Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.
An inheritable change in cells manifested by changes in cell division and growth and alterations in cell surface properties. It is induced by infection with a transforming virus.
Change brought about to an organisms genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (TRANSFECTION; TRANSDUCTION, GENETIC; CONJUGATION, GENETIC, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell's genome.
The heritable modification of the properties of a competent bacterium by naked DNA from another source. The uptake of naked DNA is a naturally occuring phenomenon in some bacteria. It is often used as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.
Eukaryotic cell line obtained in a quiescent or stationary phase which undergoes conversion to a state of unregulated growth in culture, resembling an in vitro tumor. It occurs spontaneously or through interaction with viruses, oncogenes, radiation, or drugs/chemicals.
Transforming protein coded by jun oncogenes (GENES, JUN). This is a gag-onc fusion protein of about 65 kDa derived from avian sarcoma virus. v-jun lacks a negative regulatory domain that regulates transcription in c-jun.
Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Family of retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (ras) originally isolated from Harvey (H-ras, Ha-ras, rasH) and Kirsten (K-ras, Ki-ras, rasK) murine sarcoma viruses. Ras genes are widely conserved among animal species and sequences corresponding to both H-ras and K-ras genes have been detected in human, avian, murine, and non-vertebrate genomes. The closely related N-ras gene has been detected in human neuroblastoma and sarcoma cell lines. All genes of the family have a similar exon-intron structure and each encodes a p21 protein.
A tyrosine-specific protein kinase encoded by the v-src oncogene of ROUS SARCOMA VIRUS. The transforming activity of pp60(v-src) depends on both the lack of a critical carboxy-terminal tyrosine phosphorylation site at position 527, and the attachment of pp60(v-src) to the plasma membrane which is accomplished by myristylation of its N-terminal glycine.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
Genes whose gain-of-function alterations lead to NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION. They include, for example, genes for activators or stimulators of CELL PROLIFERATION such as growth factors, growth factor receptors, protein kinases, signal transducers, nuclear phosphoproteins, and transcription factors. A prefix of "v-" before oncogene symbols indicates oncogenes captured and transmitted by RETROVIRUSES; the prefix "c-" before the gene symbol of an oncogene indicates it is the cellular homolog (PROTO-ONCOGENES) of a v-oncogene.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Products of viral oncogenes, most commonly retroviral oncogenes. They usually have transforming and often protein kinase activities.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
A continuous cell line of high contact-inhibition established from NIH Swiss mouse embryo cultures. The cells are useful for DNA transfection and transformation studies. (From ATCC [Internet]. Virginia: American Type Culture Collection; c2002 [cited 2002 Sept 26]. Available from http://www.atcc.org/)
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
A multiprotein complex composed of the products of c-jun and c-fos proto-oncogenes. These proteins must dimerize in order to bind to the AP-1 recognition site, also known as the TPA-responsive element (TRE). AP-1 controls both basal and inducible transcription of several genes.
Substances that increase the risk of NEOPLASMS in humans or animals. Both genotoxic chemicals, which affect DNA directly, and nongenotoxic chemicals, which induce neoplasms by other mechanism, are included.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Group of alpharetroviruses (ALPHARETROVIRUS) producing sarcomata and other tumors in chickens and other fowl and also in pigeons, ducks, and RATS.
Transforming protein encoded by ras oncogenes. Point mutations in the cellular ras gene (c-ras) can also result in a mutant p21 protein that can transform mammalian cells. Oncogene protein p21(ras) has been directly implicated in human neoplasms, perhaps accounting for as much as 15-20% of all human tumors. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.
Small, monomeric GTP-binding proteins encoded by ras genes (GENES, RAS). The protooncogene-derived protein, PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN P21(RAS), plays a role in normal cellular growth, differentiation and development. The oncogene-derived protein (ONCOGENE PROTEIN P21(RAS)) can play a role in aberrant cellular regulation during neoplastic cell transformation (CELL TRANSFORMATION, NEOPLASTIC). This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
Cell lines developed from disaggregated BALB/c mouse embryos. They are extremely sensitive to CONTACT INHIBITION, and highly susceptible to transformation by SV40 VIRUS and murine sarcoma virus (SARCOMA VIRUSES, MURINE).
Retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (src) originally isolated from the Rous sarcoma virus (RSV). The proto-oncogene src (c-src) codes for a protein that is a member of the tyrosine kinase family and was the first proto-oncogene identified in the human genome. The human c-src gene is located at 20q12-13 on the long arm of chromosome 20.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Transforming protein coded by myc oncogenes. The v-myc protein has been found in several replication-defective avian retrovirus isolates which induce a broad spectrum of malignancies.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-myc genes. They are normally involved in nucleic acid metabolism and in mediating the cellular response to growth factors. Elevated and deregulated (constitutive) expression of c-myc proteins can cause tumorigenesis.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
A genus of the family Muridae having three species. The present domesticated strains were developed from individuals brought from Syria. They are widely used in biomedical research.
A type of XIPAPILLOMAVIRUS causing alimentary carcinoma in cattle. It is related to Bovine papillomavirus 3.
Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.
Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.
Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.
7,8,8a,9a-Tetrahydrobenzo(10,11)chryseno (3,4-b)oxirene-7,8-diol. A benzopyrene derivative with carcinogenic and mutagenic activity.
A BETARETROVIRUS that causes pulmonary adenomatosis in sheep (PULMONARY ADENOMATOSIS, OVINE).
A 6-kDa polypeptide growth factor initially discovered in mouse submaxillary glands. Human epidermal growth factor was originally isolated from urine based on its ability to inhibit gastric secretion and called urogastrone. Epidermal growth factor exerts a wide variety of biological effects including the promotion of proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal and EPITHELIAL CELLS. It is synthesized as a transmembrane protein which can be cleaved to release a soluble active form.
A genus of potentially oncogenic viruses of the family POLYOMAVIRIDAE. These viruses are normally present in their natural hosts as latent infections. The virus is oncogenic in hosts different from the species of origin.
A family of transforming proteins isolated from retroviruses such as MOUSE SARCOMA VIRUSES. They are viral-derived members of the raf-kinase family of serine-theonine kinases.
An oncogene protein that was originally isolated from a spontaneous musculo-aponeurotic FIBROSARCOMA in CHICKEN and shown to be the transforming gene of the avian retrovirus AS42. It is a basic leucine zipper TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR and the founding member of the MAF TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Retroviral proteins that have the ability to transform cells. They can induce sarcomas, leukemias, lymphomas, and mammary carcinomas. Not all retroviral proteins are oncogenic.
A family of ribosomal protein S6 kinases that are structurally distinguished from RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 KINASES, 70-KDA by their apparent molecular size and the fact they contain two functional kinase domains. Although considered RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 KINASES, members of this family are activated via the MAP KINASE SIGNALING SYSTEM and have been shown to act on a diverse array of substrates that are involved in cellular regulation such as RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 and CAMP RESPONSE ELEMENT-BINDING PROTEIN.
A cyclin-dependent kinase that forms a complex with CYCLIN C and is active during the G1 PHASE of the CELL CYCLE. It plays a role in the transition from G1 to S PHASE and in transcriptional regulation.
Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Arrest of cell locomotion or cell division when two cells come into contact.
Family of retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (myc) originally isolated from an avian myelocytomatosis virus. The proto-oncogene myc (c-myc) codes for a nuclear protein which is involved in nucleic acid metabolism and in mediating the cellular response to growth factors. Truncation of the first exon, which appears to regulate c-myc expression, is crucial for tumorigenicity. The human c-myc gene is located at 8q24 on the long arm of chromosome 8.
Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL with very effective tumor promoting activity. It stimulates the synthesis of both DNA and RNA.
Proteins transcribed from the E1A genome region of ADENOVIRUSES which are involved in positive regulation of transcription of the early genes of host infection.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-jun genes (GENES, JUN). They are involved in growth-related transcriptional control. There appear to be three distinct functions: dimerization (with c-fos), DNA-binding, and transcriptional activation. Oncogenic transformation can take place by constitutive expression of c-jun.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.
A species of DELTAPAPILLOMAVIRUS infecting cattle.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
Cellular proteins encoded by the H-ras, K-ras and N-ras genes. The proteins have GTPase activity and are involved in signal transduction as monomeric GTP-binding proteins. Elevated levels of p21 c-ras have been associated with neoplasia. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.
The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
High molecular weight insoluble polymers which contain functional anionic groups that are capable of undergoing exchange reactions with cations.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Normal cellular genes homologous to viral oncogenes. The products of proto-oncogenes are important regulators of biological processes and appear to be involved in the events that serve to maintain the ordered procession through the cell cycle. Proto-oncogenes have names of the form c-onc.
Family of RNA viruses that infects birds and mammals and encodes the enzyme reverse transcriptase. The family contains seven genera: DELTARETROVIRUS; LENTIVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE B, MAMMALIAN; ALPHARETROVIRUS; GAMMARETROVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE D; and SPUMAVIRUS. A key feature of retrovirus biology is the synthesis of a DNA copy of the genome which is integrated into cellular DNA. After integration it is sometimes not expressed but maintained in a latent state (PROVIRUSES).
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
A nitrosoguanidine derivative with potent mutagenic and carcinogenic properties.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Proteins from the family Retroviridae. The most frequently encountered member of this family is the Rous sarcoma virus protein.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
The ability of bacterial cells to take up exogenous DNA and be genetically transformed by it.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
Glandular tissue in the BREAST of human that is under the influence of hormones such as ESTROGENS; PROGESTINS; and PROLACTIN. In WOMEN, after PARTURITION, the mammary glands secrete milk (MILK, HUMAN) for the nourishment of the young.
Experimentally induced new abnormal growth of TISSUES in animals to provide models for studying human neoplasms.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
A superfamily of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that are activated by diverse stimuli via protein kinase cascades. They are the final components of the cascades, activated by phosphorylation by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES, which in turn are activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES).
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
A group of replication-defective viruses, in the genus GAMMARETROVIRUS, which are capable of transforming cells, but which replicate and produce tumors only in the presence of Murine leukemia viruses (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE).
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Tests to experimentally measure the tumor-producing/cancer cell-producing potency of an agent by administering the agent (e.g., benzanthracenes) and observing the quantity of tumors or the cell transformation developed over a given period of time. The carcinogenicity value is usually measured as milligrams of agent administered per tumor developed. Though this test differs from the DNA-repair and bacterial microsome MUTAGENICITY TESTS, researchers often attempt to correlate the finding of carcinogenicity values and mutagenicity values.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
ONCOGENE PROTEINS from papillomavirus that deregulate the CELL CYCLE of infected cells and lead to NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION. Papillomavirus E7 proteins have been shown to interact with various regulators of the cell cycle including RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN and certain cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors.
Proteins transcribed from the E1B region of ADENOVIRUSES which are involved in regulation of the levels of early and late viral gene expression.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
An 11-kDa AT-hook motif-containing (AT-HOOK MOTIFS) protein that binds to the minor grove of AT-rich regions of DNA. It is the full-length product of the alternatively-spliced HMGA1 gene and may function as an architectural chromatin binding protein that is involved in transcriptional regulation.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-fos genes (GENES, FOS). They are involved in growth-related transcriptional control. c-fos combines with c-jun (PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-JUN) to form a c-fos/c-jun heterodimer (TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1) that binds to the TRE (TPA-responsive element) in promoters of certain genes.
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
Inorganic salts or organic esters of arsenious acid.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Species of the genus MASTADENOVIRUS, causing a wide range of diseases in humans. Infections are mostly asymptomatic, but can be associated with diseases of the respiratory, ocular, and gastrointestinal systems. Serotypes (named with Arabic numbers) have been grouped into species designated Human adenovirus A-F.
Proteins coded by oncogenes. They include proteins resulting from the fusion of an oncogene and another gene (ONCOGENE PROTEINS, FUSION).
A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A replication-defective strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) capable of transforming lymphoid cells and producing a rapidly progressing lymphoid leukemia after superinfection with FRIEND MURINE LEUKEMIA VIRUS; MOLONEY MURINE LEUKEMIA VIRUS; or RAUSCHER VIRUS.
Transforming proteins coded by fos oncogenes. These proteins have been found in the Finkel-Biskis-Jinkins (FBJ-MSV) and Finkel-Biskis-Reilly (FBR-MSV) murine sarcoma viruses which induce osteogenic sarcomas in mice. The FBJ-MSV v-fos gene encodes a p55-kDa protein and the FBR-MSV v-fos gene encodes a p75-kDa fusion protein.
Protein encoded by the bcl-1 gene which plays a critical role in regulating the cell cycle. Overexpression of cyclin D1 is the result of bcl-1 rearrangement, a t(11;14) translocation, and is implicated in various neoplasms.
Chemical agents that increase the rate of genetic mutation by interfering with the function of nucleic acids. A clastogen is a specific mutagen that causes breaks in chromosomes.
A signal transducing adaptor protein that is encoded by the crk ONCOGENE from TYPE C AVIAN RETROVIRUSES. It contains SRC HOMOLOGY DOMAINS and is closely related to its cellular homolog, PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN C-CRK.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
Dimers (homo and hetero) of FLAVONOIDS.
A potent mutagen and carcinogen. It is a public health concern because of its possible effects on industrial workers, as an environmental pollutant, an as a component of tobacco smoke.
Transforming proteins coded by rel oncogenes. The v-rel protein competes with rel-related proteins and probably transforms cells by acting as a dominant negative version of c-rel. This results in the induction of a broad range of leukemias and lymphomas.
The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
An aurora kinase that localizes to the CENTROSOME during MITOSIS and is involved in centrosome regulation and formation of the MITOTIC SPINDLE. Aurora A overexpression in many malignant tumor types suggests that it may be directly involved in NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.
An intracellular signaling system involving the MAP kinase cascades (three-membered protein kinase cascades). Various upstream activators, which act in response to extracellular stimuli, trigger the cascades by activating the first member of a cascade, MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKKs). Activated MAPKKKs phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES which in turn phosphorylate the MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs). The MAPKs then act on various downstream targets to affect gene expression. In mammals, there are several distinct MAP kinase pathways including the ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) pathway, the SAPK/JNK (stress-activated protein kinase/c-jun kinase) pathway, and the p38 kinase pathway. There is some sharing of components among the pathways depending on which stimulus originates activation of the cascade.
A ubiquitously expressed raf kinase subclass that plays an important role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. The c-raf Kinases are MAP kinase kinase kinases that have specificity for MAP KINASE KINASE 1 and MAP KINASE KINASE 2.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
A genus of gram negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria found in soil, plants, and marine mud.
Tumors or cancer of the SKIN.
Retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (jun) originally isolated from the avian sarcoma virus 17 (ASV 17). The proto-oncogene jun (c-jun) codes for a nuclear protein which is involved in growth-related transcriptional control. Insertion of c-jun into ASV-17 or the constitutive expression of the c-jun protein produces tumorgenicity. The human c-jun gene is located at 1p31-32 on the short arm of chromosome 1.
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
A cytologic technique for measuring the functional capacity of tumor stem cells by assaying their activity. It is used primarily for the in vitro testing of antineoplastic agents.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
The Madder plant family of the order Rubiales, subclass Asteridae, class Magnoliopsida includes important medicinal plants that provide QUININE; IPECAC; and COFFEE. They have opposite leaves and interpetiolar stipules.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
An amino acid that occurs in endogenous proteins. Tyrosine phosphorylation and dephosphorylation plays a role in cellular signal transduction and possibly in cell growth control and carcinogenesis.
A subgroup of mitogen-activated protein kinases that activate TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1 via the phosphorylation of C-JUN PROTEINS. They are components of intracellular signaling pathways that regulate CELL PROLIFERATION; APOPTOSIS; and CELL DIFFERENTIATION.
A broad category of carrier proteins that play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They generally contain several modular domains, each of which having its own binding activity, and act by forming complexes with other intracellular-signaling molecules. Signal-transducing adaptor proteins lack enzyme activity, however their activity can be modulated by other signal-transducing enzymes
A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.
The external, nonvascular layer of the skin. It is made up, from within outward, of five layers of EPITHELIUM: (1) basal layer (stratum basale epidermidis); (2) spinous layer (stratum spinosum epidermidis); (3) granular layer (stratum granulosum epidermidis); (4) clear layer (stratum lucidum epidermidis); and (5) horny layer (stratum corneum epidermidis).
Agents that reduce the frequency or rate of spontaneous or induced tumors independently of the mechanism involved.
A serine-threonine protein kinase family whose members are components in protein kinase cascades activated by diverse stimuli. These MAPK kinases phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES and are themselves phosphorylated by MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES. JNK kinases (also known as SAPK kinases) are a subfamily.
The GENETIC TRANSLATION products of the fusion between an ONCOGENE and another gene. The latter may be of viral or cellular origin.
A protein-serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION in response to GROWTH FACTORS or INSULIN. It plays a major role in cell metabolism, growth, and survival as a core component of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Three isoforms have been described in mammalian cells.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
A genus of the family RETROVIRIDAE with type C morphology, that causes malignant and other diseases in wild birds and domestic fowl.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Product of the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor gene. It is a nuclear phosphoprotein hypothesized to normally act as an inhibitor of cell proliferation. Rb protein is absent in retinoblastoma cell lines. It also has been shown to form complexes with the adenovirus E1A protein, the SV40 T antigen, and the human papilloma virus E7 protein.
Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria isolated from soil and the stems, leafs, and roots of plants. Some biotypes are pathogenic and cause the formation of PLANT TUMORS in a wide variety of higher plants. The species is a major research tool in biotechnology.
The type species of RHADINOVIRUS, in the subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, isolated from squirrel monkeys. It produces malignant lymphomas (LYMPHOMA, MALIGNANT) in inoculated marmosets or owl monkeys.
One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.
Salts and esters of the 14-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acid--myristic acid.
Membrane-associated tyrosine-specific kinases encoded by the c-src genes. They have an important role in cellular growth control. Truncation of carboxy-terminal residues in pp60(c-src) leads to PP60(V-SRC) which has the ability to transform cells. This kinase pp60 c-src should not be confused with csk, also known as c-src kinase.
The quantity of volume or surface area of CELLS.
The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.
The decrease in the cell's ability to proliferate with the passing of time. Each cell is programmed for a certain number of cell divisions and at the end of that time proliferation halts. The cell enters a quiescent state after which it experiences CELL DEATH via the process of APOPTOSIS.
Proteins encoded by adenoviruses that are synthesized prior to, and in the absence of, viral DNA replication. The proteins are involved in both positive and negative regulation of expression in viral and cellular genes, and also affect the stability of viral mRNA. Some are also involved in oncogenic transformation.
A radiation-protective agent that can inhibit DNA damage by binding to the DNA. It also increases the susceptibility of blood cells to complement-mediated lysis.
Processes required for CELL ENLARGEMENT and CELL PROLIFERATION.
Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.
A carcinogen that is often used in experimental cancer studies.
CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
A member of the Rho family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. It is associated with a diverse array of cellular functions including cytoskeletal changes, filopodia formation and transport through the GOLGI APPARATUS. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.
A non-essential amino acid occurring in natural form as the L-isomer. It is synthesized from GLYCINE or THREONINE. It is involved in the biosynthesis of PURINES; PYRIMIDINES; and other amino acids.
A group of FLAVONOLS based on kaempferol. They are derived from naringenin and can be hydroxylated to QUERCETIN or reduced to leucopelargonidin.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
A PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE family that was originally identified by homology to the Rous sarcoma virus ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(V-SRC). They interact with a variety of cell-surface receptors and participate in intracellular signal transduction pathways. Oncogenic forms of src-family kinases can occur through altered regulation or expression of the endogenous protein and by virally encoded src (v-src) genes.
Proteins that are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. Deficiencies or abnormalities in these proteins may lead to unregulated cell growth and tumor development.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to INTERLEUKIN-6 family members. STAT3 is constitutively activated in a variety of TUMORS and is a major downstream transducer for the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR GP130.
Penetrating electromagnetic radiation emitted when the inner orbital electrons of an atom are excited and release radiant energy. X-ray wavelengths range from 1 pm to 10 nm. Hard X-rays are the higher energy, shorter wavelength X-rays. Soft x-rays or Grenz rays are less energetic and longer in wavelength. The short wavelength end of the X-ray spectrum overlaps the GAMMA RAYS wavelength range. The distinction between gamma rays and X-rays is based on their radiation source.
Tumor suppressor genes located on the short arm of human chromosome 17 and coding for the phosphoprotein p53.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
A c-jun amino-terminal kinase that is activated by environmental stress and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Several isoforms of the protein with molecular sizes of 43 and 48 KD exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.
Mapping of the KARYOTYPE of a cell.
Proteins associated with the inner surface of the lipid bilayer of the viral envelope. These proteins have been implicated in control of viral transcription and may possibly serve as the "glue" that binds the nucleocapsid to the appropriate membrane site during viral budding from the host cell.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)

Stimulation of thymidine uptake and cell proliferation in mouse embryo fibroblasts by conditioned medium from mammary cells in culture. (1/15156)

Undialyzed conditioned medium from several cell culture sources did not stimulate thymidine incorporation or cell overgrowth in quiescent, density-inhibited mouse embryo fibroblast cells. However, dialyzed conditioned medium (DCM) from clonal mouse mammary cell lines MCG-V14, MCG-T14, MCG-T10; HeLa cells; primary mouse adenocarcinoma cells; and BALB/c normal mouse mammary epithelial cells promoted growth in quiescent fibroblasts. The amount of growth-promoting activity produced per cell varied from 24% (HeLa) to 213% (MCG-V14) of the activity produced by primary tumor cells. The production of growth-promoting activity was not unique to tumor-derived cells or cells of high tumorigenicity. The amount of growth-promoting activity produced per cell in the active cultures was not correlated with any of the following: tumorigenicity, growth rat, cell density achieved at saturation, cell type, or species of cell origin. It is concluded that transformed and non-transformed cells of diverse origin, cell type, and tumorigenicity can produce growth factors in culture. The growth-promoting potential of the active media from primary tumor cultures accumulated with time of contact with cells and was too great to be accounted for entirely by the removal of low-molecular-weight inhibitors by dialysis. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that conditioned medium from the active cultures contained a dialyzable, growth-promoting activity. Different cell lines exhibited differential sensitivity to tumor cell DCM and fetal bovine serum. Furthermore, quiescent fibroblasts were stimulated by primary tumor cell DCM in the presence of saturating concentrations of fetal bovine serum. These observations support the notion that the active growth-promoting principle in primary tumor cell DCM may not be a serum factor(s).  (+info)

Transformation mediated by RhoA requires activity of ROCK kinases. (2/15156)

BACKGROUND: The Ras-related GTPase RhoA controls signalling processes required for cytoskeletal reorganisation, transcriptional regulation, and transformation. The ability of RhoA mutants to transform cells correlates not with transcription but with their ability to bind ROCK-I, an effector kinase involved in cytoskeletal reorganisation. We used a recently developed specific ROCK inhibitor, Y-27632, and ROCK truncation mutants to investigate the role of ROCK kinases in transcriptional activation and transformation. RESULTS: In NIH3T3 cells, Y-27632 did not prevent the activation of serum response factor, transcription of c-fos or cell cycle re-entry following serum stimulation. Repeated treatment of NIH3T3 cells with Y-27632, however, substantially disrupted their actin fibre network but did not affect their growth rate. Y-27632 blocked focus formation by RhoA and its guanine-nucleotide exchange factors Dbl and mNET1. It did not affect the growth rate of cells transformed by Dbl and mNET1, but restored normal growth control at confluence and prevented their growth in soft agar. Y-27632 also significantly inhibited focus formation by Ras, but had no effect on the establishment or maintenance of transformation by Src. Furthermore, it significantly inhibited anchorage-independent growth of two out of four colorectal tumour cell lines. Consistent with these data, a truncated ROCK derivative exhibited weak ability to cooperate with activated Raf in focus formation assays. CONCLUSIONS: ROCK signalling is required for both the establishment and maintenance of transformation by constitutive activation of RhoA, and contributes to the Ras-transformed phenotype. These observations provide a potential explanation for the requirement for Rho in Ras-mediated transformation. Moreover, the inhibition of ROCK kinases may be of therapeutic use.  (+info)

Concomitant activation of pathways downstream of Grb2 and PI 3-kinase is required for MET-mediated metastasis. (3/15156)

The Met tyrosine kinase - the HGF receptor - induces cell transformation and metastasis when constitutively activated. Met signaling is mediated by phosphorylation of two carboxy-terminal tyrosines which act as docking sites for a number of SH2-containing molecules. These include Grb2 and p85 which couple the receptor, respectively, with Ras and PI 3-kinase. We previously showed that a Met mutant designed to obtain preferential coupling with Grb2 (Met2xGrb2) is permissive for motility, increases transformation, but - surprisingly - is impaired in causing invasion and metastasis. In this work we used Met mutants optimized for binding either p85 alone (Met2xPI3K) or p85 and Grb2 (MetPI3K/Grb2) to evaluate the relative importance of Ras and PI 3-kinase as downstream effectors of Met. Met2xPI3K was competent in eliciting motility, but not transformation, invasion, or metastasis. Conversely, MetP13K/Grb2 induced motility, transformation, invasion and metastasis as efficiently as wild type Met. Furthermore, the expression of constitutively active PI 3-kinase in cells transformed by the Met2xGrb2 mutant, fully rescued their ability to invade and metastasize. These data point to a central role for PI 3-kinase in Met-mediated invasiveness, and indicate that simultaneous activation of Ras and PI 3-kinase is required to unleash the Met metastatic potential.  (+info)

Telomerase reverse transcriptase gene is a direct target of c-Myc but is not functionally equivalent in cellular transformation. (4/15156)

The telomerase reverse transcriptase component (TERT) is not expressed in most primary somatic human cells and tissues, but is upregulated in the majority of immortalized cell lines and tumors. Here, we identify the c-Myc transcription factor as a direct mediator of telomerase activation in primary human fibroblasts through its ability to specifically induce TERT gene expression. Through the use of a hormone inducible form of c-Myc (c-Myc-ER), we demonstrate that Myc-induced activation of the hTERT promoter requires an evolutionarily conserved E-box and that c-Myc-ER-induced accumulation of hTERT mRNA takes place in the absence of de novo protein synthesis. These findings demonstrate that the TERT gene is a direct transcriptional target of c-Myc. Since telomerase activation frequently correlates with immortalization and telomerase functions to stabilize telomers in cycling cells, we tested whether Myc-induced activation of TERT gene expression represents an important mechanism through which c-Myc acts to immortalize cells. Employing the rat embryo fibroblast cooperation assay, we show that TERT is unable to substitute for c-Myc in the transformation of primary rodent fibroblasts, suggesting that the transforming activities of Myc extend beyond its ability to activate TERT gene expression and hence telomerase activity.  (+info)

PKCdelta acts as a growth and tumor suppressor in rat colonic epithelial cells. (5/15156)

We have analysed the expression of three calcium-independent isoforms of protein kinase C (PKC), PKCdelta, PKCepsilon and PKCzeta, in an in vitro model of colon carcinogenesis consisting of the nontumorigenic rat colonic epithelial cell line D/WT, and a derivative src-transformed line D/src. While PKCzeta and PKCepsilon showed similar protein levels, PKCdelta was markedly decreased in D/src cells when compared to the D/WT line. To assess whether down-regulation of PKCdelta was causally involved in the neoplastic phenotype in D/src cells, we prepared a kinase-defective mutant of PKCdelta. Stable transfection of this sequence caused morphological and growth changes characteristic of partial transformation in D/WT cells. Moreover, to test whether PKCdelta was involved in growth control and transformation in this model, we overexpressed PKCdelta in D/src cells. Transfected cells underwent marked growth and morphological modifications toward the D/WT phenotype. In a late stage in culture, transfected cells ceased to proliferate, rounded up and degenerated into multinucleated, giant-like cells. We conclude that PKCdelta can reverse the transformed phenotype and act as a suppressor of cell growth in D/src cells. Moreover, our data show that downregulation of this isoenzyme of PKC may cooperate in the neoplastic transformation induced by the src oncogene in D/WT cells.  (+info)

Phenotypic analysis of human glioma cells expressing the MMAC1 tumor suppressor phosphatase. (6/15156)

MMAC1, also known as PTEN or TEP-1, was recently identified as a gene commonly mutated in a variety of human neoplasias. Sequence analysis revealed that MMAC1 harbored sequences similar to those found in several protein phosphatases. Subsequent studies demonstrated that MMAC1 possessed in vitro enzymatic activity similar to that exhibited by dual specificity phosphatases. To characterize the potential cellular functions of MMAC1, we expressed wild-type and several mutant variants of MMAC1 in the human glioma cell line, U373, that lacks endogenous expression. While expression of wild-type MMAC1 in these cells significantly reduced their growth rate and saturation density, expression of enzymatically inactive MMAC1 significantly enhanced growth in soft agar. Our observations indicate that while wild-type MMAC1 exhibits activities compatible with its proposed role as a tumor suppressor, cellular expression of MMAC1 containing mutations in the catalytic domain may yield protein products that enhance transformation characteristics.  (+info)

Activation of telomerase and its association with G1-phase of the cell cycle during UVB-induced skin tumorigenesis in SKH-1 hairless mouse. (7/15156)

Telomerase is a ribonucleoprotein enzyme that adds hexanucleotide repeats TTAGGG to the ends of chromosomes. Telomerase activation is known to play a crucial role in cell-immortalization and carcinogenesis. Telomerase is shown to have a correlation with cell cycle progression, which is controlled by the regulation of cyclins, cyclin dependent kinases (cdks) and cyclin dependent kinase inhibitors (cdkis). Abnormal expression of these regulatory molecules may cause alterations in cell cycle with uncontrolled cell growth, a universal feature of neoplasia. Skin cancer is the most prevalent form of cancer in humans and the solar UV radiation is its major cause. Here, we investigated modulation in telomerase activity and protein expression of cell cycle regulatory molecules during the development of UVB-induced tumors in SKH-1 hairless mice. The mice were exposed to 180 mjoules/cm2 UVB radiation, thrice weekly for 24 weeks. The animals were sacrificed at 4 week intervals and the studies were performed in epidermis. Telomerase activity was barely detectable in the epidermis of non-irradiated mouse. UVB exposure resulted in a progressive increase in telomerase activity starting from the 4th week of exposure. The increased telomerase activity either persisted or further increased with the increased exposure. In papillomas and carcinomas the enzyme activity was comparable and was 45-fold higher than in the epidermis of control mice. Western blot analysis showed an upregulation in the protein expression of cyclin D1 and cyclin E and their regulatory subunits cdk4 and cdk2 during the course of UVB exposure and in papillomas and carcinomas. The protein expression of cdk6 and ckis viz. p16/Ink4A, p21/Waf1 and p27/Kip1 did not show any significant change in UVB exposed skin, but significant upregulation was observed both in papillomas and carcinomas. The results suggest that telomerase activation may be involved in UVB-induced tumorigenesis in mouse skin and that increased telomerase activity may be associated with G1 phase of the cell cycle.  (+info)

Gene expression profiles in HTLV-I-immortalized T cells: deregulated expression of genes involved in apoptosis regulation. (8/15156)

Human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I) is the etiologic agent of adult T-cell leukemia, an acute and often fatal T-cell malignancy. A key step in HTLV-I-induced leukemigenesis is induction of abnormal T-cell growth and survival. Unlike antigen-stimulated T cells, which cease proliferation after a finite number of cell division, HTLV-I-infected T cells proliferate indefinitely (immortalized), thus facilitating occurrence of secondary genetic changes leading to malignant transformation. To explore the molecular basis of HTLV-I-induced abnormal T-cell survival, we compared the gene expression profiles of normal and HTLV-I-immortalized T cells using 'gene array'. These studies revealed a strikingly altered expression pattern of a large number of genes along with HTLV-I-mediated T-cell immortalization. Interestingly, many of these deregulated genes are involved in the control of programmed cell death or apoptosis. These findings indicate that disruption of the cellular apoptosis-regulatory network may play a role in the HTLV-I-mediated oncogenesis.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Multistep carcinogenesis and genital papillomavirus infection. Implications for diagnosis and vaccines. AU - Rangel, L. M.. AU - Ramirez, M.. AU - Torroella, M.. AU - Pedroza, A.. AU - Ibarra, V.. AU - Gariglio, P.. PY - 1994/1/1. Y1 - 1994/1/1. N2 - Activated cellular oncogenes (myc and ras, for example) and inactivated anti-oncogenes (p53 or Rb) participate in multistep carcinogenesis. In addition, some high risk human papillomaviruses (HPV) are also involved in uterine cervix carcinomas. Typification of HPV is important for clinical diagnosis. Unravelling the complexities of the immune system and understanding the biochemistry and molecular genetics of cellular oncogenes and tumor viruses have opened up new possibilities for vaccination.. AB - Activated cellular oncogenes (myc and ras, for example) and inactivated anti-oncogenes (p53 or Rb) participate in multistep carcinogenesis. In addition, some high risk human papillomaviruses (HPV) are also involved in uterine cervix ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Tight coordination of protein translation and HSF1 activation supports the anabolic malignant state. AU - Santagata, Sandro. AU - Mendillo, Marc L.. AU - Tang, Yun Chi. AU - Subramanian, Aravind. AU - Perley, Casey C.. AU - Roche, Stéphane P.. AU - Wong, Bang. AU - Narayan, Rajiv. AU - Kwon, Hyoungtae. AU - Koeva, Martina. AU - Amon, Angelika. AU - Golub, Todd R.. AU - Porco, John A.. AU - Whitesell, Luke. AU - Lindquist, Susan. PY - 2013. Y1 - 2013. N2 - The ribosome is centrally situated to sense metabolic states, but whether its activity, in turn, coherently rewires transcriptional responses is unknown. Here, through integrated chemical-genetic analyses, we found that a dominant transcriptional effect of blocking protein translation in cancer cells was inactivation of heat shock factor 1 (HSF1), a multifaceted transcriptional regulator of the heat-shock response and many other cellular processes essential for anabolic metabolism, cellular proliferation, and tumorigenesis. ...
The potential role of arachidonic acid metabolism in the enhancement (promotion) of malignant transformation of C3H/M2 mouse fibroblasts by the tumor promoter 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) was investigated using inhibitors of cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase activities. The promoting effects of TCDD (1.5 pM) and of the reference tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA; 0.4 mM) on carcinogen (N-methyl-N′-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine or 3-methylcholanthrene)-pre-treated fibroblasts was abolished by cotreatment with indomethacin, hydrocortisone, caffeic acid or nordihydroguaiaretic acid. A differential inhibition was found with N-(2-cyclohexyloxy-4-nitrophenyl)methanesulfonamide, a selective inhibitor of the cyclooxygenase isoenzyme COX-2: the promoting effect of TPA, but not that of TCDD, was abolished. Therefore, the role of the cyclooxygenase isoenzymes COX-1 and COX-2 during chronic exposure to TCDD was studied in more detail. Long-term treatment with TCDD (4-7 weeks) ...
Following a decade of planning and composition, Romanian troupe Dordeduh emerges from the cocoon a completely new and revitalized band.
Potentially involved in: lung cancer; cancer; neuroblastoma; melanoma; kidney cancer; carcinoma; skin cancer; allergic hypersensitivity disease; adenocarcinoma in situ; allergic rhinitis; alcoholic intoxication, chronic; brain neoplasms; non-small cell lung carcinoma; renal cell carcinoma; neoplastic cell transformation; mental depression; depressive disorder; granuloma, plasma cell; neoplasm metastasis; neoplasm recurrence, local. Disease data sourced from Pharos.. ...
Here we describe the isolation and characterization of rCop-1, a novel CCN family protein whose expression was completely lost after cell transformation. Functional studies suggest that rCop-1is a negative regulator for cell transformation based on the following findings. The loss of rCop-1 expression correlates extremely well with cell transformation in culture, since cells transformed by a variety of mechanisms all lost rCop-1 expression. BALB/c A31 and Rat-1 are both immortalized but nontransformed, yet only the former expresses rCop-1. However, both A31 and REFs, the parental cells of Rat-1, lose rCop-1 expression when transformed by a variety of means. This suggests that the loss of rCop-1expression in cultured rodent fibroblasts may not be necessary for cell immortalization but may be so for cell transformation. Efficient retroviral gene transfer of rCop-1 exhibited a dramatic cytotoxic effect on the transformed cells but had little effect on the nontransformed cells.. The first member of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The effect of malignant transformation on the sensitivity of murine fibroblasts to the antiviral effect of interferon. AU - Morris, A. G.. AU - Barrett, Alan. AU - Bird, R. M.. AU - Burke, D. C.. PY - 1979. Y1 - 1979. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0018286199&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0018286199&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Article. AN - SCOPUS:0018286199. VL - 6. SP - 139. EP - 141. JO - FEMS Microbiology Letters. JF - FEMS Microbiology Letters. SN - 0378-1097. IS - 3. ER - ...
Cancer is believed to be driven by genetic mutations. However, mouse models and human patients with cancer-predisposing germ line mutations show that only a small fraction of their cells become malignant, suggesting mutations themselves are not sufficient to cause transformation and additional determinants must exist. There are two prevailing, non-exclusive models to account for the additional determinants. One is that full transformation requires accumulation of multiple genetic mutations, which posits transformation occurs only when all mutations have been acquired. The recent success in reprogramming malignant cells into pluripotent stem cells indicates that normal cells of essentially all lineages can exist in the presence of replete cancer mutations. The second model postulates that mutations in rare stem cells initiate malignancy. Advancement in sequencing technology has led to the detection of cancer mutations in the hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) of healthy individuals. The prevalence ...
The small GTPase RhoA controls many cytoskeletal processes, including actin polymerization, F‐actin bundling, myosin‐based contractility, formation of focal adhesions and formation of the contractile ring at cytokinesis (for a review see Van Aelst and DSouza‐Schorey, 1997). In addition, RhoA plays a less well understood role in the control of cell cycle progression, transformation and tumour cell invasiveness. In fibroblasts, activated RhoA is sufficient to induce DNA synthesis (Olson et al., 1995), and cooperates with activated Raf in focus formation assays (Khosravi‐Far et al., 1995; Qiu et al., 1995). Activated Rho GDP/GTP exchange factors (GEFs) are potent oncogenes in focus assays (for a review see Whitehead et al., 1997), and it has been proposed that their ability to induce anchorage‐independent growth arises because they mimic signalling by adhesion receptors (Schwartz et al., 1996). Rho activity is required for transformation by Ras and for induction of DNA synthesis in ...
This information is intended for physicians and related personnel, who understand that medical information is often imperfect, and must be interpreted in the context of a patients clinical data using reasonable medical judgment. This website should not be used as a substitute for the advice of a licensed physician ...
Carcinogenesis is caused by a cumulative, multistage process that mainly consists of initiation, promotion, and progression. ROS, which are produced as a result of the metabolism of molecular oxygen via biochemical reactions in cells, play a key role in tumor promotion. Some tumor promoters accelerate/induce the conversion of initiated cells (carcinogen-mediated mutation or potential stem cells) into tumorigenic cells possibly via the production of oxidative/inflammatory responses (30, 31). TPA (12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate), a phorbol ester, is a tumor promoter that induces the neoplastic/tumorigenic transformation of preneoplastic JB6 cells through the overproduction of ROS (32). In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of SFN on TPA-stimulated neoplastic transformation in the mouse epidermal JB6 P+ cell line to assess whether SFN is able to block tumor promoter-induced tumorigenesis in skin cells. Our results show that SFN was effective when it was given together with ...
To find the next steps to digital transformation, bank executives should set aside the noise and consider some guidelines from early adopters.
A non-profit impact organization at the University of Michigan. We work to transform data and research into useful information that improves the health of people and communities.
The battleground of business today isnt won with a single magic bullet, like better tech or big data. Its won with cohesive, intelligent front and back office operations supporting best-in-class experiences. When executed upon properly, the transformative implications for your business are massive.. With tech, customer tastes and preferences, methodologies and even best practices changing so quickly, its no wonder that over 50% of the Fortune 500 will be out of business by 2025.. To keep up with this change, C-Suite and Executive Leadership expect their talent (including themselves) to acquire the latest and greatest knowledge, learning, training, and skills.. Becoming irrelevant. Its one of the things that keeps every CEO and founder up at night. And our MasterClass training is squarely aimed at mitigating that worry. ...
New parents, such as George and Christine, have helped to transform life since their arrival in August. Thanks to a parents steady presence, children dont spend their days roaming but rather creating, learning and growing. Theyve turned empty space into projects for the family, even building their own pigeon house. They have brought African village life - the very thing these children lost - into the family to help the children identify with the culture around them.. The boys especially embrace the presence of a father. George delights in teaching them his skills in masonry and painting, and puts them to good use in projects around the house - not to mention in the house, where hes taught them a thing or two about cooking! The boys wanted to share their newfound culinary skills by preparing a meal for a visitor : Horizons own Jack Eans, who gave his dinner two thumbs up.. ...
Wild (1995: 7) defines operations management in the following terms: Operations Management is concerned with the design and the operation of systems for manufacture, transport, supply or service. Stevenson (1999: 4) defines operations management as: the management of systems or processes that create goods and/or provide services. A transformation process is any activity or group of activities that takes one or more inputs, transforms and adds value to them, and provides outputs for customers or clients. Where the inputs are raw materials, it is relatively easy to identify the transformation involved, as when milk is transformed into cheese and butter. Where the inputs are information or people, the nature of the transformation may be less obvious. For example, a hospital transforms ill patients (the input) into healthy patients (the output).. ...
Anyone could give me some idea where I can find a good protocol for the transformation assay using Rat2 cells. The one you look for transformed foci. Do I need to stain the cells? Alex ...
The aim of this work was to develop a method to evaluate the kinetics of bainite transformation by theoretical deduction and thermal dilatation curve analysis. A Gleeble-3500 thermomechanical simulator and dilatometer (DIL805A) were employed to study the isothermal transformation in deformed (360 ∘ C , 600 ∘ C , and 860 ∘ C ) and undeformed conditions. The thermal dilatation information during isothermal transformation was recorded, and the dilatation curves were well smoothed. By taking a derivative of the dilation curve with respect to the transformation time, the peak time of transformation rate (PTTR) was obtained, which can serve as the essence of isothermal transformation time. The relative change of length ( Δ L / L ) due to phase transformation was theoretically deduced, and the effect of temperature was taken into consideration. Combing experimental data, the volume fraction of bainite in isothermal transformation was calculated. Making a graph of
1) the conversion of a normal cell into a cell that is able to divide indefinitely in culture, thus behaving like a cancer cell; (malignant transformation may also describe the series of changes in a normal cell in an organism that change it into a malignant (cancerous) cell); (2) a change in genotype and phenotype due to the assimilation of external DNA by a cell; when the external DNA is from a member of a different species, transformation results in horizontal gene ...
Image analyzing apparatus and methods are disclosed for analyzing 3-dimensional as well as 2-dimensional images. The pixels of the 3-D images may be represented by multivalued digital data signals which are analyzed in one or more programmable neighborhood transformation stages. In the preferred embodiment, each stage is programmed with selected contribution values associated with each pixel in the neighborhood. The values of the data signals for each pixel are modified by these contribution values and the maximum value thereof is selected as the transformation output of the stage. A series of dilation/erosion transformations may be used to transform the original image matrix in such a manner so as to locate the position and/or identify the shape of particular objects contained in the original image.
ACs top 3 transformation tips - After my recent 7 week transformation, many people have been asking me for tips on achieving a rapid transformation in muscle size and fat loss. There are no single tips that will ensure success in everyone as it totally depends on the person as to how good the results will be. However there are some helpful tips that I can offer that will help ensure success in anyone wanting to make a body transformation. So here are my top 3 tips: 1. Plan the full transformation before you start. With any transformation I do with a client I plan literally every workout before we even start. I do this on a spreadsheet that can be updated and adapted as time goes on. However the main thing is to know exactly what you are doing every day of every week. This will keep you incredibly focused and you will know what to expect from training each week. It also makes it incredibly easy to progress with performance and strength even whilst dropping fat. You will record every weight you use on
Finally, we tested whether IKKε/TBK1 is required for Ras transformation in MEFs. Active K-Ras was expressed in IKKε/TBK1 double-knockout cells that were reconstituted with TBK1 or vector. The IKKε/TBK1 double-knockout MEFs could not be transformed by active K-Ras (V12). In contrast, re-expression of TBK1, which restored AKT activation (Fig. S2B) but was insufficient to transform MEFs alone, supported a robust transformation by K-Ras (V12), as indicated by focus formation (Fig. 6C). These observations indicate an obligatory role of IKKε/TBK1 in Ras-induced oncogenic transformation of MEF cells. Future studies are needed to determine whether AKT activation is the major downstream effector of TBK1 supporting Ras-induced transformation.. As a major signaling hub, AKT regulates a wide range of cellular processes from cell growth, proliferation, to apoptosis (2). Pathological AKT activation is observed in many cancers and clearly plays a major role in tumorigenesis (1). It has been well ...
Findings from the CEO/Innovators Roundtable: Reform, Transition and Transformation Are at Hand等来自罗盛咨询的文章为您提供真知灼见,帮助您从容应对棘手的企业挑战。阅读更多。
For example, when designing the 90 Day Bikini Transformation Challenge I provided an exact calorie and macro breakdown specific to that persons body. Fitness trackers. Body Transformation shouldnt be hard, so weve taken all the proven science and created easy to follow body transformation programs, so that no matter when you start, or what are your challenges, well always be here to keep you accountable and help you reach your goals. Its about effort. Body Transformation: Jade Socobys Powerlifting Journey; Body Transformation: Marcin Maly Gets Shredded In 4 Months; Body Transformation: Sandi Holder Joined A Gym And Lost A Whopping 80lbs! Discreet packaging available. Advertisement. 24 Amazing Female Body Transformations Top 5. 14. Behind those smiles and fresh gym kit, theres an inspiring story to be told about how they embarked on their journey to a healthier self. POST #56 3 Month Of Hard Work. I like his tattoo. 1. The sample plan below was created by Shannon Dey, M.S., founder and CEO ...
Victoria Vesna and Siddharth RamakrishnanMETAMORPHOSIS OF THE HUMAN ANIMAL: HOX ZODIAC. The Homeobox (hox) genes essentially define body regions in all animals including humans - responsible for determining two arms, two legs, one nose and so on. This gene is shared by all living beings - from the snail to the elephant to humans - and it can now be manipulated into transforming certain parts of the body into others. We have observed such transformations, such as that of an amputated antenna into a limb, as far back as 1901, termed neomorphosis, and it has only recently re-emerged as an area of scientific study. Spontaneous transformations and induced regenerations are fascinating research topics that are fast becoming a reality; some scientists are postulating that it may be possible that the hox gene could be central to limb regeneration in the future.. This paper will present the Hox Zodiac project, which attempts to introduce this subject and push the ideas further into speculation of ...
Furthermore, the company is pleased to announce Ruy Pinto as the successor to Martin Halliwell as Chief Technology Officer (CTO). Ruy Pinto, formerly Deputy Chief Technology Officer and Chief Information Officer of SES will lead SESs global technology organisation including all technology functions currently within the business units and will also retain the leadership of SESs IT and Digital Transformation activities. Martin Halliwell will remain part of the Senior Leadership Team and serve as a Strategic Advisor to the CEO until his planned retirement in May 2019.. I am delighted to bring together our engineering talent and responsibility for our customer services under such strong and experienced leaders. As the demands of our markets evolve, these two teams, configured to serve our customers across both business units, will ensure that we stay ahead, says Steve Collar, President and CEO of SES. Unifying the technical team and creating a consistent customer facing organisation will allow ...
COX-1 and -2 gene expression can be regulated at both the transcriptional and the posttranscriptional levels, and species differences may exist at both levels. Transcription induced in murine or chicken embryo fibroblasts by mitogens or by oncogene-induced transformation occurs rapidly, and maximal levels are seen at 15-30 min, followed shortly by COX-2 mRNA and protein […] ...
The same transformation can work with an even modulo with the addition of a and shrink the compare RHS by the same amount Unless the target supports that transformation probably isn t worthwhile The transformation can also easily be made to work with non zero equality for ...
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Meet eight real people who lost weight and blogged about it. Plus, get diet and fitness tips and see photos of their amazing transformations at WomansDay.com.
The core of this is the ability to change faster by adopting newer methodologies and delivering higher quality. Cloud, mobile, social, and big data have been the driving technologies behind digital transformation at most companies worldwide. In addition, digital initiatives are driving higher spend on quality.. As digital transformation gains momentum, the need for speed-to-market is felt severely by both business and IT. To achieve that pace and flexibility, organizations are adopting agile methods and DevOps principles. In addition, there is an emerging need to have testing teams shift-left and be well-integrated with development teams to ensure that that enterprise agility is demonstrated in every aspect.. ...
We need to better understand the genetic mechanisms that transform normal blood cells into acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). Overall survival is improving for children and adults with AML, but traditional therapies can be ...
Vol 5: OCT4 as a target of miR-34a stimulates p63 but inhibits p53 to promote human cell transformation.. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
The world is experiencing an unprecedented crisis that is causing chaos in the global economy, disrupting supply chains, and transforming society. The new reality is accelerating business model transformation at a faster pace than ever before to ensure existential survival in a crisis for which no one was prepared.
Meaningful technologies to help teams at healthcares defining moments. We work as trusted partners to our customers, helping them to adapt to healthcares evolving world and to advance digital health transformation at defining moments in a patients journey.
This is a book about joy and how to get it and keep it in our lives. It is all simpler than we are making it out to be, meaning living in our bodies. Its the small steps we take, day in and day out, that make a huge difference. Thats what creates lasting change and transformation at any age. We ju
The results presented here were not predicted on the basis of previous epidemiologic and functional studies of Trop2, all of which pointed to a gain-of-function role for this protein in the development of aggressive cancer and tumor susceptibility (2-7, 11, 23, 32-34). As such, we expected that Trop2 ablation would hinder cancer development. Instead, through the use of a novel Trop2 knockout mouse model generated in our laboratory, we uncovered an unpredicted relationship between Trop2 loss and cancer development. In addition, we were able to confirm a relationship between Trop2 loss and an increased progression towards EMT during epithelial transformation. The epidemiologic analysis presented in this report is the first description, to our knowledge, of the association between Trop2 loss and EMT in any primary human tumor and highlights the clinical relevance of our findings. Collectively, these observations reveal a far more complex functional role for this protein in the multistep development ...
During a recent presentation about the mass transition to Zoom/online-based classes in Spring 2020, the term digital transformation was thrown around. Now, admittedly, it was a very short presentation - 20 minutes - and encompassed the experiences of 3 institutions/systems to boot. So the presenters did not dig deep. But the clear implication by some was that by going online, teaching (and learning) was transformed. There were comments about how the intense crucible (my words) of switching to online in the spring necessitated transformation.. I…dont know how I feel about this. First, transformation is thrown around in a lot of industries, and higher education is no exception. Second, transformation is about changing how you go about doing your work, not just morphing it from one form to another. As someone working with faculty (I am one step removed, however, from direct interaction), I regularly see and hear about courses that were airlifted from in-person design to virtual settings. ...
BACKGROUND: In medical research, explanatory continuous variables are frequently transformed or converted into categorical variables. If the coding is unknown, many tests can be used to identify the optimal transformation. This common process, involving the problems of multiple testing, requires a correction of the significance level. Liquet and Commenges proposed an asymptotic correction of significance level in the context of generalized linear models (GLM) (Liquet and Commenges, Stat Probab Lett 71:33-38, 2005). This procedure has been developed for dichotomous and Box-Cox transformations. Furthermore, Liquet and Riou suggested the use of resampling methods to estimate the significance level for transformations into categorical variables with more than two levels (Liquet and Riou, BMC Med Res Methodol 13:75, 2013). RESULTS: CPMCGLM provides to users both methods of p-value adjustment. Futhermore, they are available for a large set of transformations. This paper aims to provide insight the user
Description. A Career with Hang Seng Bank. Hang Seng is committed to service excellence. Our people are our most important asset and play a vital role in our efforts to continually enhance our performance for customers and provide best-in-class products and services.. We seek to attract high-calibre talent by offering a dynamic working environment, good career development opportunities and competitive compensation packages.. Head of Transformation. Digital Business Services. Hang Sengs Transformation under Digital Business Services is a team of professionals dedicated to design and deliver a portfolio of bank-wide, large-scale transformation programmes and strategic change initiatives.. We are currently seeking a high caliber professional to join our department as Head of Transformation.. Principal responsibilities. ...
Lemotte, P K.; Adelstein, S J.; and Little, J B., Malignant transformation induced by incorporated radionuclides in balb/3t3 mouse embryo fibroblasts. (1982). Subject Strain Bibliography 1982. 54 ...
In the last chapter, characteristics and mechanisms of the early stages of neoplastic develop- ment-initiation and promotion-were presented as being the result of cellular and molecular changes induced by specific ...
Transformation can be deliberate and powerful, advancing your mission and your librarys status in the community. Every part of our lives has been transformed by the pandemic, but it is important to remember that not all transformation is beyond our control. There are ways to make deliberate transformations, but you need to be clear and…
Sometimes the observations for a variable are not immediately suitable for analysis and instead need to be transformed using a mathematical function. Transformations are often used to normalise the distribution of a variable, but can be used to change the scale, offset the observations or even recode groups.. Excel cell formulas and custom VBA functions can be used to transform or calculate the data for a variable. Transformed and calculated data is treated just like any other variable as far as measurement scale and observation precision are concerned. Excel functions most commonly used for transformations are:. ...
This report examines the Digital Transformation market standing and opportunity of global plus major regions, from plans of manufacturers, regions, product types and end industries; this report investigates the best manufacturers in global and major regions and splits the Digital Transformation market by product type and applications/end industries. The Global Digital Transformation market is considered…
When XSL transformation with Xalan involves too many temporary result trees, the transformation can run out of DTM IDs, resulting in an exception like ...
Social Transformation through Dynamic Education - We believe that it is through the spread of education in all the strata and sections of society that real social transformation can be brought about.. ...
Financial Institutions are continuously evolving to meet demand created by various drivers within the industry. These transformations are often the key to a businesss ability to thrive in the industry.
again. State-of-the-art research in genomics has revealed the startling fact that many diseases are caused by certain subsequences of bases not forming a palindromic sequence! Your mission as a leading researcher at ICPC laboratories is to take a DNA string $S$ and a series of subsets $P_1 , \ldots , P_ t$ of indices to characters (nucleobases) in $S$, and transform $S$ so that each of the restrictions of the resulting string to $P_1 , \ldots , P_ t$ are palindromic. (The restriction of $S$ to a subset $P = \{ i_1 , i_2 , \ldots , i_ k \} $ of indices, where $0 \leq i_1 , i_2 , \ldots , i_ k , ,S,$, is the string $S_{i_1} S_{i_2} \ldots S_{i_ k}$ ). It is possible to inspect any base of $S$ at will, but only three transformations can be applied to a base:. ...
Use expert tips to make your business effective and efficient.. Going through a digital transformation can be a daunting task. 1Datagroups offers business advisory services that will help you decide on the best course of action for your organization and its development.. It doesnt matter if you are using an old piece of software or looking to build something completely new and unique, we will help you find the best solution.. ...
Tracy Chui-hsu Yang; Laurie M. Craise; Man-Tong Mei; Cornelius A. Tobias (1985). "Neoplastic Cell Transformation by Heavy ... The fate of normal cells that contain a single terminal deletion is unknown, but it has been shown that the loss of a single ... Genomic instability has been observed both in vitro and in vivo in the progeny of cells that are irradiated with heavy ions in ... Cells containing telomere-deficient chromosomes will either senesce or undergo breakage-fusion-bridge (B/F/B) cycles, thereby ...
After transformation, neoplastic cells carry monoclonal immunoglobulin gene rearrangements. Histological transformation may ... cells are present embedded in nodules consisting of B cells and other reactive cells (mainly reactive T cells). Reed-Sternberg ... RSH cells typically express CD15 and CD30, whereas LP cells lack expression of these markers, but express B cell markers like ... Histologic transformation to diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) can occur in up to 12% of cases. ...
"Split-dose exposures versus dual ion exposure in human cell neoplastic transformation". Radiat Environ Biophys. 46 (2): 119-23 ... With respect to cells in critical brain regions, as many as 13% of such cells may be traversed at least once by an iron ion ... 0.1 Gy). At larger doses (>~0.1 Gy) critical cells and cell components could receive more than one particle traversal, which is ... whereby a particle traversal to some cells modifies the response of other cells not traversed by particles. There is limited ...
2007). "Myricetin is a novel natural inhibitor of neoplastic cell transformation and MEK1". Carcinogenesis. 28 (9): 1918-27. ... induced cell proliferation of the endothelial cells. They also found that targeting MEK1 and cyclin E1 with small interfering ... A significant increase in the density of mast cells has been seen in cherry hemangiomas compared with normal skin. The ... By inhibiting mir-424 in normal endothelial cells they could observe the same increased protein expression of MEK1 and cyclin ...
Some, but not all, polyomaviruses are oncoviruses capable of inducing neoplastic transformation in some cells. In oncogenic ... STag is unable to induce neoplastic transformation in the host cell on its own, but its presence may increase the transforming ... the cell must be in S phase (the part of the cell cycle in which the host cell's genome is normally replicated) in order to ... In SV40, STag has a similar role in cellular transformation. In Merkel cell polyomavirus, it appears to play a significant role ...
These alloys were found to cause neoplastic transformations of human osteoblast cells. A more recent U.S. Department of Health ... "Neoplastic transformation of human osteoblast cells to the tumorigenic phenotype by heavy metal-tungsten alloy particles: ...
Chronic M. haemofelis infection may promote neoplastic transformation of white blood cells in FeLV-infected individuals. The ... Once in the bloodstream, M. haemofelis individuals adhere to the cell membranes of red blood cells and eventually become ... It has shed many biosynthetic systems found in related gram-positive bacteria as well as the ability to secrete a cell wall ( ... Parasitized red blood cells often lose their biconcave shape. This decreases surface area, increases osmotic fragility, and ...
"EZH2 is a marker of aggressive breast cancer and promotes neoplastic transformation of breast epithelial cells". Proc. Natl. ... Cell. Biol. 33 (2): 387-95. doi:10.1128/MCB.00465-12. PMC 3554112. PMID 23149936. Schild D, Lio YC, Collins DW, Tsomondo T, ... "Entrez Gene: XRCC2 X-ray repair complementing defective repair in Chinese hamster cells 2". Miller KA, Sawicka D, Barsky D, ... Molecular Cell. 1 (6): 783-93. doi:10.1016/S1097-2765(00)80078-7. PMID 9660962. Johnson RD, Liu N, Jasin M (Sep 1999). " ...
"EZH2 is a marker of aggressive breast cancer and promotes neoplastic transformation of breast epithelial cells". Proceedings of ... In breast cancer cells, EZH2 activates genes that promote cell proliferation and survival. It can also activate regulatory ... Further, EZH2 has been identified as an essential protein involved in development and differentiation of B-cells and T-cells. ... It and its homologs play essential roles in development, cell differentiation, and cell division in plants, insects, fish, and ...
"EZH2 is a marker of aggressive breast cancer and promotes neoplastic transformation of breast epithelial cells". Proc. Natl. ... Cell Mol. Genet. 23 (4): 237-247. doi:10.1007/BF02674415. PMID 9542526. Liu N, Lamerdin JE, Tebbs RS, Schild D, Tucker JD, Shen ... Cell. Biol. 33 (2): 387-95. doi:10.1128/MCB.00465-12. PMC 3554112. PMID 23149936. Hussain S, Wilson JB, Medhurst AL, Hejna J, ... Cell. 1 (6): 783-793. doi:10.1016/S1097-2765(00)80078-7. PMID 9660962. Pierce AJ, Johnson RD, Thompson LH, Jasin M (1999). " ...
"EZH2 is a marker of aggressive breast cancer and promotes neoplastic transformation of breast epithelial cells". Proceedings of ... A characteristic of many cancer cells is that parts of some genes contained within these cells have been recombined with other ... One such gene fusion that has been identified in a MCF-7 breast cancer cell line is a chimera between the RAD51C and ATXN7 ... Wade N (2008-12-25). "The Chaos Inside a Cancer Cell". Science Visuals. NYTimes.com. Retrieved 2008-12-29. Hampton OA, Den ...
This data indicates that BPA is able to induce neoplastic transformation of human breast epithelial cells. Epigenetic changes ... BPA was able to induce transformation of human breast MCF-10F epithelial cells. After treatment with BPA, the cells produced ... The cells treated with 10-3 M BPA died on the second day of treatment. The concentration of 10-4 M BPA was also toxic for the ... Also, human breast cells put into contact with small amounts of ethylene oxide in a laboratory can lead to DNA damage of the ...
Cao, J.; Wells, R.L.; Elkind, M.M. (1992). "Enhanced Sensitivity to Neoplastic Transformation by137Cs γ-rays of Cells in the G2 ... Dobrzyński, L.; Fornalski, K. W.; Socol, Y.; Reszczyńska, J. M. (2016). "Modeling of Irradiated Cell Transformation: Dose- and ... Adaptive Response for Protection against Micronucleus Formation and Neoplastic Transformation in C3H 10T1/2 Mouse Embryo Cells ... "Multifractionation of 60Co gamma-rays reduces neoplastic transformation in vitro". Carcinogenesis. 5 (2): 193-97. doi:10.1093/ ...
It has the ability to induce neoplastic transformation in a variety of cell types and can immortalize cells in culture. Its ... In MPyV, MTag is an efficient oncoprotein that can be sufficient to induce neoplastic transformation in some cells. The genes ... role in viral life cycle and cell transformation". Journal of Cellular Physiology. 215 (2): 309-19. doi:10.1002/jcp.21326. PMC ... The transformation capacity of MTag can be eliminated by mutations that remove the membrane anchor, and reduced or eliminated ...
... the expression of sialyltransferases undergoes profound modifications during cell differentiation and neoplastic transformation ...
"Involvement of PI3K/Akt pathway in cell cycle progression, apoptosis, and neoplastic transformation: a target for cancer ... Since tumor cells have increased mitotic rates compared to non-malignant cells this is not entirely unexpected, as it is ... arresting tumor cell proliferation both in vitro and in vivo via mouse models grafted with various HNSCC cell lines. While ... Cell. 135 (1): 97-109. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2008.08.017. PMC 2681233. PMID 18854158. Zhu, XD; Küster, B; Mann, M; Petrini, JH; de ...
The cell will then progress through multiple stages of neoplastic transformation that may culminate into a tumor after years of ... The neoplastic transformation can be divided into three major independent stages: morphological changes to the cell, ... Cancer starts with a single cell whose operation is disrupted. Normal cell operation is controlled by the chemical structure of ... Aug 2000). "Therapeutic ionizing radiation and the incidence of basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. The New ...
This suggests that when a healthy cell transforms into a tumor cell (a neoplastic transformation) the mitochondria seem to ... not only cancer cells). Thus, drugs that knock out these oncogenes (and thereby kill cancer cells) may also damage normal cells ... If the knockout of an otherwise nonessential gene has little or no effect on healthy cells, but is lethal to cancerous cells ... However, other genes may be essential to cancer cells but not to healthy cells. Treatments based on the principle of synthetic ...
... which induces neoplastic transformation when transfected into NIH 3T3 fibroblasts and other cell lines. Thus, this normal ... 2003). "alpha 1-Adrenergic receptor subtypes differentially control the cell cycle of transfected CHO cells through a cAMP- ... 2004). "Alpha1B-adrenoceptor signaling and cell motility: GTPase function of Gh/transglutaminase 2 inhibits cell migration ... 2004). "Cell surface expression of alpha1D-adrenergic receptors is controlled by heterodimerization with alpha1B-adrenergic ...
... ends homologue SHARP functions as a positive regulator of Wnt/beta-catenin/T-cell factor signaling in neoplastic transformation ... 2006). "A protein-protein interaction network for human inherited ataxias and disorders of Purkinje cell degeneration". Cell. ... doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.09.026. PMID 17081983. S2CID 7827573. Feng Y, Bommer GT, Zhai Y, et al. (2007). "Drosophila split ... doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.03.032. PMID 16713569. S2CID 13709685. Beausoleil SA, Villén J, Gerber SA, et al. (2006). "A ...
"A novel role for mixed-lineage kinase-like mitogen-activated protein triple kinase alpha in neoplastic cell transformation and ... The protein mediates gamma radiation signaling leading to cell cycle arrest and activity of this protein plays a role in cell ... interacts with ZAK and stimulates the ZAK-expressing cells re-entering the cell cycle". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 301 (1 ... interacts with ZAK and stimulates the ZAK-expressing cells re-entering the cell cycle". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 301 (1 ...
Some, but not all, polyomaviruses are oncoviruses capable of inducing neoplastic transformation in some cells. In oncogenic ... are oncoproteins that can induce neoplastic transformation in the host cell. Polyomavirus LTag proteins contain four well- ... the cell must be in S phase (the part of the cell cycle in which the host cell's genome is normally replicated) in order to ... Of these, LTag is primarily responsible for cellular transformation. STag alone cannot transform cells, but improves the ...
... of all cells in the anterior pituitary gland. If these cells undergo neoplastic transformation, they will give rise to a ... A lactotropic cell (also known as prolactin cell, epsilon acidophil, lactotrope, lactotroph, mammatroph, mammotroph) is a cell ... Prolactin cells are acidophilic by hematoxylin & eosin stains and comprise about 20% ...
The presence of neoplastic ganglion cells forming abnormal clusters, the presence of binucleation and dysmorphic neurons are ... The rare occurrence of malignant transformation is confined to the glial cell population, and is characterized by increased ... Histologically, ganglioglioma is composed of both neoplastic glial and ganglion cells which are disorganized, variably cellular ... Malignant transformation of spinal ganglioglioma has been seen in only a select few cases. Poor prognostic factors for adults ...
... expression is even maintained in B lineage cells that undergo neoplastic transformation. Because of its ubiquity on all B ... CD19 deficient B cells exhibit selective growth disadvantage; therefore, it is rare for CD19 to be absent in neoplastic B cells ... CD19 is a crucial BCR-independent regulator of MYC-driven neoplastic growth in B cells since the CD19-MYC axis promotes cell ... CAR-19 T cells are genetically modified T cells that express a targeting moiety on their surface that confers T cell receptor ( ...
The cellular and molecular mechanisms of neoplastic transformation and lung parenchymal destruction by LAM cells remain unknown ... There are two major cell morphologies in the LAM lesion: small spindle-shaped cells and cuboidal epithelioid cells. LAM cells ... LAM cells behave, in many ways, like metastatic tumor cells. LAM cells appear to arise from an extrapulmonary source and ... and in circulating LAM cells (cells in blood and urine). Angiomyolipomas and pulmonary LAM cells from women with the sporadic ...
"Prominin 1 marks intestinal stem cells that are susceptible to neoplastic transformation". Nature. 457 (7229): 603-607. doi: ... these cells are also called quiescent stem cells. The stem cell zone model states that the CBC stem cells reside in a stem-cell ... "The Intestinal Stem Cell Signature Identifies Colorectal Cancer Stem Cells and Predicts Disease Relapse". Cell Stem Cell. 8 (5 ... 4 cells". Later work suggested that these "+4 cells" may function as reserve or back-up stem cells, and further suggested that ...
When this normal biology is compromised, the altered Fyn becomes involved in the neoplastic transformation of normal cells to ... interacts with nephrocystin and both proteins localize to cell-cell contacts of polarized epithelial cells". Exp. Cell Res. 256 ... Overexpression of Fyn has been found to drive morphologic transformation in normal cells and increase "anchorage-independent ... Fyn's normal role in cell migration and adhesion enables it to utilize the normal cell biology of integrin and FAK for cancer ...
... cell transformation, neoplastic MeSH C23.550.727.152.110 - blast crisis MeSH C23.550.727.152.160 - cell transformation, viral ... plasma cell MeSH C23.550.382.875.500 - granuloma, plasma cell, orbital MeSH C23.550.382.875.750 - granuloma, plasma cell, ... neoplasm circulating cells MeSH C23.550.727.650.830 - neoplasm seeding MeSH C23.550.727.650.895 - neoplasms, unknown primary ... giant cell MeSH C23.550.382.750 - granuloma, lethal midline MeSH C23.550.382.875 - granuloma, ...
... which is uniquely efficient at inducing neoplastic transformation in infected cells, resulting in transformation in in vitro ... it induces leukemias and lymphomas which are free of virus particles but whose cells contain extra-chromosomal viral DNA. This ... cell culture and in the formation of tumors in vivo. In 2015 the genome sequence of a rat polyomavirus was reported to contain ...
... cell motility and adhesion.[8]. Expression of PAX8 is increased in neoplastic renal tissues, Wilms tumors, ovarian cancer and ... The mechanism for this transformation is not well understood, but there are several proposed possibilities.[11][12][13] ... regulation of metanephric nephron tubule epithelial cell differentiation. • cell differentiation. • mesonephric tubule ... positive regulation of metanephric DCT cell differentiation. • negative regulation of mesenchymal cell apoptotic process ...
... of all cells in the anterior pituitary gland. If these cells undergo neoplastic transformation, they will give rise to a ... A lactotropic cell (also known as prolactin cell, epsilon acidophil, lactotrope, lactotroph, mammatroph, mammotroph) is a cell ... This cell biology article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.. *v ... Prolactin cells are acidophilic by hematoxylin & eosin stains and comprise about 20% ...
The transformation of a normal cell into cancer is akin to a chain reaction caused by initial errors, which compound into more ... Chemotherapy is the treatment of cancer with one or more cytotoxic anti-neoplastic drugs (chemotherapeutic agents) as part of a ... In order for a normal cell to transform into a cancer cell, the genes that regulate cell growth and differentiation must be ... Germ cell tumor: Cancers derived from pluripotent cells, most often presenting in the testicle or the ovary (seminoma and ...
Malignant transformation of polyps requires surgical colectomy. Prognosis[edit]. Most juvenile polyps are benign; however, ... LHCGR (Luteinizing hormone insensitivity, Leydig cell hypoplasia, Male-limited precocious puberty). *FSHR (Follicle-stimulating ... neoplastic, hamartomatous, self-limiting and benign, there is an increased risk of adenocarcinoma. ...
... as well as abnormal looking cells (dysplasia) in at least one type of blood cell. CMML shows characteristics of a ... The cumulative 2 year survival of scores 0, 1-2 and 3-4 is 91%, 52% and 9%; and risk of AML transformation is 0%, 19% and 54% ... An Atlas of Differential Diagnosis in Neoplastic Hematopathology. Washington, DC: Taylor & Francis. ISBN 1-84214-247-X. Bennett ... In adults, blood cells are formed in the bone marrow, by a process that is known as haematopoiesis. In CMML, there are ...
Hormones affect distant cells by binding to specific receptor proteins in the target cell resulting in a change in cell ... Hyperfunction can occur as a result of hypersecretion, loss of suppression, hyperplastic or neoplastic change, or ... which in amphibians is also crucial for transformation of larvae into adult form.[14][15] All vertebrates have adrenal gland ... or protein components of a cell membrane, and may affect either the emitting cell or the immediately adjacent cells.[5] ...
Carcinoma in situ, meaning "cancer in place", represents the transformation of a neoplastic lesion to one in which cells ... Dysplasia, in which cell maturation and differentiation are delayed, can be contrasted with metaplasia, in which cells of one ... In this state, epithelial cells have lost their tissue identity and have reverted to a primitive cell form that grows rapidly ... Epithelial dysplasia consists of an expansion of immature cells (such as cells of the ectoderm), with a corresponding decrease ...
It is currently unclear as to whether cancer stem cells arise from adult stem cell transformation, a maturation arrest of ... "Cancer prevention strategies that address the evolutionary dynamics of neoplastic cells: simulating benign cell boosters and ... Cancer stem cells[edit]. Main article: Cancer stem cell. The first malignant cell, that gives rise to the tumor, is often ... When a cancer cell divides, both daughter cells inherit the genetic and epigenetic abnormalities of the parent cell, and may ...
... and mutant forms of p53 that appear during cell transformation. It appears that Hsp90 can act as a "protector" of less stable ... in signal transduction and neoplastic transformation". J. Biol. Chem. 277 (10): 8312-20. doi:10.1074/jbc.M109200200. PMID ... They account for 1-2% of total protein in unstressed cells. However, when cells are heated, the fraction of heat shock proteins ... Cell. 127 (2): 329-40. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.09.027. PMID 17055434. Ali MM, Roe SM, Vaughan CK, Meyer P, Panaretou B, Piper ...
Cancer stem cells may arise from transformation of adult stem cells or differentiated cells within a body. These cells persist ... result in cancer through their effects on the population of neoplastic cells and their microenvironment.[59] Mutant cells in ... and stem cells are the only cells that can transmit DNA from the zygote to cells late in life. Other cells cannot keep DNA from ... It is thought that when the virus infects a cell, it inserts a part of its own DNA near the cell growth genes, causing cell ...
The cell will then progress through multiple stages of neoplastic transformation that may culminate into a tumor after years of ... The neoplastic transformation can be divided into three major independent stages: morphological changes to the cell, ... Cancer starts with a single cell whose operation is disrupted. Normal cell operation is controlled by the chemical structure of ... Aug 2000). "Therapeutic ionizing radiation and the incidence of basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. The New ...
Human papilloma virus (HPV), a DNA virus, causes transformation in cells through interfering with tumor suppressor proteins ... Generally, tumor viruses cause little or no disease after infection in their hosts, or cause non-neoplastic diseases such as ... Follicular dendritic cell sarcoma. Extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type. MCPyV Merkel-cell carcinoma. RNA virus. HCV ... Forcing the cell into the S phase of the cell cycle could cause the cell to become transformed.[44] Some types of HPV increase ...
Hematopathology is the study of diseases of blood cells (including constituents such as white blood cells, red blood cells, and ... pathology that deals with diagnosis and characterization of neoplastic and non-neoplastic diseases of the lungs and thoracic ... King, Lester (1991). Transformations in American Medicine: From Benjamin Rush to William Osler. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins UP. pp ... The large cell in the top center is an abnormal erythroblast: it is multinucleated, with megaloblastoid nuclear chromatin This ...
Hematopathology is the study of diseases of blood cells (including constituents such as white blood cells, red blood cells, and ... pathology that deals with diagnosis and characterization of neoplastic and non-neoplastic diseases of the lungs and thoracic ... King, Lester (1991). Transformations in American Medicine: From Benjamin Rush to William Osler. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins UP. pp ... Programmed cell death Apoptosis. Pyknosis. Karyorrhexis. Karyolysis. Accumulations. pigment Hemosiderin. Lipochrome/Lipofuscin ...
Severe dysplasia with undifferentiated neoplastic cells that span more than 2/3 of the epithelium ... CIN refers to the potentially precancerous transformation of cells of the cervix. ... Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), also known as cervical dysplasia, is the abnormal growth of cells on the surface of ... HPV screening happens either as a co-test with the Pap smear or can be done after a Pap smear showing abnormal cells, called ...
Marks, R; Rennie, G; Selwood, TS (9 April 1988). "Malignant transformation of solar keratoses to squamous cell carcinoma". ... resulting in a proliferation of mutated keratinocytes that can manifest as AKs or other neoplastic growths.[8] With years of ... It works in two ways, first by disrupting cell membranes and mitochondria resulting cell death, and then by inducing antibody- ... These cells have been observed to proliferate into the dermis as buds and duct-like structures.[22] ...
Transformations of Neuronal, Genetic and Neoplastic Networks". Axiomathes 16: 65-122. DOI:10.1007/s10516-005-3973-8. ... Complex Systems Analysis of Arrested Neural Cell Differentiation during Development and Analogous Cell Cycling Models in ... "CBE Life Sciences Education (The American Society for Cell Biology) 9 (3): 227-240. DOI:10.1187/cbe.10-03-0019. PMC 2931670. ... Cells and their physical constraints". Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology. From the Century of the Genome to the ...
Transformation (the transfer of DNA from one bacterial cell to another through the intervening medium) appears to be part of an ... "Mechanisms of angiogenesis in microbe-regulated inflammatory and neoplastic conditions". Angiogenesis. 21 (1): 1-14. doi: ... adherence to adjacent cells, intracellular signaling, cell polarity, and other cellular activities.[57] Once inside the cell, ... Butyrate itself is an antimicrobial which destroys the cell envelope of H. pylori by inducing regulatory T cell expression ( ...
cell nucleus. Biological process. • skeletal system development. • pituitary gland development. • regulation of transcription, ... in human non-neoplastic pituitaries and pituitary adenomas". Modern Pathology. 13 (10): 1097-108. doi:10.1038/modpathol.3880204 ... "Homeotic arm-to-leg transformation associated with genomic rearrangements at the PITX1 locus". American Journal of Human ... doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.09.026. PMID 17081983.. *. Picard C, Azeddine B, Moldovan F, Martel-Pelletier J, Moreau A (September ...
"Dynamic changes in the expression of MicroRNA-31 during inflammatory bowel disease-associated neoplastic transformation". ... There has also been observed a strong encapsulation of tumour cells expressing miR-31, as well as a reduced cell survival rate ... Conversely, in gastric cancer miR-31 levels have been found to be significantly lower in tumour cells relative to healthy cells ... Cancer cell lines with an inactive p53 pathway show a vulnerability to miR-31 overexpression, whilst there is resistance to ...
... allow to identify cells going through malignant transformation.[114][115] ... bronchial brushing and neoplastic lung tissue of cases, and found a presence of an HPV infection in 16.4% of the subjects ... Follicular dendritic cell sarcoma. Extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type. MCPyV Merkel-cell carcinoma. RNA virus. HCV ... Thus, inactivation of p53 by E6 can promote unregulated cell division, cell growth, and cell survival, characteristics of ...
Cells[edit]. There are many types of cells that make up the endocrine system and these cells typically make up larger tissues ... Hyperfunction can occur as a result of hypersecretion, loss of suppression, hyperplastic or neoplastic change, or ... which in amphibians is also crucial for transformation of larvae into adult form.[15][16] All vertebrates have adrenal gland ... Hormones affect distant cells by binding to specific receptor proteins in the target cell resulting in a change in cell ...
Li; Wang, J; Mor, G; Sklar, J (2008). "A neoplastic gene fusion mimics trans-splicing of RNAs in normal human cells". Science. ... 2009). "SLC45A3-ELK4 is a novel and frequent erythroblast transformation-specific fusion transcript in prostate cancer". Cancer ... Certain fusion transcripts are commonly produced by cancer cells, and detection of fusion transcripts is part of routine ...
The exact point of failure, in terms of the minimal percentage of neoplastic cells, will depend on the particular platform and ... Columbia University Press N.Y. Shaffer LG, Bejjani B (2006). "Medical applications of array CGH and the transformation of ... Clear cell renal carcinoma: del 9p and del 14q are poor prognostic indicators. Papillary renal cell carcinoma: duplication of ... van den Berg, E; Störkel, S (2003). "Kidney: Clear cell renal cell carcinoma". Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol. 7 (3): 424 ...
A further mutation in the signaling machinery of the cell might send error-causing signals to nearby cells. The transformation ... Chemotherapy is the treatment of cancer with one or more cytotoxic anti-neoplastic drugs (chemotherapeutic agents) as part of a ... In order for a normal cell to transform into a cancer cell, the genes that regulate cell growth and differentiation must be ... such as giant cell carcinoma, spindle cell carcinoma and small-cell carcinoma. An invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast (pale ...
... but the neoplastic cells have a distinct morphology under the microscope (hairy cell leukemia cells have delicate, hair-like ... Usually, GI complications with CLL occur after Richter transformation. Two cases to date have been reported of GI involvement ... "smudge cells" or "basket cells" can also indicate the presence of the disease (smudge cells are due to cancer cells lacking in ... These B-cells are abnormal: they are monoclonal, i.e. produced by a single ancestral B-cell, and have some of the same cell ...
... pale cell acanthoma) Clear cell squamous cell carcinoma (clear cell carcinoma of the skin) Chronic scar keratosis (chronic ... reactive or neoplastic proliferation of cellular components of the dermis or subcutaneous tissue, or (2) neoplasms invading or ... management and malignant transformation". J Oral Sci. 49 (2): 89-106. doi:10.2334/josnusd.49.89. PMID 17634721.[permanent dead ... Solitary trichoepithelioma Spindle cell squamous cell carcinoma (spindle cell carcinoma) Spiradenoma Squamous cell carcinoma ...
All MeSH CategoriesDiseases CategoryNeoplasmsNeoplastic ProcessesCarcinogenesisCell Transformation, NeoplasticBlast CrisisCell ... Signs and SymptomsPathologic ProcessesNeoplastic ProcessesCarcinogenesisCell Transformation, NeoplasticBlast CrisisCell ... Cell Transformation, Neoplastic. Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, ... Transformation, Neoplastic Cell. *Neoplastic Transformation, Cell. *Cell Neoplastic Transformation. *Cell Neoplastic ...
What remains unclear is whether cancer stem cells are the direct progeny of mutated stem cells or more mature cells … ... Cancer stem cells are remarkably similar to normal stem cells: both self-renew, are multipotent and express common surface ... Although all neoplastic cells arose from Prom1(+) cells in these mice, only 7% of tumour cells retained Prom1 expression. Our ... Prominin 1 marks intestinal stem cells that are susceptible to neoplastic transformation Nature. 2009 Jan 29;457(7229):603-7. ...
... *Authors: *Cristina Belgiovine ... suggesting that tumorigenic cells could form strong cell-cell contacts and cell contacts did not induce growth inhibition. The ... Belgiovine C, Chiodi I and Mondello C: Relocalization of cell adhesion molecules during neoplastic transformation of human ... Belgiovine, C., Chiodi, I., Mondello, C.Relocalization of cell adhesion molecules during neoplastic transformation of human ...
... neoplastic. What does cell transformation, neoplastic mean? Information and translations of cell transformation, neoplastic in ... neoplastic in the Definitions.net dictionary. Meaning of cell transformation, ... What does cell transformation, neoplastic mean?. Definitions for cell transformation, neoplastic. Here are all the possible ... cell, constant. Alternative searches for cell transformation, neoplastic:. *Search for Synonyms for cell transformation, ...
EGF-induced neoplastic cell transformation is increased in cells overexpressing H3 WT. A, JB6 Cl41 cells were transfected with ... cells and psi-H3 stably transfected cells were used for cell transformation in an anchorage-independent cell transformation ... we found that overexpression of histone H3 induced neoplastic cell transformation and cell proliferation in JB6 Cl41 cells. In ... Cell and Tumor Biology Phosphorylation of Histone H3 at Serine 10 Is Indispensable for Neoplastic Cell Transformation. Hong ...
Cell, Tumor, and Stem Cell Biology γ-Secretase-Dependent Proteolysis of CD44 Promotes Neoplastic Transformation of Rat ... Alteration of DRM-associated cell surface proteins during transformation. A, DRMs from cell surface biotin-labeled Rat-1 cells ... cells] were compared with DRMs from transformed cells (MEN2A- or AP-stimulated RET-Fv-expressing cells) and transformation- ... Reversible Ret-dependent transformation of Rat-1 cells. Top, cells expressing Ret-Fv were unstimulated or stimulated with AP as ...
Their advanced stages are often characterized by the accumulation of ascites, which leads to spreading of cancer cells outside ... Ascites can be considered as microenvironmental affection for cancer cells [2]. Neoplastic cells are presented as single cells ... Peritoneal fluid stimulates neoplastic transformation of normal HEK 293 cells by high expression of pluripotent genes. Ilona ... Peritoneal fluid stimulates neoplastic transformation of normal HEK 293 cells by high expression of pluripotent genes. Polish ...
... and E7-expressing fibroblasts precedes neoplastic transformation.. Y Xiong, D Kuppuswamy, Y Li, E M Livanos, M Hixon, A White, ... Alteration of cell cycle kinase complexes in human papillomavirus E6- and E7-expressing fibroblasts precedes neoplastic ... Alteration of cell cycle kinase complexes in human papillomavirus E6- and E7-expressing fibroblasts precedes neoplastic ... Alteration of cell cycle kinase complexes in human papillomavirus E6- and E7-expressing fibroblasts precedes neoplastic ...
Normal human cells in vitroappear to retain many normal phenotypic properties, remain diploid, eventually undergo senescence ... Bronchial Epithelial Cell Neoplastic Transformation Human Bronchial Epithelial Cell Squamous Differentiation Normal Human ... Cellular and Molecular Studies of Growth, Differentiation and Neoplastic Transformation of Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells in ... Differentiation and Neoplastic Transformation of Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells in Vitro. In: Feo F., Pani P., Columbano A., ...
Oncogenic transformation was confirmed in vitro by anchorage-independent growth, increased cell proliferation, and expression ... Here we sought to establish a model for the efficient manipulation and transformation of porcine mammary epithelial cells (pMEC ... from stromal cells (CD140a+), with or without further enrichment for basal and luminal progenitor cells (CD49f+). These ... This is the first report describing a porcine model of mammary epithelial cell tumorigenesis that can be applied to the study ...
Novel Rac1/Stat3 and Stat5 Pathway in Differentiation and Neoplastic Transformation of Breast Epithelial Cells: Potential ... Stat5 on the other hand may play a role in differentiation independent of cell density. Therefore, Stat3 and Stat5 may turn out ... Our group has previously elucidated a novel activation mechanism of Stat3 by cadherin engagement in densely growing cells. We ... that Stat5 and Stat3 are regulators of the balance between differentiation and transformation of breast epithelial cells: Stat3 ...
Spontaneous cell transformation: karyoplasts derived from multinucleated cells produce new cell growth in senescent human ... endothelial cells, and inflammatory cells [1-4]. Although it is well known that cancer epithelial cells and stromal cells ... Human breast cancer cells generated by oncogenic transformation of primary mammary epithelial cells. Genes Dev. 2001;15:50-65. ... the giant cells had recovered from H342 toxicity and had generated daughter cells, and the giant cells and daughter cells with ...
... and the related myeloid-derived suppressor cells are key prototypic components of smoldering inflammation driving neoplastic … ... Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / immunology * Cytokines / immunology * Disease Progression * Female * Gonadal Steroid Hormones ... The Yin-Yang of tumor-associated macrophages in neoplastic progression and immune surveillance Immunol Rev. 2008 Apr;222:155-61 ... and the related myeloid-derived suppressor cells are key prototypic components of smoldering inflammation driving neoplastic ...
... non-neoplastic pituitary cells. This phenomenon was defined as unevenly distributed, usually peripherally located cells forming ... Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / pathology*. Humans. Neurons / pathology. Pituitary Gland, Anterior / pathology*. Pituitary ... non-neoplastic pituitary cells. This phenomenon was defined as unevenly distributed, usually peripherally located cells forming ... The stellate contour of such passively incorporated cells departed from the more rounded shape of most principal, neoplastic ...
Numerous changes in tRNA modification and catabolism are observed when cells undergo neoplastic transformation. The nature of ... Acute Myelogenous Leukemia Neoplastic Transformation Chinese Hamster Cell Line Methylated Acute Myelogenous Leukemia Patient ... Numerous changes in tRNA modification and catabolism are observed when cells undergo neoplastic transformation. The nature of ... E. Borek and S. J. Kerr, Atypical transfer RNAs and their origin in neoplastic cells, Adv. Cancer Res. 15: 163 (1972).CrossRef ...
Cell differentiation ; Cancer cells ; Cell transformation ; Cell Differentiation ; Cell Transformation, Neoplastic ; Cells, ... Cell Division. ; Cell Transformation, Neoplastic. ; Hematopoietic Stem Cells--cytology. ; Cell Division--congresses ; Cell ... Cell culture--Congresses. ; Carcinogens. ; Cell Differentiation. ; Cell Transformation, Neoplastic. ; Cells, Cultured. ; Liver ... Cell Differentiation ; Cell Division ; Cell Transformation, Neoplastic ; Growth Substances ; Neoplasms--etiology Holdings. ...
Neoplastic transformation of human thyroid epithelial cells has been investigated following exposure to ionizing radiation in ... induced neoplastic transformation in human thyroid epithelial cells. Screening for mutations in p53 protein using ... was not a prerequisite for the neoplastic conversion of irradiated cells with this system. Cell lines were established from the ... Exponentially growing HToriS cells were irradiated with graded doses of 137 Cs gamma- and 238pu alpha-irradiation. Cells were ...
Results of search for su:{Cell transformation, Neoplastic.} Refine your search. *Availability * Limit to currently available ... Transformation assay of established cell lines : mechanisms and application, proceedings of a workshop organized by IARC in ... Normal and neoplastic hematopoiesis : proceedings of the UCLA Symposium held at Steamboat Springs, Colorado, March 27-April 1, ...
... cancer cell lines, and rodent models. We used the transformed cell model in our studies. IMR90 and BJ fibroblast cells were ... Further characterization of transformed cells through cell cycle profiling and mass spectrometry analysis also revealed an ... helped us identify possible early events in cancer transformation and reveal the extra-telomeric effects of telomerase in cell ... Furthermore, transformed cells exhibited increased telomerase activity that was not accountable by hTERT overexpression alone. ...
... ... Oncogenic transformation was confirmed in vitro by anchorage-independent growth, increased cell proliferation, and expression ... Here we sought to establish a model for the efficient manipulation and transformation of porcine mammary epithelial cells (pMEC ... from stromal cells (CD140a+), with or without further enrichment for basal and luminal progenitor cells (CD49f+). These ...
Tracy Chui-hsu Yang; Laurie M. Craise; Man-Tong Mei; Cornelius A. Tobias (1985). "Neoplastic Cell Transformation by Heavy ... The fate of normal cells that contain a single terminal deletion is unknown, but it has been shown that the loss of a single ... Genomic instability has been observed both in vitro and in vivo in the progeny of cells that are irradiated with heavy ions in ... Cells containing telomere-deficient chromosomes will either senesce or undergo breakage-fusion-bridge (B/F/B) cycles, thereby ...
Myricetin is a novel natural inhibitor of neoplastic cell transformation and MEK1. Abstract:. Evidence suggests that mitogen- ... Moreover, myricetin inhibited H-Ras-induced cell transformation more effectively than either PD098059, a MEK inhibitor, or ... Resveratrol inhibits MRGPRX2-mediated mast cell activation via Nrf2 pathway. Mast cells (MCs) are crucial effectors in ... induced cell transformation by 76 or 72%, respectively, compared with respective reductions of 26 or 19% by resveratrol (20 ...
These cytological changes might represent dedifferentiation of the neoplastic cells or the anaplastic transformation of MTC. ... A case report and an immunocytochemical demonstration of calcitonin and thyroglobulin in the same neoplastic cells. J Nucl Med ... Furthermore, only a few neoplastic cells in specimens obtained at postmortem sampling exhibited a weak response to CT. ... Dedifferentiation of neoplastic cells in medullary thyroid carcinoma: Report of a case. ...
3. cancer cell. 4. neoplastic cell. 5. nucleus. 6. vesicle. 7. transformation. 8. auxesis. 9. neuroma. 10. sac. 11. killer+cell ... Sorry, no dictionaries indexed in the selected category contain the exact phrase alveolar cell tumor. Did you mean: Reverse ... You can look up the words in the phrase individually using these links: alveolar ? cell ? tumor ? (A question mark next to a ... malignant neoplastic disease. 14. aneurism. 15. cancer. 16. trophic. 17. celioma. 18. ovum. 19. megakaryocyte. 20. merisis. 21 ...
Here we investigate the 3D chromatin architecture in T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) by using primary human ... Dynamics of genome architecture and chromatin function during human B cell differentiation and neoplastic transformation *Roser ... Number replicates: T cells WT 4 C n = 2; T cells Edited 4 C n = 2; T cells CTCF n = 2; T cells H3K27ac n = 2; CUTLL1 H3K27ac n ... A NOTCH1-driven MYC enhancer promotes T cell development, transformation and acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Nat. Med. 20, 1130- ...
916 MHz microwave radiation induces neoplastic transformation in cells. Mar 07, 2012. ... According to the World Bank about three quarters of people on the planet now use a cell phone. So cell phones are a big deal ... Diseases : Cell Phone Induced Disease, Mobile Phone-Induced Oxidative Stress, Prenatal Radiation Exposure ... Diseases : Cell Phone Induced Disease, Mobile Phone-Induced Oxidative Stress, Oxidative Stress ...
This topic contains 4 study abstracts on Cell Phone Exposure indicating it may contribute to Insomnia, Mobile Phone-Induced ... 916 MHz microwave radiation induces neoplastic transformation in cells. Mar 07, 2012. ... The dangers of cell phone use have long been debated but for the first time a clear connection between cell phone use and ... According to the World Bank about three quarters of people on the planet now use a cell phone. So cell phones are a big deal ...
After transformation, neoplastic cells carry monoclonal immunoglobulin gene rearrangements. Histological transformation may ... cells are present embedded in nodules consisting of B cells and other reactive cells (mainly reactive T cells). Reed-Sternberg ... RSH cells typically express CD15 and CD30, whereas LP cells lack expression of these markers, but express B cell markers like ... Histologic transformation to diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) can occur in up to 12% of cases. ...
  • Oncogenic transformation was confirmed in vitro by anchorage-independent growth, increased cell proliferation, and expression of CDKN2A, cyclin A2 and p53 alongside decreased phosphorylation of Rb. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Although it is well known that cancer epithelial cells and stromal cells interact extensively to form a critical network that sustains and regulates cancer growth, the development of cancer is generally attributed to clonal proliferation of transformed epithelial cells, resulting from accumulated genetic mutations of either somatic or adult stem cells. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • It is generally believed that mutational events lead to uncontrolled proliferation of epithelial cells and that stromal components of tumors are derived from the host's normal mesenchymal stroma or bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells [ 1 , 2 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The phosphorylation of proteins on the serine or threonine residues that immediately precede proline (pSer/Thr-Pro) is specifically catalyzed by the prolyl isomerase Pin1 and is a key signaling mechanism in cell proliferation and transformation. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Activator protein-2 (AP-2) transcription factors are involved in the regulation of cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, and carcinogenesis ( 11 , 12 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Cell proliferation and cell death are disturbed during prenatal and postnatal brain development after uranium exposure. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Following a 6month exposure, exposed cells were assessed for enhanced cell proliferation, colony formation, invasion ability and in vivo tumor formation compared to control cell lines. (cdc.gov)
  • B-As cells displayed significant increases in proliferation, colony formation and invasion ability compared to BEAS-2B cells. (cdc.gov)
  • UFCB and pMWCNT cells at 48h and all MWCNT cells at 6d post-treatment exhibited significant increased proliferation compared to controls. (cdc.gov)
  • C , D , MTT proliferation assay of OVCAR3 cells at 12 and 48 h post-treatment. (mcponline.org)
  • Formazan formation (absorbance at 562 nm) was used to determine the cell proliferation. (mcponline.org)
  • Evidence indicates that the etiology of panmyelosis is unregulated neoplastic proliferation. (medscape.com)
  • Our results showed that beginning at four months, nFe2O3-exposed Beas2B underwent neoplastic-like transformation, as indicated by increased cell proliferation and attachment-independent colony formation. (cdc.gov)
  • Our results showed that low-dose/long-term in vitro exposure to nFe2O3 induced a time-dependent neoplastic-like cell transformation, as indicated by increased cell proliferation and attachment-independent colony formation, which closely matched that induced by GMA-MS. This transformation was associated with decreases in intracellular iron, minimal changes in reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and the induction of double-stranded DNA damage. (cdc.gov)
  • Our results show that chronic exposure (3 months) to non-cytotoxic, physiological relevant concentration (1 μg/mL) of PM MTM , but not control particle PM CON , induced neoplastic transformation, accelerated cell proliferation and enhanced cell migration of the exposed lung cells. (crmw.net)
  • Experimental studies have shown their anticarcinogenic effects due to their participation in regulating cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis in normal and malignant breast cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In rats, calcium has been shown to reduce fat-induced mammary cell proliferation by maintaining the intracellular calcium concentration ( 12 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • It may decrease the proliferation of immune cells, which results in lower autoimmune activity. (medscape.com)
  • Very little is known about the role of histone H3 phosphorylation in malignant transformation and cancer development. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The EGF is a well-known tumor promotion agent used to study malignant cell transformation in cell and animal models of cancer ( 11 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Normal human cells in vitro appear to retain many normal phenotypic properties, remain diploid, eventually undergo senescence and rarely, if ever "spontaneously" transform to malignant cells. (springer.com)
  • In addition, human cells with abnormal phenotypes such as either enzymatic deficits or malignant properties frequently maintain these phenotype in vitro. (springer.com)
  • EMT inducers catalyze malignant transformation of mammary epithelial cells and drive tumorigenesis towards claudin-low tumors in transgenic mice. (nature.com)
  • Polycythemia vera (PV) is a stem cell disorder characterized as a panhyperplastic, malignant, and neoplastic marrow disorder. (medscape.com)
  • Role of H-ras in the malignant progression of rat tracheal epithelial cells. (nih.gov)
  • However, this was not seen in another ras-containing line, suggesting the importance of alternative pathways in malignant progression of rat tracheal epithelial cells. (nih.gov)
  • Human cells cultured in vitro have thus proven to be extremely useful to scientists studying the molecular and biochemical aspects of human carcinogenesis. (springer.com)
  • These advances have created experimental approaches to answering critical questions in human cell carcinogenesis 1,2 . (springer.com)
  • However, mononuclear phagocytes can exert anti-tumor activity by killing tumor cells and eliciting tissue disruptive reactions (M1), a likely scenario in the early phases of carcinogenesis of immunogenic tumors and following therapeutic intervention. (nih.gov)
  • This human thyroid epithelial cell line may thus be useful for the in vitro study of cellular and molecular mechanisms that are involved in human epithelial cell carcinogenesis. (st-andrews.ac.uk)
  • While the high effectiveness in cell killing provides the rationale for heavy ion cancer therapy (hadron therapy), residual damage in surviving cells is of concern for carcinogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • NDLI: In vitro neoplastic transformation of Syrian hamster cells by lead acetate and its relevance to environmental carcinogenesis. (iitkgp.ac.in)
  • Background: Human Barrett's cancer cell lines have numerous, poorly-characterized genetic abnormalities and, consequently, those lines have limited utility as models for studying the early molecular events in carcinogenesis. (elsevier.com)
  • Conclusions/Significance: Through these experiments, we have generated a number of transformed and non-transformed cell lines with well-characterized genetic abnormalities recapitulating various stages of carcinogenesis in Barrett's esophagus. (elsevier.com)
  • Neoplastic transformation of cells and inflammation are considered to be major events contributing to carcinogenesis. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Sex-determining region Y-box 2 (SOX2) is reported to be up-regulated in other kinds of cancer cells and involved in carcinogenesis and malignancy. (cancerindex.org)
  • 4HPR has been shown to inhibit carcinogenesis in a variety of cancer cells, including breast cancer ( 2 ), bladder cancer ( 3 ), lung cancer ( 4 ), prostate cancer ( 5 ) and leukemia ( 6-7 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Expression of both human papillomavirus type 16 oncoproteins, E6 and E7, in normal human fibroblasts completely dissociates p21 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen from the quarternary cyclin-cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) complexes present in normal cells, causes disruption of the cyclin D-CDK4 complex and replacement with a CDK4-p16 complex, and leaves binary complexes of cyclin B1-CDC2 and cyclin A-CDK2 intact. (asm.org)
  • The expression of the individual oncoproteins dramatically affects the association of proliferating cell nuclear antigen into the complexes while leaving the total cellular levels unaltered. (asm.org)
  • D. E. Brash, G. E. Mark, M. P. Farrell and C. C. Harris, Overview of human cells in genetic research: Altered phenotypes in human cells caused by transferred genes, Somatic Cell and Mol. (springer.com)
  • E. Brash, J. B. Park, J. S. Rhim and C. C. Harris, Transformation of human bronchial epithelial cells by infection with SV40 or adenovirus-12 SV40 hybrid virus, or transfection via strontium phosphate coprecipitation with a plasmid containing SV40 early region genes, Cancer Res, (in press). (springer.com)
  • No mutations were detected in 26 tumour cell lines suggesting that mutations in these two genes do not appear to be involved in radiation- induced neoplastic transformation in human thyroid epithelial cells. (st-andrews.ac.uk)
  • Master transcription factors and Mediator establish super-enhancers at key cell identity genes. (nature.com)
  • Additionally, the expression of epigenetic regulatory genes was altered in nicotine-exposed cells and the changes were reversed by NAC. (ttu.edu)
  • The culprits were found among genes involved in the control of the cell division cycle, and work aimed at understanding the regulation of S phase and mitosis have yielded new insights into our understanding of cancer. (cnrs.fr)
  • In Tumor Suppressor Genes, Volume 2: Regulation, Function, and Medicinal Applications, leading physician scientists and researchers explore the cell biology and biochemical function of the tumor suppressor genes, as well as their physiological role in vivo. (springer.com)
  • Blocking AP-1 activation causes P + cells to revert to the P − phenotype, indicating a unique requirement for AP-1 activation in EGF-induced cell transformation ( 14 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Stat5 is required for breast epithelial cell differentiation and is over-expressed in breast cancers with a more differentiated phenotype. (queensu.ca)
  • moreover we show that expression of activated Stat5 in HC11 breast epithelial cells promotes a more differentiated phenotype. (queensu.ca)
  • This notion, linking cancer to cell signalling pathways, has progressively led the way to the concept of the mutator phenotype, in which genetic instability plays an essential role in the onset of cancer. (cnrs.fr)
  • Downregulation of H-Ras by siRNA or inactivation of ERK by chemical inhibitor effectrively inhibited the aggressive phenotype of SWCNT-exposed cells. (cdc.gov)
  • Integrin alpha V and cortactin, but not epitheial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) transcriptional regulators, were up-regulated in the SWCNT-exposed cells, suggesting their role in the aggressive phenotype. (cdc.gov)
  • An amorphous silica -coated but otherwise identical particle (SiO2-nFe2O3) did not induce this neoplastic-like phenotype or changes in the parameters mentioned above. (cdc.gov)
  • The detailed RBE vs. LET relationship that was found for total exchanges is similar to that of earlier studies of mutation and in vitro neoplastic transformation. (wikipedia.org)
  • It was proposed that the reduction in plating efficiency and subsequent neoplastic transformation are all the result of a radiation-induced genomic instability. (elsevier.com)
  • In KC mice, however, PD2/Paf1 mRNA level continued to decrease with progressive dysplasia and subsequent neoplastic transformation. (curehunter.com)
  • These proteins presented a clear membrane localization in tumorigenic cells compared to a more diffuse, cytoplasmic distribution in primary fibroblasts and non-tumorigenic immortalized cells, suggesting that tumorigenic cells could form strong cell-cell contacts and cell contacts did not induce growth inhibition. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Novel multicolor fluorescence painting techniques of human chromosomes have clearly demonstrated that high-LET α-particles and Fe-ions induce many more complex rearrangements will ultimately lead to cell death. (wikipedia.org)
  • High-intensity electromagnetic radiation associated with cell phone exposure is very likely to induce the death of embryonic cells and decrease the chance of their implantation, thereby posing a high risk to pregnancy. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • and (2) neoplastic transformation of a small subset of survivors that have lost fibroblast chromosomes 11 and 14 (tumour suppressor loci) but either have not acquired enough genetic damage to induce the apoptotic response or have undergone molecular changes allowing them to bypass apoptosis. (elsevier.com)
  • In the present study we investigated whether CNTs can induce CAFs and whether these cells can promote tumor formation in a xenograft mouse model. (cdc.gov)
  • 4HPR could induce apoptosis of cancer cells both in retinoic acid receptor-dependent and -independent manners ( 9-10 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • nFe2O3-induced transformation also closely matched that GMA-WF induced transformation SiO2-nFe2O3 treatment, however, did not induce any changes in the above parameters. (cdc.gov)
  • Limited research suggests IONP can induce genotoxicity and neoplastic transformation associated with particle dissolution and release of free iron ions. (cdc.gov)
  • We hypothesized that long-term exposure to a specific IONP (nFe2O3) would induce neoplastic-like cell transformation, which could be prevented with an amorphous silica coating (SiO2-nFe2O3). (cdc.gov)
  • The agents in this class target specific antigens in carcinoma cells and induce cytotoxicity. (medscape.com)
  • Chemically defined media have been developed for culturing many of these tissues and cells from normal organs, including those with a high rate of cancer in humans. (springer.com)
  • Lineage-tracing studies of adult Prom1(+/C-L) mice containing the Rosa26-YFP reporter allele showed that Prom1(+) cells are located at the base of crypts in the small intestine, co-express Lgr5 (ref. 2), generate the entire intestinal epithelium, and are therefore the small intestinal stem cell. (nih.gov)
  • Activation of endogenous Wnt signalling in Prom1(+/C-L) mice containing a Cre-dependent mutant allele of beta-catenin (Ctnnb1(lox(ex3))) resulted in a gross disruption of crypt architecture and a disproportionate expansion of Prom1(+) cells at the crypt base. (nih.gov)
  • Although all neoplastic cells arose from Prom1(+) cells in these mice, only 7% of tumour cells retained Prom1 expression. (nih.gov)
  • The immortalized or transformed epithelial cells can transdifferentiate into stromal cells when transplanted into nude mice. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Following passaging, the cells were transplanted into the athymic nude mice, and the animals were screened for tumour formation. (st-andrews.ac.uk)
  • Depleted uranium induces leukemia in heatopoietic cells in mice. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • In contrast, the combination of p53 RNAi knockdown with expression of oncogenic H-Ras G12V transformed the p16-deficient BAR-T cells, as evidenced by their loss of contact inhibition, by their formation of colonies in soft agar, and by their generation of tumors in immunodeficient mice. (elsevier.com)
  • Subcutaneous injection of the SWCNT-exposed NHLFs along with human lung carcinoma H460 cells in NSG mice resulted in a high rate of tumor formation compared with the coinjection of vehicle-exposed NHLFs and H460 cells, indicating the tumor-promoting effect of SWCNT-exposed NHLFs. (cdc.gov)
  • Xenograft transplantation of the PM MTM -exposed cells in mice caused no apparent tumor formation, but promoted tumor growth of human lung carcinoma H460 cells, suggesting the tumor promoting effect of PM MTM . (crmw.net)
  • Here, we report that PD2/Paf1 expression was restricted to acinar cells in the normal murine pancreas, but its expression increased in the ductal cells of KrasG12D/Pdx1Cre (KC) mouse model of pancreatic cancer with increasing age, showing highest expression in neoplastic ductal cells of 50 weeks old mice. (curehunter.com)
  • The mechanisms by which CD44 plays a role in tumor progression are not yet clear although they do seem to be to implicated in cell survival signaling as well as regulation of cellular invasion and metastasis ( 1 , 3 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • M2-polarized tumor-associated macrophages and the related myeloid-derived suppressor cells are key prototypic components of smoldering inflammation driving neoplastic progression. (nih.gov)
  • Cell lines with well-defined genetic lesions that recapitulate various stages of neoplastic progression in Barrett's esophagus would be most useful for such studies. (elsevier.com)
  • It is well known that the two SNPs are associated to an increased risk, progression, survival and mortality of endocrine-related cancers, here we have demonstrated that the c-MYB-dependent release of Pol II at a specific phase of the cell cycle is facilitated by the px haplotype, thus leading to a higher ERα mitogenic signal. (elsevier.com)
  • Carbon nanotube s promote lung tumor progression through the induction of cancer-associated fibroblasts and cancer stem-like cells. (cdc.gov)
  • Pulmonary exposure to carbon nanotube s (CNTs) has recently been shown to promote the growth and neoplastic progression of lung adenocarcinoma in animals, but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. (cdc.gov)
  • The effect of an activated H-ras oncogene on the progression of neoplasia was studied in transformed rat tracheal epithelial cells. (nih.gov)
  • Interestingly, variations in the genetic background influenced the progression of photoreceptor cell degeneration ( 10 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • As a result, aneuploidy, rather than gene mutation, has been proposed as the explanation for the complex changes observed in cancer cells. (cnrs.fr)
  • A mutation of the Janus kinase-2 gene ( JAK2 ) is the most likely source of PV pathogenesis, as JAK2 is directly involved in the intracellular signaling following exposure to cytokines to which polycythemia vera progenitor cells display hypersensitivity. (medscape.com)
  • Nude mouse tumours produced by injection of these cells exhibited a higher fraction of cells containing the mutant ras gene that did the injected cells, while a subclone that lacked the ras mutation was much less tumorigenic than parental cells. (nih.gov)
  • Serial passage of one cell line containing a ras mutation resulted in an increase in the fraction of ras-mutated cells, which suggests that, in this line, ras activation may confer a selective advantage in vitro as well. (nih.gov)
  • Extensive clinical analysis of patients carrying PROM1 R373C mutation suggested that endothelial function could be affected despite apparently normal levels of endothelial progenitor cells ( 23 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Some carriers of the R373C mutation showed memory disturbance and impairment in measured executive functions, suggesting that the lack of functional PROM1 may not solely affect photoreceptor cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • Here, we report that delphinidin, a major dietary anthocyanidin, inhibits tumor promoter-induced transformation and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression in JB6 promotion-sensitive mouse skin epidermal (JB6 P+) cells by directly targeting Raf and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK). (oregonstate.edu)
  • Inhibits tumor promoter-induced neoplastic transformation. (rcsb.org)
  • Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill. (nih.gov)
  • Studying neoplastic transformation of telomerase immortalized human fibroblasts (cen3tel), we found that the transition from normal to tumorigenic cells was associated with the loss of growth contact inhibition, the acquisition of an epithelial-like morphology and a change in actin organization, from stress fibers to cortical bundles. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Introduction of small interfering RNA-H3 into JB6 cells resulted in decreased epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced cell transformation. (aacrjournals.org)
  • However, much less is known about the role of histone H3 in epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced neoplastic cell transformation. (aacrjournals.org)
  • CD44 is a widely distributed cell surface adhesion molecule that is implicated in a variety of physiologic and pathologic processes, including lymphocyte activation, cell-matrix interactions, and regulation of tumor growth and metastasis (see ref. 1 for a review). (aacrjournals.org)
  • J. C. Willey, J. F. Lechner and C. C. Harris, Bombesin and the C-terminal tetradecapeptide of gastrin-releasing peptide are growth factors for normal human bronchial epithelial cells, Exp. (springer.com)
  • Here we sought to establish a model for the efficient manipulation and transformation of porcine mammary epithelial cells (pMEC) in vitro and tumor growth in vivo . (biomedcentral.com)
  • Traditionally, PGCCs were considered to be senescent and not able to divide, since multiple mechanisms exist in animal cells to limit polyploid cell growth [ 13 , 14 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • According to the hormone produced, prolactin-(PRL-)cells most commonly occurred as a minor "foreign" component (seen in 23 of the adenomas), whereas growth hormone-(GH-) and adrenocorticotropic hormone-(ACTH-)cells rarely were trapped (seen in 5 and 4 of the adenomas. (biomedsearch.com)
  • These transformed cells can grow under anchorage independent conditions, are self-sufficient in growth signals, have decreased sensitivity to apoptosis, and showed recurrent chromosomal abnormalities. (omictools.com)
  • Myricetin (10 microM) inhibited 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) or epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced cell transformation by 76 or 72%, respectively, compared with respective reductions of 26 or 19% by resveratrol (20 microM). (lacienciadelvino.com)
  • The downregulation of HER-2 expression inhibits cell growth in vitro and, in a preclinical gene therapy setting, blocks tumor formation among HER-2 -overexpressing cancer cells and prolongs the survival of the treated animals ( 17 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Drugs used in chemotherapy, such as venetoclax and dexamethasone, work in different ways to stop the growth of cancer cells, either by killing the cells, by stopping them from dividing, or by stopping them from spreading. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Ponatinib may stop the growth of cancer cells by blocking some of the enzymes needed for cell growth. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • BAR-T cells infected with either p53 RNAi or oncogenic H-Ras G12V alone maintained cell-to-cell contact inhibition and did not exhibit anchorage-independent growth in soft agar. (elsevier.com)
  • Delphinidin also dose dependently suppressed JB6 P+ cell transformation induced by epidermal growth factor and H-Ras, both of which are involved in the activation of Raf/MEK/ERK signaling. (oregonstate.edu)
  • New data are presented which demonstrate that use of growth media supplemented with a specific lot of calf serum was found to increase the number of cells undergoing radiation-induced neoplastic transformation, compared with standard serum after a fixed dose of radiation. (elsevier.com)
  • While TGF-Beta1 (5ng/ml) inhibited growth of contml cells and clone -1 cells which did not show transformation, there was no significant change on the growth of clone -3 cells with transformation properties. (bvsalud.org)
  • Results revealed that chronic exposure to nicotine induced growth and neoplastic transformation in HK-2 cells. (ttu.edu)
  • We have previously reported that, when 4-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1-piperazineethanesulfonic acid buffer was used in the growth medium to control pH fluctuations during the 21-day expression period of our human cell hybrid (HeLa x skin fibroblast) transformation assay, the yield of radiation-induced neoplastically transformed foci after 7 Gy of gamma-irradiation was suppressed. (elsevier.com)
  • Growth curves revealed that the population doubling time of the cells is extended and the unirradiated and irradiated plating efficiencies are lowered by long term low pH exposure. (elsevier.com)
  • Our vision of the cancer cell has dramatically changed since the discovery of proto-oncogenes, whose deregulation was proposed to mimic normal growth signalling. (cnrs.fr)
  • We demonstrated here that prolonged exposure of human mesothelial cells to single-walled CNT (SWCNT) induced neoplastic-like transformation as indicated by anchorage-independent cell growth and increased cell invasiveness. (cdc.gov)
  • The mechanism by which SWCNT-exposed fibroblasts promote tumor growth was shown to involve cancer stem cell (CSC) induction, as determined by tumor sphere formation and side population assays. (cdc.gov)
  • MS/MS spectrum of the identified peptide (FLQGIQLNTILPDAR) corresponding to the protein LAMP-1 from ovarian OVCAR3 cells treated with anti- or pro-growth stimuli for 48 h. (mcponline.org)
  • In vitro studies also showed that 4HPR attenuated mTOR downstream signaling in a panel of non-small-cell lung cancer cells, resulting in growth inhibition. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • This is accompanied by increased white blood cell (myeloid) and platelet (megakaryocytic) production, which is due to an abnormal clone of the hematopoietic stem cells with increased sensitivity to the different growth factors for maturation. (medscape.com)
  • The bone marrow of patients with polycythemia vera (PV),contains normal stem cells but also contains abnormal clonal stem cells that interfere with or suppress normal stem cell growth and maturation. (medscape.com)
  • Progenitors of the blood cells in these patients display abnormal responses to growth factors, suggesting the presence of a defect in a signaling pathway common to different growth factors. (medscape.com)
  • NKT cells can mediate the inhibition of tumor growth and metastases in experimental tumors by direct (IL-12-mediated) or indirect (activation of NK cells) mechanisms. (pnas.org)
  • As an alkylating agent, the mechanism of action of the active metabolites may involve cross-linking of DNA, which may interfere with growth of normal and neoplastic cells. (medscape.com)
  • Since DNA and RNA are essential for cell division and growth, the effect of fluorouracil may be to create a thymine deficiency which provokes unbalanced growth and death of the cell. (nih.gov)
  • Finally, we found α-catenin and ZO-1 nuclear localization in non-transformed cells, suggestive of possible additional roles of these proteins besides cell junction formation. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • This fluid is rich in proteins and cells, such as: cancer cells, lymphocytes and mesothelial cells. (termedia.pl)
  • Cancer stem cells are remarkably similar to normal stem cells: both self-renew, are multipotent and express common surface markers, for example, prominin 1 (PROM1, also called CD133). (nih.gov)
  • What remains unclear is whether cancer stem cells are the direct progeny of mutated stem cells or more mature cells that reacquire stem cell properties during tumour formation. (nih.gov)
  • Prom1 was reported recently to mark cancer stem cells of human intestinal tumours that arise frequently as a consequence of aberrant wingless (Wnt) signalling. (nih.gov)
  • Recently, members of the Aurora kinase family, which are overexpressed in many human cancer cells, were shown to be responsible for mitotic phosphorylation of histone H3 at Ser 10 in yeast and nematodes ( 16 - 18 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Because mitosis is the phase of the cell cycle most susceptible to various chemical and physical agents, the consistent observation of histone H3 phosphorylation at Ser 10 and/or overexpression in human tumor cell lines ( 20 ) suggested that regulation of mitosis by phosphorylation of histone H3 at Ser 10 may be a possible target for cancer treatment. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Ascites can be considered as microenvironmental affection for cancer cells [2]. (termedia.pl)
  • Neoplastic cells are presented as single cells or cell aggregates, and are able to spread the cancer to other parts of the human body. (termedia.pl)
  • Alteration in gene activation, for instance silencing of tumor suppressors or activation of oncogenes, may occur in the case of cancer cells [3]. (termedia.pl)
  • Some of the previous studies demonstrated the ability of ascites to modulate the gene expression, which is associated with changes in the cellular behavior of ovarian cancer cell [5, 6]. (termedia.pl)
  • E. A. Friedman, Differential response of premalignant epithelial cell classes to phorbol ester tumor promoters and to deoxycholic acid, Cancer Res. (springer.com)
  • A carcinoma is a complex tissue composed of multiple cell types, including epithelial cancer cells as well as stromal cells that include fibroblasts, endothelial cells, and inflammatory cells [ 1 - 4 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Some studies, however, have demonstrated that endothelial cells can be derived from cancer cells [ 5 - 7 ], and other studies have shown that stromal components of tumors may not be derived entirely from the host's normal mesenchymal stroma or bone marrow [ 8 , 9 ], suggesting that cancer cells are highly plastic and capable of generating stromal cells. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Polyploid giant cancer cells (PGCCs) are mononucleated or multinucleated cells with multiple genome copies that can be observed in cancer but that can also play an important role in many normal physiologic and nonmalignant pathologic processes [ 10 - 12 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Transformation assay of established cell lines : mechanisms and application, proceedings of a workshop organized by IARC in collaboration with the US National Cancer Institute and the US Environmental Protection Agency, held in Lyon, 15-17 February 1984 / editors, T. Kakunaga, H. Yamasaki. (who.int)
  • The complexity and heterogeneity of cancer cells are under-represented by the current experimental models which revolve around primary tumor cells, cancer cell lines, and rodent models. (omictools.com)
  • Collectively, these data imply that IMR90 transformed cell model is an invaluable tool for cancer studies. (omictools.com)
  • Our results in the systematic study of this model helped us identify possible early events in cancer transformation and reveal the extra-telomeric effects of telomerase in cell migration and DNA damage initiation. (omictools.com)
  • Therefore, Juglone and PD98059 inhibited the colony formation of MCF-7 breast cancer cells in soft agar. (aacrjournals.org)
  • These results indicate that Pin1 amplifies EGF signaling in breast cancer cells through its interaction with MEK1 and then enhances HER-2 expression, suggesting that Pin1 plays an important role in the overexpression of HER-2 through Pin1-MEK1-activator protein-2α signaling in breast cancer. (aacrjournals.org)
  • AP-2α and AP-2γ, as well as AP-2β to some extent, are expressed in HER2/neu-overexpressing breast cancer cell lines alone or in combination and activate the HER-2 promoter in vitro ( 13 , 14 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Cooperation between the two functional AP-2 binding sites of the HER-2 promoter is needed for the maximal HER2/neu transcriptional activity in breast cancer cells ( 12 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • The donated stem cells may replace the patient's immune cells and help destroy any remaining cancer cells (graft-versus-tumor effect). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • This study chronically exposed human lung epithelial BEAS-2B cells to low-dose arsenic trioxide to elucidate cancer promoting gene signaling networks associated with arsenic-transformed (B-As) cells. (cdc.gov)
  • IPA-ranked signaling networks identified altered p21, EF1α, Akt, MAPK, and NF-κB signaling networks promoting genetic disorder, altered cell cycle, cancer and changes in nucleic acid and energy metabolism. (cdc.gov)
  • In conclusion, transformed B-As cells with their whole genome expression profile provide an in vitro arsenic model for future lung cancer signaling research and data for chronic arsenic exposure risk assessment. (cdc.gov)
  • Mendonca, M , Sun, C & Redpath, JL 1990, ' Suppression of radiation-induced neoplastic transformation of human cell hybrids by long term incubation at low extracellular pH ', Cancer Research , vol. 50, no. 7, pp. 2123-2127. (elsevier.com)
  • Exposed cells were assessed for several established cancer hallmarks and morphological transformation. (cdc.gov)
  • The plasticity of cancer cells underlies their capacity to adapt to the selective pressures they encounter during tumour development. (nature.com)
  • Aberrant reactivation of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), an essential embryonic process, can promote cancer cell plasticity and fuel both tumour initiation and metastatic spread. (nature.com)
  • Figure 3: Crosstalk between EMT-TFs, p53 and RB pathways and stemness factors in regulating cancer cell plasticity. (nature.com)
  • Nieto, M. A. Epithelial plasticity: a common theme in embryonic and cancer cells. (nature.com)
  • The Hippo transducer TAZ confers cancer stem cell-related traits on breast cancer cells. (nature.com)
  • The transcriptional repressor ZEB1 promotes metastasis and loss of cell polarity in cancer. (nature.com)
  • Cancer Cell 22 , 725-736 (2012). (nature.com)
  • Active hexose-correlated compound down-regulates sex-determining region Y-box 2 of pancreatic cancer cells. (cancerindex.org)
  • Our previous research showed that AHCC down-regulated heat-shock protein (HSP)-27 and exhibited cytotoxic effects against gemcitabine-resistant pancreatic cancer cells. (cancerindex.org)
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of AHCC on protein expression of SOX2 in the gemcitabine-resistant pancreatic cancer cell line KLM1-R. (cancerindex.org)
  • This result suggests that the target of AHCC in expressing therapeutic efficacy was not the pluripotent cells such as cancer stem cells (CSCs) but SOX2-specific. (cancerindex.org)
  • Microscopic energy deposition in cells and tissues is distinct for GCR compared to X-rays on Earth, leading to both qualitative and quantitative differences in biological effects, while there is no human epidemiology data for GCR for cancer and other fatal risks. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tools from evolutionary theory have the potential to parse those mutations that are selected within cells on the path to cancer from those mutations that arise incidentally during the somatic evolution of cancer. (yale.edu)
  • Genetically engineer immune cells to target a patient's cancer (cell therapies). (yalecancercenter.org)
  • Although 4HPR has been shown to be cytotoxic to many kinds of cancer cells, the underlying molecular mechanisms are only partially understood. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Moreover, knockdown of mTOR in cancer cells decreased their sensitivity to 4HPR. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • This includes DNA strand breakage, chromosome aberrations, increased oncogene activity in cells, reduced melatonin, altered brain activity, altered blood pressure and increased brain cancer . (oocities.org)
  • Diseases associated with PDCD4 include Colorectal Cancer and Tongue Squamous Cell Carcinoma . (genecards.org)
  • Pancreatic differentiation 2 (PD2), a PAF ( RNA Polymerase II Associated Factor) complex subunit, is overexpressed in pancreatic cancer cells and has demonstrated potential oncogenic property. (curehunter.com)
  • A large body of publications mentioning prominin-1 (Prom1, CD133) is related to its use as a stem and cancer stem cell marker ( 1 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • We further established that lentivirus can be used for oncogenic-transformation of pMEC ex vivo for generating mammary tumors in vivo . (biomedcentral.com)
  • Nishiyama RH, Dunn EL, Thompson NW (1972) Anaplastic spindle-cell and giant-cell tumors of the thyroid gland. (springer.com)
  • Mesenchymal Tumors: Arise from cells of mesodermal origin. (brainscape.com)
  • On activation, NKT cells promptly produce IL-4 and IFN-γ (among other cytokines) and can influence immune responses against autoantigens ( 11 ), tumors ( 12 ), and bacterial or parasitic infections ( 1 , 13 - 17 ). (pnas.org)
  • These tumors are enriched in gene expression signatures derived from human tumor-initiating cells (TICs) and human mammary stem cells. (pnas.org)
  • The claudin-low tumors contain a majority of spindle-shaped cells, a histology originally described for carcinosarcomas, which are now called epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) tumors ( 9 ). (pnas.org)
  • however, this has proved difficult to test because the identity of most adult tissue stem cells is not known. (nih.gov)
  • Lineage tracing demonstrated that the progeny of these cells replaced the mucosa of the entire small intestine with neoplastic tissue that was characterized by focal high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia and crypt adenoma formation. (nih.gov)
  • While the neoplastic tissue from localized metastases in the soft tissue of the neck expressed strong immunohistochemical positivity to calcitonin (CT), calcitonin gene-related peptide, carcinoembryonic antigen, neuron-specific enolase, and chromogranin A during the stable interval, extremely weakened immunoreactivity to those markers was observed in samples from the disseminated metastases in the subcutaneous tissue after his clinical deterioration. (springer.com)
  • LAMP-1 is expressed in serous epithelial ovarian adenocarcinoma tissue sections ( G-J ). LAMP-1 expression is specifically observed in the cytoplasm of epithelial cells. (mcponline.org)
  • 2. Stroma (connective tissue and blood vessels that support the neoplastic cells). (brainscape.com)
  • Dysfunction of cell adhesion (metastasis) is characteristic for tumor cells and is regarded as a result of alternation in E-cadherin expression (encoded by CDH1). (termedia.pl)
  • Amorphous silica coating protects against iron oxide nanoparticle-induced cell transformation and genotoxicity. (cdc.gov)
  • Importantly, these inhibitors inhibited the neoplastic cell transformation induced by EGF in Pin1-overexpressing JB6 Cl41 cells, which showed enhanced cellular formation compared with the control cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Among these clones , clone -3 and clone -6 showed neoplastic transformation properties of contact inhibition , anchorage independence and cellular adhesion after 7 subcultures. (bvsalud.org)
  • We discuss possible mechanisms for the observed suppression, in terms of the influence of low extracellular pH on cell turnover, repair of radiation damage, cell toxicity, and activity of cellular proteases. (elsevier.com)
  • Some evidence suggests that dissolution of IONP following endocytosis into cells may disrupt iron homeostasis, resulting in genotoxicity and neoplastic-like cellular transformation. (cdc.gov)
  • Several European laboratories which have been engaged in active basic and clinical research in various areas of expertise (male reproduction, epidemiology, occupational medicine, endocrinology, germ cell differentiation, molecular and cellular biology), formed a consortium in order to continue investigations in more co-ordinated and effective manner. (europa.eu)
  • Different functionalizations of MWCNT influence transformation potential in primary human lung epithelial cells. (cdc.gov)
  • Spindle cell carcinoma of the lung. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Our data indicate that Prom1 marks stem cells in the adult small intestine that are susceptible to transformation into tumours retaining a fraction of mutant Prom1(+) tumour cells. (nih.gov)
  • Cell lines were established from the tumours and their identification and characterization carried out. (st-andrews.ac.uk)
  • Here we demonstrated that 3,3',4',5,5',7-hexahydroxyflavone (myricetin), one of the major flavonols in red wine, is a novel inhibitor of MEK1 activity and transformation of JB6 P+ mouse epidermal cells. (lacienciadelvino.com)
  • Delphinidin attenuates neoplastic transformation in JB6 Cl41 mouse epidermal cells by blocking Raf/mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling. (oregonstate.edu)
  • We hypothesize that Stat5 and Stat3 are regulators of the balance between differentiation and transformation of breast epithelial cells: Stat3 activation is modulated by a cadherin/Rac1 pathway, and this may be necessary for differentiation. (queensu.ca)
  • We show here, through pharmacological inhibition experiments, that Stat3 is required for differentiation of HC11 breast epithelial cells, measured by β-casein expression. (queensu.ca)
  • On the other hand, we also show that constitutively active Rac, a molecule downstream of cadherin in the Stat3 activation pathway, blocks the differentiation of breast epithelial cells. (queensu.ca)
  • The tumor was also composed of squamous cell and basaloid carcinoma in the periphery. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Basaloid carcinoma showed a gradual transition to chondrosarcomatous cells producing the matrix, which had both immunopositivities for S-100 protein and cytokeratin. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Therefore, chondrosarcomatous cells may be derived from carcinoma cells. (biomedsearch.com)
  • These images are a random sampling from a Bing search on the term "Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Skin. (fpnotebook.com)
  • The histogenesis of this tumor may be associated with a totipotent stem cell of esophageal mucosa, which has the potential to differentiate into squamous cells, ductal cells or myoepithelial cells. (biomedsearch.com)
  • CD1d1 molecules present glycolipid antigens to a specialized class of T cells called natural killer T (NKT) cells that mainly express a T cell receptor α chain (Vα14Jα281) associated with Vβ chains of limited diversity. (pnas.org)
  • CD1 molecules can present a variety of both exogenous (e.g., mycobacterial lipid antigens) and endogenous lipid and glycolipid antigens to T cells ( 1 - 7 ). (pnas.org)
  • Human bronchial epithelial cells (Beas2B) were continuously exposed to nFe2O3 or nano-SiO2 coated nFe2O3 (SiO2-nFe2O3) for up to 6.5 months at an occupationally relevant low dose (0.6 microg/cm2 or 2.88 microg/mL) and evaluated over time for indications of neoplastic-like transformation and its underlying mechanism. (cdc.gov)
  • To test this hypothesis, human bronchial epithelial cells (Beas-2B) were continuously exposed to a 0.6 ug/cm2 administered a dose of nFe2O3 (approximately 0.58 ug/cm2 delivered dose), SiO2-nFe2O3 (approximately 0.55 ug/cm2 delivered dose), or gas metal arc mild steel welding fumes (GMA-MS, approximately 0.58 ug/cm2 delivered dose) for 6.5 months. (cdc.gov)
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the long-term carcinogenic potential of MTM particulate matter (PM MTM ) exposure on human bronchial epithelial cells. (crmw.net)
  • Investigation of expression time following irradiation demonstrated that post-irradiation passaging, generally regarded as a critical step for expression of radiation-induced DNA damage, was not a prerequisite for the neoplastic conversion of irradiated cells with this system. (st-andrews.ac.uk)
  • This excludes the possibility that the observed transformation was the result of the selection of a pre-existing transformed subpopulation of the parent cells but that radiation-induced transformants were being induced de novo. (st-andrews.ac.uk)
  • Indications are that: for high-LET radiation, where complex DSBs occur with high frequency, little repair occurs, leading to cell death or the mis-rejoining of unrepairable ends with other radiation-induced DSB leads to large DNA deletions and chromosome aberrations. (wikipedia.org)
  • HeLa x skin fibroblast human hybrid cells have been developed into a model of radiation-induced neoplastic transformation. (elsevier.com)
  • The authors' studies indicate that the loss of putative tumour suppressor loci on fibroblast chromosomes 11 and 14 is evident after radiation-induced neoplastic transformation. (elsevier.com)
  • Data from the genomic instability and delayed death literature will be reviewed in terms of relevance to radiation-induced neoplastic transformation. (elsevier.com)
  • Advances in cell biology, including the delineation of biochemical and morphological markers of specific cell types, have also facilitated the identification of cells in vitro (including keratins as markers for epithelial cells and collagen types I and III for identifying fibroblasts). (springer.com)
  • Populations of primary pMEC were then separated by FACS using markers to distinguish epithelial cells (CD140a-) from stromal cells (CD140a+), with or without further enrichment for basal and luminal progenitor cells (CD49f+). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Here we show that immortalized or HRAS -transformed mullerian epithelial cells contain a subpopulation of polyploid giant cells that grow as multicellular spheroids expressing hematopoietic markers in response to treatment with CoCl 2 . (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • This is because the Reed-Sternberg cell (RSC) variants (popcorn cells) that characterize this form of the disease invariably express B lymphocyte markers such as CD20 (thus making NLPHL an unusual form of Hodgkin lymphoma), and that (unlike classic HL) NLPHL may progress to diffuse large B cell lymphoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • RSH cells typically express CD15 and CD30, whereas LP cells lack expression of these markers, but express B cell markers like CD20, CD22, and CD79a and also express the common leukocyte antigen CD45, which is uncommon on RSH cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • When treated with EGF, JB6 Cl41 skin epidermal cells showed an induction of AP-1 transcriptional activation in promotion-sensitive (P + ) phenotypes but not in promotion-resistant (P − ) phenotypes ( 13 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Neoplastic transformation of human thyroid epithelial cells has been investigated following exposure to ionizing radiation in vitro. (st-andrews.ac.uk)
  • 30 Minutes Exposure To 4G Cell Phone Radiation Affects Brain Activity. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Cell phone radiation exposure is associated with a broad range of brain protein changes which may explain the association between cell phone use and adverse health effects. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Hence, the objective of this study was to determine the carcinogenic effects of chronic nicotine exposure in Hk-2 human kidney epithelial cells. (ttu.edu)
  • In 1995 a New Zealand Environment Court (as the Planning Tribunal) decided to set a public exposure limit of 2 m W/cm 2 for from a BellSouth GSM cell site. (oocities.org)
  • Chronic exposure to the main inorganic chemical constituent of PM MTM , molybdenum but not silica, similarly induced cell transformation and tumor promotion, suggesting the contribution of molybdenum, at least in part, in the PM MTM effects. (crmw.net)
  • Methodology/Principal Findings: To develop such model cell lines, we started with telomerase-immortalized, nonneoplastic Barrett's epithelial (BAR-T) cells, which are spontaneously deficient in p16, and proceeded to knock down p53 using RNAi, to activate Ras by introducing oncogenic H-Ras G12V , or both. (elsevier.com)
  • In addition, activator protein-1 activity in H3 WT-overexpressing cells was markedly up-regulated by EGF in contrast to the H3 mutant S10A or S28A cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Here, we took advantage of this reversible transformation system of immortalized rodent fibroblastic cells and found in a restricted proteomic analysis that standard CD44 is one of the main up-regulated protein associated with detergent-resistant membranes (DRM) during the transformation process. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Screening for mutations in p53 protein using immunoprecipitation method detected no mutations in 6 tumour cell lines. (st-andrews.ac.uk)
  • Evidence suggests that mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) plays a role in cell transformation and tumor development and might be a significant target for chemoprevention. (lacienciadelvino.com)
  • Furthermore, PD98059, a specific inhibitor of MEK1/2, and Juglone, a potent Pin1 inhibitor, markedly suppressed the expression of activator protein-2α and the HER-2 promoter activity induced by EGF or 12- O -tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate in MCF-7 cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Delphinidin inhibited 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced neoplastic transformation and COX-2 expression at both the protein and transcriptional levels. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Immunohistochemically, a few spindle cells surrounding the ductal structures showed immunopositivity for alpha-smooth muscle actin and S-100 protein. (biomedsearch.com)
  • PDCD4 (Programmed Cell Death 4) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
  • Cell division protein kinase 7 (EC 2.7.11.22) (EC 2.7.11.23) (CDK- activating kinase) (CAK) (TFIIH basal transcription factor complex kinase subunit) (39 kDa protein kinase) (P39 Mo15) (STK1) (CAK1). (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Transmembrane 7 superfamily member 4 (Dendritic cell-specific transmembrane protein) (DC-STAMP) (IL-4-induced protein) (FIND). (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Experiments were performed with recombinant Sema3A used either as partially purified protein or as Sema3A-enriched culture supernatant of stably expressing 293 cells. (jneurosci.org)
  • Normal and neoplastic hematopoiesis : proceedings of the UCLA Symposium held at Steamboat Springs, Colorado, March 27-April 1, 1983 / editors, David W. Golde, Paul A. Marks. (who.int)
  • The tumour cell lines were screened for mutations in H- and K-ras oncogenes using restriction enzyme analysis of PCR amplified DNA. (st-andrews.ac.uk)
  • Chronic inflammation and chronic inflammatory infiltrate cells. (unige.it)
  • Chemical atherogenesis is an emerging field that describes how environmental pollutants and endogenous toxins perturb critical pathways that regulate lipid metabolism and inflammation, thus injuring cells found within the vessel wall. (mdpi.com)
  • IMR90 and BJ fibroblast cells were transformed by three oncogenic genetic factors, SV40 Large-T antigen, H-Ras and human telomerase (hTERT). (omictools.com)
  • Belgiovine C, Chiodi I and Mondello C: Relocalization of cell adhesion molecules during neoplastic transformation of human fibroblasts. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Alteration of cell cycle kinase complexes in human papillomavirus E6- and E7-expressing fibroblasts precedes neoplastic transformation. (asm.org)
  • Such studies have been facilitated by the recent development of improved methods for culturing normal human epithelial tissues and cells 1 . (springer.com)
  • F. L. Graham, J. Smiley, W. C. Russell and R. Nairn, Characteristics of a human cell line trasformed by DNA from human adenovirus type 5, J. Gen. Virol. (springer.com)
  • This is the first report describing a porcine model of mammary epithelial cell tumorigenesis that can be applied to the study of human breast cancers. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Entrapped, non-neoplastic adenohypophysiocytes in human pituitary adenomas. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The immunoprofile of 76 human pituitary adenomas was studied with particular reference to the occurrence of entrapped, non-neoplastic pituitary cells. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The effects of radiation type, irradiation regime, and postirradiation passaging were examined using a human thyroid epithelial cell line, designated HToriS, which was previously immortalized with SV40 genome. (st-andrews.ac.uk)
  • In fact, only a small fraction of the initial damage is transduction of late chromosomal damage has also been measured in the progeny of human lymphocytes that were exposed with much higher frequency in the progeny of cells that were exposed to heavy ions compared to gamma rays. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here we investigate the 3D chromatin architecture in T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) by using primary human leukemia specimens and examine the dynamic responses of this architecture to pharmacological agents. (nature.com)
  • Human epithelial cell line immortalized with Ad12-SV40 hybrid virus was transfected with plasmid containing HPV-16 gene . (bvsalud.org)
  • The results suggest that SV40 gene in the immortalized human cell system be in concert with HPV-16 in the process of neoplastic transformation of human cells . (bvsalud.org)
  • Thus, it seems that loss of inhibitory action of TGF-Beta which is mediated by changes of fibronectin may account for a possible mechanism of action in the HPV-16 induced transformation of human cells . (bvsalud.org)
  • To our knowledge, this is the first report showing the ROS-mediated epigenetic modifications as the underlying mechanism for carcinogenicity of nicotine in human kidney epithelial cells. (ttu.edu)
  • To identify early steps in fMWCNT-induced cell transformation, this study hypothesized that different functional groups of MWCNT determine their neoplastic transformation potential in primary human small airway epithelial cells (SAECs). (cdc.gov)
  • These alloys were found to cause neoplastic transformations of human osteoblast cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Role of H-Ras/ERK signaling in carbon nanotube -induced neoplastic-like transformation of human mesothelial cells. (cdc.gov)
  • Thus, our results indicate a novel role of H-Ras/ERK signaling and cortactin in the aggressive transformation of human mosethelial cells by SWCNT. (cdc.gov)
  • Transformation was compared to that induced by gas metal arc mild steel welding fumes (GMA-WF), which were recently re-classified as a Group 1 total human carcinogen, and are composed of roughly 80% iron/iron oxide. (cdc.gov)
  • Antigen-specific restriction of a unique T lymphocyte subpopulation, termed natural killer T (NKT) cells, has been demonstrated for both human and mouse CD1d ( 9 , 10 ). (pnas.org)
  • Stromal cells are generally considered to be derived primarily from the host's normal mesenchymal stromal cells or bone marrow. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • To determine the role of polyploidy in tumor development, we examined the fate of normal mullerian epithelial cells during the immortalization and transformation process by tracing the expression of SV40 large T antigen. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • These results suggest that normal mullerian epithelial cells are intrinsically highly plastic, via the formation of polyploid giant cells and activation of embryonic stem-like program, which work together to promote the coevolution of neoplastic epithelial cells and multiple lineage stromal cells. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Fig. 1: In situ Hi-C analysis identifies genome-wide 3D chromatin differences between normal T cells and T-ALL subtypes. (nature.com)
  • We quantified (ELISA pg/mL) the levels of VEGF, Interferon gamma (IFN-γ), Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha (TNF-α), Regulated-upon-Activation Normal-T-cell-Expressed and presumably-Secreted (RANTES), and Nuclear Factor kappa-B (NFκB). (mdpi.com)
  • These results indicate that the phosphorylation of histone H3 at Ser 10 is an essential regulatory mechanism for EGF-induced neoplastic cell transformation. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The shedding of CD44 after metalloprotease-dependent cleavage of the extracellular domain has been proposed as a mechanism to regulate cell detachment from HA ( 4 , 5 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Our group has previously elucidated a novel activation mechanism of Stat3 by cadherin engagement in densely growing cells. (queensu.ca)
  • The nature and form of glycolipids shed by a variety of tumor cell lines and the mechanism(s) of shedding have been well characterized. (pnas.org)
  • Immunofluorescent staining revealed expression of stem cell factors OCT4, Nanog, and SOX-2 in spheroid, whereas expression of embryonic stem cell marker SSEA1 was increased in HRAS -transformed cells compared with their immortalized isogenic counterparts. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)