Cell Transformation, Neoplastic: Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.Cell Transformation, Viral: An inheritable change in cells manifested by changes in cell division and growth and alterations in cell surface properties. It is induced by infection with a transforming virus.Transformation, Genetic: Change brought about to an organisms genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (TRANSFECTION; TRANSDUCTION, GENETIC; CONJUGATION, GENETIC, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell's genome.Transformation, Bacterial: The heritable modification of the properties of a competent bacterium by naked DNA from another source. The uptake of naked DNA is a naturally occuring phenomenon in some bacteria. It is often used as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.Cell Line, Transformed: Eukaryotic cell line obtained in a quiescent or stationary phase which undergoes conversion to a state of unregulated growth in culture, resembling an in vitro tumor. It occurs spontaneously or through interaction with viruses, oncogenes, radiation, or drugs/chemicals.Oncogene Protein p65(gag-jun): Transforming protein coded by jun oncogenes (GENES, JUN). This is a gag-onc fusion protein of about 65 kDa derived from avian sarcoma virus. v-jun lacks a negative regulatory domain that regulates transcription in c-jun.3T3 Cells: Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Genes, ras: Family of retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (ras) originally isolated from Harvey (H-ras, Ha-ras, rasH) and Kirsten (K-ras, Ki-ras, rasK) murine sarcoma viruses. Ras genes are widely conserved among animal species and sequences corresponding to both H-ras and K-ras genes have been detected in human, avian, murine, and non-vertebrate genomes. The closely related N-ras gene has been detected in human neuroblastoma and sarcoma cell lines. All genes of the family have a similar exon-intron structure and each encodes a p21 protein.Oncogene Protein pp60(v-src): A tyrosine-specific protein kinase encoded by the v-src oncogene of ROUS SARCOMA VIRUS. The transforming activity of pp60(v-src) depends on both the lack of a critical carboxy-terminal tyrosine phosphorylation site at position 527, and the attachment of pp60(v-src) to the plasma membrane which is accomplished by myristylation of its N-terminal glycine.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Oncogenes: Genes whose gain-of-function alterations lead to NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION. They include, for example, genes for activators or stimulators of CELL PROLIFERATION such as growth factors, growth factor receptors, protein kinases, signal transducers, nuclear phosphoproteins, and transcription factors. A prefix of "v-" before oncogene symbols indicates oncogenes captured and transmitted by RETROVIRUSES; the prefix "c-" before the gene symbol of an oncogene indicates it is the cellular homolog (PROTO-ONCOGENES) of a v-oncogene.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Oncogene Proteins, Viral: Products of viral oncogenes, most commonly retroviral oncogenes. They usually have transforming and often protein kinase activities.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.NIH 3T3 Cells: A continuous cell line of high contact-inhibition established from NIH Swiss mouse embryo cultures. The cells are useful for DNA transfection and transformation studies. (From ATCC [Internet]. Virginia: American Type Culture Collection; c2002 [cited 2002 Sept 26]. Available from http://www.atcc.org/)Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Antigens, Polyomavirus Transforming: Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Transcription Factor AP-1: A multiprotein complex composed of the products of c-jun and c-fos proto-oncogenes. These proteins must dimerize in order to bind to the AP-1 recognition site, also known as the TPA-responsive element (TRE). AP-1 controls both basal and inducible transcription of several genes.Carcinogens: Substances that increase the risk of NEOPLASMS in humans or animals. Both genotoxic chemicals, which affect DNA directly, and nongenotoxic chemicals, which induce neoplasms by other mechanism, are included.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Avian Sarcoma Viruses: Group of alpharetroviruses (ALPHARETROVIRUS) producing sarcomata and other tumors in chickens and other fowl and also in pigeons, ducks, and RATS.Oncogene Protein p21(ras): Transforming protein encoded by ras oncogenes. Point mutations in the cellular ras gene (c-ras) can also result in a mutant p21 protein that can transform mammalian cells. Oncogene protein p21(ras) has been directly implicated in human neoplasms, perhaps accounting for as much as 15-20% of all human tumors. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.ras Proteins: Small, monomeric GTP-binding proteins encoded by ras genes (GENES, RAS). The protooncogene-derived protein, PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN P21(RAS), plays a role in normal cellular growth, differentiation and development. The oncogene-derived protein (ONCOGENE PROTEIN P21(RAS)) can play a role in aberrant cellular regulation during neoplastic cell transformation (CELL TRANSFORMATION, NEOPLASTIC). This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.Chick Embryo: The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.BALB 3T3 Cells: Cell lines developed from disaggregated BALB/c mouse embryos. They are extremely sensitive to CONTACT INHIBITION, and highly susceptible to transformation by SV40 VIRUS and murine sarcoma virus (SARCOMA VIRUSES, MURINE).Genes, src: Retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (src) originally isolated from the Rous sarcoma virus (RSV). The proto-oncogene src (c-src) codes for a protein that is a member of the tyrosine kinase family and was the first proto-oncogene identified in the human genome. The human c-src gene is located at 20q12-13 on the long arm of chromosome 20.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Oncogene Protein p55(v-myc): Transforming protein coded by myc oncogenes. The v-myc protein has been found in several replication-defective avian retrovirus isolates which induce a broad spectrum of malignancies.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-myc: Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-myc genes. They are normally involved in nucleic acid metabolism and in mediating the cellular response to growth factors. Elevated and deregulated (constitutive) expression of c-myc proteins can cause tumorigenesis.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Mesocricetus: A genus of the family Muridae having three species. The present domesticated strains were developed from individuals brought from Syria. They are widely used in biomedical research.Bovine papillomavirus 4: A type of XIPAPILLOMAVIRUS causing alimentary carcinoma in cattle. It is related to Bovine papillomavirus 3.Antigens, Viral, Tumor: Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.Proto-Oncogene Proteins: Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Mice, Nude: Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.7,8-Dihydro-7,8-dihydroxybenzo(a)pyrene 9,10-oxide: 7,8,8a,9a-Tetrahydrobenzo(10,11)chryseno (3,4-b)oxirene-7,8-diol. A benzopyrene derivative with carcinogenic and mutagenic activity.Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus: A BETARETROVIRUS that causes pulmonary adenomatosis in sheep (PULMONARY ADENOMATOSIS, OVINE).Epidermal Growth Factor: A 6-kDa polypeptide growth factor initially discovered in mouse submaxillary glands. Human epidermal growth factor was originally isolated from urine based on its ability to inhibit gastric secretion and called urogastrone. Epidermal growth factor exerts a wide variety of biological effects including the promotion of proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal and EPITHELIAL CELLS. It is synthesized as a transmembrane protein which can be cleaved to release a soluble active form.Polyomavirus: A genus of potentially oncogenic viruses of the family POLYOMAVIRIDAE. These viruses are normally present in their natural hosts as latent infections. The virus is oncogenic in hosts different from the species of origin.Oncogene Proteins v-raf: A family of transforming proteins isolated from retroviruses such as MOUSE SARCOMA VIRUSES. They are viral-derived members of the raf-kinase family of serine-theonine kinases.Oncogene Protein v-maf: An oncogene protein that was originally isolated from a spontaneous musculo-aponeurotic FIBROSARCOMA in CHICKEN and shown to be the transforming gene of the avian retrovirus AS42. It is a basic leucine zipper TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR and the founding member of the MAF TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Retroviridae Proteins, Oncogenic: Retroviral proteins that have the ability to transform cells. They can induce sarcomas, leukemias, lymphomas, and mammary carcinomas. Not all retroviral proteins are oncogenic.Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinases, 90-kDa: A family of ribosomal protein S6 kinases that are structurally distinguished from RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 KINASES, 70-KDA by their apparent molecular size and the fact they contain two functional kinase domains. Although considered RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 KINASES, members of this family are activated via the MAP KINASE SIGNALING SYSTEM and have been shown to act on a diverse array of substrates that are involved in cellular regulation such as RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 and CAMP RESPONSE ELEMENT-BINDING PROTEIN.Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 3: A cyclin-dependent kinase that forms a complex with CYCLIN C and is active during the G1 PHASE of the CELL CYCLE. It plays a role in the transition from G1 to S PHASE and in transcriptional regulation.Tumor Suppressor Protein p53: Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.Simian virus 40: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Contact Inhibition: Arrest of cell locomotion or cell division when two cells come into contact.Genes, myc: Family of retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (myc) originally isolated from an avian myelocytomatosis virus. The proto-oncogene myc (c-myc) codes for a nuclear protein which is involved in nucleic acid metabolism and in mediating the cellular response to growth factors. Truncation of the first exon, which appears to regulate c-myc expression, is crucial for tumorigenicity. The human c-myc gene is located at 8q24 on the long arm of chromosome 8.Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Tetradecanoylphorbol Acetate: A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL with very effective tumor promoting activity. It stimulates the synthesis of both DNA and RNA.Adenovirus E1A Proteins: Proteins transcribed from the E1A genome region of ADENOVIRUSES which are involved in positive regulation of transcription of the early genes of host infection.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-jun: Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-jun genes (GENES, JUN). They are involved in growth-related transcriptional control. There appear to be three distinct functions: dimerization (with c-fos), DNA-binding, and transcriptional activation. Oncogenic transformation can take place by constitutive expression of c-jun.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Transcriptional Activation: Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.Bovine papillomavirus 1: A species of DELTAPAPILLOMAVIRUS infecting cattle.Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Proto-Oncogene Proteins p21(ras): Cellular proteins encoded by the H-ras, K-ras and N-ras genes. The proteins have GTPase activity and are involved in signal transduction as monomeric GTP-binding proteins. Elevated levels of p21 c-ras have been associated with neoplasia. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.Embryo, Mammalian: The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Cation Exchange Resins: High molecular weight insoluble polymers which contain functional anionic groups that are capable of undergoing exchange reactions with cations.PhosphoproteinsCricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Proto-Oncogenes: Normal cellular genes homologous to viral oncogenes. The products of proto-oncogenes are important regulators of biological processes and appear to be involved in the events that serve to maintain the ordered procession through the cell cycle. Proto-oncogenes have names of the form c-onc.Retroviridae: Family of RNA viruses that infects birds and mammals and encodes the enzyme reverse transcriptase. The family contains seven genera: DELTARETROVIRUS; LENTIVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE B, MAMMALIAN; ALPHARETROVIRUS; GAMMARETROVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE D; and SPUMAVIRUS. A key feature of retrovirus biology is the synthesis of a DNA copy of the genome which is integrated into cellular DNA. After integration it is sometimes not expressed but maintained in a latent state (PROVIRUSES).Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Methylnitronitrosoguanidine: A nitrosoguanidine derivative with potent mutagenic and carcinogenic properties.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases: Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Retroviridae Proteins: Proteins from the family Retroviridae. The most frequently encountered member of this family is the Rous sarcoma virus protein.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.DNA Transformation Competence: The ability of bacterial cells to take up exogenous DNA and be genetically transformed by it.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Mammary Glands, Human: Glandular tissue in the BREAST of human that is under the influence of hormones such as ESTROGENS; PROGESTINS; and PROLACTIN. In WOMEN, after PARTURITION, the mammary glands secrete milk (MILK, HUMAN) for the nourishment of the young.Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced new abnormal growth of TISSUES in animals to provide models for studying human neoplasms.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A superfamily of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that are activated by diverse stimuli via protein kinase cascades. They are the final components of the cascades, activated by phosphorylation by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES, which in turn are activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES).Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Sarcoma Viruses, Murine: A group of replication-defective viruses, in the genus GAMMARETROVIRUS, which are capable of transforming cells, but which replicate and produce tumors only in the presence of Murine leukemia viruses (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE).Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Carcinogenicity Tests: Tests to experimentally measure the tumor-producing/cancer cell-producing potency of an agent by administering the agent (e.g., benzanthracenes) and observing the quantity of tumors or the cell transformation developed over a given period of time. The carcinogenicity value is usually measured as milligrams of agent administered per tumor developed. Though this test differs from the DNA-repair and bacterial microsome MUTAGENICITY TESTS, researchers often attempt to correlate the finding of carcinogenicity values and mutagenicity values.Genes, Viral: The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.Papillomavirus E7 Proteins: ONCOGENE PROTEINS from papillomavirus that deregulate the CELL CYCLE of infected cells and lead to NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION. Papillomavirus E7 proteins have been shown to interact with various regulators of the cell cycle including RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN and certain cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors.Adenovirus E1B Proteins: Proteins transcribed from the E1B region of ADENOVIRUSES which are involved in regulation of the levels of early and late viral gene expression.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.HMGA1a Protein: An 11-kDa AT-hook motif-containing (AT-HOOK MOTIFS) protein that binds to the minor grove of AT-rich regions of DNA. It is the full-length product of the alternatively-spliced HMGA1 gene and may function as an architectural chromatin binding protein that is involved in transcriptional regulation.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fos: Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-fos genes (GENES, FOS). They are involved in growth-related transcriptional control. c-fos combines with c-jun (PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-JUN) to form a c-fos/c-jun heterodimer (TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1) that binds to the TRE (TPA-responsive element) in promoters of certain genes.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Arsenites: Inorganic salts or organic esters of arsenious acid.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Adenoviruses, Human: Species of the genus MASTADENOVIRUS, causing a wide range of diseases in humans. Infections are mostly asymptomatic, but can be associated with diseases of the respiratory, ocular, and gastrointestinal systems. Serotypes (named with Arabic numbers) have been grouped into species designated Human adenovirus A-F.Oncogene Proteins: Proteins coded by oncogenes. They include proteins resulting from the fusion of an oncogene and another gene (ONCOGENE PROTEINS, FUSION).Clone Cells: A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Abelson murine leukemia virus: A replication-defective strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) capable of transforming lymphoid cells and producing a rapidly progressing lymphoid leukemia after superinfection with FRIEND MURINE LEUKEMIA VIRUS; MOLONEY MURINE LEUKEMIA VIRUS; or RAUSCHER VIRUS.Oncogene Proteins v-fos: Transforming proteins coded by fos oncogenes. These proteins have been found in the Finkel-Biskis-Jinkins (FBJ-MSV) and Finkel-Biskis-Reilly (FBR-MSV) murine sarcoma viruses which induce osteogenic sarcomas in mice. The FBJ-MSV v-fos gene encodes a p55-kDa protein and the FBR-MSV v-fos gene encodes a p75-kDa fusion protein.Cyclin D1: Protein encoded by the bcl-1 gene which plays a critical role in regulating the cell cycle. Overexpression of cyclin D1 is the result of bcl-1 rearrangement, a t(11;14) translocation, and is implicated in various neoplasms.Mutagens: Chemical agents that increase the rate of genetic mutation by interfering with the function of nucleic acids. A clastogen is a specific mutagen that causes breaks in chromosomes.Oncogene Protein v-crk: A signal transducing adaptor protein that is encoded by the crk ONCOGENE from TYPE C AVIAN RETROVIRUSES. It contains SRC HOMOLOGY DOMAINS and is closely related to its cellular homolog, PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN C-CRK.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Biflavonoids: Dimers (homo and hetero) of FLAVONOIDS.Benzo(a)pyrene: A potent mutagen and carcinogen. It is a public health concern because of its possible effects on industrial workers, as an environmental pollutant, an as a component of tobacco smoke.Oncogene Proteins v-rel: Transforming proteins coded by rel oncogenes. The v-rel protein competes with rel-related proteins and probably transforms cells by acting as a dominant negative version of c-rel. This results in the induction of a broad range of leukemias and lymphomas.Herpesvirus 4, Human: The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.Aurora Kinase A: An aurora kinase that localizes to the CENTROSOME during MITOSIS and is involved in centrosome regulation and formation of the MITOTIC SPINDLE. Aurora A overexpression in many malignant tumor types suggests that it may be directly involved in NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Neoplasm Proteins: Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.MAP Kinase Signaling System: An intracellular signaling system involving the MAP kinase cascades (three-membered protein kinase cascades). Various upstream activators, which act in response to extracellular stimuli, trigger the cascades by activating the first member of a cascade, MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKKs). Activated MAPKKKs phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES which in turn phosphorylate the MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs). The MAPKs then act on various downstream targets to affect gene expression. In mammals, there are several distinct MAP kinase pathways including the ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) pathway, the SAPK/JNK (stress-activated protein kinase/c-jun kinase) pathway, and the p38 kinase pathway. There is some sharing of components among the pathways depending on which stimulus originates activation of the cascade.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-raf: A ubiquitously expressed raf kinase subclass that plays an important role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. The c-raf Kinases are MAP kinase kinase kinases that have specificity for MAP KINASE KINASE 1 and MAP KINASE KINASE 2.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Agrobacterium: A genus of gram negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria found in soil, plants, and marine mud.Skin Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the SKIN.Genes, jun: Retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (jun) originally isolated from the avian sarcoma virus 17 (ASV 17). The proto-oncogene jun (c-jun) codes for a nuclear protein which is involved in growth-related transcriptional control. Insertion of c-jun into ASV-17 or the constitutive expression of the c-jun protein produces tumorgenicity. The human c-jun gene is located at 1p31-32 on the short arm of chromosome 1.Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Neoplasm Transplantation: Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Tumor Stem Cell Assay: A cytologic technique for measuring the functional capacity of tumor stem cells by assaying their activity. It is used primarily for the in vitro testing of antineoplastic agents.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Rubiaceae: The Madder plant family of the order Rubiales, subclass Asteridae, class Magnoliopsida includes important medicinal plants that provide QUININE; IPECAC; and COFFEE. They have opposite leaves and interpetiolar stipules.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Phosphotyrosine: An amino acid that occurs in endogenous proteins. Tyrosine phosphorylation and dephosphorylation plays a role in cellular signal transduction and possibly in cell growth control and carcinogenesis.JNK Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A subgroup of mitogen-activated protein kinases that activate TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1 via the phosphorylation of C-JUN PROTEINS. They are components of intracellular signaling pathways that regulate CELL PROLIFERATION; APOPTOSIS; and CELL DIFFERENTIATION.Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing: A broad category of carrier proteins that play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They generally contain several modular domains, each of which having its own binding activity, and act by forming complexes with other intracellular-signaling molecules. Signal-transducing adaptor proteins lack enzyme activity, however their activity can be modulated by other signal-transducing enzymesTyrosine: A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.Epidermis: The external, nonvascular layer of the skin. It is made up, from within outward, of five layers of EPITHELIUM: (1) basal layer (stratum basale epidermidis); (2) spinous layer (stratum spinosum epidermidis); (3) granular layer (stratum granulosum epidermidis); (4) clear layer (stratum lucidum epidermidis); and (5) horny layer (stratum corneum epidermidis).Anticarcinogenic Agents: Agents that reduce the frequency or rate of spontaneous or induced tumors independently of the mechanism involved.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinases: A serine-threonine protein kinase family whose members are components in protein kinase cascades activated by diverse stimuli. These MAPK kinases phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES and are themselves phosphorylated by MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES. JNK kinases (also known as SAPK kinases) are a subfamily.Oncogene Proteins, Fusion: The GENETIC TRANSLATION products of the fusion between an ONCOGENE and another gene. The latter may be of viral or cellular origin.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt: A protein-serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION in response to GROWTH FACTORS or INSULIN. It plays a major role in cell metabolism, growth, and survival as a core component of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Three isoforms have been described in mammalian cells.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Cell Cycle Proteins: Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Alpharetrovirus: A genus of the family RETROVIRIDAE with type C morphology, that causes malignant and other diseases in wild birds and domestic fowl.Mice, Inbred BALB CImmunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Retinoblastoma Protein: Product of the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor gene. It is a nuclear phosphoprotein hypothesized to normally act as an inhibitor of cell proliferation. Rb protein is absent in retinoblastoma cell lines. It also has been shown to form complexes with the adenovirus E1A protein, the SV40 T antigen, and the human papilloma virus E7 protein.Repressor Proteins: Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.Agrobacterium tumefaciens: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria isolated from soil and the stems, leafs, and roots of plants. Some biotypes are pathogenic and cause the formation of PLANT TUMORS in a wide variety of higher plants. The species is a major research tool in biotechnology.Herpesvirus 2, Saimiriine: The type species of RHADINOVIRUS, in the subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, isolated from squirrel monkeys. It produces malignant lymphomas (LYMPHOMA, MALIGNANT) in inoculated marmosets or owl monkeys.Epithelium: One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.Myristates: Salts and esters of the 14-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acid--myristic acid.Proto-Oncogene Proteins pp60(c-src): Membrane-associated tyrosine-specific kinases encoded by the c-src genes. They have an important role in cellular growth control. Truncation of carboxy-terminal residues in pp60(c-src) leads to PP60(V-SRC) which has the ability to transform cells. This kinase pp60 c-src should not be confused with csk, also known as c-src kinase.Cell Size: The quantity of volume or surface area of CELLS.Skin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.Cell Aging: The decrease in the cell's ability to proliferate with the passing of time. Each cell is programmed for a certain number of cell divisions and at the end of that time proliferation halts. The cell enters a quiescent state after which it experiences CELL DEATH via the process of APOPTOSIS.Adenovirus Early Proteins: Proteins encoded by adenoviruses that are synthesized prior to, and in the absence of, viral DNA replication. The proteins are involved in both positive and negative regulation of expression in viral and cellular genes, and also affect the stability of viral mRNA. Some are also involved in oncogenic transformation.beta-Aminoethyl Isothiourea: A radiation-protective agent that can inhibit DNA damage by binding to the DNA. It also increases the susceptibility of blood cells to complement-mediated lysis.Cell Growth Processes: Processes required for CELL ENLARGEMENT and CELL PROLIFERATION.Actins: Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.Methylcholanthrene: A carcinogen that is often used in experimental cancer studies.COS Cells: CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.cdc42 GTP-Binding Protein: A member of the Rho family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. It is associated with a diverse array of cellular functions including cytoskeletal changes, filopodia formation and transport through the GOLGI APPARATUS. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Protein Kinases: A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.Serine: A non-essential amino acid occurring in natural form as the L-isomer. It is synthesized from GLYCINE or THREONINE. It is involved in the biosynthesis of PURINES; PYRIMIDINES; and other amino acids.Kaempferols: A group of FLAVONOLS based on kaempferol. They are derived from naringenin and can be hydroxylated to QUERCETIN or reduced to leucopelargonidin.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.src-Family Kinases: A PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE family that was originally identified by homology to the Rous sarcoma virus ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(V-SRC). They interact with a variety of cell-surface receptors and participate in intracellular signal transduction pathways. Oncogenic forms of src-family kinases can occur through altered regulation or expression of the endogenous protein and by virally encoded src (v-src) genes.Tumor Suppressor Proteins: Proteins that are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. Deficiencies or abnormalities in these proteins may lead to unregulated cell growth and tumor development.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.STAT3 Transcription Factor: A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to INTERLEUKIN-6 family members. STAT3 is constitutively activated in a variety of TUMORS and is a major downstream transducer for the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR GP130.X-Rays: Penetrating electromagnetic radiation emitted when the inner orbital electrons of an atom are excited and release radiant energy. X-ray wavelengths range from 1 pm to 10 nm. Hard X-rays are the higher energy, shorter wavelength X-rays. Soft x-rays or Grenz rays are less energetic and longer in wavelength. The short wavelength end of the X-ray spectrum overlaps the GAMMA RAYS wavelength range. The distinction between gamma rays and X-rays is based on their radiation source.Genes, p53: Tumor suppressor genes located on the short arm of human chromosome 17 and coding for the phosphoprotein p53.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Blotting, Southern: A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 8: A c-jun amino-terminal kinase that is activated by environmental stress and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Several isoforms of the protein with molecular sizes of 43 and 48 KD exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Precipitin Tests: Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.Karyotyping: Mapping of the KARYOTYPE of a cell.Viral Matrix Proteins: Proteins associated with the inner surface of the lipid bilayer of the viral envelope. These proteins have been implicated in control of viral transcription and may possibly serve as the "glue" that binds the nucleocapsid to the appropriate membrane site during viral budding from the host cell.

Stimulation of thymidine uptake and cell proliferation in mouse embryo fibroblasts by conditioned medium from mammary cells in culture. (1/15156)

Undialyzed conditioned medium from several cell culture sources did not stimulate thymidine incorporation or cell overgrowth in quiescent, density-inhibited mouse embryo fibroblast cells. However, dialyzed conditioned medium (DCM) from clonal mouse mammary cell lines MCG-V14, MCG-T14, MCG-T10; HeLa cells; primary mouse adenocarcinoma cells; and BALB/c normal mouse mammary epithelial cells promoted growth in quiescent fibroblasts. The amount of growth-promoting activity produced per cell varied from 24% (HeLa) to 213% (MCG-V14) of the activity produced by primary tumor cells. The production of growth-promoting activity was not unique to tumor-derived cells or cells of high tumorigenicity. The amount of growth-promoting activity produced per cell in the active cultures was not correlated with any of the following: tumorigenicity, growth rat, cell density achieved at saturation, cell type, or species of cell origin. It is concluded that transformed and non-transformed cells of diverse origin, cell type, and tumorigenicity can produce growth factors in culture. The growth-promoting potential of the active media from primary tumor cultures accumulated with time of contact with cells and was too great to be accounted for entirely by the removal of low-molecular-weight inhibitors by dialysis. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that conditioned medium from the active cultures contained a dialyzable, growth-promoting activity. Different cell lines exhibited differential sensitivity to tumor cell DCM and fetal bovine serum. Furthermore, quiescent fibroblasts were stimulated by primary tumor cell DCM in the presence of saturating concentrations of fetal bovine serum. These observations support the notion that the active growth-promoting principle in primary tumor cell DCM may not be a serum factor(s).  (+info)

Transformation mediated by RhoA requires activity of ROCK kinases. (2/15156)

BACKGROUND: The Ras-related GTPase RhoA controls signalling processes required for cytoskeletal reorganisation, transcriptional regulation, and transformation. The ability of RhoA mutants to transform cells correlates not with transcription but with their ability to bind ROCK-I, an effector kinase involved in cytoskeletal reorganisation. We used a recently developed specific ROCK inhibitor, Y-27632, and ROCK truncation mutants to investigate the role of ROCK kinases in transcriptional activation and transformation. RESULTS: In NIH3T3 cells, Y-27632 did not prevent the activation of serum response factor, transcription of c-fos or cell cycle re-entry following serum stimulation. Repeated treatment of NIH3T3 cells with Y-27632, however, substantially disrupted their actin fibre network but did not affect their growth rate. Y-27632 blocked focus formation by RhoA and its guanine-nucleotide exchange factors Dbl and mNET1. It did not affect the growth rate of cells transformed by Dbl and mNET1, but restored normal growth control at confluence and prevented their growth in soft agar. Y-27632 also significantly inhibited focus formation by Ras, but had no effect on the establishment or maintenance of transformation by Src. Furthermore, it significantly inhibited anchorage-independent growth of two out of four colorectal tumour cell lines. Consistent with these data, a truncated ROCK derivative exhibited weak ability to cooperate with activated Raf in focus formation assays. CONCLUSIONS: ROCK signalling is required for both the establishment and maintenance of transformation by constitutive activation of RhoA, and contributes to the Ras-transformed phenotype. These observations provide a potential explanation for the requirement for Rho in Ras-mediated transformation. Moreover, the inhibition of ROCK kinases may be of therapeutic use.  (+info)

Concomitant activation of pathways downstream of Grb2 and PI 3-kinase is required for MET-mediated metastasis. (3/15156)

The Met tyrosine kinase - the HGF receptor - induces cell transformation and metastasis when constitutively activated. Met signaling is mediated by phosphorylation of two carboxy-terminal tyrosines which act as docking sites for a number of SH2-containing molecules. These include Grb2 and p85 which couple the receptor, respectively, with Ras and PI 3-kinase. We previously showed that a Met mutant designed to obtain preferential coupling with Grb2 (Met2xGrb2) is permissive for motility, increases transformation, but - surprisingly - is impaired in causing invasion and metastasis. In this work we used Met mutants optimized for binding either p85 alone (Met2xPI3K) or p85 and Grb2 (MetPI3K/Grb2) to evaluate the relative importance of Ras and PI 3-kinase as downstream effectors of Met. Met2xPI3K was competent in eliciting motility, but not transformation, invasion, or metastasis. Conversely, MetP13K/Grb2 induced motility, transformation, invasion and metastasis as efficiently as wild type Met. Furthermore, the expression of constitutively active PI 3-kinase in cells transformed by the Met2xGrb2 mutant, fully rescued their ability to invade and metastasize. These data point to a central role for PI 3-kinase in Met-mediated invasiveness, and indicate that simultaneous activation of Ras and PI 3-kinase is required to unleash the Met metastatic potential.  (+info)

Telomerase reverse transcriptase gene is a direct target of c-Myc but is not functionally equivalent in cellular transformation. (4/15156)

The telomerase reverse transcriptase component (TERT) is not expressed in most primary somatic human cells and tissues, but is upregulated in the majority of immortalized cell lines and tumors. Here, we identify the c-Myc transcription factor as a direct mediator of telomerase activation in primary human fibroblasts through its ability to specifically induce TERT gene expression. Through the use of a hormone inducible form of c-Myc (c-Myc-ER), we demonstrate that Myc-induced activation of the hTERT promoter requires an evolutionarily conserved E-box and that c-Myc-ER-induced accumulation of hTERT mRNA takes place in the absence of de novo protein synthesis. These findings demonstrate that the TERT gene is a direct transcriptional target of c-Myc. Since telomerase activation frequently correlates with immortalization and telomerase functions to stabilize telomers in cycling cells, we tested whether Myc-induced activation of TERT gene expression represents an important mechanism through which c-Myc acts to immortalize cells. Employing the rat embryo fibroblast cooperation assay, we show that TERT is unable to substitute for c-Myc in the transformation of primary rodent fibroblasts, suggesting that the transforming activities of Myc extend beyond its ability to activate TERT gene expression and hence telomerase activity.  (+info)

PKCdelta acts as a growth and tumor suppressor in rat colonic epithelial cells. (5/15156)

We have analysed the expression of three calcium-independent isoforms of protein kinase C (PKC), PKCdelta, PKCepsilon and PKCzeta, in an in vitro model of colon carcinogenesis consisting of the nontumorigenic rat colonic epithelial cell line D/WT, and a derivative src-transformed line D/src. While PKCzeta and PKCepsilon showed similar protein levels, PKCdelta was markedly decreased in D/src cells when compared to the D/WT line. To assess whether down-regulation of PKCdelta was causally involved in the neoplastic phenotype in D/src cells, we prepared a kinase-defective mutant of PKCdelta. Stable transfection of this sequence caused morphological and growth changes characteristic of partial transformation in D/WT cells. Moreover, to test whether PKCdelta was involved in growth control and transformation in this model, we overexpressed PKCdelta in D/src cells. Transfected cells underwent marked growth and morphological modifications toward the D/WT phenotype. In a late stage in culture, transfected cells ceased to proliferate, rounded up and degenerated into multinucleated, giant-like cells. We conclude that PKCdelta can reverse the transformed phenotype and act as a suppressor of cell growth in D/src cells. Moreover, our data show that downregulation of this isoenzyme of PKC may cooperate in the neoplastic transformation induced by the src oncogene in D/WT cells.  (+info)

Phenotypic analysis of human glioma cells expressing the MMAC1 tumor suppressor phosphatase. (6/15156)

MMAC1, also known as PTEN or TEP-1, was recently identified as a gene commonly mutated in a variety of human neoplasias. Sequence analysis revealed that MMAC1 harbored sequences similar to those found in several protein phosphatases. Subsequent studies demonstrated that MMAC1 possessed in vitro enzymatic activity similar to that exhibited by dual specificity phosphatases. To characterize the potential cellular functions of MMAC1, we expressed wild-type and several mutant variants of MMAC1 in the human glioma cell line, U373, that lacks endogenous expression. While expression of wild-type MMAC1 in these cells significantly reduced their growth rate and saturation density, expression of enzymatically inactive MMAC1 significantly enhanced growth in soft agar. Our observations indicate that while wild-type MMAC1 exhibits activities compatible with its proposed role as a tumor suppressor, cellular expression of MMAC1 containing mutations in the catalytic domain may yield protein products that enhance transformation characteristics.  (+info)

Activation of telomerase and its association with G1-phase of the cell cycle during UVB-induced skin tumorigenesis in SKH-1 hairless mouse. (7/15156)

Telomerase is a ribonucleoprotein enzyme that adds hexanucleotide repeats TTAGGG to the ends of chromosomes. Telomerase activation is known to play a crucial role in cell-immortalization and carcinogenesis. Telomerase is shown to have a correlation with cell cycle progression, which is controlled by the regulation of cyclins, cyclin dependent kinases (cdks) and cyclin dependent kinase inhibitors (cdkis). Abnormal expression of these regulatory molecules may cause alterations in cell cycle with uncontrolled cell growth, a universal feature of neoplasia. Skin cancer is the most prevalent form of cancer in humans and the solar UV radiation is its major cause. Here, we investigated modulation in telomerase activity and protein expression of cell cycle regulatory molecules during the development of UVB-induced tumors in SKH-1 hairless mice. The mice were exposed to 180 mjoules/cm2 UVB radiation, thrice weekly for 24 weeks. The animals were sacrificed at 4 week intervals and the studies were performed in epidermis. Telomerase activity was barely detectable in the epidermis of non-irradiated mouse. UVB exposure resulted in a progressive increase in telomerase activity starting from the 4th week of exposure. The increased telomerase activity either persisted or further increased with the increased exposure. In papillomas and carcinomas the enzyme activity was comparable and was 45-fold higher than in the epidermis of control mice. Western blot analysis showed an upregulation in the protein expression of cyclin D1 and cyclin E and their regulatory subunits cdk4 and cdk2 during the course of UVB exposure and in papillomas and carcinomas. The protein expression of cdk6 and ckis viz. p16/Ink4A, p21/Waf1 and p27/Kip1 did not show any significant change in UVB exposed skin, but significant upregulation was observed both in papillomas and carcinomas. The results suggest that telomerase activation may be involved in UVB-induced tumorigenesis in mouse skin and that increased telomerase activity may be associated with G1 phase of the cell cycle.  (+info)

Gene expression profiles in HTLV-I-immortalized T cells: deregulated expression of genes involved in apoptosis regulation. (8/15156)

Human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I) is the etiologic agent of adult T-cell leukemia, an acute and often fatal T-cell malignancy. A key step in HTLV-I-induced leukemigenesis is induction of abnormal T-cell growth and survival. Unlike antigen-stimulated T cells, which cease proliferation after a finite number of cell division, HTLV-I-infected T cells proliferate indefinitely (immortalized), thus facilitating occurrence of secondary genetic changes leading to malignant transformation. To explore the molecular basis of HTLV-I-induced abnormal T-cell survival, we compared the gene expression profiles of normal and HTLV-I-immortalized T cells using 'gene array'. These studies revealed a strikingly altered expression pattern of a large number of genes along with HTLV-I-mediated T-cell immortalization. Interestingly, many of these deregulated genes are involved in the control of programmed cell death or apoptosis. These findings indicate that disruption of the cellular apoptosis-regulatory network may play a role in the HTLV-I-mediated oncogenesis.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Multistep carcinogenesis and genital papillomavirus infection. Implications for diagnosis and vaccines. AU - Rangel, L. M.. AU - Ramirez, M.. AU - Torroella, M.. AU - Pedroza, A.. AU - Ibarra, V.. AU - Gariglio, P.. PY - 1994/1/1. Y1 - 1994/1/1. N2 - Activated cellular oncogenes (myc and ras, for example) and inactivated anti-oncogenes (p53 or Rb) participate in multistep carcinogenesis. In addition, some high risk human papillomaviruses (HPV) are also involved in uterine cervix carcinomas. Typification of HPV is important for clinical diagnosis. Unravelling the complexities of the immune system and understanding the biochemistry and molecular genetics of cellular oncogenes and tumor viruses have opened up new possibilities for vaccination.. AB - Activated cellular oncogenes (myc and ras, for example) and inactivated anti-oncogenes (p53 or Rb) participate in multistep carcinogenesis. In addition, some high risk human papillomaviruses (HPV) are also involved in uterine cervix ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Tight coordination of protein translation and HSF1 activation supports the anabolic malignant state. AU - Santagata, Sandro. AU - Mendillo, Marc L.. AU - Tang, Yun Chi. AU - Subramanian, Aravind. AU - Perley, Casey C.. AU - Roche, Stéphane P.. AU - Wong, Bang. AU - Narayan, Rajiv. AU - Kwon, Hyoungtae. AU - Koeva, Martina. AU - Amon, Angelika. AU - Golub, Todd R.. AU - Porco, John A.. AU - Whitesell, Luke. AU - Lindquist, Susan. PY - 2013. Y1 - 2013. N2 - The ribosome is centrally situated to sense metabolic states, but whether its activity, in turn, coherently rewires transcriptional responses is unknown. Here, through integrated chemical-genetic analyses, we found that a dominant transcriptional effect of blocking protein translation in cancer cells was inactivation of heat shock factor 1 (HSF1), a multifaceted transcriptional regulator of the heat-shock response and many other cellular processes essential for anabolic metabolism, cellular proliferation, and tumorigenesis. ...
The potential role of arachidonic acid metabolism in the enhancement (promotion) of malignant transformation of C3H/M2 mouse fibroblasts by the tumor promoter 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) was investigated using inhibitors of cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase activities. The promoting effects of TCDD (1.5 pM) and of the reference tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA; 0.4 mM) on carcinogen (N-methyl-N′-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine or 3-methylcholanthrene)-pre-treated fibroblasts was abolished by cotreatment with indomethacin, hydrocortisone, caffeic acid or nordihydroguaiaretic acid. A differential inhibition was found with N-(2-cyclohexyloxy-4-nitrophenyl)methanesulfonamide, a selective inhibitor of the cyclooxygenase isoenzyme COX-2: the promoting effect of TPA, but not that of TCDD, was abolished. Therefore, the role of the cyclooxygenase isoenzymes COX-1 and COX-2 during chronic exposure to TCDD was studied in more detail. Long-term treatment with TCDD (4-7 weeks) ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The effect of malignant transformation on the sensitivity of murine fibroblasts to the antiviral effect of interferon. AU - Morris, A. G.. AU - Barrett, Alan. AU - Bird, R. M.. AU - Burke, D. C.. PY - 1979. Y1 - 1979. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0018286199&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0018286199&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Article. AN - SCOPUS:0018286199. VL - 6. SP - 139. EP - 141. JO - FEMS Microbiology Letters. JF - FEMS Microbiology Letters. SN - 0378-1097. IS - 3. ER - ...
Cancer is believed to be driven by genetic mutations. However, mouse models and human patients with cancer-predisposing germ line mutations show that only a small fraction of their cells become malignant, suggesting mutations themselves are not sufficient to cause transformation and additional determinants must exist. There are two prevailing, non-exclusive models to account for the additional determinants. One is that full transformation requires accumulation of multiple genetic mutations, which posits transformation occurs only when all mutations have been acquired. The recent success in reprogramming malignant cells into pluripotent stem cells indicates that normal cells of essentially all lineages can exist in the presence of replete cancer mutations. The second model postulates that mutations in rare stem cells initiate malignancy. Advancement in sequencing technology has led to the detection of cancer mutations in the hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) of healthy individuals. The prevalence ...
The small GTPase RhoA controls many cytoskeletal processes, including actin polymerization, F‐actin bundling, myosin‐based contractility, formation of focal adhesions and formation of the contractile ring at cytokinesis (for a review see Van Aelst and DSouza‐Schorey, 1997). In addition, RhoA plays a less well understood role in the control of cell cycle progression, transformation and tumour cell invasiveness. In fibroblasts, activated RhoA is sufficient to induce DNA synthesis (Olson et al., 1995), and cooperates with activated Raf in focus formation assays (Khosravi‐Far et al., 1995; Qiu et al., 1995). Activated Rho GDP/GTP exchange factors (GEFs) are potent oncogenes in focus assays (for a review see Whitehead et al., 1997), and it has been proposed that their ability to induce anchorage‐independent growth arises because they mimic signalling by adhesion receptors (Schwartz et al., 1996). Rho activity is required for transformation by Ras and for induction of DNA synthesis in ...
This information is intended for physicians and related personnel, who understand that medical information is often imperfect, and must be interpreted in the context of a patients clinical data using reasonable medical judgment. This website should not be used as a substitute for the advice of a licensed physician ...
Carcinogenesis is caused by a cumulative, multistage process that mainly consists of initiation, promotion, and progression. ROS, which are produced as a result of the metabolism of molecular oxygen via biochemical reactions in cells, play a key role in tumor promotion. Some tumor promoters accelerate/induce the conversion of initiated cells (carcinogen-mediated mutation or potential "stem cells") into tumorigenic cells possibly via the production of oxidative/inflammatory responses (30, 31). TPA (12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate), a phorbol ester, is a tumor promoter that induces the neoplastic/tumorigenic transformation of preneoplastic JB6 cells through the overproduction of ROS (32). In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of SFN on TPA-stimulated neoplastic transformation in the mouse epidermal JB6 P+ cell line to assess whether SFN is able to block tumor promoter-induced tumorigenesis in skin cells. Our results show that SFN was effective when it was given together with ...
To find the next steps to digital transformation, bank executives should set aside the noise and consider some guidelines from early adopters.
Anyone could give me some idea where I can find a good protocol for the transformation assay using Rat2 cells. The one you look for transformed foci. Do I need to stain the cells? Alex ...
The aim of this work was to develop a method to evaluate the kinetics of bainite transformation by theoretical deduction and thermal dilatation curve analysis. A Gleeble-3500 thermomechanical simulator and dilatometer (DIL805A) were employed to study the isothermal transformation in deformed (360 ∘ C , 600 ∘ C , and 860 ∘ C ) and undeformed conditions. The thermal dilatation information during isothermal transformation was recorded, and the dilatation curves were well smoothed. By taking a derivative of the dilation curve with respect to the transformation time, the peak time of transformation rate (PTTR) was obtained, which can serve as the essence of isothermal transformation time. The relative change of length ( Δ L / L ) due to phase transformation was theoretically deduced, and the effect of temperature was taken into consideration. Combing experimental data, the volume fraction of bainite in isothermal transformation was calculated. Making a graph of
1) the conversion of a normal cell into a cell that is able to divide indefinitely in culture, thus behaving like a cancer cell; (malignant transformation may also describe the series of changes in a normal cell in an organism that change it into a malignant (cancerous) cell); (2) a change in genotype and phenotype due to the assimilation of external DNA by a cell; when the external DNA is from a member of a different species, transformation results in horizontal gene ...
Image analyzing apparatus and methods are disclosed for analyzing 3-dimensional as well as 2-dimensional images. The pixels of the 3-D images may be represented by multivalued digital data signals which are analyzed in one or more programmable neighborhood transformation stages. In the preferred embodiment, each stage is programmed with selected contribution values associated with each pixel in the neighborhood. The values of the data signals for each pixel are modified by these contribution values and the maximum value thereof is selected as the transformation output of the stage. A series of dilation/erosion transformations may be used to transform the original image matrix in such a manner so as to locate the position and/or identify the shape of particular objects contained in the original image.
ACs top 3 transformation tips - After my recent 7 week transformation, many people have been asking me for tips on achieving a rapid transformation in muscle size and fat loss. There are no single tips that will ensure success in everyone as it totally depends on the person as to how good the results will be. However there are some helpful tips that I can offer that will help ensure success in anyone wanting to make a body transformation. So here are my top 3 tips: 1. Plan the full transformation before you start. With any transformation I do with a client I plan literally every workout before we even start. I do this on a spreadsheet that can be updated and adapted as time goes on. However the main thing is to know exactly what you are doing every day of every week. This will keep you incredibly focused and you will know what to expect from training each week. It also makes it incredibly easy to progress with performance and strength even whilst dropping fat. You will record every weight you use on
Finally, we tested whether IKKε/TBK1 is required for Ras transformation in MEFs. Active K-Ras was expressed in IKKε/TBK1 double-knockout cells that were reconstituted with TBK1 or vector. The IKKε/TBK1 double-knockout MEFs could not be transformed by active K-Ras (V12). In contrast, re-expression of TBK1, which restored AKT activation (Fig. S2B) but was insufficient to transform MEFs alone, supported a robust transformation by K-Ras (V12), as indicated by focus formation (Fig. 6C). These observations indicate an obligatory role of IKKε/TBK1 in Ras-induced oncogenic transformation of MEF cells. Future studies are needed to determine whether AKT activation is the major downstream effector of TBK1 supporting Ras-induced transformation.. As a major signaling hub, AKT regulates a wide range of cellular processes from cell growth, proliferation, to apoptosis (2). Pathological AKT activation is observed in many cancers and clearly plays a major role in tumorigenesis (1). It has been well ...
Findings from the CEO/Innovators Roundtable: Reform, Transition and Transformation Are at Hand等来自罗盛咨询的文章为您提供真知灼见,帮助您从容应对棘手的企业挑战。阅读更多。
COX-1 and -2 gene expression can be regulated at both the transcriptional and the posttranscriptional levels, and species differences may exist at both levels. Transcription induced in murine or chicken embryo fibroblasts by mitogens or by oncogene-induced transformation occurs rapidly, and maximal levels are seen at 15-30 min, followed shortly by COX-2 mRNA and protein […] ...
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Meet eight real people who lost weight and blogged about it. Plus, get diet and fitness tips and see photos of their amazing transformations at WomansDay.com.
We need to better understand the genetic mechanisms that transform normal blood cells into acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). Overall survival is improving for children and adults with AML, but traditional therapies can be ...
Vol 5: OCT4 as a target of miR-34a stimulates p63 but inhibits p53 to promote human cell transformation.. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
The results presented here were not predicted on the basis of previous epidemiologic and functional studies of Trop2, all of which pointed to a gain-of-function role for this protein in the development of aggressive cancer and tumor susceptibility (2-7, 11, 23, 32-34). As such, we expected that Trop2 ablation would hinder cancer development. Instead, through the use of a novel Trop2 knockout mouse model generated in our laboratory, we uncovered an unpredicted relationship between Trop2 loss and cancer development. In addition, we were able to confirm a relationship between Trop2 loss and an increased progression towards EMT during epithelial transformation. The epidemiologic analysis presented in this report is the first description, to our knowledge, of the association between Trop2 loss and EMT in any primary human tumor and highlights the clinical relevance of our findings. Collectively, these observations reveal a far more complex functional role for this protein in the multistep development ...
Lemotte, P K.; Adelstein, S J.; and Little, J B., "Malignant transformation induced by incorporated radionuclides in balb/3t3 mouse embryo fibroblasts." (1982). Subject Strain Bibliography 1982. 54 ...
In the last chapter, characteristics and mechanisms of the early stages of neoplastic develop- ment-initiation and promotion-were presented as being the result of cellular and molecular changes induced by specific ...
Sometimes the observations for a variable are not immediately suitable for analysis and instead need to be transformed using a mathematical function. Transformations are often used to normalise the distribution of a variable, but can be used to change the scale, offset the observations or even recode groups.. Excel cell formulas and custom VBA functions can be used to transform or calculate the data for a variable. Transformed and calculated data is treated just like any other variable as far as measurement scale and observation precision are concerned. Excel functions most commonly used for transformations are:. ...
This report examines the Digital Transformation market standing and opportunity of global plus major regions, from plans of manufacturers, regions, product types and end industries; this report investigates the best manufacturers in global and major regions and splits the Digital Transformation market by product type and applications/end industries. The Global Digital Transformation market is considered…
AGreenspan) 1.Are we to believe, that entities more than twice as smart as a genious level human, who are overseen by even more massive souls, would fail at such an important task, unless you are not being, shall I say, "fully forthcoming"? Furthermore, if one is to comprehend ZT, it is clear that THE HIGHER THE DEATH TOLL AMONG HUMANS THE FASTER THE TRANSFORMATION CAN OCCUR - are you therefor operating against yourselves ...
Transformation Lab Report Introduction Transformation is the transfers of virulence from one cell to another, through the transferring of genetic material
Abstract: Bundle gerbes are a higher version of line bundles, we present nonabelian bundle gerbes as a higher version of principal bundles. Connection, curving, curvature and gauge transformations are studied both in a global coordinate independent formalism and in local coordinates. These are the gauge fields needed for the construction of Yang-Mills theories with 2-form gauge potential ...
Ponten, Spontaneous and Virus Induced Transformation in Cell Culture, 2012, Buch, 978-3-7091-8260-4. Bücher schnell und portofrei
Learn how Recovery & Transformation Services (RTS) help clients dramatically improve performance, from distressed companies to organizations seeking to go from good to great.
We have found 3 NRICH Mathematical resources connected to Enlargements and scale factors, you may find related items under Transformations and constructions
We have found 31 NRICH Mathematical resources connected to Rotations, you may find related items under Transformations and constructions
Many multinationals need to undertake a fundamental transformation in emerging markets. By starting with one local operation, they can develop a robust methodology for subsequent rollouts.
Whenever an Xtend function is invoked - whether for M2M Xtend transformations or M2T Xpand templates, a Java Model Exception is thrown ...
PRO-TF Protein, Protein Bars, and Renuvo will change your life and give you that Transformation you have always been searching for.
PRO-TF Protein, Protein Bars, and Renuvo will change your life and give you that Transformation you have always been searching for.
download The Great Transformation in Higher Education, 1960: Contemporary Dialogues on the Left, J. Butler, Judith, and Joan Wallach Scott. have the Political, New York: Routledge. Butler, Judith, and Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak.
Designed to provide students with an integrative overview of mechanisms of growth control and malignant transformation by physical, chemical, and viral mechanisms. Introduction to growth factors, oncogenes, and suppressor genes. Includes an introduction to means of reverting or blocking malignant behavior with a particular emphasis on biochemical and molecular mechanisms ...
On Tue, Aug 11, 2009 at 2:24 PM, Mark Rijnbeek,[email protected], wrote: ,, MDL molfiles have the (0,0) coordinate in the lower left corner, as we ,, explored a couple of years ago... This made MDL molfiles draw in other ,, drawing application shown upside down. The old JChemPaint had horrible ,, code to fix this (combination of a translation *and* a mirroring). ,, This was one of the design goals of the new JChemPaint when we started ,, two(?) years ago, using proper Java2D and affine transformations. ,, Correction of the (0,0) is just one of those transformations applied ,, when converting world coordinates into screen coordinates. ,, , But why wasnt a solution for the molfile display incorporated during , the redesign of that horrible code then? It *was* incorporated... if it indeed is missing now, it was lost somewhere in time... , Did people just forget about the upside down effect perhaps? Dunno... this is a good example explaining my unit test fetish... ,,, Also (probably related) templates such ...
If Y is uniformly distributed over the interval (0,1), i.e. f(y) = 1 for 0| y | 1. Show that U = -2 loge(Y) has a negative exponential
By creating a strategic infrastructure and implementing Agile best practices, we helped this client achieve organizational parity.
For some of us that sit at a computer all day, having the odd slice (or 10) of pizza to keep us going, the thought of shedding the pounds and toning up to a six-packed muscle-bound human might seem impossible. Apparently though it isnt.
Impediments to Change: In considering the forces for change, the business decision to be made, and their organizational consequences, leaders need to choose between treating the change in an incremental and linear way or in a.
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Placing the edge of a mirror on the y-axis will form a reflection in the y-axis. This can also be thought of as folding over the y-axis ...
The year 2020 might have started well, but as days passed by, adversity rolled its dice, uncoiling one of the toughest times of life. The ongoing COVID-19
When the thermodynamic process is a chemical reaction or a physical transformation, process is classified as either exothermic or endothermic dependin
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Increasing evidence suggests that repetitive elements may play a role in host gene regulation, particularly through the donation of alternative promoters, enhancers, splice sites, and termination signals. Elevated transcript expression of the endogenous retrovirus group HERV-K (HML-2) is seen in many human cancers, although the identity of the individual proviral loci contributing to this expression as well as their mechanism of activation has been unclear. Using high-throughput next-generation sequencing techniques optimized for the capture of HML-2 expression, we characterized the HML-2 transcriptome and means of activation in an in vitro model of human mammary epithelial cell transformation. Our analysis showed significant expression originating from fifteen HML-2 full-length proviruses, through four modes of transcription. The majority of expression was in antisense orientation and from proviruses integrated within introns. We found two instances of LTR-driven provirus transcription but no evidence
Environmental transformation processes, including those occurring in natural and engineered systems, do not necessarily drastically alter molecular structures of bioactive organic contaminants. While the majority of generated transformation products are likely benign, substantial conservation of structure in transformation products can imply conservation or even creation of bioactivity across multiple biological end points and thus incomplete mitigation of ecological risk. Therefore, focusing solely on parent compound removal for contaminants of higher relative risk, the most common approach to fate characterization, provides no mechanistic relationship to potential biological effects and is inadequate as a comprehensive metric for reduction of ecological risks. Here, we explore these phenomena for endocrine-active steroid hormones, focusing on examples of conserved bioactivity and related implications for fate assessment, regulatory approaches, and research opportunities.
It has been shown previously that normal Syrian hamster embryo cells are neoplastically transformed by transfection with two cooperating oncogenes, v-myc plus v-Ha-ras. Karyotypic analyses of the cells from the tumors revealed a nonrandom chromosome change, monosomy of chromosome 15. In order to clarify the role of chromosome loss in these tumor cells with defined oncogene alterations, molecular and cytogenetic studies were performed on hybrids between normal Syrian hamster embryo cells and ras/myc tumor cells. Following fusion of the tumor cells with the normal cells which are not immortal, the majority of the cell hybrids senesced after ≤20 population doublings indicating that immortality was recessive. Some of the hybrids escaped senescence and grew indefinitely. These immortal hybrid cells retained the expected numbers of chromosome 15 indicating that escape from senescence did not involve loss of this chromosome. The tumorigenicity and anchorage-independent growth of the nonsenescent ...
AP-1 transcriptional activity is stimulated by the transformation promoters phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate ("12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate," TPA) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) in promotion-sensitive (P+) but not in promotion-resistant (P-) JB6 mouse epidermal cell lines. Although TPA stimulates expression of the jun and fos family genes, only c-jun expression shows higher elevation in P+ cells than in P- cells. The present study tests the hypothesis that induced AP-1 activity is required for tumor promoter-induced transformation in JB6 P+ cells. Both retinoic acid and the glucocorticoid fluocinolone acetonide inhibited basal and TPA-induced AP-1 activities that were tested with a stromelysin promoter-chloramphenicol acetyltransferase reporter gene in P+ cells. Since both retinoic acid and fluocinolone acetonide are active in inhibiting TPA-induced anchorage-independent transformation of P+ cells in the dose range that blocks TPA-induced AP-1 activity, their antipromoting effects may ...
ras Proteins: Small, monomeric GTP-binding proteins encoded by ras genes (GENES, RAS). The protooncogene-derived protein, PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN P21(RAS), plays a role in normal cellular growth, differentiation and development. The oncogene-derived protein (ONCOGENE PROTEIN P21(RAS)) can play a role in aberrant cellular regulation during neoplastic cell transformation (CELL TRANSFORMATION, NEOPLASTIC). This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.
Yang, T C.; Howard, J; Craise, L; and Tobias, C A., "Effects of energetic silicon ions, u.v. Radiation and x-rays on neoplastic cell transformation and mutation. Abstr." (1982). Subject Strain Bibliography 1982. 4006 ...
This review highlights current knowledge of environmental factors in carcinogenesis and their cellular targets. The hypothesis that environmental factors influence carcinogenesis is widely supported by both epidemiological and experimental studies. The fact that only a small fraction of cancers can be attributed to germline mutations in cancer-related genes further buttresses the importance of environmental factors in carcinogenesis. Furthermore, penetrance of germline mutations may be modified by either environmental or other genetic factors. Examples of environmental factors that have been associated with increased cancer risk in the human population include chemical and physical mutagens (e.g. cigarette smoke, heterocyclic amines, asbestos and UV irradiation), infection by certain viral or bacterial pathogens, and dietary non-genotoxic constituents (e.g. macro- and micronutrients). Among molecular targets of environmental influences on carcinogenesis are somatic mutation (genetic change) and ...
Early lesions in these cultures (3-10 hours after virus inoculation) consisted of nucleolar sweating and disruption; there was loss of RNA from the nucleo-lus and segregation of nueleolar components (demonstrated by electron microscopy). During the middle phase (10-34 hours) three types of eosinophilic intranuclear inclusion appeared; the inclusions seemed to be formed by progressive transformations. Viral antigen was demonstrated in the nucleus by immuno-fluorescent staining, with viral Show moreEarly lesions in these cultures (3-10 hours after virus inoculation) consisted of nucleolar sweating and disruption; there was loss of RNA from the nucleo-lus and segregation of nueleolar components (demonstrated by electron microscopy). During the middle phase (10-34 hours) three types of eosinophilic intranuclear inclusion appeared; the inclusions seemed to be formed by progressive transformations. Viral antigen was demonstrated in the nucleus by immuno-fluorescent staining, with viral replication ...
The switch from feeding to nonfeeding larvae is an ecologically important transformation that has evolved on several separate occasions within the echinoids. In each case, this life history transformation has been accompanied by extensive changes in larval morphology. A phylogenetic approach is used here to reconstruct these morphological changes, to begin asking why they have taken the particular forms observed, and to assess the degree of parallel transformation in separate cases. Both traditional character mapping and a less usual aggregate analysis indicate massively parallel transformations in larval morphology associated with, and only with, this particular life history transformation. Some of these parallel morphological transformations may be due to relaxed functional constraints associated with the ancestral life history mode, but many are probably the result of new functional constraints associated with the derived mode. The comparative data suggest a simple and testable model for the ...
1. Slamon DJ, Clark GM, Wong SG et al. Human breast cancer: Correlation of relapse and survival with amplification of the HER-2/neu oncogene. Science 1987; 235: 177-182. 2. Ross JS, Fletcher JA, Bloom KJ et al. Targeted therapy in breast cancer: the HER-2/neu gene and protein. Mol Cell Proteomics 2004; 3(4): 379-398 (Review). 3. Hudziak RM, Schlessinger J, Ullrich A. Increased expression of the putative growth factor receptor p185HER2 causes transformation and tumorigenesis of NIH 3T3 cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1987; 84(20): 7159-7163. 4. Yarden Y, Sliwkowski MX. Untangling the ErbB signalling network. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 2001; 2(2): 127-137 (Review). 5. Codony-Servat J, Albanell J, Lopez-Talavera JC et al. Cleavage of the HER2 ectodomain is a pervanadate‑activable process that is inhibited by the tissue inhibitor of metalloproteases-1 in breast cancer cells. Cancer Res 1999; 59(6): 1196-1201. 6. Vivanco I, Sawyers CL. The phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase AKT pathway in human cancer. Nat Rev ...
Since anoctamin 1 ANO1 (TMEM16A) was found to be a molecular component of Ca(2+) -activated Cl(-) channels, its role in tumorigenesis has gained attention at a fast pace. ANO1 overexpression frequently occurs in the cancer tissues along with 11q13 chromosome amplification. Poor prognosis of many types of cancers has been closely correlated with ANO1 gene amplification and protein overexpression. ANO1 is now considered an excellent biomarker for certain cancers. Recent research suggests that it is the channel function of ANO1 that is involved in the tumorigenesis. However, how the overexpression of the functional ANO1 causes malignant transformation of tissues via signaling pathways, for example, MAPK remains to be investigated. Clarification of the reasons in future will avail to make ANO1 as a target for cancer treatment ...
Our research program is focused on the important basic question of how chromosomes are segregated during cell division to ensure the complete and accurate inheritance of the genome. Chromosome instability is a hallmark of cancer and can drive tumorigenesis. Therefore, how centromere specification is controlled is a basic biological question with great therapeutic potential. Centromeres are specified by the incorporation of a histone variant CENP-A, and stable inheritance of this locus is control...[Read full text]Our research program is focused on the important basic question of how chromosomes are segregated during cell division to ensure the complete and accurate inheritance of the genome. Chromosome instability is a hallmark of cancer and can drive tumorigenesis. Therefore, how centromere specification is controlled is a basic biological question with great therapeutic potential. Centromeres are specified by the incorporation of a histone variant CENP-A, and stable inheritance of this locus ...
Get information, facts, and pictures about Transformations at Encyclopedia.com. Make research projects and school reports about Transformations easy with credible articles from our FREE, online encyclopedia and dictionary.
I love my little boy but I dont enjoy his company. Sometimes I do. Hes like certain very moody friends: delightful in small doses. (Delightful is probably too strong.) What was I thinking? I ask my friends, or I would ask them if any of us could afford to voice what must be on all our minds, I cant be the only one. How could I expect to find happiness spending virtually every minute (it would be better if he went out occasionally, but he cant) with someone so selfishly narrow in his interests, so dogmatically boring in his monologues, so petty in his fleeting whims and so cruelly vindictive when these are frustrated even momentarily? It is sheer misery to be with him day after day. It is slow dripping hell. There, Ive said it. Hell change, hell improve, people tell me, books and TV shows tell me-but can I stand the 20, 30...50 years the promised transformation may take? What if it doesnt happen at all? Change will come, yes-that law I accept-but why must it be for the better? The signs ...
May be involved in regulation of synaptic vesicle endocytosis. May act as a tumor suppressor and inhibits malignant cell transformation.
B[a]P/B[a]PDE causes lung cancer mainly by either causing DNA mutations (41) or by activating signaling cascades that regulate gene expression (42). Because the DNA binding and damage activity of B[a]PDE has well been characterized in many previous studies (43, 44), current studies focused on the mechanisms underlying signaling alterations in gene regulatory pathways that subsequently result in human lung bronchial epithelial cell transformation and lung carcinogenesis following B[a]P/B[a]PDE exposure. Our studies identified that B[a]P/B[a]PDE exposure could lead to miR-205 induction, which targets PHLPP2-3′-UTR and inhibits PHLPP2 protein translation and expression, subsequently resulting in c-JUN activation and ultimately increasing TNFα transcription and inflammatory responses to further contribute to lung carcinogenesis. These findings not only identifies PHLPP2 as a new target for B[a]P/B[a]PDE initiation of lung carcinogenic effects, but also provides a novel scenario linking PHLPP2 to ...
To address whether MyD88 acts in a cell-autonomous fashion, we generated mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF) from WT and MyD88-/- mice. MyD88-/- MEFs were resistant to cell transformation by DMBA/TPA in vitro, as assessed by the focus formation assay (Supplemental Figure 2). MyD88-/- MEFs were similarly resistant to transformation after transfection with RasV12/Myc (Figure 1B and Supplemental Figure 2). This resistance was not due to a general defect in transformation, since MyD88-/- MEFs are readily transformed with SV40 T antigen (7), suggesting a selective role for MyD88 in Ras signaling and transformation. We therefore asked whether MyD88 is involved in the canonical Ras/MAPK signaling pathway. While neither p38 nor Akt phosphorylation was affected by absence of MyD88 (Supplemental Figure 3), Erk MAPK phosphorylation was substantially reduced in MyD88-deficient MEFs treated with FGF (Figure 1C). We then retrovirally transduced MyD88-/- MEFs with MyD88. As shown in Supplemental Figure 4, the ...
Tumorigenesis is a relatively rare event in the human body considering the enormous number of cells composing our body and the frequent occurrence of genetic mutations in each cell. Nevertheless, the cells that happen to meet the minimum requirements can be transformed when stressed by a variety of oncogenic stimulations, then progress to form tumors. The vigorous competition between oncogenic signaling and tumor-suppressor defense is a critical determinant of cellular fate, which can be either tumorigenic transformation or cellular senescence/apoptosis depending on "who wins the battle." Recently, a number of cancers have been reported to originate from stem cells, whose self-renewing properties are normally reduced by innate tumor suppressors. Therefore, exploring the innate mechanism by which stem cells modulate tumor suppressors to maintain their "stemness" may provide valuable clues to characterize the distinctive oncogenic susceptibility of stem cells. This review is focused on the recent ...
Azar WJ, Zivkovic S, Werther GA, Russo VC. IGFBP-2 nuclear translocation is mediated by a functional NLS sequence and is essential for its pro-tumorigenic actions in cancer cells. Oncogene (2013) PubMed ...
The biomaterial transformation process is defined as an event with one or more biomaterials as inputs and outputs. For example, DNA extraction from a blood sample is a biomaterial transformation process, where blood is the input biological material, DNA is the output material and the DNA extraction reagents and devices used in the process are other participants. An assay is a planned process with the objective to produce information about some evaluant (ID: "obo:OBI_0000070") [8]. It has biological material as input and data as output. For example, a microarray based genotyping assay has DNA as input and raw image data as output, where reagents, instruments and software utilized in the process are other participants. Starting with the raw data generated from the assay, we move to the data transformation processes. A data transformation process is a protocol application that produces output data from input data (ID: "obo:OBI_0200000") [8].. With the application of OBI concepts in MIGen, ...
Cell Transformation Essay, Research Paper Title: Colony Transformation Lab Purpose: To study the behavior of Escherichia coli once it has been introduced to a
The ability to control chemical reactions to efficiently and selectively produce the desired products has vastly improved over the past decades, with increasingly sophisticated techniques now available to dictate the outcome of these reactions. While much progress has been made, much more is needed to realize a perfect reactor, which would allow for full control of chemical transformations at the molecular level. In the October AIChE Journal Perspective article, "Practical Challenges in Energy-Based Control of Molecular Transformations in Chemical Reactors," Andrzej Stankiewicz, Izabela Szydłowska Franssen, Daniel Irimia, and Georgios Stefanidis of Delft Univ. of Technology expand on this topic of molecular control in chemical reactors ...
The concept of energy and its transformations is useful in explaining and predicting most natural phenomena. The direction of transformations in energy (what kind of energy is transformed to what other kind) is often described by entropy (equal energy spread among all available degrees of freedom) considerations, as in practice all energy transformations are permitted on a small scale, but certain larger transformations are not permitted because it is statistically unlikely that energy or matter will randomly move into more concentrated forms or smaller spaces. The concept of energy is widespread in all sciences..  In the context of chemistry, energy is an attribute of a substance as a consequence of its atomic, molecular or aggregate structure. Since a chemical transformation is accompanied by a change in one or more of these kinds of structure, it is invariably accompanied by an increase or decrease of energy of the substances involved. Some energy is transferred between the surroundings ...
The concept of energy and its transformations is useful in explaining and predicting most natural phenomena. The direction of transformations in energy (what kind of energy is transformed to what other kind) is often described by entropy (equal energy spread among all available degrees of freedom) considerations, as in practice all energy transformations are permitted on a small scale, but certain larger transformations are not permitted because it is statistically unlikely that energy or matter will randomly move into more concentrated forms or smaller spaces. The concept of energy is widespread in all sciences..  In the context of chemistry, energy is an attribute of a substance as a consequence of its atomic, molecular or aggregate structure. Since a chemical transformation is accompanied by a change in one or more of these kinds of structure, it is invariably accompanied by an increase or decrease of energy of the substances involved. Some energy is transferred between the surroundings ...
TORONTO - On Thursday, Chad Sakac, president of Dell EMCs converged platforms division, took the stage at the Dell EMC Toronto Forum in the feature keynote to explain - at a high level - Dell Technologies digital transformation strategy to Canadian customers. Sakac indicated what the strategy means to customers, and why Dell believes they are better able to meet customer needs here than their competition, Its a strategy in which Dell EMC partners will play a key role, because they are able to bring workload expertise to the table that Dell EMC does not possess.. "What digital transformation means to every customer that I meet is different," Sakac told his audience. "Our job is to help enable you down that part of digital transformation. Customers want choices, but they also want opinions. Having an opinion while still being open is important to us.". Sakac identified four separate elements within that continuum.. "Digital transformation drives IT transformation, which drives workforce ...
Revision history for the Hematopoietic and Lymphoid Neoplasm Coding Manual and Database: diagnostic confirmation, M rules, primary site/histology coding, grade.
We outline a proposal for a research program leading to a new paradigm, architectural framework, and prototypical implementation, for the cognitively inspired anchoring of an agents learning, knowledge formation, and higher reasoning abilities in real-world interactions: Learning through interaction in real-time in a real environment triggers the incremental accumulation and repair of knowledge that leads to the formation of theories at a higher level of abstraction. The transformations at this higher level filter down and inform the learning process as part of a permanent cycle of learning through experience, higher-order deliberation, theory formation and revision.. The envisioned framework will provide a precise computational theory, algorithmic descriptions, and an implementation in cyber-physical systems, addressing the lifting of action patterns from the subsymbolic to the symbolic knowledge level, effective methods for theory formation, adaptation, and evolution, the anchoring of ...
A 48-year-old Caucasian man was found to have a rare neoplastic process of vascular endothelial origin. The clinical presentation was that of plum-colored cutaneous plaques of the lower extremities. The histopathology, natural history, and treatment of this case are discussed and compared with previously reported cases. It is suggested that this disease entity represents a malignant state with systemic involvement and a poor prognosis.
Thoennissen, N.H., Lasho, T., Thoennissen, G.B., Ogawa, S., Tefferi, A., Koeffler, H.P. (2011-08). Novel CUX1 missense mutation in association with 7q- at leukemic transformation of MPN. American Journal of Hematology 86 (8) : 703-705. [email protected] Repository. https://doi.org/10.1002/ajh. ...
Recent advances in biomedical and sequencing technologies have revealed the genomic landscape of common forms of human cancer in unprecedented detail. Of the genes that drive tumorigenesis when altered, for most cancers it is believed that there exist a small number of
Normal fibroblasts stop growing when available surface is filled. This is a property called contact inhibition. When primary rat kidney cells are infected with polyoma virus, they are not killed because viral replication does not take place. A rare cell (up to 1/100 depending on moi) becomes oncogenically tranformed. These cells form a focus of tranformed cells which pile up on top of each other. All cells in focus are descendant from a single transformed cell. Oncogenically transformed cells can be grown in culture. They will often proliferate in medium with a much lower concentration of serum (reduced dependence on serum growth factors). They do not flatten out like normal fibroblats, but tend to pile up on top of each other ...
Richard Whomes, director sales engineering, Rocket Software, explains how digital transformation can improve and boost the public sector
Read how Accentures Digital Workplace Transformation can help transform IT infrastructure to a flexible, efficient and responsive workplace environment.
Accentures Digital Workplace Transformation can help transform IT infrastructure to a flexible, efficient and responsive workplace. Find out how.
Many human and murine tumors of distinct histology and cells of the tumor microenvironment show increased CREB expression and activity when compared with adjacent nonmalignant tissue (4), which is even more enhanced in metastasis suggesting a role for CREB in the initiation, maintenance, and progression of tumors (33, 34). This is often accompanied by poor prognosis and decreased survival rates of patients with tumor (35). Although CREB dysregulation is a critical factor in cancer development and progression, the underlying molecular mechanisms that lead to its overexpression have not yet been determined in detail. One approach to unravel this process is to determine the link(s) between oncogene expression and CREB using an in vitro model of oncogene-mediated transformation, as well as human tumor lesions with known HER-2/neu status. As shown in Fig. 7F, an important role for HER-2/neu was suggested for CREB expression and activity both in vitro and in vivo. This is based on the data ...
Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer that occurs in women and is second only to lung cancer as the leading cause of womens cancer-related deaths. Th...
HydroPeptide Serum - Anti-Wrinkle Cellular Transformation Serum,This skin transforming formula unites the most advanced skin correcting elements to revive skin at the cellular level, insuring ageless performance, protecting the skins DNA and replenishing
Transformation House Your vision will become clear only when you look into your heart... Who looks outside, dreams. Who looks inside, awakens. -Carl Jung The Transformation House Soul Recovery Program provides a safe place and a supportive process for those desiring a deeper level of intensive m
Im trying to customize the dita2webhelp transformation on XSL level. Since I have specialized classes I also need to modify the underlying xhtml transformation. I very much dislike the idea of mixing standard and custom source by directly modifying the xhtml and webhelp plugin. So I was hoping that there is a way to keep the custom files in my custom DITA-OT plugin just like I did for the pdf customization. Is this possible ...
In the modern workplace, collaboration and communication rule, and employees have access to technologies that support them to do their best work - as individuals and as teams. In this eBook Data#3 explores the building blocks required to establish a modern workplace, and share how this organisational transformation can deliver healthy bottom line results for your business. ...
The following guide can be used for troubleshooting transformation reactions. You may also be interested in reviewing additional tips for Chemical Transformation or Electroporation
Digital transformation is here, and businesses are feeling it. No matter what stage of transformation a company is in, marketing is aware of the shift in its industry, customer expectations and employee perspectives. To navigate change and maintain a competitive edge, organizations will need to evolve or risk being left behind. This new resource from Futurums Founding Partner and Principal Analyst Daniel Newman can help.. Inside, youll see:. ...
Digital transformation is here, and businesses are feeling it. No matter what stage of transformation a company is in, marketing is aware of the shift in its industry, customer expectations and employee perspectives. To navigate change and maintain a competitive edge, organizations will need to evolve or risk being left behind. This new resource from Futurums Founding Partner and Principal Analyst Daniel Newman can help.. Inside, youll see:. ...
... Kate Tyler offers Life Transformation Mentorship Programs for a period of 6-12 months. Limited to only 20 people a year.
TERT transformation of fibroblast cells - posted in Research Idea, Design and Collaboration: I have a primary cell line derived from fibroblasts. How can I TERT transform them to immortilise them? Is there any kit avaibale for the same? Where can I buy it from? Which companies can do this for me and how much does it cost? Is it possible to do this in the laboratory as well? Kindly elaborate. I stay in England. Also, can TERT transformation be performed with secondary cell lines too, or i...
This protocol explains how to insert the GAL1 promoter in front of a gene of interest in the appropriate strain with the GEV machinery (yMM1101 MAT a HAP1+ (PGAL10+gal1)Δ::loxP, leu2Δ0::PACT1-GEV-NatMX, gal4Δ::LEU2 or similar) so that production of the transcript (and therefore the protein) is inducible with β-estradiol. Primarily this protocol deals with how to appropriately design primers to insert the GAL1 promoter. Other parts of the protocol (PCR, transformation) are standard and you are referred to other McClean lab protocols for those bits. This protocol has been modified from Scott McIsaacs (Botstein Lab) protocol. Use of this protocol and the subsequent strains should cite his paper (see references below). ...
Thanks Adrian, That does make sense, however, I have not used projects before. The only two projects I can choose from are the sample project that came with Oxygen and the test project I made. I would expect that my transformations are stored in a default project that is used when you dont explicit ...
Computation of effects under linear, logistic and Poisson regression models with transformed variables. Logarithm and power transformations are allowed. Effects can be displayed both numerically and graphically in both the original and the transformed space of the variables.. ...
Gem inhibits Rho-dependent transformation and invasion. NIH-3T3 cells were permanently transfected with Dbl and further cotransfected with Gem or Gem(S89N). (A)
Hello, below is a part of an assignment. Can someone tell me whether I have to perform log transformation before or after multiply imputing the data...
"Split-dose exposures versus dual ion exposure in human cell neoplastic transformation". Radiat Environ Biophys. 46 (2): 119-23 ... The cumulative heavy ion doses in space are low such that critical cells and cell components will receive only 0 or 1 particle ... of an astronaut's cells might be killed during such missions.[37][38] With respect to cells in critical brain regions, as many ... critical cells and cell components could receive more than one particle traversal, which is not reflective of the deep space ...
These alloys were found to cause neoplastic transformations of human osteoblast cells. A more recent U.S. Department of Health ... "Neoplastic transformation of human osteoblast cells to the tumorigenic phenotype by heavy metal-tungsten alloy particles: ...
Tracy Chui-hsu Yang; Laurie M. Craise; Man-Tong Mei; Cornelius A. Tobias (1985). "Neoplastic Cell Transformation by Heavy ... The fate of normal cells that contain a single terminal deletion is unknown, but it has been shown that the loss of a single ... Genomic instability has been observed both in vitro and in vivo in the progeny of cells that are irradiated with heavy ions in ... Cells containing telomere-deficient chromosomes will either senesce or undergo breakage-fusion-bridge (B/F/B) cycles, thereby ...
After transformation, neoplastic cells carry monoclonal immunoglobulin gene rearrangements. Histological transformation may ... cells are present embedded in nodules consisting of B cells and other reactive cells (mainly reactive T cells). Reed-Sternberg ... RSH cells typically express CD15 and CD30, whereas LP cells lack expression of these markers, but express B cell markers like ... Histologic transformation to diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) can occur in up to 12% of cases. ...
2007). "Myricetin is a novel natural inhibitor of neoplastic cell transformation and MEK1". Carcinogenesis. 28 (9): 1918-27. ... induced cell proliferation of the endothelial cells. They also found that targeting MEK1 and cyclin E1 with small interfering ... A significant increase in the density of mast cells has been seen in cherry hemangiomas compared with normal skin. These ... By inhibiting mir-424 in normal endothelial cells they could observe the same increased protein expression of MEK1 and cyclin ...
Some, but not all, polyomaviruses are oncoviruses capable of inducing neoplastic transformation in some cells. In oncogenic ... STag is unable to induce neoplastic transformation in the host cell on its own, but its presence may increase the transforming ... the cell must be in S phase (the part of the cell cycle in which the host cell's genome is normally replicated) in order to ... In SV40, STag has a similar role in cellular transformation. In Merkel cell polyomavirus, it appears to play a significant role ...
"EZH2 is a marker of aggressive breast cancer and promotes neoplastic transformation of breast epithelial cells". Proceedings of ... Its roles in the cell cycle and apoptosis help cells maintain an immature state, and its expression wanes as cells begin to ... modulation of these cell cycle inhibitor genes also allows Bmi-1 to malignantly transform cells (both mature and stem cells) ... Maintenance of adult stem cells PcG proteins are also key players in the maintenance of adult stem cell populations. Several ...
"EZH2 is a marker of aggressive breast cancer and promotes neoplastic transformation of breast epithelial cells". Proc. Natl. ... Cell. Biol. 33 (2): 387-95. doi:10.1128/MCB.00465-12. PMC 3554112 . PMID 23149936. Schild D, Lio YC, Collins DW, Tsomondo T, ... "Entrez Gene: XRCC2 X-ray repair complementing defective repair in Chinese hamster cells 2". Miller KA, Sawicka D, Barsky D, ... Molecular Cell. 1 (6): 783-93. doi:10.1016/S1097-2765(00)80078-7. PMID 9660962. Johnson RD, Liu N, Jasin M (Sep 1999). " ...
"EZH2 is a marker of aggressive breast cancer and promotes neoplastic transformation of breast epithelial cells". Proceedings of ... In breast cancer cells, EZH2 activates genes that promote cell proliferation and survival. It can also activate regulatory ... Further, EZH2 has been identified as an essential protein involved in development and differentiation of B-cells and T-cells. ... It and its homologs play essential roles in development, cell differentiation, and cell division in plants, insects, fish, and ...
"EZH2 is a marker of aggressive breast cancer and promotes neoplastic transformation of breast epithelial cells". Proc. Natl. ... Cell Mol. Genet. 23 (4): 237-247. doi:10.1007/BF02674415. PMID 9542526. Liu N, Lamerdin JE, Tebbs RS, Schild D, Tucker JD, Shen ... Cell. Biol. 33 (2): 387-95. doi:10.1128/MCB.00465-12. PMC 3554112 . PMID 23149936. Hussain S, Wilson JB, Medhurst AL, Hejna J, ... Cell. 1 (6): 783-793. doi:10.1016/S1097-2765(00)80078-7. PMID 9660962. Pierce AJ, Johnson RD, Thompson LH, Jasin M (1999). " ...
"EZH2 is a marker of aggressive breast cancer and promotes neoplastic transformation of breast epithelial cells". Proc. Natl. ... A characteristic of many cancer cells is that parts of some genes contained within these cells have been recombined with other ... Cell. Biol. 33 (2): 387-95. doi:10.1128/MCB.00465-12. PMC 3554112 . PMID 23149936. Wu GJ, Sinclair CS, Paape J, Ingle JN, Roche ... One such gene fusion that has been identified in a MCF-7 breast cancer cell line is a chimera between the RAD51C and ATXN7 ...
This data indicates that BPA is able to induce neoplastic transformation of human breast epithelial cells. Epigenetic changes ... BPA was able to induce transformation of human breast MCF-10F epithelial cells. After treatment with BPA, the cells produced ... The cells treated with 10-3 M BPA died on the second day of treatment. The concentration of 10-4 M BPA was also toxic for the ... Also, human breast cells put into contact with small amounts of ethylene oxide in a laboratory can lead to DNA damage of the ...
Interestingly, chronic M. haemofelis infection may promote neoplastic transformation of white blood cells in FeLV-infected ... Once in the blood stream, M. haemofelis individuals adhere to the cell membranes of red blood cells and eventually become ... It has shed many biosynthetic systems found in related gram-positive bacteria as well as the ability to secrete a cell wall ( ... Parasitized red blood cells often lose their biconcave shape. This decreases surface area, increases osmotic fragility, and ...
Cao, J.; Wells, R.L.; Elkind, M.M. (1992). "Enhanced Sensitivity to Neoplastic Transformation by137Cs γ-rays of Cells in the G2 ... Dobrzyński, L.; Fornalski, K. W.; Socol, Y.; Reszczyńska, J. M. (2016). "Modeling of Irradiated Cell Transformation: Dose- and ... Adaptive Response for Protection against Micronucleus Formation and Neoplastic Transformation in C3H 10T1/2 Mouse Embryo Cells ... "Multifractionation of 60Co gamma-rays reduces neoplastic transformation in vitro". Carcinogenesis. 5 (2): 193-97. doi:10.1093/ ...
It has the ability to induce neoplastic transformation in a variety of cell types and can immortalize cells in culture. Its ... In MPyV, MTag is an efficient oncoprotein that can be sufficient to induce neoplastic transformation in some cells. The genes ... role in viral life cycle and cell transformation". Journal of cellular physiology. 215 (2): 309-19. doi:10.1002/jcp.21326. PMC ... The transformation capacity of MTag can be eliminated by mutations that remove the membrane anchor, and reduced or eliminated ...
... the expression of sialyltransferases undergoes profound modifications during cell differentiation and neoplastic transformation ...
"Involvement of PI3K/Akt pathway in cell cycle progression, apoptosis, and neoplastic transformation: a target for cancer ... Since tumor cells have increased mitotic rates compared to non-malignant cells this is not entirely unexpected, as it is ... arresting tumor cell proliferation both in vitro and in vivo via mouse models grafted with various HNSCC cell lines. While ... Cell. 135 (1): 97-109. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2008.08.017. PMC 2681233 . PMID 18854158. Zhu, XD; Küster, B; Mann, M; Petrini, JH; ...
Some, but not all, polyomaviruses are oncoviruses capable of inducing neoplastic transformation in some cells. In oncogenic ... are oncoproteins that can induce neoplastic transformation in the host cell. Polyomavirus LTag proteins contain four well- ... the cell must be in S phase (the part of the cell cycle in which the host cell's genome is normally replicated) in order to ... Of these, LTag is primarily responsible for cellular transformation. STag alone cannot transform cells, but improves the ...
The cell will then progress through multiple stages of neoplastic transformation that may culminate into a tumor after years of ... The neoplastic transformation can be divided into three major independent stages: morphological changes to the cell, ... Cancer starts with a single cell whose operation is disrupted. Normal cell operation is controlled by the chemical structure of ... Aug 2000). "Therapeutic ionizing radiation and the incidence of basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. The New ...
... which induces neoplastic transformation when transfected into NIH 3T3 fibroblasts and other cell lines. Thus, this normal ... 2003). "alpha 1-Adrenergic receptor subtypes differentially control the cell cycle of transfected CHO cells through a cAMP- ... 2004). "Alpha1B-adrenoceptor signaling and cell motility: GTPase function of Gh/transglutaminase 2 inhibits cell migration ... 2004). "Cell surface expression of alpha1D-adrenergic receptors is controlled by heterodimerization with alpha1B-adrenergic ...
This suggests that when a healthy cell transforms into a tumor cell (a neoplastic transformation) the mitochondria seem to ... not only cancer cells). Thus, drugs that knock out these oncogenes (and thereby kill cancer cells) may also damage normal cells ... If the knockout of an otherwise nonessential gene has little or no effect on healthy cells, but is lethal to cancerous cells ... However, other genes may be essential to cancer cells but not to healthy cells. Treatments based on the principle of synthetic ...
... ends homologue SHARP functions as a positive regulator of Wnt/beta-catenin/T-cell factor signaling in neoplastic transformation ... 2006). "A protein-protein interaction network for human inherited ataxias and disorders of Purkinje cell degeneration". Cell. ... doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.03.032. PMID 16713569. Beausoleil SA, Villén J, Gerber SA, et al. (2006). "A probability-based approach ... Cell. Biochem. 288 (1-2): 151-7. doi:10.1007/s11010-006-9131-9. PMID 16583136. Gregory SG, Barlow KF, McLay KE, et al. (2006 ...
"A novel role for mixed-lineage kinase-like mitogen-activated protein triple kinase alpha in neoplastic cell transformation and ... The protein mediates gamma radiation signaling leading to cell cycle arrest and activity of this protein plays a role in cell ... interacts with ZAK and stimulates the ZAK-expressing cells re-entering the cell cycle". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. United ... interacts with ZAK and stimulates the ZAK-expressing cells re-entering the cell cycle". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 301 (1 ...
The presence of neoplastic ganglion cells forming abnormal clusters, the presence of binucleation and dysmorphic neurons are ... The rare occurrence of malignant transformation is confined to the glial cell population, and is characterized by increased ... Histologically, ganglioglioma is composed of both neoplastic glial and ganglion cells which are disorganized, variably cellular ... Malignant transformation of spinal ganglioglioma has been seen in only a select few cases. Poor prognostic factors for adults ...
... of all cells in the anterior pituitary gland. If these cells undergo neoplastic transformation, they will give rise to a ... A lactotropic cell (also known as prolactin cell, epsilon acidophil, lactotrope, lactotroph, mammatroph, mammotroph) is a cell ... Prolactin cells are acidophilic by hematoxylin & eosin stains and comprise about 20% ...
... cell motility and adhesion.[8]. Expression of PAX8 is increased in neoplastic renal tissues, Wilms tumors, ovarian cancer and ... The mechanism for this transformation is not well understood, but there are several proposed possibilities.[11][12][13] ... regulation of metanephric nephron tubule epithelial cell differentiation. • cell differentiation. • mesonephric tubule ... positive regulation of metanephric DCT cell differentiation. • negative regulation of mesenchymal cell apoptotic process ...
All MeSH CategoriesDiseases CategoryNeoplasmsNeoplastic ProcessesCarcinogenesisCell Transformation, NeoplasticBlast CrisisCell ... Signs and SymptomsPathologic ProcessesNeoplastic ProcessesCarcinogenesisCell Transformation, NeoplasticBlast CrisisCell ... Cell Transformation, Neoplastic. Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, ... Transformation, Neoplastic Cell. *Neoplastic Transformation, Cell. *Cell Neoplastic Transformation. *Cell Neoplastic ...
... *Authors: *Cristina Belgiovine ... suggesting that tumorigenic cells could form strong cell-cell contacts and cell contacts did not induce growth inhibition. The ... Belgiovine C, Chiodi I and Mondello C: Relocalization of cell adhesion molecules during neoplastic transformation of human ... Belgiovine, C., Chiodi, I., Mondello, C.Relocalization of cell adhesion molecules during neoplastic transformation of human ...
... neoplastic. What does cell transformation, neoplastic mean? Information and translations of cell transformation, neoplastic in ... neoplastic in the Definitions.net dictionary. Meaning of cell transformation, ... What does cell transformation, neoplastic mean?. Definitions for cell transformation, neoplastic. Here are all the possible ... cell, constant. Alternative searches for cell transformation, neoplastic:. *Search for Synonyms for cell transformation, ...
EGF-induced neoplastic cell transformation is increased in cells overexpressing H3 WT. A, JB6 Cl41 cells were transfected with ... cells and psi-H3 stably transfected cells were used for cell transformation in an anchorage-independent cell transformation ... we found that overexpression of histone H3 induced neoplastic cell transformation and cell proliferation in JB6 Cl41 cells. In ... Cell and Tumor Biology Phosphorylation of Histone H3 at Serine 10 Is Indispensable for Neoplastic Cell Transformation. Hong ...
Cell, Tumor, and Stem Cell Biology γ-Secretase-Dependent Proteolysis of CD44 Promotes Neoplastic Transformation of Rat ... Alteration of DRM-associated cell surface proteins during transformation. A, DRMs from cell surface biotin-labeled Rat-1 cells ... cells] were compared with DRMs from transformed cells (MEN2A- or AP-stimulated RET-Fv-expressing cells) and transformation- ... Reversible Ret-dependent transformation of Rat-1 cells. Top, cells expressing Ret-Fv were unstimulated or stimulated with AP as ...
Tumorigenic Transformation and Neoplastic Progression of Human Uroepithelial Cells after Exposure in Vitro to 4-Aminobiphenyl ... Tumorigenic Transformation and Neoplastic Progression of Human Uroepithelial Cells after Exposure in Vitro to 4-Aminobiphenyl ... Tumorigenic Transformation and Neoplastic Progression of Human Uroepithelial Cells after Exposure in Vitro to 4-Aminobiphenyl ... Tumorigenic Transformation and Neoplastic Progression of Human Uroepithelial Cells after Exposure in Vitro to 4-Aminobiphenyl ...
Stress-Regulated Transcription Factor ATF4 Promotes Neoplastic Transformation by Suppressing Expression of the INK4a/ARF Cell ... Stress-Regulated Transcription Factor ATF4 Promotes Neoplastic Transformation by Suppressing Expression of the INK4a/ARF Cell ... Stress-Regulated Transcription Factor ATF4 Promotes Neoplastic Transformation by Suppressing Expression of the INK4a/ARF Cell ... Stress-Regulated Transcription Factor ATF4 Promotes Neoplastic Transformation by Suppressing Expression of the INK4a/ARF Cell ...
Their advanced stages are often characterized by the accumulation of ascites, which leads to spreading of cancer cells outside ... Ascites can be considered as microenvironmental affection for cancer cells [2]. Neoplastic cells are presented as single cells ... Peritoneal fluid stimulates neoplastic transformation of normal HEK 293 cells by high expression of pluripotent genes. Ilona ... Peritoneal fluid stimulates neoplastic transformation of normal HEK 293 cells by high expression of pluripotent genes. Polish ...
... and E7-expressing fibroblasts precedes neoplastic transformation.. Y Xiong, D Kuppuswamy, Y Li, E M Livanos, M Hixon, A White, ... Alteration of cell cycle kinase complexes in human papillomavirus E6- and E7-expressing fibroblasts precedes neoplastic ... Alteration of cell cycle kinase complexes in human papillomavirus E6- and E7-expressing fibroblasts precedes neoplastic ... Alteration of cell cycle kinase complexes in human papillomavirus E6- and E7-expressing fibroblasts precedes neoplastic ...
Normal human cells in vitroappear to retain many normal phenotypic properties, remain diploid, eventually undergo senescence ... Bronchial Epithelial Cell Neoplastic Transformation Human Bronchial Epithelial Cell Squamous Differentiation Normal Human ... Cellular and Molecular Studies of Growth, Differentiation and Neoplastic Transformation of Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells in ... Differentiation and Neoplastic Transformation of Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells in Vitro. In: Feo F., Pani P., Columbano A., ...
Oncogenic transformation was confirmed in vitro by anchorage-independent growth, increased cell proliferation, and expression ... Here we sought to establish a model for the efficient manipulation and transformation of porcine mammary epithelial cells (pMEC ... from stromal cells (CD140a+), with or without further enrichment for basal and luminal progenitor cells (CD49f+). These ... This is the first report describing a porcine model of mammary epithelial cell tumorigenesis that can be applied to the study ...
Spontaneous cell transformation: karyoplasts derived from multinucleated cells produce new cell growth in senescent human ... endothelial cells, and inflammatory cells [1-4]. Although it is well known that cancer epithelial cells and stromal cells ... Human breast cancer cells generated by oncogenic transformation of primary mammary epithelial cells. Genes Dev. 2001;15:50-65. ... the giant cells had recovered from H342 toxicity and had generated daughter cells, and the giant cells and daughter cells with ...
Cell differentiation ; Cancer cells ; Cell transformation ; Cell Differentiation ; Cell Transformation, Neoplastic ; Cells, ... Cell Division. ; Cell Transformation, Neoplastic. ; Hematopoietic Stem Cells--cytology. ; Cell Division--congresses ; Cell ... Cell culture--Congresses. ; Carcinogens. ; Cell Differentiation. ; Cell Transformation, Neoplastic. ; Cells, Cultured. ; Liver ... Cell Differentiation ; Cell Division ; Cell Transformation, Neoplastic ; Growth Substances ; Neoplasms--etiology Holdings. ...
Results of search for su:{Cell Transformation, Neoplastic} Refine your search. *Availability * Limit to currently available ... Transformation assay of established cell lines : mechanisms and application, proceedings of a workshop organized by IARC in ... Normal and neoplastic hematopoiesis : proceedings of the UCLA Symposium held at Steamboat Springs, Colorado, March 27-April 1, ...
... cancer cell lines, and rodent models. We used the transformed cell model in our studies. IMR90 and BJ fibroblast cells were ... Further characterization of transformed cells through cell cycle profiling and mass spectrometry analysis also revealed an ... helped us identify possible early events in cancer transformation and reveal the extra-telomeric effects of telomerase in cell ... Furthermore, transformed cells exhibited increased telomerase activity that was not accountable by hTERT overexpression alone. ...
916 MHz microwave radiation induces neoplastic transformation in cells. Mar 07, 2012. ... According to the World Bank about three quarters of people on the planet now use a cell phone. So cell phones are a big deal ... Diseases : Cell Phone Induced Disease, Mobile Phone-Induced Oxidative Stress, Prenatal Radiation Exposure ... Diseases : Cell Phone Induced Disease, Mobile Phone-Induced Oxidative Stress, Oxidative Stress ...
This topic contains 4 study abstracts on Cell Phone Exposure indicating it may contribute to Insomnia, Mobile Phone-Induced ... 916 MHz microwave radiation induces neoplastic transformation in cells. Mar 07, 2012. ... The dangers of cell phone use have long been debated but for the first time a clear connection between cell phone use and ... According to the World Bank about three quarters of people on the planet now use a cell phone. So cell phones are a big deal ...
Depleted uranium induces neoplastic transformation in human lung epithelial cells.Feb 15, 2010. ... Cell proliferation and cell death are disturbed during prenatal and postnatal brain development after uranium exposure.Dec 31, ... Particulate depleted uranium is cytotoxic and clastogenic to human lung epithelial cells.Mar 29, 2010. ... today the subject of radiations whether from electromagnetic fields like cell phones, medical equipment, depleted uranium ...
Neoplasms, Plasma Cell. Leukemia, B-Cell. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic. Neoplastic Processes. Lymphoma. Syndrome. Leukemia. ... Lymphoma, T-Cell, Cutaneous. Leukemia, T-Cell. Leukemia-Lymphoma, Adult T-Cell. Lymphoma, Large-Cell, Anaplastic. Lymphoma, T- ... Lymphoma, B-Cell, Marginal Zone. Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell. Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse. Lymphoma, T-Cell. ... B-cell Lymphoma Mantle Cell Lymphoma Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma Marginal Zone Lymphoma Mycosis Fungoides Cutaneous T-cell ...
Cell Transformation, Neoplastic. Carcinogenesis. Neoplastic Processes. Pathologic Processes. To Top. *For Patients and Families ... Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma. Leukemia, Lymphoid. Leukemia, Myeloid, Chronic-Phase. Leukemia, Myeloid, ... Underwent autologous or allogeneic stem cell transplant within 60 days prior to receiving the first dose of Ruxolitinib+ ...
Cell Transformation, Neoplastic. Carcinogenesis. Neoplastic Processes. Myeloproliferative Disorders. Bone Marrow Diseases. ... Neoplasms, Plasma Cell. Blast Crisis. Neoplasms by Histologic Type. Neoplasms. Hemostatic Disorders. Vascular Diseases. ...
Cell Transformation, Neoplastic. Carcinogenesis. Neoplastic Processes. Pathologic Processes. Cytarabine. Antimetabolites, ... 3-AP may help cytarabine kill more cancer cells by making them more sensitive to the drug. This phase I trial is studying the ... Drugs used in chemotherapy, such as cytarabine, work in different ways to stop cancer cells from dividing so they stop growing ... Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma. Leukemia, Lymphoid. Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive. Blast ...
Cell Transformation, Neoplastic. Carcinogenesis. Neoplastic Processes. Pathologic Processes. Eosinophilia. Leukocyte Disorders ... Post stem cell transplant allowed provided completion ≥ 4 months prior to study entry and no evidence of active acute or ... Drugs used in chemotherapy, such as flavopiridol, work in different ways to stop the growth of cancer cells, either by killing ... Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma. Leukemia, Lymphoid. Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive. Blast ...
  • IPA-ranked signaling networks identified altered p21, EF1α, Akt, MAPK, and NF-κB signaling networks promoting genetic disorder, altered cell cycle, cancer and changes in nucleic acid and energy metabolism. (cdc.gov)
  • We now show that, in contrast to nutritional regulation of lipogenesis in liver or adipose tissue, changes in fatty acid metabolism during in vitro transformation of the human mammary epithelial cell line MCF-10a are driven by increases in epidermal growth factor signaling, acting in major part through the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase and phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase signaling cascades. (nih.gov)
  • These results confirm an important role for SREBP-1 in neoplastic lipogenesis, and provide a likely basis for the linkage of upregulated fatty acid metabolism with neoplastic transformation and with tumor virulence, since MAP and PI 3-kinase signaling contributes to both. (nih.gov)
  • Conversely, in human tumor cell lines with activating MAPK mutations, inhibition of these signals leads to robust mitochondrial network reprogramming initiated by DRP1 loss resulting in mitochondrial hyper-fusion and increased mitochondrial metabolism. (nih.gov)
  • Since many chemotherapeutic agents such as 5-fluorouracil treat neoplastic diseases, including head and neck cancer, breast cancer, and gastrointestinal cancer, by targeting TS in thymidylate metabolism, DUT may protect against the cytotoxic side effects by countering dUTP accumulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a field of general inquiry and research, pathology addresses four components of disease: cause, mechanisms of development (pathogenesis), structural alterations of cells (morphologic changes), and the consequences of changes (clinical manifestations). (wikipedia.org)
  • Polyploid giant cancer cells (PGCCs) are mononucleated or multinucleated cells with multiple genome copies that can be observed in cancer but that can also play an important role in many normal physiologic and nonmalignant pathologic processes [ 10 - 12 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Vice versa, cell surface molecules are suggested to mediate extracellular signals to the genome. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Because polyomavirus genome replication relies on the DNA replication machinery of the host cell, the cell must be in S phase (the part of the cell cycle in which the host cell's genome is normally replicated) in order to provide the necessary molecular machinery for viral DNA replication. (wikipedia.org)
  • The J domain is a DnaJ molecular chaperone that is required for viral genome replication in vivo (but is dispensable in cell-free laboratory experiments). (wikipedia.org)
  • The major functions of LTag in the viral life cycle involve dysregulation of the host cell's cell cycle and replication of the virus's circular DNA genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • This analysis validated the approach of whole cancer genome sequencing in identifying somatic mutations and the importance of parallel sequencing of normal and tumor cell genomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The researchers found that the cancer cells experienced lower methylation rates than the healthy cells, but only in gene poor regions of the genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some whole-genome sequencing studies have shown that PAX8 also targets BRCA1 (carcinogenesis), MAPK pathways (thyroid malignancies), and Ccnb1 and Ccnb2 (cell-cycle processes). (wikipedia.org)
  • Other viruses are only carcinogenic when they integrate into the host cell genome as part of a biological accident, such as polyomaviruses and papillomaviruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Double immunofluorescence studies of K14 keratinocytes with proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)/cyclin antibodies, which react with the nuclei of cells engaged in DNA replication, showed partial colocalization of PCNA/cyclin foci and large uH2A clusters in about 14% of the S-phase cells, and these corresponded mainly to late S-phase cells. (biomedsearch.com)
  • However, in many transformed cells, proliferating cell nuclear antigen and p21 are lost from these multiprotein enzymes. (nih.gov)
  • In HeLa cells, pm1722 replicated as well as wild-type virus but produced an extreme cytopathic effect and fragmentation of host-cell DNA. (nih.gov)
  • Replication of dl1520 in HeLa cells was significantly reduced compared to wild-type. (nih.gov)
  • The donated stem cells may replace the patient's immune cells and help destroy any remaining cancer cells (graft-versus-tumor effect). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • When the healthy stem cells from a donor are infused into the patient they may help the patient's bone marrow make stem cells , red blood cells , white blood cells , and platelets. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • This result suggests that the target of AHCC in expressing therapeutic efficacy was not the pluripotent cells such as cancer stem cells (CSCs) but SOX2-specific. (cancerindex.org)
  • Cancer stem cells (CSCs) constitute a sub-population of tumor cells that possess stem cell properties, such as self-renewal and the ability of differentiation. (cancerindex.org)
  • In the adult intestine, the crypts of Lieberkühn are the niche for epithelial stem cells and contain all proliferative stem and progenitor cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Intestinal stem cells were first identified as such in the 1970s. (wikipedia.org)
  • Later work suggested that these "+4 cells" may function as reserve or back-up stem cells, and further suggested that they divide slowly relative to the other progenitor cells in the crypt. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, these cells are also called quiescent stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The stem cell zone model states that the CBC stem cells reside in a stem-cell-permissive environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • These cycling stem cells regularly generate progeny, which subsequently exit the niche and pass through the "common origin of differentiation" around position +5, where they commit toward the various individual lineages. (wikipedia.org)
  • In accordance with the stem cell zone model proposing that, during their upward migration, CBC stem cells would only gradually lose their self-renewal capacity, it was shown in vivo that transient amplifying cells can revert to Lgr5+ CBC stem cells after damage, presumably by direct contact with Paneth cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Stem cells (Dayton, Ohio). (wikipedia.org)
  • Somatic evolution is the accumulation of mutations and epimutations in somatic cells (the cells of a body, as opposed to germplasm and stem cells) during a lifetime, and the effects of those mutations and epimutations on the fitness of those cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] All HPVs are believed to be capable of establishing long-term "latent" infections in small numbers of stem cells present in the skin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Induced stem cells (iSC) are stem cells derived from somatic, reproductive, pluripotent or other cell types by deliberate epigenetic reprogramming. (wikipedia.org)
  • Progenitors are obtained by so-called direct reprogramming or directed differentiation and are also called induced somatic stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some types of mature, specialized adult cells can naturally revert to stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • While they normally produce digestive fluids for the stomach, they can revert into stem cells to make temporary repairs to stomach injuries, such as a cut or damage from infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Moreover, they can make this transition even in the absence of noticeable injuries and are capable of replenishing entire gastric units, in essence serving as quiescent "reserve" stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Differentiated airway epithelial cells can revert into stable and functional stem cells in vivo. (wikipedia.org)
  • This capacity to regenerate does not decline with age and may be linked to their ability to make new stem cells from muscle cells on demand. (wikipedia.org)
  • A variety of nontumorigenic stem cells display the ability to generate multiple cell types. (wikipedia.org)
  • For instance, multilineage-differentiating stress-enduring (Muse) cells are stress-tolerant adult human stem cells that can self-renew. (wikipedia.org)
  • STAT5 was also activated in primary mouse bone marrow cells acutely transformed by the CML-specific BCR-ABL oncogene, but not by the serine kinase oncogene v-MOS. (nih.gov)
  • Increased tyrosine kinase activity of abl oncogene in Philadelphia chromosome positive-leukemic cells leads to activation of p21ras and phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase (PI 3-Kinase). (nih.gov)
  • The clusters, which were rare in normal cells, did not colocalize with other known nuclear antigens and may correspond to novel nuclear domains where ubiquitination/deubiquitination takes place. (biomedsearch.com)
  • These advances have created experimental approaches to answering critical questions in human cell carcinogenesis 1,2 . (springer.com)
  • Sex-determining region Y-box 2 (SOX2) is reported to be up-regulated in other kinds of cancer cells and involved in carcinogenesis and malignancy. (cancerindex.org)
  • While the high effectiveness in cell killing provides the rationale for heavy ion cancer therapy (hadron therapy), residual damage in surviving cells is of concern for carcinogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Carcinogenesis, also called oncogenesis or tumorigenesis, is the formation of a cancer, whereby normal cells are transformed into cancer cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • EGFR is upregulated in the majority of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC). (cancerindex.org)
  • miR-199a, one of the most significantly overexpressed in invasive squamous cell carcinomas (ISCCs), was evaluated by transfecting cervical cancer cells (SiHa and ME-180) with anti-miR-199a oligonucleotides and the cell viability assessed. (wikipedia.org)
  • left untreated, they may turn into a type of cancer called Squamous cell skin cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Indications are that: for high-LET radiation, where complex DSBs occur with high frequency, little repair occurs, leading to cell death or the mis-rejoining of unrepairable ends with other radiation-induced DSB leads to large DNA deletions and chromosome aberrations. (wikipedia.org)
  • During cell division, heterochromatin formation is required for proper chromosome segregation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The PAX5 gene is located in chromosome 9p13 region, which is involved in t(9;14)(p13;q32) translocations recurring in small lymphocytic lymphomas of the plasmacytoid subtype, and in derived large-cell lymphomas. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interestingly, the mar del (10) and bisatellited chromosomes were present in every cell examined, but the ring chromosome was only present in 4-8% of the cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • A karyotype is typically presented as an image of the chromosomes from a single cell arranged from largest (chromosome 1) to smallest (chromosome 22), with the sex chromosomes (X and Y) shown last. (wikipedia.org)
  • Using a library of activated kinases, we identify several kinases that replace PI3K signaling and render cells tumorigenic. (nih.gov)
  • This is particularly important since dedifferentiation of non-tumorigenic tumour cells towards CSCs can occur, and therefore the CSC population in a neoplasm is expected to vary over time. (nih.gov)
  • Moreover, evidence suggests that not all tumours are driven by rare CSCs, but might instead contain a large population of tumorigenic cells. (nih.gov)
  • Some viruses are tumorigenic when they infect a cell and persist as circular episomes or plasmids, replicating separately from host cell DNA (Epstein-Barr virus and Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus). (wikipedia.org)
  • Normal and neoplastic hematopoiesis : proceedings of the UCLA Symposium held at Steamboat Springs, Colorado, March 27-April 1, 1983 / editors, David W. Golde, Paul A. Marks. (who.int)
  • Pilomatricoma is a tumour derived from hair matrix cells, which shows progressive keratin expression. (cancerindex.org)
  • Correspondingly, 41 out of 50 pilomatricomas showed co-labelling of TGF-β1 and nuclear FHL2 in tumour cells, which mostly lacked nuclear β-catenin expression. (cancerindex.org)
  • In this Opinion article, we argue for a return to an earlier stratagem: tumour cell reversion. (cancerindex.org)
  • miR-31 has been characterised as a tumour suppressor miRNA, with its levels varying in breast cancer cells according to the metastatic state of the tumour. (wikipedia.org)
  • There has also been observed a strong encapsulation of tumour cells expressing miR-31, as well as a reduced cell survival rate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Conversely, in gastric cancer miR-31 levels have been found to be significantly lower in tumour cells relative to healthy cells, meaning further potential for use as a diagnostic marker. (wikipedia.org)
  • The giant-cell tumour stromal cells (GCTSC) constitute the neoplastic cells, which are from an osteoblastic origin and are classified based on expression of osteoblast cell markers such as alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Immunofluorescent staining revealed expression of stem cell factors OCT4, Nanog, and SOX-2 in spheroid, whereas expression of embryonic stem cell marker SSEA1 was increased in HRAS -transformed cells compared with their immortalized isogenic counterparts. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • These results suggest that normal mullerian epithelial cells are intrinsically highly plastic, via the formation of polyploid giant cells and activation of embryonic stem-like program, which work together to promote the coevolution of neoplastic epithelial cells and multiple lineage stromal cells. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • High-intensity electromagnetic radiation associated with cell phone exposure is very likely to induce the death of embryonic cells and decrease the chance of their implantation, thereby posing a high risk to pregnancy. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • An immunohistochemical study showed that the tumor cells frequently expressed cytokeratin, epithelial membrane antigen and carcino-embryonic antigen, occasionally CA19-9, vimentin and neuron-specific enolase. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Such an expansion is said to be "monoclonal", and monoclonal antibodies produced by such a group of B cells can cause illnesses such as amyloidosis and lupus, or can be indicative of an underlying malignancy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Malignancy in giant-cell tumor is uncommon and occurs in about 2% of all cases. (wikipedia.org)
  • ZNF217 can attenuate apoptotic signals resulting from telomere dysfunction and may promote neoplastic transformation and later stages of malignancy. (wikipedia.org)
  • The lack of the normal distribution of these B cells is one basis for demonstrating clonality, the key element for establishing a diagnosis of any B cell malignancy (B cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma). (wikipedia.org)
  • Notch family members play a role in a variety of developmental processes by controlling cell fate decisions. (cancerindex.org)
  • Under the microscope, the tumor is seen to be composed of bipolar cells with long "hairlike" GFAP-positive processes, giving the designation "pilocytic" (that is, made up of cells that look like fibers when viewed under a microscope). (wikipedia.org)
  • While myelinating Schwann cells cover large diameter (>1 micrometer) peripheral nervous system (PNS) axons with myelin, nonmyelinating Schwann cells encapsulate small diameter PNS axons with their cytoplasmic processes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gestational trophoblastic disease relates to neoplastic processes originating from tissue of a pregnancy that often is located in the uterus. (wikipedia.org)