Cell Transdifferentiation: A naturally occurring phenomenon where terminally differentiated cells dedifferentiate to the point where they can switch CELL LINEAGES. The cells then differentiate into other cell types.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Hematopoietic Stem Cells: Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: Transfer of HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS from BONE MARROW or BLOOD between individuals within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS). Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has been used as an alternative to BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION in the treatment of a variety of neoplasms.Stem Cells: Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Clone Cells: A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Virus Integration: Insertion of viral DNA into host-cell DNA. This includes integration of phage DNA into bacterial DNA; (LYSOGENY); to form a PROPHAGE or integration of retroviral DNA into cellular DNA to form a PROVIRUS.Sarcoma, Kaposi: A multicentric, malignant neoplastic vascular proliferation characterized by the development of bluish-red cutaneous nodules, usually on the lower extremities, most often on the toes or feet, and slowly increasing in size and number and spreading to more proximal areas. The tumors have endothelium-lined channels and vascular spaces admixed with variably sized aggregates of spindle-shaped cells, and often remain confined to the skin and subcutaneous tissue, but widespread visceral involvement may occur. Kaposi's sarcoma occurs spontaneously in Jewish and Italian males in Europe and the United States. An aggressive variant in young children is endemic in some areas of Africa. A third form occurs in about 0.04% of kidney transplant patients. There is also a high incidence in AIDS patients. (From Dorland, 27th ed & Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, pp2105-7) HHV-8 is the suspected cause.Herpesvirus 8, Human: A species in the genus RHADINOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, isolated from patients with AIDS-related and "classical" Kaposi sarcoma.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Rosa: A plant genus in the family ROSACEAE and order Rosales. This should not be confused with the genus RHODIOLA which is sometimes called roseroot.Germinal Center: The activated center of a lymphoid follicle in secondary lymphoid tissue where B-LYMPHOCYTES are stimulated by antigens and helper T cells (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER) are stimulated to generate memory cells.Bone Marrow: The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.Multipotent Stem Cells: Specialized stem cells that are committed to give rise to cells that have a particular function; examples are MYOBLASTS; MYELOID PROGENITOR CELLS; and skin stem cells. (Stem Cells: A Primer [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Institutes of Health (US); 2000 May [cited 2002 Apr 5]. Available from: http://www.nih.gov/news/stemcell/primer.htm)Mesenchymal Stromal Cells: Bone-marrow-derived, non-hematopoietic cells that support HEMATOPOETIC STEM CELLS. They have also been isolated from other organs and tissues such as UMBILICAL CORD BLOOD, umbilical vein subendothelium, and WHARTON JELLY. These cells are considered to be a source of multipotent stem cells because they include subpopulations of mesenchymal stem cells.Osteogenesis: The process of bone formation. Histogenesis of bone including ossification.Hemocytes: Any blood or formed element especially in invertebrates.Wasps: Any of numerous winged hymenopterous insects of social as well as solitary habits and having formidable stings.Polydnaviridae: A family of insect viruses isolated from endoparasitic hymenopteran insects belonging to the families Ichneumonidae and Braconidae. The two genera are Ichnovirus and Bracovirus.Larva: Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 3: One of the six homologous soluble proteins that bind insulin-like growth factors (SOMATOMEDINS) and modulate their mitogenic and metabolic actions at the cellular level.Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 1: One of the six homologous proteins that specifically bind insulin-like growth factors (SOMATOMEDINS) and modulate their mitogenic and metabolic actions. The function of this protein is not completely defined. However, several studies demonstrate that it inhibits IGF binding to cell surface receptors and thereby inhibits IGF-mediated mitogenic and cell metabolic actions. (Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 1993;204(1):4-29)Insulin-Like Growth Factor I: A well-characterized basic peptide believed to be secreted by the liver and to circulate in the blood. It has growth-regulating, insulin-like, and mitogenic activities. This growth factor has a major, but not absolute, dependence on GROWTH HORMONE. It is believed to be mainly active in adults in contrast to INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR II, which is a major fetal growth factor.Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 2: One of the six homologous soluble proteins that bind insulin-like growth factors (SOMATOMEDINS) and modulate their mitogenic and metabolic actions at the cellular level.Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Proteins: A family of soluble proteins that bind insulin-like growth factors and modulate their biological actions at the cellular level. (Int J Gynaecol Obstet 1992;39(1):3-9)Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 5: One of the six homologous soluble proteins that bind insulin-like growth factors (SOMATOMEDINS) and modulate their mitogenic and metabolic actions at the cellular level.Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 4: One of the six homologous soluble proteins that bind insulin-like growth factors (SOMATOMEDINS) and modulate their mitogenic and metabolic actions at the cellular level.Metaplasia: A condition in which there is a change of one adult cell type to another similar adult cell type.Goblet Cells: A glandular epithelial cell or a unicellular gland. Goblet cells secrete MUCUS. They are scattered in the epithelial linings of many organs, especially the SMALL INTESTINE and the RESPIRATORY TRACT.Hyperplasia: An increase in the number of cells in a tissue or organ without tumor formation. It differs from HYPERTROPHY, which is an increase in bulk without an increase in the number of cells.Cilia: Populations of thin, motile processes found covering the surface of ciliates (CILIOPHORA) or the free surface of the cells making up ciliated EPITHELIUM. Each cilium arises from a basic granule in the superficial layer of CYTOPLASM. The movement of cilia propels ciliates through the liquid in which they live. The movement of cilia on a ciliated epithelium serves to propel a surface layer of mucus or fluid. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Mucin 5AC: A gel-forming mucin that is primarily found on the surface of gastric epithelium and in the RESPIRATORY TRACT. Mucin 5AC was originally identified as two distinct proteins, however a single gene encodes the protein which gives rise to the mucin 5A and mucin 5C variants.Respiratory Mucosa: The mucous membrane lining the RESPIRATORY TRACT, including the NASAL CAVITY; the LARYNX; the TRACHEA; and the BRONCHI tree. The respiratory mucosa consists of various types of epithelial cells ranging from ciliated columnar to simple squamous, mucous GOBLET CELLS, and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.TCF Transcription Factors: A family of DNA-binding proteins that are primarily expressed in T-LYMPHOCYTES. They interact with BETA CATENIN and serve as transcriptional activators and repressors in a variety of developmental processes.Glucocorticoids: A group of CORTICOSTEROIDS that affect carbohydrate metabolism (GLUCONEOGENESIS, liver glycogen deposition, elevation of BLOOD SUGAR), inhibit ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE secretion, and possess pronounced anti-inflammatory activity. They also play a role in fat and protein metabolism, maintenance of arterial blood pressure, alteration of the connective tissue response to injury, reduction in the number of circulating lymphocytes, and functioning of the central nervous system.beta Catenin: A multi-functional catenin that participates in CELL ADHESION and nuclear signaling. Beta catenin binds CADHERINS and helps link their cytoplasmic tails to the ACTIN in the CYTOSKELETON via ALPHA CATENIN. It also serves as a transcriptional co-activator and downstream component of WNT PROTEIN-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS.Pancreas: A nodular organ in the ABDOMEN that contains a mixture of ENDOCRINE GLANDS and EXOCRINE GLANDS. The small endocrine portion consists of the ISLETS OF LANGERHANS secreting a number of hormones into the blood stream. The large exocrine portion (EXOCRINE PANCREAS) is a compound acinar gland that secretes several digestive enzymes into the pancreatic ductal system that empties into the DUODENUM.Receptors, Glucocorticoid: Cytoplasmic proteins that specifically bind glucocorticoids and mediate their cellular effects. The glucocorticoid receptor-glucocorticoid complex acts in the nucleus to induce transcription of DNA. Glucocorticoids were named for their actions on blood glucose concentration, but they have equally important effects on protein and fat metabolism. Cortisol is the most important example.Lymphoid Enhancer-Binding Factor 1: A T-cell factor that plays an essential role in EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT.Dexamethasone: An anti-inflammatory 9-fluoro-glucocorticoid.Myocardial Infarction: NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).Stem Cell Transplantation: The transfer of STEM CELLS from one individual to another within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or between species (XENOTRANSPLANTATION), or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS). The source and location of the stem cells determines their potency or pluripotency to differentiate into various cell types.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit: A protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is specific for STEM CELL FACTOR. This interaction is crucial for the development of hematopoietic, gonadal, and pigment stem cells. Genetic mutations that disrupt the expression of PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-KIT are associated with PIEBALDISM, while overexpression or constitutive activation of the c-kit protein-tyrosine kinase is associated with tumorigenesis.Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Embryonic Stem Cells: Cells derived from the BLASTOCYST INNER CELL MASS which forms before implantation in the uterine wall. They retain the ability to divide, proliferate and provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Octamer Transcription Factor-3: An octamer transcription factor that is expressed primarily in totipotent embryonic STEM CELLS and GERM CELLS and is down-regulated during CELL DIFFERENTIATION.Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells: Cells from adult organisms that have been reprogrammed into a pluripotential state similar to that of EMBRYONIC STEM CELLS.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Pluripotent Stem Cells: Cells that can give rise to cells of the three different GERM LAYERS.Nuclear Reprogramming: The process that reverts CELL NUCLEI of fully differentiated somatic cells to a pluripotent or totipotent state. This process can be achieved to a certain extent by NUCLEAR TRANSFER TECHNIQUES, such as fusing somatic cell nuclei with enucleated pluripotent embryonic stem cells or enucleated totipotent oocytes. GENE EXPRESSION PROFILING of the fused hybrid cells is used to determine the degree of reprogramming. Dramatic results of nuclear reprogramming include the generation of cloned mammals, such as Dolly the sheep in 1997.Cell Dedifferentiation: A reverse developmental process in which terminally differentiated cells with specialized functions revert back to a less differentiated stage within their own CELL LINEAGE.

Gastric PDX-1 expression in pancreatic metaplasia and endocrine cell hyperplasia in atrophic corpus gastritis. (1/531)

The homeodomain transcription factor PDX-1 plays a key role in endocrine and exocrine differentiation processes of the pancreas. PDX-1 is also essential for differentiation of endocrine cells in the gastric antrum. The role of PDX-1 in the pathogenesis of endocrine cell hyperplasia and pancreatic metaplasia in corpus and fundus gastritis has not been evaluated. By immunohistochemistry and double-immunofluorescence, we investigated the expression of PDX-1 in 10 tissue specimens with normal human gastric mucosa, nonatrophic and atrophic gastritis and in pancreatic metaplasia, respectively. In normal corpus mucosa and in nonatrophic corpus gastritis, PDX-1 was mainly absent. In pancreatic metaplasia, PDX-1 was found in metaplastic cells and in adjacent gastric glands. In contrast to normal gastric corpus mucosa, PDX-1 could be strongly detected in the cytoplasm of the parietal cells surrounding metaplastic areas. Furthermore, PDX-1 expression was found in hyperplastic endocrine cells and in the surrounding gastric glands in chronic atrophic gastritis. Hyperplastic endocrine cells coexpressed the beta-subunit of the gastric H,K-ATPase. We conclude that PDX-1 represents a candidate switch factor for glandular exocrine and endocrine transdifferentiation in chronic gastritis and that an impaired parietal cell differentiation might play a key role in disturbed gastric morphogenic processes.  (+info)

Gene profile for differentiation of vascular adventitial myofibroblasts. (2/531)

Our previous study demonstrated that TGF-beta1 could induce the differentiation of vascular adventitial fibroblasts (AFs) to myofibroblasts (MFs). The aim of this study was to identify the genes which might be responsible for the cell phenotypic change using genechips. Cultured rat AFs were treated with TGF-beta1 (10 ng/ml) for 0 min, 5 min, 15 min, 2 h, 12 h and 24 h, respectively. Then the cells were gathered to prepare total RNA. We examined TGF-beta1-induced gene expression profiling using Affymetrix oligonucleotide microarrays and analyzed data by GCOS1.2 software. Moreover, expressional similarity was measured by hierarchical clustering. Some of genechip results were confirmed by real-time quantitative RT-PCR. Microarray analysis identified 2121 genes with a 2-fold change or above after TGF-beta1 stimulation. 1318 genes showed a greater than 2-fold increase and 761 genes were reduced 2 folds or more at mRNA levels, whereas a small portion of the total regulated genes (42 genes) displayed dynamically up- and down-regulated pattern. Genes were further segregated for early (peak at 5 min, 15 min and/or 2 h), late (peak at 12 h and/or 24 h), and sustained (2-fold change or above at five time points) temporal response groups according to the time of their peak expression level. Among 1318 up-regulated genes, 333 genes (25.3%) responded rapidly to TGF-beta1 and 159 genes (12.1%) responded in a sustained manner. Most genes (826, 62.6%) were regulated at 12 h or later. For the 761 down-regulated genes, numbers of early and late responsive genes were 335 (44%) and 267 (36.1%), respectively. There were also 159 genes, 19.9% of total down-regulated genes, decreased at five time points treated by TGF-beta1. The results suggested that the gene expressions of secreted phosphoprotein 1 (APP1) and Rho-associated coiled-coil forming kinase 2 (ROCK2) had the same trends as alpha-smooth muscle-actin, a marker of MF differentiation. In addition, the gene expression of potassium voltage-gated channel, Shal-related family and member 2 (KCND2) was up-regulated. Furthermore, it was found that endothelin 1 (EDN1), some complement components, NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4) and NAD(P)H dehydrogenase, quinone 1 (NQO1) might be involved in MF differentiation. Using microarrary technique, we confirmed some genes that have been identified by other techniques were implicated in MF differentiation and observed new genes involved in this process. Our results suggest that gene expression profiling study is helpful in identifying genes and pathways potentially involved in cell differentiation.  (+info)

Porcine peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma induces transdifferentiation of myocytes into adipocytes. (3/531)

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma2 (PPARgamma) is a nuclear transcription factor that regulates adipocyte differentiation and lipogenic genes during adipogenesis. The activity of rodent PPARgamma is regulated by phosphorylation of serine 112. The current experiment was designed to study the ability of porcine PPARgamma to stimulate transdifferentiation of myoblasts to adipocytes by overexpressing wild-type PPARgamma or mutated PPARgamma (serine 112 was mutated to alanine) in mouse myoblast cells. The expression of adipogenic marker genes (adipocyte fatty acid binding protein, lipoprotein lipase, and glycerol-3 phosphate dehydrogenase) in cells stably expressing mutated porcine PPARgamma was greater than in cells with wild-type PPARgamma, indicating that the mutated PPARgamma has greater adipogenic capability than the wild-type PPARgamma. Under treatment with a ligand, both wild-type and mutant porcine PPARgamma-expressing C2C12 myoblasts differentiated into adipocytes in 10 d. The expression of myogenic marker genes (myogenin, myogenic regulatory factor-4) was suppressed in cells transfected with the mutated PPARgamma or wild-type PPARgamma. Moreover, wild-type and mutant PPARgamma were able to inhibit myogenesis without addition of a ligand. Our results suggest that porcine wild-type PPARgamma and mutated PPARgamma can both convert myoblast cells into adipocytes, and also that the ability to transdifferentiate was greater in cells containing the mutated PPARgamma than in cells containing the wild-type PPARgamma. Therefore, the existence of serine 112 in PPARgamma may have a role in regulating adipocyte differentiation.  (+info)

A functional role of Cdx2 in beta-catenin signaling during transdifferentiation in endometrial carcinomas. (4/531)

Nuclear beta-catenin is required for changes in morphology from glandular to morular phenotypes of endometrial carcinoma (Em Ca) cells, with activation of p14(ARF)/p53/p21(Waf1) and alteration of p16(INK4A)/pRb pathways. Having demonstrated previously that the homeodomain transcription factor Cdx2 increases markedly during intestinal epithelial cell differentiation, we have examined its effects in beta-catenin signaling during transdifferentiation of Em Ca cells. In clinical cases, Cdx2 immunoreactivity, along with increased mRNA signals, was found to overlap with nuclear accumulation of beta-catenin and p21(Waf1) in morules, demonstrating an inverse correlation with cell proliferation. In cell lines, over-expression of active form beta-catenin resulted in a significant increase in endogenous Cdx2 expression at both mRNA and protein levels. Furthermore, the Cdx2 promoter was activated by T-cell factor 4 (TCF4) -independent activated beta-catenin, as well as Cdx2 itself, through the region from -39 to +9 bp relative to transcription start site. Cells over-expressing exogenous Cdx2 showed high levels of p21(Waf1) expression due to stabilization of the mRNA status, resulting in significant decrease in the proliferation rate, in contrast to the lack of apparent changes in morphology. Moreover, transfected Cdx2 could inhibit beta-catenin/TCF4-mediated transcriptional activation of target genes, including p14(ARF) and cyclin D1, probably through indirect mechanisms. These data suggest that over-expression of Cdx2 mediated by nuclear beta-catenin and Cdx2 itself can cause an inhibition of Em Ca cell proliferation through up-regulation of p21(Waf1) expression, modulating beta-catenin/TCF4-mediated transcription. We therefore conclude that an association between Cdx2 and beta-catenin signaling may participate in induction of transdifferentiation of Em Ca cells.  (+info)

VEGF-R blockade causes endothelial cell apoptosis, expansion of surviving CD34+ precursor cells and transdifferentiation to smooth muscle-like and neuronal-like cells. (5/531)

Severe pulmonary hypertension (PH) is characterized by complex precapillary arteriolar lesions, which contain phenotypically altered smooth muscle (SM) and endothelial cells (EC). We have demonstrated that VEGF receptor blockade by SU5416 {3-[(2,4-dimethylpyrrol-5-yl)methylidenyl]-indolin 2-one} in combination with chronic hypoxia causes severe angioproliferative PH associated with arterial occlusion in rats. We postulate that endothelial-mesenchymal transdifferentiation can take place in the occlusive lesions and that endothelium-derived mesenchymal cells can further differentiate toward a SM phenotype. To examine this hypothesis, we incubated human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (HPMVEC) with SU5416 and analyzed these cells utilizing quantitative-PCR, immunofluorescent staining and flow cytometry analysis. In vitro studies in HPMVEC demonstrated that SU5416 suppressed PGI2S gene expression while potently inducing COX-2, VEGF, and TGF-beta1 expression; and caused transdifferentiation of mature vascular endothelial cells (defined by Dil-ac-LDL, Lectin and Factor VIII) to SM-like (as defined by expression of alpha-SM actin) "transitional" cells, coexpressing both endothelial and SM markers. SU5416 expanded the number of CD34 and/or c-kit positive cells and caused transdifferentiation of CD34 positive cells but not negative cells. In conclusion, our data show that SU5416 generated a selection pressure that killed some EC and expanded progenitor-like cells to transdifferentiate to SM-like and neuronal-like cells.  (+info)

Transdifferentiation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells into epithelial-like cells. (6/531)

Bone marrow-derived stem cells have the potential to transdifferentiate into unexpected peripheral cells. We hypothesize that circulating bone marrow-derived stem cells might have the capacity to transdifferentiate into epithelial-like cells and release matrix metalloproteinase-1-modulating factors such as 14-3-3varsigma for dermal fibroblasts. We have characterized a subset of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) that develops an epithelial-like profile. Our findings show that these cells develop epithelial-like morphology and express 14-3-3varsigma and keratin-5, -8 as early as day 7 and day 21, respectively. When compared with control, conditioned media collected from PBMCs in advanced epithelial-like differentiation (cultures on days 28, 35, and 42) increased the matrix metalloproteinase-1 expression in dermal fibroblasts (P +info)

Mediator subunit MED28 (Magicin) is a repressor of smooth muscle cell differentiation. (7/531)

Magicin, a protein that we isolated earlier as an interactor of the neurofibromatosis 2 protein merlin, was independently identified as MED28, a subunit of the mammalian Mediator complex. Mediator complex is an evolutionarily conserved transcriptional cofactor, which plays an essential role in positive and negative gene regulation. Distinct Mediator subunit composition is thought to contribute to gene regulation specificity based on the interaction of specific subunits with subsets of transcription factors. Here we report that down-regulation of Med28 expression in NIH3T3 cells results in a significant induction of several genes associated with smooth muscle cell (SMC) differentiation. Conversely, overexpression of MED28 represses expression of SMC genes, in concordance with our knockdown data. More importantly, multipotent mesenchymal-derived murine precursors can transdifferentiate into SMCs when Med28 is down-regulated. Our data also show that Med28 functions as a negative regulator of SMC differentiation in concert with other Mediator subunits including Med6, Med8, and Med18 within the Mediator head module. Our results provide strong evidence that MED28 may function as a scaffolding protein by maintaining the stability of a submodule within the head module and that components of this submodule act together in a gene regulatory program to suppress SMC differentiation. The results presented here demonstrate for the first time that the mammalian Mediator subunit MED28 functions as a repressor of SMC differentiation, which could have implications for disorders associated with abnormalities in SMC growth and differentiation, including atherosclerosis, asthma, hypertension, and smooth muscle tumors.  (+info)

Effects of KGF on alveolar epithelial cell transdifferentiation are mediated by JNK signaling. (8/531)

Rat alveolar epithelial cells (AEC) in primary culture transdifferentiate from a type II (AT2) toward a type I (AT1) cell-like phenotype, a process that can be both prevented and reversed by keratinocyte growth factor (KGF). Microarray analysis revealed that these effects of KGF are associated with up-regulation of key molecules in the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. To further explore the role of three key MAPK (i.e., extracellular signal-related kinase [ERK] 1/2, c-Jun N-terminal kinase [JNK] and p38) in mediating effects of KGF on AEC phenotype, primary rat AEC cultivated in minimal defined serum-free medium (MDSF) were treated with KGF (10 ng/ml) from Day 4 for intervals up to 48 hours. Exposure to KGF activated all three MAPK, JNK, ERK1/2, and p38. Inhibition of JNK, but not of ERK1/2 or p38, abrogated the ability of KGF to maintain the AT2 cell phenotype, as evidenced by loss of expression of lamellar membrane protein (p180) and increased reactivity with the AT1 cell-specific monoclonal antibody VIIIB2 by Day 6 in culture. Overexpression of JNKK2, upstream kinase of JNK, increased activation of endogenous c-Jun in association with increased expression of p180 and abrogation of AQP5, suggesting that activation of c-Jun promotes retention of the AT2 cell phenotype. These results indicate that retention of the AT2 cell phenotype by KGF involves c-Jun and suggest that activation of c-Jun kinase may be an important determinant of maintenance of AT2 cell phenotype.  (+info)

*Adult stem cell

The ability of a differentiated stem cell of one lineage to produce cells of a different lineage is called transdifferentiation ... such as mesenchymal stem cell, adipose-derived stem cell, endothelial stem cell, etc.). A great deal of adult stem cell ... Pluripotent stem cells, i.e. cells that can give rise to any fetal or adult cell type, can be found in a number of tissues, ... Such cells are one of the various classes of induced stem cells. Hematopoietic stem cells are found in the bone marrow and ...

*Turritopsis dohrnii

The species's cell development method of transdifferentiation has inspired scientists to find a way to make stem cells using ... It does this through the cell development process of transdifferentiation, which alters the differentiated state of the cells ... Medusae Transforming into Polyps and Cell Transdifferentiation in Turritopsis nutricula (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa)". The Biological ... medusae transforming into polyps and cell transdifferentiation in Turritopsis nutricula (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa)". Biological ...

*Maximum life span

... medusae transforming into polyps and cell transdifferentiation in 'Turritopsis nutricula (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa)". Biological ... Most living species have at least one upper limit on the number of times the cells of a member can divide. This is called the ... Furthermore, lymphoblastoid cell lines from peripheral blood lymphocytes of humans over age 100 had a significantly higher poly ... The first experimental test of this idea was by Hart and Setlow who measured the capacity of cells from seven different ...

*Marine life

... medusae transforming into polyps and cell transdifferentiation in Turritopsis nutricula (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa)". Biological ... They have unspecialized cells that can transform into other types and that often migrate between the main cell layers and the ... The eukaryotic cells emerged between 1.6-2.7 billion years ago. The next major change in cell structure came when bacteria were ... Unlike cells of animals and other eukaryotes, bacterial cells do not contain a nucleus and rarely harbour membrane-bound ...

*Marine invertebrates

... medusae transforming into polyps and cell transdifferentiation in Turritopsis nutricula (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa)". Biological ... They have unspecialized cells that can transform into other types and that often migrate between the main cell layers and the ... Sponges are similar to other animals in that they are multicellular, heterotrophic, lack cell walls and produce sperm cells. ... Cnidarians (Greek for nettle) are distinguished by the presence of stinging cells, specialized cells that they use mainly for ...

*Jellyfish

... medusae transforming into polyps and cell transdifferentiation in Turritopsis nutricula (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa)". Biological ... The fused DNA is then put into a cell, to generate either a cell line or (via IVF techniques) an entire animal bearing the gene ... Salt water will deactivate the stinging cells while fresh or tap water can reactive the stinging cells. It is also helpful to ... but it is now known to be related to the way the stinger cells work. The stinging cells on a box jellyfish's tentacles are not ...

*Transdifferentiation

... pancreatic beta-cell-like' cells. The cells induced a wide, functional and long-lasting transdifferentiation process that ... Generally transdifferentiation that occurs in mouse cells does not translate in effectiveness or speediness in human cells. ... Transdifferentiation requires fewer cell passages and would reduce the chance of mutations. Transdifferentiation can also be ... 1987 reported the first instance of transdifferentiation where a cell changed from one adult cell type to another. Forcing ...

*Azacitidine

"5-azacytidine promotes the transdifferentiation of cardiac cells to skeletal myocytes" (PDF). Cellular Reprogramming. 16: 324- ... Azacitidine causes anemia (low red blood cell counts), neutropenia (low white blood cell counts), and thrombocytopenia (low ... doi:10.1089/cell.2014.0021. PMID 25090621. Martens, U.M., ed. (2010). "11 5-Azacytidine/Azacitidine". Small molecules in ... has a compromised efficacy as a cardiac differentiation factor because it promotes the transdifferentiation of cardiac cells to ...

*Chief cell

Parietal cells may secrete factors that lead to transdifferentiation of chief cells, so if lost, chief cells do not normally ... The gastric chief cell (also known as a zymogenic cell or peptic cell) is a cell in the stomach that releases pepsinogen and ... Since the mucus neck cells do not divide as it becomes a chief cell this process is known as transdifferentiation. The gene ... These stem cells differentiate into mucous neck cells in the isthmus and transition into chief cells as they migrate towards ...

*FOXO1

"The forkhead transcription factor FoxO1 regulates proliferation and transdifferentiation of hepatic stellate cells". ... It suppresses survival of tumor cells by inducing apoptosis in prostate cancer cells and glioma cells by upregulating the ... In pancreatic beta cells FOXO1 mediates glucagon-like peptide-1 effects on pancreatic beta-cell mass. When the level of blood ... FOXO1 plays a role in the protection of cells from oxidative stress. It seems to promote cell death when oxidative stress is ...

*Cancer-associated fibroblast

It has been suggested that CAFs are better conceptualised as a "cell state" Research has found that CAF trans-differentiation ... such as cell cycle regulation and cell death, or signal to specific types of cells to mobilize and activate their pro-tumour ... The normal fibroblast cells receive a hormone signal from nearby cells, indicating that it must become activated, and is thus ... Another suggested origin is differentiation of endothelial or epithelial cells via trans-differentiation or epithelial to ...

*Centre for Genomic Regulation

Stem cell research includes differentiation and transdifferentiation in the hematopoietic system, somatic cell reprogramming, ... Cell polarity is a prerequisite for several fundamental operations in animal cells, such as asymmetric cell division and ... Cell and Developmental Biology, or CDB, is built on the idea that the cell should be the primary focus of developmental biology ... stem cell differentiation, organoid formation, and induced pluripotent stem cells. This unit collaborates with the Biomolecular ...

*Hossein Baharvand

He has been working on transdifferentiation and pluripotent stem cell differentiation into cardiomyocytes, neural cells, ... He is the founder of Department of Stem Cells in 2002 as well as Royan institute for Stem Cell Biology and Technology in 2010. ... Hossein Baharvand is an Iranian stem cell and developmental biologist and director of Royan Institute for Stem Cell Biology and ... hepatocytes and beta cells. He has also been studying the pluripotency mechanism; and germ cell biology. In addition, he has ...

*Myofibroblast

Epithelial to mesenchymal transdifferentiation (EMT) of an epithelial cell. Myofibroblasts usually stain for the intermediate ... Partial smooth muscle differentiation of a fibroblastic cell Activation of a stellate cell (e.g. hepatic Ito cells or ... A myofibroblast is a cell that is in between a fibroblast and a smooth muscle cell in phenotype. There are many possible ways ... Pericytes and renal mesangial cells are some examples of modified myofibroblast-like cells. Myofibroblasts may interfere with ...

*Biological immortality

... species of jellyfish that uses transdifferentiation to replenish cells after sexual reproduction. This cycle can repeat ... and cell metabolism. Normal stem cells and germ cells can also be said to be immortal (when humans refer to the cell line).[ ... when a cell splits symmetrically to produce two daughter cells, the process of cell division can restore the cell to a youthful ... Among the most commonly used cell lines are HeLa and Jurkat, both of which are immortalized cancer cell lines. HeLa cells ...

*Aurora A kinase

... shown to be involved in the Epithelial-mesenchymal transition and Neuroendocrine Transdifferentiation of Prostate Cancer cells ... If the cell begins mitosis, duplicates its DNA, but is then not able to divide into two separate cells it becomes an aneuploid ... Nigg EA (2001). "Mitotic kinases as regulators of cell division and its checkpoints". Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. 2 (1): 21-32. ... the process by which the cytoplasm of the parent cell is split into two daughter cells. During citokinesis the mother centriole ...

*Schlemm's canal

... mechanism involving the transdifferentiation of venous endothelial cells in the eye into lymphatic-like endothelial cells. The ...

*Thomas Graf (biologist)

In 1995 he pioneered this technique permitting the transdifferentiation of white blood cells into red blood cell precursors and ... Graf, Thomas (2011-12-02). "Historical Origins of Transdifferentiation and Reprogramming". Cell Stem Cell. 9 (6): 504-516. doi: ... "Historical Origins of Transdifferentiation and Reprogramming". Cell Stem Cell. 9 (6): 504-516. doi:10.1016/j.stem.2011.11.012. ... Baker, Monya (2008-10-23). "Thomas Graf: Cellular identify and transdifferentiation". Nature Reports Stem Cells. doi:10.1038/ ...

*Stem cell secretome

This is contrary to the historic hypothesis that stem cell migration and transdifferentiation is the primary mechanism of ... The stem cell secretome, (also referred to as the stromal cell secretome), is a collective term for the paracrine soluble ... Stem Cell therapies, here referred to as therapies employing non-hematopoietic, mesenchymal stem cells, have a wide range of ... This approach is also known as cell-free stem cell therapy. It has been hypothesized that future therapies aiming at generating ...

*Regeneration (biology)

... the use of adult somatic stem cells and the dedifferentiation and/or transdifferentiation of cells, and more than one mode can ... Macrophages are a type of repairing cell that devour dead cells and pathogens, and trigger other immune cells to respond to ... This should not be confused with the transdifferentiation of cells which is when they lose their tissue-specific ... First, the local cells dedifferentiate at the wound site into progenitor to form a blastema Second, the blastemal cells will ...

*Examples of in vitro transdifferentiation by initial epigenetic activation phase approach

... neural stem/progenitor cells (Oct4, Sox2, c-Myc, Klf4) Transdifferentiation Induced stem cells Pournasr, B.; Khaloughi, K.; ... Generating Desired Cell Types from Abundant and Accessible Cells". Stem Cells. 29 (12): 1933-1941. doi:10.1002/stem.760. PMID ... Nature Cell Biology. 13 (3): 215-222. doi:10.1038/ncb2164. PMID 21278734. Kim, J.; Efe, J. A.; Zhu, S.; Talantova, M.; Yuan, X ... polygonal hyaline chondrogenic cells (Klf4, c-Myc, Sox9) Mouse dermal fibroblasts → cardiomyocytes (Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, JI1 and ...

*Androgen deprivation therapy

... neuroendocrine transdifferentiation (NEtD) and cancer stem cell-like gene programs. EMT has established roles in promoting ... Cancer Stem Cell phenotypes are associated with disease recurrence, metastasis, and cell survival in circulation as Circulating ... These pro-growth signals, however, can be problematic when they occur in a cancer cell. Antiandrogens can enter cells and ... Prostate cancer cells usually require androgen hormones, such as testosterone, to grow. ADT reduces the levels of androgen ...

*Transgenic hydra

Cell type complexity in the basal metazoan Hydra is maintained by both stem cell based mechanisms and transdifferentiation. Dev ... Hydra polyps are small and transparent which makes it possible to trace single cells in vivo. In addition, transgenic Hydra ... Transgenic stem cells in Hydra reveal an early evolutionary origin for key elements controlling self-renewal and ... Transgenic Hydra allow in vivo tracking of individual stem cells during morphogenesis. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103;16: 6208- ...

*Inhibitor of DNA-binding protein

"A role for Id in the regulation of TGF-beta-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transdifferentiation". Cell Death and ... An increase in ID expression is seen in embryonic and adult stem cells. ID proteins also promote cell cycle progression, ... When ID proteins are overexpressed, cell proliferation is enhanced and cells become insensitive to growth factor depletion. ... When ID1 was knocked out, a defect in T-cell migration was seen. A knockout of ID2 showed that 25% of mice died perinatally, ...

*Examples of in vivo transdifferentiation by lineage-instructive approach

... granulosa and thecal cells → functional Sertoli-like and Leydig-like cells (-Foxl1) Transdifferentiation Induced stem cells ... A list of examples of in vivo transdifferentiation through transfection: mouse hepatocytes → B cells (Pdx1) exocrine cells → B ... Generating Desired Cell Types from Abundant and Accessible Cells". Stem Cells. 29 (12): 1933-1941. doi:10.1002/stem.760. PMID ... Cobaleda, C. S.; Jochum, W.; Busslinger, M. (2007). "Conversion of mature B cells into T cells by dedifferentiation to ...

*Directed differentiation

co-culture with stromal cells or feeder cells, and on specific culture substrates: support cells and matrices provide ... This method, also known as transdifferentiation or direct conversion, consists in overexpressing one or several factors, ... human immortalized cells or primary cultures from biopsies, which their limitations. Clinically-relevant cell types i.e. cell ... "Retinoic acid induces embryonal carcinoma cells to differentiate into neurons and glial cells". The Journal of Cell Biology. ...
Abstract Cell transdifferentiation, which directly switches one type of differentiated cells into another cell type, is more advantageous than cell reprogramming to generate pluripotent cells and differentiate them into functional cells. This process is crucial in regenerative medicine. However, the cell-converting strategies, which mainly depend on the virus-mediated expression of exogenous genes, have clinical safety concerns. Small molecules with compelling advantages are a potential alternative in manipulating cell fate conversion. In this review, we briefly retrospect the nature of cell transdifferentiation and summarize the current developments in the research of small molecules in promoting cell conversion. Particularly, we focus on the complete chemical compound-induced cell transdifferentiation, which is closer to the clinical translation in cell therapy. Despite these achievements, the mechanisms underpinning chemical transdifferentiation remain largely unknown. More importantly, ...
Early work documenting transdifferentiation of c-kit-positive hematopoietic stem cells (c-kit-HSCs) into myocytes has been difficult to reproduce. Conflicting results may be attributed to several factors, including the functional heterogeneity of the HSC pool, which may contain cells capable of forming myocytes and cells lacking this ability. We have addressed this issue by introducing clonal analysis of single HSCs. HSCs were infected with lentiviruses, and the unique site of viral insertion present in the infected HSC and its progeny was detected by immunolabeling or amplified by PCR. Freshly isolated FACS-sorted c-kit-HSCs were simultaneously transduced with 3 lentiviruses, each encoding red, green or blue (RGB) fluorescent proteins (RGB marking). Thus, single HSCs were marked by different combinations of inserted vectors, resulting in numerous clones of mixed colors. RGB-infected HSCs were injected in infarcted mice; at 4 days, engrafted HSCs showed a polyclonal pattern characterized by the ...
The PSC has a dual function, as a niche for haemocyte progenitors and also as a master coordinator in the host immune response against wasp eggs. Indeed, although wasp eggs are mainly encapsulated by lamellocytes that originate from circulating, haemocoelic plasmatocytes, the lymph gland-and more specifically the PSC-is required to drive their transdifferentiation. Indeed, collier mutant larvae, which lack a PSC, fail to mount an immune response against the parasitoid (Crozatier et al, 2004). Hence, a signal is thought to originate from the egg after its detection by plasmatocytes, allowing the PSC to drive the lamellocyte programme in the lymph gland and in haemocoelic haemocytes non‐cell‐autonomously (Fig 1).. Sinenko and colleagues now show that wasp parasitization leads to increased ROS levels in PSC cells (Sinenko et al, 2011). Furthermore, artificially raising ROS levels in PSC cells of nonparasitized larvae by genetically interrupting complex I of the electron transport chain (ETC) ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - In vitro trans-differentiation of rat mesenchymal cells into insulin-producing cells by rat pancreatic extract. AU - Choi, Kyung Suk. AU - Shin, Jun Seop. AU - Lee, Jae Jeong. AU - Kim, Young Soo. AU - Kim, Seung Bum. AU - Kim, Chan Wha. PY - 2005/5/20. Y1 - 2005/5/20. N2 - Recent reports have suggested that mesenchymal cells derived from bone marrow may differentiate into not only mesenchymal lineage cells but also other lineage cells. There is possibility for insulin-producing cells (IPCs) to be differentiated from mesenchymal cells. We used self-functional repair stimuli of stem cells by partial injury. Rat pancreatic extract (RPE) from the regenerating pancreas (2 days after 60% pancreatectomy) was treated to rat mesenchymal cells. After the treatment of RPE, they made clusters like islet of Langerhans within a week and expressed four pancreatic endocrine hormones; insulin, glucagon, pancreatic polypeptide, and somatostatin. Moreover, IPCs released insulin in response to ...
Rationale: We have previously shown that innate immunity is necessary for transdifferentiation of fibroblasts to endothelial cells. A major signaling molecule involved in innate immunity is inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Accordingly, we hypothesized that iNOS-generated nitric oxide (NO) might enhance transdifferentiation. Objective: To elucidate the role of NO in epigenetic plasticity during transdifferentiation. Methods and Results: We exposed the BJ fibroblasts to transdifferentiation formulation that included endothelial growth factors and innate immune activator polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (PIC) to induce endothelial cells (iECs). Generation of iECs was associated with iNOS expression and NO elaboration. In absence of PIC, or in presence of antagonists of NFκB or iNOS activity, NO synthesis and iEC generation was reduced. Furthermore, genetic knockout (in MEFs) or siRNA knockdown (in BJ fibroblasts) of iNOS nearly abolished transdifferentiation, an effect which could be ...
Bone marrow (BM) derived stem cells contribute to the regeneration of diverse adult tissues including heart, liver and brain following BM transplantation. Trans- differentiation is a mechanism proposed to explain how tissue specific stem cells could generate cells of other organs, thus supporting the emerging concept of enhanced adult stem cell plasticity. New studies have demonstrated that spontaneous cell fusion rather than trans-differentiation is the cause of unexpected cell fate changes in vivo. In contrast, several authors have reported that trans-differentiation can occur in vitro in the absence of cell fusion, including the generation of neural derivatives from non-neural tissues. These findings have profound implications for stem cell biology and cell replacement therapy, and as a result require extensive validation. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) nave been isolated from the postnatal BM and more recently many other sites including adipose tissue, skin and placental cord blood. As such ...
Haematopoietic stem cells (HSC) are the basis for regeneration of the haematopoietic system in clinical transplantations for blood related genetic disease and leukemias. However, the number of histocompatible donors is limited and HSC numbers in compatible donor samples, particularly umbilical cord blood, are too few to meet clinical requirements. There is an ever-increasing need for novel sources of, and expansion protocols for HSCs that are preferably patient-matched. Current developments in cell transdifferentiation and genetic reprogramming, together with our recent discoveries of haemogenic endothelium as the source of all HSCs, offer an opportunity for ex vivo generation and expansion of patient-specific HSCs. Using our unique combination of transgenic models, cell lines and differentiation protocols, the fundamental and translational goals of our research will yield important information on the genetic program that drives HSC production and expansion.. Specific aims:. ...
Endocrine cell differentiation in the pancreas must be tightly controlled to produce appropriate numbers of each endocrine cell type in the islets. Dysregulation of this process can cause severe physiological problems - diabetes, associated with loss of β-cell generation or function, being the most obvious example. One transcription factor known to be involved in β-cell differentiation is Mnx1, mutation of which is associated with neonatal diabetes. By inactivating Mnx1 in either endocrine progenitors or β-cells, Fong Cheng Pan and co-workers have provided insights into the roles of this key regulator in mouse (p. 3637). They find that Mnx1 acts as a lineage specification factor: upon its depletion, β-cells fail to differentiate but δ-cell number is increased. Mnx1 is also needed for β-cell maintenance: mutants show extensive β- to δ-cell transdifferentiation. Intriguingly, the authors identify a small population of escaper β-cells in which Mnx1 has not been depleted, allowing expansion ...
Mature human β-cells are typically considered as terminally differentiated cells that do not switch their hormone production once fully differentiated. Our results show that human β-cells can convert rapidly and preferentially into glucagon-producing α-cells without forced expression of exogenous transcription factors. Of importance, the conversion occurred in islets from pancreas of organ donors from different backgrounds, independent of donor factors such as age or sex.. To date, only a few examples of human cell transdifferentiation have been reported. This usually requires the forced expression of transcription factors or miRNAs to convert human fibroblasts into neurons, hematopoietic progenitors, or brown fat cells (21) or human liver cells into β-cells (22). In our three-dimensional culture system, the dispersion into single cells followed by reaggregation into islet cell aggregates is likely to be a critical step for cell conversion. Previous lineage-tracing studies in human β-cells ...
Vascular smooth muscle cells [VSMC], mononuclear cells [MNC] and their local interaction are known to play key roles in atherosclerotic plaque development and destabilization. To study the cellular interactions an in-vitro co-culture model was established. Peripheral blood MNC were isolated by density gradient centrifugation and marked with fluorescence-labeled acetylated low-density lipoprotein [Fl-ac-LDL]. Mitomycin-treated non-proliferating VSMC were seeded semi-confluently and co-cultured with the labeled MNC in a ratio of 1:3. Immuno-cytochemistry revealed that, within 4 weeks of co-culture, ,20% of the VSMC cells had acquired Fl-ac-LDL. Transdifferentiation processes of the MNC into VSMC had not taken place but could be excluded by xenogenic cell composure (rat VSMC and human MNC) and subsequent quantitative RT-PCR with human specific primers for VSMC markers. Separation of the cells in a trans-well co-culture system resulted in complete absence of double-labeled cells, too. Moreover, ...
배아줄기세포(ES cell)나 유도만능줄기세포 (iPS cell)를 이용해 병든 조직과 세포를 대체하는 재생의학이 활발히 연구되고 있다. 그러나 여기에는 윤리적 한계와 함께 종양발생가능성, 배양 중 이종(異種) 동물세포 오염위험, 고난도의 배양 조건 등 기술적 한계가 있었다. 이에 최근 하나의 세포를 다른 종류의 세포로 직접 이형분화(trans-differentiation) 시키는 연구가 주목 받고 있다.. 본 연구는 성체 생쥐의 피부 섬유모세포(fibroblast)를 혈관내피세포로 직접 전환시킬 수 있음을 최초로 보여주었다. 배아발생과정에서 혈관내피세포가 만들어지는 데 중요한 역할을 하는 11가지 인자를 선별한 후 섬유모세포를 혈관내피세포로 이형분화시키는 5가지 인자(Foxo1, Er71, Tal1, Lmo2)의 조합을 찾아낸 것이다. 이렇게 만들어진 유도혈관내피세포 (iEC)는 혈관내피세포와 유사한 ...
Polyacrylamide substrates were prepared as described, with modifications. 2,10,11 The gels were composed (final concentrations) of 7% acrylamide (Sigma-Aldrich), 3% acrylamidopropyl-trimethylammonium-chloride (Sigma-Aldrich), 0.1% to 0.8% bis-acrylamide to control elasticity (Sigma-Aldrich), 0.1% ammoniumpersulfate, and 0.2% N,N,N′,N′-tetramethylmethylendiamine (TEMED, Sigma-Aldrich) in PBS. The charged trimethylammonium-chloride compound allows for ECM binding. Gels containing 0.1% and 0.2% bis-acrylamide will be termed soft gels, as opposed to stiff gels containing 0.4% or 0.8% bis-acrylamide. For immunofluorescent stains, 24-mm round coverslips were coated with amino-silane (Sigma-Aldrich) for 2 minutes, washed in water, activated with 0.5% glutaraldehyde (Carl Roth, Karlsruhe, Germany) for 30 minutes, washed again, and air-dried. Polyacrylamide solution, (14 μL; as above), was pipetted onto the larger coverslip and covered with an 18-mm round coverslip. After polymerization for 30 ...
The injected trans-differentiated cells were closely interacting with the native germ cells, which shows that they definitely do not have any bad effect on the germ cells," says Yossi Buganim, a postdoctoral researcher in the Jaenisch lab and first author of the Cell Stem Cell paper. "Instead, they enable those germ cells to survive." In fact, when the embryonic Sertoli-like cells were used to sustain other cells in a Petri dish, Buganim noted that the cells supported by the trans-differentiated cells thrived, living longer than cells sustained by actual native Sertoli cells.. Encouraged by these results in vitro, Buganim says he would like to investigate whether the embryonic Sertoli-like cells retain this enhanced supportive capacity after transplantation into the brain, where the cells could sustain ailing neurons. If so, they could have applications in the development of neuron-based therapies for neurodegenerative disorders such as ALS and Parkinsons disease. This work was supported by the ...
y &1970 D. A. MANIERO ET AL 3,522,015 DIRECT CONVERSION CHEMICAL PROCESSING ARC HEATER Filed Feb. 16, 1966 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 M258 N2 @E om mm A INVENTORS Dunlel A.M0niero 0nd l Ch %;(s 8. Wolf mm mm 5 mm mm mm ATTORNEY July 28, 1970 D, MANIERO ET AL 3,522,015 DIRECT CONVERSION CHEMICAL PROCESSING ARC HEATER Filed Feb. 16, 1966 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 mioww Q21 od} vw mm om w. o w w o o NINQ w wm w \ul 9 ON on ow om United States Patent US. Cl. 23277 Claims ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE An arc heater has a pair of axially spaced annular electrodes forming a gap with a generally axially extending arc therebetween, the electrodes having magnetic field coils therein for generating a magnetic field which exerts a force on the arc and cause it to move substantially continuously around and between the electrodes and to describe a generally annular or cylindrical path. Process gas to be pyrolized is substantially continuously admitted under pressure into the arc heater through a substantially circumferential ...
Introduction: One of the possible sources of myofibroblasts accumulation in IPF is the trans-differentiation of the injured alveolar epithelial cells to myofibroblasts through EMT process. Studies so far suggest that TGFβ1 and EGFR signalling cascades are activated during lung fibrosis. We hypothesized that TGFb1 signalling requires EGFR activation to induce EMT during lung fibrosis.. Material and methods: To address the role of EGFR cascades in TGFβ1-induced EMT, immortalized human bronchial epithelial cells (iHBECs) were treated with or without TGFβ1 (2ng/ml), different concentrations of EGF and EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor (AG1478) for 3 days. Expression of the epithelial marker E-cadherin and the mesenchymal marker α-smooth muscle actin (αSMA) was examined by flow cytometry, Western blot and, immunocytochemistry staining. EGFR and Smad2 phosphorylation was measured by Western blot.. Results: Stimulation of iHBECs with TGFβ1 down-regulated E-cadherin expression and increased α-SMA ...
Demethylation events similar to those we have characterized upon differentiation of iPSCs and ESCs to fibroblasts have also been found upon differentiation of adult progenitor cells to mesenchymal lineage fates. For example, gene promoters related to mesenchymal cell fate determination, such as LEP and PPARG2, demonstrate demethylation upon differentiation of mesenchymal cells but not other cell types or lineages (Noer et al., 2006). In addition, it has been shown that DNA demethylation in myoblasts can activate mesenchymal gene expression and induce trans-differentiation to osteogenic and adipogenic fates (Hupkes et al., 2011). Interestingly, it has recently been shown that differences exist in methylation at lineage-specific genes between adult MSCs and putative MSCs derived from ESCs that might account for differences in differentiation potential of MSC populations (Sørensen et al., 2010). In light of these findings, the CpG methylation status of lineage-specific promoters is likely to have ...
What are the biological processes that stem cells go through? What are the industrial processes we need to manufacturing? What do we know about cancer stem cells? How do iPS cells fit into the picture vs. embryonic stem cells? In this episode we investigate how the science and research of stem cells is being translated into industrial cell processes to create FDA approvable, and commercializable products. Differentiation, proliferation, migration, retro-differentiation, trans-differentiation, transformation into cancer cells, the role of tumors micro environments and epigenetics and all reviewed here by the fields foremost experts.. Incoming search terms:biological concepts and processes relating ...
Dr. Lapuk is a bioinformatics scientist, whose research involves the development and application of bioinformatics approaches for the whole genome and transcriptome studies of human cancers. Dr. Lapuks main research focus is the investigation of mRNA expression regulation and processing including alternative and aberrant splicing during prostate cancer progression using microarray and the next generation sequencing technologies. One of the important Dr. Lapuks research directions is the identification of molecular drivers of a phenotype by leveraging systems biology approaches. Dr. Lapuk develops and applies network-based computer algorithms for studying biological mechanisms underlying prostate cancer progression with the goal to identify novel biomarkers for the treatment resistance, neuroendocrine trans-differentiation and development of metastasis. ...
PURPOSE:miR-183 cluster gene includes three miR-183, miR-96 and miR-182 genes that are highly expressed in the inner nuclear layer and specifically in photoreceptors, and plays critical roles in development, maturation and normal function of the adult retina. Additionally down- or dis-regulation of miR-183/96/182 genes have been shown in retinal degenerative diseases such as retinitis pigmentosa. So, exogenously over-expression of miR-183 cluster genes seems to potentially induce trans-differentiation of potent cells like RPE into retinal neurons. With respect to this aim, following constructing of AAV-based vectors containing individual miR-183 cluster genes, the expression levels of miR-183/96/182 cluster was evaluated ...
EndoMT and EMT share many of the same regulators, with members of the TGFβ superfamily being arguably the most prominent players. TGFβ signaling through Smad-dependent and independent pathways leads to direct transcriptional regulation of multiple genes, including several EMT/EndoMT-inducing transcription factors.31 Expression of these transcription factors subsequently drives loss of cell-cell adhesion by repression of epithelial/endothelial genes encoding junction proteins, regulation of cytoskeletal rearrangement, and increased expression and activity of both MT-MMPs and secreted MMPs.32 Moreover, during EndoMT, upregulation of EC Slug by TGFβ and other growth factors results in increased migration and invasion into extracellular matrices of diverse composition, and this is due in part to the indirect activation of membrane type-1-MMP, MMP-2, and MMP-9.26 Interestingly, nuclear Smads form multiprotein complexes with EMT/EndoMT-transcription factors, including Snail, Zeb1, and Zeb2, ...
EndoMT and EMT share many of the same regulators, with members of the TGFβ superfamily being arguably the most prominent players. TGFβ signaling through Smad-dependent and independent pathways leads to direct transcriptional regulation of multiple genes, including several EMT/EndoMT-inducing transcription factors.31 Expression of these transcription factors subsequently drives loss of cell-cell adhesion by repression of epithelial/endothelial genes encoding junction proteins, regulation of cytoskeletal rearrangement, and increased expression and activity of both MT-MMPs and secreted MMPs.32 Moreover, during EndoMT, upregulation of EC Slug by TGFβ and other growth factors results in increased migration and invasion into extracellular matrices of diverse composition, and this is due in part to the indirect activation of membrane type-1-MMP, MMP-2, and MMP-9.26 Interestingly, nuclear Smads form multiprotein complexes with EMT/EndoMT-transcription factors, including Snail, Zeb1, and Zeb2, ...
Coronary revascularization is an effective means of treating ischemic heart disease; however, current therapeutic revascularization strategies are limited to large caliber vessels. Because the mammalian heart scars following cardiac injury, recent work showing that cardiac fibroblasts can transdifferentiate into new coronary endothelium raises a new and exciting approach to promoting endogenous revascularization following cardiac injury. In this issue of the JCI, He et al. report on their employment of a battery of lineage-tracing tools to address the developmental origins of fibroblasts that give rise to new endothelial cells. Surprisingly, cardiac fibroblasts did not appear to contribute appreciably to regeneration of cardiac endothelium. Instead, cardiac endothelial cells were likely to proliferate and generate new endothelium following injury. As these conclusions diverge from prior findings, additional work will be required to understand the sources that generate cardiac endothelium in new ...
The reprogramming of differentiated somatic cells to pluripotency holds great promise for drug discovery and developmental biology. Using immortalized cell lines for drug screening assays has its limitations, such as questionable relevance; and the use of primary cells is often hindered by supply difficulties. Thanks to pioneering work by the Yamanaka, Thompson, and other groups, the feasibility of creating iPSCs has generated an opportunity to provide cell lines with stem cell properties in a virtually unlimited supply [1, 2]. These cells can be derived into different cell types for specific assays, even with patient- or genotype-specific background. Technologies are being developed to produce re-differentiated cells of a number of lineages.. Take cardiomyocytes as an example. There are a number of conventional methods for inducing stem cells into cardiomyocytes: through embryoid body (EB) formation, co-culturing with visceral endoderm-like cell line (END-2), and monolayer caridomyocyte ...
To the Editor:. We found the study by Campbell et al1 to be very interesting, and we believe that it deserves the full attention of the tissue engineering and vascular biology scientific communities. This study offers a promising way of growing self-compatible vascular replacements, at a time when the need for transplantable vessels increases constantly.. This approach was recently criticized in a Letter to the Editor published in Circulation Research, on the grounds that the cells covering the graft are not "true" endothelial cells. However, what Cebotari et al2 documented was "a typical inflammatory reaction to the foreign body, and the cells present on the silastic tube surface are in fact inflammatory cells and do not carry a typical endothelial function." While replicating the major finding reported by Campbell et al,1 ie, the repopulation of implanted graft scaffolds in the given time period, Cebotari et al found that the supposed endothelial cells stained positively for CD31 and CD18, two ...
Synthesis gas, a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide, can be produced by oxidatively-reforming a hydrocarbon-containing stream which passes on one s...
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J:93571 Rowan S, Chen CM, Young TL, Fisher DE, Cepko CL, Transdifferentiation of the retina into pigmented cells in ocular retardation mice defines a new function of the homeodomain gene Chx10. Development. 2004 Oct;131(20):5139-52 ...
J:93571 Rowan S, Chen CM, Young TL, Fisher DE, Cepko CL, Transdifferentiation of the retina into pigmented cells in ocular retardation mice defines a new function of the homeodomain gene Chx10. Development. 2004 Oct;131(20):5139-52 ...
It does this through a cell process of transdifferentiation, where cells transform from one type to another. The switching of cell roles is usually seen only when parts of an organ regenerate. However, it appears to occur normally in the Turritopsis life cycle. Scientists believe the cycle can repeat indefinitely, rendering it potentially immortal. This tiny creature is just 5mm long, and is the focus of many marine biologists and geneticists, to see exactly how it manages to reverse its aging process and achieve eternal youth. Or they could just ask Cliff Richard. ...
Lujan E, Chanda S, Ahlenius H, Südhof TC, Wernig M. Direct conversion of mouse fibroblasts to self-renewing, tripotent neural precursor cells ...
Not only an idiot but a dangerous idiot to boot!. These men who want the power to decide womens health issues make me want to puke! They oppose abortion (even in the case of incest or rape!) but do NOTHING to prevent unwanted pregnancies! Their answer is just say no to sex and we know how well that works dont we? The % of young people having sex tells you that we have to help them and all women (and men too!) - we need good sex education, free birth control plus, if we demand that men take responsibility that would be a good thing as well. The GOP attack on Planned Parenthood is a great example of how outrageous the right wing is - this organization saves thousands of lives every year - plus, they provide women with free consoling so that they make the proper decisions regarding when to have children and how to prevent getting pregnant in the first place - one would think that would be a bi-partisan issue if the GOP is as pro-life as they claim!. ...
In this study, we have investigated the effects of stage-specific vFLIP expression during B cell differentiation in the attempt to recapitulate KSHV-associated diseases (PEL and MCD). Mice developed pathological abnormalities mimicking MCD and showed immunological defects (i.e., lack of GC as well as impairment in Ig class switching and affinity maturation). These findings unveiled for what we believe is the first time the in vivo immunological effects of vFLIP expression. Most surprisingly, in vivo vFLIP expression in B cells led to the development of B cell-derived histiocytic/DC sarcoma, which highlights plasticity between B cell and macrophage/DC lineages and explains the reprogramming ability of KSHV during tumor formation.. Given the evidence that PEL has experienced the GC reaction while MCD develops from earlier precursors that eventually mature into plasmablasts in a GC-independent manner (36), we predicted that ROSA26.vFLIP;Cγ1.cre mice would have represented, a priori, a mouse model ...
Copyright 2014 by Ryan Matthew Welchko. This material is copyrighted and any further reproduction or distribution is prohibited without the permission of the copyright owner ...
Copyright 2014 by Ryan Matthew Welchko. This material is copyrighted and any further reproduction or distribution is prohibited without the permission of the copyright owner ...
TY - CHAP. T1 - Differentiation of pancreatic cells into hepatocytes. AU - Tosh, D. PY - 2006. Y1 - 2006. N2 - This chapter describes the use of the pancreatic cell line AR42J and mouse embryonic pancreas as models for the trans-differentiation of pancreas to liver. Both AR42J cells and embryonic pancreas can be induced to trans-differentiate to hepatocytes by exposure to the glucocorticoid dexamethasone. Dexamethasone can be replaced by the naturally occurring glucocorticoid cortisol to induce the conversion of AR42J cells to hepatocytes. To determine whether the effect of the glucocorticoid is specific, the cells can be exposed to RU486, the glucocorticoid receptor antagonist, prior to the addition of dexamethasone or cortisol. Because the embryonic pancreas contains both exocrine and endocrine cell types, it is possible, with the correct combination of antibodies, to immunostain for at least three cell types. AR42J cells can be obtained as a frozen aliquot or growing culture from the ECACC ...
Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a key trans-differentiation process, which plays a critical role in physiology and pathology. Although gene expression changes in EMT have been scrutinized, study of epigenome is in its infancy. To understand epigenetic changes during TWIST-driven EMT, we used the AcceSssIble assay to study DNA methylation and chromatin accessibility in human mammary epithelial cells (HMECs). The DNA methylation changes were found to have functional significance in EMT - i.e. methylated genes were enriched for E-box motifs that can be recognized by TWIST, at the promoters suggesting a potential targeting phenomenon, whereas the demethylated regions were enriched for pro-metastatic genes, supporting the role of EMT in metastasis ...
Resistance to the Brutons tyrosine kinase (BTK) inhibitor ibrutinib has been attributed solely to mutations in BTK and related pathway molecules. Using whole-exome and deep-targeted sequencing, we dissect evolution of ibrutinib resistance in serial samples from five chronic lymphocytic leukaemia patients. In two patients, we detect BTK-C481S mutation or multiple PLCG2 mutations. The other three patients exhibit an expansion of clones harbouring del(8p) with additional driver mutations (EP300, MLL2 and EIF2A), with one patient developing trans-differentiation into CD19-negative histiocytic sarcoma. Using droplet-microfluidic technology and growth kinetic analyses, we demonstrate the presence of ibrutinib-resistant subclones and estimate subclone size before treatment initiation. Haploinsufficiency of TRAIL-R, a consequence of del(8p), results in TRAIL insensitivity, which may contribute to ibrutinib resistance. These findings demonstrate that the ibrutinib therapy favours selection and expansion ...
Myofibroblast transdifferentiation is now recognized as a hallmark event in the pathogenesis of cardiac fibrosis from a variety of cardiac diseases (15). While it is well recognized that these cells are hypersecretory for a number of key matrix proteins and that TGF-β/R-Smads are key mediators of cardiac fibrosis in heart failure etiologies (12, 22, 42), the study of endogenous Smad-associated proteins that may inhibit these profibrotic signals is in its infancy. We have previously described the antifibrotic actions of Smad7 in plated primary cardiac myofibroblasts, and its diminished expression in healing myocardial infarcts (49, 50), but the function(s) of other members of this unique group of proteins, e.g., c-Ski and Sno-N, remains unclear in this context. Furthermore, an understanding of the effects of c-Ski isoforms in cardiac fibroblasts may assist in determining the physiological role of this protein in healthy and diseased heart. Herein we have characterized the functional and ...
Progressive renal fibrosis is a common outcome of almost all forms of renal damage, including diabetic nephropathy. Fibrosis leads to chronic kidney failure and, eventually, dialysis or transplantation (1-3). Although much is known about the molecular background and mediators that prompt fibroblasts or transdifferentiated kidney cells to release collagen and matrix (4-6), the search for a unique event that initiates the process remains inconclusive. Targeting this putative key signal would enable researchers to "switch off" fibrosis and, perhaps, the progressive loss of renal function that plagues millions of individuals worldwide (1-6). The intermediate/small-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channel (KCa3.1; KCNN4; SK4) is one intriguing candidate for such function because it promotes fibrogenesis in target tissue by altering the membrane potential of cells, thus enhancing extracellular Ca2+ entry (7,8). Subsequent Smad2/3 or mitogen-activated protein kinase (MEK)-dependent phosphorylation ...
crispgg: I expect ANAN to take advantage of this situation. All those with ACCA need is the ability to set up there own firms in Nigeria. With ANAN membership, they can do that. Imagine the credibility that they will gain when they have a huge number of ACCA members joining them. In a few years, they will be at par with ICAN ...
During development, embryonic cells undergo a series of trans-differentiation programs collectively assembled under the name of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) [23]. Interestingly, carcinoma cells exploit the same principle to drive invasion and colonization to non-adjacent tissues. EMT is a process that allows a differentiated epithelial cell, entirely settled and patterned to establish stable contacts with neighbor cells, to assume amesenchymal cell phenotype, characterized by loss of cell-cell interactions [24], reduced cellular adhesion [25], active production of ECM proteases [26], increased cytoskeletal dynamics [27], and changes in transcription factor expression [28, 29]; all of these events eventually lead to increased migration and invasion ability. Moreover, the acquisition of mesenchymal traits by cancer cells undergoing EMT has been widely reported to be associated with the acquisition of a stem cell program [30]. Thus, the expression of both EMT factors and stem cell ...
AIM: To identify signaling pathways and genes that initiate and commit hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) to transdifferentiation. RESULTS: Genetic cluster analyses based on expression of these 21 genes showed Cyproterone acetate similar expression profiles on days 1-3 days 5 and 6 and days 7-10 while freshly isolated cells (day Q) and day 4 cells were genotypically unique from any of the other days. Additionally gene expression clustering revealed strong upregulation of interleukin-6 JAK2 and STAT3 mRNA in the early stages of activation. Inhibition Cyproterone acetate of the JAK/STAT signaling pathway impeded the morphological transdifferentiation of HSCs which correlated with decreased mRNA expression of several profibrotic genes including collagens α-SMA PDGFR and TGFβR. CONCLUSION: These data demonstrate unique clustered genetic profiles during the daily progression of HSC transdifferentiation and that JAK/STAT signaling may be crucial in the early levels of transdifferentiation. go through ...
Counting and integrating microelectronics development for direct conversion x-ray imaging [Elektronische Ressource] / von Edgar Kraft. Universität Bonn, Physikalisches Institut : ..UNIVERSITAT BONNPhysikalisches InstitutCounting and Integrating Microelectronics Development forDirect Conversion X-ray ImagingvonEdgar KraftA novel signal processing concept for X-ray imaging with directly con-verting pixelated semiconductor sensors is presented. The novelty of thisapproach compared to existing concepts is the combination of chargeintegration and photon counting in every
The retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is developmentally and anatomically close to the neural retina. Unlike retinal neurons, RPE cells are nonneural and can reenter the cell cycle on stimulation. Furthermore, their progenies may differentiate into cell types other than RPE. 13 14 15 16 17 18 Classical experiments show that embryonic chick RPE at early developmental stages can be triggered to transdifferentiate into a neural retina. 19 This RPE-to-retina transdifferentiation occurs in vivo and in vitro under the induction of fibroblast growth factors. 20 21 22 23 24 Making use of these properties of RPE, we have recently begun to explore the possibility of using RPE as a potential source of retinal neurons. Chick RPE cells are dissociated, cultured, and infected by retrovirus RCAS expressing a proneural gene. Later, the culture is analyzed for de novo expression of neural properties. We found that cultured, dissociated RPE cells undergo transdifferentiation toward various types of retinal neurons ...
During epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) epithelial cancer cells trans-differentiate into highly-motile, invasive, mesenchymal-like cells giving rise to disseminating tumor cells. Only few of these disseminated cells successfully metastasize. Immune cells and inflammation in the tumor microenvironment was shown to drive EMT, but few studies investigated the consequences of EMT on tumor immunosurveillance. In addition to initiating metastasis, we demonstrate that EMT confers increased susceptibility to NK cells and contributes, in part, to the inefficiency of the metastatic process. Depletion of NK cells allowed spontaneous metastasis without effecting primary tumor growth. EMT-induced modulation of E-cadherin and cell adhesion molecule 1 (CADM1) mediated increased susceptibility to NK cytotoxicity. Higher CADM1 expression correlates with improved patient survival in two lung and one breast adenocarcinoma patient cohorts and decreased metastasis. Our observation reveal a novel NK-mediated, ...
During epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) epithelial cancer cells trans-differentiate into highly-motile, invasive, mesenchymal-like cells giving rise to disseminating tumor cells. Only few of these disseminated cells successfully metastasize. Immune cells and inflammation in the tumor microenvironment was shown to drive EMT, but few studies investigated the consequences of EMT on tumor immunosurveillance. In addition to initiating metastasis, we demonstrate that EMT confers increased susceptibility to NK cells and contributes, in part, to the inefficiency of the metastatic process. Depletion of NK cells allowed spontaneous metastasis without effecting primary tumor growth. EMT-induced modulation of E-cadherin and cell adhesion molecule 1 (CADM1) mediated increased susceptibility to NK cytotoxicity. Higher CADM1 expression correlates with improved patient survival in two lung and one breast adenocarcinoma patient cohorts and decreased metastasis. Our observation reveal a novel NK-mediated, ...
During epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) epithelial cancer cells trans-differentiate into highly-motile, invasive, mesenchymal-like cells giving rise to disseminating tumor cells. Only few of these disseminated cells successfully metastasize. Immune cells and inflammation in the tumor microenvironment was shown to drive EMT, but few studies investigated the consequences of EMT on tumor immunosurveillance. In addition to initiating metastasis, we demonstrate that EMT confers increased susceptibility to NK cells and contributes, in part, to the inefficiency of the metastatic process. Depletion of NK cells allowed spontaneous metastasis without effecting primary tumor growth. EMT-induced modulation of E-cadherin and cell adhesion molecule 1 (CADM1) mediated increased susceptibility to NK cytotoxicity. Higher CADM1 expression correlates with improved patient survival in two lung and one breast adenocarcinoma patient cohorts and decreased metastasis. Our observation reveal a novel NK-mediated, ...
During epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) epithelial cancer cells trans-differentiate into highly-motile, invasive, mesenchymal-like cells giving rise to disseminating tumor cells. Only few of these disseminated cells successfully metastasize. Immune cells and inflammation in the tumor microenvironment was shown to drive EMT, but few studies investigated the consequences of EMT on tumor immunosurveillance. In addition to initiating metastasis, we demonstrate that EMT confers increased susceptibility to NK cells and contributes, in part, to the inefficiency of the metastatic process. Depletion of NK cells allowed spontaneous metastasis without effecting primary tumor growth. EMT-induced modulation of E-cadherin and cell adhesion molecule 1 (CADM1) mediated increased susceptibility to NK cytotoxicity. Higher CADM1 expression correlates with improved patient survival in two lung and one breast adenocarcinoma patient cohorts and decreased metastasis. Our observation reveal a novel NK-mediated, ...
During epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) epithelial cancer cells trans-differentiate into highly-motile, invasive, mesenchymal-like cells giving rise to disseminating tumor cells. Only few of these disseminated cells successfully metastasize. Immune cells and inflammation in the tumor microenvironment was shown to drive EMT, but few studies investigated the consequences of EMT on tumor immunosurveillance. In addition to initiating metastasis, we demonstrate that EMT confers increased susceptibility to NK cells and contributes, in part, to the inefficiency of the metastatic process. Depletion of NK cells allowed spontaneous metastasis without effecting primary tumor growth. EMT-induced modulation of E-cadherin and cell adhesion molecule 1 (CADM1) mediated increased susceptibility to NK cytotoxicity. Higher CADM1 expression correlates with improved patient survival in two lung and one breast adenocarcinoma patient cohorts and decreased metastasis. Our observation reveal a novel NK-mediated, ...
During epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) epithelial cancer cells trans-differentiate into highly-motile, invasive, mesenchymal-like cells giving rise to disseminating tumor cells. Only few of these disseminated cells successfully metastasize. Immune cells and inflammation in the tumor microenvironment was shown to drive EMT, but few studies investigated the consequences of EMT on tumor immunosurveillance. In addition to initiating metastasis, we demonstrate that EMT confers increased susceptibility to NK cells and contributes, in part, to the inefficiency of the metastatic process. Depletion of NK cells allowed spontaneous metastasis without effecting primary tumor growth. EMT-induced modulation of E-cadherin and cell adhesion molecule 1 (CADM1) mediated increased susceptibility to NK cytotoxicity. Higher CADM1 expression correlates with improved patient survival in two lung and one breast adenocarcinoma patient cohorts and decreased metastasis. Our observation reveal a novel NK-mediated, ...
During epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) epithelial cancer cells trans-differentiate into highly-motile, invasive, mesenchymal-like cells giving rise to disseminating tumor cells. Only few of these disseminated cells successfully metastasize. Immune cells and inflammation in the tumor microenvironment was shown to drive EMT, but few studies investigated the consequences of EMT on tumor immunosurveillance. In addition to initiating metastasis, we demonstrate that EMT confers increased susceptibility to NK cells and contributes, in part, to the inefficiency of the metastatic process. Depletion of NK cells allowed spontaneous metastasis without effecting primary tumor growth. EMT-induced modulation of E-cadherin and cell adhesion molecule 1 (CADM1) mediated increased susceptibility to NK cytotoxicity. Higher CADM1 expression correlates with improved patient survival in two lung and one breast adenocarcinoma patient cohorts and decreased metastasis. Our observation reveal a novel NK-mediated, ...
During epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) epithelial cancer cells trans-differentiate into highly-motile, invasive, mesenchymal-like cells giving rise to disseminating tumor cells. Only few of these disseminated cells successfully metastasize. Immune cells and inflammation in the tumor microenvironment was shown to drive EMT, but few studies investigated the consequences of EMT on tumor immunosurveillance. In addition to initiating metastasis, we demonstrate that EMT confers increased susceptibility to NK cells and contributes, in part, to the inefficiency of the metastatic process. Depletion of NK cells allowed spontaneous metastasis without effecting primary tumor growth. EMT-induced modulation of E-cadherin and cell adhesion molecule 1 (CADM1) mediated increased susceptibility to NK cytotoxicity. Higher CADM1 expression correlates with improved patient survival in two lung and one breast adenocarcinoma patient cohorts and decreased metastasis. Our observation reveal a novel NK-mediated, ...
The presence of the EMT (epithelial-mesenchymal transition) and EndMT (endothelial-mesenchymal transition) demonstrates the extent of phenotypic plasticity in cancers. Previous findings in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) cells, i.e., VEGFs autocrine-paracrine function and their responsiveness to endostatin, imply that HNSCC cells share some functional characteristics with endothelial cells and suggest the potential for an "epithelial-to-endotheliod transition (EET)". Such a transition would facilitate HNSCC tumorigenesis by augmenting release of proangiogenic factors and facilitating tumor cell migration and invasion. Consequently, these studies elucidated whether or not an EET occurs in HNSCC cells and tumors, and evaluated cellular parameters to uniquely characterize this epithelial-endotheliod transition. Our results demonstrate that cultured HNSCC cells express a variety of endothelial-specific markers, and assumption of the endotheliod phenotype has functional consequences ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Xue-Cheng Qiu, Hui Jin, Rong-Yi Zhang, Ying Ding, Xiang Zeng, Bi-Qin Lai, Eng-Ang Ling, Jin-Lang Wu, Yuan-Shan Zeng].
Les cèl·lules progenitores endotelials (EPC) derivades de la medul·la òssia tenen capacitat per diferenciar-se a cèl·lula endotelial (EC), contribuint així a la reparació endotelial, no obstant també poden diferenciar-se a altres tipus cel·lulars perpetuant lesions vasculars. En artèries pulmonars de pacients amb malaltia pulmonar obstructiva crònica (MPOC) sha relacionat un increment en el nombre de les EPC amb un engruiximent de la capa íntima daquestes. Lengruiximent daquesta està constituït principalment per cèl·lules musculars llises (SMC), així, aquest treball sha centrat en investigar la capacitat de les EPC per diferenciar-se a SMC, i per tant en contribuir en el remodelat vascular i en els mecanismes moleculars que hi intervenen. El factor de creixement transformant beta 1 (TGFß1) modula la migració i la diferenciació de EC a un fenotip mesenquimal mitjançant un procés anomenat "endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition" (EnMT). Per tant, el primer objectiu de ...
Beate Lichtenberger, PhD of the Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria, provides an insight into the new research that is taking place at her institution on fibroblasts in the context of skin cancer. She explains the research is being undertaken to find out where the cancer-associated fibroblasts originate from, and whether they arise from the result of transdifferentiation or come from the cells that reside in normal skin. Researchers would also quite like to dissect the crosstalk between the mutated epidermal cells and the fibroblasts. Cancer cells are usually mutated, and the cells usually acquire resistance even to therapies that are beneficial in the beginning; therefore, since fibroblasts are rarely mutated, they may prove to be a good target for cancer therapy. Recorded at the 2016 World Congress on Cancers of the Skin (WCCS) and the Congress of the European Association of Dermato-Oncology (EADO) in Vienna, Austria.
A Polymer Thin Film Platform that Promotes Direct Conversion of Cancer Cell Lines to Tumorigenic Cell Spheroids. Yu, Seung Jung; Choi, Minsuk; Choi, Yoonjung; Lee, Eun-beol; Lee, Eunjung; Kim, Jinyong; Kang, Sukmo; et al, 2018 BMES Annual Meeting, Biomedical Engineering Society, 2018-10- ...
November 4, 2014 -- Innovation remains at the heart of every advance in CT imaging, and at RSNA 2014 it shows up at every step in the imaging process, from acquisition to reconstruction to analysis. There are discussions of conebeam CT, high-efficiency direct conversion detectors, and new, more efficient detector materials. This year youll also find presentations on spectral and multienergy imaging, which continue to break ground in new applications ...
A new method of refining hydrocarbons stands out as likely the first direct conversion from cellulose, opening up as potential fuel sources virtually anything that grows. Commercialization may take...
We have identified in this study the fundamental importance of the transcription factor FoxM1 expressed in alveolar type II cells in the mechanism of alveolar epithelial barrier repair after PA-induced lung injury. We used PA because it induces alveolar injury similar to that encountered in pneumonia (Gray and Kreger, 1979; Sadikot et al., 2006). We showed that type II cell-specific disruption of FoxM1 markedly delayed the recovery of alveolar barrier function as indicated by prolonged neutrophil influx and increased BAL protein concentration. There was a persistent alveolar barrier defect in FoxM1 mutants caused by defective type II cell proliferation and trans-differentiation into type I cells.. Although type I cells comprise ∼95% of the alveolar surface area, studies have shown that type II cells mediate the regeneration of type I alveolar cells and restoration of barrier function after alveolar injury (Evans et al., 1973, 1975). Type II cells after injury thus function as progenitor cells ...
Epithelial hyperplasia and metaplasia are common features of inflammatory and neoplastic disease, but the basis for the altered epithelial phenotype is often uncertain. Here we show that long-term ciliated cell hyperplasia coincides with mucous (goblet) cell metaplasia after respiratory viral clearance in mouse airways. This chronic switch in epithelial behavior exhibits genetic susceptibility and depends on persistent activation of EGFR signaling to PI3K that prevents apoptosis of ciliated cells and on IL-13 signaling that promotes transdifferentiation of ciliated to goblet cells. Thus, EGFR blockade (using an irreversible EGFR kinase inhibitor designated EKB-569) prevents virus-induced increases in ciliated and goblet cells whereas IL-13 blockade (using s-IL-13Rα2-Fc) exacerbates ciliated cell hyperplasia but still inhibits goblet cell metaplasia. The distinct effects of EGFR and IL-13 inhibitors after viral reprogramming suggest that these combined therapeutic strategies may also correct ...
Here we characterize the molecular and biological requirements for OCT4 plasticity induction in human skin derived fibroblasts (hFibs) that allows direct conversion of cell fate without iPSC formation. Our results indicate that adult hFibs not only require OCT4 but also short-term exposure to reprogramming media (RM) to successfully undergo direct conversion to early hematopoietic and neural progenitor fates. RM was found to be essential in this process and allowed for unique changes in global gene expression specific to the combined effects of OCT4 and treatment with reprogramming media to establish a plastic state. This molecular state of hFib plasticity was distinct from transient expression of a full complement of iPSC reprogramming factors consistent with a lack in molecular hallmarks of iPSC formation. Human Fib-derived OCT4 plastic cells display elevated levels of developmentally related genes associated with multiple lineages, but not those associated with pluripotency. In response to ...
The ability of transcription factors to directly reprogram the identity of cell types is usually restricted and is defined by cellular context. Through the ectopic expression of single Caenorhabditis elegans transcription factors, we found that the i
Direct Reprogramming Science Project: Investigate how transcription factors can be used to turn one cell type directly into another cell type, and why this technique is important for the future of the field of regenerative medicine.
The main attraction of the transdifferentiation approach is that it offers the possibility of avoiding complications from immunogenicity of introduced cells by obtaining the more easily accessible stem cells of another tissue type from the patient undergoing treatment, expanding them in vitro, and reintroducing them as a therapeutic agent. This is based on the findings of a number of groups who showed that adult stem cells, long thought to be highly restricted in their differentiative potential, may possess a considerable degree of plasticity. This posited plasticity of adult stem cell populations has not gone unchallenged, however, with results having been published by other researchers more supportive of the traditional viewpoint. The data have been recently reviewed from both perspectives (Anderson et al., 2001; Weissman et al., 2001; Forbes et al., 2002). The debate centers over the question, as yet unresolved, of whether stem cells are irreversibly committed to a particular lineage during ...
The IIP2 requirement in fully integrated direct-conversion receivers using FDD duplexing is prohibitively high and demands the use of an external filter in order to attenuate the leakage from the transmitter. This paper presents a digital calibration technique for passive CMOS down-converters that allows a direct conversion receiver achieve the requirements without external filtering. A Least-Mean-Square optimization algorithm is used in order to reduce the low-frequency second-order intermodulation product. The algorithm controls the digital calibration structures at the biasing of the passive mixer and adapts them until the second order intermodulation drops below the noise level. The method is tested by calibrating a 1.2-V 65nm CMOS passive mixer targeting UMTS/LTE applications at several corner conditions including worst case mismatches in the switching pairs.. ...
1. Merida-Velasco JR, Rodriguez-Vazquez JF, Merida-Velasco JA, Sanchez-Montesinos I, Espin-Ferra J, Jimenez-Collado J. Development of the human temporomandibular joint. Anat Rec. 1999;255:20-33 2. Shibata S, Suda N, Suzuki S, Fukuoka H, Yamashita Y. An in situ hybridization study of Runx2, Osterix, and Sox9 at the onset of condylar cartilage formation in fetal mouse mandible. J Anat. 2006;208:169-77 3. Hinton RJ. Genes that regulate morphogenesis and growth of the temporomandibular joint: a review. Dev Dyn. 2014;243:864-74 4. Jing J, Ren Y, Zong Z, Liu C, Kamiya N, Mishina Y. et al. BMP receptor 1A determines the cell fate of the postnatal growth plate. Int J Biol Sci. 2013;9:895-906 5. Jing J, Hinton RJ, Mishina Y, Liu Y, Zhou X, Feng JQ. Critical role of Bmpr1a in mandibular condyle growth. Connect Tissue Res. 2014;55(Suppl 1):73-8 6. Jing Y, Zhou X, Han X, Jing J, von der Mark K, Wang J. et al. Chondrocytes Directly Transform into Bone Cells in Mandibular Condyle Growth. J Dent Res. ...
Iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) have been extensively studied in different biomedical fields. Recently, the non-cytotoxic concentration of IONPs induced cell-specific response raised concern of their safety. Endothelial cell exposure was unavoidable in their applications, while whether IONPs affect the phenotype of vascular endothelial cells is largely unknown. In this work, the effect of IONPs on endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndMT) was investigated in vitro and in vivo. The incubation with γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles modified with polyglucose sorbitol carboxymethyether (PSC-Fe2O3) at non-cytotoxic concentration induced morphological changes of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) from cobblestone-like to spindle mesenchymal-like morphology, while PSC-Fe2O3 mostly stay in the culture medium and intercellular space. At the same time, the endothelial marker CD31 and VE-cadherin was decreased along with the inhibitory of angiogenesis properties of HUVEC. Meanwhile, the mesenchymal marker
Phthalate esters are ubiquitous environmental pollutants widely used as plasticizers, which have been shown to interfere with both endocrine regulation and development of reproductive organs. In the present study, we examined the impact of diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) and dibutyl phthalate (DBP) on the proliferation of androgen-sensitive human prostate carcinoma LNCaP cells and related events. The results showed that both compounds were able to inhibit cell cycle progression in a dose-dependent manner. However, only DEHP was found to weakly reduce androgen receptor (AR) protein levels after long-term exposure, while only DBP partially inhibited expression of the prostate-specific antigen (KLK3) gene, a model AR transcriptional target. This indicated that inhibition of cell proliferation was likely independent of any AR modulations. Both phthalates induced suppression of cell proliferation, but none of them affected the levels of markers associated with neuroendocrine transdifferentiation (NED) ...
Abstract: Prevalence of obesity and co-morbidities is increasing alarmingly in recent years with over 1 billion adults globally being classified as overweight. Importantly, this also applies to the population in Qatar where about 70% of the total population are expected to be overweight and nearly 20% diabetic by 2015. The profound increase in obesity has a severe socio-economic burden for public health systems worldwide. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) has high metabolic activity. Increasing BAT mass in itself as well as through trans-differentiation of white adipose tissue (WAT) to BAT can combat obesity, reverse insulin resistance and diabetes. Orexin A (ORA) and orexin B (ORB) neuropeptides mediate multiple physiological functions including sleep and wakefulness, appetite, metabolism, analgesia, stress response and thermogenesis. Orexins mediate physiological responses via activating two GPCRs OXR1 and OXR2. In the current study we demonstrate for the first time the expression of OXR1 and OXR2 in human
Endothelial progenitor cell (EPC) transplantation is a promising therapy for ischemic diseases such as ischemic myocardial infarction and hindlimb ischemia. However, limitation of EPC sources remains a major obstacle. Direct reprogramming has become a powerful tool to produce EPCs from fibroblasts. Some recent efforts successfully directly reprogrammed human fibroblasts into functional EPCs; however, the procedure efficacy was low. This study therefore aimed to improve the efficacy of direct reprogramming of human fibroblasts to functional EPCs. Human fibroblasts isolated from foreskin were directly reprogrammed into EPCs by viral ETV2 transduction. Reprogramming efficacy was improved by culturing transduced fibroblasts in hypoxia conditions (5 % oxygen). Phenotype analyses confirmed that single-factor ETV2 transduction successfully reprogrammed dermal fibroblasts into functional EPCs. Hypoxia treatment during the reprogramming procedure increased the efficacy of reprogramming from 1.21 ± 0.61 % in
TY - JOUR. T1 - Ignorance in infectious diseases. T2 - The case of AIDS, Kaposi sarcoma, and lymphology. AU - Witte, Marlys H. AU - Witte, C. L.. PY - 2000. Y1 - 2000. N2 - From the perspective of The University of Arizonas innovative Curriculum on Medical (and Other) Ignorance focusing on what we know we dont know, dont know we dont know, and think we know but dont, the shifting terrain of information-knowledge-ignorance of AIDS (a disorder involving, to various incompletely understood degrees, the four components of the lymphatic system-lymph, lymphatics, lymphocytes, and lymph nodes) and Kaposi sarcoma (a lymphedemogenic lesion thought to arise from trans-differentiated lymphatic endothelium) is surveyed by pinpointing some key unanswered questions that have been raised over the course of the epidemic and pointedly in past International Congresses of Lymphology. These questions are placed in the context of general ignorance about infectious diseases and the relationship of germ to ...
Purpose: Radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis (RIPF) is a late side effect of thoracic radiotherapy. The purpose of our study was to gain further insight into the development of RIPF Experimental Design/Results: Here, we observed that irradiation of mouse lungs induced collagen deposition, particularly around blood vessels, in the early phase of RIPF. Such deposition subsequently became evident throughout the irradiated tissues. Accompanied by the collagen deposition, vascular EndMT (endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition) began to develop in the early phase of RIPF, before the appearance of EMT (epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition) of alveolar epithelial (AE) II cells in the substantive fibrotic phase. Concomitant with the EndMT, we detected vascular endothelial-cell-specific hypoxic damage in the irradiated lung tissues. In human pulmonary artery endothelial cells (HPAECs), the radiation-induced EndMT via activation of TGFβ-R1/Smad signaling was dependent on HIF1-α expression. A novel ...
Bat E, Plantinga JA, Harmsen MC, van Luyn MJ, Zhang Z, Grijpma DW, and Feijen J. (2008). Trimethylene carbonate and epsilon-caprolactone based (co)polymer networks: mechanical properties and enzymatic degradation. Biomacromolecules 9: 3208-15. PubMed. Hoenders CS, Harmsen MC, and van Luyn MJ. (2008). The local inflammatory environment and microorganisms in aseptic loosening of hip prostheses. J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater 86: 291-301. PubMed. Krenning G, Moonen JR, van Luyn MJ, and Harmsen MC. (2008). Vascular smooth muscle cells for use in vascular tissue engineering obtained by endothelial-to-mesenchymal transdifferentiation (EnMT) on collagen matrices. Biomaterials 29: 3703-11. PubMed. Krenning G, Moonen JR, van Luyn MJ, and Harmsen MC. (2008). Generating new blood flow: integrating developmental biology and tissue engineering. Trends Cardiovasc Med 18: 312-23. PubMed. Ponsioen TL, van Luyn MJ, van der Worp RJ, van Meurs JC, Hooymans JM, and Los LI. (2008). Collagen distribution in the ...
Our current study reveals novel findings concerning the pathogenic role of LPAR6 in liver cancer and shows that LPAR6 functions as a promoter of tumorigenicity of HCC via the transcriptional activation of several genes, including Pim-3. This highlights the role of the LPA axis in HCC. We have previously demonstrated that LPA promotes HCC progression by stimulating the recruitment and transdifferentiation of peritumoral fibroblasts into carcinoma-associated fibroblasts (17). Here, we used a gain- and loss-of-function approach to elucidate how LPAR6 sustains the HCC tumorigenic process. In addition, we employed deletion mutants to corroborate the involvement of LPAR6 in this process. We also performed an extensive gene profiling analysis by Massive Analysis of cDNA Ends (MACE) to gain insight into genes under the control of LPAR6. Lastly, we show that data obtained in patients on the involvement of LPAR6 in HCC progression, as well as on the existing cross-talk between LPAR6 and Pim-3, are ...
Dr. Mickie Bhatias group from McMaster University in Ontario, Canada has generated an approach that combines two previously developed techniques in order to promote direct conversion of adult human blood progenitor cells into neural progenitor cells - a blood to brain cell conversion!2 The first technique is "OCT4-induced plasticity reprogramming."3 OCT4 is a transcription factor whose brief expression converts cells into a "plastic state" in which they have the ability to differentiate into other cell types, a process of which terminally differentiated cells are incapable. Unfortunately, this technique only serves to de-differentiate somatic cells, and does not commit them to a particular lineage. Bhatias group combined OCT4-induced plasticity reprogramming with previously identified small molecules that specifically induce neural potentiating cells. These molecules are chemical inhibitors of SMAD proteins and the enzyme glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3). Previous studies4 show that ...
The zinc finger E-box-binding transcription factor Zeb1 plays a pivotal role in the epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Numerous studies have focused on the molecular mechanisms by which Zeb1 contributes to this process. However, the functions of Zeb1 beyond the epithelial-mesenchymal transition remain largely elusive. Using a transdifferentiation system to convert mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) into functional neurons via the neuronal transcription factors achaete-scute family bHLH (basic helix-loop-helix) transcription factor1 (Ascl1), POU class 3 homeobox 2 (POU3F2/Brn2), and neurogenin 2 (Neurog2, Ngn2) (ABN), we found that Zeb1 was up-regulated during the early stages of transdifferentiation ...
Fibrosis involves activation of fibroblasts, increased production of collagen and fibronectin and transdifferentiation into contractile myofibroblasts. The process resembles aspects of wound-healing but remains unresolved and can be life-threatening when manifest in the kidneys, lungs and liver, in particular. The causes are largely unknown, but recent suggestions that repetitive micro-injury results in the eventual failure of epithelial cell repair due to replicative senescence are gaining favour. This is consistent with the onset of fibrotic diseases in middle age. Because epithelial injury often involves blood loss, inflammatory responses associated with the fibrotic response have been considered as therapeutic targets. However, this has proved largely unsuccessful and focus is now switching to earlier events in the process. These include EMT (epithelial-mesenchymal transition) and fibroblast activation in the absence of inflammation. TGFβ1 (transforming growth factor-β1) induces both EMT ...
Fibrosis involves activation of fibroblasts, increased production of collagen and fibronectin and transdifferentiation into contractile myofibroblasts. The process resembles aspects of wound-healing but remains unresolved and can be life-threatening when manifest in the kidneys, lungs and liver, in particular. The causes are largely unknown, but recent suggestions that repetitive micro-injury results in the eventual failure of epithelial cell repair due to replicative senescence are gaining favour. This is consistent with the onset of fibrotic diseases in middle age. Because epithelial injury often involves blood loss, inflammatory responses associated with the fibrotic response have been considered as therapeutic targets. However, this has proved largely unsuccessful and focus is now switching to earlier events in the process. These include EMT (epithelial-mesenchymal transition) and fibroblast activation in the absence of inflammation. TGFβ1 (transforming growth factor-β1) induces both EMT ...
How do cells differentiate and switch between alternate phenotypic states? Classic views of cell development were built on the idea that pluripotent progenitor cells progress in a unidirectional manner to the differentiated state. But given the numerous observations of transdifferentiation and cellular reprogramming events, we now appreciate that perhaps all cell types-even those that are terminally differentiated-have the capacity to access other phenotypic states. During these switches in cell phenotype, it is clear that the master regulatory transcription factors that specify a new cell lineage must be activated, but we know surprisingly little about the other half of these transitions: the fate of the master regulators that had promoted and defined the previous cell state. The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) has been implicated by the few studied examples of normal differentiation pathways, but the crucial question remains: how does the UPS erase the previous phenotypic state and promote ...
EMT has been increasingly recognized to play a crucial role in HCC progression by the acquisition of invasive properties. In line with the transdifferentiation of neoplastic hepatocytes to motile mesenchymal derivatives, HCC is described as a heterogenous tumor at advanced stages showing clonal expansion of genetically distinct malignant cell populations. Therefore, efficient anticancer therapy depends on targeting cancer cells at all stages of differentiation.. EMT has been suggested as the critical step in tumor cell dissemination and particularly associates with resistance towards chemotherapy and immunotherapy (1). Here we established and characterized the first human cellular model of EMT in HCC progression which correlates with the recently established molecular expression pattern of early and late TGF-β signatures (22). The late TGF-β signature of HCC was shown to associate with tissue invasion, EMT and metastasis, vascular transmigration and angiogenesis, earlier recurrence and ...
Various clinical studies have registered with the National Institutes of Health (NIH) to study neurologic diseases and damage. There have also been a number of journal reports of the benefits of treatment with BMSC for diseases and damage to nervous tissue. The investigators hope to add to the volume of literature regarding the use of BMSC in those neurologic diseases and conditions identified as likely to respond to this treatment.. Intravenous administration of BMSC is a well-established approach to neurologic disease and injury with much support for its effectiveness in the pre-clinical and clinical literature. BMSC and the associated bone marrow fraction are posited to have a number of different mechanisms by which they may potentially improve neurologic function. In regards their ability to penetrate the blood-brain barrier for potential neuronal transdifferentiation and direct impact on the neurons and glial tissue within the brain, it should be remembered that within the diencephalon ...
Various clinical studies have registered with the National Institutes of Health (NIH) to study neurologic diseases and damage. There have also been a number of journal reports of the benefits of treatment with BMSC for diseases and damage to nervous tissue. The investigators hope to add to the volume of literature regarding the use of BMSC in those neurologic diseases and conditions identified as likely to respond to this treatment.. Intravenous administration of BMSC is a well-established approach to neurologic disease and injury with much support for its effectiveness in the pre-clinical and clinical literature. BMSC and the associated bone marrow fraction are posited to have a number of different mechanisms by which they may potentially improve neurologic function. In regards their ability to penetrate the blood-brain barrier for potential neuronal transdifferentiation and direct impact on the neurons and glial tissue within the brain, it should be remembered that within the diencephalon ...
Gα12 belongs to the group of heterotrimeric G proteins that control various cellular responses, including growth, motility, proliferation, and transdifferentiation (7-11). So far, the impact of Gα12 on cellular energy metabolism has not been investigated. Our results revealed the role of Gα12 signaling in mitochondrial respiration for the control of lipid oxidation and the underlying basis of its regulation of SIRT1, as mediated by HIF-1α-dependent transcriptional induction of USP22. Since Gα12 and SIRT1 are ubiquitously expressed in most metabolic tissues (6), our results support the notion that Gα12 signaling plays a role in overall FA metabolism and, consequently, whole-body energy expenditure.. Moreover, we verified that fasting conditions increased the level of Gα12 in the liver in parallel with fat accumulation and that Gα12 ablation exacerbated fasting-induced liver steatosis along with decreasing circulating fat. These findings raised the contention that Gα12 signaling is ...
The High Energy Physics group at the University of Louisville is concerned with fundamental questions about the basic structure of matter and its interactions. We ask why the visible universe seems to be dominated by ordinary matter (where has the anti-matter gone?), why are the masses of the particles in nature what they are, and how do the interactions among these particles help shape the universe? Do particles undergo heretofore unexpected interactions and what new information can we gain about the universe by studying such rare processes? In particular, we study the production of particles collectively referred to as hadrons in an attempt to better understand the strong nuclear force, and we contribute to a search for the first evidence of the direct conversion of a muon to an electron.. ...
Expression of VSIG2 (CTH, CTXL) in cancer tissue. The cancer tissue page shows antibody staining of the protein in 20 different cancers.
The development of the human kidney is a complex process requiring interactions between epithelial and mesenchymal cells. The condensed cap mesenchyme is hypothesized to generate a population of stem/progenitor cells that undergo mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET) originating nephrons. Few immunohistochemical markers are available for detecting cap mesenchymal cells in the early phases of MET. METHODS: The expression of MUC1 was evaluated in the kidneys, of 4 human foetuses and 2 newborns. RESULTS: MUC1 immunoreactivity was detected in all the examined kidneys in the cap mesenchyme and in the renal vesicles. Immunostaining for MUC1 in cap mesenchymal cells changed from one nodule to the next: some mesenchymal nodules were negative, some showed MUC1 reactivity in scattered cells, whereas in others, positive cells revealed the presence of a roundish developing epithelial structure. CONCLUSIONS: Our data clearly indicates, for the first time to the best of our knowledge, immunohistochemical ...
The success of inducing pluripotency in primary fibroblasts and other cells with a combination of only a small number of transcription factors suggested that fully differentiated cells might change fate following similar treatments. Since the demonstration of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), at least three examples have been published where 3 cell type-specific factors were selected from a pool of 10-20 candidates that, when expressed from viral vectors, could induce beta-cells, neurons, or cardiomyocytes.. Induced beta-cells [1]: Ngn3, Pdx1, and Mafa, adenovirus injected to in vivo targets. Induced neurons (iN) [2]: Ascl1, Brn2, and Myt1l, lentivirus infecting mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF) or tail tip fibroblasts (TTF). Induced cardiomyocytes (iCM) [3]: Gata4, Mef2c, and Tbx5, lentivirus infecting cardiac fibroblasts or TTF. In all 3 cases, the change of fate seemed to be via direct conversion, without passing through a progenitor cell fate before further differentiation. Like iPSC ...
Understanding cell-fate decisions during tumorigenesis and metastasis is a major challenge in modern cancer biology. One canonical cell-fate decision that cancer cells undergo is Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) and its reverse Mesenchymal-to-Epithelial Transition (MET). While transitioning between these two phenotypes - epithelial and mesenchymal - cells can also attain a hybrid epithelial/mesenchymal (i.e. partial or intermediate EMT) phenotype. Cells in this phenotype have mixed epithelial (e.g. adhesion) and mesenchymal (e.g. migration) properties, thereby allowing them to move collectively as clusters of Circulating Tumor Cells (CTCs). If these clusters enter the circulation, they can be more apoptosis-resistant and more capable of initiating metastatic lesions than cancer cells moving individually with wholly mesenchymal phenotypes, having undergo a complete EMT. Here, we review the operating principles of the core regulatory network for EMT/MET that acts as a three-way switch ...
The major research focus of my laboratory is to explore FGF signaling in the context of retinal Müller cell biology. Müller glial cells are well known for their roles in tissue homeostasis and for their trophic support of neurons. Like other glia of the CNS, Müller cells undergo a series of changes upon injury, hypoxia and disease states like diabetic retinopathy and glaucoma. These changes, named reactive gliosis, involve altered gene expression and enhanced proliferation. Though gliosis is thought to be an attempt to keep the tissue homeostasis, it often contributes to retinal pathology. In addition to homeostatic roles, at least a subpopulation of Müller cells have potential to transdifferentiate to neurons upon injury to replace the lost ones. ...
Introduction to Receivers; The History of Radio - The Coherer. The First Radio Receiver. The Decoherer (Practical Coherer/Decoherer Receivers). Galena Crystal Discovery, the Fleming Valve, and the Audion. The Audion and the Regenerative Receiver. The Audion and the Local Oscillator. The Audion and the Tuned Radio Frequency (TRF) Receiver. Early Progress in Radio Receivers.; The Superheterodyne Receiver - Single Conversions. Multiple Conversions. Direct Conversion (Zero IF).; Implementing Single Conversion Superheterodynes - The Image Problem. UpconvertingThe Rule of 35%. Selectivity and IF Filters. Defining Baseband and Broadband: The Concept of Percentage Bandwidth. Percentage Bandwidth and Filter Design. The Seven-Layer ISO-OSI Model. IF Filters, anIntroductionHistory of Filter Design. Elements of Modern Filter Design. Passband, Bandwidth, and Stopband. Shape Factor. Center Frequency and Nominal Center Frequency. Attenuation and Insertion Loss. Ultimate Rejection. Ripple and Passband Ripple. ...
Ambasudhan R, Talantova M, Coleman R, Yuan X, Zhu S, Lipton SA, Ding S. Direct reprogramming of adult human fibroblasts to functional neurons under defined conditions ...
Expression of VSIG2 (CTH, CTXL) in cervix, uterine tissue. Antibody staining with HPA035919 and HPA050147 in immunohistochemistry.
Developmentally, the pancreas and liver are closely related and pathological conditions − including elevated glucocorticoid levels − result in the appearance of hepatocytes in the pancreas. The role of the WNT signalling pathway in this process has been examined in the model transdifferentiating pancreatic acinar AR42J-B-13 (B-13) cell. Glucocorticoid treatment resulted in a transient loss of constitutive WNT3a expression, phosphorylation and depletion of β-catenin, loss of β-catenin nuclear localisation, and significant reductions in T-cell factor/lymphoid enhancer factor (Tcf/Lef) transcriptional activity before overt changes in phenotype into hepatocyte-like (B-13/H) cells. A return to higher Tcf/Lef transcriptional activity correlated with the re-expression of WNT3a in B-13/H cells. β-catenin knock down alone substituted for and enhanced glucocorticoid-dependent transdifferentiation. Overexpression of a mutant β-catenin (pt-Xβ-cat) protein that blocked glucocorticoid-dependent ...
Recently, direct reprogramming between divergent lineages has been achieved by the introduction of regulatory transcription factors. This approach may provide alternative cell resources for drug discovery and regenerative medicine, but applications could be limited by the genetic manipulation involved. Here, we show that mouse fibroblasts can be directly converted into neuronal cells using only a cocktail of small molecules, with a yield of up to |90% being TUJ1-positive after 16 days of induction. After a further maturation stage, these chemically induced neurons (CiNs) possessed neuron-specific expression patterns, generated action potentials, and formed functional synapses. Mechanistically, we found that a BET family bromodomain inhibitor, I-BET151, disrupted the fibroblast-specific program, while the neurogenesis inducer ISX9 was necessary to activate neuron-specific genes. Overall, our findings provide a proof of principle for chemically induced direct reprogramming of somatic cell fates across
TY - CHAP. T1 - Nanostructured thin films of thermoelectric oxides. AU - Mele, Paolo. PY - 2015/1/1. Y1 - 2015/1/1. N2 - Thermoelectrics can be used for direct conversion of heat into electricity without moving parts, which is promising for sustainable energy harvesting. In this chapter, thermoelectric properties of oxide thin films: n-type ZnO and p-type Ca3Co4O9 are described in relation to preparation techniques, experimental conditions, substrates used, structure, and morphology. Nanostructuration and artificial nanodefects engineering as ultimate approaches to enhance the conversion efficiency of oxide thin films are also discussed.. AB - Thermoelectrics can be used for direct conversion of heat into electricity without moving parts, which is promising for sustainable energy harvesting. In this chapter, thermoelectric properties of oxide thin films: n-type ZnO and p-type Ca3Co4O9 are described in relation to preparation techniques, experimental conditions, substrates used, structure, and ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Tae-Hyoung Kim, William I Suh, Gursong Yoo, Sanjiv K Mishra, Wasif Farooq, Myounghoon Moon, Anupama Shrivastav, Min S Park, Ji-Won Yang].
During epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) epithelial cancer cells transdifferentiate into highly motile, invasive, mesenchymal-like cells, giving rise to disseminating tumor cells. Few of these disseminated cells successfully metastasize. Immune cells and inflammation in the tumor microenvironment were shown to drive EMT, but few studies investigated the consequences of EMT for tumor immunosurveillance. In addition to initiating metastasis, we demonstrate that EMT confers increased susceptibility to natural killer (NK) cells and contributes, in part, to the inefficiency of the metastatic process. Depletion of NK cells allowed spontaneous metastasis without affecting primary tumor growth. EMT-induced modulation of E-cadherin and cell adhesion molecule 1 (CADM1) mediated increased susceptibility to NK cytotoxicity. Higher CADM1 expression correlates with improved patient survival in 2 lung and 1 breast adenocarcinoma patient cohorts and decreased metastasis. Our observations reveal a novel ...
Dr. Rayalam has worked in the areas of obesity, body weight regulation, phytochemicals and adipocyte biochemistry for over 8 years. Her research interests include: 1) to study the adipocyte life cycle and to understand the interaction of adipocytes with other cell types as an approach to address several problems associated with obesity; 2) to develop novel treatment strategies for obesity by inducing transdifferentiation of white to beige adipocytes and to inhibit lipid accumulation in white adipocytes; and 3) to identify combinations of phytochemicals and vitamins that have synergistic anti-adipogenic effects with an ultimate goal of developing pharmaceuticals or nutraceuticals for prevention and treatment of obesity and associated disorders. Aging is accompanied by an accumulation of adipocytes in bone marrow and Dr. Rayalams other interest is to understand the fat-bone interaction and to identify molecular targets for the prevention of weight gain and bone loss associated with aging. Dr. ...
A paper just came out in PNAS entitled "Promotion of direct reprogramming by transformation-deficient Myc". The main thrust of this paper is that the tumorigenic and pluripotency-related functions of Myc could be separated. It focused primarily on the lesser studied […]. ...
The aim of this study was to investigate whether the components for fibroblast mediated prevention of T cell apoptosis were present in vivo in human conjunctiva. This is the first report of the in vivo production of IFNβ by HTF, staining positive in the conjunctiva of three of our glaucoma patients. In addition, the conjunctiva of our glaucoma patients contained T lymphocytes. Therefore, our study has that all the components for this particular fibroblast/T cell interaction were present in human conjunctiva.. T cell/fibroblast interactions appear to have an important role in the development of abnormal scarring.2 Hitchings and Grierson showed that early trabeculectomy failures were associated with excessive inflammation and increased conjunctival fibroblast numbers.14 Nuzzi et al demonstrated that the preoperative conjunctiva of repeat filtration surgery patients contained an increased number of activated T lymphocytes and fibroblasts.15 In our study, T lymphocytes and IFNβ producing ...
Results: Application of MSC significantly decreased the area of burn unhealed compared to CMM after 14 days (6% MSC, 27% CMM, p,0.001). The rate of wound contracture was similar in all groups, but increased epithelialisation was observed in MSC treated wounds. Labelled MSC and CMM were identified in the wounds in low numbers (MSC 0.33%, CMM 0.18%), mainly in the dermis with rare transdifferentiation into keratin 14 expressing cells (MSC 0.11%,CMM 0%). MSC treated wounds had increased collagen content (MSC 49%, CMM 42%, p,0.01) and dermal thickness (MSC 1108 µm, CMM 1007 µm, p,0.01 ...

Macrophages promote progression of spasmolytic polypeptide-expressing metaplasia after acute loss of parietal cells<...Macrophages promote progression of spasmolytic polypeptide-expressing metaplasia after acute loss of parietal cells<...

... through transdifferentiation of chief cells. In the presence of inflammation, SPEM can advance into a more proliferative ... However, macrophage-depleted mice given L635 showed significant reductions in numbers of SPEM cells, SPEM cell proliferation, ... However, macrophage-depleted mice given L635 showed significant reductions in numbers of SPEM cells, SPEM cell proliferation, ... However, macrophage-depleted mice given L635 showed significant reductions in numbers of SPEM cells, SPEM cell proliferation, ...
more infohttps://yonsei.pure.elsevier.com/en/publications/macrophages-promote-progression-of-spasmolytic-polypeptide-expres

Chemical transdifferentiation: closer to regenerative medicineChemical transdifferentiation: closer to regenerative medicine

Ending cells. In vitro. Mouse. Fibroblasts ??Neural ??stem cells Intestinal epithelial ??cells. Pluropotent stem cells. Repsox ... Cell transdifferentiation, which directly switches one type of differentiated cells into another cell type, is more ... Pluripotent stem cells, neural progenitor cells, neural stem cells, neurons, cardiomyocytes, Schwann cells. ,InlineMediaObject ... Keywords cell therapy cell transdifferentiation chemical compounds small molecules tissue regeneration Corresponding Authors: ...
more infohttp://academic.hep.com.cn/fmd/EN/10.1007/s11684-016-0445-z

EndoTODAY: 리뷰 더 리뷰 - metaplasiaEndoTODAY: 리뷰 더 리뷰 - metaplasia

... pharmacological oxyntic atrophy have led to the discovery that SPEM arises from transdifferentiation of mature chief cells. The ... These findings suggest that loss of parietal cells, augmented by chronic inflammation, leads to a cascade of metaplastic events ... Associated with oxyntic atrophy (parietal cell loss) - Arises from the base of the glands (antralization / pseudopyloric ... Gastric carcinogenesis involves the loss of parietal cells (oxyntic atrophy) and subsequent replacement of the normal gastric ...
more infohttp://stomachlee.blogspot.kr/2017/12/metaplasia.html

Quercetin Inhibits Pulmonary Arterial Endothelial Cell Transdifferentiation Possibly by Akt and Erk1/2 PathwaysQuercetin Inhibits Pulmonary Arterial Endothelial Cell Transdifferentiation Possibly by Akt and Erk1/2 Pathways

"Transdifferentiation of endothelial cells to smooth muscle cells play an important role in vascular remodelling," American ... β1 in hypoxia inducing transdifferentiation of pulmonary artery endothelial cells to smooth muscle-like cells," Acta Medicinae ... H. Deissler, H. Deissler, G. K. Lang, and G. E. Lang, "TGFβ induces transdifferentiation of iBREC to αSMA-expressing cells," ... H. H. He, L. Huang, W. Lu et al., "Inhibition of hypoxia-induced transdifferentiation of PAECs into smooth muscle-like cells by ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2017/6147294/ref/

Abstract 16884: Clonal Analysis of Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transdifferentiation in the Regenerated Myocardium | CirculationAbstract 16884: Clonal Analysis of Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transdifferentiation in the Regenerated Myocardium | Circulation

Early work documenting transdifferentiation of c-kit-positive hematopoietic stem cells (c-kit-HSCs) into myocytes has been ... Abstract 16884: Clonal Analysis of Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transdifferentiation in the Regenerated Myocardium. Fumihiro Sanada ... Abstract 16884: Clonal Analysis of Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transdifferentiation in the Regenerated Myocardium ... Abstract 16884: Clonal Analysis of Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transdifferentiation in the Regenerated Myocardium ...
more infohttp://circ.ahajournals.org/content/126/Suppl_21/A16884

JCI -
Kaposi sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV) vFLIP oncoprotein induces B cell transdifferentiation and tumorigenesis in miceJCI - Kaposi sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV) vFLIP oncoprotein induces B cell transdifferentiation and tumorigenesis in mice

B cell-derived tumors arose at high incidence and displayed Ig gene rearrangement with downregulated expression of B cell- ... Kaposi sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV) vFLIP oncoprotein induces B cell transdifferentiation and tumorigenesis in mice. ... Kaposi sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV) vFLIP oncoprotein induces B cell transdifferentiation and tumorigenesis in mice. ... these tumors exhibited characteristics of transdifferentiation and acquired expression of histiocytic/dendritic cell markers. ...
more infohttps://jci.org/articles/view/44417/figure/8

JCI -
Kaposi sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV) vFLIP oncoprotein induces B cell transdifferentiation and tumorigenesis in miceJCI - Kaposi sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV) vFLIP oncoprotein induces B cell transdifferentiation and tumorigenesis in mice

B cells; (E) reduction of GC B cells (B220+GL7+FAS+); (F) reduction of IgG1-expressing B cells; (G) reduction of plasma cells ... MCD cells resemble mature B cells, as they express the preplasma cell markers IRF4 and BLIMP1, the memory B cell marker CD27, ... primarily due to CD4+ T cells. This suppressive activity required T cell activation and direct cell-cell contact, but not prior ... B cell purification, RT-PCR, and immunoblotting. CD19+ and CD19- splenic cells were isolated by magnetic cell separation using ...
more infohttps://www.jci.org/articles/view/44417

glucagon is essential for alpha cell transdifferentiation and beta cell neogenesis | Developmentglucagon is essential for alpha cell transdifferentiation and beta cell neogenesis | Development

β cell neogenesis from α cell transdifferentiation in zebrafish. (A-E) Confocal projections showing α (red) and β (green) cells ... β cells transdifferentiate from α cells during regeneration. In mice, severe β cell ablation triggers α-to-β cell conversion ( ... spontaneous transdifferentiation of β cells from α or δ cells occurs in conditions of extreme β cell loss (Thorel et al., 2010 ... of β cells (Dor et al., 2004; Nir et al., 2007), while conversion of α or δ cells to β cells occurs only with extreme β cell ...
more infohttps://dev.biologists.org/content/142/8/1407.full

Increased Matrix Rigidity Drives Repair Cell Transdifferentiation into Myofibroblasts in a PCO Model | IOVS | ARVO JournalsIncreased Matrix Rigidity Drives Repair Cell Transdifferentiation into Myofibroblasts in a PCO Model | IOVS | ARVO Journals

Janice Walker, Brigid Bleaken, Mary Ann Stepp, A Menko; Increased Matrix Rigidity Drives Repair Cell Transdifferentiation into ... Therefore, increasing collagen I rigidity induced greater transdifferentiation of repair cells into αSMA stress fiber ... Conclusions: The aberrant transdifferentiation of repair cells to disease causing myofibroblast following mock catraract ... Here, we examined the effects of matrix rigidity on repair cell transdifferentiation into myofibroblasts. ...
more infohttps://iovs.arvojournals.org/article.aspx?articleid=2150946

Transdifferentiation: a cell and molecular reprogramming process.Transdifferentiation: a cell and molecular reprogramming process.

This phenomenon is called transdifferentiation, and is generally ... and that it is possible to convert one cell type to another, ... on transdifferentiation and the reprogramming ability of cells to produce specific cells with new phenotypes for use in cell ... This phenomenon is called transdifferentiation, and is generally defined as the stable switch of one cell type to another. ... 24129754 - Encapsulated neural stem cell neuronal differentiation in fluorinated methacrylamide ch.... 24475174 - Cell-type ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Transdifferentiation-cell-molecular-reprogramming-process/22526624.html

Immune cell transdifferentiation: a complex crosstalk between circulating immune cells and the haematopoietic niche | EMBO...Immune cell transdifferentiation: a complex crosstalk between circulating immune cells and the haematopoietic niche | EMBO...

Immune cell transdifferentiation: a complex crosstalk between circulating immune cells and the haematopoietic niche. Marie ... which then emit a diffusible signal required for the transdifferentiation of haemocytes into a cell type adapted to kill ... like cells-and crystal cells (Lanot et al, 2001). We refer to them as haemocoelic haemocytes. A haematopoietic organ, the lymph ... as mediators of the signal originating from PSC cells that drives transdifferentiation of haemocoelic plasmatocytes, the ...
more infohttp://embor.embopress.org/content/13/1/3

State of the Art in Stem Cell Research: Human Embryonic Stem Cells, Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells, and TransdifferentiationState of the Art in Stem Cell Research: Human Embryonic Stem Cells, Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells, and Transdifferentiation

... ... Human Embryonic Stem Cells, Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells, and Transdifferentiation," Journal of Blood Transfusion, vol. 2012 ... Giuseppe Maria de Peppo and Darja Marolt, "State of the Art in Stem Cell Research: ... The New York Stem Cell Foundation, 1995 Broadway, New York, NY 10032, USA. ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/jbt/2012/317632/cta/

Cardiogenic Differentiation and Transdifferentiation of Progenitor Cells | Circulation ResearchCardiogenic Differentiation and Transdifferentiation of Progenitor Cells | Circulation Research

Cell-to-cell connection of endothelial progenitor cells with cardiac myocytes by nanotubes: a novel mechanism for cell fate ... bone marrow stem cell; VSESC, very small embryonic stem cell-like stem cell; EGS, embryonic germ cells. ... These cells comprised ≈10% of the total SP cells (≈500 to 1000 cells per adult mouse heart). By RT-PCR, it was shown that the ... Cardiogenic Differentiation and Transdifferentiation of Progenitor Cells. Paracrine Signaling in Cell Transplantation. ...
more infohttp://circres.ahajournals.org/content/103/10/1058

miR-375 regulates rat alveolar epithelial cell trans-differentiation by inhibiting Wnt/β-catenin pathway | Lung Tissue Research...miR-375 regulates rat alveolar epithelial cell trans-differentiation by inhibiting Wnt/β-catenin pathway | Lung Tissue Research...

Alveolar epithelial cell (AEC) trans-differentiation is a process where type II alveolar epithelial cells (AEC II) trans- ... miR-375 regulates rat alveolar epithelial cell trans-differentiation by inhibiting Wnt/β-catenin pathway. Submitted by dcc on ... Animals, beta Catenin, Cell Transdifferentiation, Down-Regulation, Gene Expression Regulation, Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis, ... They have the potential to regulate almost every aspect of cell physiology. However, whether AEC trans-differentiation is ...
more infohttps://ltrcpublic.com/content/mir-375-regulates-rat-alveolar-epithelial-cell-trans-differentiation-inhibiting-wnt%CE%B2-catenin

Comprehensive analysis of the regulatory roles of auxin in early transdifferentiation into xylem cells - RERO DOCComprehensive analysis of the regulatory roles of auxin in early transdifferentiation into xylem cells - RERO DOC

... we performed microarray analysis of genes expressed in NPA-treated cells and NPA-NAA-treated cells. The systematic gene ... Based on these results, we discuss the auxin function in early processes of transdifferentiation into TEs Yoshida, Saiko; ... differentiation from isolated Zinnia mesophyll cells, but that additional auxin, 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) overcame this ... and transcription factors that are known to be key regulators of differentiation of procambial and xylem precursor cells. NAA ...
more infohttp://doc.rero.ch/record/321056?ln=fr

Lovastatin Influences TGF-β-Induced Myofibrobrast Transdifferentiation in Lens Epithelial Cells | IOVS | ARVO JournalsLovastatin Influences TGF-β-Induced Myofibrobrast Transdifferentiation in Lens Epithelial Cells | IOVS | ARVO Journals

Lovastatin Influences TGF-β-Induced Myofibrobrast Transdifferentiation in Lens Epithelial Cells C. Urakami; S. Kishimoto; Y. ... Lovastatin Influences TGF-β-Induced Myofibrobrast Transdifferentiation in Lens Epithelial Cells You will receive an email ... Lovastatin Influences TGF-β-Induced Myofibrobrast Transdifferentiation in Lens Epithelial Cells. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. ... influences TGF-β-induced myofibroblast transdifferentiation in porcine lens epithelial cells (LECs). ...
more infohttps://iovs.arvojournals.org/article.aspx?articleid=2371291

Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-7 induces activation and transdifferentiation of hepatic stellate cells in vitroInsulin-like growth factor binding protein-7 induces activation and transdifferentiation of hepatic stellate cells in vitro

... in the activation and transdifferentiation of hepatic stellate cells (HSC) in vitro. METHODS: Rat HSC-T6 cells were cultured in ... Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-b) is crucial for transdifferentiation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) and the blunting ... Home » Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-7 induces activation and transdifferentiation of hepatic stellate cells in ... Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-7 induces activation and transdifferentiation of hepatic stellate cells in vitro. ...
more infohttp://connection.ebscohost.com/c/articles/43702020/insulin-like-growth-factor-binding-protein-7-induces-activation-transdifferentiation-hepatic-stellate-cells-vitro

Glucose and ethylene signalling pathways converge to regulate trans-differentiation of epidermal transfer cells in Vicia...Glucose and ethylene signalling pathways converge to regulate trans-differentiation of epidermal transfer cells in Vicia...

They trans-differentiate from differentiated cells at site ... Transfer cells (TCs) are specialized transport cells containing ... Glucose and ethylene signalling pathways converge to regulate trans-differentiation of epidermal transfer cells in Vicia ... Transfer cells (TCs) are specialized transport cells containing invaginated wall ingrowths that generate an amplified plasma ... Title: The Plant journal : for cell and molecular biology Volume: - ISSN: 1365-313X ISO Abbreviation: - Publication Date: 2011 ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Glucose-ethylene-signalling-pathways-converge/21848654.html

JCI -
Blocking airway mucous cell metaplasia 
by inhibiting EGFR antiapoptosis and 
IL-13 transdifferentiation signalsJCI - Blocking airway mucous cell metaplasia by inhibiting EGFR antiapoptosis and IL-13 transdifferentiation signals

Blocking airway mucous cell metaplasia by inhibiting EGFR antiapoptosis and IL-13 transdifferentiation signals. ... Blocking airway mucous cell metaplasia by inhibiting EGFR antiapoptosis and IL-13 transdifferentiation signals. ... that prevents apoptosis of ciliated cells and on IL-13 signaling that promotes transdifferentiation of ciliated to goblet cells ... Here we show that long-term ciliated cell hyperplasia coincides with mucous (goblet) cell metaplasia after respiratory viral ...
more infohttps://www.jci.org/articles/view/25167/pdf

Get PDF - Transdifferentiation of mesenchymal stem cells-derived adipogenic-differentiated cells into osteogenic- or...Get PDF - Transdifferentiation of mesenchymal stem cells-derived adipogenic-differentiated cells into osteogenic- or...

... or chondrogenic-differentiated cells proceeds via dedifferentiation and have a correlation with cell cycle arresting and ... Transdifferentiation of mesenchymal stem cells-derived adipogenic-differentiated cells into osteogenic- ... Transdifferentiation of adipogenically differentiated cells into osteogenically or chondrogenically differentiated cells: ... Transdifferentiation of mesenchymal stem cells-derived adipogenic-differentiated cells into osteogenic- or chondrogenic- ...
more infohttps://eurekamag.com/research/036/876/036876479.php

Glucocorticoid-dependent transdifferentiation of pancreatic progenitor cells into hepatocytes is dependent on transient...Glucocorticoid-dependent transdifferentiation of pancreatic progenitor cells into hepatocytes is dependent on transient...

These data demonstrate that the transdifferentiation of B-13 cells into hepatocyte-like cells in response to glucocorticoid was ... did not promote transdifferentiation into B-13/H cells, but did potentiate glucocorticoid-mediated transdifferentiation. ... Glucocorticoid-dependent transdifferentiation of pancreatic progenitor cells into hepatocytes is dependent on transient ... Glucocorticoid-dependent transdifferentiation of pancreatic progenitor cells into hepatocytes is dependent on transient ...
more infohttp://jcs.biologists.org/content/early/2010/05/25/jcs.070722

Transdifferentiation of human amniotic epithelial cells into acinar cells using a double-chamber system. - Semantic ScholarTransdifferentiation of human amniotic epithelial cells into acinar cells using a double-chamber system. - Semantic Scholar

They might be a stem cell resource for clinical applications of cell replacement therapy in salivary gland dysfunction diseases ... These cells were positive for CD29 and CK19 and weakly positive for CD44 and α-amylase. Within 2 weeks, α-amylase in hAECs ... Human amniotic epithelial cells (hAECs) were isolated from amnion tissue by mechanical mincing and enzymatic digestion. After ... This ratio increased to 6.6-fold, and these cells were positive for mucins, after co-culturing for 2 weeks. hAECs possess the ...
more infohttps://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Transdifferentiation-of-human-amniotic-epithelial-a-Huang-Zhang/70a2e3547fcab33b713b728bbc42850ba2be892c

In vitro transdifferentiation of hepatoma cells into functional pancreatic cells.In vitro transdifferentiation of hepatoma cells into functional pancreatic cells.

... Academic Article * Authors Version ... The transdifferentiation of hepatic to pancreatic cells represents one possible source of beta-cells for human islet ... We have characterised the transdifferentiation of human HepG2 (hepatoma) cells to pancreatic cells following introduction of an ... Moreover, the hepatic phenotype becomes suppressed during transdifferentiation of hepatocytes to pancreatic cells. Requirement ...
more infohttp://vivo.mblwhoilibrary.org/display/publication25284

Transdifferentiation of Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells into Neural Cells via Cerebrospinal FluidTransdifferentiation of Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells into Neural Cells via Cerebrospinal Fluid

CSFcould provide an essential niche for promoting the transdifferentiation of BM-MSCs into neural cells, that hopefully help in ... The present study induced BM-MSCs to transdifferentiate into neural-like cells (either neurons or glial cells) using ... differentiate into mesodermal cell types and also reprogram to transdifferentiate into endodermal and ectodermal cell types. ... Nissl bodies observed in the soma usingcresyl violet stain, and cell bodies processes (axons and dendrites) usingsilver ...
more infohttp://pubs.sciepub.com/bb/2/4/2/index.html

Bone-Derived Stem Cells Repair the Heart after Myocardial Infarction Through Transdifferentiation and Paracrine Signaling...Bone-Derived Stem Cells Repair the Heart after Myocardial Infarction Through Transdifferentiation and Paracrine Signaling...

Bone-Derived Stem Cells Repair the Heart after Myocardial Infarction Through Transdifferentiation and Paracrine Signaling ... Bone-Derived Stem Cells Repair the Heart after Myocardial Infarction Through Transdifferentiation and Paracrine Signaling ... Bone-Derived Stem Cells Repair the Heart after Myocardial Infarction Through Transdifferentiation and Paracrine Signaling ... Bone-Derived Stem Cells Repair the Heart after Myocardial Infarction Through Transdifferentiation and Paracrine Signaling ...
more infohttp://circres.ahajournals.org/content/early/2013/06/25/CIRCRESAHA.113.301202
  • However, macrophage-depleted mice given L635 showed significant reductions in numbers of SPEM cells, SPEM cell proliferation, and expression of intestine-specific transcripts, compared with control mice given L635. (elsevier.com)
  • We used L635 to induce acute SPEM with inflammation in mice and investigated the roles of inflammatory cells in the development of SPEM. (elsevier.com)
  • Kaposi sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV) is specifically associated with Kaposi sarcoma (KS) and 2 B cell lymphoproliferative diseases, namely primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) and multicentric Castleman disease (MCD). (jci.org)
  • In another line of research we asked whether human lymphoma B cells could be reprogrammed into macrophages by C/EBPa . (crg.eu)
  • We found that the majority of 23 lymphoma and leukemia cell lines tested responded with a complete or partial change in the expression of the B cell marker CD19 and the macrophage marker Mac-1. (crg.eu)
  • Two lines in whch high levels of C/EBPa expression could be maintained, the Burkit lymphoma line Seraphina and the B cell precursor acute leukemia RCV-ACH, could be stably transdifferentiated into functional, quiescent macrophages. (crg.eu)
  • We found (in collaboration with J. A. Martinez Climent, U. de Navarra ) using both the Burkitt's lymphoma cells line and the immature B cell leukemia line stably expressing C/EBPaER that tumor formation could be inhibited by inducing their transdifferentiation into macrophages. (crg.eu)
  • The left image shows tumorigenic human B cells (Burkitt's lymphoma). (crg.eu)
  • The aberrant transdifferentiation of repair cells to disease causing myofibroblast following mock catraract surgery results from a mechanotransduction signal imparted by a rigid microenvironment. (arvojournals.org)
  • Transplantation of human umbilical cord blood cells mediated beneficial effects on apoptosis, angiog. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In recent years, cell transplantation has drawn tremendous interest as a novel approach to preserving or even restoring contractile function to infarcted hearts. (ahajournals.org)
  • Some of these cardiogenic progenitors have been reported to contribute replacement muscle through endogenous reparative processes or via cell transplantation in preclinical cardiac injury models. (ahajournals.org)
  • Microvessel endothelial cell transdifferentiation: Phenotypic characterization. (birthpsychology.com)
  • These data demonstrate that the transdifferentiation of B-13 cells into hepatocyte-like cells in response to glucocorticoid was dependent on the repression of constitutively active WNT signalling. (biologists.org)
  • Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was performed to detect multiple genes related to hepatocyte like cells development and function. (springer.com)
  • Hepatocyte like cells was observed at the end of the protocol (days 14). (springer.com)
  • These cells have a great potential to transdifferentiate into contractile myofibroblasts, the cell type associated with lens fibrotic disease. (arvojournals.org)
  • Research showed that adult bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) differentiate into mesodermal cell types and also reprogram to transdifferentiate into endodermal and ectodermal cell types. (sciepub.com)
  • These cells turn red when they are induced to transdifferentiate into macrophages. (crg.eu)
  • To address these questions, MSC were differentiated into adipogenic lineage cells, followed by dedifferentiation. (eurekamag.com)
  • Interestingly, gene profiling and bioinformatics demonstrated that upregulation ( DHCR 24, G 0 S 2, MAP 2 K 6, SESN 3) and downregulation ( DST , KAT 2, MLL 5, RB 1, SMAD 3, ZA K) of distinct genes have an association with cell cycle arrest in adipogenic-differentiated cells and perhaps narrow down the lineage potency. (eurekamag.com)
  • However, the upregulation (CCND1, CHEK, HGF , HMGA 2, SMAD 3) and downregulation ( CCPG 1, RASSF 4, R GS 2) of these genes have an association with cell cycle progression and maybe motivate dedifferentiation of adipogenic-differentiated cells. (eurekamag.com)
  • Concluded, our results indicate that transdifferentiation of adipogenic-differentiated cells into osteogenic- or chondrogenic-differentiated cells proceeds via dedifferentiation and correlates with cell cycle arresting and deriving genes. (eurekamag.com)
  • Current study favors that transdifferentiation is dedifferentiation dependent process. (eurekamag.com)
  • Analysis of a mathematical model combining gene regulation with contact-mediated signaling reveals the multistability of acinar and islet cell fates. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Expression and roles of Slit/Robo in human ovarian cancer," Histochemistry and Cell Biology , vol. 135, no. 5, pp. 475-485, 2011. (hindawi.com)
  • Elevation of an epidermal cell-specific ethylene signal alone, or in combination with glucose analogues, countered the negative effect of glucose on wall ingrowth induction. (biomedsearch.com)
  • A similar structure, called the posterior signalling centre (PSC), exists in the Drosophila lymph gland and, under normal conditions, maintains a pool of neighbouring precursor cells (prohaemocytes) in an undifferentiated state in the medullary zone ( Crozatier & Vincent, 2011 ). (embopress.org)
  • This is achieved in a non‐cell‐autonomous manner, by delivering cues-including a Hedgehog signal-and thus keeping prohaemocytes in a quiescent precursor state, a process that also requires autocrine JAK-STAT signalling in the medullary zone prohaemocytes. (embopress.org)
  • each cell type receives and responds to secreted signals from the other to modulate secretory activities (i.e. cell function). (biologists.org)
  • Yet, little is known about the regulatory effects of contact-mediated signals on cell fate stability and cell type conversion. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Conflicting results may be attributed to several factors, including the functional heterogeneity of the HSC pool, which may contain cells capable of forming myocytes and cells lacking this ability. (ahajournals.org)
  • but its widespread implementation will require a vast supply of functional β cells derived from either exogenous (e.g. stem cells) or endogenous (e.g. facultative progenitors) sources. (biologists.org)
  • Disruption of this homeostasis in diabetic patients is caused by a loss of functional β -cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 61 differentially expressed genes in adipogenic-differentiated cells have an association with cell cycle arrest. (eurekamag.com)
  • 65 differentially expressed genes in dedifferentiated cells have an association with cell cycle progression. (eurekamag.com)
  • Vol 4: Unveiling novel genes upregulated by both rhBMP2 and rhBMP7 during early osteoblastic transdifferentiation of C2C12 cells. (duhnnae.com)
  • Conclusion: Using DNA microarrays and RT-qPCR, we identified both previously known and novel genes which are upregulated by rhBMP2 and rhBMP7 during the onset of osteoblastic transdifferentiation of pre-myoblastic C2C12 cells. (duhnnae.com)
  • In the adult lung, the alveolar epithelium consists largely of two morphologically distinct epithelial cell types, which are crucial to maintain lung homeostasis. (biologists.org)
  • Adult stem cells are undifferentiated cells, found throughout the body after development, that multiply by cell division to replenish dying cells and regenerate damaged tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Scientific interest in adult stem cells is centered on their ability to divide or self-renew indefinitely, and generate all the cell types of the organ from which they originate, potentially regenerating the entire organ from a few cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Adult stem cells express transporters of the ATP-binding cassette family that actively pump a diversity of organic molecules out of the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Discoveries in recent years have suggested that adult stem cells might have the ability to differentiate into cell types from different germ layers. (wikipedia.org)
  • More recent findings suggest that pluripotent stem cells may reside in blood and adult tissues in a dormant state. (wikipedia.org)
  • Development of Causative Treatment Strategies for Lacrimal Gland Insufficiency by Tissue Engineering and Cell Therapy. (semanticscholar.org)
  • After further studies this approach has the potency, for widespread cell replacement therapy for liver diseases. (springer.com)
  • The distinct effects of EGFR and IL-13 inhibitors after viral reprogramming suggest that these combined therapeutic strategies may also correct epithelial architecture in the setting of airway inflammatory disorders characterized by a similar pattern of chronic EGFR activation, IL-13 expression, and ciliated-to-goblet cell metaplasia. (jci.org)
  • The results described suggest that it might be possible to find drugs that can induce transdifferentiation as a potentially new therapeutic avenue to treat leukemias and lymphomas. (crg.eu)
  • Transfer cells (TCs) are specialized transport cells containing invaginated wall ingrowths that generate an amplified plasma membrane surface area with high densities of transporter proteins. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Cells treated with recombinant proteins showed significantly higher expression of early-stage and late-stage cardiac markers such as GATA-4, Mef2C, NKX2.5, α-MHC, cTnT and cardiac actin, in comparison to their control. (ahajournals.org)
  • It is believed that the molecular distinction between symmetric and asymmetric divisions lies in differential segregation of cell membrane proteins (such as receptors) between the daughter cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Stable expression of the virally encoded latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA), a marker of latent KSHV infection, was observed predominantly in cells expressing the l light chain of the B cell receptor. (jci.org)
  • CONCLUSION: IGFBP-7 showed increased expression in activated HSC and played an important role in the activation and transdifferentiation process of HSC. (ebscohost.com)
  • A return to higher Tcf/Lef transcriptional activity correlated with the re-expression of WNT3a in B-13/H cells. (biologists.org)
  • As part of the BLUEPRINT project of the EU we therefore developed a reporter system consisting of the tamoxifen inducible C/EBPaER containing cell line BLaER1 line consisting in the lysozyme promoter driving the expression of tdTomato. (crg.eu)
  • This article is from BMC Research Notes, volume 4.AbstractFindings: We set out to analyse the gene expression profile of pre-osteoblastic C2C12 cells during osteodifferentiation induced by both rhBMP2 and rhBMP7 using DNA microarrays. (duhnnae.com)
  • CSFcould provide an essential niche for promoting the transdifferentiation of BM-MSCs into neural cells, that hopefully help in treating acute and chronic neurodegenerative diseases. (sciepub.com)
  • Nissl bodies observed in the soma usingcresyl violet stain, and cell bodies' processes (axons and dendrites) usingsilver impregnation, proved that BM-MSCs differentiated into neuronal cells. (sciepub.com)