Cell Transformation, Neoplastic: Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.Cell Transformation, Viral: An inheritable change in cells manifested by changes in cell division and growth and alterations in cell surface properties. It is induced by infection with a transforming virus.Transformation, Genetic: Change brought about to an organisms genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (TRANSFECTION; TRANSDUCTION, GENETIC; CONJUGATION, GENETIC, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell's genome.Transformation, Bacterial: The heritable modification of the properties of a competent bacterium by naked DNA from another source. The uptake of naked DNA is a naturally occuring phenomenon in some bacteria. It is often used as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.Cell Line, Transformed: Eukaryotic cell line obtained in a quiescent or stationary phase which undergoes conversion to a state of unregulated growth in culture, resembling an in vitro tumor. It occurs spontaneously or through interaction with viruses, oncogenes, radiation, or drugs/chemicals.Oncogene Protein p65(gag-jun): Transforming protein coded by jun oncogenes (GENES, JUN). This is a gag-onc fusion protein of about 65 kDa derived from avian sarcoma virus. v-jun lacks a negative regulatory domain that regulates transcription in c-jun.3T3 Cells: Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Genes, ras: Family of retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (ras) originally isolated from Harvey (H-ras, Ha-ras, rasH) and Kirsten (K-ras, Ki-ras, rasK) murine sarcoma viruses. Ras genes are widely conserved among animal species and sequences corresponding to both H-ras and K-ras genes have been detected in human, avian, murine, and non-vertebrate genomes. The closely related N-ras gene has been detected in human neuroblastoma and sarcoma cell lines. All genes of the family have a similar exon-intron structure and each encodes a p21 protein.Oncogene Protein pp60(v-src): A tyrosine-specific protein kinase encoded by the v-src oncogene of ROUS SARCOMA VIRUS. The transforming activity of pp60(v-src) depends on both the lack of a critical carboxy-terminal tyrosine phosphorylation site at position 527, and the attachment of pp60(v-src) to the plasma membrane which is accomplished by myristylation of its N-terminal glycine.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Oncogenes: Genes whose gain-of-function alterations lead to NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION. They include, for example, genes for activators or stimulators of CELL PROLIFERATION such as growth factors, growth factor receptors, protein kinases, signal transducers, nuclear phosphoproteins, and transcription factors. A prefix of "v-" before oncogene symbols indicates oncogenes captured and transmitted by RETROVIRUSES; the prefix "c-" before the gene symbol of an oncogene indicates it is the cellular homolog (PROTO-ONCOGENES) of a v-oncogene.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Oncogene Proteins, Viral: Products of viral oncogenes, most commonly retroviral oncogenes. They usually have transforming and often protein kinase activities.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.NIH 3T3 Cells: A continuous cell line of high contact-inhibition established from NIH Swiss mouse embryo cultures. The cells are useful for DNA transfection and transformation studies. (From ATCC [Internet]. Virginia: American Type Culture Collection; c2002 [cited 2002 Sept 26]. Available from http://www.atcc.org/)Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Antigens, Polyomavirus Transforming: Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Transcription Factor AP-1: A multiprotein complex composed of the products of c-jun and c-fos proto-oncogenes. These proteins must dimerize in order to bind to the AP-1 recognition site, also known as the TPA-responsive element (TRE). AP-1 controls both basal and inducible transcription of several genes.Carcinogens: Substances that increase the risk of NEOPLASMS in humans or animals. Both genotoxic chemicals, which affect DNA directly, and nongenotoxic chemicals, which induce neoplasms by other mechanism, are included.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Avian Sarcoma Viruses: Group of alpharetroviruses (ALPHARETROVIRUS) producing sarcomata and other tumors in chickens and other fowl and also in pigeons, ducks, and RATS.Oncogene Protein p21(ras): Transforming protein encoded by ras oncogenes. Point mutations in the cellular ras gene (c-ras) can also result in a mutant p21 protein that can transform mammalian cells. Oncogene protein p21(ras) has been directly implicated in human neoplasms, perhaps accounting for as much as 15-20% of all human tumors. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.ras Proteins: Small, monomeric GTP-binding proteins encoded by ras genes (GENES, RAS). The protooncogene-derived protein, PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN P21(RAS), plays a role in normal cellular growth, differentiation and development. The oncogene-derived protein (ONCOGENE PROTEIN P21(RAS)) can play a role in aberrant cellular regulation during neoplastic cell transformation (CELL TRANSFORMATION, NEOPLASTIC). This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.Chick Embryo: The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.BALB 3T3 Cells: Cell lines developed from disaggregated BALB/c mouse embryos. They are extremely sensitive to CONTACT INHIBITION, and highly susceptible to transformation by SV40 VIRUS and murine sarcoma virus (SARCOMA VIRUSES, MURINE).Genes, src: Retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (src) originally isolated from the Rous sarcoma virus (RSV). The proto-oncogene src (c-src) codes for a protein that is a member of the tyrosine kinase family and was the first proto-oncogene identified in the human genome. The human c-src gene is located at 20q12-13 on the long arm of chromosome 20.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Oncogene Protein p55(v-myc): Transforming protein coded by myc oncogenes. The v-myc protein has been found in several replication-defective avian retrovirus isolates which induce a broad spectrum of malignancies.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-myc: Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-myc genes. They are normally involved in nucleic acid metabolism and in mediating the cellular response to growth factors. Elevated and deregulated (constitutive) expression of c-myc proteins can cause tumorigenesis.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Mesocricetus: A genus of the family Muridae having three species. The present domesticated strains were developed from individuals brought from Syria. They are widely used in biomedical research.Bovine papillomavirus 4: A type of XIPAPILLOMAVIRUS causing alimentary carcinoma in cattle. It is related to Bovine papillomavirus 3.Antigens, Viral, Tumor: Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.Proto-Oncogene Proteins: Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Mice, Nude: Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.7,8-Dihydro-7,8-dihydroxybenzo(a)pyrene 9,10-oxide: 7,8,8a,9a-Tetrahydrobenzo(10,11)chryseno (3,4-b)oxirene-7,8-diol. A benzopyrene derivative with carcinogenic and mutagenic activity.Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus: A BETARETROVIRUS that causes pulmonary adenomatosis in sheep (PULMONARY ADENOMATOSIS, OVINE).Epidermal Growth Factor: A 6-kDa polypeptide growth factor initially discovered in mouse submaxillary glands. Human epidermal growth factor was originally isolated from urine based on its ability to inhibit gastric secretion and called urogastrone. Epidermal growth factor exerts a wide variety of biological effects including the promotion of proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal and EPITHELIAL CELLS. It is synthesized as a transmembrane protein which can be cleaved to release a soluble active form.Polyomavirus: A genus of potentially oncogenic viruses of the family POLYOMAVIRIDAE. These viruses are normally present in their natural hosts as latent infections. The virus is oncogenic in hosts different from the species of origin.Oncogene Proteins v-raf: A family of transforming proteins isolated from retroviruses such as MOUSE SARCOMA VIRUSES. They are viral-derived members of the raf-kinase family of serine-theonine kinases.Oncogene Protein v-maf: An oncogene protein that was originally isolated from a spontaneous musculo-aponeurotic FIBROSARCOMA in CHICKEN and shown to be the transforming gene of the avian retrovirus AS42. It is a basic leucine zipper TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR and the founding member of the MAF TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Retroviridae Proteins, Oncogenic: Retroviral proteins that have the ability to transform cells. They can induce sarcomas, leukemias, lymphomas, and mammary carcinomas. Not all retroviral proteins are oncogenic.Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinases, 90-kDa: A family of ribosomal protein S6 kinases that are structurally distinguished from RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 KINASES, 70-KDA by their apparent molecular size and the fact they contain two functional kinase domains. Although considered RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 KINASES, members of this family are activated via the MAP KINASE SIGNALING SYSTEM and have been shown to act on a diverse array of substrates that are involved in cellular regulation such as RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 and CAMP RESPONSE ELEMENT-BINDING PROTEIN.Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 3: A cyclin-dependent kinase that forms a complex with CYCLIN C and is active during the G1 PHASE of the CELL CYCLE. It plays a role in the transition from G1 to S PHASE and in transcriptional regulation.Tumor Suppressor Protein p53: Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.Simian virus 40: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Contact Inhibition: Arrest of cell locomotion or cell division when two cells come into contact.Genes, myc: Family of retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (myc) originally isolated from an avian myelocytomatosis virus. The proto-oncogene myc (c-myc) codes for a nuclear protein which is involved in nucleic acid metabolism and in mediating the cellular response to growth factors. Truncation of the first exon, which appears to regulate c-myc expression, is crucial for tumorigenicity. The human c-myc gene is located at 8q24 on the long arm of chromosome 8.Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Tetradecanoylphorbol Acetate: A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL with very effective tumor promoting activity. It stimulates the synthesis of both DNA and RNA.Adenovirus E1A Proteins: Proteins transcribed from the E1A genome region of ADENOVIRUSES which are involved in positive regulation of transcription of the early genes of host infection.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-jun: Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-jun genes (GENES, JUN). They are involved in growth-related transcriptional control. There appear to be three distinct functions: dimerization (with c-fos), DNA-binding, and transcriptional activation. Oncogenic transformation can take place by constitutive expression of c-jun.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Transcriptional Activation: Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.Bovine papillomavirus 1: A species of DELTAPAPILLOMAVIRUS infecting cattle.Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Proto-Oncogene Proteins p21(ras): Cellular proteins encoded by the H-ras, K-ras and N-ras genes. The proteins have GTPase activity and are involved in signal transduction as monomeric GTP-binding proteins. Elevated levels of p21 c-ras have been associated with neoplasia. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.Embryo, Mammalian: The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Cation Exchange Resins: High molecular weight insoluble polymers which contain functional anionic groups that are capable of undergoing exchange reactions with cations.PhosphoproteinsCricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Proto-Oncogenes: Normal cellular genes homologous to viral oncogenes. The products of proto-oncogenes are important regulators of biological processes and appear to be involved in the events that serve to maintain the ordered procession through the cell cycle. Proto-oncogenes have names of the form c-onc.Retroviridae: Family of RNA viruses that infects birds and mammals and encodes the enzyme reverse transcriptase. The family contains seven genera: DELTARETROVIRUS; LENTIVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE B, MAMMALIAN; ALPHARETROVIRUS; GAMMARETROVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE D; and SPUMAVIRUS. A key feature of retrovirus biology is the synthesis of a DNA copy of the genome which is integrated into cellular DNA. After integration it is sometimes not expressed but maintained in a latent state (PROVIRUSES).Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Methylnitronitrosoguanidine: A nitrosoguanidine derivative with potent mutagenic and carcinogenic properties.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases: Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Retroviridae Proteins: Proteins from the family Retroviridae. The most frequently encountered member of this family is the Rous sarcoma virus protein.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.DNA Transformation Competence: The ability of bacterial cells to take up exogenous DNA and be genetically transformed by it.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Mammary Glands, Human: Glandular tissue in the BREAST of human that is under the influence of hormones such as ESTROGENS; PROGESTINS; and PROLACTIN. In WOMEN, after PARTURITION, the mammary glands secrete milk (MILK, HUMAN) for the nourishment of the young.Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced new abnormal growth of TISSUES in animals to provide models for studying human neoplasms.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A superfamily of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that are activated by diverse stimuli via protein kinase cascades. They are the final components of the cascades, activated by phosphorylation by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES, which in turn are activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES).Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Sarcoma Viruses, Murine: A group of replication-defective viruses, in the genus GAMMARETROVIRUS, which are capable of transforming cells, but which replicate and produce tumors only in the presence of Murine leukemia viruses (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE).Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Carcinogenicity Tests: Tests to experimentally measure the tumor-producing/cancer cell-producing potency of an agent by administering the agent (e.g., benzanthracenes) and observing the quantity of tumors or the cell transformation developed over a given period of time. The carcinogenicity value is usually measured as milligrams of agent administered per tumor developed. Though this test differs from the DNA-repair and bacterial microsome MUTAGENICITY TESTS, researchers often attempt to correlate the finding of carcinogenicity values and mutagenicity values.Genes, Viral: The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.Papillomavirus E7 Proteins: ONCOGENE PROTEINS from papillomavirus that deregulate the CELL CYCLE of infected cells and lead to NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION. Papillomavirus E7 proteins have been shown to interact with various regulators of the cell cycle including RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN and certain cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors.Adenovirus E1B Proteins: Proteins transcribed from the E1B region of ADENOVIRUSES which are involved in regulation of the levels of early and late viral gene expression.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.HMGA1a Protein: An 11-kDa AT-hook motif-containing (AT-HOOK MOTIFS) protein that binds to the minor grove of AT-rich regions of DNA. It is the full-length product of the alternatively-spliced HMGA1 gene and may function as an architectural chromatin binding protein that is involved in transcriptional regulation.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fos: Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-fos genes (GENES, FOS). They are involved in growth-related transcriptional control. c-fos combines with c-jun (PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-JUN) to form a c-fos/c-jun heterodimer (TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1) that binds to the TRE (TPA-responsive element) in promoters of certain genes.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Arsenites: Inorganic salts or organic esters of arsenious acid.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Adenoviruses, Human: Species of the genus MASTADENOVIRUS, causing a wide range of diseases in humans. Infections are mostly asymptomatic, but can be associated with diseases of the respiratory, ocular, and gastrointestinal systems. Serotypes (named with Arabic numbers) have been grouped into species designated Human adenovirus A-F.Oncogene Proteins: Proteins coded by oncogenes. They include proteins resulting from the fusion of an oncogene and another gene (ONCOGENE PROTEINS, FUSION).Clone Cells: A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Abelson murine leukemia virus: A replication-defective strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) capable of transforming lymphoid cells and producing a rapidly progressing lymphoid leukemia after superinfection with FRIEND MURINE LEUKEMIA VIRUS; MOLONEY MURINE LEUKEMIA VIRUS; or RAUSCHER VIRUS.Oncogene Proteins v-fos: Transforming proteins coded by fos oncogenes. These proteins have been found in the Finkel-Biskis-Jinkins (FBJ-MSV) and Finkel-Biskis-Reilly (FBR-MSV) murine sarcoma viruses which induce osteogenic sarcomas in mice. The FBJ-MSV v-fos gene encodes a p55-kDa protein and the FBR-MSV v-fos gene encodes a p75-kDa fusion protein.Cyclin D1: Protein encoded by the bcl-1 gene which plays a critical role in regulating the cell cycle. Overexpression of cyclin D1 is the result of bcl-1 rearrangement, a t(11;14) translocation, and is implicated in various neoplasms.Mutagens: Chemical agents that increase the rate of genetic mutation by interfering with the function of nucleic acids. A clastogen is a specific mutagen that causes breaks in chromosomes.Oncogene Protein v-crk: A signal transducing adaptor protein that is encoded by the crk ONCOGENE from TYPE C AVIAN RETROVIRUSES. It contains SRC HOMOLOGY DOMAINS and is closely related to its cellular homolog, PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN C-CRK.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Biflavonoids: Dimers (homo and hetero) of FLAVONOIDS.Benzo(a)pyrene: A potent mutagen and carcinogen. It is a public health concern because of its possible effects on industrial workers, as an environmental pollutant, an as a component of tobacco smoke.Oncogene Proteins v-rel: Transforming proteins coded by rel oncogenes. The v-rel protein competes with rel-related proteins and probably transforms cells by acting as a dominant negative version of c-rel. This results in the induction of a broad range of leukemias and lymphomas.Herpesvirus 4, Human: The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.Aurora Kinase A: An aurora kinase that localizes to the CENTROSOME during MITOSIS and is involved in centrosome regulation and formation of the MITOTIC SPINDLE. Aurora A overexpression in many malignant tumor types suggests that it may be directly involved in NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Neoplasm Proteins: Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.MAP Kinase Signaling System: An intracellular signaling system involving the MAP kinase cascades (three-membered protein kinase cascades). Various upstream activators, which act in response to extracellular stimuli, trigger the cascades by activating the first member of a cascade, MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKKs). Activated MAPKKKs phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES which in turn phosphorylate the MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs). The MAPKs then act on various downstream targets to affect gene expression. In mammals, there are several distinct MAP kinase pathways including the ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) pathway, the SAPK/JNK (stress-activated protein kinase/c-jun kinase) pathway, and the p38 kinase pathway. There is some sharing of components among the pathways depending on which stimulus originates activation of the cascade.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-raf: A ubiquitously expressed raf kinase subclass that plays an important role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. The c-raf Kinases are MAP kinase kinase kinases that have specificity for MAP KINASE KINASE 1 and MAP KINASE KINASE 2.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Agrobacterium: A genus of gram negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria found in soil, plants, and marine mud.Skin Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the SKIN.Genes, jun: Retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (jun) originally isolated from the avian sarcoma virus 17 (ASV 17). The proto-oncogene jun (c-jun) codes for a nuclear protein which is involved in growth-related transcriptional control. Insertion of c-jun into ASV-17 or the constitutive expression of the c-jun protein produces tumorgenicity. The human c-jun gene is located at 1p31-32 on the short arm of chromosome 1.Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Neoplasm Transplantation: Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Tumor Stem Cell Assay: A cytologic technique for measuring the functional capacity of tumor stem cells by assaying their activity. It is used primarily for the in vitro testing of antineoplastic agents.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Rubiaceae: The Madder plant family of the order Rubiales, subclass Asteridae, class Magnoliopsida includes important medicinal plants that provide QUININE; IPECAC; and COFFEE. They have opposite leaves and interpetiolar stipules.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Phosphotyrosine: An amino acid that occurs in endogenous proteins. Tyrosine phosphorylation and dephosphorylation plays a role in cellular signal transduction and possibly in cell growth control and carcinogenesis.JNK Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A subgroup of mitogen-activated protein kinases that activate TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1 via the phosphorylation of C-JUN PROTEINS. They are components of intracellular signaling pathways that regulate CELL PROLIFERATION; APOPTOSIS; and CELL DIFFERENTIATION.Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing: A broad category of carrier proteins that play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They generally contain several modular domains, each of which having its own binding activity, and act by forming complexes with other intracellular-signaling molecules. Signal-transducing adaptor proteins lack enzyme activity, however their activity can be modulated by other signal-transducing enzymesTyrosine: A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.Epidermis: The external, nonvascular layer of the skin. It is made up, from within outward, of five layers of EPITHELIUM: (1) basal layer (stratum basale epidermidis); (2) spinous layer (stratum spinosum epidermidis); (3) granular layer (stratum granulosum epidermidis); (4) clear layer (stratum lucidum epidermidis); and (5) horny layer (stratum corneum epidermidis).Anticarcinogenic Agents: Agents that reduce the frequency or rate of spontaneous or induced tumors independently of the mechanism involved.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinases: A serine-threonine protein kinase family whose members are components in protein kinase cascades activated by diverse stimuli. These MAPK kinases phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES and are themselves phosphorylated by MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES. JNK kinases (also known as SAPK kinases) are a subfamily.Oncogene Proteins, Fusion: The GENETIC TRANSLATION products of the fusion between an ONCOGENE and another gene. The latter may be of viral or cellular origin.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt: A protein-serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION in response to GROWTH FACTORS or INSULIN. It plays a major role in cell metabolism, growth, and survival as a core component of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Three isoforms have been described in mammalian cells.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Cell Cycle Proteins: Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Alpharetrovirus: A genus of the family RETROVIRIDAE with type C morphology, that causes malignant and other diseases in wild birds and domestic fowl.Mice, Inbred BALB CImmunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Retinoblastoma Protein: Product of the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor gene. It is a nuclear phosphoprotein hypothesized to normally act as an inhibitor of cell proliferation. Rb protein is absent in retinoblastoma cell lines. It also has been shown to form complexes with the adenovirus E1A protein, the SV40 T antigen, and the human papilloma virus E7 protein.Repressor Proteins: Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.Agrobacterium tumefaciens: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria isolated from soil and the stems, leafs, and roots of plants. Some biotypes are pathogenic and cause the formation of PLANT TUMORS in a wide variety of higher plants. The species is a major research tool in biotechnology.Herpesvirus 2, Saimiriine: The type species of RHADINOVIRUS, in the subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, isolated from squirrel monkeys. It produces malignant lymphomas (LYMPHOMA, MALIGNANT) in inoculated marmosets or owl monkeys.Epithelium: One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.Myristates: Salts and esters of the 14-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acid--myristic acid.Proto-Oncogene Proteins pp60(c-src): Membrane-associated tyrosine-specific kinases encoded by the c-src genes. They have an important role in cellular growth control. Truncation of carboxy-terminal residues in pp60(c-src) leads to PP60(V-SRC) which has the ability to transform cells. This kinase pp60 c-src should not be confused with csk, also known as c-src kinase.Cell Size: The quantity of volume or surface area of CELLS.Skin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.Cell Aging: The decrease in the cell's ability to proliferate with the passing of time. Each cell is programmed for a certain number of cell divisions and at the end of that time proliferation halts. The cell enters a quiescent state after which it experiences CELL DEATH via the process of APOPTOSIS.Adenovirus Early Proteins: Proteins encoded by adenoviruses that are synthesized prior to, and in the absence of, viral DNA replication. The proteins are involved in both positive and negative regulation of expression in viral and cellular genes, and also affect the stability of viral mRNA. Some are also involved in oncogenic transformation.beta-Aminoethyl Isothiourea: A radiation-protective agent that can inhibit DNA damage by binding to the DNA. It also increases the susceptibility of blood cells to complement-mediated lysis.Cell Growth Processes: Processes required for CELL ENLARGEMENT and CELL PROLIFERATION.Actins: Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.Methylcholanthrene: A carcinogen that is often used in experimental cancer studies.COS Cells: CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.cdc42 GTP-Binding Protein: A member of the Rho family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. It is associated with a diverse array of cellular functions including cytoskeletal changes, filopodia formation and transport through the GOLGI APPARATUS. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Protein Kinases: A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.Serine: A non-essential amino acid occurring in natural form as the L-isomer. It is synthesized from GLYCINE or THREONINE. It is involved in the biosynthesis of PURINES; PYRIMIDINES; and other amino acids.Kaempferols: A group of FLAVONOLS based on kaempferol. They are derived from naringenin and can be hydroxylated to QUERCETIN or reduced to leucopelargonidin.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.src-Family Kinases: A PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE family that was originally identified by homology to the Rous sarcoma virus ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(V-SRC). They interact with a variety of cell-surface receptors and participate in intracellular signal transduction pathways. Oncogenic forms of src-family kinases can occur through altered regulation or expression of the endogenous protein and by virally encoded src (v-src) genes.Tumor Suppressor Proteins: Proteins that are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. Deficiencies or abnormalities in these proteins may lead to unregulated cell growth and tumor development.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.STAT3 Transcription Factor: A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to INTERLEUKIN-6 family members. STAT3 is constitutively activated in a variety of TUMORS and is a major downstream transducer for the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR GP130.X-Rays: Penetrating electromagnetic radiation emitted when the inner orbital electrons of an atom are excited and release radiant energy. X-ray wavelengths range from 1 pm to 10 nm. Hard X-rays are the higher energy, shorter wavelength X-rays. Soft x-rays or Grenz rays are less energetic and longer in wavelength. The short wavelength end of the X-ray spectrum overlaps the GAMMA RAYS wavelength range. The distinction between gamma rays and X-rays is based on their radiation source.Genes, p53: Tumor suppressor genes located on the short arm of human chromosome 17 and coding for the phosphoprotein p53.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Blotting, Southern: A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 8: A c-jun amino-terminal kinase that is activated by environmental stress and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Several isoforms of the protein with molecular sizes of 43 and 48 KD exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Precipitin Tests: Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.Karyotyping: Mapping of the KARYOTYPE of a cell.Viral Matrix Proteins: Proteins associated with the inner surface of the lipid bilayer of the viral envelope. These proteins have been implicated in control of viral transcription and may possibly serve as the "glue" that binds the nucleocapsid to the appropriate membrane site during viral budding from the host cell.

Gene expression profiles in HTLV-I-immortalized T cells: deregulated expression of genes involved in apoptosis regulation. (1/5211)

Human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I) is the etiologic agent of adult T-cell leukemia, an acute and often fatal T-cell malignancy. A key step in HTLV-I-induced leukemigenesis is induction of abnormal T-cell growth and survival. Unlike antigen-stimulated T cells, which cease proliferation after a finite number of cell division, HTLV-I-infected T cells proliferate indefinitely (immortalized), thus facilitating occurrence of secondary genetic changes leading to malignant transformation. To explore the molecular basis of HTLV-I-induced abnormal T-cell survival, we compared the gene expression profiles of normal and HTLV-I-immortalized T cells using 'gene array'. These studies revealed a strikingly altered expression pattern of a large number of genes along with HTLV-I-mediated T-cell immortalization. Interestingly, many of these deregulated genes are involved in the control of programmed cell death or apoptosis. These findings indicate that disruption of the cellular apoptosis-regulatory network may play a role in the HTLV-I-mediated oncogenesis.  (+info)

Epstein-barr virus regulates c-MYC, apoptosis, and tumorigenicity in Burkitt lymphoma. (2/5211)

Loss of the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) genome from Akata Burkitt lymphoma (BL) cells is coincident with a loss of malignant phenotype, despite the fact that Akata and other EBV-positive BL cells express a restricted set of EBV gene products (type I latency) that are not known to overtly affect cell growth. Here we demonstrate that reestablishment of type I latency in EBV-negative Akata cells restores tumorigenicity and that tumorigenic potential correlates with an increased resistance to apoptosis under growth-limiting conditions. The antiapoptotic effect of EBV was associated with a higher level of Bcl-2 expression and an EBV-dependent decrease in steady-state levels of c-MYC protein. Although the EBV EBNA-1 protein is expressed in all EBV-associated tumors and is reported to have oncogenic potential, enforced expression of EBNA-1 alone in EBV-negative Akata cells failed to restore tumorigenicity or EBV-dependent down-regulation of c-MYC. These data provide direct evidence that EBV contributes to the tumorigenic potential of Burkitt lymphoma and suggest a novel model whereby a restricted latency program of EBV promotes B-cell survival, and thus virus persistence within an immune host, by selectively targeting the expression of c-MYC.  (+info)

Reduced phosphorylation of p50 is responsible for diminished NF-kappaB binding to the major histocompatibility complex class I enhancer in adenovirus type 12-transformed cells. (3/5211)

Reduced cell surface levels of major histocompatibility complex class I antigens enable adenovirus type 12 (Ad12)-transformed cells to escape immunosurveillance by cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL), contributing to their tumorigenic potential. In contrast, nontumorigenic Ad5-transformed cells harbor significant cell surface levels of class I antigens and are susceptible to CTL lysis. Ad12 E1A mediates down-regulation of class I transcription by increasing COUP-TF repressor binding and decreasing NF-kappaB activator binding to the class I enhancer. The mechanism underlying the decreased binding of nuclear NF-kappaB in Ad12-transformed cells was investigated. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay analysis of hybrid NF-kappaB dimers reconstituted from denatured and renatured p50 and p65 subunits from Ad12- and Ad5-transformed cell nuclear extracts demonstrated that p50, and not p65, is responsible for the decreased ability of NF-kappaB to bind to DNA in Ad12-transformed cells. Hypophosphorylation of p50 was found to correlate with restricted binding of NF-kappaB to DNA in Ad12-transformed cells. The importance of phosphorylation of p50 for NF-kappaB binding was further demonstrated by showing that an NF-kappaB dimer composed of p65 and alkaline phosphatase-treated p50 from Ad5-transformed cell nuclear extracts could not bind to DNA. These results suggest that phosphorylation of p50 is a key step in the nuclear regulation of NF-kappaB in adenovirus-transformed cells.  (+info)

Downregulation of metallothionein-IIA expression occurs at immortalization. (4/5211)

Metallothioneins (MTs) may modulate a variety of cellular processes by regulating the activity of zinc-binding proteins. These proteins have been implicated in cell growth regulation, and their expression is abnormal in some tumors. In particular, MT-IIA is expressed 27-fold less in human colorectal tumors and tumor cell lines compared with normal tissue (Zhang et al., 1997). Here we demonstrate that MT-IIA downregulation occurs when human cells become immortal, a key event in tumorigenesis. After immortalization MT-IIA expression remains inducible but the basal activity of the MT-IIA promoter is decreased. MT-IIA downregulation at immortalization is one of the most common immortalization-related changes identified to date, suggesting that MT-IIA has a role in this process.  (+info)

The introduction of dominant-negative p53 mutants suppresses temperature shift-induced senescence in immortal human fibroblasts expressing a thermolabile SV40 large T antigen. (5/5211)

Immortal human fibroblasts, SVts8 cells, which express a heat-labile SV40 large T antigen, induces a senescence-like phenomenon in response to upward shift in temperature. Cells with arrested division show strong induction of senescence-associated beta-galactosidase. We examined how p53 and pRB are involved in this phenomenon since they are major targets of the T antigen. Transfection of cells with plasmids encoding the wild-type T antigen or human papilloma virus type 16 E6/E7 proteins completely abolished the arrest in cell division, a plasmid encoding the E6 protein suppressed it markedly, while a plasmid encoding E7 had no effect. Plasmids encoding dominant-negative p53 mutants also suppressed the arrest in cell division to various degrees. Upon temperature shift, p21 mRNA was upregulated 10-fold in SVts8 cells, but only slightly in clones expressing the wild-type T antigen or dominant-negative p53 mutants. These data demonstrate that p53 plays a major role in this senescence-like phenomenon.  (+info)

Binding of c-Rel to STAT5 target sequences in HTLV-I-transformed T cells. (6/5211)

The type I human T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV-I) induces abnormal growth and subsequent transformation of T cells, which is associated with the development of an acute T-cell malignancy termed adult T-cell leukemia. A characteristic of HTLV-I-transformed T cells is the constitutive nuclear expression of NF-kappaB/Rel family of transcription factors, which appears to be essential for the growth of these transformed cells. Although NF-kappaB/Rel factors are known to induce the expression of T-cell growth factor interleukin (IL)-2, it is unclear how they participate in the IL-2-independent growth of HTLV-I-transformed cells. In this study, we show that certain NF-kappaB/Rel members, predominantly c-Rel, interact with enhancer sequences for STAT5, a key transcription factor mediating IL-2-induced T-cell proliferation. Reporter gene assays reveal that the binding of c-Rel to the STAT5 site present in the Fc gammaR1 gene leads to potent transactivation of this enhancer. Binding of c-Rel to the Fc gammaR1 STAT site also occurs in human peripheral blood T cells immortalized with HTLV-I in vitro and is correlated with enhanced levels of proliferation of these cells. These results raise the possibility that NF-kappaB/Rel may participate in the growth control of HTLV-I-transformed T cells by regulating genes driven by both kappaB and certain STAT enhancers.  (+info)

Expression of hepatitis C virus cDNA in human hepatoma cell line mediated by a hybrid baculovirus-HCV vector. (7/5211)

Although great progress has been made in the characterization of the biochemical and biological features of hepatitis C virus (HCV) gene expression, the elucidation of the HCV life cycle and the evaluation of novel antiviral strategies have been hindered by the lack of a suitable cell culture system. In this context, the development of an efficient HCV cDNA delivery method would contribute to the understanding of HCV replication. To assess the functionality of baculovirus mediated gene delivery for HCV expression, we have constructed recombinant baculoviruses encoding HCV cDNA under the control of the cytomegalovirus promoter. Transduction of the human hepatoma cell line Huh-7 with Bac-HCV vectors was efficient and HCV cDNA expression was enhanced by treatment of the infected cells with dexamethasone. HCV structural and nonstructural polypeptides were processed correctly and were found to localize in the cytoplasm in a pattern characteristic of the endoplasmic reticulum. The expression of the HCV proteins was detected for 49 days after infection. Thus, these results indicate that the recombinant Bac-HCV vectors are a useful tool for the delivery of HCV cDNA and can facilitate the analysis of structural and functional properties of the HCV proteins. In addition, the Bac-HCV vectors can provide important information on the evaluation of novel anti-HCV antiviral strategies.  (+info)

A mutational analysis of the transforming functions of the E8 protein of bovine papillomavirus type 4. (8/5211)

The E8 protein of BPV-4 contributes to transformation of primary bovine cells (PalFs) by inducing anchorage-independent growth and by down-regulating gap junction intercellular communication, likely due to its binding to 16K ductin. We show here that, in addition, E8 confers on PalF cells the ability to grow in low serum and to escape from contact inhibition (focus formation). E8 also transactivates an exogenous human cyclin A gene promoter, suggesting that overexpression of cyclin A is responsible for the transformed phenotype. Mutant forms of E8 were generated to establish whether the transforming functions of the protein could be segregated. Mutations were introduced both in the hydrophobic domain and in the hydrophilic C-terminal "tail", and chimeras with BPV-1 E5 were constructed. Cells expressing either wild-type E8 or mutant forms were analyzed for their ability to grow in low serum and in suspension and to form foci. Wild-type E8 and its mutants were also analyzed for their ability to transactivate the cyclin A promoter. We show here that the transforming functions of E8 can be segregated and that both the hydrophilic C-terminal tail and the residue at position 17 in the hydrophobic domain are crucial for E8 functions and for the transactivation of the cyclin A promoter. These results support the hypothesis that the different aspects of cellular transformation brought about by E8 might be due to interaction with different cellular targets. They suggest that E8 might function differently from BPV-1 E5 and demonstrate that the separate domains of E5 and E8 are not functionally interchangeable.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - The effect of malignant transformation on the sensitivity of murine fibroblasts to the antiviral effect of interferon. AU - Morris, A. G.. AU - Barrett, Alan. AU - Bird, R. M.. AU - Burke, D. C.. PY - 1979. Y1 - 1979. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0018286199&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0018286199&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Article. AN - SCOPUS:0018286199. VL - 6. SP - 139. EP - 141. JO - FEMS Microbiology Letters. JF - FEMS Microbiology Letters. SN - 0378-1097. IS - 3. ER - ...
I guess thats probably a problem called gimble lock, that occures when calling h3dGetNodeTransform. Horde3D stores transformations internally as a matrix and not as the single transformation parameters. If you request them using h3dGetNodeTransform it tries to decompose the internal matrix. Thats something that should be avoided, as it suffers from mathematical issues and is not very fast. You could either store the single transformation parameters by yourself, change them and pass them again to h3dSetNodeTransform, or you use whole matrices instead and pass them via h3dSetNodeTransMat (use h3dGetNodeTransMats to query the nodes internal matrices ...
Vol 5: OCT4 as a target of miR-34a stimulates p63 but inhibits p53 to promote human cell transformation.. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Stephenson, J R. and Aaronson, S A., "Antigenic properties of murine sarcoma virus-transformed balb/3t3 nonproducer cells." (1972). Subject Strain Bibliography 1972. 480 ...
Chicken vertebral chondrocytes, which normally grow in suspension, synthesize large amounts of cartilage extracellular matrix proteins, but little fibronectin. We have analyzed the effects of both substrate attachment and transformation with a temperature-sensitive mutant of Rous sarcoma virus on fibronectin gene expression in these cells. Our experiments show that viral transformation increases fibronectin synthesis to a greater extent than substrate attachment. Furthermore, transformed chondrocytes have lost the ability to decrease fibronectin synthesis in response to suspension culture, suggesting that transformation alters the normal attachment-responsive control of fibronectin gene expression. Finally, infected substrate-attached chondrocytes shifted to the nonpermissive temperature for transformation use fibronectin RNA more efficiently in protein synthesis than cells grown under the other conditions, suggesting for the first time a role for translational control of fibronectin gene ...
By using a monoclonal antibody we have identified a new polypeptide doublet (C4h and C4l) of Mr approximately 21 kD and pI 8 and 7, respectively, that is associated with and (at the immunofluorescence level) uniformly distributed on actin filament bundles in rat, mouse, and other vertebrate species. C4 is absent in neurones, erythrocytes, and skeletal muscle but the epitope is evolutionarily conserved as it is present in invertebrates such as molluscs and crustaceans. C4h is not found in cells such as lymphocytes and oncogenically transformed mesenchymal cells where actin stress fiber bundles are reduced in number or absent. C4l, on the other hand, is always present. C4h expression can also be blocked by switching normal nontransformed mesenchymal cells from adherent to suspension culture. Reexpression of C4h occurs 24 h after these cells are returned to normal adherent culture conditions, but can be blocked by either actinomycin D or cycloheximide, suggesting that the expression of this epitope ...
The apparent enhancement of 2-deoxy-D-glucose uptake by mouse 3T3 cells accompanying transformation by SV40 virus is not due primarily to an effect on the transport process but to enhanced phosphorylation of the sugar by intracellular kinases. Moreover, the effect is not specifically a function of the presence of the viral genome, but is a reflection of the overall growth rate and physiological state of the cell. ...
Viral transformation of T cells is an effective method for obtaining large numbers of T cells that are easily maintained in the laboratory
ACs top 3 transformation tips - After my recent 7 week transformation, many people have been asking me for tips on achieving a rapid transformation in muscle size and fat loss. There are no single tips that will ensure success in everyone as it totally depends on the person as to how good the results will be. However there are some helpful tips that I can offer that will help ensure success in anyone wanting to make a body transformation. So here are my top 3 tips: 1. Plan the full transformation before you start. With any transformation I do with a client I plan literally every workout before we even start. I do this on a spreadsheet that can be updated and adapted as time goes on. However the main thing is to know exactly what you are doing every day of every week. This will keep you incredibly focused and you will know what to expect from training each week. It also makes it incredibly easy to progress with performance and strength even whilst dropping fat. You will record every weight you use on
In article ,67p8ii$f6p at maze.dpo.uab.edu,, levy at uab.edu (David N. Levy) wrote: ,How can you take primary fibroblast cells and infect or transfect them ,in order to transform them? Can you transfect the ad. E1A gene, or ,papillomavirus E7 or E6, or infect with SV40 or what? Thanks. Yep. AFAIR, thats how oncogenic properties of E1A and SV40 were found. But I might be wrong. What stuck in my head is that resulting cell line(s) in many respects has very little little in common with the primary cells. - Dima ...
Performix Super T ATTENTION: Do Not Buy Performix Super T Until You Read This SHOCKING Performix Super T Review & Find Out If It Really Works!
Sometimes the observations for a variable are not immediately suitable for analysis and instead need to be transformed using a mathematical function. Transformations are often used to normalise the distribution of a variable, but can be used to change the scale, offset the observations or even recode groups.. Excel cell formulas and custom VBA functions can be used to transform or calculate the data for a variable. Transformed and calculated data is treated just like any other variable as far as measurement scale and observation precision are concerned. Excel functions most commonly used for transformations are:. ...
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Background aims. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLD) belong to the most dreaded complications of immunosuppression. The efficacy of EBV-specific T-cell transfer for PTLD has been previously shown, yet the optimal choice of EBV-derived antigens inducing polyclonal CD4þ and CD8þ T cells that cover a wide range of human leukocyte antigen types and efficiently control PTLD remains unclear. Methods. A pool of 125 T-cell epitopes from seven latent and nine lytic EBV-derived proteins (EBVmix) and peptide pools of EBNA1, EBNA3c, LMP2a and BZLF1 were used to determine T-cell frequencies and to isolate T cells through the use of the interferon (IFN)-g cytokine capture system. We further evaluated the phenotype and functionality of the generated T-cell lines in vitro. Results. EBVmix induced significantly higher T-cell frequencies and allowed selecting more CD4þIFN-gþ and CD8þIFN-gþ cells than single peptide pools. T cells of all specificities ...
Several aspects of the behaviour of polyoma virus-transformed BHK cells in culture have suggested that they are more deformable than BHK cells. This possibility was tested by applying negative pressure at the cell surface by means of a micropipette. It was found that PyBHK cells in early mitosis are twice as deformable as BHK cells in the same stage. In addition, the taut, non-ruffling margins of both cell types when fully spread are much less deformable than the extending, ruffling leading lamella. The degree of deformability of these cells is correlated with the distribution and organization of microfilaments and consistent with this, deformability increases greatly in the presence of cytochalasin B. The significance of deformability studies such as these is discussed. ...
Interleukin 10 (IL-10) is a pleiotropic factor that enhances proliferation of activated human B lymphocytes and induces them to secrete high amounts of immunoglobulins. Here we show that several human B cell lines were able to constitutively secrete human (h)IL-10. Whereas none of the pre-B nor the plasmocytic cell lines tested produced hIL-10, 25 of the 36 tested mature B cell lines (lymphoblastoid and Burkitt lymphoma cell lines) secreted hIL-10. Moreover, 24 of these 25 hIL-10-producing B cell lines contained the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) genome, suggesting a relationship between hIL-10 production by human B cell lines and EBV expression. Accordingly, whereas polyclonal activation via triggering of surface immunoglobulins or CD40 antigen induced highly purified normal human B lymphocytes to produce only low (0.3-0.4 ng/ml) but significant amounts of hIL-10, EBV infection induced them to secrete high amounts of hIL-10 (4-9 ng/ml). Furthermore, addition of exogenous hIL-10, simultaneously to EBV ...
Peterkofsky, B and Prather, W B., "Increased collagen synthesis in kirsten sarcoma virus-transformed balb 3t3 cells grown in the presence of dibutyryl cyclic amp." (1974). Subject Strain Bibliography 1974. 2377 ...
We describe a method for generating transformed B cell lines using Epstein-Barr virus. We also illustrate a novel assay that can...
A 52 kDa protein (p52) was identified, using differential extraction and electrophoretic criteria, as a major extracellular and substrate-associated component of normal rat kidney (NRK) fibroblasts. Cells transformed with Kirsten murine sarcoma virus (KNRK cells) did not express p52 constitutively, but were inducible for both p52 production and its substrate association during culture in sodium butyrate (NaB)-supplemented growth medium. Comparative analysis of the relative molecular mass, subcellular distribution, and isoelectric complexity (five variants ranging in pI from 5.4 to 6.2) of the 52 kDa species constitutively and inducibly expressed by NRK and KNRK/NaB cells respectively, indicated that they were, indeed, the same protein. p52 selectively localized to cellular fractions enriched in substrate focal contact sites and associated ventral undersurface components. NaB induction of p52 in KNRK cells occurred before cell spreading; other polar compounds, such as dimethyl sulphoxide, which ...
Click to launch & play an online audio visual presentation by Prof. Raymond Erikson on Three decades of protein phosphorylation and cancer: the identification and characterization of the src gene product, part of a collection of online lectures.
Anyone could give me some idea where I can find a good protocol for the transformation assay using Rat2 cells. The one you look for transformed foci. Do I need to stain the cells? Alex ...
Primary cultures of cells tend to have a limited life span, which in turn limits the availability of a consistent population of cells to study
Balk, Samuel D. et al "Thymidine and Hypoxanthine Requirements for the Proliferation of Normal and Rous Sarcoma Virus-infected Chicken Fibroblasts in the Presence of Methotrexate." Cancer Research 39.5 (1979): 1854-1856. Web. 23 Feb. 2018. ...
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Enzymopathies are a disturbance of enzyme function, including genetic deficiency or defect in specific enzymes. Current methods for the treatment of enzymopathi...
A study of people 90 and older found the key to extended life isnt a healthy diet but rather beneficial psychological traits including resilience and optimism.
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Whenever an Xtend function is invoked - whether for M2M Xtend transformations or M2T Xpand templates, a Java Model Exception is thrown ...
If Y is uniformly distributed over the interval (0,1), i.e. f(y) = 1 for 0| y | 1. Show that U = -2 loge(Y) has a negative exponential
Simian virus 40 (SV40)-mediated transformation of human diploid fibroblasts has provided an effective experimental system for studies of both "senescence" in cell culture and carcinogenesis. Previous interpretations may have been complicated, however, by the semipermissive virus-cell interaction. In earlier studies, we previously demonstrated that the human diploid fibroblast line HS74 can be efficiently transformed by DNA from replication-defective mutants of SV40 containing a deletion in the viral origin for DNA synthesis (SVori-). In the current study, we found that such SVori- transformants show a significantly increased life span in culture, as compared with either HS74 or an independent transformant containing an intact viral genome, but they nonetheless undergo senescence. We have clonally isolated six immortalized derivatives of one such transformant (SV/HF-5). Growth studies indicate that the immortalized cell lines do not invariably grow better than SV/HF-5 or HS74. Genetic studies ...
Kaposi Sarcoma (KS) is the most prevalent neoplasm within HIV-infected patients and transplant recipients. Kaposis Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus (KSHV) causes the disease by using a novel mechanism that reprograms endothelial cells making them susceptible targets for viral infection and dissemination. We and others reported that KSHV induces lymphatic differentiation of blood vascular endothelial cells (BECs), by inducing PROX1 up-regulation. Importantly, KSHV G-protein coupled receptor (vGPCR) has been identified as the major viral gene responsible for cellular transformation and disease maintenance. Given that PROX1 is an important mediator of KSHV-induced cell reprogramming, we set out to determine if it had other functional implications in KS pathogenesis. In this study, we report that the regulator of G-protein signaling (RGS)-4 is selectively expressed in BECs and not in LECs, and acts as a cellular agonist against the transformation function of vGPCR. In effect, we found that RGS4 is ...
TGF-beta has the ability to transform rat fibroblasts, but it also induces neigbouring normal cells to eliminate newly arizing transformed cells. Therefore, the transforming effect of TGF-beta can only be demonstrated when it is added to rat fibroblasts sparsely seeded in soft agar. Combination of monolayer and soft agar cultures revealed the unexpected result that transformation of rat fibroblasts by TGF-beta acts on a distinct subpopulation rather than reaching the total population. As a consequence, the comparison of transformed cells with the parental untransformed random cell population is not adequate to define alterations acquired during the transformation process ...
The biomaterial transformation process is defined as an event with one or more biomaterials as inputs and outputs. For example, DNA extraction from a blood sample is a biomaterial transformation process, where blood is the input biological material, DNA is the output material and the DNA extraction reagents and devices used in the process are other participants. An assay is a planned process with the objective to produce information about some evaluant (ID: "obo:OBI_0000070") [8]. It has biological material as input and data as output. For example, a microarray based genotyping assay has DNA as input and raw image data as output, where reagents, instruments and software utilized in the process are other participants. Starting with the raw data generated from the assay, we move to the data transformation processes. A data transformation process is a protocol application that produces output data from input data (ID: "obo:OBI_0200000") [8].. With the application of OBI concepts in MIGen, ...
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Im trying to customize the dita2webhelp transformation on XSL level. Since I have specialized classes I also need to modify the underlying xhtml transformation. I very much dislike the idea of mixing standard and custom source by directly modifying the xhtml and webhelp plugin. So I was hoping that there is a way to keep the custom files in my custom DITA-OT plugin just like I did for the pdf customization. Is this possible ...
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The SRC gene is similar to the v-src gene of Rous sarcoma virus. This proto-oncogene may play a role in the regulation of embryonic development and…
Here we show, for the first time, that forced expression of both PBX3 and MEIS1 can transform/immortalize normal HSPCs in vitro and induce a rapid AML in vivo. Although the binding ability of Meis1 with Pbx proteins has been reported previously to be essential for the synergistic effect between Meis1 and Hoxa9 and for the function of MLL-fusion proteins (18, 24, 25), no efforts have been exerted to investigate whether forced expression of both MEIS1 and PBX3 is sufficient to transform cells and induce leukemia, without forced expression of a HOXA gene. Indeed, because neither Meis1 nor Pbx3 alone can induce cell transformation and leukemogenesis (20, 21, 23, 26), they have been thought to mainly play supportive roles in facilitating HOXA proteins in regulating their downstream targets (18, 24-28). Therefore, our new finding reveals the functional importance of PBX3 and MEIS1 in cell transformation and leukemogenesis.. More strikingly, we further show that it is the coexpression of PBX3 and ...
Edvotek Series 200 Experiments. For 10 Transformations and controls. Time Required: Transformation -- 45 min.; Plating -- 5 min.; Incubation -- overnight; Transformation Efficiency …
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The following guide can be used for troubleshooting transformation reactions. You may also be interested in reviewing additional tips for Chemical Transformation or Electroporation
Abstract: Bundle gerbes are a higher version of line bundles, we present nonabelian bundle gerbes as a higher version of principal bundles. Connection, curving, curvature and gauge transformations are studied both in a global coordinate independent formalism and in local coordinates. These are the gauge fields needed for the construction of Yang-Mills theories with 2-form gauge potential ...
Nuclear transformation occurs when the atoms of one element change to become atoms of another element. This is most commonly seen with...
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Placing the edge of a mirror on the y-axis will form a reflection in the y-axis. This can also be thought of as folding over the y-axis ...
The year 2020 might have started well, but as days passed by, adversity rolled its dice, uncoiling one of the toughest times of life. The ongoing COVID-19
Hamster cells transformed with the Schmidt-Ruppin strain of avian sarcoma virus were selected for resistance to ethidium bromide (EB). The resistant cell lines proliferated in the presence of up to 30 µg/ml EB.. From avian sarcoma virus-transformed hamster cells already resistant to bromodeoxy-uridine (BrdU), ethidium bromide-resistant cells which were able to grow in 10 µg/ml EB were also prepared. These cells remain deficient in thymidine kinase activity and are suitable for selective preparation of hybrid cells.. The EB resistance was genetically stable. The EB-resistant cell lines, and doubly resistant cells (BrdU, EB) showed no differences in mitochondrial ultrastructure compared with the original cell lines. Thymidine incorporation into mitochondrial DNA was not influenced by EB resistance.. All resistant cell lines, including the doubly resistant cell line, contained the avian sarcoma virus genome. The number of cells needed for positive rescue experiments for avian sarcoma virus genome ...
Studies have shown that wild-type hTERT protein can functionally replace the HPV-16E6 protein, which cooperates with the viral E7 protein in the immortalization of primary keratinocytes. Previously, we made the surprising finding that catalytically inactive hTERT (hTERTci), elongation-defective hTERT (hTERT-HA), and telomere recruitment-defective (hTERT N+T) also cooperate with E7 in cell immortalization, indicating that hTERT has immortalizing activities independent of its telomere maintenance functions. Since reports show an hTERT role in gene activation, we performed microarray studies to discover that E6, hTERT and hTERT mutated proteins altered the expression of highly overlapping sets of cellular genes. Pursuing in-depth studies of these targets shared by E6 and hTERT, we focused on AIB1, a nuclear coactivator known to be elevated in some cancers, and BMI1, the core subunit of the Polycomb Group Repressor Complex (PRC) 1 which is known to play a role in immortalization and determining cell ...
Among several tyrosine-protein kinases, only v-abl could abrogate interleukin 3 dependence of a lymphoblastoid cell line; v-src and v-fps proteins gave partial or no interleukin 3 independence, respectively. Lymphokine independence was achieved via a nonautocrine mechanism. Direct involvement of c-myc in this process was not evident. ...
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The aim of this work was to develop a method to evaluate the kinetics of bainite transformation by theoretical deduction and thermal dilatation curve analysis. A Gleeble-3500 thermomechanical simulator and dilatometer (DIL805A) were employed to study the isothermal transformation in deformed (360 ∘ C , 600 ∘ C , and 860 ∘ C ) and undeformed conditions. The thermal dilatation information during isothermal transformation was recorded, and the dilatation curves were well smoothed. By taking a derivative of the dilation curve with respect to the transformation time, the peak time of transformation rate (PTTR) was obtained, which can serve as the essence of isothermal transformation time. The relative change of length ( Δ L / L ) due to phase transformation was theoretically deduced, and the effect of temperature was taken into consideration. Combing experimental data, the volume fraction of bainite in isothermal transformation was calculated. Making a graph of
Although derived from the blood of a patient with multiple myeloma, this line has been shown to be an EBV-transformed B lymphoblastoid cell line.
Reaching another milestone in the field of cancer research, a team of MIT bioengineers has designed a special protein-based modular system that could spot potential cancerous and other viral cells and take action against them. The researchers believe that their discovery could trigger programmed cell death.. According to the research team, the modular system has the potential to identify specific DNA sequences in a mammalian cell. Upon identification, a DNA-specific desired response could be triggered against the cell such as complete cell death. The researchers say that using the same process, the system can kill cancer or viral cells.. "There is a range of applications for which this could be important," said researcher James Collins of the MITs Department of Biological Engineering and Institute of Medical Engineering and Science. "This allows you to readily design constructs that enable a programmed cell to both detect DNA and act on that detection, with a report system and/or a respond ...
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Transformation Lab Report Introduction Transformation is the transfers of virulence from one cell to another, through the transferring of genetic material
Jan Marini Transformation Serum utilises ingredients specifically tailored to signal certain activities, including the rebuilding and repair of damaged cells,
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View Notes - 33654_07b from CHEMISTRY CHM1040 at Florida A&M. Previous Page Ternary and more complex oxide phases 7.3.4 247 Figure 7.13 Chart illustrating transformation relationships among the forms
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Dr. Michael Braungart (left) and William McDonough formed MBDC to develop materials that are ecological and economical, while promoting human equity.
Choose your country to get translated content where available and see local events and offers. Based on your location, we recommend that you select: .. ...
At some point in fifth grade, I noticed the blackboard in Mrs. Marshmans math class was blurry. I mentioned it to my parents, and within a few weeks had been
Summary Four clones of the hamster cell line NIL-2 were transformed by adenovirus 12. The transformed cells formed foci of multilayered growth in monolayer cultures under agar medium and colonies when suspended in soft agar medium. A virus stock containing 5 × 109 particles and 1.1 × 109 p.f.u./ml. contained 2.8 × 102 focus-forming units (f.f.u.)/ml. in NIL-2 cells. The numbers of cell foci and of colonies induced by serial dilutions of virus were consistent with a linear dose response. Approximately 2 × 107 total virus particles or 4 × 106 infectious units were required to induce one focus of transformed cells. The highest transformation rate obtained was 0.002% for cells exposed to about 80 p.f.u. of virus per cell. For comparison, primary rat embryo cells were transformed by adenovirus 12. The results obtained were approximately the same as those with NIL-2 cells except that the rat cells did not form colonies when infected and suspended immediately in agar. However, rat cells transformed in
What is the interpretation of a confidence interval following estimation of a Box-Cox transformation parameter ?? Several authors have argued that confidence intervals for linear model parameters ? can be constructed as if ? were known in advance, rather than estimated, provided the estimand is interpreted conditionally given ??. If the estimand is defined as ? (??), a function of the estimated transformation, can the nominal confidence level be regarded as a conditional coverage probability given ??, where the interval is random and the estimand is fixed? Or should it be regarded as an unconditional probability, where both the interval and the estimand are random? This article investigates these questions via large-n approximations, small-? approximations, and simulations. It is shown that, when model assumptions are satisfied and n is large, the nominal confidence level closely approximates the conditional coverage probability. When n is small, this conditional approximation is still good for
TY - JOUR. T1 - Further characterisation of the complex containing middle T antigen and pp60.. AU - Courtneidge, Sara. PY - 1989. Y1 - 1989. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0024387934&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0024387934&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Article. C2 - 2477198. AN - SCOPUS:0024387934. VL - 144. SP - 121. EP - 128. JO - Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology. JF - Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology. SN - 0070-217X. ER - ...
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Intake of certain amounts of berry fruits, including strawberries, has been suggested to have beneficial effects against oxidative stress mediated diseases. The methanolic extract of strawberry (MESB) fruits are found to inhibit the tumor cell proliferation by activating apoptosis with no side effects in a time-dependent manner and resulted in extended life span. Other in the study of flavonoids from strawberry Nohime, showed the effect of these flavonoids on the degranulation in RBL-2H3 cells. due to suppression of [Ca(2+)]i elevation and Syk activation ...
On Mon, 24 Jan 2005 19:18:57 +0900, Victor Munoz ,[email protected], wrote: , , Hello. Im a bit confused. jpegtran is supposed to provide lossless , transformation on jpg files. Understanding nothing about the internals of , graphic formats, Id expect that original and transformed files had the same , number of bytes. Interesting question. If you decode both the JPEGs using the same program (thus identical algorithm) and manually rotate one of them so the aspect is the same, is the bitmap data identical? -- Jon Dowland http://jon.dowland.name/ ...
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ABL2 antibody (v-abl Abelson murine leukemia viral oncogene homolog 2) for WB. Anti-ABL2 pAb (GTX81937) is tested in Human samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
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A survey of Czech regions saw the capital still on top, Moving to a new country is an exciting process! Prague.TVs relocation section offers expats all the information you need to make your move to Prague as smooth as possible.
Learn why doing planks are a great exercise that can completely transform your body, and help you reach your physique and performance goals.
Chapter Eight. Production and Operations Management. Operations Management. The development and administration of the activities involved in transforming resources into goods and services. 8-1. The Transformation Process. 8-2. Slideshow 6370422 by shea-mcconnell
Computation of effects under linear, logistic and Poisson regression models with transformed variables. Logarithm and power transformations are allowed. Effects can be displayed both numerically and graphically in both the original and the transformed space of the variables.. ...
Thanks Adrian, That does make sense, however, I have not used projects before. The only two projects I can choose from are the sample project that came with Oxygen and the test project I made. I would expect that my transformations are stored in a default project that is used when you dont explicit ...
We have found 31 NRICH Mathematical resources connected to Rotations, you may find related items under Transformations and constructions
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The excited husband shared the amazing transformation with his fans online. He wrote: Here is the little project my wife and I have been working on the last 365 days, she has lost 58lbs and I have lost 224lbs
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Playing sports with the other children has changed my life. Nyandiers story tells a hopeful story for how disability inclusion can transform lives in Uganda.
Tips and interesting applications using PASCO sensors, software and equipment.. Have innovative lab ideas youd like to share? Wed love to hear from you!. ...
How is Feline Sarcoma Virus abbreviated? FSV stands for Feline Sarcoma Virus. FSV is defined as Feline Sarcoma Virus somewhat frequently.
feline sarcoma virus high-molecular-weight polyprotein: high MW polyprotein translational product of Snyder-Theilen feline sarcoma virus; posseses protein kinase activity with specificity for tyrosine acceptor sites
Epstein-Barr virus nuclear protein 2 (EBNA-2) increases mRNA levels of specific viral and cellular genes through direct or indirect effects on upstream regulatory elements. The EBNA-2 domains essential for these effects have been partially defined and correlate with domains important for B-cell growth transformation. To determine whether EBNA-2 has a direct transcriptional activating domain, gene fusions between the DNA-binding domain of GAL4 and EBNA-2 were tested in CHO and B-lymphoma cells for the ability to activate transcription from target plasmids containing GAL4 recognition sites upstream of an adenovirus or murine mammary tumor virus promoter. In B-lymphoma cells, a 37-amino-acid EBNA-2 domain previously identified to be essential for transformation was nearly as strong a transcriptional activator as the activating domain of herpes simplex virus trans-inducing factor VP16. A quadradecapeptide had about 25% of the activating activity of the longer peptide. This first evidence that EBNA-2 ...
EFFECTS OF CRYSTALLOGRAPHIC TRANSFORMATIONS ON THE PHOTOELECTRIC EMISSION FROM URANIUM by RICHARD KENT FRY B. S., Kansas State College of Agriculture and Applied Science, 1956 A THESIS submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree MASTER OF SCIENCE Department of Physics KANSAS STATE COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE AND APPLIED SCIENCE 1958 LP TABLE OP CONTl^NTS INTRODUCTION EXPERIMENTAL APPARATUS . Experimental Tube . High Vacuum System Radiation Source . . Current Measurement OUTGASSING PROCESS EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE . EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS ... CONCLUSION ACKNOWLEDGEMENT LITERATURE CITED INTRODUCTION V In 1905, (W) and 1906, (15) Einstein applied the quantum theory to photoelectricity, obtaining his famous equation, E " h-r- ^ , where E « kinetic energy of emitted electron, h « Planks constant, tTb frequency of radiation incident upon surface, and ^= work function of the emitting surface. Einsteins equation supplied a direct connection between the photoelectric effect and the ...
Adenovirus E1A induces cell proliferation, oncogenic transformation and promotes viral replication through interaction with p300/CBP, TRRAP/p400 multi-protein complex and the retinoblastoma (pRb) family proteins through distinct domains in the E1A N-terminal region. The C-terminal region of E1A suppresses E1A/Ras co-transformation and interacts with FOXK1/K2, DYRK1A/1B/HAN11 and CtBP1/2 (CtBP) protein complexes. To specifically dissect the role of CtBP interaction with E1A, we engineered a mutation (DL→AS) within the CtBP-binding motif, PLDLS, and investigated the effect of the mutation on immortalization and Ras cooperative transformation of primary cells and viral replication. Our results suggest that CtBP-E1A interaction suppresses immortalization and Ras co-operative transformation of primary rodent epithelial cells without significantly influencing the tumorigenic activities of transformed cells in immunodeficient and immunocompetent animals. During productive infection, CtBP-E1A ...
Epstein-Barr virus latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) is an Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) protein that regulates its own expression and the expression of human genes. LMP1 has a molecular weight of approximately 63 kDa, and its expression induces many of the changes associated with EBV infections and activation of primary B cells. LMP1 is the best-documented oncoprotein of the EBV latent gene products, as it is expressed in most EBV-related human cancers. The structure of LMP1 consists of a short cytoplasmic N-terminus tail, six trans-membrane domains, and a long cytoplasmic C-terminus, which contains three activating domains: CTARt, CTAR2, and CTAR3. Each CTAR domain contains an amino acid sequence that serves as a recognition site for cellular adaptors to bind and trigger a series of signal transduction pathways that can lead to a change in gene expression. LMP-1 is a functional homologue of tumor necrosis factor and mediates signaling through the nuclear factor-κB pathway, mimicking CD40 receptor ...
We have recently developed a culture system in which 90% of B cells from human peripheral blood or spleen are induced to strongly proliferate and generate short-term clones of a mean of about 400 antibody-secreting cells. B cells are stimulated by mutant EL-4 thymoma cells in conjunction with T cell supernatant. In the present study, we first investigated whether the frequency of B cell immortalization by EBV would be higher in this system than in a conventional system by using PBMC as fillers. The results showed that the EBV-dependent cloning frequency (0.7%) was not increased compared with the system with the use of PBMC (2.1%). However, the short term proliferation of EBV-infected B cells was 20 times increased in the EL-4 system and EBV nuclear Ag-positive cells participated in this response. Recent reports showed that transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) inhibited the growth of normal B cells, whereas the growth of EBV-immortalized (lymphoblastoid) cells was not inhibited. We have ...
Renato Dulbecco (deceased), Nobel laureate (for viral transformation of cells).. See also[edit]. *San Diego Historical ... Pollack, Andrew (8 May 2008). "$271 Million for Research on Stem Cells in California". The New York Times.. ... The institute appointed genome biologist Eric Lander and stem cell biologist Irving Weissman as non-resident fellows in ...
Renato Dulbecco (deceased), Nobel laureate (for viral transformation of cells). San Diego Historical Landmarks in La Jolla, ... Pollack, Andrew (8 May 2008). "$271 Million for Research on Stem Cells in California". The New York Times. "Sanford Consortium ... The institute appointed genome biologist Eric Lander and stem cell biologist Irving Weissman as non-resident fellows in ... Laboratories Computational Neurobiology Laboratory Clayton Foundation Laboratories for Peptide Biology Molecular and Cell ...
The Salk Institute for Biological Studies where she worked on viral transformation and cellular immortalization of cancer cells ... "giant cells", which Vogt saw as a sign of superior mental function. "The giant cells" were cortical pyramidal cells of unusual ...
... role in viral life cycle and cell transformation". Journal of cellular physiology. 215 (2): 309-19. doi:10.1002/jcp.21326. PMC ... It has the ability to induce neoplastic transformation in a variety of cell types and can immortalize cells in culture. Its ... In MPyV, MTag is an efficient oncoprotein that can be sufficient to induce neoplastic transformation in some cells. The genes ... MTag is also required for viral persistence. However, MTag's best-studied functions center on its interaction with host cell ...
... role in viral life cycle and cell transformation". Journal of cellular physiology. 215 (2): 309-19. doi:10.1002/jcp.21326. PMC ... the cell must be in S phase (the part of the cell cycle in which the host cell's genome is normally replicated) in order to ... Viral proteins therefore promote dysregulation of the cell cycle and entry into S phase. This function is usually primarily ... In SV40, STag has a similar role in cellular transformation. In Merkel cell polyomavirus, it appears to play a significant role ...
"Three new types of viral oncogene of cellular origin specific for haematopoietic cell transformation". Nature. 281 (5731): 452- ... "Three new types of viral oncogene of cellular origin specific for haematopoietic cell transformation". Nature. 281 (5731): 452- ... "Role of the v-erbA and v-erbB oncogenes of avian erythroblastosis virus in erythroid cell transformation". Cell. 34 (1): 7-9. ... Cell Stem Cell. 9 (6): 504-516. doi:10.1016/j.stem.2011.11.012. ISSN 1934-5909. Graf, Thomas; Enver, Tariq. "Forcing cells to ...
Synthesis of the viral double-stranded DNA genome occurs at the host cell nucleus within specialized viral replication ... in vitro transformation of human cells". Cancer Treat Rep. 61 (2): 139-46. PMID 68820. T. Fülöp; A. Larbi & G. Pawelec ( ... HCMV replicates within infected endothelial cells at a slow rate, taking about 5 days in cell culture. Like other herpesviruses ... cell-specific localization of active viral and oncogenic signaling proteins is confirmatory of a causal relationship". ...
"Adenovirus proteins from both E1B reading frames are required for transformation of rodent cells by viral infection and DNA ... For adenovirus replication to occur, the host cell must be induced into S phase by viral proteins interfering with cell cycle ... "Adenovirus proteins from both E1B reading frames are required for transformation of rodent cells by viral infection and DNA ... It blocks cell progression in response to cellular stress or DNA damage. Many viruses replicate by altering the cell cycle and ...
Nuclear entry of the viral dsDNA is covalently integrated into the cell's genome by the viral integrase, forming a provirus. ... Once the virus has entered the interior of the cell, the retroviral core undergoes structural transformations through the ... Cells that expressed no signs of cytopathy from SFV were T-cells of the Jurkat's and Hut-78 cell lines. The phylogenetic tree ... SFV can infect a wide range of cells, with in vitro experiments confirming that fibroblasts, epithelial cells, and neural cells ...
To study the control of cell division and gene expression. To Investigate malignant transformations. To obtain viral ... This leads to cell fusion since PEG induces cell agglutination and cell-to-cell contact. Though this type of cell fusion is the ... Cell fusion is an important cellular process in which several uninuclear cells (cells with a single nucleus) combine to form a ... Polyethylene glycol cell fusion is the simplest, but most toxic, way to fuse cells. In this type of cell fusion polyethylene ...
These two findings gave rise to the notion that viral replication and malignant transformation are separate processes in RSV. ... The function of env is to bind RSV to the host cell receptor and induce fusion with the target cell in a pH independent manner ... The virus buds or pushes on the plasma membrane, which allows it to leave the cell with a new outer membrane from the host cell ... RSV enters the host cell through fusion of the host cell membrane. In order for the RSV genome transcription to occur, a primer ...
The Salk Institute for Biological Studies where she worked on viral transformation and cellular immortalization of cancer cells ...
A direct oncogenic viral mechanism involves either insertion of additional viral oncogenic genes into the host cell or to ... Human papilloma virus (HPV), a DNA virus, causes transformation in cells through interfering with tumor suppressor proteins ... It was suggested that these new genes inserted into cells could make the cell cancerous. Many of these viral oncogenes have ... Forcing the cell into the S phase of the cell cycle could cause the cell to become transformed. Some types of HPV increase the ...
... which is necessary for cell transformation of adenovirus non-permissive cells. He was among the first to demonstrate that ... Green, Maurice; Fujinaga, K (1966). "The mechanism of viral carcinogenesis by DNA mammalian viruses: viral-specific RNA in ... human cell molecular biology, infection and immunity, and neoplastic transformation. In subsequent years, the study of ... Green was asked to learn as much as he could as quickly as possible about the 31 distinct viral serotypes known at that time. ...
... cells are a type of lymphocyte cell involved in the innate immune system's response to viral infection and tumor transformation ... Because NK cells target self cells, they have an intricate mechanism by which they differentiate self and non-self cells in ... Because natural killer cells target virally infected host cells and tumor cells, inhibitory KIR receptors are important in ... KIR3DS1 NK cell receptors bind directly to the MHC class I molecules on the surface of target cells. Human killer cell ...
Introducing DNA into bacterial cells can be done by transformation via uptake of naked DNA, conjugation via cell-cell contact ... or by transduction via viral vector. Introducing DNA into eukaryotic cells, such as animal cells, by physical or chemical means ... DNA coding for a protein of interest is now inside a cell, and the protein can now be expressed. A variety of systems, such as ... Large quantities of a protein can then be extracted from the bacterial or eukaryotic cell. The protein can be tested for ...
It is reported that JDP2 inhibits Ras-dependent cell transformation in NIH3T3 cells and tumor development in xenografts ... Studies using high throughput viral insertional mutagenesis analysis also revealed that JDP2 functions as an oncogene. JDP2- ... This iPSC-like cells expressed stem cell-like characteristics including alkaline phosphatase activity and some stem cell ... Heinrich R, Livne E, Ben-Izhak O, Aronheim A (Feb 2004). "The c-Jun dimerization protein 2 inhibits cell transformation and ...
Transfection - means of inserting DNA into a cell. Transformation (genetics) - means of inserting DNA into a cell. Viral vector ... Transduction is the process by which foreign DNA is introduced into a cell by a virus or viral vector. An example is the viral ... transferred are flanked by viral sequences that are used by viral proteins to recognize and package the viral genome into viral ... that carry the viral genes required for formation of infectious virions. In these producer cells, the viral proteins expressed ...
"Enumeration of the simian virus 40 early region elements necessary for human cell transformation." Mol Cell Biol 22 (7): 2111- ... Dessain SK, editor (2008). Human Antibody Therapeutics for Viral Diseases. Berlin: Springer. (Current topics in microbiology ... immortal cell line. Using this cloning method, he and his team have been able to develop antibodies that fight against various ... using B cells drawn from human tissue. Dessain is a professor at Lankenau Institute for Medical Research (LIMR) and an ...
Insertion of a vector into the target cell is usually called transformation for bacterial cells, transfection for eukaryotic ... Viral promoters are often used for constitutive expression in plasmids and in viral vectors because they normally force ... Cells containing vector with an insert may be identified using blue/white selection by growing cells in media containing an ... Viral vectors are generally genetically engineered viruses carrying modified viral DNA or RNA that has been rendered ...
... were generated in 1973 by transformation of cultures of normal human embryonic kidney cells with sheared ... In order to propagate such viral vectors, a cell line that expresses the missing genes is required. Since HEK 293 cells express ... 293 cells, or less precisely as HEK cells, are a specific cell line originally derived from human embryonic kidney cells grown ... Graham and coworkers provided evidence that HEK 293 cells and other human cell lines generated by adenovirus transformation of ...
"Development and Malignant Transformation of Mast Cells and Interstitial Cells of Cajal through KIT Receptors" Masakatsu ... and Molecular Basis of the Neutralization of Viral Infectivity with Antibodies" Yukihiko Kitamura for " ... Regulation of Cell Cycle and Chromosome Segregation Noboru Karashima - History and Society in South India: The Cholas to ... Studies on the Mechanisms of Mobilization of Calcium Ion in Muscle Cells 2002 (92nd) Sumio Iijima Akiho Miyashiro 2001 (91st) ...
Non-viral methods of gene delivery can be divided into transformation, where a cell incorporates foreign DNA from its ... In gene therapy a gene that is intended for delivery is packaged into a replication-deficient viral particle to form a viral ... If the transgene is incorporated into somatic cells, the transgene will die with the somatic cell line, and thus its host ... Vectors utilized as the method for gene delivery can be divided into two categories, non-viral and viral. In complex ...
... cell transformation, viral MeSH C04.697.645.500 --- leukemic infiltration MeSH C04.697.650.560 --- lymphatic metastasis MeSH ... b-cell, acute MeSH C04.557.337.428.500.125 --- leukemia, B-Cell, chronic MeSH C04.557.337.428.500.500 --- leukemia, pre-b-cell ... T-Cell, chronic MeSH C04.557.337.428.580 --- leukemia, t-cell MeSH C04.557.337.428.580.100 --- leukemia, t-cell, acute MeSH ... mixed-cell MeSH C04.557.337.428.511.550 --- leukemia, null-cell MeSH C04.557.337.428.511.800 --- leukemia, t-cell, acute MeSH ...
... cell transformation, viral MeSH C23.550.727.160 --- cocarcinogenesis MeSH C23.550.727.645 --- neoplasm invasiveness MeSH ... plasma cell MeSH C23.550.382.875.500 --- granuloma, plasma cell, orbital MeSH C23.550.382.875.750 --- granuloma, plasma cell, ... cell transformation, neoplastic MeSH C23.550.727.152.110 --- blast crisis MeSH C23.550.727.152.160 --- ... neoplasm circulating cells MeSH C23.550.727.650.830 --- neoplasm seeding MeSH C23.550.727.650.895 --- neoplasms, unknown ...
... cell transformation, viral MeSH G04.185.515.880.225 --- cytopathogenic effect, viral MeSH G04.185.515.880.420 --- ... cell enlargement MeSH G04.335.233.750 --- cell proliferation MeSH G04.335.233.750.500 --- cell division MeSH G04.335.233.750. ... hemagglutination, viral MeSH G04.185.515.880.450 --- inclusion bodies, viral MeSH G04.185.515.880.910 --- viral interference ... transformation, bacterial MeSH G04.185.515.880 --- viral physiology MeSH G04.185.515.880.040 --- antibody-dependent enhancement ...
... more well-studied bacterial transformation systems that are also associated with species specific DNA transfer between cells ... the impact of viral infection is higher on archaea than on bacteria and virus-induced lysis of archaea accounts for up to one- ... Further information: Cell wall § Archaeal cell walls. Most archaea (but not Thermoplasma and Ferroplasma) possess a cell wall.[ ... Cell division is controlled in a cell cycle; after the cell's chromosome is replicated and the two daughter chromosomes ...
Scientists can use viral or non-viral systems for delivery of the Cas9 and sgRNA into target cells. Electroporation of DNA, RNA ... conjugation and natural transformation by degrading foreign nucleic acids that enter the cell. When a microbe is invaded by a ... The group was then able to sort the cells, using cell surface markers, to help identify successfully edited cells. Deep ... However, hard-to-transfect cells (stem cells, neurons, hematopoietic cells, etc.) require more efficient delivery systems such ...
YAP is involved in transformation, apoptosis and cell survival. It functions both in the cytoplasm and the nucleus. How PyST ... These results point to the importance ofAbeta in non-viral contexts. The protein kinase Akt is perhaps the principle effector ... PP2A regulates almost all cell signaling pathways. The holoenzyme consists of a catalytic C subunit and one of many regulatory ... In the absence of ST, significant knockdown of Abeta induced cell death, while a moderate knockdown enhanced differentiation. ...
... of mutant-infected cells demonstrated that in all cases increased phosphotyrosine levels correlated with transformation. ... Lesions within the SH2 or SH3 domains decreased or abolished biological activity, and viral gag sequences were also required ... and the major phosphotyrosine containing proteins of infected cells were localized on membranes in the nonionic detergent- ... these proteins include the three major phosphotyrosine-containing proteins of CTI0-infected cells. Preliminary experiments ...
... the Bacterial Transformation Lab). Bowtrol Probiotic improve gastrointestinal function & intestinal good bacterial microbial ... Bacterial transformation studies have shown that - Biology - Lab 4 ( ... 8. Bacterial and Viral... transformation: a bacterial cell acquires DNA from the... Genome analysis experiments have shown that ... Cell-to-Cell Transformation in Escherichia coli: A Novel Type of Natural Transformation Involving Cell-Derived DNA and a ...
Adenovirus proteins from both E1B reading frames are required for transformation of rodent cells by viral infection and DNA ... To determine the requirements for the individual Ad2 E1B proteins during the transformation of rodent cells, viral mutants were ... It was completely defective for transformation of CREF cells in virion- and DNA-mediated assays. In HeLa cells, pm1722 ... was also extremely defective for the transformation of CREF cells in virion- and viral DNA-mediated assays. This result is in ...
Identification of new actin-associated polypeptides that are modified by viral transformation and changes in cell shape.. C ... Identification of new actin-associated polypeptides that are modified by viral transformation and changes in cell shape. ... C4h is not found in cells such as lymphocytes and oncogenically transformed mesenchymal cells where actin stress fiber bundles ... The Journal of Cell Biology Jul 1988, 107 (1) 153-161; DOI: 10.1083/jcb.107.1.153 ...
On rare occasions a clone of cells emerges from the population in crisis and gives rise to an immortalized cell line. The ... cells continue proliferating for a limited number of population doublings beyond the point at which normal cells undergo ... the growth curve of these transformed cells changed to that of normal young cells. ... Normal human diploid cells, TIG-1, ceased to proliferate at about the 62 population doubling level (PDL). Transformed clones ...
Oncogenicity And Cell Transformation By Papovavirus SV40: The Role Of The Viral Genome. *Butel J ... Oncogenicity And Cell Transformation By Papovavirus SV40: The Role Of The Viral Genome. Advances in Cancer Research, 15(C), 1- ... The extent of the transcription of the viral genome seems to vary from one transformed cell line to the next. No relationships ... Fusion or cocultivation of the transformed cell with normal susceptible cells may sometimes succeed in the rescue of infectious ...
Induction of proliferation or transformation of neuroretina cells by the mil and myc viral oncogenes *C. Bechade ... permissionsfor article Induction of proliferation or transformation of neuroretina cells by the ,i,mil,/i, and ,i,myc,/i, viral ... Leukemia-initiating cell activity requires calcineurin in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia *S Gachet ... Rights & permissionsfor article Leukemia-initiating cell activity requires calcineurin in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia ...
Transformation of fibroblasts by several retroviruses that produce transforming gene products associated with protein kinase ... Cell Transformation, Viral. Chick Embryo. Fibroblasts / metabolism. Malate Dehydrogenase / isolation & purification. Molecular ... Phosphorylated 34K, isolated from Rous sarcoma virus-transformed cells, was also present in two forms; hence, in the cell ... 0/Proteins; 0/Viral Proteins; EC 1.1.1.37/Malate Dehydrogenase; EC 2.7.-/Protein Kinases; EC 2.7.10.2/Oncogene Protein pp60(v- ...
There is increasing evidence that changes in the transcriptional program of cellular genes in virus-transformed cells can ... contribute to virus transformation. It is, therefore, important to study altered expression patterns of cellular genes in ... Cell Line, Transformed. Cell Transformation, Viral*. Gene Expression Regulation*. Genes, jun. Genes, myc. Genome, Viral*. Heat- ... In Ad2-infected KB cells, c-myc gene transcription was decreased. In 293 cells and in three adenovirus-transformed hamster cell ...
... increased viral replication and disease. This review examines the effect(s) of cannabinoids and their antagonists in viral ... The anti-inflammatory activity of cannabinoids may compromise host inflammatory responses to acute viral infections, but may be ... increased transformation of endothelial cells. primary human dermal microvascular cells. [39]. Cowpox. In vivo. Marijuana ... Vero cells, increased CPE. [34]. HSV-2. both. Δ9-THC. decreased T cell proliferation. B6C3H F1 mice immunized then T cells ...
Viral titers were quantitated in infected Rat‐2 cells by measuring expressed proteins. Viral stocks were adjusted to give ... Transformation of hematopoietic cells by BCR/ABL requires activation of a PI‐3k/Akt‐dependent pathway. Tomasz Skorski, Alfonso ... expressing cells. For example, compared with cells expressing wild‐type BCR/ABL, Bcl‐2 levels are decreased in cells expressing ... Preparation of viral stocks. Helper‐free retroviral stocks were prepared by transient hyper‐expression in COS‐1 cells of ...
Alteration of cell-surface proteins by viral transformation and by proteolysis. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1973; 70: 3170-4. * ... Density and cell cycle dependence of cell surface proteins in hamster fibroblasts. Cell 1974; 3: 113-20. *CrossRef, ... A common cell-type specific surface antigen in cultured human glial cells and fibroblasts: loss in malignant cells. J Exp Med ... Identification and isolation of a 140 kd cell surface glycoprotein with properties expected of a fibronectin receptor. Cell ...
Renato Dulbecco (deceased), Nobel laureate (for viral transformation of cells).. See also[edit]. *San Diego Historical ... Pollack, Andrew (8 May 2008). "$271 Million for Research on Stem Cells in California". The New York Times.. ... The institute appointed genome biologist Eric Lander and stem cell biologist Irving Weissman as non-resident fellows in ...
Autoantibodies; Biochemistry; Biophysics; Cell Transformation, Viral; RNA Processing, Post-Transcriptional; Gene Expression; ...
Autoantibodies; Biochemistry; Biophysics; Cell Transformation, Viral; RNA Processing, Post-Transcriptional; Gene Expression; ... Lee N, Moss WN, Yario TA, Steitz JA: EBV noncoding RNA binds nascent RNA to drive host PAX5 to viral DNA. Cell. 2015 Feb 12; ... Cazalla D, Xie M, Steitz JA: A primate herpesvirus uses the integrator complex to generate viral microRNAs. Mol Cell. 2011 Sep ... Stem Cell Center, Yale: Transcriptional Regulation of Stem and Progenitor Cells. Yale Cancer Center: Virus and Other Infection- ...
Viral transformation of epithelial cells.. Regan JA, Laimins LA.. Methods Mol Biol. 2013;945:449-65. doi: 10.1007/978-1-62703- ... Topoisomerase IIβ-binding protein 1 activates expression of E2F1 and p73 in HPV-positive cells for genome amplification upon ... Human papillomavirus E1 helicase interacts with the WD repeat protein p80 to promote maintenance of the viral genome in ... An interaction between human papillomavirus 16 E2 and TopBP1 is required for optimum viral DNA replication and episomal genome ...
Liver Cell Transformation in Chronic HBV Infection. Next Article in Special Issue. Viral Hybrid Vectors for Somatic Integration ... This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Viral Vector Systems for Gene Therapy) ...
... invention further provides methods for making the antibodies in a non-human animal and for expressing the antibodies in cells ... including hybridomas and recombinant host cell systems. Kits and pharmaceutical compositions comprising the antibodies are also ... In addition, nucleic acid molecules may be introduced into mammalian cells by viral vectors. Methods of transforming cells are ... Sequences encoding particular antibodies can be used for transformation of a suitable host cell. Transformation can be by any ...
While the loss of viral genome could account for the lack of cellular transformation, it is clear that MM cells are distinct ... Cells were passaged every 3 days at 2 × 104 cells/well in 24-well plates. (B) KMM cells grew faster than MM cells in regular ... Cells seeded at 105 cells/well in 6-well plates were counted daily. (D) KMM cells formed foci, while MM cells were contact ... KMM cells had more cells in S phase (50% vs. 40%) and fewer cells in G0/G1 phase (35% vs. 42%) than MM cells (Supplemental ...
To assess the amounts of infectious Ab-MLV in pSRα-based viral stocks, 105 NIH 3T3 cells were plated on 60-mm-diameter petri ... Cells and viruses.NIH 3T3 cells, Ab-MLV-transformed NIH 3T3 cells, and 293T cells (11) were grown in Dulbeccos modified ... Transformation and Oncogenesis. The Extreme Carboxyl Terminus of v-Abl Is Required for Lymphoid Cell Transformation by Abelson ... induces transformation of pre-B cells in vivo and in vitro and can transform immortalized fibroblast cell lines in vitro. ...
Cell isolation and culture: Ficoll, cell selection, EBV transformation, viral transduction .... *Process and product ... The Flow Core provides cell sorting, including bulk enrichment, rare population, and single cell plate sorting, performed by ... Connell and OReilly Families Cell Manipulation Core. The Connell and OReilly Families Cell Manipulation Core Facility assists ... Manufacturing Practices for cell and tissue processing. Services include the processing of hematopoietic stem cells for ...
Transformations. Depending on the host cell used, transformation is done using standard techniques appropriate to such cells. ... The gene encoded by this SmaI-XmnI fragment was inserted into a well-known vaccinia viral vector, pSCll, for subsequent ... Useful host cell lines include VERO and HeLa cells, and Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. Expression vectors for such cells ... an epitheloid cell; (4) cytoplasmic RNA from MRC5 cells; (5) cytoplasmic RNA from HeLa cells; (6) total RNA from HL-60 cells ( ...
Jove R, Hanafusa H. Cell transformation by the viral src oncogene. Annu Rev Cell Biol 1987; 3: 31-56. ... Dasatinib blocks cell motility and invasion by sarcoma cells. Both FAK and p130CAS activities are involved in regulating cell ... Wounds were introduced on cell monolayers using a pipette tip. Cells were washed with 1× PBS to remove nonadherent cells and ... Furthermore, in 11 of 12 sarcoma cell lines examined, dasatinib inhibits cell migration and invasion. The single cell line that ...
  • Abstract: Abstract Polyomaviruses have provided many insights into control of cell physiology. (tufts.edu)
  • Alterations in the levels of expression of specific cellular genes in adenovirus-infected and -transformed cells. (biomedsearch.com)
  • There is increasing evidence that changes in the transcriptional program of cellular genes in virus-transformed cells can contribute to virus transformation. (biomedsearch.com)
  • It is, therefore, important to study altered expression patterns of cellular genes in adenovirus-infected and -transformed cells. (biomedsearch.com)
  • We have used 40 different cellular genes or gene segments as hybridization probes to analyze the cytoplasmic RNA from adenovirus type 2 (Ad2)-infected KB cells, from Ad5-transformed human cells (293) or from several Ad2- or adenovirus type 12 (Ad12)-transformed hamster cell lines. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Many of the genes probed were not expressed in human or hamster cells. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Transcription of the ADPRT and the heat shock protein 70 genes was increased in Ad2-infected KB cells and in 293 cells. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Current efforts are aimed at understanding how splicing influences downstream events in gene expression via the exon junction complex (EJC), how microRNA biogenesis is regulated during the nuclear maturation steps, and what is the mechanism and function of readthrough transcripts that arise from ~10% of human genes when cells are exposed to stress (osmotic, heat shock or oxidative). (yale.edu)
  • The viral genes modulate the physiological machinery of infected cells that lead to cell transformation and development of cancer. (hindawi.com)
  • Studies of DNA viruses have led to the identification of viral genes responsible for cancer induction and paving the way to our current understanding of cancer at the molecular level [ 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • EBV encodes miRNAs targeting both viral and host genes involved in the immune response. (springer.com)
  • Tax also acts as a transactivator of an increasing number of host cellular genes, most of which are associated with cell growth. (jimmunol.org)
  • EBNA2 Drives Formation of New Chromosome Binding Sites and Target Genes for B-Cell Master Regulatory Transcription Factors RBP-jκ and EBF1. (ebscohost.com)
  • Their technique became standard in laboratories investigating oncogenes (genes that have the potential to make normal cells turn cancerous) and cell transformations. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Montagnier established that reverse transcriptase translates the genetic instructions of the virus from the viral (RNA) form to DNA, allowing the genes of the virus to become permanently established in the cells of the host organism. (encyclopedia.com)
  • In contrast to the findings in Wilms' tumor, where mutations in the WT1 gene usually behave according to Knudson's two hit model for tumor suppressor genes, seven of eight leukemia-associated WT1 mutations are heterozygous, implying a dominant or dominant-negative mode of action in hematopoietic cells. (bloodjournal.org)
  • We then measured the expression of self-renewal genes, transformation growth factor-beta (TGF-β) and leukemia-inhibitory factor (LIF), in shRNA-transduced HeLa-SFCs and found that expression of all three TGF-β isoforms was significantly downregulated while LIF remained unchanged. (nature.com)
  • 11 , 12 Although it is not clear whether oncogene expression in CSCs is different from that in other cancer cells, it is believed that these genes are vital for them. (nature.com)
  • Viral early genes E6 and E7 from high-risk HPV types are responsible for the transformation of epithelial cells, and their continuous expression is essential for ongoing cervical cancer cell survival as they function as oncogenes. (nature.com)
  • Stem cell pioneer Shinya Yamanaka, MD, PhD, showed that using a virus to add just four genes to the skin cell allowed it to become pluripotent, or able to achieve many different developmental fates. (medindia.net)
  • But researchers and clinicians have been cautious about promoting potential therapeutic uses for these cells because the insertion of the genes could render the cells cancerous. (medindia.net)
  • It had been thought that the virus served simply as a Trojan horse to deliver the genes into the cell," said John Cooke, MD, PhD, professor of medicine and associate director of the Stanford Cardiovascular Institute. (medindia.net)
  • In the presence of just four genes (identified because they are highly expressed by embryonic stem cells), they can assume the characteristics of embryonic stem cells and, under the right conditions, can become nearly any cell type. (medindia.net)
  • This will improve our understanding of viral pathogenesis and provide insights into basic cellular and immunological processes. (berkeley.edu)
  • One of the most advanced and mature research programs at the Vaccine and Gene Therapy Institute is the AIDS pathogenesis and vaccine program to focus on the development of novel immunotherapeutic approaches that provide for viral control (and perhaps even virus elimination) and/or immune restoration, in untreated infections or full normalization of immune function with optimally suppressive anti-retroviral therapy. (ohsu.edu)
  • The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is the most common human virus, implicated in the pathogenesis of several human tumors, particularly B-cell lymphomas. (haematologica.org)
  • Lastly, biologic effects include the viruses' ability to affect the activity of antigens and immunologlobulins in the host cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chronic infections have similar cellular effects as acute cytocidal infections but there is a limited number of progeny and viruses involved in transformation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The role of such viruses as Merkel cell polyoma, papilloma, Kaposi's sarcoma and Epstein-Barr virus in human cancer highlight challenges to prevent and treat these diseases. (harvard.edu)
  • They conduct basic research defining new molecular structures of viruses and virus-encoded enzymes, new mechanisms within cells for molecular and organelle trafficking and function, and new mechanisms that control cell growth. (harvard.edu)
  • Here we show that the B cell transforming capacity of the Δ123 EBV mutant is reduced by more than 20-fold, relative to wild type or revertant viruses. (nih.gov)
  • In this review we will focus on how DNA viruses alter the glucose metabolism of transformed cells. (hindawi.com)
  • In their life cycle, viruses replicate, inducing the cytopathic effect in the host cells and forming new viral particles. (hindawi.com)
  • His investigation of interferon, one of the body's defenses against viruses, also opened avenues for medical cures for viral diseases. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Particle-mediated delivery is not sensitive to permeability of the cell membrane by specific reagents and lacks the potentially deleterious effects of viruses and lipofection. (jneurosci.org)
  • Many viruses have evolved complex strategies for this evasion (one example being the down-regulation of cell surface MHC-I). Such strategies are readily observable among the herpesviruses, a family of large DNA viruses that efficiently produce persistent infections and disease in their host. (berkeley.edu)
  • Visible morphologic changes in cells infected with viruses. (umassmed.edu)
  • Viral cytopathogenic effects provide a valuable method for identifying and classifying the infecting viruses. (umassmed.edu)
  • By carefully interrogating the differences between these viruses, I believe it will be possible to elucidate which viral phenotypes are associated with oncogenic progression. (bio5.org)
  • Dr. Green's research focuses on understanding the molecular basis of T-lymphocyte transformation, as well as the induction of leukemia/lymphoma and neurological diseases by the human T-cell leukemia viruses (HTLVs). (osu.edu)
  • Dr. Green has authored or co-authored many articles in well-regarded publications, including Viruses, Journal of Virology, Journal of Biological Chemistry and Cancer Cell . (osu.edu)
  • Role of Wild-type and Recombinant Human T-cell Leukemia Viruses in Lymphoproliferative Disease in Humanized NSG Mice. (osu.edu)
  • Readers are directed to the excellent accompanying reviews in this issue which expertly discuss the clinical trials, cell biology, mechanisms of action, impact on inflammation, clinical applications, and so forth. (mdpi.com)
  • Thus, this system may allow us to study the biology of HIV-1 latency, as well as the mechanisms of CD4 + T cell death following HIV-1 reactivation. (jimmunol.org)
  • During the contraction phase at the end of the immune response, the vast majority of activated CD4 + T cells die in response to intrinsic mechanisms triggered by Ag withdrawal and consequent decline of growth factors and Bcl-2, as well as extrinsic mechanisms involving Fas (CD95)-Fas ligand (CD178) interaction and caspase 3 activation ( 11 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • The biochemical mechanisms that induce target cell lysis in cell mediated cytotoxicity systems-cytotoxic T-lymphocytes, natural killer cells, natural cytotoxicity cells, antibody dependent cell mediated cytotoxicity systems, and cytotoxic activated macrophages-are unknown. (springer.com)
  • After 48 hours at 68 C (154.4 F), viral titers dropped from 10((8)) to two infectious particles/ml. (cdc.gov)
  • Chen's group previously invented a method to convert astroglial cells into neurons using viral particles. (medicalxpress.com)
  • The AAV particle standard that contains 3.6x10^9 viral particles was dissolved in 500µl as described in the protocol of the Progen AAV Titration ELISA and a absorption spectrum was measured. (igem.org)
  • These purified and concentrated viral particles could be used for biophysical measurements, there for the possibility to detect the viral particles by absorption was interesting for us. (igem.org)
  • Herpesvirus saimiri microRNAs Preferentially Target Host Cell-Cycle Regulators. (yale.edu)
  • EBV was recently found to encode microRNAs (miRNAs) that are expressed in infected B cells and in some EBV-associated lymphomas.Therefore, the BHRF1 miRNAs accelerate B cell expansion at lower latent gene expression levels.Thus, the EBV BHRF1 miRNAs may represent new therapeutic targets for the treatment of some EBV-associated lymphomas. (nih.gov)
  • EBV was recently found to encode microRNAs (miRNAs) that are expressed in infected B cells and in some EBV-associated lymphomas. (nih.gov)
  • Epstein-Barr virus microRNAs reduce immune surveillance by virus-specific CD8+T cells. (springer.com)
  • In addition, EBV codes for at least twenty microRNAs which are expressed in latently infected cells. (wikidoc.org)
  • In contrast, the response of cells expressing the CB 2 receptor may influence not only the responses in that cell, but may alter the course of the host innate and adaptive immune response to the pathogen, suppressing inflammation and the development of virus-specific cellular and humoral responses. (mdpi.com)
  • This has resulted in successful immune cell- or antibody-responses against glycolipids, with promising results having been obtained in clinical trials. (frontiersin.org)
  • The immune system regulates the growth and differentiation of a variety of hematopoietic and lymphoid lineages through the production of a series of lymphokines by activated T cells. (springer.com)
  • To ensure its survival and maintain its B cell transformation function, EBV has developed powerful strategies to evade host immune responses. (springer.com)
  • A balance is eventually struck between occasional viral reactivation and host immune surveillance removing cells that activate viral gene expression. (wikidoc.org)
  • Previous research, such as conventional stem cell therapy, requires brain surgery and therefore is much more invasive and prone to immune-system rejection and other problems. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Natural Killer cells are a crucial part of the innate immune system. (berkeley.edu)
  • Current understanding of the residual virus remaining in HIV+ subjects on optimally effective cART suggests that HIV cure, either complete or functional, will likely require the combination of 2 mechanistically distinct interventions: 1) induction of viral gene expression in the transcriptionally "quiescent", latent HIV reservoir (required for immune targeting of these cells) and 2) targeted immune destruction of all cells expressing HIV gene products. (ohsu.edu)
  • In addition, direct-acting antiviral agents therapy may affect the transformation of the immune cells and ameliorate the host immune status consequently. (bioportfolio.com)
  • In complementation assays using mouse marrow progenitor cells, the ability of transformation‐defective SH2 domain BCR/ABL mutants to induce growth factor‐independent colony formation and leukemia in SCID mice was markedly enhanced by expression of constitutively active Akt. (embopress.org)
  • Although all mutants lacking sequences within the COOH terminus were compromised for lymphoid transformation, loss of amino acids in the central region of the COOH terminus, including those implicated in JAK interaction and DNA binding, decreased transformation twofold or less. (asm.org)
  • Gluzman Y, Ahrens B. SV40 early mutants that are defective for viral DNA synthesis but competent for transformation of cultured rat and simian cells. (atcc.org)
  • The invention further provides methods for making the antibodies in a non-human animal and for expressing the antibodies in cells. (google.com)
  • Type I Allergic Reaction: IgE antibodies fixed to mast cells react with the complete virus or with viral components b. (coursehero.com)
  • Additionally, factors that are associated with higher transmission risks include the presence of antibodies against the viral oncoprotein Tax (anti-Tax), a higher proviral load in peripheral blood lymphocytes, and increased cervicovaginal or seminal secretions. (scielo.br)
  • In HeLa cells, pm1722 replicated as well as wild-type virus but produced an extreme cytopathic effect and fragmentation of host-cell DNA. (nih.gov)
  • Thus, this miRNA cluster simultaneously enhances expansion of the virus reservoir and reduces the viral antigenic load, two features that have the potential to facilitate persistence of the virus in the infected host. (nih.gov)
  • Furthermore, we show that a combination of activated Ras and SV40 LT fails to induce robust anchorage-independent growth in naked mole-rat cells, while it readily transforms mouse fibroblasts. (pnas.org)
  • Identification of the biochemical effector mechanism(s) utilized by activated macrophages to induce stasis and lysis of transformed target cells is complicated by the large armamentarium of potential cytotoxic effector molecules that can be elaborated by macrophages. (springer.com)
  • Cytopathogenic Effect, Viral" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (umassmed.edu)
  • It is likely that many of the viral functions linked to oncogenesis were evolutionarily beneficial as papillomavirus adapted to novel environmental niches on the host (e.g. external genitalia vs. cervix). (bio5.org)
  • However, the aberrant and elevated expression of gangliosides has been also observed in different types of cancer cells, thereby promoting tumor survival. (frontiersin.org)
  • Moreover, gangliosides are actively released from the membrane of tumor cells, having a strong impact on impairing anti-tumor immunity. (frontiersin.org)
  • Differentially expressed tumor-associated carbohydrates represent a general phenomenon observed in many types of cancer cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • The role of activated marcophages in specific and nonspecific cytostasis of tumor cells. (springer.com)
  • Krahenbuhl, J.L. Effects of activated macrophages of tumor target cells in discrete phases of the cell cycle. (springer.com)
  • Mechanism of macrophage-mediated tumor cell cytotoxicity. (springer.com)
  • Presence of allograft- rejection resistance in simian virus 40-transformed hamster cells and its possible role in tumor development. (springer.com)
  • Accumulating evidence supports the concept that cancer stem cells (CSCs) are responsible for tumor initiation and maintenance. (nature.com)
  • The concept of cancer stem cells (CSCs) is that tumors contain a small proportion of self-renewal and pluripotent cancer cells that are responsible for tumor initiation and maintenance. (nature.com)
  • Plasma Epstein-Barr viral deoxyribonucleic acid quantitation complements tumor-node-metastasis staging prognostication in nasopharyngeal carcinoma. (medscape.com)
  • The Confocal and Light Microscopy Core provides state-of-the-art imaging microscopy technology for fixed and live cells and tissues, along with scientific and technical expertise to assist in experimental design and optimal image collection. (dana-farber.org)
  • Cells Tissues Organs 189(1-4), pp. 268-274. (cardiff.ac.uk)
  • But when brain tissues are damaged by strokes or trauma, the astroglial cells react by multiplying-sometimes so much that they clog up the nervous system by forming a scar. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Current methods for introducing DNA and RNA into cells and tissues include viral transformation, lipofection, electroporation, direct injection through microcapillaries, and biolistics. (jneurosci.org)
  • Expression of WT1 is highest during embryogenesis, where it is found in multipotent progenitor cells of a restricted range of tissues, mainly in the genitourinary system. (bloodjournal.org)
  • In contrast to these factors, which primarily act on mature cells, interleukin-3 (IL-3) acts on relatively immature hematopoietic/lymphoid cells. (springer.com)
  • Interleukin-3 regulation of the growth of normal and transformed hematopoietic cells: Cancer Cells 3/Growth Factors and Transformation. (springer.com)
  • Chronic myeloid leukemia is a myeloproliferative disorder that may be treated with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). (hindawi.com)
  • Chronic myeloid or chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) is a clonal myeloproliferative disorder that arises from the neoplastic transformation of undifferentiated hematopoietic stem cells [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • 5 However, the type of mutation suggested a different mechanism of action of mutant WT1 in differentiating hematopoietic cells compared with metanephric blastema. (bloodjournal.org)
  • 2016. Clonal heterogeneity in the neuronal and glial differentiation of dental pulp stem/progenitor cells . (cardiff.ac.uk)
  • 3 In the adult, expression of this tissue-specific gene continues in specific cell types of the kidney and gonad and, at much lower levels, in the bone marrow, where it is confined to CD34 + progenitor cells. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Human fibroblasts whose lifespan in culture has been extended by expression of a viral oncogene eventually undergo a growth crisis marked by failure to proliferate. (isharonline.org)
  • In cell culture, naked mole-rat fibroblasts arrest at a much lower density than those from a mouse. (pnas.org)
  • The cell cultures studied were chick embryo fibroblasts (CEF), normal rat kidney cells infected with temperature-sensitive mutant (LA31-NRK) and a wild type RSV (B77-NRK). (unt.edu)
  • The molecular basis of these viral induced activities is mediated by the downregulation of cyclin/cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor p27Kip1. (prohealth.com)
  • It is particularly advantageous for live tissue applications, because it does not rely on molecular diffusion within tissue and can target cells in internal layers. (jneurosci.org)
  • The papillomaviral lifecycle perturbs the normal differentiation cycle of the infected cell, forcing cells to divide far beyond their normal lifespan. (bio5.org)
  • These results show that dasatinib inhibits migration and invasion of diverse sarcoma cell types and selectively blocks the survival of bone sarcoma cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Human Papillomaviruses Preferentially Recruit DNA Repair Factors to Viral Genomes for Rapid Repair and Amplification. (nih.gov)
  • The anti-inflammatory activity of cannabinoids may compromise host inflammatory responses to acute viral infections, but may be beneficial in persistent infections. (mdpi.com)
  • Persistent infections involve viral material that lays dormant within a cell until activated by some stimulus. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are three types of persistent infections, latent, chronic and slow, in which the virus stays inside the host cell for prolonged periods of time. (wikipedia.org)
  • Persistent infections occur in renal proximal tubule cells, and active infections occur in the oligodendrocyte glial cells in the central nervous system. (kenyon.edu)
  • We deleted this invR sequence and showed that this abolished the ability of the virus to transform human B cells into lymphoblastoid cell lines. (imperial.ac.uk)
  • Normal human diploid cells, TIG-1, ceased to proliferate at about the 62 population doubling level (PDL). (isharonline.org)
  • A recently published study evaluated the thermostability of murine retroviruses inocculated into factor concentrates, using a cell transformation assay (5). (cdc.gov)
  • Transformed clones isolated from TIG-1 cells infected with wtSV40 and those with tsA900 SV40 cultured at 34 degrees C were subcultured up to about 80 PDL. (isharonline.org)
  • When the culture temperature of tsA SV40-transformed cells was shifted from 34 to 39.5 degrees C at 51 PDL, the growth curve of these transformed cells changed to that of normal young cells. (isharonline.org)
  • Proteomics and Transcriptomics of BJAB Cells Expressing the Epstein-Barr Virus Noncoding RNAs EBER1 and EBER2. (yale.edu)
  • Cultured "hairy cells" infected with Epstein-Barr virus: evidence for B-lymphocyte origin. (ebscohost.com)
  • Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is linked to a broad spectrum of B-cell malignancies. (ebscohost.com)
  • Pathmanathan R, Prasad U, Sadler R, Flynn K, Raab-Traub N. Clonal proliferations of cells infected with Epstein-Barr virus in preinvasive lesions related to nasopharyngeal carcinoma. (medscape.com)
  • Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) can immortalize B-cll cells activated by cytokines. (diva-portal.org)
  • Cyclin D/Cdk4 complexes phosphorylate the retinoblastoma gene product (pRb) early in the G 1 phase of the cell cycle, while cyclin E/Cdk2 complexes phosphorylate pRb in late G 1 . (asm.org)
  • In this manner, cyclin/Cdk complexes are pivotal in regulating the progression of the cell cycle (reviewed in references 48 and 49 ). (asm.org)
  • In order for a cell to be transformed by a virus, the viral DNA must be entered into the host cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • A virus is a parasite that must infect a living cell to reproduce. (encyclopedia.com)
  • B cells exposed to the knock-out virus displayed slower growth, and exhibited a two-fold reduction in the percentage of cells entering the cell cycle S phase. (nih.gov)
  • Thought to play a role in virus-mediated cell transformation leading to hepatocellular carcinomas. (uniprot.org)
  • My project involved investigating T cell response to human papilloma virus (HPV) and focused on identifying cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) epitopes from HPV. (cardiff.ac.uk)
  • In their resting state, HIV-1-infected cells do not actively replicate the virus, which remains dormant for extended periods of time ( 16 , 17 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • In 1960, Sweet and Hilleman discovered a new virus in cultures of kidney cells of rhesus monkeys, producing vaccines to poliovirus [ 3 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • It is the only costimulatory T cell molecule known to be specifically up-regulated in human T cell leukemia virus type-I (HTLV-I)-producing cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • Both OX40 and OX40L are constitutively expressed on human T cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I)-producing T cell lines ( 3 , 10 , 11 , 12 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Cook J.L., Hibbs, J.B., Jr., and A.M. Lewis, Jr. Resistance of simian virus 40-transformed hamster cells to the cytolytic, effect of activated macrophages: A possible factor in species- specific viral oncogenicity. (springer.com)
  • In Felix's case, the virus was preventing her bone marrow from producing red blood cells and she became severely anemic as a result. (petfinder.com)
  • Virus (or viral component)-Complement fixation to the cell. (coursehero.com)
  • Here we show that B-cells infected by a virus that lacks these non-coding RNAs (Î"123) grew more slowly. (ebscohost.com)
  • Human chorionic gonodotropin (HCG) affected in various ways cell cultures infected with strains of Rous sarcoma virus (RSV). (unt.edu)
  • (cdc.gov)
  • Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is endemic in many parts of the world and is primarily transmitted through sexual intercourse or from mother to child. (scielo.br)
  • Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) and human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 2 (HTLV-2) belong to the Retroviridae family and the genus deltaretrovirus. (scielo.br)
  • The Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type (HTLV) retrovirus is the causative agent of HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP), adult T-cell leukemia (ATL), uveitis, infective dermatitis, inflammatory disorders, and emerging syndromes that are associated with HTLV 6 - 9 . (scielo.br)
  • Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) is a very common virus that causes the growth of abnormal tissue or cells on body skin. (kenyon.edu)
  • It is strictly a human virus whose viral chromosome structure is very similar to its host chromatin. (kenyon.edu)
  • In the early stage the JC virus attaches to the host cell by receptors containing sialic acid. (kenyon.edu)
  • Enumeration of the simian virus 40 early region elements necessary for human cell transformation. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Human mesothelial cells are unusually susceptible to simian virus 40-mediated transformation and asbestos cocarcinogenicity. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Now we know that the virus causes the cell to loosen its chromatin and make the DNA available for the changes necessary for it to revert to the pluripotent state. (medindia.net)