org)
  • In Ad2-infected KB cells, c-myc gene transcription was decreased. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In 293 cells and in three adenovirus-transformed hamster cell lines (T637, BHK21-Ad2E1A-E1B, and BHK21-Ad2 HindIII-G), the transcription of the c-jun gene was increased, whereas c-myc transcription was decreased in the latter two cell lines. (biomedsearch.com)
  • These results suggest major alterations in transcription patterns in adenovirus-infected and -transformed cells. (biomedsearch.com)
  • 3) Finding that a viral noncoding RNA can direct a host transcription factor to the viral DNA. (yale.edu)
  • As a result, there are textual errors in the captions for Fig 8, "Binding of EBNA2 to viral and host loci is influenced by EBNA-LP," and Fig 9, "EBNA-LP enhances binding of host transcription factors RBPJ and EBF1 to viral but not host promoters. (imperial.ac.uk)
  • Cells with transforming infections undergo immortalization and inherit the genetic material to produce tumors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cancer cells differ from normal cells by genetic, metabolic, and histological features. (hindawi.com)
  • A viral microRNA cluster strongly potentiates the transforming properties of a human herpesvirus. (nih.gov)
  • 2008. Epstein-Barr virusencoded microRNA miR-BART2 down-regulates the viral DNA polymerase BALF5. (springer.com)
  • A Viral microRNA Cluster Regulates the Expression of PTEN, p27 and of a bcl-2 Homolog. (ebscohost.com)
  • The invention further provides methods for making the antibodies in a non-human animal and for expressing the antibodies in cells. (google.com)
  • There is talk here of the possibility, once the secret of how the cell is triggered to manufacture antibodies is discovered, that a single vaccine may be developed to protect a child against many common infectious diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Type I Allergic Reaction: IgE antibodies fixed to mast cells react with the complete virus or with viral components b. (coursehero.com)
  • Additionally, factors that are associated with higher transmission risks include the presence of antibodies against the viral oncoprotein Tax (anti-Tax), a higher proviral load in peripheral blood lymphocytes, and increased cervicovaginal or seminal secretions. (scielo.br)
  • 5 However, the type of mutation suggested a different mechanism of action of mutant WT1 in differentiating hematopoietic cells compared with metanephric blastema. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Herpesvirus saimiri microRNAs Preferentially Target Host Cell-Cycle Regulators. (yale.edu)
  • EBV was recently found to encode microRNAs (miRNAs) that are expressed in infected B cells and in some EBV-associated lymphomas.Therefore, the BHRF1 miRNAs accelerate B cell expansion at lower latent gene expression levels.Thus, the EBV BHRF1 miRNAs may represent new therapeutic targets for the treatment of some EBV-associated lymphomas. (nih.gov)
  • EBV was recently found to encode microRNAs (miRNAs) that are expressed in infected B cells and in some EBV-associated lymphomas. (nih.gov)
  • In addition, EBV codes for at least twenty microRNAs which are expressed in latently infected cells. (wikidoc.org)
  • Here, we show that human T lymphocytes (HTL) can be stably transfected with SV40 large T and that expression of T antigen extended the life span of T cell cultures. (isharonline.org)
  • SV40 T-antigen-expressing human cells generally have an extension of lifespan until a period called 'crisis' begins. (isharonline.org)
  • EBV nuclear antigen 3C (EBNA3C) is an encoded latent antigen required for growth transformation of primary human B-lymphocytes. (ebscohost.com)
  • EBNA-1 possesses a glycine - alanine repeat that impairs antigen processing and MHC class I-restricted antigen presentation thereby inhibiting the CD8-restricted cytotoxic T-cell response against virus infected cells. (wikidoc.org)
  • Marek' disease virus serotype-1, also know as Gallid herpesvirus 2 (GaHV-2), elicits T-cell lymphomas in chickens. (nih.gov)
  • Three human betaherpesviruses, human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6), and HHV-7, establish latency in mononuclear cells and can reactivate to cause visceral disease. (jci.org)
  • Two human gammaherpesviruses, EBV and Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), establish latency in B cells. (jci.org)
  • The Confocal and Light Microscopy Core provides state-of-the-art imaging microscopy technology for fixed and live cells and tissues, along with scientific and technical expertise to assist in experimental design and optimal image collection. (dana-farber.org)
  • Cells Tissues Organs 189(1-4), pp. 268-274. (cardiff.ac.uk)
  • Cells and Tissues in Culture: Methods, Biology, and Physiology, Volume 3 focuses on the applications of the methods of tissue culture to various fields of investigation, including virology, immunology, and preventive medicine. (elsevier.com)
  • The selection first offers information on molecular organization of cells and tissues in culture and tissue culture in radiobiology. (elsevier.com)
  • The publication then considers the effects of invading organisms on cells and tissues in culture and cell, tissue, and organ cultures in virus research. (elsevier.com)
  • The selection is a vital source of data for readers interested in the culture of cells and tissues. (elsevier.com)
  • But when brain tissues are damaged by strokes or trauma, the astroglial cells react by multiplying-sometimes so much that they clog up the nervous system by forming a scar. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Current methods for introducing DNA and RNA into cells and tissues include viral transformation, lipofection, electroporation, direct injection through microcapillaries, and biolistics. (jneurosci.org)
  • Expression of WT1 is highest during embryogenesis, where it is found in multipotent progenitor cells of a restricted range of tissues, mainly in the genitourinary system. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Possibly the salt remedy contributes for the reality that repel among the negatively charged DNA plus the negatively charged cell membrane much less? (mito-hollyhock.net)
  • Possibly the salt treatment contributes to the fact that repel amongst the negatively charged DNA and the negatively charged cell membrane much less? (oseling.com)
  • Possibly the salt therapy contributes towards the truth that repel amongst the negatively charged DNA along with the negatively charged cell membrane much less? (attorneyone.com)
  • The phage can then penetrate the cell membrane and inject the viral DNA into the host cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Moreover, gangliosides are actively released from the membrane of tumor cells, having a strong impact on impairing anti-tumor immunity. (frontiersin.org)
  • A particular subclass of glycolipids is the gangliosides, which are sialylated GSLs mainly expressed in the outer layer of the plasma membrane of essentially all vertebrate cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • E1 and E2 glycoproteins form a heterodimer that is involved in virus attachment to the host cell, virion internalization through clathrin-dependent endocytosis and fusion with host membrane. (uniprot.org)
  • It includes shutdown of cellular RNA and protein synthesis, cell fusion, release of lysosomal enzymes, changes in cell membrane permeability, diffuse changes in intracellular structures, presence of viral inclusion bodies, and chromosomal aberrations. (umassmed.edu)
  • In HeLa cells, pm1722 replicated as well as wild-type virus but produced an extreme cytopathic effect and fragmentation of host-cell DNA. (nih.gov)
  • Identification of a 39,000-dalton protein in cells transformed by the FBJ murine osteosarcoma virus. (childrensmercy.org)
  • A recently published study evaluated the thermostability of murine retroviruses inocculated into factor concentrates, using a cell transformation assay (5). (cdc.gov)
  • Further, this targeting results in inhibition of viral protein production. (pnas.org)
  • This inhibition of Src signaling was accompanied by blockade of cell migration and invasion. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Of the diverse sarcoma subtypes studied, osteosarcoma cell lines were found to be particularly sensitive to IGF-IR inhibition, including several multidrug resistant osteosarcoma cell lines with documented resistance to various conventional anticancer drugs. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Our data suggest that inhibition of IGF-IR with PPP offers a novel and selective therapeutic strategy for ostosarcoma, and at the same time, PPP is effective at reversing the drug-resistant phenotype in osteosarcoma cell lines. (aacrjournals.org)
  • These studies indicated that the inhibition of RSV is in the early stage of viral growth, possible penetration or uncoating. (unt.edu)
  • The inhibition of cell growth was even greater than that for sphere formation after E6 silence, suggesting that the loss of self-renewing ability may be more important. (nature.com)
  • Interacts with, and activates STAT3 leading to cellular transformation. (uniprot.org)
  • Loss of cell cycle control can result in pathological processes such as cellular transformation (reviewed in reference 47 ). (asm.org)
  • Illicit dmage to host via: Cell Lysis, production of toxic substances, cellular transformation, indirect production of toxic substances, and host cell alterations (nuclear and cytoplasmic). (coursehero.com)
  • In contrast to these factors, which primarily act on mature cells, interleukin-3 (IL-3) acts on relatively immature hematopoietic/lymphoid cells. (springer.com)
  • Interleukin-3 regulation of the growth of normal and transformed hematopoietic cells: Cancer Cells 3/Growth Factors and Transformation. (springer.com)
  • Chronic myeloid leukemia is a myeloproliferative disorder that may be treated with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). (hindawi.com)
  • These results indicate that S-adenosyl-1,8-diamino-3-thiooctane is taken up by mammalian cells and is an effective inhibitor of spermidine synthase in vivo and that S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase is regulated by the content of spermidine, but not of spermine. (nih.gov)
  • Through this process, a virus causes harmful transformations of an in vivo cell or cell culture. (wikipedia.org)
  • In Vivo Direct Reprogramming of Reactive Glial Cells into Functional Neurons after Brain Injury and in an Alzheimer's Disease Model, Cell Stem Cell (2014). (medicalxpress.com)
  • In complementation assays using mouse marrow progenitor cells, the ability of transformation‐defective SH2 domain BCR/ABL mutants to induce growth factor‐independent colony formation and leukemia in SCID mice was markedly enhanced by expression of constitutively active Akt. (embopress.org)
  • 2016. Clonal heterogeneity in the neuronal and glial differentiation of dental pulp stem/progenitor cells . (cardiff.ac.uk)
  • 3 In the adult, expression of this tissue-specific gene continues in specific cell types of the kidney and gonad and, at much lower levels, in the bone marrow, where it is confined to CD34 + progenitor cells. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Natural transformations can include viral cancers, such as human papillomavirus (HPV) and T-cell Leukemia virus type I. Hepatitis B and C are also the result of natural viral transformation of the host cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Proteomics and Transcriptomics of BJAB Cells Expressing the Epstein-Barr Virus Noncoding RNAs EBER1 and EBER2. (yale.edu)
  • Viral noncoding RNAs: more surprises. (yale.edu)
  • Here we show that B-cells infected by a virus that lacks these non-coding RNAs (Î"123) grew more slowly. (ebscohost.com)
  • Cytopathic Effects, often include a change in cell's morphology such as fusion with adjacent cells to form polykaryocytes as well as the synthesis of nuclear and cytoplasmic inclusion bodies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Automated chemical synthesis of a protein growth factor for hemopoietic cells, interleukin 3. (springer.com)
  • The disclosure relates to a method of inhibiting synthesis of viral DNA in a mammal infected with a hepatitis B virus. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • It also includes inhibiting hepatitis B viral DNA synthesis in the mammal using the Phyllanthus component or substance. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Growth Factor Synthesis by a Human Teratocarcinoma cell line: Implications for Autocrine Growth in the Human Embryo? (indigo.ca)
  • 36. A method according to claim 31, wherein the hepatitis B virus comprises a hepatitis B virus having one or more mutations in a viral reverse transcriptase gene. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Human Papillomaviruses Preferentially Recruit DNA Repair Factors to Viral Genomes for Rapid Repair and Amplification. (nih.gov)
  • She was a faculty member at The Salk Institute for Biological Studies where she worked on viral transformation and cellular immortalization of cancer cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2 ) reported that cells harboring the provirus in clinical samples were found at frequency considerably higher than cells expressing viral RNA, thus providing the first indirect evidence for the existence of latently infected cells in HIV-1 patients. (jimmunol.org)
  • Currently, the study of HIV-1 latency relies primarily on clinical samples and chronically infected cell lines, which present severe limitations such as the very low frequency of latently infected cells in the former and the lack of physiological relevance of the latter (for a review see Ref. 8 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Mathematical models for HSV ( 1 ) and EBV ( 2 ) reactivation from chronic carriers estimate that reactivation is a frequent event, but only a very small percentage of latently infected cells reactivate at any one time. (jci.org)
  • Herpesviruses that maintain latency in dividing cells (e.g. (jci.org)
  • Noncoding RNA-protein complexes (ncRNPs) are ubiquitous in eukaryotic cells and inhabit specific cellular compartments. (yale.edu)
  • Cyclin D/Cdk4 complexes phosphorylate the retinoblastoma gene product (pRb) early in the G 1 phase of the cell cycle, while cyclin E/Cdk2 complexes phosphorylate pRb in late G 1 . (asm.org)
  • In this manner, cyclin/Cdk complexes are pivotal in regulating the progression of the cell cycle (reviewed in references 48 and 49 ). (asm.org)
  • The C-terminal region of E1A suppresses E1A/Ras co-transformation and interacts with FOXK1/K2, DYRK1A/1B/HAN11 and CtBP1/2 (CtBP) protein complexes. (osti.gov)
  • However, the aberrant and elevated expression of gangliosides has been also observed in different types of cancer cells, thereby promoting tumor survival. (frontiersin.org)
  • Differentially expressed tumor-associated carbohydrates represent a general phenomenon observed in many types of cancer cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • The role of activated marcophages in specific and nonspecific cytostasis of tumor cells. (springer.com)
  • Krahenbuhl, J.L. Effects of activated macrophages of tumor target cells in discrete phases of the cell cycle. (springer.com)
  • Mechanism of macrophage-mediated tumor cell cytotoxicity. (springer.com)
  • Presence of allograft- rejection resistance in simian virus 40-transformed hamster cells and its possible role in tumor development. (springer.com)
  • Insulin-like growth factor-I receptor (IGF-IR) is an important mediator of tumor cell survival and shows prognostic significance in sarcoma. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Accumulating evidence supports the concept that cancer stem cells (CSCs) are responsible for tumor initiation and maintenance. (nature.com)
  • The concept of cancer stem cells (CSCs) is that tumors contain a small proportion of self-renewal and pluripotent cancer cells that are responsible for tumor initiation and maintenance. (nature.com)
  • Plasma Epstein-Barr viral deoxyribonucleic acid quantitation complements tumor-node-metastasis staging prognostication in nasopharyngeal carcinoma. (medscape.com)
  • When the culture temperature of tsA SV40-transformed cells was shifted from 34 to 39.5 degrees C at 51 PDL, the growth curve of these transformed cells changed to that of normal young cells. (isharonline.org)
  • An inheritable change in cells manifested by changes in cell division and growth and alterations in cell surface properties. (childrensmercy.org)
  • The growth of SV-3T3 cells was substantially reduced in the presence of S-adenosyl-1,8-diamino-3-thiooctane at concentrations of 50 microM or greater. (nih.gov)
  • Viral transformation is the change in growth, phenotype, or indefinite reproduction of cells caused by the introduction of inheritable material. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cells that have been virally transformed can be differentiated from untransformed cells through a variety of growth, surface, and intracellular observations. (wikipedia.org)
  • The growth of transformed cells can be impacted by a loss of growth limitation caused by cell contact, less oriented growth, and high saturation density. (wikipedia.org)
  • B cells exposed to the knock-out virus displayed slower growth, and exhibited a two-fold reduction in the percentage of cells entering the cell cycle S phase. (nih.gov)
  • The cell cycle is tightly regulated to control cell growth. (asm.org)
  • Biological properties of homogeneous interleukin 3: I. Demonstration of WEHI-3 growth factor activity, mast cell growth factor activity, P-cell stimulating factor activity, colony stimulating factor activity. (springer.com)
  • Isolation and characterization of a mouse cDNA clone that expresses mast cell growth factor activity in monkey cells. (springer.com)
  • Topics include cellular organization at the molecular level, fibrogenesis in tissue culture, effect of radiation on the growth of isolated cells, and irradiation of the selected parts of the cell. (elsevier.com)
  • We have identified a number of kinases that appear to be specifically required for the growth of the HPV+ cells and we are investigating their potential suitability as therapeutic targets for HPV-associated cancers. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • Most of the protein kinases of the retroviruses are Tyr protein kinases, such as v-src and v-erb, which may contribute to the growth transformation phenotype of the virally infected host cells (for a review, see reference 32 ). (asm.org)
  • The growth transformation of these cell lines is the consequence of viral protein expression. (wikidoc.org)
  • 3 4 These cells release numerous lymphokines, cytokines, immunoglobulins, growth factors, and inflammatory mediators, which can be identified by immunohistochemistry. (bmj.com)
  • Growth kinetics of prostate cancer cells are conducted by MTT assay. (prohealth.com)
  • Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) is a very common virus that causes the growth of abnormal tissue or cells on body skin. (kenyon.edu)
  • Using a sphere culture method that favors the growth of self-renewal cells, we have isolated sphere-forming cells (SFCs) from cervical cancer cell lines HeLa and SiHa. (nature.com)
  • HeLa-SFCs were resistant to multiple chemotherapeutic drugs and were more tumorigenic, as evidenced by the growth of tumors following injection of immunodeficient mice with 1 × 10 4 cells, compared with 1 × 10 6 parental HeLa cells required to grow tumors of similar size in the same time frame. (nature.com)
  • Gene silencing of E6 with a lentiviral-short-hairpin RNA (shRNA) profoundly inhibited HeLa-SFC sphere formation and cell growth. (nature.com)
  • 10 For RNAi-based cancer therapy, oncogenes are obviously ideal targets, as they are the driving force of cancer cell growth and are highly expressed in cancer cells. (nature.com)
  • We deleted this invR sequence and showed that this abolished the ability of the virus to transform human B cells into lymphoblastoid cell lines. (imperial.ac.uk)
  • We found that E1A-CtBP interaction suppresses immortalization and transformation. (osti.gov)
  • C4h is not found in cells such as lymphocytes and oncogenically transformed mesenchymal cells where actin stress fiber bundles are reduced in number or absent. (rupress.org)
  • A recombinant virus containing the meqFos gene in place of parental meq, rMd5-MeqFos, was not capable of transforming chicken lymphocytes, indicating that heterodimerization of Meq alone is not sufficient for transformation. (nih.gov)
  • However, unlike the other known TNF receptor family members, OX40 has a restricted cellular expression only on activated lymphocytes, predominantly CD4 + T cells ( 3 , 5 , 6 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • The latent programs reprogram and subvert infected B-lymphocytes to proliferate and bring infected cells to the sites at which the virus presumably persists. (wikidoc.org)
  • We further demonstrated that HeLa-SFCs expressed a higher level (6.9-fold) of the human papillomavirus oncogene E6, compared with that of parental HeLa cells. (nature.com)
  • Jenuwein T, Müller D, Curran T, Müller R. Extended life span and tumorigenicity of nonestablished mouse connective tissue cells transformed by the fos oncogene of FBR-MuSV. (childrensmercy.org)
  • The cellular counterpart of viral Src , denoted as c-Src, was the first proto-oncogene to be identified ( 10 - 13 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • These results suggest that p27 +/− mammary epithelium may be more susceptible to oncogene-induced tumorigenesis, whereas p27 -null glands, due to severely impaired cyclin D1/Cdk4 function, are more resistant to transformation. (asm.org)
  • Clinical & Basic Biochemistry, Clinical Immunology, Molecular Biology with major contribution in liver diseases (Viral Hepatitis). (aiims.edu)
  • Here, we show that FnCas9 can be directed by an engineered RNA-targeting guide RNA to target and inhibit a human +ssRNA virus, hepatitis C virus, within eukaryotic cells. (pnas.org)
  • When they are back to normal these cells no longer contain the viral DNA ( 9 ). (nobelprize.org)
  • C4h expression can also be blocked by switching normal nontransformed mesenchymal cells from adherent to suspension culture. (rupress.org)
  • Reexpression of C4h occurs 24 h after these cells are returned to normal adherent culture conditions, but can be blocked by either actinomycin D or cycloheximide, suggesting that the expression of this epitope is regulated at the transcriptional level. (rupress.org)
  • To determine if this Stat3 activation by Src could induce Stat3-mediated gene expression, luciferase reporter constructs based on synthetic and authentic promoters were transfected into NIH 3T3 cells. (asm.org)
  • Therefore, the BHRF1 miRNAs accelerate B cell expansion at lower latent gene expression levels. (nih.gov)
  • Recent recognition that the BHRF1 protein is important for B cell transformation prompted us to assess expression of this gene [18]. (nih.gov)
  • p27 Kip1 has classically been regarded as a cell cycle inhibitor based on its potent inhibitory activity of cyclin E/Cdk2 ( 42 ) and the observation that its forced expression results in G 1 arrest (reviewed in reference 49 ). (asm.org)
  • High efficiency plastid transformation in potato and regulation of transgene expression in leaves and tubers by alternative 5? (cnr.it)
  • It also includes inhibiting expression of at least one hepatitis B viral gene in the mammal using the Phyllanthus component or substance. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • In fact their expression could be renewed in hetero-karyons formed by fusing transformed cells with permissive cells ( 10 , 11 ), a result that gave the first evidence that the viral functions are under the control of cellular functions. (nobelprize.org)
  • In a T cell line, OX40 surface expression was shown to be induced by HTLV-I Tax alone. (jimmunol.org)
  • In addition, we show that in the OX40 + cell line, Co, Tax is able to further increase OX40 surface expression. (jimmunol.org)
  • T cell transformation requires the HTLV-I Tax oncoprotein, which is the activator of viral gene expression. (jimmunol.org)
  • The OX40L promoter was shown to be activated by the Tax oncoprotein ( 32 ) and expression of Tax in the OX40-negative T cell line, Jurkat, results in OX40 surface expression ( 33 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Thus, in these cells we observed increased phosphotransferase activity of Lck as well as constitutive tyrosine phosphorylation of the TCR-associated ZAP-70 kinase and expression of the related Syk protein tyrosine kinase. (cnrs.fr)
  • These studies show that PPP significantly inhibits IGF-IR expression and activation in both chemotherapy-sensitive and chemotherapy-resistant osteosarcoma cell lines. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Importantly, PPP increases the cytotoxic effects of doxorubicin in doxorubicin-resistant osteosarcoma cell lines U-2OS MR and KHOS MR . Furthermore, small interfering RNA down-regulation of IGF-IR expression in drug-resistant cell lines also caused resensitization to doxorubicin. (aacrjournals.org)
  • It is also postulated that a program in which all viral protein expression is shut off exists. (wikidoc.org)
  • The virus infects the basal cells of the dermal layer, and early gene expression can be detected in these cells (in situ hybridization). (kenyon.edu)
  • These cells showed an expression pattern of CD44 high /CD24 low that resembles the CSC surface biomarker of breast cancer. (nature.com)
  • Cultured "hairy cells" infected with Epstein-Barr virus: evidence for B-lymphocyte origin. (ebscohost.com)
  • Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is linked to a broad spectrum of B-cell malignancies. (ebscohost.com)
  • Pathmanathan R, Prasad U, Sadler R, Flynn K, Raab-Traub N. Clonal proliferations of cells infected with Epstein-Barr virus in preinvasive lesions related to nasopharyngeal carcinoma. (medscape.com)
  • The mutant virus dl1520, a double mutant unable to synthesize the 495R protein, was also extremely defective for the transformation of CREF cells in virion- and viral DNA-mediated assays. (nih.gov)
  • There are three types of persistent infections, latent, chronic and slow, in which the virus stays inside the host cell for prolonged periods of time. (wikipedia.org)
  • In order for a cell to be transformed by a virus, the viral DNA must be entered into the host cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • A virus is a parasite that must infect a living cell to reproduce. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Thus, this miRNA cluster simultaneously enhances expansion of the virus reservoir and reduces the viral antigenic load, two features that have the potential to facilitate persistence of the virus in the infected host. (nih.gov)
  • Thought to play a role in virus-mediated cell transformation leading to hepatocellular carcinomas. (uniprot.org)
  • My project involved investigating T cell response to human papilloma virus (HPV) and focused on identifying cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) epitopes from HPV. (cardiff.ac.uk)
  • In their resting state, HIV-1-infected cells do not actively replicate the virus, which remains dormant for extended periods of time ( 16 , 17 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • The first results, crucial for future developments, showed that polyoma virus could be assayed in certain cell cultures ( 1 ), which we call permissive, and could induce a cancer-like state in other cultures ( 2 , 3 ) in which the virus does not grow, which we call non-permissive. (nobelprize.org)
  • Integration is one of the key events in virus induced cell transformation. (nobelprize.org)
  • In 1960, Sweet and Hilleman discovered a new virus in cultures of kidney cells of rhesus monkeys, producing vaccines to poliovirus [ 3 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • It is the only costimulatory T cell molecule known to be specifically up-regulated in human T cell leukemia virus type-I (HTLV-I)-producing cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • Both OX40 and OX40L are constitutively expressed on human T cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I)-producing T cell lines ( 3 , 10 , 11 , 12 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Cook J.L., Hibbs, J.B., Jr., and A.M. Lewis, Jr. Resistance of simian virus 40-transformed hamster cells to the cytolytic, effect of activated macrophages: A possible factor in species- specific viral oncogenicity. (springer.com)
  • In Felix's case, the virus was preventing her bone marrow from producing red blood cells and she became severely anemic as a result. (petfinder.com)
  • Poliovirus-wild type infects intestinal cells/neurons Note: Most virus gain entry to the body via the respiratory pathway (lungs). (coursehero.com)
  • Virus (or viral component)-Complement fixation to the cell. (coursehero.com)
  • Human chorionic gonodotropin (HCG) affected in various ways cell cultures infected with strains of Rous sarcoma virus (RSV). (unt.edu)
  • these have been associated with the transmission of several known viral agents, including cytomegalovirus, hepatitis B virus, and the virus(es) of non-A, non-B hepatitis (9). (cdc.gov)
  • Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is endemic in many parts of the world and is primarily transmitted through sexual intercourse or from mother to child. (scielo.br)
  • Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) and human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 2 (HTLV-2) belong to the Retroviridae family and the genus deltaretrovirus. (scielo.br)
  • The Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type (HTLV) retrovirus is the causative agent of HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP), adult T-cell leukemia (ATL), uveitis, infective dermatitis, inflammatory disorders, and emerging syndromes that are associated with HTLV 6 - 9 . (scielo.br)
  • These results suggest that distinct signal transduction cascades can participate in the transition of T cells to IL-2 independence. (cnrs.fr)
  • Two groups of viral protein kinase activities, US3 and UL13, have been identified in alphaherpesviruses. (asm.org)
  • The anti-inflammatory activity of cannabinoids may compromise host inflammatory responses to acute viral infections, but may be beneficial in persistent infections. (mdpi.com)
  • This review examines the effect(s) of cannabinoids and their antagonists in viral infections. (mdpi.com)
  • This review will focus on viral infections of mammals, but will also describe what is known about other infections. (mdpi.com)
  • There are three types of viral infections that can be considered under the topic of viral transformation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Persistent infections involve viral material that lays dormant within a cell until activated by some stimulus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since the term cytocidal, or cytolytic, refers to cell death, these three infections are not mutually exclusive. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transformation infections is limited to abortive or restrictive infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • Viral transformation is most commonly understood as transforming infections, so the remainder of the article focuses on detailing transforming infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • These results show that dasatinib inhibits migration and invasion of diverse sarcoma cell types and selectively blocks the survival of bone sarcoma cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • this interaction inhibits TAX to transactivate viral long terminal repeat (LTR) promoter (PubMed:14679154). (rcsb.org)
  • Right here, the bacterial cells to accommodate foreign DNA to bringen.Bei is made from the all-natural competence benefit, some bacteria, which include Escherichia coli is, even so, no all-natural abilities to ensure that preparatory steps for the transformation necessary sind.Die simplest method of transformation could be the use chemically competent cells. (mito-hollyhock.net)
  • Right here, the bacterial cells to accommodate foreign DNA to bringen.Bei is created from the natural competence advantage, some bacteria, similar to Escherichia coli is, having said that, no all-natural expertise in order that preparatory steps for the transformation crucial sind.Die simplest procedure of transformation will be the use chemically competent cells. (attorneyone.com)