A naturally occurring phenomenon where terminally differentiated cells dedifferentiate to the point where they can switch CELL LINEAGES. The cells then differentiate into other cell types.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
A malignant form of astrocytoma histologically characterized by pleomorphism of cells, nuclear atypia, microhemorrhage, and necrosis. They may arise in any region of the central nervous system, with a predilection for the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, and commissural pathways. Clinical presentation most frequently occurs in the fifth or sixth decade of life with focal neurologic signs or seizures.
Highly proliferative, self-renewing, and colony-forming stem cells which give rise to NEOPLASMS.
Any of the tubular vessels conveying the blood (arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, and veins).
The development of new BLOOD VESSELS during the restoration of BLOOD CIRCULATION during the healing process.
Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.
A multicentric, malignant neoplastic vascular proliferation characterized by the development of bluish-red cutaneous nodules, usually on the lower extremities, most often on the toes or feet, and slowly increasing in size and number and spreading to more proximal areas. The tumors have endothelium-lined channels and vascular spaces admixed with variably sized aggregates of spindle-shaped cells, and often remain confined to the skin and subcutaneous tissue, but widespread visceral involvement may occur. Kaposi's sarcoma occurs spontaneously in Jewish and Italian males in Europe and the United States. An aggressive variant in young children is endemic in some areas of Africa. A third form occurs in about 0.04% of kidney transplant patients. There is also a high incidence in AIDS patients. (From Dorland, 27th ed & Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, pp2105-7) HHV-8 is the suspected cause.
A species in the genus RHADINOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, isolated from patients with AIDS-related and "classical" Kaposi sarcoma.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
A plant genus in the family ROSACEAE and order Rosales. This should not be confused with the genus RHODIOLA which is sometimes called roseroot.
The activated center of a lymphoid follicle in secondary lymphoid tissue where B-LYMPHOCYTES are stimulated by antigens and helper T cells (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER) are stimulated to generate memory cells.
A condition in which there is a change of one adult cell type to another similar adult cell type.
A glandular epithelial cell or a unicellular gland. Goblet cells secrete MUCUS. They are scattered in the epithelial linings of many organs, especially the SMALL INTESTINE and the RESPIRATORY TRACT.
An increase in the number of cells in a tissue or organ without tumor formation. It differs from HYPERTROPHY, which is an increase in bulk without an increase in the number of cells.
Populations of thin, motile processes found covering the surface of ciliates (CILIOPHORA) or the free surface of the cells making up ciliated EPITHELIUM. Each cilium arises from a basic granule in the superficial layer of CYTOPLASM. The movement of cilia propels ciliates through the liquid in which they live. The movement of cilia on a ciliated epithelium serves to propel a surface layer of mucus or fluid. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A gel-forming mucin that is primarily found on the surface of gastric epithelium and in the RESPIRATORY TRACT. Mucin 5AC was originally identified as two distinct proteins, however a single gene encodes the protein which gives rise to the mucin 5A and mucin 5C variants.
The mucous membrane lining the RESPIRATORY TRACT, including the NASAL CAVITY; the LARYNX; the TRACHEA; and the BRONCHI tree. The respiratory mucosa consists of various types of epithelial cells ranging from ciliated columnar to simple squamous, mucous GOBLET CELLS, and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.
Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.
Transfer of HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS from BONE MARROW or BLOOD between individuals within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS). Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has been used as an alternative to BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION in the treatment of a variety of neoplasms.
Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.
A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Insertion of viral DNA into host-cell DNA. This includes integration of phage DNA into bacterial DNA; (LYSOGENY); to form a PROPHAGE or integration of retroviral DNA into cellular DNA to form a PROVIRUS.
The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.
Surgical removal of the pancreas. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.
The transference of BONE MARROW from one human or animal to another for a variety of purposes including HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION or MESENCHYMAL STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION.
A nodular organ in the ABDOMEN that contains a mixture of ENDOCRINE GLANDS and EXOCRINE GLANDS. The small endocrine portion consists of the ISLETS OF LANGERHANS secreting a number of hormones into the blood stream. The large exocrine portion (EXOCRINE PANCREAS) is a compound acinar gland that secretes several digestive enzymes into the pancreatic ductal system that empties into the DUODENUM.
A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.
Specialized stem cells that are committed to give rise to cells that have a particular function; examples are MYOBLASTS; MYELOID PROGENITOR CELLS; and skin stem cells. (Stem Cells: A Primer [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Institutes of Health (US); 2000 May [cited 2002 Apr 5]. Available from: http://www.nih.gov/news/stemcell/primer.htm)
Bone-marrow-derived, non-hematopoietic cells that support HEMATOPOETIC STEM CELLS. They have also been isolated from other organs and tissues such as UMBILICAL CORD BLOOD, umbilical vein subendothelium, and WHARTON JELLY. These cells are considered to be a source of multipotent stem cells because they include subpopulations of mesenchymal stem cells.
The process of bone formation. Histogenesis of bone including ossification.
An octamer transcription factor that is expressed primarily in totipotent embryonic STEM CELLS and GERM CELLS and is down-regulated during CELL DIFFERENTIATION.
Cells from adult organisms that have been reprogrammed into a pluripotential state similar to that of EMBRYONIC STEM CELLS.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
Cells that can give rise to cells of the three different GERM LAYERS.
The process that reverts CELL NUCLEI of fully differentiated somatic cells to a pluripotent or totipotent state. This process can be achieved to a certain extent by NUCLEAR TRANSFER TECHNIQUES, such as fusing somatic cell nuclei with enucleated pluripotent embryonic stem cells or enucleated totipotent oocytes. GENE EXPRESSION PROFILING of the fused hybrid cells is used to determine the degree of reprogramming. Dramatic results of nuclear reprogramming include the generation of cloned mammals, such as Dolly the sheep in 1997.
A reverse developmental process in which terminally differentiated cells with specialized functions revert back to a less differentiated stage within their own CELL LINEAGE.
The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.
The transfer of STEM CELLS from one individual to another within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or between species (XENOTRANSPLANTATION), or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS). The source and location of the stem cells determines their potency or pluripotency to differentiate into various cell types.
The development and formation of various types of BLOOD CELLS. Hematopoiesis can take place in the BONE MARROW (medullary) or outside the bone marrow (HEMATOPOIESIS, EXTRAMEDULLARY).
One of the six homologous soluble proteins that bind insulin-like growth factors (SOMATOMEDINS) and modulate their mitogenic and metabolic actions at the cellular level.
One of the six homologous proteins that specifically bind insulin-like growth factors (SOMATOMEDINS) and modulate their mitogenic and metabolic actions. The function of this protein is not completely defined. However, several studies demonstrate that it inhibits IGF binding to cell surface receptors and thereby inhibits IGF-mediated mitogenic and cell metabolic actions. (Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 1993;204(1):4-29)
A well-characterized basic peptide believed to be secreted by the liver and to circulate in the blood. It has growth-regulating, insulin-like, and mitogenic activities. This growth factor has a major, but not absolute, dependence on GROWTH HORMONE. It is believed to be mainly active in adults in contrast to INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR II, which is a major fetal growth factor.
One of the six homologous soluble proteins that bind insulin-like growth factors (SOMATOMEDINS) and modulate their mitogenic and metabolic actions at the cellular level.
A family of soluble proteins that bind insulin-like growth factors and modulate their biological actions at the cellular level. (Int J Gynaecol Obstet 1992;39(1):3-9)
One of the six homologous soluble proteins that bind insulin-like growth factors (SOMATOMEDINS) and modulate their mitogenic and metabolic actions at the cellular level.
One of the six homologous soluble proteins that bind insulin-like growth factors (SOMATOMEDINS) and modulate their mitogenic and metabolic actions at the cellular level.
NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).
A protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is specific for STEM CELL FACTOR. This interaction is crucial for the development of hematopoietic, gonadal, and pigment stem cells. Genetic mutations that disrupt the expression of PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-KIT are associated with PIEBALDISM, while overexpression or constitutive activation of the c-kit protein-tyrosine kinase is associated with tumorigenesis.
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
Cells derived from the BLASTOCYST INNER CELL MASS which forms before implantation in the uterine wall. They retain the ability to divide, proliferate and provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.

Gastric PDX-1 expression in pancreatic metaplasia and endocrine cell hyperplasia in atrophic corpus gastritis. (1/531)

The homeodomain transcription factor PDX-1 plays a key role in endocrine and exocrine differentiation processes of the pancreas. PDX-1 is also essential for differentiation of endocrine cells in the gastric antrum. The role of PDX-1 in the pathogenesis of endocrine cell hyperplasia and pancreatic metaplasia in corpus and fundus gastritis has not been evaluated. By immunohistochemistry and double-immunofluorescence, we investigated the expression of PDX-1 in 10 tissue specimens with normal human gastric mucosa, nonatrophic and atrophic gastritis and in pancreatic metaplasia, respectively. In normal corpus mucosa and in nonatrophic corpus gastritis, PDX-1 was mainly absent. In pancreatic metaplasia, PDX-1 was found in metaplastic cells and in adjacent gastric glands. In contrast to normal gastric corpus mucosa, PDX-1 could be strongly detected in the cytoplasm of the parietal cells surrounding metaplastic areas. Furthermore, PDX-1 expression was found in hyperplastic endocrine cells and in the surrounding gastric glands in chronic atrophic gastritis. Hyperplastic endocrine cells coexpressed the beta-subunit of the gastric H,K-ATPase. We conclude that PDX-1 represents a candidate switch factor for glandular exocrine and endocrine transdifferentiation in chronic gastritis and that an impaired parietal cell differentiation might play a key role in disturbed gastric morphogenic processes.  (+info)

Gene profile for differentiation of vascular adventitial myofibroblasts. (2/531)

Our previous study demonstrated that TGF-beta1 could induce the differentiation of vascular adventitial fibroblasts (AFs) to myofibroblasts (MFs). The aim of this study was to identify the genes which might be responsible for the cell phenotypic change using genechips. Cultured rat AFs were treated with TGF-beta1 (10 ng/ml) for 0 min, 5 min, 15 min, 2 h, 12 h and 24 h, respectively. Then the cells were gathered to prepare total RNA. We examined TGF-beta1-induced gene expression profiling using Affymetrix oligonucleotide microarrays and analyzed data by GCOS1.2 software. Moreover, expressional similarity was measured by hierarchical clustering. Some of genechip results were confirmed by real-time quantitative RT-PCR. Microarray analysis identified 2121 genes with a 2-fold change or above after TGF-beta1 stimulation. 1318 genes showed a greater than 2-fold increase and 761 genes were reduced 2 folds or more at mRNA levels, whereas a small portion of the total regulated genes (42 genes) displayed dynamically up- and down-regulated pattern. Genes were further segregated for early (peak at 5 min, 15 min and/or 2 h), late (peak at 12 h and/or 24 h), and sustained (2-fold change or above at five time points) temporal response groups according to the time of their peak expression level. Among 1318 up-regulated genes, 333 genes (25.3%) responded rapidly to TGF-beta1 and 159 genes (12.1%) responded in a sustained manner. Most genes (826, 62.6%) were regulated at 12 h or later. For the 761 down-regulated genes, numbers of early and late responsive genes were 335 (44%) and 267 (36.1%), respectively. There were also 159 genes, 19.9% of total down-regulated genes, decreased at five time points treated by TGF-beta1. The results suggested that the gene expressions of secreted phosphoprotein 1 (APP1) and Rho-associated coiled-coil forming kinase 2 (ROCK2) had the same trends as alpha-smooth muscle-actin, a marker of MF differentiation. In addition, the gene expression of potassium voltage-gated channel, Shal-related family and member 2 (KCND2) was up-regulated. Furthermore, it was found that endothelin 1 (EDN1), some complement components, NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4) and NAD(P)H dehydrogenase, quinone 1 (NQO1) might be involved in MF differentiation. Using microarrary technique, we confirmed some genes that have been identified by other techniques were implicated in MF differentiation and observed new genes involved in this process. Our results suggest that gene expression profiling study is helpful in identifying genes and pathways potentially involved in cell differentiation.  (+info)

Porcine peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma induces transdifferentiation of myocytes into adipocytes. (3/531)

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma2 (PPARgamma) is a nuclear transcription factor that regulates adipocyte differentiation and lipogenic genes during adipogenesis. The activity of rodent PPARgamma is regulated by phosphorylation of serine 112. The current experiment was designed to study the ability of porcine PPARgamma to stimulate transdifferentiation of myoblasts to adipocytes by overexpressing wild-type PPARgamma or mutated PPARgamma (serine 112 was mutated to alanine) in mouse myoblast cells. The expression of adipogenic marker genes (adipocyte fatty acid binding protein, lipoprotein lipase, and glycerol-3 phosphate dehydrogenase) in cells stably expressing mutated porcine PPARgamma was greater than in cells with wild-type PPARgamma, indicating that the mutated PPARgamma has greater adipogenic capability than the wild-type PPARgamma. Under treatment with a ligand, both wild-type and mutant porcine PPARgamma-expressing C2C12 myoblasts differentiated into adipocytes in 10 d. The expression of myogenic marker genes (myogenin, myogenic regulatory factor-4) was suppressed in cells transfected with the mutated PPARgamma or wild-type PPARgamma. Moreover, wild-type and mutant PPARgamma were able to inhibit myogenesis without addition of a ligand. Our results suggest that porcine wild-type PPARgamma and mutated PPARgamma can both convert myoblast cells into adipocytes, and also that the ability to transdifferentiate was greater in cells containing the mutated PPARgamma than in cells containing the wild-type PPARgamma. Therefore, the existence of serine 112 in PPARgamma may have a role in regulating adipocyte differentiation.  (+info)

A functional role of Cdx2 in beta-catenin signaling during transdifferentiation in endometrial carcinomas. (4/531)

Nuclear beta-catenin is required for changes in morphology from glandular to morular phenotypes of endometrial carcinoma (Em Ca) cells, with activation of p14(ARF)/p53/p21(Waf1) and alteration of p16(INK4A)/pRb pathways. Having demonstrated previously that the homeodomain transcription factor Cdx2 increases markedly during intestinal epithelial cell differentiation, we have examined its effects in beta-catenin signaling during transdifferentiation of Em Ca cells. In clinical cases, Cdx2 immunoreactivity, along with increased mRNA signals, was found to overlap with nuclear accumulation of beta-catenin and p21(Waf1) in morules, demonstrating an inverse correlation with cell proliferation. In cell lines, over-expression of active form beta-catenin resulted in a significant increase in endogenous Cdx2 expression at both mRNA and protein levels. Furthermore, the Cdx2 promoter was activated by T-cell factor 4 (TCF4) -independent activated beta-catenin, as well as Cdx2 itself, through the region from -39 to +9 bp relative to transcription start site. Cells over-expressing exogenous Cdx2 showed high levels of p21(Waf1) expression due to stabilization of the mRNA status, resulting in significant decrease in the proliferation rate, in contrast to the lack of apparent changes in morphology. Moreover, transfected Cdx2 could inhibit beta-catenin/TCF4-mediated transcriptional activation of target genes, including p14(ARF) and cyclin D1, probably through indirect mechanisms. These data suggest that over-expression of Cdx2 mediated by nuclear beta-catenin and Cdx2 itself can cause an inhibition of Em Ca cell proliferation through up-regulation of p21(Waf1) expression, modulating beta-catenin/TCF4-mediated transcription. We therefore conclude that an association between Cdx2 and beta-catenin signaling may participate in induction of transdifferentiation of Em Ca cells.  (+info)

VEGF-R blockade causes endothelial cell apoptosis, expansion of surviving CD34+ precursor cells and transdifferentiation to smooth muscle-like and neuronal-like cells. (5/531)

Severe pulmonary hypertension (PH) is characterized by complex precapillary arteriolar lesions, which contain phenotypically altered smooth muscle (SM) and endothelial cells (EC). We have demonstrated that VEGF receptor blockade by SU5416 {3-[(2,4-dimethylpyrrol-5-yl)methylidenyl]-indolin 2-one} in combination with chronic hypoxia causes severe angioproliferative PH associated with arterial occlusion in rats. We postulate that endothelial-mesenchymal transdifferentiation can take place in the occlusive lesions and that endothelium-derived mesenchymal cells can further differentiate toward a SM phenotype. To examine this hypothesis, we incubated human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (HPMVEC) with SU5416 and analyzed these cells utilizing quantitative-PCR, immunofluorescent staining and flow cytometry analysis. In vitro studies in HPMVEC demonstrated that SU5416 suppressed PGI2S gene expression while potently inducing COX-2, VEGF, and TGF-beta1 expression; and caused transdifferentiation of mature vascular endothelial cells (defined by Dil-ac-LDL, Lectin and Factor VIII) to SM-like (as defined by expression of alpha-SM actin) "transitional" cells, coexpressing both endothelial and SM markers. SU5416 expanded the number of CD34 and/or c-kit positive cells and caused transdifferentiation of CD34 positive cells but not negative cells. In conclusion, our data show that SU5416 generated a selection pressure that killed some EC and expanded progenitor-like cells to transdifferentiate to SM-like and neuronal-like cells.  (+info)

Transdifferentiation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells into epithelial-like cells. (6/531)

Bone marrow-derived stem cells have the potential to transdifferentiate into unexpected peripheral cells. We hypothesize that circulating bone marrow-derived stem cells might have the capacity to transdifferentiate into epithelial-like cells and release matrix metalloproteinase-1-modulating factors such as 14-3-3varsigma for dermal fibroblasts. We have characterized a subset of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) that develops an epithelial-like profile. Our findings show that these cells develop epithelial-like morphology and express 14-3-3varsigma and keratin-5, -8 as early as day 7 and day 21, respectively. When compared with control, conditioned media collected from PBMCs in advanced epithelial-like differentiation (cultures on days 28, 35, and 42) increased the matrix metalloproteinase-1 expression in dermal fibroblasts (P +info)

Mediator subunit MED28 (Magicin) is a repressor of smooth muscle cell differentiation. (7/531)

Magicin, a protein that we isolated earlier as an interactor of the neurofibromatosis 2 protein merlin, was independently identified as MED28, a subunit of the mammalian Mediator complex. Mediator complex is an evolutionarily conserved transcriptional cofactor, which plays an essential role in positive and negative gene regulation. Distinct Mediator subunit composition is thought to contribute to gene regulation specificity based on the interaction of specific subunits with subsets of transcription factors. Here we report that down-regulation of Med28 expression in NIH3T3 cells results in a significant induction of several genes associated with smooth muscle cell (SMC) differentiation. Conversely, overexpression of MED28 represses expression of SMC genes, in concordance with our knockdown data. More importantly, multipotent mesenchymal-derived murine precursors can transdifferentiate into SMCs when Med28 is down-regulated. Our data also show that Med28 functions as a negative regulator of SMC differentiation in concert with other Mediator subunits including Med6, Med8, and Med18 within the Mediator head module. Our results provide strong evidence that MED28 may function as a scaffolding protein by maintaining the stability of a submodule within the head module and that components of this submodule act together in a gene regulatory program to suppress SMC differentiation. The results presented here demonstrate for the first time that the mammalian Mediator subunit MED28 functions as a repressor of SMC differentiation, which could have implications for disorders associated with abnormalities in SMC growth and differentiation, including atherosclerosis, asthma, hypertension, and smooth muscle tumors.  (+info)

Effects of KGF on alveolar epithelial cell transdifferentiation are mediated by JNK signaling. (8/531)

Rat alveolar epithelial cells (AEC) in primary culture transdifferentiate from a type II (AT2) toward a type I (AT1) cell-like phenotype, a process that can be both prevented and reversed by keratinocyte growth factor (KGF). Microarray analysis revealed that these effects of KGF are associated with up-regulation of key molecules in the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. To further explore the role of three key MAPK (i.e., extracellular signal-related kinase [ERK] 1/2, c-Jun N-terminal kinase [JNK] and p38) in mediating effects of KGF on AEC phenotype, primary rat AEC cultivated in minimal defined serum-free medium (MDSF) were treated with KGF (10 ng/ml) from Day 4 for intervals up to 48 hours. Exposure to KGF activated all three MAPK, JNK, ERK1/2, and p38. Inhibition of JNK, but not of ERK1/2 or p38, abrogated the ability of KGF to maintain the AT2 cell phenotype, as evidenced by loss of expression of lamellar membrane protein (p180) and increased reactivity with the AT1 cell-specific monoclonal antibody VIIIB2 by Day 6 in culture. Overexpression of JNKK2, upstream kinase of JNK, increased activation of endogenous c-Jun in association with increased expression of p180 and abrogation of AQP5, suggesting that activation of c-Jun promotes retention of the AT2 cell phenotype. These results indicate that retention of the AT2 cell phenotype by KGF involves c-Jun and suggest that activation of c-Jun kinase may be an important determinant of maintenance of AT2 cell phenotype.  (+info)

Abstract Cell transdifferentiation, which directly switches one type of differentiated cells into another cell type, is more advantageous than cell reprogramming to generate pluripotent cells and differentiate them into functional cells. This process is crucial in regenerative medicine. However, the cell-converting strategies, which mainly depend on the virus-mediated expression of exogenous genes, have clinical safety concerns. Small molecules with compelling advantages are a potential alternative in manipulating cell fate conversion. In this review, we briefly retrospect the nature of cell transdifferentiation and summarize the current developments in the research of small molecules in promoting cell conversion. Particularly, we focus on the complete chemical compound-induced cell transdifferentiation, which is closer to the clinical translation in cell therapy. Despite these achievements, the mechanisms underpinning chemical transdifferentiation remain largely unknown. More importantly, ...
Early work documenting transdifferentiation of c-kit-positive hematopoietic stem cells (c-kit-HSCs) into myocytes has been difficult to reproduce. Conflicting results may be attributed to several factors, including the functional heterogeneity of the HSC pool, which may contain cells capable of forming myocytes and cells lacking this ability. We have addressed this issue by introducing clonal analysis of single HSCs. HSCs were infected with lentiviruses, and the unique site of viral insertion present in the infected HSC and its progeny was detected by immunolabeling or amplified by PCR. Freshly isolated FACS-sorted c-kit-HSCs were simultaneously transduced with 3 lentiviruses, each encoding red, green or blue (RGB) fluorescent proteins (RGB marking). Thus, single HSCs were marked by different combinations of inserted vectors, resulting in numerous clones of mixed colors. RGB-infected HSCs were injected in infarcted mice; at 4 days, engrafted HSCs showed a polyclonal pattern characterized by the ...
The PSC has a dual function, as a niche for haemocyte progenitors and also as a master coordinator in the host immune response against wasp eggs. Indeed, although wasp eggs are mainly encapsulated by lamellocytes that originate from circulating, haemocoelic plasmatocytes, the lymph gland-and more specifically the PSC-is required to drive their transdifferentiation. Indeed, collier mutant larvae, which lack a PSC, fail to mount an immune response against the parasitoid (Crozatier et al, 2004). Hence, a signal is thought to originate from the egg after its detection by plasmatocytes, allowing the PSC to drive the lamellocyte programme in the lymph gland and in haemocoelic haemocytes non‐cell‐autonomously (Fig 1).. Sinenko and colleagues now show that wasp parasitization leads to increased ROS levels in PSC cells (Sinenko et al, 2011). Furthermore, artificially raising ROS levels in PSC cells of nonparasitized larvae by genetically interrupting complex I of the electron transport chain (ETC) ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - In vitro trans-differentiation of rat mesenchymal cells into insulin-producing cells by rat pancreatic extract. AU - Choi, Kyung Suk. AU - Shin, Jun Seop. AU - Lee, Jae Jeong. AU - Kim, Young Soo. AU - Kim, Seung Bum. AU - Kim, Chan Wha. PY - 2005/5/20. Y1 - 2005/5/20. N2 - Recent reports have suggested that mesenchymal cells derived from bone marrow may differentiate into not only mesenchymal lineage cells but also other lineage cells. There is possibility for insulin-producing cells (IPCs) to be differentiated from mesenchymal cells. We used self-functional repair stimuli of stem cells by partial injury. Rat pancreatic extract (RPE) from the regenerating pancreas (2 days after 60% pancreatectomy) was treated to rat mesenchymal cells. After the treatment of RPE, they made clusters like islet of Langerhans within a week and expressed four pancreatic endocrine hormones; insulin, glucagon, pancreatic polypeptide, and somatostatin. Moreover, IPCs released insulin in response to ...
Fig. 7 The noncatalytic, N-terminal domain of PI3Kγ is necessary and sufficient for TRPV4 translocation and myofibroblast transdifferentiation.. (A) Domain structure of WT and mutant PI3Kγ constructs consisting of only the noncatalytic N-terminal domain (N-term) or lacking both the N-terminal domain and the ATP binding site in the catalytic domain (N-del). (B) Immunoblotting of His-tagged N-del or N-term forms of PI3Kγ coupled to Ni-NTA beads incubated with lysates of HLFs. Blots were probed with an antibody recognizing TRPV4 and then stripped and reprobed for PI3Kγ. n = 3 independent experiments. (C) Direct interaction between immobilized purified 6-His-TRPV4 and purified 6-His-N-term-PI3Kγ was measured by SPR. n = 3 independent experiments. (D) Representative fluorescence images showing TRPV4 in PI3Kγ KO MLFs transfected with N-del or N-term PI3Kγ LV and treated with TGF-β and the corresponding plot profiles of TRPV4 immunofluorescence. White arrowheads indicate TRPV4 at the plasma ...
Rationale: We have previously shown that innate immunity is necessary for transdifferentiation of fibroblasts to endothelial cells. A major signaling molecule involved in innate immunity is inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Accordingly, we hypothesized that iNOS-generated nitric oxide (NO) might enhance transdifferentiation. Objective: To elucidate the role of NO in epigenetic plasticity during transdifferentiation. Methods and Results: We exposed the BJ fibroblasts to transdifferentiation formulation that included endothelial growth factors and innate immune activator polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (PIC) to induce endothelial cells (iECs). Generation of iECs was associated with iNOS expression and NO elaboration. In absence of PIC, or in presence of antagonists of NFκB or iNOS activity, NO synthesis and iEC generation was reduced. Furthermore, genetic knockout (in MEFs) or siRNA knockdown (in BJ fibroblasts) of iNOS nearly abolished transdifferentiation, an effect which could be ...
Glioblastomas (GBM) are brain tumors with a poor prognosis despite treatment that combines surgical resection and radio-chemotherapy. These tumors are characterized by abundant vascularization and significant cellular heterogeneity including GBM stem-like cells (GSC) which contribute to tumor aggressiveness, resistance, and recurrence. Recent data has demonstrated that GSC are directly involved in the formation of new vessels via their transdifferentiation into Tumor Derived Endothelial Cells (TDEC). We postulate that cellular stress such as ionizing radiation (IR) could enhance the transdifferentiation of GSC into TDEC. GSC neurospheres isolated from 3 different patients were irradiated or not and were then transdifferentiated into TDEC. In fact, TDEC obtained from irradiated GSC (TDEC IR+) migrate more towards VEGF, form more pseudotubes in MatrigelTM in vitro and develop more functional blood vessels in MatrigelTM plugs implanted in Nude mice than TDEC obtained from non-irradiated GSC. Transcriptomic
Bone marrow (BM) derived stem cells contribute to the regeneration of diverse adult tissues including heart, liver and brain following BM transplantation. Trans- differentiation is a mechanism proposed to explain how tissue specific stem cells could generate cells of other organs, thus supporting the emerging concept of enhanced adult stem cell plasticity. New studies have demonstrated that spontaneous cell fusion rather than trans-differentiation is the cause of unexpected cell fate changes in vivo. In contrast, several authors have reported that trans-differentiation can occur in vitro in the absence of cell fusion, including the generation of neural derivatives from non-neural tissues. These findings have profound implications for stem cell biology and cell replacement therapy, and as a result require extensive validation. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) nave been isolated from the postnatal BM and more recently many other sites including adipose tissue, skin and placental cord blood. As such ...
Haematopoietic stem cells (HSC) are the basis for regeneration of the haematopoietic system in clinical transplantations for blood related genetic disease and leukemias. However, the number of histocompatible donors is limited and HSC numbers in compatible donor samples, particularly umbilical cord blood, are too few to meet clinical requirements. There is an ever-increasing need for novel sources of, and expansion protocols for HSCs that are preferably patient-matched. Current developments in cell transdifferentiation and genetic reprogramming, together with our recent discoveries of haemogenic endothelium as the source of all HSCs, offer an opportunity for ex vivo generation and expansion of patient-specific HSCs. Using our unique combination of transgenic models, cell lines and differentiation protocols, the fundamental and translational goals of our research will yield important information on the genetic program that drives HSC production and expansion.. Specific aims:. ...
Endocrine cell differentiation in the pancreas must be tightly controlled to produce appropriate numbers of each endocrine cell type in the islets. Dysregulation of this process can cause severe physiological problems - diabetes, associated with loss of β-cell generation or function, being the most obvious example. One transcription factor known to be involved in β-cell differentiation is Mnx1, mutation of which is associated with neonatal diabetes. By inactivating Mnx1 in either endocrine progenitors or β-cells, Fong Cheng Pan and co-workers have provided insights into the roles of this key regulator in mouse (p. 3637). They find that Mnx1 acts as a lineage specification factor: upon its depletion, β-cells fail to differentiate but δ-cell number is increased. Mnx1 is also needed for β-cell maintenance: mutants show extensive β- to δ-cell transdifferentiation. Intriguingly, the authors identify a small population of escaper β-cells in which Mnx1 has not been depleted, allowing expansion ...
Mature human β-cells are typically considered as terminally differentiated cells that do not switch their hormone production once fully differentiated. Our results show that human β-cells can convert rapidly and preferentially into glucagon-producing α-cells without forced expression of exogenous transcription factors. Of importance, the conversion occurred in islets from pancreas of organ donors from different backgrounds, independent of donor factors such as age or sex.. To date, only a few examples of human cell transdifferentiation have been reported. This usually requires the forced expression of transcription factors or miRNAs to convert human fibroblasts into neurons, hematopoietic progenitors, or brown fat cells (21) or human liver cells into β-cells (22). In our three-dimensional culture system, the dispersion into single cells followed by reaggregation into islet cell aggregates is likely to be a critical step for cell conversion. Previous lineage-tracing studies in human β-cells ...
Vascular smooth muscle cells [VSMC], mononuclear cells [MNC] and their local interaction are known to play key roles in atherosclerotic plaque development and destabilization. To study the cellular interactions an in-vitro co-culture model was established. Peripheral blood MNC were isolated by density gradient centrifugation and marked with fluorescence-labeled acetylated low-density lipoprotein [Fl-ac-LDL]. Mitomycin-treated non-proliferating VSMC were seeded semi-confluently and co-cultured with the labeled MNC in a ratio of 1:3. Immuno-cytochemistry revealed that, within 4 weeks of co-culture, ,20% of the VSMC cells had acquired Fl-ac-LDL. Transdifferentiation processes of the MNC into VSMC had not taken place but could be excluded by xenogenic cell composure (rat VSMC and human MNC) and subsequent quantitative RT-PCR with human specific primers for VSMC markers. Separation of the cells in a trans-well co-culture system resulted in complete absence of double-labeled cells, too. Moreover, ...
Gene regulatory networks control the state of a cell. Models of such networks have been produced for sea urchin development and suggest that cell type may be defined by distinct network kernels. Such kernels are composed of a set of sequence specific DNA-binding transcription factors (SSTFs) that maintain each others expression through cell type-specific cis-regulatory modules. Ectopic expression of some individual SSTFs leads to trans-differentiation, or the conversion of one cell type to another. Our hypothesis is that trans-differentiation will be more efficient and targeted if specific SSTF combinations, corresponding to those of a network kernel, are expressed ectopically. A transient, polycistronic, cassette-based expression system was designed and built. This system allow for Lbx1-dependent network kernels to be transiently introduced into heterologous cells. Transfecting a cell with a specific combination of SSTFs may trigger establishment of the corresponding endogenous network kernel ...
배아줄기세포(ES cell)나 유도만능줄기세포 (iPS cell)를 이용해 병든 조직과 세포를 대체하는 재생의학이 활발히 연구되고 있다. 그러나 여기에는 윤리적 한계와 함께 종양발생가능성, 배양 중 이종(異種) 동물세포 오염위험, 고난도의 배양 조건 등 기술적 한계가 있었다. 이에 최근 하나의 세포를 다른 종류의 세포로 직접 이형분화(trans-differentiation) 시키는 연구가 주목 받고 있다.. 본 연구는 성체 생쥐의 피부 섬유모세포(fibroblast)를 혈관내피세포로 직접 전환시킬 수 있음을 최초로 보여주었다. 배아발생과정에서 혈관내피세포가 만들어지는 데 중요한 역할을 하는 11가지 인자를 선별한 후 섬유모세포를 혈관내피세포로 이형분화시키는 5가지 인자(Foxo1, Er71, Tal1, Lmo2)의 조합을 찾아낸 것이다. 이렇게 만들어진 유도혈관내피세포 (iEC)는 혈관내피세포와 유사한 ...
Polyacrylamide substrates were prepared as described, with modifications. 2,10,11 The gels were composed (final concentrations) of 7% acrylamide (Sigma-Aldrich), 3% acrylamidopropyl-trimethylammonium-chloride (Sigma-Aldrich), 0.1% to 0.8% bis-acrylamide to control elasticity (Sigma-Aldrich), 0.1% ammoniumpersulfate, and 0.2% N,N,N′,N′-tetramethylmethylendiamine (TEMED, Sigma-Aldrich) in PBS. The charged trimethylammonium-chloride compound allows for ECM binding. Gels containing 0.1% and 0.2% bis-acrylamide will be termed soft gels, as opposed to stiff gels containing 0.4% or 0.8% bis-acrylamide. For immunofluorescent stains, 24-mm round coverslips were coated with amino-silane (Sigma-Aldrich) for 2 minutes, washed in water, activated with 0.5% glutaraldehyde (Carl Roth, Karlsruhe, Germany) for 30 minutes, washed again, and air-dried. Polyacrylamide solution, (14 μL; as above), was pipetted onto the larger coverslip and covered with an 18-mm round coverslip. After polymerization for 30 ...
Transdifferentiation is a complete and stable change in cell identity that serves as an alternative to stem-cell-mediated organ regeneration. In adult mammals, findings of transdifferentiation have been limited to the replenishment of cells lost from preexisting structures, in the presence of a full …
The injected trans-differentiated cells were closely interacting with the native germ cells, which shows that they definitely do not have any bad effect on the germ cells, says Yossi Buganim, a postdoctoral researcher in the Jaenisch lab and first author of the Cell Stem Cell paper. Instead, they enable those germ cells to survive. In fact, when the embryonic Sertoli-like cells were used to sustain other cells in a Petri dish, Buganim noted that the cells supported by the trans-differentiated cells thrived, living longer than cells sustained by actual native Sertoli cells.. Encouraged by these results in vitro, Buganim says he would like to investigate whether the embryonic Sertoli-like cells retain this enhanced supportive capacity after transplantation into the brain, where the cells could sustain ailing neurons. If so, they could have applications in the development of neuron-based therapies for neurodegenerative disorders such as ALS and Parkinsons disease. This work was supported by the ...
y &1970 D. A. MANIERO ET AL 3,522,015 DIRECT CONVERSION CHEMICAL PROCESSING ARC HEATER Filed Feb. 16, 1966 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 M258 N2 @E om mm A INVENTORS Dunlel A.M0niero 0nd l Ch %;(s 8. Wolf mm mm 5 mm mm mm ATTORNEY July 28, 1970 D, MANIERO ET AL 3,522,015 DIRECT CONVERSION CHEMICAL PROCESSING ARC HEATER Filed Feb. 16, 1966 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 mioww Q21 od} vw mm om w. o w w o o NINQ w wm w \ul 9 ON on ow om United States Patent US. Cl. 23277 Claims ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE An arc heater has a pair of axially spaced annular electrodes forming a gap with a generally axially extending arc therebetween, the electrodes having magnetic field coils therein for generating a magnetic field which exerts a force on the arc and cause it to move substantially continuously around and between the electrodes and to describe a generally annular or cylindrical path. Process gas to be pyrolized is substantially continuously admitted under pressure into the arc heater through a substantially circumferential ...
Introduction: One of the possible sources of myofibroblasts accumulation in IPF is the trans-differentiation of the injured alveolar epithelial cells to myofibroblasts through EMT process. Studies so far suggest that TGFβ1 and EGFR signalling cascades are activated during lung fibrosis. We hypothesized that TGFb1 signalling requires EGFR activation to induce EMT during lung fibrosis.. Material and methods: To address the role of EGFR cascades in TGFβ1-induced EMT, immortalized human bronchial epithelial cells (iHBECs) were treated with or without TGFβ1 (2ng/ml), different concentrations of EGF and EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor (AG1478) for 3 days. Expression of the epithelial marker E-cadherin and the mesenchymal marker α-smooth muscle actin (αSMA) was examined by flow cytometry, Western blot and, immunocytochemistry staining. EGFR and Smad2 phosphorylation was measured by Western blot.. Results: Stimulation of iHBECs with TGFβ1 down-regulated E-cadherin expression and increased α-SMA ...
The idea of plasticity of neutrophils is highlighted by research exhibiting their potential to transdifferentiate into APCs. On this regard, transdifferentiated neutrophils had been discovered at inflammatory websites of autoimmune arthritis (AIA). Publicity of neutrophils to inflammatory stimuli prolongs their survival, thereby favoring the acquisition of pathophysiologically related phenotypes and features. Through the use of… Continue reading. ...
Demethylation events similar to those we have characterized upon differentiation of iPSCs and ESCs to fibroblasts have also been found upon differentiation of adult progenitor cells to mesenchymal lineage fates. For example, gene promoters related to mesenchymal cell fate determination, such as LEP and PPARG2, demonstrate demethylation upon differentiation of mesenchymal cells but not other cell types or lineages (Noer et al., 2006). In addition, it has been shown that DNA demethylation in myoblasts can activate mesenchymal gene expression and induce trans-differentiation to osteogenic and adipogenic fates (Hupkes et al., 2011). Interestingly, it has recently been shown that differences exist in methylation at lineage-specific genes between adult MSCs and putative MSCs derived from ESCs that might account for differences in differentiation potential of MSC populations (Sørensen et al., 2010). In light of these findings, the CpG methylation status of lineage-specific promoters is likely to have ...
Department of Biology and Biochemistry, University of Bath. Dr David Tosh leads the Vertebrate Embryonic Development research group at the Department of Biology and Biochemistry , University of Bath. His lab is interested in the phenomenon of transdifferentiation (sometimes referred to as metaplasia). Transdifferentiation is defined as the conversion of one differentiated cell type to another. It belongs to a wider class of cell type conversions known as metaplasias that include conversions between stem cell types.. The Tosh group has developed a number of models for the transdifferentiation of pancreas to liver and the reverse. They use their studies of transdifferentiation and metaplasia to help: ...
What are the biological processes that stem cells go through? What are the industrial processes we need to manufacturing? What do we know about cancer stem cells? How do iPS cells fit into the picture vs. embryonic stem cells? In this episode we investigate how the science and research of stem cells is being translated into industrial cell processes to create FDA approvable, and commercializable products. Differentiation, proliferation, migration, retro-differentiation, trans-differentiation, transformation into cancer cells, the role of tumors micro environments and epigenetics and all reviewed here by the fields foremost experts.. Incoming search terms:biological concepts and processes relating ...
Dr. Lapuk is a bioinformatics scientist, whose research involves the development and application of bioinformatics approaches for the whole genome and transcriptome studies of human cancers. Dr. Lapuks main research focus is the investigation of mRNA expression regulation and processing including alternative and aberrant splicing during prostate cancer progression using microarray and the next generation sequencing technologies. One of the important Dr. Lapuks research directions is the identification of molecular drivers of a phenotype by leveraging systems biology approaches. Dr. Lapuk develops and applies network-based computer algorithms for studying biological mechanisms underlying prostate cancer progression with the goal to identify novel biomarkers for the treatment resistance, neuroendocrine trans-differentiation and development of metastasis. ...
PURPOSE:miR-183 cluster gene includes three miR-183, miR-96 and miR-182 genes that are highly expressed in the inner nuclear layer and specifically in photoreceptors, and plays critical roles in development, maturation and normal function of the adult retina. Additionally down- or dis-regulation of miR-183/96/182 genes have been shown in retinal degenerative diseases such as retinitis pigmentosa. So, exogenously over-expression of miR-183 cluster genes seems to potentially induce trans-differentiation of potent cells like RPE into retinal neurons. With respect to this aim, following constructing of AAV-based vectors containing individual miR-183 cluster genes, the expression levels of miR-183/96/182 cluster was evaluated ...
Gryder, B. E., Wachtel, M., Chang, K., El Demerdash, O., Aboreden, N.G., Mohammed, W., Ewert, W., Pomella, S., Rota, R., Wei, J.S., Song, Y., Stanton, B. Z., Schafer, B., Vakoc, C.R., Khan, J. (May 2020) Miswired Enhancer Logic Drives a Cancer of the Muscle Lineage. iScience, 23 (5). p. 101103. ISSN 2589-0042 Wu, X.S., Vakoc, C. R. (May 2020) A Pliable ERα Cistrome Evades Therapy. Nat Cell Biol, 22 (6). pp. 619-620. ISSN 1465-7392 Somerville, T. D. D., Biffi, G., DaBler-Plenker, J., Hur, S.K., He, X.-Y., Vance, K.E., Miyabayashi, K., Xu, Y., Maia-Silva, D., Klingbeil, O., Demerdash, O. E., Preall, J. B., Hollingsworth, M. A., Egeblad, M., Tuveson, D. A., Vakoc, C. R. (April 2020) Squamous trans-differentiation of pancreatic cancer cells promotes stromal inflammation. Elife, 9. e53381. ISSN 2050-084x (Public Dataset) Poirier, J. T., George, J., Owonikoko, T. K., Berns, A., Brambilla, E., Byers, L. A., Carbone, D., Chen, H. J., Christensen, C. L., Dive, C., Farago, A. F., Govindan, R., Hann, C., ...
EndoMT and EMT share many of the same regulators, with members of the TGFβ superfamily being arguably the most prominent players. TGFβ signaling through Smad-dependent and independent pathways leads to direct transcriptional regulation of multiple genes, including several EMT/EndoMT-inducing transcription factors.31 Expression of these transcription factors subsequently drives loss of cell-cell adhesion by repression of epithelial/endothelial genes encoding junction proteins, regulation of cytoskeletal rearrangement, and increased expression and activity of both MT-MMPs and secreted MMPs.32 Moreover, during EndoMT, upregulation of EC Slug by TGFβ and other growth factors results in increased migration and invasion into extracellular matrices of diverse composition, and this is due in part to the indirect activation of membrane type-1-MMP, MMP-2, and MMP-9.26 Interestingly, nuclear Smads form multiprotein complexes with EMT/EndoMT-transcription factors, including Snail, Zeb1, and Zeb2, ...
EndoMT and EMT share many of the same regulators, with members of the TGFβ superfamily being arguably the most prominent players. TGFβ signaling through Smad-dependent and independent pathways leads to direct transcriptional regulation of multiple genes, including several EMT/EndoMT-inducing transcription factors.31 Expression of these transcription factors subsequently drives loss of cell-cell adhesion by repression of epithelial/endothelial genes encoding junction proteins, regulation of cytoskeletal rearrangement, and increased expression and activity of both MT-MMPs and secreted MMPs.32 Moreover, during EndoMT, upregulation of EC Slug by TGFβ and other growth factors results in increased migration and invasion into extracellular matrices of diverse composition, and this is due in part to the indirect activation of membrane type-1-MMP, MMP-2, and MMP-9.26 Interestingly, nuclear Smads form multiprotein complexes with EMT/EndoMT-transcription factors, including Snail, Zeb1, and Zeb2, ...
Coronary revascularization is an effective means of treating ischemic heart disease; however, current therapeutic revascularization strategies are limited to large caliber vessels. Because the mammalian heart scars following cardiac injury, recent work showing that cardiac fibroblasts can transdifferentiate into new coronary endothelium raises a new and exciting approach to promoting endogenous revascularization following cardiac injury. In this issue of the JCI, He et al. report on their employment of a battery of lineage-tracing tools to address the developmental origins of fibroblasts that give rise to new endothelial cells. Surprisingly, cardiac fibroblasts did not appear to contribute appreciably to regeneration of cardiac endothelium. Instead, cardiac endothelial cells were likely to proliferate and generate new endothelium following injury. As these conclusions diverge from prior findings, additional work will be required to understand the sources that generate cardiac endothelium in new ...
The reprogramming of differentiated somatic cells to pluripotency holds great promise for drug discovery and developmental biology. Using immortalized cell lines for drug screening assays has its limitations, such as questionable relevance; and the use of primary cells is often hindered by supply difficulties. Thanks to pioneering work by the Yamanaka, Thompson, and other groups, the feasibility of creating iPSCs has generated an opportunity to provide cell lines with stem cell properties in a virtually unlimited supply [1, 2]. These cells can be derived into different cell types for specific assays, even with patient- or genotype-specific background. Technologies are being developed to produce re-differentiated cells of a number of lineages.. Take cardiomyocytes as an example. There are a number of conventional methods for inducing stem cells into cardiomyocytes: through embryoid body (EB) formation, co-culturing with visceral endoderm-like cell line (END-2), and monolayer caridomyocyte ...
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In Crohns disease (CD), ILC1s accumulate in the intestine, while NCR- ILC3s are reduced. Myeloid cells, including DCs, produce IL-12, stimulating ILC1s to produce IFN-γ and TNF-α. IL-12 also induces transdifferentiation of NCR- and NCR+ ILC3s into ILC1s. IL-23 promotes differentiation of ILC1s into IL-22-producing NCR+ ILC3s. Regulatory ILCs (ILCregs) downregulate ILC1s and ILC3s via IL-10 secretion to suppress production of cytokines other than IL-22. ILCregs also produce TGF-β, which promotes their own expansion and survival. Thalidomide and lenalidomide modulate ILC transdifferentiation by selectively degrading Aiolos (ILC1 specific) and Ikaros (ILC nonspecific), increasing ILC3-associated Helios. Sphingosine-1 phosphate receptor 1 (S1PR1) antagonists downregulate ILC3 NCR expression. TNF-α inhibitors directly block TNF-α produced by ILC1s. Ustekinumab and JAK inhibitors target IL-12 and IL-23, while IL-23-specific mAbs target IL-23 and an anti-IL-22 Fc mAb targets IL-22. An anti-NKG2D ...
To the Editor:. We found the study by Campbell et al1 to be very interesting, and we believe that it deserves the full attention of the tissue engineering and vascular biology scientific communities. This study offers a promising way of growing self-compatible vascular replacements, at a time when the need for transplantable vessels increases constantly.. This approach was recently criticized in a Letter to the Editor published in Circulation Research, on the grounds that the cells covering the graft are not true endothelial cells. However, what Cebotari et al2 documented was a typical inflammatory reaction to the foreign body, and the cells present on the silastic tube surface are in fact inflammatory cells and do not carry a typical endothelial function. While replicating the major finding reported by Campbell et al,1 ie, the repopulation of implanted graft scaffolds in the given time period, Cebotari et al found that the supposed endothelial cells stained positively for CD31 and CD18, two ...
Synthesis gas, a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide, can be produced by oxidatively-reforming a hydrocarbon-containing stream which passes on one s...
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In a variation of transdifferentiation experiments, scientists have recently demonstrated that certain adult cell types can be reprogrammed into other cell types in vivo using a well-controlled process of genetic modification. This strategy may offer a way to reprogram available cells into other cell types that have been lost or damaged due to disease.…
Pluripotent factor-induced transdifferentiation can be successfully applied for generating functional autologous ECs for therapeutic applications.
J:93571 Rowan S, Chen CM, Young TL, Fisher DE, Cepko CL, Transdifferentiation of the retina into pigmented cells in ocular retardation mice defines a new function of the homeodomain gene Chx10. Development. 2004 Oct;131(20):5139-52 ...
J:93571 Rowan S, Chen CM, Young TL, Fisher DE, Cepko CL, Transdifferentiation of the retina into pigmented cells in ocular retardation mice defines a new function of the homeodomain gene Chx10. Development. 2004 Oct;131(20):5139-52 ...
It does this through a cell process of transdifferentiation, where cells transform from one type to another. The switching of cell roles is usually seen only when parts of an organ regenerate. However, it appears to occur normally in the Turritopsis life cycle. Scientists believe the cycle can repeat indefinitely, rendering it potentially immortal. This tiny creature is just 5mm long, and is the focus of many marine biologists and geneticists, to see exactly how it manages to reverse its aging process and achieve eternal youth. Or they could just ask Cliff Richard. ...
Lujan E, Chanda S, Ahlenius H, Südhof TC, Wernig M. Direct conversion of mouse fibroblasts to self-renewing, tripotent neural precursor cells ...
Not only an idiot but a dangerous idiot to boot!. These men who want the power to decide womens health issues make me want to puke! They oppose abortion (even in the case of incest or rape!) but do NOTHING to prevent unwanted pregnancies! Their answer is just say no to sex and we know how well that works dont we? The % of young people having sex tells you that we have to help them and all women (and men too!) - we need good sex education, free birth control plus, if we demand that men take responsibility that would be a good thing as well. The GOP attack on Planned Parenthood is a great example of how outrageous the right wing is - this organization saves thousands of lives every year - plus, they provide women with free consoling so that they make the proper decisions regarding when to have children and how to prevent getting pregnant in the first place - one would think that would be a bi-partisan issue if the GOP is as pro-life as they claim!. ...
PURPOSE: The transdifferentiation of Tenon fibroblasts to myofibroblasts is a pivotal step in filtering bleb scarring. It is mediated by the cytokine TGF-beta, Rho-dependent contractility, and cell-matrix interactions in an interdependent fashion. HMG-CoA-reductase inhibitors (statins) have been shown to inhibit Rho-GTPase signaling; therefore, the authors studied the influence of lovastatin on TGF-beta-mediated myofibroblast transdifferentiation to assess the potential use of statins in wound healing modulation.. METHODS: Human Tenon fibroblasts were grown in culture, pretreated with lovastatin, lovastatin and mevalonate, or specific inhibitors of farnesyl transferase or geranylgeranyl transferase and were stimulated with TGF-beta1. alpha-Smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA) and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) transcription were assessed by real-time PCR. alpha-SMA protein expression and localization were studied by Western blot and confocal immunofluorescence microscopy. Cell contractility ...
In this study, we have investigated the effects of stage-specific vFLIP expression during B cell differentiation in the attempt to recapitulate KSHV-associated diseases (PEL and MCD). Mice developed pathological abnormalities mimicking MCD and showed immunological defects (i.e., lack of GC as well as impairment in Ig class switching and affinity maturation). These findings unveiled for what we believe is the first time the in vivo immunological effects of vFLIP expression. Most surprisingly, in vivo vFLIP expression in B cells led to the development of B cell-derived histiocytic/DC sarcoma, which highlights plasticity between B cell and macrophage/DC lineages and explains the reprogramming ability of KSHV during tumor formation.. Given the evidence that PEL has experienced the GC reaction while MCD develops from earlier precursors that eventually mature into plasmablasts in a GC-independent manner (36), we predicted that ROSA26.vFLIP;Cγ1.cre mice would have represented, a priori, a mouse model ...
Copyright 2014 by Ryan Matthew Welchko. This material is copyrighted and any further reproduction or distribution is prohibited without the permission of the copyright owner ...
Copyright 2014 by Ryan Matthew Welchko. This material is copyrighted and any further reproduction or distribution is prohibited without the permission of the copyright owner ...
TY - CHAP. T1 - Differentiation of pancreatic cells into hepatocytes. AU - Tosh, D. PY - 2006. Y1 - 2006. N2 - This chapter describes the use of the pancreatic cell line AR42J and mouse embryonic pancreas as models for the trans-differentiation of pancreas to liver. Both AR42J cells and embryonic pancreas can be induced to trans-differentiate to hepatocytes by exposure to the glucocorticoid dexamethasone. Dexamethasone can be replaced by the naturally occurring glucocorticoid cortisol to induce the conversion of AR42J cells to hepatocytes. To determine whether the effect of the glucocorticoid is specific, the cells can be exposed to RU486, the glucocorticoid receptor antagonist, prior to the addition of dexamethasone or cortisol. Because the embryonic pancreas contains both exocrine and endocrine cell types, it is possible, with the correct combination of antibodies, to immunostain for at least three cell types. AR42J cells can be obtained as a frozen aliquot or growing culture from the ECACC ...
Learn how stem cell researchers use reprogramming and transdifferentiation techniques to convert cells from one type into another.
Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a key trans-differentiation process, which plays a critical role in physiology and pathology. Although gene expression changes in EMT have been scrutinized, study of epigenome is in its infancy. To understand epigenetic changes during TWIST-driven EMT, we used the AcceSssIble assay to study DNA methylation and chromatin accessibility in human mammary epithelial cells (HMECs). The DNA methylation changes were found to have functional significance in EMT - i.e. methylated genes were enriched for E-box motifs that can be recognized by TWIST, at the promoters suggesting a potential targeting phenomenon, whereas the demethylated regions were enriched for pro-metastatic genes, supporting the role of EMT in metastasis ...
Gutbrod, M. J., Martienssen, R. A. (May 2020) Conserved chromosomal functions of RNA interference. Nat Rev Genet, 21 (5). pp. 311-331. ISSN 1471-0056 Somerville, T. D. D., Biffi, G., DaBler-Plenker, J., Hur, S.K., He, X.-Y., Vance, K.E., Miyabayashi, K., Xu, Y., Maia-Silva, D., Klingbeil, O., Demerdash, O. E., Preall, J. B., Hollingsworth, M. A., Egeblad, M., Tuveson, D. A., Vakoc, C. R. (April 2020) Squamous trans-differentiation of pancreatic cancer cells promotes stromal inflammation. Elife, 9. e53381. ISSN 2050-084x (Public Dataset) Delevich, K., Jaaro-Peled, H., Penzo, M., Sawa, A., Li, B. (February 2020) Parvalbumin interneuron dysfunction in a thalamo-prefrontal cortical circuit in Disc1 locus impairment mice. eNeuro. ISSN 2373-2822 Dore, K., Pao, Y., Soria Lopez, J., Aronson, S., Zhan, H., Ghosh, S., Merrill, S., Zador, A. M., Malinow, R., Kebschull, J. M. (January 2020) SYNPLA, a method to identify synapses displaying plasticity after learning. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 117 (6). pp. ...
Resistance to the Brutons tyrosine kinase (BTK) inhibitor ibrutinib has been attributed solely to mutations in BTK and related pathway molecules. Using whole-exome and deep-targeted sequencing, we dissect evolution of ibrutinib resistance in serial samples from five chronic lymphocytic leukaemia patients. In two patients, we detect BTK-C481S mutation or multiple PLCG2 mutations. The other three patients exhibit an expansion of clones harbouring del(8p) with additional driver mutations (EP300, MLL2 and EIF2A), with one patient developing trans-differentiation into CD19-negative histiocytic sarcoma. Using droplet-microfluidic technology and growth kinetic analyses, we demonstrate the presence of ibrutinib-resistant subclones and estimate subclone size before treatment initiation. Haploinsufficiency of TRAIL-R, a consequence of del(8p), results in TRAIL insensitivity, which may contribute to ibrutinib resistance. These findings demonstrate that the ibrutinib therapy favours selection and expansion ...
Myofibroblast transdifferentiation is now recognized as a hallmark event in the pathogenesis of cardiac fibrosis from a variety of cardiac diseases (15). While it is well recognized that these cells are hypersecretory for a number of key matrix proteins and that TGF-β/R-Smads are key mediators of cardiac fibrosis in heart failure etiologies (12, 22, 42), the study of endogenous Smad-associated proteins that may inhibit these profibrotic signals is in its infancy. We have previously described the antifibrotic actions of Smad7 in plated primary cardiac myofibroblasts, and its diminished expression in healing myocardial infarcts (49, 50), but the function(s) of other members of this unique group of proteins, e.g., c-Ski and Sno-N, remains unclear in this context. Furthermore, an understanding of the effects of c-Ski isoforms in cardiac fibroblasts may assist in determining the physiological role of this protein in healthy and diseased heart. Herein we have characterized the functional and ...
Progressive renal fibrosis is a common outcome of almost all forms of renal damage, including diabetic nephropathy. Fibrosis leads to chronic kidney failure and, eventually, dialysis or transplantation (1-3). Although much is known about the molecular background and mediators that prompt fibroblasts or transdifferentiated kidney cells to release collagen and matrix (4-6), the search for a unique event that initiates the process remains inconclusive. Targeting this putative key signal would enable researchers to switch off fibrosis and, perhaps, the progressive loss of renal function that plagues millions of individuals worldwide (1-6). The intermediate/small-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channel (KCa3.1; KCNN4; SK4) is one intriguing candidate for such function because it promotes fibrogenesis in target tissue by altering the membrane potential of cells, thus enhancing extracellular Ca2+ entry (7,8). Subsequent Smad2/3 or mitogen-activated protein kinase (MEK)-dependent phosphorylation ...
crispgg: I expect ANAN to take advantage of this situation. All those with ACCA need is the ability to set up there own firms in Nigeria. With ANAN membership, they can do that. Imagine the credibility that they will gain when they have a huge number of ACCA members joining them. In a few years, they will be at par with ICAN ...
In 1995 he pioneered this technique permitting the transdifferentiation of white blood cells into red blood cell precursors and ... "Historical Origins of Transdifferentiation and Reprogramming". Cell Stem Cell. 9 (6): 504-516. doi:10.1016/j.stem.2011.11.012. ... Baker, Monya (2008-10-23). "Thomas Graf: Cellular identity and transdifferentiation". Nature Reports Stem Cells. doi:10.1038/ ... He is a pioneer in cell reprogramming, showing that blood cells can be transdifferentiated by transcription factors. He is also ...
Epithelial to mesenchymal transdifferentiation (EMT) of an epithelial cell. Perhaps the most well studied pathway of ... Partial smooth muscle differentiation of a fibroblastic cell Activation of a stellate cell (e.g. hepatic Ito cells or ... A myofibroblast is a cell that is in between a fibroblast and a smooth muscle cell in phenotype. Myofibroblasts are found ... Pericytes and renal mesangial cells are some examples of modified myofibroblast-like cells. Myofibroblasts may interfere with ...
SCR/SP11 - are small polymorphic peptides produced by the tapetal cells of anthers and is involved in self-incompatibility of ... PSK has been demonstrated to promote cellular proliferation and transdifferentiation. It has been demonstrated that PSK binds ... These proteins are secreted from cells in the floral abscission zone. Studies suggest that the HAESA membrane-associated LRR- ... February 2005). "Reduction of cell size induced by enod40 in Arabidopsis thaliana". J. Exp. Bot. 56 (412): 507-13. doi:10.1093/ ...
Kaur K, Yang J, Eisenberg CA, Eisenberg LM (October 2014). "5-azacytidine promotes the transdifferentiation of cardiac cells to ... Azacitidine causes anemia (low red blood cell counts), neutropenia (low white blood cell counts), and thrombocytopenia (low ... doi:10.1089/cell.2014.0021. PMID 25090621. Wang X, Zou P, Wu F, Lu L, Jiang S (December 2017). "Development of small-molecule ... has a compromised efficacy as a cardiac differentiation factor because it promotes the transdifferentiation of cardiac cells to ...
"In vitro transdifferentiation of human skin keratinocytes to corneal epithelial cells". celltherapyjournal.org. Retrieved 30 ... As a research scientist, she works on stem cell biology, and her works are published in "International Journal of Cornea" and " ... Jyothsna (12 September 2015). "Vidya Pradeep, a stem cell biologist and also an actress". behindwoods.com. Retrieved 30 May ... "International Journal of Cell Therapy". She practiced Bharatanatyam during her childhood. While pursuing her PhD, Vidya worked ...
Reprogrammed adult supporting cells show transdifferentiation into hair cell-like cells upon exposure to hair cell induction ... Claudius cells, inner phalangeal cells, and inner and outer pillar cells. Hensen's cells, Deiter's cells, and outer hair cells ... Direct transdifferentiation is when neighboring supporting cells convert into hair cells without cell division. Inner ear ... Supporting cells are also responsible for removing damaged hair cells from the inner ear. Hair cells and most supporting cells ...
Influence of embryonic stage on the transdifferentiation of chick neural retina cells in culture. J Embryol Exp Morphol. 1978 ... The expression of chick alpha A2-crystallin RNA during lens development and transdifferentiation. Biol Cell. 1985;54(2):101-8. ... The influence of the genotype on the process of ageing of chick lens cells in vitro. Exp Cell Res. 1988 Feb;174(2):330-43. ... Relationship between crystallin mRNA expression in retina cells and their capacity to re-differentiate into lens cells. Nature ...
4. Transdifferentiation experiments were carried out. They tried to change the cell fate without proceeding through a ... fibroblast cells to myoblast cells, fibroblast cells to cardiomyocyte cells, fibroblast cells to neurons 5. Cell replacement ... In 2006, he and his team generated induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS cells) from adult mouse fibroblasts. iPS cells closely ... Therefore, non-differentiated egg/early embryo cells can only develop into specialized cells. However, stem cells with limited ...
May 2018). "Lysophospholipids induce innate immune transdifferentiation of endothelial cells, resulting in prolonged ... Molecular and Cell Biology of Lipids. 1821 (4): 694-705. doi:10.1016/j.bbalip.2012.01.009. PMID 22285325. Oka S, Toshida T, ...
May 2018). "Lysophospholipids induce innate immune transdifferentiation of endothelial cells, resulting in prolonged ... to cause host cell (macrophage) apoptosis through cytochrome C release. LPCs are present as minor phospholipids in the cell ... Invading T cells are also thought to mediate this process. Bacteria such as Legionella pneumophila utilize phospholipase A2 end ... Therefore, their effects are independent of the proliferation state of the tumor cell. FoodPro LysoMaxa Oil is an FDA approved ...
"The forkhead transcription factor FoxO1 regulates proliferation and transdifferentiation of hepatic stellate cells" (PDF). ... Fatty acids in the beta cells activate FOXO1, resulting in apoptosis of the beta cells. FOXO1 activation plays a role in cell ... It suppresses survival of tumor cells by inducing apoptosis in prostate cancer cells and glioma cells by upregulating the ... In pancreatic beta cells FOXO1 mediates glucagon-like peptide-1 effects on pancreatic beta-cell mass. When the level of blood ...
This inhibitor specifically targets Rho GTPases to prevent cell growth related to cancer. When tested on breast cancer cells, ... January 2001). "Transforming growth factor-beta1 mediates epithelial to mesenchymal transdifferentiation through a RhoA- ... We have used a stable retroviral RNA interference approach to generate invasive breast carcinoma cells (SUM-159 cells) that ... Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML), a stem cell disorder that prevents myeloid cells from functioning correctly, has been linked to ...
"A role for Id in the regulation of TGF-beta-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transdifferentiation". Cell Death and ... An increase in ID expression is seen in embryonic and adult stem cells. ID proteins also promote cell cycle progression, ... When ID proteins are overexpressed, cell proliferation is enhanced and cells become insensitive to growth factor depletion. ... When ID1 was knocked out, a defect in T-cell migration was seen. A knockout of ID2 showed that 25% of mice died perinatally, ...
Transdifferentiation of MSCs into excitable neuron-like cells has been shown to be possible in vitro and these cells respond to ... The terminal differentiation of some somatic stem cells has recently been called into question after studies of transplanted ... However, it is unlikely that this degree of transdifferentiation occurs in vivo and that ... haematopoietic stem cells showed the development of myoblasts, endothelium, epithelium and neuroectodermal cells, suggesting ...
... vibratile cells (for coelomic fluid movement and clotting), and crystal cells (potential osmoregulatory cells in sea cucumbers ... Direct transdifferentiation of one type of tissue to another during tissue replacement is also observed. The robust larval ... as well as pigment cells, mechanoreceptor cells (which detect motion on the animal's surface), and sometimes gland cells which ... The coelomic fluid contains the coelomocytes, or immune cells. There are several types of immune cells, which vary among ...
Medusae Transforming into Polyps and Cell Transdifferentiation in Turritopsis nutricula (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa)". The Biological ... In many organisms, there is asymmetric cell division, e.g. a stem cell dividing to produce one stem cell and one non-stem cell ... cells upon cell division, with the mother cell experiencing aging, while the daughter is rejuvenated. There is negligible ... activation of oncogenes and cell-cell fusion, independent of telomere length. Senescent cells within a multicellular organism ...
The ability of transdifferentiation, a non-stem cell which can morph into a different type of cell, in these cells is pivotal ... Medusae transforming into polyps and cell transdifferentiation in Turritopsis nutricula (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa)". The Biological ... It is unknown whether or not stem cells play a role in this process. Due to this regular transformation by T. nutricula, it is ... This regression from medusa to polyp has only been observed with the presence of differentiated cells from the outer umbrella ...
The species' cell development method of transdifferentiation has inspired scientists to find a way to make stem cells using ... It does this through the cell development process of transdifferentiation, which alters the differentiated state of the cells ... Medusae Transforming into Polyps and Cell Transdifferentiation in Turritopsis nutricula (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa)". The Biological ... medusae transforming into polyps and cell transdifferentiation in Turritopsis nutricula (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa)". Biological ...
Medusae Transforming into Polyps and Cell Transdifferentiation in Turritopsis nutricula (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa)". The Biological ... Most living species have at least one upper limit on the number of times the cells of a member can divide. This is called the ... Furthermore, lymphoblastoid cell lines from peripheral blood lymphocytes of humans over age 100 had a significantly higher poly ... The first experimental test of this idea was by Hart and Setlow who measured the capacity of cells from seven different ...
... medusae transforming into polyps and cell transdifferentiation in Turritopsis nutricula (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa)". Biological ... The eukaryotic cells emerged between 1.6 and 2.7 billion years ago. The next major change in cell structure came when bacteria ... They have unspecialized cells that can transform into other types and that often migrate between the main cell layers and the ... Unlike cells of animals and other eukaryotes, bacterial cells do not contain a nucleus and rarely harbour membrane-bound ...
Because of their regenerative capabilities, the kidney can benefit from it by transdifferentiation into kidney cells. Moreover ... The cells release clusterin as a response to cell stress. This is due to clusterin being able to protect the cell by reducing ... This reduces cell lysis and apoptosis of kidney cells and improves the overall renal function of the kidneys post-ischemia as ... Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) are multipotent mature stem cells that are capable of differentiating into different types of ...
... medusae transforming into polyps and cell transdifferentiation in Turritopsis nutricula (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa)". Biological ... They have unspecialized cells that can transform into other types and that often migrate between the main cell layers and the ... Sponges are similar to other animals in that they are multicellular, heterotrophic, lack cell walls and produce sperm cells. ... Cnidarians (Greek for nettle) are distinguished by the presence of stinging cells, specialized cells that they use mainly for ...
... medusae transforming into polyps and cell transdifferentiation in Turritopsis nutricula (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa)". Biological ... The fused DNA is then put into a cell, to generate either a cell line or (via IVF techniques) an entire animal bearing the gene ... Box jellyfish eyes primarily use c-PRCs (ciliary photoreceptor cells) similar to that of vertebrate eyes. These cells undergo ... In the cell or animal, the artificial gene turns on in the same tissues and the same time as the normal gene, making GFP ...
Stem cell research includes differentiation and transdifferentiation in the hematopoietic system, somatic cell reprogramming, ... Cell polarity is a prerequisite for several fundamental operations in animal cells, such as asymmetric cell division and ... Cell and Developmental Biology, or CDB, is built on the idea that the cell should be the primary focus of developmental biology ... stem cell differentiation, organoid formation, and induced pluripotent stem cells. This unit collaborates with the Biomolecular ...
... and transdifferentiation". Experimental Cell Research. 316 (3): 477-90. doi:10.1016/j.yexcr.2009.09.028. PMID 19800879. Young ... and transdifferentiation". Experimental Cell Research. 316 (3): 477-90. doi:10.1016/j.yexcr.2009.09.028. PMID 19800879. ... and it may play a role in cell survival of neural-derived cells. Moreover, M-Ras plays a crucial role in the downregulation of ... "MRAS GTPase is a novel stemness marker that impacts mouse embryonic stem cell plasticity and Xenopus embryonic cell fate". ...
However, there is also a second definition of transdifferentiation, in which cells can be directly induced into a new cell type ... differentiated cell. Re-entry into the cell cycle allows the cell to go through mitosis, dividing to make more cells that would ... as seen by an increase in cell cycle re-entry and loss of cellular adhesion. Cell plasticity [9] is the idea that cells can ... as it implies that a cell with 'plasticity' can dedifferentiate to change phenotypes. Cell plasticity suggests that cells can ...
... is that ectopic expression of FOXA2 together with HNF4A drives transdifferentiation of fibroblasts to hepatocyte-like cells. ... December 2012). "Foxa2 and H2A.Z mediate nucleosome depletion during embryonic stem cell differentiation". Cell. 151 (7): 1608- ... Cell. 148 (1-2): 72-83. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2011.11.026. PMC 3266536. PMID 22265403. FactorBook FOXA2 This article incorporates ... or tissue-specific factors The FOXA factors also facilitate the maintenance of cell identity by bookmarking cell type-specific ...
This latter damage type is generally considered a primary cause of cellular dedifferentiation and transdifferentiation, which ... and drift of cell and tissue-specific chromatin states. ...
... mechanism involving the transdifferentiation of venous endothelial cells in the eye into lymphatic-like endothelial cells.[2][3 ... Cells. *Photoreceptor cells (Cone cell, Rod cell) → (Horizontal cell) → Bipolar cell → (Amacrine cell) → Retina ganglion cell ( ... Parasol cell, Bistratified cell, Giant retina ganglion cells, Photosensitive ganglion cell) → Diencephalon: P cell, M cell, K ...
Medusae Transforming into Polyps and Cell Transdifferentiation in Turritopsis nutricula (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa)". The Biological ... medusae transforming into polyps and cell transdifferentiation in Turritopsis nutricula (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa)". Biological ...
The ability of a differentiated stem cell of one lineage to produce cells of a different lineage is called transdifferentiation ... Stem cell division and differentiation. A - stem cells; B - progenitor cell; C - differentiated cell; 1 - symmetric stem cell ... Cell Division[edit]. To ensure self-renewal, stem cells undergo two types of cell division (see Stem cell division and ... Hematopoietic stem cells[edit]. Main article: Hematopoietic stem cell. Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are stem cells that can ...
... the use of adult somatic stem cells and the dedifferentiation and/or transdifferentiation of cells, and more than one mode can ... Macrophages are a type of repairing cell that devour dead cells and pathogens, and trigger other immune cells to respond to ... First, adult cells de-differentiate into progenitor cells which will replace the tissues they are derived from.[56][57] Second ... "Cell. 153 (6): 1219-1227. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2013.05.002. PMC 4394608 . PMID 23746839.. ...
transdifferentiation. • negative regulation of neuron death. • cell-cell adhesion. Sources:Amigo / QuickGO. ... in a cell surface glycoprotein and functions as a cell-cell adhesion factor. It may also mediate the attachment of stem cells ... cell adhesion. • endothelial cell proliferation. • mesangial cell-matrix adhesion. • tissue homeostasis. • positive regulation ... Cells expressing CD34 (CD34+ cell) are normally found in the umbilical cord and bone marrow as hematopoietic cells, or in ...
The formation of cell types like nerve cells occurs with a number of intermediary, less differentiated cell types. A cell stays ... A tail of transdifferentiation". Science 298 (5600): 1901-3. doi:10.1126/science.1079853. PMID 12471238. ... Cell differentiation[change , change source]. Differentiation is the formation of cell types, from what is originally one cell ... The dividing cells tend to be distinct from differentiated cells (see stem cell). ...
"Loss of Fbw7 reprograms adult pancreatic ductal cells into α, δ, and β cells". Cell Stem Cell. 15 (2): 139-53. doi:10.1016/j. ... "Reprogramming of human pancreatic exocrine cells to β-like cells". Cell Death and Differentiation. 22 (7): 1117-30. doi:10.1038 ... exocrine cells have been reprogrammed into cells with an islet cell-like phenotype following direct expression of NGN3 or ... "Neurogenin 3+ cells contribute to β-cell neogenesis and proliferation in injured adult mouse pancreas". Cell Death & Disease. 4 ...
The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a process by which epithelial cells lose their cell polarity and cell-cell ... "Androgen-targeted therapy-induced epithelial mesenchymal plasticity and neuroendocrine transdifferentiation in prostate cancer ... "The epithelial-mesenchymal transition generates cells with properties of stem cells". Cell. 133 (4): 704-15. doi:10.1016/j.cell ... Initiation of metastasis requires invasion, which is enabled by EMT.[36][37] Carcinoma cells in a primary tumor lose cell-cell ...
Sugimoto K, Gordon SP, Meyerowitz EM (April 2011). "Regeneration in plants and animals: dedifferentiation, transdifferentiation ... Cell potency is a cell's ability to differentiate into other cell types.[1][2][3] The more cell types a cell can differentiate ... In cell biology, a unipotent cell is the concept that one stem cell has the capacity to differentiate into only one cell type. ... can give rise to various blood cells such as B and T cells, however, not to a different blood cell type like a red blood cell.[ ...
desember 2012). «Embryonic stem cell and induced pluripotent stem cell: an epigenetic perspective». Cell Research 23 (1): 49-69 ... Sugimoto K, Gordon SP, Meyerowitz EM (April 2011). «Regeneration in plants and animals: dedifferentiation, transdifferentiation ... Baker, Monya (6. desember 2007). «Adult cells reprogrammed to pluripotency, without tumors». Nature Reports Stem Cells.. ... Cell-Off: Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Fall Short of Potential Found in Embryonic Version». Scientific American. Henta 25. ...
Parietal cells may secrete factors that lead to transdifferentiation of chief cells, so if lost, chief cells do not normally ... Cell types[edit]. The gastric chief cell (also known as a zymogenic cell or peptic cell) is a cell in the stomach that releases ... Since the mucus neck cells do not divide as it becomes a chief cell this process is known as transdifferentiation.[6] The gene ... In human anatomy, there are three types of chief cells, the gastric chief cell, the parathyroid chief cell, and the type 1 ...
They include direct transdifferentiation of squamous cells to columnar cells, the stem cell changing from esophageal type to ... "is the transformation of one differentiated cell type to another differentiated cell type. The change from one type of cell to ... Programmed cell death Apoptosis. Pyknosis. Karyorrhexis. Karyolysis. Accumulations. pigment Hemosiderin. Lipochrome/Lipofuscin ... Cell death. Necrosis Coagulative necrosis. Liquefactive necrosis. Gangrenous necrosis. Caseous necrosis. Fat necrosis. ...
Arenas-Mena, C. (2010) Indirect development, transdifferentiation and the macroregulatory evolution of metazoans. Philosophical ... "Cell Lineages in Larval Development and Evolution of Holometabolous Insects", The Origin and Evolution of Larval Forms ...
"The role of β-catenin in signal transduction, cell fate determination and trans-differentiation" en nih.gov ... "A novel cell-cell junction system: the cortex adhaerens mosaic of lens fiber cells". Journal of Cell Science 116 (Pt 24): 4985- ... "Ksp-cadherin is a functional cell-cell adhesion molecule related to LI-cadherin". Experimental Cell Research 294 (2): 345-55. ... Dobrosotskaya IY, James GL (Apr 2000). "MAGI-1 interacts with beta-catenin and is associated with cell-cell adhesion structures ...
Cell type complexity in the basal metazoan Hydra is maintained by both stem cell based mechanisms and transdifferentiation. Dev ... Hydra polyps are small and transparent which makes it possible to trace single cells in vivo. In addition, transgenic Hydra ... Transgenic stem cells in Hydra reveal an early evolutionary origin for key elements controlling self-renewal and ... Transgenic Hydra allow in vivo tracking of individual stem cells during morphogenesis. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103;16: 6208- ...
co-culture with stromal cells or feeder cells, and on specific culture substrates: support cells and matrices provide ... This method, also known as transdifferentiation or direct conversion, consists in overexpressing one or several factors, ... "Retinoic acid induces embryonal carcinoma cells to differentiate into neurons and glial cells". The Journal of Cell Biology. ... "Embryonic stem-cell culture as a tool for developmental cell biology". Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology. 8 (6): 502-507. ...
Nagy, Lisa M.; Grbić, Miodrag (1999), "Cell Lineages in Larval Development and Evolution of Holometabolous Insects", The Origin ... transdifferentiation and the macroregulatory evolution of metazoans. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: ...
... neuroendocrine transdifferentiation (NEtD) and cancer stem cell-like gene programs. EMT has established roles in promoting ... Cancer Stem Cell phenotypes are associated with disease recurrence, metastasis, and cell survival in circulation as Circulating ... These pro-growth signals, however, can be problematic when they occur in a cancer cell. Antiandrogens can enter cells and ... Prostate cancer cells usually require androgen hormones, such as testosterone, to grow. ADT reduces the levels of androgen ...
... shown to be involved in the Epithelial-mesenchymal transition and Neuroendocrine Transdifferentiation of Prostate Cancer cells ... If the cell begins mitosis, duplicates its DNA, but is then not able to divide into two separate cells it becomes an aneuploid ... Nigg EA (2001). "Mitotic kinases as regulators of cell division and its checkpoints". Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. 2 (1): 21-32. ... the process by which the cytoplasm of the parent cell is split into two daughter cells. During citokinesis the mother centriole ...
"Cochlear supporting cell transdifferentiation and integration into hair cell layers by inhibition of ephrin-B2 signalling". ... The supporting cells including Hensen's cells and Deiter's cells which surround the sensory cells in the organ of Corti are ... and reproduce both new hair cells and supporting cells into the cell cycle, one of the reasons is because the supporting cells ... Hensen's cells are a layer of tall cells arranged in the organ of Corti in the cochlea, which are part of the supporting cells ...
This is contrary to the historic hypothesis that stem cell migration and transdifferentiation is the primary mechanism of ... The stem cell secretome (also referred to as the stromal cell secretome) is a collective term for the paracrine soluble factors ... Stem Cell therapies, here referred to as therapies employing non-hematopoietic, mesenchymal stem cells, have a wide range of ... This approach is also known as cell-free stem cell therapy. It has been hypothesized that future therapies aiming at generating ...
It has been suggested that CAFs are better conceptualised as a "cell state" Research has found that CAF trans-differentiation ... They may disrupt normal cell functions, such as cell cycle regulation and cell death, or signal to specific types of cells to ... These cells create a stromal niche for cancer cells and especially cancer stem cells, where they employ both paracrine and ... The normal fibroblast cells receive a hormone signal from nearby cells, indicating that it must become activated, and is thus ...
This phenomenon is called transdifferentiation, and is generally ... and that it is possible to convert one cell type to another, ... on transdifferentiation and the reprogramming ability of cells to produce specific cells with new phenotypes for use in cell ... This phenomenon is called transdifferentiation, and is generally defined as the stable switch of one cell type to another. ... 24129754 - Encapsulated neural stem cell neuronal differentiation in fluorinated methacrylamide ch.... 24475174 - Cell-type ...
"Transdifferentiation of endothelial cells to smooth muscle cells play an important role in vascular remodelling," American ... β1 in hypoxia inducing transdifferentiation of pulmonary artery endothelial cells to smooth muscle-like cells," Acta Medicinae ... H. Deissler, H. Deissler, G. K. Lang, and G. E. Lang, "TGFβ induces transdifferentiation of iBREC to αSMA-expressing cells," ... H. H. He, L. Huang, W. Lu et al., "Inhibition of hypoxia-induced transdifferentiation of PAECs into smooth muscle-like cells by ...
... this study identifies chemotherapeutic stress as a new driver of transdifferentiation of tumor cells to endothelial cells and ... Recent research has demonstrated that GBM cells have the ability to transdifferentiate into endothelial cells (ECs), ... The mechanism behind this transdifferentiation, however, remains unclear. Here, we show that treatment with temozolomide (TMZ) ... illustrating that GBM cells may use plasticity in concert with vascularization leading to the creation of tumor-derived blood ...
GSC are directly involved in the formation of new vessels via their transdifferentiation into Tumor Derived Endothelial Cells ( ... These tumors are characterized by abundant vascularization and significant cellular heterogeneity including GBM stem-like cells ... TDEC). We postulate that cellular stress such as ionizing radiation (IR) could enhance the transdifferentiation of GSC into ... Transdifferentiation of glioblastoma cells into vascular endothelial cells. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 108, 4274-4280 (2011). ...
B cells; (E) reduction of GC B cells (B220+GL7+FAS+); (F) reduction of IgG1-expressing B cells; (G) reduction of plasma cells ... MCD cells resemble mature B cells, as they express the preplasma cell markers IRF4 and BLIMP1, the memory B cell marker CD27, ... primarily due to CD4+ T cells. This suppressive activity required T cell activation and direct cell-cell contact, but not prior ... B cell purification, RT-PCR, and immunoblotting. CD19+ and CD19- splenic cells were isolated by magnetic cell separation using ...
Blocking airway mucous cell metaplasia by inhibiting EGFR antiapoptosis and IL-13 transdifferentiation signals. ... Blocking airway mucous cell metaplasia by inhibiting EGFR antiapoptosis and IL-13 transdifferentiation signals. ... that prevents apoptosis of ciliated cells and on IL-13 signaling that promotes transdifferentiation of ciliated to goblet cells ... Here we show that long-term ciliated cell hyperplasia coincides with mucous (goblet) cell metaplasia after respiratory viral ...
B cell-derived tumors arose at high incidence and displayed Ig gene rearrangement with downregulated expression of B cell- ... Kaposi sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV) vFLIP oncoprotein induces B cell transdifferentiation and tumorigenesis in mice. ... Kaposi sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV) vFLIP oncoprotein induces B cell transdifferentiation and tumorigenesis in mice. ... these tumors exhibited characteristics of transdifferentiation and acquired expression of histiocytic/dendritic cell markers. ...
Early work documenting transdifferentiation of c-kit-positive hematopoietic stem cells (c-kit-HSCs) into myocytes has been ... Abstract 16884: Clonal Analysis of Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transdifferentiation in the Regenerated Myocardium. Fumihiro Sanada ... Abstract 16884: Clonal Analysis of Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transdifferentiation in the Regenerated Myocardium ... Abstract 16884: Clonal Analysis of Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transdifferentiation in the Regenerated Myocardium ...
Cell culture and neuroendocrine transdifferentiation. The human prostate carcinoma cell line LNCaP (clone FGC; CRL-1740; ... The proliferating cells mortality rate was γ and, by the end of the mitotic phase, each cell had divided into two cells, which ... In experiments assessing LNCaP neuroendocrine transdifferentiation protocol, cells were seeded at 4 × 105 cells per 100-mm ... The obtained growth curve resembled the increase in cell numbers (from 3 × 105 cells at day 0 to 2.5 × 106 cells at day 16) ...
... derived cells with liver cells. Most pancreatic β-cells in vivo are diploid, but β-cells with more than two sets of chromosomes ... C and D: Numerous GFP+ interstitial cells were seen in all animals, both between islet β-cells (C) and exocrine cells (D). E: ... To address the question of whether bone marrow cells can give rise to pancreatic endocrine cells, in particular β-cells, we ... Little evidence of transdifferentiation of bone marrow-derived cells into pancreatic beta cells. Diabetologia46 :1366 -1374, ...
Cell-to-cell connection of endothelial progenitor cells with cardiac myocytes by nanotubes: a novel mechanism for cell fate ... bone marrow stem cell; VSESC, very small embryonic stem cell-like stem cell; EGS, embryonic germ cells. ... These cells comprised ≈10% of the total SP cells (≈500 to 1000 cells per adult mouse heart). By RT-PCR, it was shown that the ... Cardiogenic Differentiation and Transdifferentiation of Progenitor Cells. Paracrine Signaling in Cell Transplantation. ...
β cell neogenesis from α cell transdifferentiation in zebrafish. (A-E) Confocal projections showing α (red) and β (green) cells ... β cells transdifferentiate from α cells during regeneration. In mice, severe β cell ablation triggers α-to-β cell conversion ( ... spontaneous transdifferentiation of β cells from α or δ cells occurs in conditions of extreme β cell loss (Thorel et al., 2010 ... of β cells (Dor et al., 2004; Nir et al., 2007), while conversion of α or δ cells to β cells occurs only with extreme β cell ...
Dept of Stem Cells and Developmental Biology, Royan Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Technology, Cell Science Rsch Cntr, ... Dept of Stem Cells and Developmental Biology, Royan Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Technology, Cell Science Rsch Cntr, ... Dept of Stem Cells and Developmental Biology, Royan Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Technology, Cell Science Rsch Cntr, ... We called these cells "induced cardiomyocyte-like cells" (iCLCs). In vivo functionality of reprogrammed cells were tested by ...
... derived from UCB into hepatocyte like cells and also to estimate the effects of combination... ... The aim of the study was to develop a new strategy for the differentiation of hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) ... In vitro trans-differentiation of human umbilical cord derived hematopoietic stem cells into hepatocyte like cells using ... Growth factors Hematopoietic stem cell Hepatocyte Trans-differentiation Umbilical cord blood This is a preview of subscription ...
They trans-differentiate from differentiated cells at site ... Transfer cells (TCs) are specialized transport cells containing ... Glucose and ethylene signalling pathways converge to regulate trans-differentiation of epidermal transfer cells in Vicia ... Transfer cells (TCs) are specialized transport cells containing invaginated wall ingrowths that generate an amplified plasma ... Title: The Plant journal : for cell and molecular biology Volume: - ISSN: 1365-313X ISO Abbreviation: - Publication Date: 2011 ...
Cancer stem cells are turned inert through transdifferentiation treatment, allowing researchers to get the the root of the drug ... Transdifferentiation Strategy Weeds Out Immature Cancer Cells. Transdifferentiation Strategy Weeds Out Immature Cancer Cells. ... Thus, malignant cells can be rendered into harmless white blood cells with the right supplements. This transdifferentiation ... Malignant B cells from patients with precursor B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) often lack important B cell ...
Lymphoid to myeloid cell trans-differentiation is determined by C/EBPβ structure and post-translational modifications View in ... trans-) differentiation and determines myeloid cell fate. We found that structural alterations and various C/EBP{beta} PTMs ... including innate immune cells. A detailed molecular understanding of how C/EBP{beta} directs alternative cell fates remains ... In this study we apply an assay that converts primary mouse B lymphoid progenitors into myeloid cells in order to answer the ...
Lovastatin Influences TGF-β-Induced Myofibrobrast Transdifferentiation in Lens Epithelial Cells C. Urakami; S. Kishimoto; Y. ... Lovastatin Influences TGF-β-Induced Myofibrobrast Transdifferentiation in Lens Epithelial Cells You will receive an email ... Lovastatin Influences TGF-β-Induced Myofibrobrast Transdifferentiation in Lens Epithelial Cells. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. ... influences TGF-β-induced myofibroblast transdifferentiation in porcine lens epithelial cells (LECs). ...
Stem and Progenitor Cells: Origins, Phenotypes, Lineage Commitments, and Transdifferentiations. Irving L. Weissman David J. ... Whereas stem cells and their fates are known by unique genetic marker studies, the fate and function of these cells are best ... Multipotent stem cells are clonal cells that self-renew as well as differentiate to regenerate adult tissues. ... It is interesting that in the hematopoietic system the only long-term self-renewing cells in the stem and progenitors pool are ...
... in the activation and transdifferentiation of hepatic stellate cells (HSC) in vitro. METHODS: Rat HSC-T6 cells were cultured in ... Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-b) is crucial for transdifferentiation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) and the blunting ... Home » Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-7 induces activation and transdifferentiation of hepatic stellate cells in ... Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-7 induces activation and transdifferentiation of hepatic stellate cells in vitro. ...
Red bars, AEL cell lines; green bars, AMKL cell lines; and blue bars, T-ALL cell lines. D, TF-1a and CMK11-5 cells were treated ... Cell-cycle analysis. For cell-cycle analysis, cells were fixed overnight with 70% ethanol. Fixed cells were stained with ... including 22 AML cell lines, a chronic myeloid leukemia cell line, and four T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) cell ... To assess cell proliferation and viability in human leukemia cell lines, compounds were added at 24 hours after cell seeding. ...
... we performed microarray analysis of genes expressed in NPA-treated cells and NPA-NAA-treated cells. The systematic gene ... Based on these results, we discuss the auxin function in early processes of transdifferentiation into TEs Yoshida, Saiko; ... differentiation from isolated Zinnia mesophyll cells, but that additional auxin, 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) overcame this ... and transcription factors that are known to be key regulators of differentiation of procambial and xylem precursor cells. NAA ...
Non-Viral reprogramming of degenerate Intervertebral Disc Cells induces trans-differentiation to a Healthy Phenotype with ... Nonviral transfection with Brachyury reprograms human intervertebral disc cells to a pro-anabolic anti-catabolic/inflammatory ...
Bone-Derived Stem Cells Repair the Heart after Myocardial Infarction Through Transdifferentiation and Paracrine Signaling ... Bone-Derived Stem Cells Repair the Heart after Myocardial Infarction Through Transdifferentiation and Paracrine Signaling ... Bone-Derived Stem Cells Repair the Heart after Myocardial Infarction Through Transdifferentiation and Paracrine Signaling ... Bone-Derived Stem Cells Repair the Heart after Myocardial Infarction Through Transdifferentiation and Paracrine Signaling ...
Janice Walker, Brigid Bleaken, Mary Ann Stepp, A Menko; Increased Matrix Rigidity Drives Repair Cell Transdifferentiation into ... Therefore, increasing collagen I rigidity induced greater transdifferentiation of repair cells into αSMA stress fiber ... Conclusions: The aberrant transdifferentiation of repair cells to disease causing myofibroblast following mock catraract ... Here, we examined the effects of matrix rigidity on repair cell transdifferentiation into myofibroblasts. ...
... or chondrogenic-differentiated cells proceeds via dedifferentiation and have a correlation with cell cycle arresting and ... Transdifferentiation of mesenchymal stem cells-derived adipogenic-differentiated cells into osteogenic- ... Transdifferentiation of adipogenically differentiated cells into osteogenically or chondrogenically differentiated cells: ... Transdifferentiation of mesenchymal stem cells-derived adipogenic-differentiated cells into osteogenic- or chondrogenic- ...
These data demonstrate that the transdifferentiation of B-13 cells into hepatocyte-like cells in response to glucocorticoid was ... did not promote transdifferentiation into B-13/H cells, but did potentiate glucocorticoid-mediated transdifferentiation. ... Glucocorticoid-dependent transdifferentiation of pancreatic progenitor cells into hepatocytes is dependent on transient ... Glucocorticoid-dependent transdifferentiation of pancreatic progenitor cells into hepatocytes is dependent on transient ...
They might be a stem cell resource for clinical applications of cell replacement therapy in salivary gland dysfunction diseases ... These cells were positive for CD29 and CK19 and weakly positive for CD44 and α-amylase. Within 2 weeks, α-amylase in hAECs ... Human amniotic epithelial cells (hAECs) were isolated from amnion tissue by mechanical mincing and enzymatic digestion. After ... This ratio increased to 6.6-fold, and these cells were positive for mucins, after co-culturing for 2 weeks. hAECs possess the ...
... uninduced cells (−) and β-estradiol induced C10 cells (+) for 72 hours). HAFTL pre-B cells and RAW264.7 cells were used as ... We transduced C10 cells with a retroviral vector carrying HDAC7-Flag (C10-HDAC7 cells). As a control, C10 cells were transduced ... 2006) Gene repression by Pax5 in B cells is essential for blood cell homeostasis and is reversed in plasma cells. Immunity 24: ... 2009) A robust and highly efficient immune cell reprogramming system. Cell Stem Cell 5: 554-566. ...
CSFcould provide an essential niche for promoting the transdifferentiation of BM-MSCs into neural cells, that hopefully help in ... The present study induced BM-MSCs to transdifferentiate into neural-like cells (either neurons or glial cells) using ... differentiate into mesodermal cell types and also reprogram to transdifferentiate into endodermal and ectodermal cell types. ... Nissl bodies observed in the soma usingcresyl violet stain, and cell bodies processes (axons and dendrites) usingsilver ...
  • Evidence has emerged recently indicating that differentiation is not entirely a one-way process, and that it is possible to convert one cell type to another, both in vitro and in vivo. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Here, we have revealed the role of viral FLICE-inhibitory protein (vFLIP) in the initiation of PEL and MCD by specifically expressing vFLIP at different stages of B cell differentiation in vivo. (jci.org)
  • Yet other reports have contradicted some of these findings ( 16 , 17 ) or attributed the differentiation results to cell fusion ( 18 , 19 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • However, considerable disagreement exists regarding the efficiency and even the reality of cardiac differentiation by many of these stem cell types, making these issues a continuing source of controversy in the field. (ahajournals.org)
  • The aim of the study was to develop a new strategy for the differentiation of hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) derived from UCB into hepatocyte like cells and also to estimate the effects of combination of fibroblast growth factor 4 (FGF 4) and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) on hematopoietic stem cell differentiation. (springer.com)
  • The quantities of albumin and AFP at day 0 were low and upon differentiation the cells were able to produce albumin and AFP at high levels. (springer.com)
  • Our results show a new strategy for differentiation in a short duration, using a combination of growth factors for the differentiation of umbilical cord blood derived HSC into hepatocyte like cells under certain in vitro conditions. (springer.com)
  • Glucose and ethylene signalling pathways converge to regulate trans-differentiation of epidermal transfer cells in Vicia narbonensis cotyledons. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Leukemic cells in particular are blocked in an early stage of differentiation, but experiments in the early 1980s showed that cells from some leukemia patients can be made to differentiate when exposed to retinoic acid. (epigenie.com)
  • Malignant B cells from patients with precursor B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) often lack important B cell transcription factors, which presumably contributes to differentiation block. (epigenie.com)
  • The transcription factor C/EBP{beta} controls differentiation, proliferation, and functionality of many cell types, including innate immune cells. (mdc-berlin.de)
  • In this study we apply an assay that converts primary mouse B lymphoid progenitors into myeloid cells in order to answer the question how C/EBP{beta} regulates (trans-) differentiation and determines myeloid cell fate. (mdc-berlin.de)
  • We found that structural alterations and various C/EBP{beta} PTMs determine the outcome of trans-differentiation of lymphoid into myeloid cells, including different types of monocytes/macrophages, dendritic cells, and granulocytes. (mdc-berlin.de)
  • These novel findings reveal that PTMs and structural plasticity of C/EBP{beta} are adaptable modular properties that integrate and rewire epigenetic functions to direct differentiation to diverse innate immune system cells, which are crucial for the organism survival. (mdc-berlin.de)
  • Mechanistically, T-3775440 disrupted the interaction between LSD1 and growth factor-independent 1B (GFI1B), a transcription factor critical for the differentiation processes of erythroid and megakaryocytic lineage cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • We previously reported that a polar auxin transport inhibitor, 1-N-naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA) decreased intracellular auxin levels and prevented tracheary element (TE) differentiation from isolated Zinnia mesophyll cells, but that additional auxin, 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) overcame this inhibition. (rero.ch)
  • To understand the role of auxin in gene regulation during TE differentiation, we performed microarray analysis of genes expressed in NPA-treated cells and NPA-NAA-treated cells. (rero.ch)
  • The systematic gene expression analysis revealed that NAA promoted the expression of genes related to auxin signaling and transcription factors that are known to be key regulators of differentiation of procambial and xylem precursor cells. (rero.ch)
  • CBSCs improve survival, cardiac function, and attenuate remodeling through two mechanisms: 1) secretion of pro-angiogenic factors that stimulate endogenous neovascularization, and 2) differentiation into functional adult myocytes and vascular cells. (ahajournals.org)
  • It is generally accepted that after differentiation bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) become lineage restricted and unipotent in an irreversible manner. (eurekamag.com)
  • This leads to the questions that whether transdifferentiation occurs via direct cell-to-cell conversion or dedifferentiation to a progenitor cells and subsequent differentiation, and whether MSC potency decreases or increases during differentiation. (eurekamag.com)
  • Adipose Stem Cell Therapy Mitigates Chronic Pancreatitis via Differentiation into Acinar-like Cells in Mice. (semanticscholar.org)
  • B lymphopoiesis is the result of several cell-commitment, lineage-choice, and differentiation processes. (prolekare.cz)
  • To date, the central role of specific transcription factors in positively regulating these distinct differentiation processes to acquire a B cell-specific genetic program is well established. (prolekare.cz)
  • The generation of B cells is the result of several cellular transitions that take place in a stepwise manner and comprise cell lineage choices, cell commitment and differentiation. (prolekare.cz)
  • report that MIWI2 aids the trans‐differentiation of fibroblasts into hepatocyte‐like cells and describe how piRNA biogenesis responds to cell fate conversion, consistent with the proposed mechanism of piRNA acting as an "immune system" in the cell. (stemcellsportal.com)
  • TGF-beta reversibly induced an alteration in the differentiation of normal mammary epithelial NMuMG cells from epithelial to fibroblastic phenotype. (rupress.org)
  • This phenotypic differentiation displays the hallmarks of an epithelial to mesenchymal transdifferentiation event. (rupress.org)
  • Using a Zinnia elegans cell culture system, in which single mesophyll cells transdifferentiate into tracheary elements (TEs), we demonstrated that auxin transport inhibitors prevented TE differentiation and that high concentrations of 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and IAA overcame the repression of TE. (oup.com)
  • Gene expression analysis indicated that NPA suppressed TE differentiation at an early process of transdifferentiation into TEs. (oup.com)
  • Previous studies of bone marrow-derived stem cell transdifferentiation into neurons have not involved purified cell populations and determined their exact phenotype prior to differentiation. (ox.ac.uk)
  • When the HSC(LSK) cells were cultured in vitro in neuronal differentiation medium supplemented with retinoic acid, 50% of the cells expressed the neural progenitor marker nestin and no cells had become postmitotic. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Progenitors are obtained by so-called direct reprogramming or directed differentiation and are also called induced somatic stem cells . (wikiversity.org)
  • This meant that the cells can change their differentiation pathway. (wikiversity.org)
  • In w:Drosophila imaginal discs, cells have to choose from a limited number of standard discrete differentiation states. (wikiversity.org)
  • The fact that transdetermination (change of the path of differentiation) often occurs for a group of cells rather than single cells shows that it is induced rather than part of maturation. (wikiversity.org)
  • An in vitro differentiation assay suggested that hypoxia is an important factor in the differentiation of tumor cells to ECs and is independent of VEGF. (elsevier.com)
  • These findings redefine hepatocyte plasticity, which appeared to be limited to metaplasia, that is, incomplete and transient biliary differentiation as an adaptation to cell injury, based on previous studies in mice with a fully developed biliary system 3-6 . (nih.gov)
  • For example, a hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) is capable of differentiation into all of the mature peripheral blood cell types. (nature.com)
  • A recent breakthrough showing that direct trans-differentiation of chondrocytes into bone cells commonly occurs during endochondral bone formation in the growth plate, articular cartilage, and mandibular condylar cartilage suggests that chondrogenesis and osteogenesis are likely one continuous biological process instead of two separate processes. (ijbs.com)
  • Here, we employed cartilage-specific β-catenin loss-of-function ( β-catenin fx/fx ) and gain-of-function ( β-catenin fx(exon3)/ fx(exon3) ) models in the R26R Tomato background (for better tracing the cell fate of chondrocytes) to study the role of β-catenin in cell trans-differentiation. (ijbs.com)
  • Using histological, immunohistochemical, and radiological methods combined with cell lineage tracing techniques, we showed that deletion of β-catenin by either Acan -Cre ERT2 or Col10a1 -Cre resulted in greatly reduced cell trans-differentiation with a significant decrease in subchondral bone volume during mandibular condylar growth. (ijbs.com)
  • Molecular studies demonstrated severe defects in cell proliferation and differentiation in both chondrocytes and bone cells. (ijbs.com)
  • The gain of function studies (constitutive activation of β-catenin with Acan -Cre ERT2 at ages of postnatal day 7, 4-weeks and 6-months) led to more bone cell trans-differentiation of chondrocytes in the mandibular condyle due to increased proliferation and accelerated chondrocyte differentiation with incipient osteogenic changes within the cartilage matrix, resulting in an increased volume of poorly-formed immature subchondral bone. (ijbs.com)
  • These results support the notion that chondrogenesis and osteogenesis are one continuous process, in which β-catenin signaling plays an essential role in the cell trans-differentiation of chondrocytes into bone cells during mandibular condylar development and growth. (ijbs.com)
  • The issue over reports of unexpected plasticity in adult stem cell differentiation remains a focus of debate, and evidence for bone marrow-derived stem cell contributions to renal repair has been challenged. (aspetjournals.org)
  • According to standard protocol for glial differentiation of MSCs, the aim of this research was to improve the induction technique for in vitro differentiation of hDPSCs into oligoprogenitor cells using retinoic acid and growth factors such as basic fibroblast growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor, N2 and B27. (ac.ir)
  • Here, we investigated whether squamous trans-differentiation of human and mouse pancreatic cancer cells can influence the phenotype of non-neoplastic cells in the tumor microenvironment. (cshl.edu)
  • Taken together, our findings reveal enhanced tissue inflammation as a consequence of squamous trans-differentiation in pancreatic cancer, thus highlighting an instructive role of tumor cell lineage in reprogramming the stromal microenvironment. (cshl.edu)
  • Cell differentiation pathways enabling this plasticity and allowing for proper repair, however, are poorly understood. (biologists.org)
  • Mass spectrometry of cultured ATII cells revealed a reduction of carbonyl reductase 2 (CBR2) and an increase in enolase 1 (ENO1) and protein disulfide-isomerase associated 3 (PDIA3) protein expression during ATII-to-ATI cell trans-differentiation. (biologists.org)
  • Finally, siRNA-mediated knockdown of ENO1, as well as PDIA3, in primary ATII cells led to reduced T1α expression, indicating diminished cell trans-differentiation. (biologists.org)
  • Our data thus identified proteins involved in ATII-to-ATI cell trans-differentiation and suggest a Wnt/β-catenin-driven functional role of ENO1 and PDIA3 in alveolar epithelial cell plasticity in lung injury and repair. (biologists.org)
  • Mesenchymal stem cells are multipotent non-hematopoietic stem cells which have the capability for self-renewal and terminal differentiation right into a large number of different cell types, the very best characterized which are osteocytes, adipocytes and chondrocytes [6, 7]. (bio-zentrum.com)
  • Body KI67 antibody 1) Mesenchymal stem TWS119 cells produced from these different resources have all portrayed a distinct design of cell surface area markers, differentiation capability, and pro-angiogenic properties quality of the cells. (bio-zentrum.com)
  • Regardless of the similarity from the cell surface area marker TWS119 expression, MSCs produced from different resources nevertheless carry out display heterogeneity in colony development differentiation and prices potential [26C28]. (bio-zentrum.com)
  • Generation of "hepatocyte like cells"/iHeps from embryonic stem cells (ES) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) by directed differentiation is an emerging solution to the latter issue. (telomerescience.com)
  • Direct conversation or trans-differentiation of fibroblasts to "hepatocyte like cells" is another way which is, being explored. (telomerescience.com)
  • Many of the techniques for reprogramming, differentiation, and transdifferentiation utilize plasmids to increase expression of key factors. (addgene.org)
  • Xeno-free trans-differentiation of adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells into glial and neuronal cells. (edu.qa)
  • Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are undifferentiated cells that have the ability of self-renewal and trans-differentiation into other cell types. (edu.qa)
  • Several signaling pathways and transcription factors control the cell fate in development and differentiation in vitro. (ac.ir)
  • The purpose of the paper is to review novel methods for retinal progenitor production by selecting a set of signaling molecules in the presence of adult retinal pigment epithelium and acting as inducers of retinal cell differentiation. (ac.ir)
  • Nevertheless, ROS at low doses can convey important biological information to regulate plant cell growth, for example, or as a prerequisite for the differentiation of some haematopoietic progenitor cells in insects ( Owusu‐Ansah & Banerjee, 2009 ). (embopress.org)
  • Enhanced ROS expression in progenitor cells of the medullary zone is required for their subsequent differentiation into haemocytes ( Owusu‐Ansah & Banerjee, 2009 ). (embopress.org)
  • Design of differentiation protocols for pluripotent stem cells. (wiley-vch.de)
  • The broad spectrum of differentiation ability and tissue-repairing effects of MSCs might be mediated in part by the presence of a novel pluripotent stem cell type recently found in adult human mesenchymal tissues, termed multilineage-differentiating stress enduring (Muse) cells. (mdpi.com)
  • Besides the mechanisms underlying the trophic, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulatory effects, another important action of MSCs that has been debated over the past decade is the broad spectrum of differentiation beyond the boundaries of tissue stem cells. (mdpi.com)
  • Generally, tissue stem cells generate the cell types of the tissue in which they reside, and thus the range of their differentiation capabilities is usually limited. (mdpi.com)
  • Rapid progress in this field has brought new perspectives on understanding and treating disorders associated with the nervous system ,such as neurodegeneration, traumatic injuries ,and neuropsychiatric diseases .Being able to obtain functional neurons through trans-differentiation from abundant somatic cells also provides a new strategy for regenerative medicine . (bvsalud.org)
  • In Chemical Biology in Regenerative Medicine, an international team of experts provides an overview of progress towards clinical application in the areas of transplantation (allogenic and autologous), manipulation of niche environment and homing, and cell reprogramming (trans-differentiation and de-differentiation). (wiley.com)
  • Alveolar epithelial cell (AEC) trans-differentiation is a process where type II alveolar epithelial cells (AEC II) trans-differentiate into type I alveolar epithelial cells (AEC I) during lung recovery after various injuries, in which AEC I are damaged. (ltrcpublic.com)
  • The dynamics of cells and cellular organelles are considered in the context of growth and differentiation, made possible particularly by advances in molecular genetics and the visualization of organelles using molecular probes. (routledge.com)
  • There is now a much clearer understanding of these basic plant processes of cell division, cell enlargement and differentiation. (routledge.com)
  • Each chapter provides a current and conceptual view in the context of the cell cycle (6 chapters), cell enlargement (5 chapters) or cell differentiation (9 chapters). (routledge.com)
  • 2014, Thesis, In Vitro Trans-Differentiation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells into Dopaminergic Neurons Via Adenoviral Mediated Transfection of Transcription Factors. (cmich.edu)
  • Taken together, we have demonstrated that MSCs contribute to wound repair via processes involving MSCs differentiation various cell components of the skin. (nystemcelltherapy.com)
  • The scientific know-how about cellular fate determining transcription factors (TFs) and the huge amount of information regarding the regulation of stem cell differentiation led researchers to come up with a highly attractive concept of cellular reprogramming. (elsevier.com)
  • Towards deciphering the underpinnings of cellular differentiation and self-renewal programmes, an offshoot of thought has emerged that advocated the interconversion within the somatic cell state. (elsevier.com)
  • These results will assist in converting current differentiation protocols into procedures that are compliant with clinical use in future cell-based therapies to treat liver-related metabolic disorders. (bath.ac.uk)
  • Background: BMPs bone morphogenetic proteins are members of the TGFβ transforming growth factor-β super-family of proteins, which regulate growth and differentiation of different cell types in various tissues, and play a critical role in the differentiation of mesenchymal cells into osteoblasts. (duhnnae.com)
  • Subsequent studies of these genes in C2C12 and mesenchymal or pre-osteoblastic cells should reveal more details about their role during this type of cellular differentiation induced by BMP2 or BMP7. (duhnnae.com)
  • LIF has the capacity to induce terminal differentiation in leukemic cells. (uniprot.org)
  • Its activities include the induction of hematopoietic differentiation in normal and myeloid leukemia cells, the induction of neuronal cell differentiation, and the stimulation of acute-phase protein synthesis in hepatocytes. (uniprot.org)
  • Topics include the heterogeneity and specification of endothelial cell subpopulations, molecular control of phenotypes, organ-specific differentiation, novel sources of endothelial cells during development, transdifferentiation processes, vascular niches, and endothelial dysfunction in disease. (grc.org)
  • Although this phenomenon occurs rarely in nature, recent studies have been focused on transdifferentiation and the reprogramming ability of cells to produce specific cells with new phenotypes for use in cell therapy and regenerative medicine. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Finally, the significance of transdifferentiation in regenerative medicine is discussed. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In this review, we consider approaches to cell fate mapping and establishing the cardiac phenotype, as well as the present state of the evidence for the cardiogenic and regenerative potential of the major candidate stem cell types. (ahajournals.org)
  • One century later, the emerging field of regenerative medicine aspires to accomplish what Oz could not, that is, harness the potential of stem cells to build (or rebuild) heart tissue out of its component parts. (ahajournals.org)
  • Since most of previous studies use retroviral transfection for transcription factor delivery, one of the major issues in application of transdifferentiation in regenerative medicine to be solved is finding a safe tool for this reprogramming process. (ahajournals.org)
  • The Stem Cells Portal brings you a roundup of some of the new and exciting stories in the ever-changing world of stem cells, regenerative medicine, and beyond! (stemcellsportal.com)
  • Tissue regeneration using stem cell-derived exosomes represents a growing and potentially exciting field and recently, researchers from the labs of Yimin Chai and Jia Xu (Shanghai Jiao Tong University, PR China) sought to compare the bone regenerative capacity of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell (BM-MSC)-derived exosomes from healthy and type 1 diabetes (T1D) rats. (stemcellsportal.com)
  • The ultimate goal in the field of regenerative medicine is to replace lost or damaged cells. (addgene.org)
  • Stem cells and regenerative medicine have worked their way into the field of neuroscience in the form of transdifferentiation. (sciencemag.org)
  • Xu Y, Shi Y, Ding S (2008) A chemical approach to stem-cell biology and regenerative medicine. (springer.com)
  • Our results define the regenerative potential of mammalian transdifferentiation and reveal opportunities for the treatment of ALGS and other cholestatic liver diseases. (nih.gov)
  • This process, by which some cells lose their characteristics and acquire a new identity, could be more generally involved in tissue or organ regeneration in vertebrates, and is a promising research avenue for regenerative medicine. (inserm.fr)
  • Here we found beta cell regenerative effects of taurine using both in vitro cell culture and in vivo Swiss TO NIH diabetic mice models. (ulster.ac.uk)
  • Replacement of dysfunctional β -cells in the islets of Langerhans by transdifferentiation of pancreatic acinar cells has been proposed as a regenerative therapy for diabetes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Novel approaches in regenerative medicine aim at harnessing this cell type plasticity in order to replace diseased or damaged tissue by targeted conversion of cells from other tissues [ 3 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This "reprogramming" of the cell to an embryonic state holds immense potential for drug development, disease modeling, and regenerative medicine. (addgene.org)
  • Written by a prominent leader in the field, The Science of Stem Cells is an ideal course book for advanced undergraduates or graduate students studying stem cell biology, regenerative medicine, tissue engineering, and other topics of science and biology. (wiley-vch.de)
  • Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are easily accessible and safe for regenerative medicine. (mdpi.com)
  • The field of regenerative medicine has advanced at a rapid pace and this comprehensive summary of new developments is a timely contribution to the field as clinical trials have begun to assess the safety and efficacy of cell-based therapies. (wiley.com)
  • This volume provides an essential overview of this emerging technology for researchers in academic, industrial and clinical environments working in regenerative medicine, chemical biology, biochemistry, cell biology, biomaterials and bioengineering. (wiley.com)
  • However, in light of the fact that some regenerative capabilities of the endocrine pancreas have been documented and recent research has shown that human ES cell lines can be derived in vitro, this review discusses whether it is practical or even possible to combine these lines of research to more effectively treat young diabetic patients. (jci.org)
  • Transfection and direct conversion, which is referred to as "transdifferentiation" in this thesis, play significant roles in regenerative medicine research including gene therapy, vaccines, modeling of diseases and disorders, drug testing, cell replacement therapy, and tissue engineering. (uwaterloo.ca)
  • Understanding these aspects of endothelial cell diversity is crucial for future approaches in regenerative medicine. (grc.org)
  • Recent research has demonstrated that GBM cells have the ability to transdifferentiate into endothelial cells (ECs), illustrating that GBM cells may use plasticity in concert with vascularization leading to the creation of tumor-derived blood vessels. (hindawi.com)
  • Overall, this study identifies chemotherapeutic stress as a new driver of transdifferentiation of tumor cells to endothelial cells and highlights cellular plasticity as a key player in therapeutic resistance and tumor recurrence. (hindawi.com)
  • Recent work has shown that, in addition to liaising with surrounding blood vessels, GBM tumors can generate their own vessels in a process termed vascular mimicry where GBM cells transdifferentiate into functional endothelial cells [ 9 - 13 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Recent data has demonstrated that GSC are directly involved in the formation of new vessels via their transdifferentiation into Tumor Derived Endothelial Cells (TDEC). (nature.com)
  • Moreover, GSC are mostly found near vessels within niches formed by endothelial cells 9 . (nature.com)
  • It has been shown that endothelial cells and GSC establish connections, which are important for GSC stemness maintenance 9 . (nature.com)
  • At 2 weeks, only a few of the homogeneously colored colonies seen at 4 days persisted and formed large patches of cells composed of myocytes, endothelial cells (ECs), and smooth muscle cells. (ahajournals.org)
  • By 6 weeks, EGFP+ cardiomyocytes, vascular smooth muscle and endothelial cells could be identified in CBSC- but not in CDC-treated animals. (ahajournals.org)
  • We were surprised to observe GFP + vascular endothelial cells (ECs). (elsevier.com)
  • Transplantation of mouse GBM cells revealed that the tumor-derived endothelial cells (TDECs) originated from tumor-initiating cells and did not result from cell fusion of ECs and tumor cells. (elsevier.com)
  • Alveolar epithelial type I (ATI) cells are elongated squamous cells with a large cell surface, which, owing to their close proximity to endothelial cells of the alveolar capillaries, facilitate gas exchange in the lung. (biologists.org)
  • Main cellular components of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) stroma are tumor-associated fibroblasts, hepatic stellate cells, immune cells, and endothelial cells that produce extracellular components of tumor microenvironment such as extracellular matrix, various proteins, proteolytic enzymes, growth factors, and cytokines. (chemweb.com)
  • At sites of mouse wounds that had been i.v. injected with MSCs derived from GFP transgenic mice, we detected GFP-positive cells associated with specific markers for keratinocytes, endothelial cells, and pericytes. (nystemcelltherapy.com)
  • The formation of the vascular system begins in the embryo with the process of vasculogenesis, involving endothelial precursors known as angioblasts that give rise to a primitive network of simple endothelial cells defining tubes lacking a lumen. (frontiersin.org)
  • Growing evidence suggests that besides environmental cues (such as hypoxia) and genetic signals (VEGF and Notch), endothelial cell metabolism contributes to the regulation of vessel sprouting and the maintenance of a quiescent endothelial cell phenotype in healthy tissues. (frontiersin.org)
  • Endothelial cells form adaptable transport networks but have also emerged as critical regulators of organ growth, regeneration and stem cell niche function. (grc.org)
  • Even within the same organ, endothelial cells can have very different developmental origins, possess heterogeneous molecular properties and acquire functional specialization. (grc.org)
  • Attendees will have the opportunity to learn about unpublished results, establish new collaborations and interact with many leading scientists at this GRC with its unique focus on endothelial cell phenotypes. (grc.org)
  • This GRC will be held in conjunction with the "Endothelial Cell Phenotypes in Health and Disease (GRS)" Gordon Research Seminar (GRS). (grc.org)
  • In vitro conversion of adult murine endothelial cells to hematopoietic stem cells. (nih.gov)
  • Activated ovarian endothelial cells promote early follicular development and survival. (nih.gov)
  • Apart from fibroblasts, human keratinocytes from hair pluck, peripheral blood cells , and renal epithelial cells from urine are some of the easily isolated somatic cells that have been reprogrammed to iPSCs successfully [10-12]. (addgene.org)
  • reported one of the earliest examples of transdifferentiation in vitro where treatment of mouse fibroblasts with 5-azacytidine led to their conversion into myoblasts [39]. (addgene.org)
  • However, the field was redeemed one year later when Shinya Yamanaka's group at Kyoto University in Japan utilized four embryonic stem cell genes- Oct3⁄4, Sox2, c-Myc, and Klf4 -to convert mouse and human skin fibroblasts into embryonic stem cell-like cells called induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. (sciencemag.org)
  • Since then other researchers have used different gene or chemical concoctions to turn fibroblasts into iPS cells. (sciencemag.org)
  • Conditioned media experiments revealed that squamous pancreatic cancer cells secrete factors that recruit neutrophils and convert pancreatic stellate cells into cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) that express inflammatory cytokines at high levels. (cshl.edu)
  • Here we characterize the molecular and biological requirements for OCT4 plasticity induction in human skin derived fibroblasts (hFibs) that allows direct conversion of cell fate without iPSC formation. (wiley.com)
  • Cell therapy from bench to bedside: Hepatocytes from fibroblasts - the truth and myth of transdifferentiation. (telomerescience.com)
  • Transdifferentiation has been used to generate blood cells, cardiac muscle cells and neurons from adult cells called fibroblasts. (scientificamerican.com)
  • The expression of three such proteins and the suppression of another called p19 was all that it took to persuade fibroblasts isolated from mouse tails to behave like liver cells. (scientificamerican.com)
  • We also found that the poly(amido amine) transfection reagent used during the transdifferentiation procedure was more toxic to hMSCs than, as reported elsewhere, to mouse embryonic fibroblasts or COS-7 cells. (uwaterloo.ca)
  • Alternatively, since the neuronal transdifferentiation procedure has previously been shown to work on fibroblasts, investigations of topographical influence on neuronal transdifferentiation with fibroblasts may lead to more informative results. (uwaterloo.ca)
  • This surprising phenotype has a correspondence in human pathology (i.e., development of follicular/DC sarcoma in a patient with previously diagnosed Castleman disease) and underlines an existing plasticity between B cell and macrophage/DC lineages, as recently reported also for other B cell malignancies (e.g. (jci.org)
  • The interconversion of cell lineages via transdifferentiation is an adaptive mode of tissue regeneration and an appealing therapeutic target. (biologists.org)
  • In a new take on an old idea, Ravindra Majeti and his team from Standford University weed out immature cells by forcing them to change lineages. (epigenie.com)
  • T-3775440 treatment enforced transdifferentiation of erythroid/megakaryocytic lineages into granulomonocytic-like lineage cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • However, current results imply that even terminally differentiated cells transdifferentiate across lineage boundaries and therefore act as a progenitor cells for other lineages. (eurekamag.com)
  • Specific cell media, supplements, bioactive small molecules, and growth factors are used to control the cell fate of iPSCs and differentiate them into different cell lineages [13]. (addgene.org)
  • Previously we reported that, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) can induce human dermal fibroblast (HDF) cells to form multipotent cell clusters which are able to transdifferentiate into three germ layer derived cell lineages. (elsevier.com)
  • Human Fib-derived OCT4 plastic cells display elevated levels of developmentally related genes associated with multiple lineages, but not those associated with pluripotency. (wiley.com)
  • Transdifferentiation, also known as lineage conversion, from one cell type to another often involves a dedifferentation step to reinstate multipotency, but it is also possible to force cells to switch lineages directly [ 4 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Stem cells are classified as pluripotent or multipotent, based on their ability to generate different cell lineages. (addgene.org)
  • Multipotent stem cells, such as adult (or somatic) stem cells, can differentiate into multiple cell types, but are typically limited to related cell lineages. (addgene.org)
  • 7. Genetic modification and labelling of cell lineages. (wiley-vch.de)
  • The most interesting property of MSCs is that, despite being adult stem cells that belong to the mesenchymal tissue lineage, they are able to differentiate into a broad spectrum of cells beyond the boundary of mesodermal lineage cells into ectodermal or endodermal lineages, and repair tissues. (mdpi.com)
  • Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can differentiate not only into mesenchymal lineage cells but also into various other cell lineages. (nystemcelltherapy.com)
  • All known pancreatic cell lineages have been suggested as the origin. (nebraska.edu)
  • In both cases of transdifferentiation, individual cells express molecular markers for both cell types, indicating individual tumor cells have the capacity to express multiple lineages. (aacrjournals.org)
  • This chronic switch in epithelial behavior exhibits genetic susceptibility and depends on persistent activation of EGFR signaling to PI3K that prevents apoptosis of ciliated cells and on IL-13 signaling that promotes transdifferentiation of ciliated to goblet cells. (jci.org)
  • The distinct effects of EGFR and IL-13 inhibitors after viral reprogramming suggest that these combined therapeutic strategies may also correct epithelial architecture in the setting of airway inflammatory disorders characterized by a similar pattern of chronic EGFR activation, IL-13 expression, and ciliated-to-goblet cell metaplasia. (jci.org)
  • To determine whether lovastatin, HMG-CoA-reductase inhibitors, influences TGF-β-induced myofibroblast transdifferentiation in porcine lens epithelial cells (LECs). (arvojournals.org)
  • Differential interactions between IGFBP-3 and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) in normal vs cancerous breast epithelial cells. (ebscohost.com)
  • Transdifferentiation of human amniotic epithelial cells into acinar cells using a double-chamber system. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Human amniotic epithelial cells (hAECs) were isolated from amnion tissue by mechanical mincing and enzymatic digestion. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Functional regeneration of irradiated salivary glands with human amniotic epithelial cells transplantation. (semanticscholar.org)
  • TGF-beta induced transdifferentiation of mammary epithelial cells to mesenchymal cells: involvement of type I receptors. (rupress.org)
  • In epithelial cells, activation of the TGF-beta signal transduction pathways leads to inhibition of cell proliferation and an increase in extracellular matrix production. (rupress.org)
  • In the present study, we investigated the effects of TGF-beta on mouse mammary epithelial cells in vitro. (rupress.org)
  • These transfected cells no longer underwent epithelial to mesenchymal morphological change upon exposure to TGF-beta, yet still displayed some TGF-beta-mediated responses. (rupress.org)
  • We conclude that TGF-beta has the ability to modulate E-cadherin expression and induce a reversible epithelial to mesenchymal transdifferentiation in epithelial cells. (rupress.org)
  • For example, differentiated airway epithelial cells can revert into stable and functional stem cells in vivo after the ablation of airway [24] . (wikiversity.org)
  • Glomerular cellular crescents consist of epithelial cells and macrophages, which can undergo an irreversible process of fibrous organization. (nih.gov)
  • This study examined glomerular epithelial- myofibroblast transdifferentiation (GEMT) in the formation and evolution of glomerular crescents in two distinct rat models of glomerulonephritis: 5/6 nephrectomy and antiglomerular basement membrane (GBM) disease. (nih.gov)
  • Early in the course of both disease models, and prior to crescent formation, immunohistochemistry staining and in-situ hybridization demonstrated de novo expression of alpha-smooth-muscle actin (alpha-SMA), a marker of smooth muscle cells and myofibroblasts, by glomerular parietal epithelial cells (GPEC). (nih.gov)
  • The expression of alpha-SMA by GPEC was accompanied by a loss of E-cadherin staining, a marker of epithelial cells. (nih.gov)
  • This study provides the first phenotypic and morphological evidence that glomerular epithelial-myofibroblast transdifferentiation participates in the formation and evolution of glomerular crescents. (nih.gov)
  • Corneal reconstruction is a series of techniques for restoring the integrity and transparency of the cornea, and mainly refers to surgical techniques such as cornea transplantation, limbal stem cell (LSC) transplantation and amnion transplantation, and autologous oral mucosal epithelial transplantation. (molvis.org)
  • It consists of alveolar epithelial type I (ATI) and type II (ATII) cells. (biologists.org)
  • ATII cells are capable of self-renewal and exert progenitor function for ATI cells upon alveolar epithelial injury. (biologists.org)
  • Here, we applied proteomics, expression analysis and functional studies in primary murine ATII cells to identify proteins and molecular mechanisms involved in alveolar epithelial plasticity. (biologists.org)
  • In the adult lung, the alveolar epithelium consists largely of two morphologically distinct epithelial cell types, which are crucial to maintain lung homeostasis. (biologists.org)
  • The correlation of abnormal transdifferentiation of epithelial cells to immunologic cells and the occurrence of PEG lesion was investigated. (bvsalud.org)
  • In comparison with PEG-N, epithelial tissue take on squamous metaplasia , and stroma was infiltrated with intensive microvessels and inflammatory cells in the PEG lesion. (bvsalud.org)
  • Poor epithelial basal layer constitution , basal polarization, and migration of basal cells to stroma could be observed. (bvsalud.org)
  • In the ultrastructure , the loose intercellular junction of basal cells and the increased nucleus/ cytoplasm ratio and intercellular space could be observed, neonatal monocytoid cells and macrophages and mast cells as a exuviate-like manner brooded from cytoplasm of original epithelial cells and basement membrane . (bvsalud.org)
  • In addition, CD14(+) monocytes , CD68(+) macrophages , MCT(+) mast cells and CD68(+)/MCT(+) cells with various size, and these cells of stronger immuno- staining of SCF, c-Kit and PCNA antigen could be found in epithelial tissue and stroma. (bvsalud.org)
  • Epithelial cells in PEG related to wound are characteristized by transdifferentiation of epithelial cells to immunologic cells , wich may be associated with local infectious and inflammatory reaction, ultimately resulting in enhancement the ratio of beta- Cat /E-Cad signal and activation SCF-c-Kit signal pathway . (bvsalud.org)
  • The phenomena of transdifferentiation epithelial cells in the PEG lesion will help to recognize of the neoplatic immune and trauma repair mechanism. (bvsalud.org)
  • Transdifferentiation of liver epithelial cells (hepatocytes and biliary cells) into each other provides a rescue mechanism in liver disease under situations where either cell compartment fails to regenerate by itself. (pcom.edu)
  • The mechanisms underlying such transdifferentiation of terminally differentiated epithelial cells are not known. (pcom.edu)
  • When expression of OCT3/4 was blocked in hepatocytes using adenovirus containing OCT3/4 shRNA, there was a significant decrease in appearance of biliary cells (compared to controls) as assessed by biliary marker HNF1-beta, strongly supporting the role of OCT3/4 in transdifferentiation of hepatocyte to biliary epithelial cells. (pcom.edu)
  • The mouse epidermal multistage carcinogenesis model provides a well-defined system for examining the evolution of squamous epithelial cells into benign squamous papillomas and their subsequent progression into squamous cell carcinomas ( 6 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • The present study induced BM-MSCs to transdifferentiate into neural-like cells (either neurons or glial cells) using Cerebrospinal fluid(CSF) in vitro . (sciepub.com)
  • Several in vitro studies described conditions affecting on BM-MSCs to transdifferentiate into neural cells, either neurons or glial. (sciepub.com)
  • demonstrated how repeated intrathecal and intramuscular application of hMSCs extended life span and protected motor neurons and neuromuscular junctions through the inhibition of the apoptosis, autophagy, and, importantly, necroptosis cell death pathways. (stemcellsportal.com)
  • Failure of transdifferentiation of adult hematopoietic stem cells into neurons. (ox.ac.uk)
  • In conclusion, we demonstrate that adult HSC(LSK) cells do not have the capacity to leave the hematopoietic lineage and differentiate into neurons. (ox.ac.uk)
  • We hope to readily reprogram easily accessible somatic cells from a patient with one of these neurological diseases into iPS cells or directly into neurons to model the disease and develop personalized treatments. (sciencemag.org)
  • For example, hematopoietic stem cells generate blood cells and neural stem cells generate neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes [ 6 , 7 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • The most well known approach is the 'gene-therapy' approach of Shinya Yamanaka --introduce key factors into the cell via retro virus to push it into a more pluripotent state, a state from which the cells can be differentiated into neurons or heart cells. (forbes.com)
  • They've probably been continuing the degenerative process [in the body] for some time, but I think we'll be able to model them better if we can get neurons or any diseased cell type of interest into an adult state. (forbes.com)
  • Once we have these cells (for example, neurons), we can't keep growing them anymore, as with the conventional approach. (forbes.com)
  • He most recently tried transdifferentiating embryonic stem cells into neurons with a colleague. (forbes.com)
  • These GSC are characterized by their ability to self-renew in vitro (neurosphere formation) and in vivo, by a high expression of neural stem cell markers (i.e. (nature.com)
  • Olig2, Nestin) and stem cell transcription factors (i.e. (nature.com)
  • As a result of these efforts, dozens of stem cell types have been reported to have cardiac potential. (ahajournals.org)
  • At the same time, this field has witnessed a significant degree of controversy, particularly with regard to the capacity of certain unexpected stem cell types to differentiate into cardiomyocytes. (ahajournals.org)
  • In the present review, we begin by discussing techniques for demonstrating the cardiac potential of a candidate stem cell type and potential pitfalls in this phenotyping. (ahajournals.org)
  • Transformation of differentiated cells to induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) has several limitations, including the low efficiency of the process and the necessity of forced expression of at least one pluripotent stem cell transcription factor. (ahajournals.org)
  • Danet GH, Luongo JL, Butler G et al (2002) C1qRp defines a new human stem cell population with hematopoietic and hepatic potential. (springer.com)
  • Di Campli C, Piscaglia AC, Pierelli L et al (2004) A human umbilical cord stem cell rescue therapy in a murine model of toxic liver injury. (springer.com)
  • Autologous bone marrow- or cardiac-derived stem cell therapy for heart disease has demonstrated safety and efficacy in clinical trials but functional improvements have been limited. (ahajournals.org)
  • Finding the optimal stem cell type best suited for cardiac regeneration is key toward improving clinical outcomes. (ahajournals.org)
  • Cortical bone stem cells (CBSCs) and cardiac-derived stem cells (CDCs) were isolated from EGFP+ transgenic mice and were shown to express c-kit and Sca-1 as well as 8 paracrine factors involved in cardioprotection, angiogenesis and stem cell function. (ahajournals.org)
  • A recent study from Pavla Jendelova (Czech Academy of Science/Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic) sought to discover how human mesenchymal stem cell (hMSC) therapy functions when applied as a treatment for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). (stemcellsportal.com)
  • Many of the plasmids used for these methods can be found on Addgene's stem cell page . (addgene.org)
  • Rather than reprogram cells all the way back to their most primitive pluripotent stem cell state, through transdifferentiation adult somatic cells are converted directly into a different cell type, bypassing the lengthy processes of reprogramming. (addgene.org)
  • Now you don't have to start at an embryonic stem cell or induce a pluripotent stem cell. (sciencemag.org)
  • Another example, "chief" cells express the stem cell marker Troy. (wikiversity.org)
  • Cell Stem Cell 18(3):368-381. (springer.com)
  • Cell Stem Cell 17(6):719-734. (springer.com)
  • Cell Stem Cell 15(4):497-506. (springer.com)
  • Li W, Ding S (2010) Small molecules that modulate embryonic stem cell fate and somatic cell reprogramming. (springer.com)
  • 1 Eli and Edythe Broad Center of Regeneration Medicine and Stem Cell Research, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA. (nih.gov)
  • Transdifferentiation is a complete and stable change in cell identity that serves as an alternative to stem-cell-mediated organ regeneration. (nih.gov)
  • Many exciting discoveries reported over the past 3 years have caused us to expand the paradigm for understanding somatic stem cell plasticity. (nature.com)
  • In any discourse on stem cells, it is important to indicate the type of stem cell and also its source. (nature.com)
  • Although the concept of somatic stem cell plasticity, which suggests that stem cells can have a wide range of differentiated progeny had been suggested previously, a spate of reports over the past 3 years has brought wide attention to the concept that somatic cells in post-natal animals are highly plastic ( Table 1 ). (nature.com)
  • The rising concept of cell-based therapeutics has provided a framework around which new approaches are being generated, and its combination with advances in stem cell research stands to bring both fields to clinical fruition. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The finding of this study suggest the hDPSCs as an alternative stem cell source usable in oligodendrogenesis in vitro for treatment of demyelinating diseases. (ac.ir)
  • During the last two decades, comprehensive and breakthrough analysis into stem cell structured therapies show great guarantee for the treating a number of scientific disorders, including peripheral artery occlusive illnesses (PAD) [11C16]. (bio-zentrum.com)
  • Right here, we will concentrate on the current position of analysis into MSCs being a stem cell-based therapy for PAD and the initial challenges with their effective application towards a typical scientific therapy. (bio-zentrum.com)
  • Unlike other cell types, each stem cell has the potential to either remain a stem cell or become another type of cell with a more specialized function. (addgene.org)
  • iPSC technology removes the possible ethical concerns related to embryonic stem cell use and has the major advantage that iPSCs can potentially be derived from patient-specific or disease-specific cells. (addgene.org)
  • For this reason, iPSCs have become an excellent unlimited stem cell source for therapeutic use. (addgene.org)
  • The generation of iPSCs is relatively simple in concept: ectopically express a cocktail of stem cell reprogramming factors and wait for cells to de-differentiate. (addgene.org)
  • For more information on stem cells, visit the NIH Stem Cell information page. (addgene.org)
  • Why Is It Taking So Long to Develop Clinically Competitive Stem Cell Therapies for CNS Disorders? (elsevier.com)
  • This book gives you all the important information you need to become a stem cell scientist. (wiley-vch.de)
  • The book puts emphasis on stem cell behavior in its biological context and on how to study it. (wiley-vch.de)
  • Stem cell biology has huge potential for advancing therapies for many distressing and recalcitrant diseases, and its potential will be realized most quickly when as many people as possible have a good grounding in the science of stem cells. (wiley-vch.de)
  • 1. What is a stem cell? (wiley-vch.de)
  • He is an emeritus professor at the University of Bath, UK, as well as the University of Minnesota, USA, where he was Director of the Stem Cell Institute from 2007-2013. (wiley-vch.de)
  • Perhaps the biggest takeaway from last week's stem cell conference in Boston is the variety of approaches scientists now have at their disposal to study disease and tissue development, and to test drugs. (forbes.com)
  • Many of the most important diseases that stem cell researchers hope to treat, such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's Disease, and ALS, really present in adulthood. (forbes.com)
  • I asked him if his approach started out as a shortcut to get around the more time consuming process of conventional stem cell development. (forbes.com)
  • Cell transdifferentiation is the direct conversion of one type of cell into another without becoming a pluripotent stem cell . (bvsalud.org)
  • He is also a member of the Vanderbilt Institute of Chemical Biology and the Vanderbilt Center for Stem Cell Biology. (wiley.com)
  • This is an 80-year-old patient diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease by her neurologist patient was treated with stem cell therapy in August 2014. (nystemcelltherapy.com)
  • Genetic programmes that assist decision-making of a stem cell whether to selfrenew or to differentiate into a committed cell type have been studied extensively over the past few decades. (elsevier.com)
  • In the process of exploiting pluripotent nature of a stem cell, researchers across the globe channelized their efforts to derive target cell types from various sources of stem cells. (elsevier.com)
  • Background: Several clinical trials have shown that stem cell based therapy may improve heart function. (uhasselt.be)
  • On September 22 in New York City, the Institute for the Study of Aging hosted a conference to assess the potential therapeutic benefits of stem cell technology in brain aging and Alzheimer disease. (alzforum.org)
  • Although the study in mice, published online today in Nature , is still far removed from the clinic, it does provide an important proof of concept: it is thought to be the first time that cells reprogrammed using a process called transdifferentiation - produced without passing through a stem-cell stage - have been shown to fix a damaged organ. (scientificamerican.com)
  • It's really exciting,' says Paul Gadue, a stem-cell biologist at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia in Pennsylvania who was not involved in the study. (scientificamerican.com)
  • But liver cells pose a particular challenge to cellular reprogrammers, says Ira Fox, a pediatric transplant surgeon and stem-cell researcher at the University of Pittsburgh in Pennsylvania, who was also not involved in the work. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Those alternative methods include generating liver cells from adult skin cells by first converting them into a type of stem cell called an induced pluripotent stem cell, and then coaxing those stem cells into behaving like liver cells. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Baicalin attenuates transforming growth factor- β 1-induced human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell proliferation and phenotypic switch by inhibiting hypoxia inducible factor-1 α and aryl hydrocarbon receptor expression," Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology , vol. 66, no. 10, pp. 1469-1477, 2014. (hindawi.com)
  • Moreover, the expansion of phenotypically and genotypically genuine macrophage/DCs, as observed in the Tg mouse spleen, suggests that vFLIP-expressing B cells can sustain the proliferation of this compartment also via a paracrine mechanism. (jci.org)
  • Notably, conditioned media from neuroendocrine-like cells affected LNCaP cell proliferation. (aacrjournals.org)
  • We found that dedifferentiated cells have a multilineage potency comparable to MSC, and also observed the associative role of proliferation genes with cell cycle arrest and progression. (eurekamag.com)
  • Enhanced proliferation of acinar and progenitor cells by prophylactic pilocarpine treatment underlies the observed amelioration of radiation injury to parotid glands. (semanticscholar.org)
  • After injury, mature terminally differentiated kidney cells dedifferentiate into more primordial versions of themselves, and then differentiate into the cell types needing replacement in the damaged tissue [26] Macrophages can self-renew by local proliferation of mature differentiated cells. (wikiversity.org)
  • In Burkitt's lymphoma , proliferation of mature B cells is induced by the activation of Myc expression following translocation of the oncogene to the IgH enhancer. (crg.eu)
  • Moreover, except insulin all these agents as well as rosiglitazone, metformin and xenin also promoted beta cell proliferation. (ulster.ac.uk)
  • Surprisingly, sitagliptin enhanced alpha cell proliferation while it was prevented by insulin, GABA, analogues of GIP, xenin and Oxm. (ulster.ac.uk)
  • To uncouple the role of CTCF in cell-state transitions and cell proliferation, we studied the effect of CTCF depletion during the conversion of human leukemic B cells into macrophages with minimal cell division. (upf.edu)
  • These cells become the dominant population in fibrocellular crescents, which was associated with marked local proliferation. (nih.gov)
  • Our qPCR analysis has revealed that, during the formation of ribosome induced cancer cell spheroids, the expression of the cancer cell associated markers and cell cycle/proliferation markers were altered at different time point. (elsevier.com)
  • His team overexpressed VEGF in the hippocampus by transfecting rat brains with adenoviruses carrying the VEGF gene, and found that the mice performed better in a passive avoidance test, showed improved spatial memory in the Morris water maze, and had increased cell proliferation in the subgranular zone of the hippocampus. (alzforum.org)
  • In the developing kidney, secreted molecules of the R-spondin family control progenitor cell proliferation and nephron formation by permitting WNT/β-catenin signalling. (elifesciences.org)
  • H. Deissler, H. Deissler, G. K. Lang, and G. E. Lang, "TGF β induces transdifferentiation of iBREC to α SMA-expressing cells," International Journal of Molecular Medicine , vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 577-582, 2006. (hindawi.com)
  • Recent studies have shown that ectopic and transient expression of the transcription factor Pdx1 in the mouse liver induces transdifferentiation into pancreatic cells, including both exocrine and endocrine cells, and reduces hyperglycemia in chemically induced diabetic mice ( 4 - 7 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • abstract = "Human cells can fuse with damaged or diseased somatic cells in vivo. (elsevier.com)
  • Ishikawa F, Drake CJ, Yang S et al (2003) Transplanted human cord blood cells give rise to hepatocytes in engrafted mice. (springer.com)
  • Moreover, the hepatic phenotype becomes suppressed during transdifferentiation of hepatocytes to pancreatic cells. (mblwhoilibrary.org)
  • Here we show that transdifferentiation of hepatocytes in the mouse liver can build a structure that failed to form in development-the biliary system in a mouse model that mimics the hepatic phenotype of human Alagille syndrome (ALGS) 2 . (nih.gov)
  • In these mice, hepatocytes convert into mature cholangiocytes and form bile ducts that are effective in draining bile and persist after the cholestatic liver injury is reversed, consistent with transdifferentiation. (nih.gov)
  • Furthermore, we show that TGFβ signalling can be targeted to enhance the formation of the biliary system from hepatocytes, and that the transdifferentiation-inducing signals and remodelling capacity of the bile-duct-deficient liver can be harnessed with transplanted hepatocytes. (nih.gov)
  • Important issues are poor engraftment of the transplanted cells and the scarcity of donor hepatocytes. (telomerescience.com)
  • Pdx1 has been shown to convert hepatocytes into both exocrine and endocrine pancreatic cells in mice, but it fails to selectively convert hepatocytes into pure insulin-producing cells (IPCs). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Thus, transdifferentiation of hepatocytes into functional IPCs may serve as a viable therapeutic option for patients with type 1 diabetes. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Thus, the conversion of hepatocytes into endocrine pancreatic cells may be a viable option for cell replacement therapy in patients with type 1 diabetes. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • To test if reprogramming factor OCT3/4 plays a role in transdifferentiation of hepatocytes to BECs, we used the hepatocyte organoid culture: an in vitro hepatocyte to biliary transdifferentiation model. (pcom.edu)
  • In addition, transdifferentiation pathways are considered and their potential molecular mechanisms, especially the role of master switch genes, are considered. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Thus, although recent work has taught us that cell therapy can also improve ventricular function by indirect ("paracrine") mechanisms (for a review, see elsewhere 11 ), cardiogenic cell therapies offer the potential advantage of adding force-generating units to infarcted hearts that have lost muscle to scar tissue. (ahajournals.org)
  • It further reveals that glucagon plays an important role in maintaining endocrine cell homeostasis through feedback mechanisms that govern cell fate stability. (biologists.org)
  • However, the mechanisms by which acute changes in intra-islet hormone signaling affect islet cell composition or islet cell fates are largely unknown. (biologists.org)
  • It is clear from models of β cell regeneration in the mouse that the mode and extent of pancreatic injury influence mechanisms of regeneration, and these models have revealed that new β cells can arise from several endogenous sources. (biologists.org)
  • To gain insight into the molecular mechanisms mediating HDAC7 repression in pre-B cells, we undertook co-immunoprecipitation and chromatin immunoprecipitation experimental approaches. (prolekare.cz)
  • In conclusion, CRP augments osteo-/chondrogenic transdifferentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells through mechanisms involving FCGR2A-dependent induction of oxidative stress. (aging-us.com)
  • This study identifies the role of epigenetic factors involved in this conversion, underlines the dynamic nature of the process, and shows the key mechanisms for effective transdifferentiation. (inserm.fr)
  • Despite accumulating evidence that contact-mediated signals are involved, the mechanisms regulating acinar-to-islet cell transdifferentiation remain poorly understood. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In this study, we propose that the crosstalk between two contact-mediated signaling mechanisms, lateral inhibition and lateral stabilization, controls cell fate stability and transdifferentiation of pancreatic cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In this paper, we investigate the role of contact-mediated signaling mechanisms in transdifferentiation by a theoretical study of cell fate control in the pancreas. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The molecular mechanisms underlying the transdifferentiation remain unclear. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Experiments to investigate mechanisms through which OCT3/4 might regulate transdifferentiation are under way. (pcom.edu)
  • This review summarizes recently published data on the mechanisms of tumor cell interaction with the tumor microenvironment. (chemweb.com)
  • Therefore, the reported functional improvement following cell based therapy for myocardial infarction may be due to other mechanisms than transdifferentiation of MSC or HSC. (uhasselt.be)
  • Current research in this field focuses mainly on pluripotential embryonic stem cells ( 4 , 5 ) and on pancreas-specific adult progenitor cells ( 6 , 7 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • These include pluripotent embryonic stem cells, as well various adult stem cells resident in compartments including bone marrow, peripheral tissues, and the heart itself. (ahajournals.org)
  • In 2005, the field became checkered when a South Korean research team, led by Woo Suk Hwang, claimed to have derived human embryonic stem cells using this technology, only to subsequently admit that they fabricated the data. (sciencemag.org)
  • Takahashi K, Yamanaka S (2006) Induction of pluripotent stem cells from mouse embryonic and adult fibroblast cultures by defined factors. (springer.com)
  • In contrast, CTCF is required for cell cycle regulation17, embryonic development and formation of various adult cell types18. (upf.edu)
  • Embryonic stem (ES) cells, with their ability to generate all, or nearly all, of the cell types in the adult body and a possible source of cells genetically identical to the donor, hold great promise but face ethical and political hurdles for human use. (aspetjournals.org)
  • In the course of embryonic development, cells become progressively more specialized. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Mesenchymal stem cells have also been derived from human being embryonic stem cells (ESCs) [36]. (bio-zentrum.com)
  • Pluripotent stem cells, such as embryonic cells, can potentially give rise to any other cell type in the body. (addgene.org)
  • Pluripotent embryonic and multipotent adult stem cells have been studied for over 30 years. (addgene.org)
  • To create iPSCs, fully-differentiated adult somatic cells are returned to a pluripotent state using a cocktail of factors (Oct3/4, Sox2, c-Myc, and Klf4) that are known to maintain pluripotency during embryonic development. (addgene.org)
  • Mouse embryonic stem cells, human embryonic stem cells, naive and primed states, induced pluripotent stem cells. (wiley-vch.de)
  • Ethical issues surrounding embryonic stem cells. (wiley-vch.de)
  • The primary candidate for the development of these therapies is stem cells , particularly human embryonic stem cells (hESC), which have the capacity to self-renew indefinitely and differentiate into all tissue-specific cell types. (fightaging.org)
  • However, normal B cells can be persuaded to differentiate into macrophages when forced to express macrophage transcription factors or cultured with macrophage cytokines in a phenomenon called transdifferentiation . (epigenie.com)
  • Cells from most (but not all) patients expressed macrophage markers, and looked like macrophages under a microscope. (epigenie.com)
  • We report that the histone deacetylase HDAC7 was highly expressed in pre-B cells but dramatically down-regulated during cellular lineage conversion to macrophages. (prolekare.cz)
  • In another line of research we asked whether human lymphoma B cells could be reprogrammed into macrophages by C/EBPa . (crg.eu)
  • Two lines in whch high levels of C/EBPa expression could be maintained, the Burkit lymphoma line Seraphina and the B cell precursor acute leukemia RCV-ACH, could be stably transdifferentiated into functional, quiescent macrophages. (crg.eu)
  • We found (in collaboration with J. A. Martinez Climent, U. de Navarra ) using both the Burkitt's lymphoma cells line and the immature B cell leukemia line stably expressing C/EBPaER that tumor formation could be inhibited by inducing their transdifferentiation into macrophages. (crg.eu)
  • These cells turn red when they are induced to transdifferentiate into macrophages. (crg.eu)
  • To identify this subset and to determine whether infection alters its cellular phenotype, we exposed human tonsillar cells to KSHV and characterized infected cells using high-throughput multispectral imaging flow cytometry (MIFC). (jci.org)
  • Strikingly, characterization of the neuroendocrine phenotype by transcriptomic, metabolomic, and other statistically integrated analyses showed how hormone-deprived LNCaP cells could transdifferentiate to a nonmalignantneuroendocrine phenotype. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Using the tools of applied mathematics, we demonstrated that the nonmalignant neuroendocrine phenotype, achievable under permanent androgen deprivation conditions, over time paradoxically contributes to the sustainment of undetectable androgen-dependent malignant cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • 1-3 The transplanted cells retained their cardiac phenotype, including expression of sarcomeric proteins and formation of intercalated disc structures. (ahajournals.org)
  • Transdifferentiation to a myofibroblast phenotype was measured at day 3 in culture by immunostaining for the myofibroblast marker αSMA. (arvojournals.org)
  • Glucocorticoid treatment resulted in a transient loss of constitutive WNT3a expression, phosphorylation and depletion of β-catenin, loss of β-catenin nuclear localisation, and significant reductions in T-cell factor/lymphoid enhancer factor (Tcf/Lef) transcriptional activity before overt changes in phenotype into hepatocyte-like (B-13/H) cells. (biologists.org)
  • After primary culture, the phenotype of the cells was identified by flow cytometry (FCM) and immunocytochemical staining. (semanticscholar.org)
  • costaining for SOX2 (C) and location in the pillar cell region indicated that they were newly differentiated, and an OHC phenotype was suggested by the expression of PRESTIN (D). (D′) PRESTIN channel from (D) shows staining in the membrane and cuticular plate of the new hair cell. (nih.gov)
  • S. Fang, N. Pentinmikko, M. Ilmonen, and P. Salven, "Dual action of TGF- β induces vascular growth in vivo through recruitment of angiogenic VEGF-producing hematopoietic effector cells," Angiogenesis , vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 511-519, 2012. (hindawi.com)
  • Early work documenting transdifferentiation of c-kit-positive hematopoietic stem cells (c-kit-HSCs) into myocytes has been difficult to reproduce. (ahajournals.org)
  • Bromeyer HE (1995) Questions to be answered regarding umbilical cord blood hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells and their use in transplantation. (springer.com)
  • Broxmeyer HE, Douglas GW, Hangoc G et al (1989) Human umbilical cord blood as a potential source of transplantable hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells. (springer.com)
  • Fiegel HC, Lioznov MV (2003) Cortes-Dericks liver-specific gene expression in cultured human hematopoietic stem cells. (springer.com)
  • Kurtzberg J, Laughlin M, Graham ML et al (1996) Placental blood as a source of hematopoietic stem cells for transplantation into unrelated recipients. (springer.com)
  • It is interesting that in the hematopoietic system the only long-term self-renewing cells in the stem and progenitors pool are the hematopoietic stem cells. (caltech.edu)
  • The present study investigates whether highly purified mouse adult hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), characterized by lineage marker depletion and expression of the cell surface markers Sca1 and c-Kit (Lin(-) Sca1(+) c-Kit(+) [LSK]), can be stimulated to adopt a neuronal fate. (ox.ac.uk)
  • A subpopulation of cells in the brain can differentiate into all of the major cell types in the brain and also into hematopoietic and skeletal muscle cells. (nature.com)
  • The existing paradigm has been that the most immature cells in the marrow are the hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) which can both self-renew and differentiate into all of the different types of hematopoietic cells. (nature.com)
  • In response to changes in the extracellular environment, plastic OCT4-expressing hFibs further activate genes involved in hematopoietic as well as tripotent neural progenitor biology that allow cell fate conversion. (wiley.com)
  • In a model of human-pig chimerism, we show that some human hematopoietic stem cells engrafted in pigs contain both human and porcine chromosomal DNA. (elsevier.com)
  • Both bone marrow derived mesenchymal (MSC) as well as hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) are reported to be multipotent. (uhasselt.be)
  • Human Mesenchymal transdifferentiation from Human Cord Blood deriv. (celprogen.com)
  • In this thesis, we specifically investigated the hypotheses that nano- or micro-topographical PDMS substrates would be able to increase non-viral transfection efficiency and/or enhance non-viral neuronal transdifferentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). (uwaterloo.ca)
  • Several recent studies have suggested that the adult bone marrow harbors cells that can differentiate into tissues from all three germ layers. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In light of these conflicting results, it seemed warranted that we explore whether bone marrow cells can also differentiate into pancreatic β-cells, thus providing an alternate tissue source for diabetes treatment. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • A typical human infarct involves the loss of approximately 1 billion cardiomyocytes, and, therefore, many investigators have sought to identify endogenous or exogenous stem cells with the capacity to differentiate into committed cardiomyocytes and repopulate lost myocardium. (ahajournals.org)
  • They trans-differentiate from differentiated cells at sites where enhanced rates of nutrient transport occur across apo-/symplasmic boundaries. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Placed into culture, adaxial epidermal cells of Vicia narbonensis cotyledons were induced to trans-differentiate to a TC morphology. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Some cancer cells however may not be able to differentiate along their normal lineage. (epigenie.com)
  • Multipotent stem cells are clonal cells that self-renew as well as differentiate to regenerate adult tissues. (caltech.edu)
  • Research showed that adult bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) differentiate into mesodermal cell types and also reprogram to transdifferentiate into endodermal and ectodermal cell types. (sciepub.com)
  • Therefore, controlling the BM-MSCs in vitro to differentiate toward the neural lineage becomes an important source of cells used for cell therapy [ 5 ] . (sciepub.com)
  • They form characteristic cell clusters in suspension culture that express a set of genes associated with pluripotency and can differentiate into w:endodermal , ectodermal and mesodermal cells both in vitro and in vivo. (wikiversity.org)
  • Within adult organs, there are not only specific stem cells that are capable of producing functional cells of one organ system, but also cells with the flexibility to differentiate into multiple other cell types. (nature.com)
  • The two defining characteristics of stem cells are their capability for extensive self-renewal and their potential to differentiate into at least one, and usually more, mature cell types. (nature.com)
  • Human being ESC-derived MSCs have the same standard cell surface markers and capacity to differentiate into characteristic cell types as do MSCs derived from either bone marrow or adipose cells. (bio-zentrum.com)
  • Stem cells are proliferative, unspecialized cells with the capacity to differentiate into many different cell types in the body during development. (addgene.org)
  • Alternatively, it is also possible to directly differentiate one differentiated somatic cell into another via transdifferentiation. (addgene.org)
  • But you have to differentiate them again into the cell type you want. (forbes.com)
  • Recent reports have suggested that mesenchymal cells derived from bone marrow may differentiate into not only mesenchymal lineage cells but also other lineage cells. (elsevier.com)
  • Here we demonstrate that the treatment of RPE can differentiate rat mesenchymal cells into IPCs which can be a potential source for the therapy of diabetes. (elsevier.com)
  • In this study, we assessed whether MSCs can differentiate into multiple skin cell types including keratinocytes and contribute to wound repair. (nystemcelltherapy.com)
  • Here, we show that supporting cells , which surround hair cells in the normal cochlear epithelium, differentiate into new hair cells in the neonatal mouse following ototoxic damage. (nih.gov)
  • One key factor underlying the limited efficacy of current treatment modalities is the remarkable plasticity exhibited by GBM cells, which allows them to effectively adapt to changes induced by anticancer therapeutics. (hindawi.com)
  • Our group and others have previously shown that therapeutic stress can activate cellular plasticity in GBM, leading to enrichment of the glioma stem-like cell (GSC) population. (hindawi.com)
  • Here, using lineage-tracing assays in a transgenic zebrafish model of beta cell ablation, we demonstrate conserved plasticity of alpha cells during islet regeneration. (biologists.org)
  • In a recent attempt to delineate roles for PIWI proteins in somatic cells and in cancer development, researchers from the lab of Guang Yang (ShanghaiTech University, China) recently uncovered a role for the MIWI2 in cell plasticity. (stemcellsportal.com)
  • In this brief review, I focus on the plasticity of marrow-derived cells. (nature.com)
  • In addition to the reports covered, other recent studies have also shown that there is a higher than expected plasticity of cells derived from the brain, fat, muscle and skin as well ( Table 1 ). (nature.com)
  • Therefore, here we aimed to target the plasticity of alpha cells to regenerate beta cells. (ulster.ac.uk)
  • Other studies using cultured alphaTC 1.9 cells, we found plasticity-altering effects of artemether, GABA, taurine, sitagliptin and exendin-4 with respect to alpha to beta transdifferentiation. (ulster.ac.uk)
  • Our study provides a working definition of hFib-induced plasticity using OCT4 and a deconvoluted system to elucidate the process of direct cell fate reprogramming. (wiley.com)
  • nor do β cells contribute to regeneration of normal acinar and ductal tissue, which indicates that the plasticity of differentiated pancreatic islet cells, suggested by earlier static and in vitro studies, plays no role in regeneration, metaplasia, and carcinogenesis in vivo. (nebraska.edu)
  • Here, I will discuss the two major processes by which an adult somatic cell is converted to a different cell type for regeneration and repair and situations where one process is favored over the other. (addgene.org)
  • A differentiated somatic cell reverts back to a pluripotent state, which then proliferates and is redifferentiated to a different cell type. (addgene.org)
  • The dedifferentiation stage involves overexpression of four reprogramming factors- OCT4, SOX2, KLF4, and C-MYC - that induce a differentiated somatic cell to revert back to a pluripotent stage (iPSC formation) [2, 3]. (addgene.org)
  • Fifty years ago, cell fate conversion consisted of a cloning technique called somatic cell nuclear transfer, which allows somatic cell DNA to be inserted into an enucleated egg cell. (sciencemag.org)
  • Federation AJ, Bradner JE, Meissner A (2014) The use of small molecules in somatic-cell reprogramming. (springer.com)
  • Somatic cell nuclear transfer. (wiley-vch.de)
  • It brings together a century of research into a wide range of important biological questions - particularly whether genetic changes are irreversible after somatic cell specialization has taken place during cell development. (powells.com)
  • It brings together research on a wide range of developmental and genetic problems---particularly the genomic multipotency of metazoan cells after somatic cell specialization has taken place during development. (powells.com)
  • All animals showed stable full donor chimerism in the peripheral blood and microscopic analysis at 4-6 weeks and 3 months after transplantation, indicating that the GFP + and Y chromosome−positive donor bone marrow contributed substantially to blood, lymphatic, and interstitial cells in the pancreas. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • While natural transdifferentiation is rare in mammals, an example is observed in the pancreas when excess β-cell damage results in the transdifferentiation of glucagon-producing α-cells into insulin-producing β-like-cells [37, 38]. (addgene.org)
  • Acinar cells are interesting candidates as a source for transdifferentiation because of the common developmental origin of exocrine and endocrine cells as well as the abundance of acinar cells in the pancreas [ 16 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Rat pancreatic extract (RPE) from the regenerating pancreas (2 days after 60% pancreatectomy) was treated to rat mesenchymal cells. (elsevier.com)
  • Our results demonstrate that Pdx1 induces the expression of multiple genes related to endocrine pancreas development and islet function in these liver cells. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Indeed, it has been proposed that these two organs are derived from a common progenitor cell ( 1 ), and transdifferentiation between the liver and pancreas has been demonstrated under certain conditions ( 2 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • To establish an in vitro system to study the molecular mechanism of selective liver to endocrine pancreas transdifferentiation, we generated a stably transfected rat hepatic cell line (WB-1) that overexpresses an activated form of Pdx1 (Pdx1-VP16) along with a reporter gene, RIP-eGFP , to monitor insulin gene expression. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Type 1 diabetes is the result of an autoimmune attack against the insulin-producing β cells of the endocrine pancreas. (jci.org)
  • In vitro studies suggest that differentiated cells in the pancreas remain highly plastic and can transdifferentiate as a mechanism of regeneration and metaplasia. (nebraska.edu)
  • RIP-CreER;Z/AP mice were used to heritably tag β cells in the adult pancreas. (nebraska.edu)
  • Previous protocols to generate hepatocyte-like cells (HLCs) via pancreas-to-liver transdifferentiation have utilised fetal bovine serum, introducing unknown variables and severely limiting study reproducibility. (bath.ac.uk)
  • Transdifferentiation: a cell and molecular reprogramming process. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Our findings provide direct biologic and molecular support for the concept that neuroendocrine transdifferentiation in prostate cancer cell populations influences the progression to androgen independence. (aacrjournals.org)
  • A detailed molecular understanding of how C/EBP{beta} directs alternative cell fates remains largely elusive. (mdc-berlin.de)
  • Here we addressed the molecular mechanism behind repression of non-lymphoid genes in B cells. (prolekare.cz)
  • The researchers were able to identify the minimal conditions and factors that would be sufficient for starting the cascade of molecular and cellular processes to instruct pluripotent cells to organize the w:embryo . (wikiversity.org)
  • an ATI cell marker), exhibited decreased protein expression upon pharmacological and molecular Wnt/β-catenin inhibition in cultured ATII cells, whereas CBR2 levels were stabilized. (biologists.org)
  • Study of neuronal cell navigation on molecular landscapes at the nanoscale. (mcgill.ca)
  • The book is targeted at plant cell biologists, molecular biologists, plant physiologists and biochemists, developmental biologists and those interested in plant growth and development. (routledge.com)
  • Transdifferentiation plays critical roles during development and in regeneration pathways in nature. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Here some well-documented examples of transdifferentiation, and their significance in development and regeneration are reviewed. (biomedsearch.com)
  • We also extended our studies to determine whether bone marrow has a role in islet cell regeneration after pancreatic injury. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Concise Review: Salivary Gland Regeneration: Therapeutic Approaches from Stem Cells to Tissue Organoids. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Salivary gland progenitor cell biology provides a rationale for therapeutic salivary gland regeneration. (semanticscholar.org)
  • For example: transformation of iris cells to lens cells in the process of maturation and transformation of w:retinal pigment epithelium cells into the neural retina during regeneration in adult w:newt eyes. (wikiversity.org)
  • Therefore, we suggest that alpha cells might provide a source of beta cell regeneration and that therapeutic intervention with selected drugs may provide a means to treat diabetes in man. (ulster.ac.uk)
  • Organ regeneration example from induced pluripotent stem cells. (forbes.com)
  • Using genetic lineage tracing in vivo, we investigate whether transdifferentiation of β cells contributes to regeneration or metaplasia in pancreatitis. (nebraska.edu)
  • The prevalence of hearing loss after damage to the mammalian cochlea has been thought to be due to a lack of spontaneous regeneration of hair cells , the primary receptor cells for sound. (nih.gov)
  • Because of this, we set out to examine how therapeutic stress influences transdifferentiation and vascular mimicry. (hindawi.com)
  • Based on these results, the inter-relationship between auxin and vascular cell development at a cellular level is discussed. (oup.com)
  • Through paracrine results, they assist in the promotion of angiogenesis and arteriogenesis and by terminally differentiating into vascular cells and myocytes [8C10]. (bio-zentrum.com)
  • Transplantation of human umbilical cord blood cells mediated beneficial effects on apoptosis, angiog. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Indeed, it was recently reported that bone marrow contributes significantly to adult β-cell renewal in mice and that 4-6 weeks after transplantation of genetically marked bone marrow, 1.7-3% of islet β-cells were of marrow origin ( 20 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In recent years, cell transplantation has drawn tremendous interest as a novel approach to preserving or even restoring contractile function to infarcted hearts. (ahajournals.org)
  • Some of these cardiogenic progenitors have been reported to contribute replacement muscle through endogenous reparative processes or via cell transplantation in preclinical cardiac injury models. (ahajournals.org)
  • The transdifferentiation of hepatic to pancreatic cells represents one possible source of beta-cells for human islet transplantation and this study shows that such a transdifferentiation can be achieved in vitro. (mblwhoilibrary.org)
  • We next asked whether transdifferentiation inhibits the formation of tumors after transplantation into immunodeficient mice. (crg.eu)
  • In this regard, previous research studies showed that transplantation of differentiated cells has more effective than engraftment of undifferentiated stem cells. (ac.ir)
  • It covers the characterization of cells, genetic techniques for modifying cells and organisms, tissue culture technology, transplantation immunology, properties of pluripotent and tissue specific stem cells and, in particular, the relevant aspects of mammalian developmental biology. (wiley-vch.de)
  • In this study, we investigated the profile of gene expression induced by Pdx1-VP16-mediated transdifferentiation of WB-1 cells in vitro and during in vivo cell transplantation. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In murine models of diabetes, glucagon-secreting alpha cells transdifferentiate into insulin-secreting beta cells following targeted beta cell depletion, regenerating the form and function of the pancreatic islet. (biologists.org)
  • These cells have a great potential to transdifferentiate into contractile myofibroblasts, the cell type associated with lens fibrotic disease. (arvojournals.org)
  • MSCs are self-renewable and have the potential to transdifferentiate into other type of cells under certain conditions. (molvis.org)
  • We previously demonstrated that hepatic stem cells could be induced in vitro to transdifferentiate into insulin-producing pancreatic endocrine-like cells ( 3 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • We find that expression of Pdx1-VP16 can transdifferentiate hepatic WB cells into glucose-insensitive endocrine precursor cells expressing multiple genes related to β-cell development and function but with no evidence of pancreatic exocrine gene expression. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Next, we assessed whether MSCs can transdifferentiate into multiple skin cell types in vivo. (nystemcelltherapy.com)
  • Redifferentiation - Conversion of the pluripotent cells into differentiated cells of choice. (addgene.org)
  • iPSCs, much like their ES cell cousins, have the hallmarks of pluripotent cells--they are capable of differentiating into every other cell type in the body and have the capacity to give rise to an entire organism. (addgene.org)
  • A model is presented describing the interaction between glucose and ethylene signalling pathways regulating induction of wall ingrowth formation in adaxial epidermal cells. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Small molecules that target signaling pathways, epigenetic modifications, or metabolic processes can regulate cell development, cell fate, and function. (springer.com)
  • Using these cells, we screened at the screening facility more than 2,000 compounds, consisting of pharmacologically active compounds, a phytochemical libray as well as drugs targeting known signaling pathways. (crg.eu)
  • These findings suggest that at least two contact-mediated or lateral signaling pathways are involved in acinar-to- β -cell conversion. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The Notch, Hedgehog, JAK-STAT and Wingless pathways, as well as Collier/EBF, have been shown to control blood cell homeostasis in the lymph glands ( Crozatier & Vincent, 2011 ). (embopress.org)
  • The noncellular components of the stroma modulate signaling pathways in tumor cells and stimulate invasion and metastasis. (chemweb.com)
  • In this process, differentiated adult somatic cells are converted to cells of a different lineage, without dedifferentiating into a pluripotent stage. (addgene.org)
  • Dedifferentiation - Conversion of adult somatic cells into the pluripotent state. (addgene.org)
  • Instead of generating pluripotent stem cells in culture from adult somatic cells, and differentiating these into the different cell types of interest, Wernig changes one cell type directly to another. (forbes.com)
  • Studies in bone marrow−transplanted mice have found that marrow-derived cells can assume neuronal ( 11 ), muscular ( 12 ), and hepatic phenotypes ( 13 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Importantly, whereas beta cell neogenesis was stimulated by glucose, alpha-to-beta cell conversion was not, suggesting that transdifferentiation is not mediated by glucagon/GLP-1 control of hepatic glucose production. (biologists.org)
  • Forbes S, Vig P, Poulsom R et al (2002) Hepatic stem cells. (springer.com)
  • AIM: To investigate the role of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-7 (IGFBP-7) in the activation and transdifferentiation of hepatic stellate cells (HSC) in vitro. (ebscohost.com)
  • MicroRNA-30 Protects Against Carbon Tetrachloride-induced Liver Fibrosis by Attenuating Transforming Growth Factor Beta Signaling in Hepatic Stellate Cells. (ebscohost.com)
  • Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-b) is crucial for transdifferentiation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) and the blunting of TGF-b signaling in HSCs can effectively prevent liver fibrosis. (ebscohost.com)
  • In this study, we generated a stably transfected rat hepatic cell line named WB-1 that expresses an active form of Pdx1 along with a reporter gene, RIP-eGFP . (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In summary, we find that Pdx1-VP16 is able to selectively convert hepatic cells into pancreatic endocrine precursor cells. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Small molecules are expected as novel approaches to generate new cells from somatic cells in vitro and in vivo. (springer.com)
  • HSCs were induced to hepatocyte like cells under a 2-step protocol with combination of growth factors. (springer.com)
  • Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was performed to detect multiple genes related to hepatocyte like cells development and function. (springer.com)
  • Hepatocyte like cells was observed at the end of the protocol (days 14). (springer.com)
  • These data demonstrate that the transdifferentiation of B-13 cells into hepatocyte-like cells in response to glucocorticoid was dependent on the repression of constitutively active WNT signalling. (biologists.org)
  • Therefore, the main goal of this study was to develop a protocol for transdifferentiation of pancreatic progenitor cells to HLCs in a chemically defined, serum-free culture medium. (bath.ac.uk)
  • Conflicting results may be attributed to several factors, including the functional heterogeneity of the HSC pool, which may contain cells capable of forming myocytes and cells lacking this ability. (ahajournals.org)
  • but its widespread implementation will require a vast supply of functional β cells derived from either exogenous (e.g. stem cells) or endogenous (e.g. facultative progenitors) sources. (biologists.org)
  • This study investigated the transdifferentiation of stem cells from human amnion tissue into functional acinar cells (ACs) using a co-culture system. (semanticscholar.org)
  • In vitro transdifferentiation of hepatoma cells into functional pancreatic cells. (mblwhoilibrary.org)
  • Finally, we provided results to suggest that the transdifferentiated cells are functional by detecting: (1) functional markers for pancreatic beta-cells including prohormone convertase 1/3 (PC1/3), insulin C-peptide and glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor (GLP-1R), (2) increased insulin mRNA expression after treatment of cells with GLP-1 and betacellulin, physiological stimuli that regulate pancreatic function and (3) elevated insulin secretion after glucose challenge. (mblwhoilibrary.org)
  • and (3) to prove that the cell is functional. (nature.com)
  • Functional assays of individual donor-derived cells have been more difficult to perform. (nature.com)
  • Our results demonstrate that CTCF-dependent genome topology is not strictly required for a functional cell-fate conversion but facilitates a rapid and efficient response to an external stimulus. (upf.edu)
  • Disruption of this homeostasis in diabetic patients is caused by a loss of functional β -cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The prospect of repairing or replacing damaged, dysfunctional or missing cells with new functional cells has shifted the therapeutic paradigm toward restoring tissue function in individuals affected with aging-associated diseases. (fightaging.org)
  • We used self-functional repair stimuli of stem cells by partial injury. (elsevier.com)
  • In addition, in vitro culture in high-glucose medium is sufficient to induce complete maturation of WB-1 cells into functional IPCs. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • However, complete transdifferentiation into functional IPCs requires additional external factors, including high glucose or hyperglycemia. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • However, these precursor cells require either in vivo hyperglycemia or in vitro long-term high-glucose culture to become fully functional pancreatic endocrine cells. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Transdifferentiation of heart cells with a key transcription factor generates functional pacemaker cells in situ, a new approach to correcting heart failure. (sciencemag.org)
  • How can the cells in our body arise to functional structures? (brainscape.com)
  • To address these questions, MSC were differentiated into adipogenic lineage cells, followed by dedifferentiation. (eurekamag.com)
  • The process of dedifferentiation was also confirmed by single cell clonal analysis. (eurekamag.com)
  • However, the upregulation (CCND1, CHEK, HGF , HMGA 2, SMAD 3) and downregulation ( CCPG 1, RASSF 4, R GS 2) of these genes have an association with cell cycle progression and maybe motivate dedifferentiation of adipogenic-differentiated cells. (eurekamag.com)
  • Concluded, our results indicate that transdifferentiation of adipogenic-differentiated cells into osteogenic- or chondrogenic-differentiated cells proceeds via dedifferentiation and correlates with cell cycle arresting and deriving genes. (eurekamag.com)
  • Current study favors that transdifferentiation is dedifferentiation dependent process. (eurekamag.com)
  • Dedifferentiation to an intermediate pluripotent state is not always obligatory in cell conversion processes [35]. (addgene.org)
  • They are classified as either totipotent (iTC), pluripotent (iPSC) or progenitor (multipotent-iMSC, also called an induced multipotent progenitor cell-iMPC) or unipotent -- (iUSC) according to their developmental potential and degree of dedifferentiation . (wikiversity.org)
  • Inhibition of one or both modes of signaling results in transdifferentiation from the acinar to the islet cell fate, either by dedifferentiation to a multipotent state or by direct lineage switching. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Genetic Reprogramming of Plant Cells In Vitro via Dedifferentiation or Pre-existing Stem Cells. (routledge.com)
  • When the HSC(LSK) cells either were grown in vitro together with neural precursor cells or were transplanted into the striatum or cerebellum of wild-type mouse, they either differentiated into Iba1-immunopositive macrophage/microglia or died. (ox.ac.uk)
  • A similar structure, called the posterior signalling centre (PSC), exists in the Drosophila lymph gland and, under normal conditions, maintains a pool of neighbouring precursor cells (prohaemocytes) in an undifferentiated state in the medullary zone ( Crozatier & Vincent, 2011 ). (embopress.org)
  • Overexpression of a mutant β-catenin (pt-Xβ-cat) protein that blocked glucocorticoid-dependent suppression of Tcf/Lef activity resulted in inhibition of transdifferentiation. (biologists.org)
  • Thus, understanding the principles and the mechanism of this process is important for producing desired cell types. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Inhibition of hypoxia-induced transdifferentiation of PAECs into smooth muscle-like cells by sildenafil and its mechanism," Chinese Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry , vol. 116, no. 1, pp. 88-90, 2007. (hindawi.com)
  • The mechanism behind this transdifferentiation, however, remains unclear. (hindawi.com)
  • Here, we provide evidence for a mechanism by which activated T cells may promote or stabilize latency of KSHV infection in B cells. (jci.org)
  • These results define immunological functions for vFLIP in vivo and reveal what we believe to be a novel viral-mediated tumorigenic mechanism involving B cell reprogramming. (jci.org)
  • To determine the mechanism by which novel bone-derived stem cells support the injured heart. (ahajournals.org)
  • These results underline the importance of the correct chain of steps for each of these molecules: the dynamic nature of the transdifferentiation mechanism is essential to its stability. (inserm.fr)
  • Overall, the present thesis highlights the possible role of GLP-1, GIP, glucagon, insulin, and GABA signaling mechanism in activating the transdifferentiation of alpha to beta cells. (ulster.ac.uk)
  • Mechanism of Organelle Inheritance in Dividing Plant Cells. (routledge.com)
  • In addition, pluripotential cells (multipotent adult progenitor cells [MAPCs]) have been derived from human and mouse bone marrow after extensive passaging in vitro and differentiated into endo-, meso-, and ectodermal cells ( 14 , 15 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • This review is about the properties of various highly purified tissue-specific multipotent stem cells and purified oligolineage progenitors. (caltech.edu)
  • Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a type of multipotent cells distributed in various tissues, which can be easily isolated and expanded in vitro. (molvis.org)
  • Adult acinar cells spontaneously revert to a multipotent state upon tissue dissociation in vitro and can be stimulated to redifferentiate into β -cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Expression and roles of Slit/Robo in human ovarian cancer," Histochemistry and Cell Biology , vol. 135, no. 5, pp. 475-485, 2011. (hindawi.com)
  • We are now accepting submissions for our upcoming special issue on 'Reconstituting cell biology', guest edited by Manuel Théry. (biologists.org)
  • Introduces all of the essential cell biology and developmental biology background for the study of s. (wiley-vch.de)
  • He is an Associate Professor of Cardiovascular Medicine, Pharmacology, and Cell and Developmental Biology, and a member of the Veterans Affairs Tennessee Valley Healthcare System. (wiley.com)
  • Interestingly, these tumors exhibited characteristics of transdifferentiation and acquired expression of histiocytic/dendritic cell markers. (jci.org)
  • Targeting FCγ receptors may improve dendritic cell-mediated vaccination. (sciencemag.org)
  • We found that HDAC7 specifically interacted with the transcription factor MEF2C in pre-B cells and was recruited to MEF2 binding sites located at the promoters of genes critical for macrophage function. (prolekare.cz)
  • In recent works, transdifferentiation is usually carried out by expressing transcription factors specific to the lineage of the target cell in the original somatic cells [41]. (addgene.org)
  • Pluripotency reprogramming and transdifferentiation induced by transcription factors can generate induced pluripotent stem cells, adult stem cells or specialized cells. (springer.com)
  • We have characterised the transdifferentiation of human HepG2 (hepatoma) cells to pancreatic cells following introduction of an activated version of the pancreatic transcription factor Pdx1 (XlHbox8-VP16). (mblwhoilibrary.org)
  • We found that brief expression of a single transcription factor, the ELT-7 GATA factor, can convert the identity of fully differentiated, highly specialized non-endodermal cells of the pharynx into fully differentiated intestinal cells in intact larvae and adult Caenorhabditis elegans. (elsevier.com)
  • The team had elucidated the role of several transcription factors2 in this transdifferentiation. (inserm.fr)
  • This work shows how each of these factors acts in transdifferentiation: transcription factors handle initiation and progress whereas epigenetic factors guarantee the constant result. (inserm.fr)
  • In fact, reprogramming of acinar cells into new β -cells has already been demonstrated in vivo in mice using ectopic expression of key transcription factors using viral transduction [ 17 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Today, transcription factors required for retinal progenitor cells are well the generation of these cells mesenchymal stem cells is an ideal goal. (ac.ir)
  • Valuable proof of principle for cell-based cardiac repair was provided by early preclinical studies in which terminally differentiated cardiomyocytes from fetal and neonatal sources were transplanted into infarcted rodent hearts, resulting in improved left ventricular function. (ahajournals.org)
  • Terminally differentiated post-mitotic cells are generally considered irreversibly developmentally locked, i.e. incapable of being reprogrammed in vivo into entirely different cell types. (elsevier.com)
  • Thus, post-mitotic cells, though terminally differentiated, remain plastic to transdifferentiation across germ layer lineage boundaries and can be remodeled to adopt the characteristics of a new cell identity without removal of inhibitory factors. (elsevier.com)
  • These tumors are characterized by abundant vascularization and significant cellular heterogeneity including GBM stem-like cells (GSC) which contribute to tumor aggressiveness, resistance, and recurrence. (nature.com)
  • We postulate that cellular stress such as ionizing radiation (IR) could enhance the transdifferentiation of GSC into TDEC. (nature.com)
  • Cells are only guaranteed with purchase of Celprogen Media and Celprogen Extra Cellular Matrix for appropriate cell culture, for 30 days from the date of shipment. (celprogen.com)
  • Most cells within cellular and fibrocellular crescents expressed transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) and basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2), suggesting that these growth factors may regulate this GEMT process during the evolution of glomerular crescents. (nih.gov)
  • However, some cell types can also be converted without genetic manipulation, by merely changing the cellular microenvironment. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The in vivo and in vitro methods are similar except that the vectors carrying the transdifferentiation factors are directly injected into the organ of interest for in vivo transdifferentiation. (addgene.org)
  • The results described suggest that it might be possible to find drugs that can induce transdifferentiation as a potentially new therapeutic avenue to treat leukemias and lymphomas. (crg.eu)
  • This study investigates whether neonatal rat cardiomyocytes (NRCM), when co-cultured, can induce transdifferentiation of either MSC or HSC into cardiomyocytes (CM). Methods and results: Ex vivo expanded human bone marrow derived MSC showed expression of CD49c, CD73, CD90, CD105 but not of CD34, CD45, CD106 and CD184. (uhasselt.be)
  • The results showed that both pancreatic exocrine cells (by detection of amylase protein), and endocrine cells (by detecting insulin, glucagon and somatostatin proteins) are induced after XlHbox8VP16 transfection. (mblwhoilibrary.org)
  • Substrates topographies are known to be able to modulate cell behaviors including efficiency of non-viral transfection and non-viral transdifferentiation. (uwaterloo.ca)
  • Together these observations indicate that parameters affecting cell confluence (such as seeding density or length of transfection phase) and the specific non-viral transfection reagent used should be reconsidered for future work on neuronal transdifferentiation of hMSCs. (uwaterloo.ca)
  • Nissl bodies observed in the soma usingcresyl violet stain, and cell bodies' processes (axons and dendrites) usingsilver impregnation, proved that BM-MSCs differentiated into neuronal cells. (sciepub.com)
  • No neuronal morphology was seen in samples that went through the transdifferentiation procedure. (uwaterloo.ca)
  • Transdifferentiation of mouse adipose-derived stromal cells into acinar cells of the submandibular gland using a co-culture system. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The clonal pancreatic progenitor cell line AR42J-B13 was cultured in basal growth medium on uncoated plastic culture dishes in the absence or presence of Dexamethasone on uncoated, laminin- or fibronectin-coated culture substrata, with or without serum supplementation. (bath.ac.uk)
  • Such cells could provide an ample supply of transplantable tissue. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Development of Causative Treatment Strategies for Lacrimal Gland Insufficiency by Tissue Engineering and Cell Therapy. (semanticscholar.org)
  • In this process, either a tissue-specific stem or precursor cell begets cells that it normally was not destined to produce. (sciencemag.org)
  • [27] In newts, muscle tissue is regenerated from specialized muscle cells that dedifferentiate and forget the type of cell they had been. (wikiversity.org)
  • These studies show that adult acinar cells spontaneously dedifferentiate upon loss of cell-cell contacts by enzymatic tissue dissociation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Origins and id of MSCs Mesenchymal stem cells had been first isolated in the bone tissue marrow and defined in 1997 [6, 17]. (bio-zentrum.com)
  • Because MSCs are generally harvested from mesenchymal tissues, such as bone marrow, adipose tissue, or umbilical cord as adherent cells, MSCs comprise crude cell populations and are heterogeneous. (mdpi.com)
  • Mesenchymal stem cells ( MSCs) are cells that reside in tissues such as bone marrow, fat tissue, dermis, and the umbilical cord, and are useful for cell-based therapy in humans because of their low risk of tumorigenesis [ 1 , 2 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • So, once you have a good iPS cell grown, you can expand it and fill up the incubator or the tissue culture in the incubator with these cells. (forbes.com)
  • Its bulk comprises exocrine tissue, which is made up of acinar cells that secrete pancreatic enzymes delivered to the intestine to facilitate the digestion of food. (jci.org)
  • Scattered throughout the exocrine tissue are many thousands of clusters of endocrine cells known as islets of Langerhans. (jci.org)
  • Here we investigated whether or not bone marrow contributes to the in vivo turnover of adult pancreatic endocrine cells in bone marrow−transplanted mice. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Glimm H, Tang P, Clark-Lewis I et al (2002) Ex vivo treatment of proliferating human cord blood stem cells with stroma-derived factor-1 enhances their ability to engraft NOD/SCID mice. (springer.com)
  • The reprogrammed cells did not cause disease when grafted into immunodeficient mice. (epigenie.com)
  • Bone marrow-derived cells rescue salivary gland function in mice with head and neck irradiation. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Finally, using GluCreERT2;ROSA26-eYFP mice we employed alpha cell lineage tracing approach that was easy to identify transdifferentiation of alpha cells. (ulster.ac.uk)
  • Moreover, we analyzed primary ATII cells from mice with bleomycin-induced lung injury, a model exhibiting activated Wnt/β-catenin signaling in vivo . (biologists.org)
  • Introducing genes to cells, homologous recombination in mice, CRISPR-Cas. (wiley-vch.de)
  • Yet when WB-1 cells are transplanted into diabetic NOD- scid mice, these genes become activated and hyperglycemia is completely reversed. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The researchers then took these cells and transplanted them into mice lacking a gene needed to detoxify certain metabolic intermediates. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Hui believes that the transplants saved only some of the mice because the cells did not fully mimic mature liver cells. (scientificamerican.com)
  • The demand by patients with end-stage heart failure greatly exceeds the supply of suitable donor hearts, and so there has been considerable recent interest in cell-based therapies as an alternate means of "remuscularizing" injured hearts. (ahajournals.org)
  • As currently available therapies remain unsatisfactory, researchers from the lab of Hao Zhang (Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, PR China) recently sought to harness the healing effects of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) as a treatment for esophageal anastomotic leakage, a devastating complication following esophageal resection. (stemcellsportal.com)
  • This project provides learning resources that help participants learn about Induced stem cells and efforts to produce useful stem cells and obtaining their derivatives for medical therapies. (wikiversity.org)
  • This budding partnership is presently in its very early stages, but an examination of the cell-based therapies currently under development clearly shows the magnitude of the role that stem cells will ultimately play. (aspetjournals.org)
  • We will also outline the methods used to induce the generation of specific cell types from hESCs, with primary focus on cell types that are applicable in understanding the pathology, as well as a potential source of cell-based therapies, in aging-associated diseases. (fightaging.org)
  • As cell replacement therapies are envisioned and realized, their use in the treatment of aging-associated diseases becomes a compelling prospect. (fightaging.org)
  • Cell replacement therapies: iPS technology or transdifferentiation? (eurostemcell.org)
  • The aberrant transdifferentiation of repair cells to disease causing myofibroblast following mock catraract surgery results from a mechanotransduction signal imparted by a rigid microenvironment. (arvojournals.org)
  • Interestingly, gene profiling and bioinformatics demonstrated that upregulation ( DHCR 24, G 0 S 2, MAP 2 K 6, SESN 3) and downregulation ( DST , KAT 2, MLL 5, RB 1, SMAD 3, ZA K) of distinct genes have an association with cell cycle arrest in adipogenic-differentiated cells and perhaps narrow down the lineage potency. (eurekamag.com)
  • 61 differentially expressed genes in adipogenic-differentiated cells have an association with cell cycle arrest. (eurekamag.com)
  • 65 differentially expressed genes in dedifferentiated cells have an association with cell cycle progression. (eurekamag.com)
  • Thus, in B cells HDAC7 is a transcriptional repressor of undesirable genes. (prolekare.cz)
  • Our findings uncover a novel role for HDAC7 in maintaining the identity of a particular cell type by silencing lineage-inappropriate genes. (prolekare.cz)
  • In the recent decade, small molecules have been widely used in reprogramming and transdifferentiation fields, which can promote the induction efficiency, replace exogenous genes, or even induce cell fate conversion alone. (springer.com)
  • We do not however find any expression of the late-stage genes ( Pax4 , Pax6, Isl-1 , and MafA ) related to β-cell development, and the cells do not secrete insulin upon the glucose challenge. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Conclusions: This in vitro co-culture study obtained no convincing evidence of transdifferentiation of either MSC of HSC into CM. Despite the induction of Tnt and GATA-4, several cardiac specific genes are not expressed after 3 weeks of co-culture. (uhasselt.be)
  • Vol 4: Unveiling novel genes upregulated by both rhBMP2 and rhBMP7 during early osteoblastic transdifferentiation of C2C12 cells. (duhnnae.com)
  • Conclusion: Using DNA microarrays and RT-qPCR, we identified both previously known and novel genes which are upregulated by rhBMP2 and rhBMP7 during the onset of osteoblastic transdifferentiation of pre-myoblastic C2C12 cells. (duhnnae.com)
  • Cell biologist Lijian Hui of the Shanghai Institute for Biological Sciences in China and his team tackled this problem by sifting through 14 proteins known to be important for activating genes in liver cells. (scientificamerican.com)
  • The expression of several genes, including at least one involved in breaking down toxins, differed between normal liver cells and Hui's reprogrammed cells. (scientificamerican.com)
  • However, its clinical exploitation is contingent upon the discovery of contextual regulators of cell fate acquisition and maintenance. (biologists.org)
  • Through gene knockdown and rescue approaches, we also find that peptides derived from the glucagon gene are necessary for alpha-to-beta cell fate switching. (biologists.org)
  • Whereas stem cells and their fates are known by unique genetic marker studies, the fate and function of these cells are best studied by their prospective isolation. (caltech.edu)
  • We report that cell fate determination is reversible process. (eurekamag.com)
  • Here, we will discuss the recent progress, new insights, and future challenges about the use of small molecules in cell fate conversion. (springer.com)
  • This study provides a theoretical framework to understand the role of contact-mediated signaling in pancreatic cell fate control that may help to improve acinar-to-islet cell transdifferentiation strategies for β -cell neogenesis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Yet, little is known about the regulatory effects of contact-mediated signals on cell fate stability and cell type conversion. (biomedcentral.com)