Prokaryotic Cells: Cells lacking a nuclear membrane so that the nuclear material is either scattered in the cytoplasm or collected in a nucleoid region.Cytokinesis: The process by which the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Schizosaccharomyces: A genus of ascomycetous fungi of the family Schizosaccharomycetaceae, order Schizosaccharomycetales.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Schizosaccharomyces pombe Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species Schizosaccharomyces pombe. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Archaea: One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and Eukarya), formerly called Archaebacteria under the taxon Bacteria, but now considered separate and distinct. They are characterized by: (1) the presence of characteristic tRNAs and ribosomal RNAs; (2) the absence of peptidoglycan cell walls; (3) the presence of ether-linked lipids built from branched-chain subunits; and (4) their occurrence in unusual habitats. While archaea resemble bacteria in morphology and genomic organization, they resemble eukarya in their method of genomic replication. The domain contains at least four kingdoms: CRENARCHAEOTA; EURYARCHAEOTA; NANOARCHAEOTA; and KORARCHAEOTA.Eukaryotic Cells: Cells of the higher organisms, containing a true nucleus bounded by a nuclear membrane.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Cytoskeletal Proteins: Major constituent of the cytoskeleton found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They form a flexible framework for the cell, provide attachment points for organelles and formed bodies, and make communication between parts of the cell possible.Escherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Mitosis: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.Spindle Apparatus: A microtubule structure that forms during CELL DIVISION. It consists of two SPINDLE POLES, and sets of MICROTUBULES that may include the astral microtubules, the polar microtubules, and the kinetochore microtubules.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Telophase: The final phase of cell nucleus division following ANAPHASE, in which two daughter nuclei are formed, the CYTOPLASM completes division, and the CHROMOSOMES lose their distinctness and are transformed into CHROMATIN threads.Cell Cycle Proteins: Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.Myosin Type II: The subfamily of myosin proteins that are commonly found in muscle fibers. Myosin II is also involved a diverse array of cellular functions including cell division, transport within the GOLGI APPARATUS, and maintaining MICROVILLI structure.Actomyosin: A protein complex of actin and MYOSINS occurring in muscle. It is the essential contractile substance of muscle.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Anaphase: The phase of cell nucleus division following METAPHASE, in which the CHROMATIDS separate and migrate to opposite poles of the spindle.Microtubules: Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.Microtubule-Associated Proteins: High molecular weight proteins found in the MICROTUBULES of the cytoskeletal system. Under certain conditions they are required for TUBULIN assembly into the microtubules and stabilize the assembled microtubules.Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Contractile Proteins: Proteins which participate in contractile processes. They include MUSCLE PROTEINS as well as those found in other cells and tissues. In the latter, these proteins participate in localized contractile events in the cytoplasm, in motile activity, and in cell aggregation phenomena.Nuclear Fission: Nuclear reaction in which the nucleus of a heavy atom such as uranium or plutonium is split into two approximately equal parts by a neutron, charged particle, or photon.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.GTP Phosphohydrolases: Enzymes that hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.Actins: Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.Mitochondrial Dynamics: The continuous remodeling of MITOCHONDRIA shape by fission and fusion in response to physiological conditions.Aurora Kinases: A family of highly conserved serine-threonine kinases that are involved in the regulation of MITOSIS. They are involved in many aspects of cell division, including centrosome duplication, SPINDLE APPARATUS formation, chromosome alignment, attachment to the spindle, checkpoint activation, and CYTOKINESIS.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Septins: A family of GTP-binding proteins that were initially identified in YEASTS where they were shown to initiate the process of septation and bud formation. Septins form into hetero-oligomeric complexes that are comprised of several distinct septin subunits. These complexes can act as cytoskeletal elements that play important roles in CYTOKINESIS, cytoskeletal reorganization, BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, and membrane dynamics.Aurora Kinase B: An aurora kinase that is a component of the chromosomal passenger protein complex and is involved in the regulation of MITOSIS. It mediates proper CHROMOSOME SEGREGATION and contractile ring function during CYTOKINESIS.Genes, Fungal: The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Chromosome Segregation: The orderly segregation of CHROMOSOMES during MEIOSIS or MITOSIS.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Dynamins: A family of high molecular weight GTP phosphohydrolases that play a direct role in vesicle transport. They associate with microtubule bundles (MICROTUBULES) and are believed to produce mechanical force via a process linked to GTP hydrolysis. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.50.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Cell Nucleus Division: The process by which the CELL NUCLEUS is divided.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Cell Polarity: Orientation of intracellular structures especially with respect to the apical and basolateral domains of the plasma membrane. Polarized cells must direct proteins from the Golgi apparatus to the appropriate domain since tight junctions prevent proteins from diffusing between the two domains.Genome, Archaeal: The genetic complement of an archaeal organism (ARCHAEA) as represented in its DNA.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Saccharomycetales: An order of fungi in the phylum Ascomycota that multiply by budding. They include the telomorphic ascomycetous yeasts which are found in a very wide range of habitats.Gene Expression Regulation, Fungal: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in fungi.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Centrosome: The cell center, consisting of a pair of CENTRIOLES surrounded by a cloud of amorphous material called the pericentriolar region. During interphase, the centrosome nucleates microtubule outgrowth. The centrosome duplicates and, during mitosis, separates to form the two poles of the mitotic spindle (MITOTIC SPINDLE APPARATUS).Meiosis: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division, occurring during maturation of the GERM CELLS. Two successive cell nucleus divisions following a single chromosome duplication (S PHASE) result in daughter cells with half the number of CHROMOSOMES as the parent cells.Kinesin: A microtubule-associated mechanical adenosine triphosphatase, that uses the energy of ATP hydrolysis to move organelles along microtubules toward the plus end of the microtubule. The protein is found in squid axoplasm, optic lobes, and in bovine brain. Bovine kinesin is a heterotetramer composed of two heavy (120 kDa) and two light (62 kDa) chains. EC 3.6.1.-.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Cytoskeleton: The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.Genome, Bacterial: The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.Dictyostelium: A genus of protozoa, formerly also considered a fungus. Its natural habitat is decaying forest leaves, where it feeds on bacteria. D. discoideum is the best-known species and is widely used in biomedical research.RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.DNA, Fungal: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.Time-Lapse Imaging: Recording serial images of a process at regular intervals spaced out over a longer period of time than the time in which the recordings will be played back.Microfilament Proteins: Monomeric subunits of primarily globular ACTIN and found in the cytoplasmic matrix of almost all cells. They are often associated with microtubules and may play a role in cytoskeletal function and/or mediate movement of the cell or the organelles within the cell.Polyploidy: The chromosomal constitution of a cell containing multiples of the normal number of CHROMOSOMES; includes triploidy (symbol: 3N), tetraploidy (symbol: 4N), etc.GTPase-Activating Proteins: Proteins that activate the GTPase of specific GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Luminescent Proteins: Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.Profilins: A family of low molecular weight proteins that bind ACTIN and control actin polymerization. They are found in eukaryotes and are ubiquitously expressed.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Centromere: The clear constricted portion of the chromosome at which the chromatids are joined and by which the chromosome is attached to the spindle during cell division.CDC2 Protein Kinase: Phosphoprotein with protein kinase activity that functions in the G2/M phase transition of the CELL CYCLE. It is the catalytic subunit of the MATURATION-PROMOTING FACTOR and complexes with both CYCLIN A and CYCLIN B in mammalian cells. The maximal activity of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 is achieved when it is fully dephosphorylated.Tubulin: A microtubule subunit protein found in large quantities in mammalian brain. It has also been isolated from SPERM FLAGELLUM; CILIA; and other sources. Structurally, the protein is a dimer with a molecular weight of approximately 120,000 and a sedimentation coefficient of 5.8S. It binds to COLCHICINE; VINCRISTINE; and VINBLASTINE.Protein Kinases: A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Caenorhabditis elegans: A species of nematode that is widely used in biological, biochemical, and genetic studies.Chromosomes, Fungal: Structures within the nucleus of fungal cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.Prokaryotic Initiation Factors: Peptide initiation factors from prokaryotic organisms. Only three factors are needed for translation initiation in prokaryotic organisms, which occurs by a far simpler process than in PEPTIDE CHAIN INITIATION, TRANSLATIONAL of eukaryotic organisms.Mitochondrial Proteins: Proteins encoded by the mitochondrial genome or proteins encoded by the nuclear genome that are imported to and resident in the MITOCHONDRIA.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Two-Hybrid System Techniques: Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.Myosins: A diverse superfamily of proteins that function as translocating proteins. They share the common characteristics of being able to bind ACTINS and hydrolyze MgATP. Myosins generally consist of heavy chains which are involved in locomotion, and light chains which are involved in regulation. Within the structure of myosin heavy chain are three domains: the head, the neck and the tail. The head region of the heavy chain contains the actin binding domain and MgATPase domain which provides energy for locomotion. The neck region is involved in binding the light-chains. The tail region provides the anchoring point that maintains the position of the heavy chain. The superfamily of myosins is organized into structural classes based upon the type and arrangement of the subunits they contain.Microscopy, Video: Microscopy in which television cameras are used to brighten magnified images that are otherwise too dark to be seen with the naked eye. It is used frequently in TELEPATHOLOGY.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Heterocyclic Compounds with 4 or More Rings: A class of organic compounds containing four or more ring structures, one of which is made up of more than one kind of atom, usually carbon plus another atom. The heterocycle may be either aromatic or nonaromatic.Spermatocytes: Male germ cells derived from SPERMATOGONIA. The euploid primary spermatocytes undergo MEIOSIS and give rise to the haploid secondary spermatocytes which in turn give rise to SPERMATIDS.Actin Cytoskeleton: Fibers composed of MICROFILAMENT PROTEINS, which are predominately ACTIN. They are the smallest of the cytoskeletal filaments.Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors: Protein factors that promote the exchange of GTP for GDP bound to GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.Interphase: The interval between two successive CELL DIVISIONS during which the CHROMOSOMES are not individually distinguishable. It is composed of the G phases (G1 PHASE; G0 PHASE; G2 PHASE) and S PHASE (when DNA replication occurs).Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone: Nucleoproteins, which in contrast to HISTONES, are acid insoluble. They are involved in chromosomal functions; e.g. they bind selectively to DNA, stimulate transcription resulting in tissue-specific RNA synthesis and undergo specific changes in response to various hormones or phytomitogens.Multiprotein Complexes: Macromolecular complexes formed from the association of defined protein subunits.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Caenorhabditis elegans Proteins: Proteins from the nematode species CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS. The proteins from this species are the subject of scientific interest in the area of multicellular organism MORPHOGENESIS.Cyclin B: A cyclin subtype that is transported into the CELL NUCLEUS at the end of the G2 PHASE. It stimulates the G2/M phase transition by activating CDC2 PROTEIN KINASE.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.DNA Replication: The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.Metaphase: The phase of cell nucleus division following PROMETAPHASE, in which the CHROMOSOMES line up across the equatorial plane of the SPINDLE APPARATUS prior to separation.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Conserved Sequence: A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.Protozoan Proteins: Proteins found in any species of protozoan.rho GTP-Binding Proteins: A large family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that are involved in regulation of actin organization, gene expression and cell cycle progression. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.Drosophila melanogaster: A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.Mutagenesis: Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Spores, Fungal: Reproductive bodies produced by fungi.Microtubule-Organizing Center: An amorphous region of electron dense material in the cytoplasm from which the MICROTUBULES polymerization is nucleated. The pericentriolar region of the CENTROSOME which surrounds the CENTRIOLES is an example.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Brachiaria: A plant genus of the family POACEAE originating from the savanna of eastern Africa. It is widely grown for livestock forage.Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)rhoA GTP-Binding Protein: A RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEIN involved in regulating signal transduction pathways that control assembly of focal adhesions and actin stress fibers. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.Drosophila: A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.Organelles: Specific particles of membrane-bound organized living substances present in eukaryotic cells, such as the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.Embryo, Nonmammalian: The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.Genes, cdc: Genes that code for proteins that regulate the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. These genes form a regulatory network that culminates in the onset of MITOSIS by activating the p34cdc2 protein (PROTEIN P34CDC2).Chromosomes: In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Thiabendazole: 2-Substituted benzimidazole first introduced in 1962. It is active against a variety of nematodes and is the drug of choice for STRONGYLOIDIASIS. It has CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM side effects and hepatototoxic potential. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1992, p919)Genes, Archaeal: The functional genetic units of ARCHAEA.Cell Wall: The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.Computational Biology: A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.
Mitosis and cytokinesis together define the division of the mother cell into two daughter cells, genetically identical to each ... Prokaryotic cells, which lack a nucleus, divide by a process called binary fission. Mitosis is immediately followed by ... The cell then divides in cytokinesis, to produce two identical daughter cells. Regulation of the cell cycle involves processes ... The cell cycle or cell-division cycle is the series of events that take place in a cell leading to its division and duplication ...
... phase of an animal cell cycle-the division of the mother cell into two daughter cells genetically identical to each other. The ... Prokaryotic cells, which lack a nucleus, divide by a different process called binary fission. Mitosis varies between organisms ... The result is two genetically identical daughter nuclei. The rest of the cell may then continue to divide by cytokinesis to ... Because each resultant daughter cell should be genetically identical to the parent cell, the parent cell must make a copy of ...
Prokaryotic cells divide by binary fission, while eukaryotic cells usually undergo a process of nuclear division, called ... stem cells, and others. Cell types differ both in appearance and function, yet are genetically identical. Cells are able to be ... and cytokinesis, the separation of daughter cells after cell division; and moves parts of the cell in processes of growth and ... Many types of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells have a cell wall. The cell wall acts to protect the cell mechanically and ...
Some organelles in eukaryotic cells reproduce using binary fission. Mitochondrial fission occurs frequently within the cell, ... population fission is a precursor to speciation. Cytokinesis, cell division in eukaryotes Fission-fusion society, a type of ... The consequence of this asexual method of reproduction is that all the cells are genetically identical, meaning that they have ... Binary fission results in the reproduction of a living prokaryotic cell (or organelle) by dividing the cell into two parts, ...
ISBN 0-674-30692-9 Cell division: binary fission and mitosis How Cells Divide: Mitosis vs. Meiosis The Mitosis and Cell Cycle ... whereby each daughter cell is genetically identical to the parent cell (mitosis), and a reproductive cell division, whereby the ... eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells do not divide in the same way. Also, the pattern of cell division that transforms eukaryotic ... After the cell proceeds successfully through the M phase, it may then undergo cell division through cytokinesis. The control of ...
Prokaryotic cells divide by binary fission, while eukaryotic cells usually undergo a process of nuclear division, called ... stem cells, and others. Cell types differ both in appearance and function, yet are genetically identical. Cells are able to be ... and cytokinesis, the separation of daughter cells after cell division; and moves parts of the cell in processes of growth and ... single cells, colonies, higher multicellular organisms with specialized cells Cell division binary fission (simple division) ...
binary fission The process by which one prokaryotic cell divides into two identical daughter cells. biocatalysis The process of ... the division of the mother cell into two daughter cells, genetically identical to each other and to their parent cell. ... M phase Mitosis and cytokinesis together define the mitotic (M) phase of an animal cell cycle - ... creating a new cell wall that enables cell division. cell theory The theory that all living things are made up of cells. ...
"FtsZ and the division of prokaryotic cells and organelles". Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology. 6 (11): 862-71. doi:10.1038 ... In this type of binary fission cytokinesis occurs obliquely. Example Ceratium. Multiple fission[edit]. Fission of protists[edit ... The consequence of this asexual method of reproduction is that all the cells are genetically identical, meaning that they have ... Fission of organelles[edit]. Some organelles in eukaryotic cells reproduce using binary fission. Mitochondrial fission occurs ...
... where their genetic material is segregated equally into two daughter cells. While binary fission many be the means of division ... whereby each daughter cell is genetically identical to the parent cell (mitosis), and a reproductive cell division, whereby the ... eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells do not divide in the same way. Also, the pattern of cell division that transforms eukaryotic ... After the cell proceeds successfully through the M phase, it may then undergo cell division through cytokinesis. The control of ...
... of phospholipids and proteins that acts as a selective barrier between the internal and external environment of the cell. Due ... Following this, the cytoplasm divides to form two genetically identical daughter cells i.e. cytokinesis. ... This occurs by mitosis for eukaryotic cells and binary fission for prokaryotic cells. ... and ultimately cell separation into two daughter cells genetically identical to the parent cell. Unlike mitosis, this process ...
Mitosis and cytokinesis together define the division of the mother cell into two daughter cells, genetically identical to each ... Prokaryotic cells, which lack a nucleus, divide by a process called binary fission. Mitosis is immediately followed by ... The cell then divides in cytokinesis, to produce two identical daughter cells. Regulation of the cell cycle involves processes ... The cell cycle or cell-division cycle is the series of events that take place in a cell leading to its division and duplication ...
Prokaryotic cells, which lack a nucleus, divide by a process called binary fission. The process of mitosis is complex and ... The cell then divides in cytokinesis, to produce two identical daughter cells. Because cytokinesis usually occurs in ... phase of the cell cycle - the division of the mother cell into two daughter cells, genetically identical to each other and to ... In cells without a nucleus (prokaryotic), the cell cycle occurs via a process termed binary fission. In cells with a nucleus ( ...
When cells divide, two daughter cells are produced from one mother cell. Each new cell has exactly the same genetic material ( ... Cell Division Cell division is the basis of life itself; it is how animals grow and reproduce. ... Mitosis is simple cell division that creates two daughter cells that are genetically identical to the original parent cell. The ... Eukaryotic cell division. Although prokaryotes (i.e., non-nucleated unicellular organisms) divide through binary fission, ...
1 CH 12‐16 (Sadava Text CH 9‐11): Questions to Think About CH 12 ‐ The Cell Cycle and CH 13 ‐ Meiosis 1. For ... germ cells, respectively? 11. What are homologous chromosomes? Are they genetically identical? What do they represent? What do ... How does binary fission occur in a prokaryote? 8. Which molecules are active in allowing the cell cycle to proceed and initiate ... KEY TERMS: CHAPTERS 12 16 (Sadava Text CH 9-11) eukaryotic cell prokaryotic cell nucl ...
... phase of an animal cell cycle-the division of the mother cell into two daughter cells genetically identical to each other. The ... Prokaryotic cells, which lack a nucleus, divide by a different process called binary fission. Mitosis varies between organisms ... The result is two genetically identical daughter nuclei. The rest of the cell may then continue to divide by cytokinesis to ... Because each resultant daughter cell should be genetically identical to the parent cell, the parent cell must make a copy of ...
Read this essay on Phases of Cell Cycle. Come browse our large digital warehouse of free sample essays. Get the knowledge you ... this is known as cell division. Eukaryotic cells reproduce by mitosis or meiosis; and prokaryotic cells use binary fission as a ... In the final stage cytokinesis the cytoplasm divides forming two separate but genetically identical daughter cells. (Simon, ... This is known as cell division (parent cells and daughter cells) which are given the names of binary fission, meiosis and ...
While prokaryotic cells, like bacteria, replicate through binary fission, eukaryotic cells divide through mitosis or meiosis. ... Before a cell can go through mitosis, or nuclear division that results in two genetically identical daughter cells, they must ... the period of active cell division. M phase includes mitosis, the process of nuclear division, and cytokinesis, or cytoplasmic ... The cell cycle consists of interphase (a period of cell growth) and M phase (the period of nuclear and cell division). ...
Prokaryotic Cell Division. Prokaryotic Cell Division = Binary Fission After DNA replication occurs, the cytoplasm divides. ... Produces 2 Genetically Identical Diploid Body (Somatic) Cells. Cytokinesis*ANIMAL CELL. *PLANT CELL ... Cell Division Review. Units 5 & 6. Prokaryotic Cell Division. Prokaryotic Cell Division = Binary Fission After DNA replication ... Prokaryotic Cell Division*Prokaryotic Cell Division = Binary Fission. *After DNA replication occurs, the cytoplasm divides. ...
Cell divides into two genetically identical cells 2.2 Prokaryotic cells Draw and label a diagram of the ultrastructure of a ... Role in binary fission (division of prokaryotic cells) Nucleoid: Contains the DNA of the cell in a single, long, continuous, ... Microtubules may begin to form Mitosis: Cytokinesis: See in later learning outcome Division of cell. In animal cells there is a ... State that prokaryotic cells divide by binary fission. DNA is copied. Daughter chromosomes become attached to different regions ...
The cell then divides in cytokinesis, to produce two identical daughter cells which are still diploid cells. ... Prokaryotic cells, which lack a nucleus, divide by a process called binary fission. ... phase of the cell cycle-the division of the mother cell into two daughter cells, genetically identical to each other and to ... Cell division of a mother cell to produce two identical daughter cells is known as mitosis. This underlies the early embryonic ...
... divide by a related process called meiosis. Prokaryotic cells, which lack a nucleus, divide by a process called binary fission ... The cell then divides in cytokinesis, to produce two identical daughter cells. ... Because each resultant daughter cell should be genetically identical to the parent cell, the parent cell must make a copy of ... Mitosis and cytokinesis together define the mitotic (M) phase of the cell cycle, the division of the mother cell into two ...
binary fission. a form of asexual reproduction in single-celled organisms by which one cell divides into two cells of the same ... that does not involve the union of gametes and in which a single parent produces offspring that are genetically identical to ... cytokinesis. the division of the cytoplasm of a cell; follows the division of the cells nucleus by mitosis. ... in a eukaryotic one of the structures in the nucleus that are made up of DNA and protein; in prokaryotic the main ring of DNA. ...
The two divided cells will now be called a daughter cell. Binary fission leads to develop two identical daughter cells. The new ... And, eventually, this division completely divides the bacterium into two halves. This whole process is known as cytokinesis. ... Binary fission is the primary method of reproduction of prokaryotic organisms. Organisms like the amoeba, bacteria, euglena, ... This mode of asexual reproduction has a consequence that all the cells are identical genetically which means that they follow ...
Mitosis is responsible for a single cell (a fertilized human embryo) developing into a human body with five trillion cells. ... a process of cell division called mitosis begins. The five stages of mitosis are interphase, prophase, metaphase, anaphase and ... Types of Cells. Prokaryotic cells, such as bacteria, go through a type of cell division known as binary fission. This involves ... Mitosis is a process of cell division, whereby a single cell divides into two genetically identical daughter cells. The five ...
Binary fission of prokaryotic cells produces two genetically identical daughter cells. 2. Before cell division, DNA is ... 5. Cell division in eukaryotes involves nuclear division and cytokinesis. a. Somatic cells undergo mitosis for development, ... 2. Cytokinesis in Plant Cells a. The rigid cell wall that surrounds plant cells does not permit cytokinesis by furrowing. 48 ... Both binary fission and mitosis ensure that each daughter cell is genetically identical to the parent. 2. Bacteria and protists ...
INTRODUCTION BINARY FISSION: Prokaryotic cells (bacteria) reproduce asexually by binary fission. Bacterial cells have a single ... LAB 8 EUKARYOTIC CELL DIVISION: MITOSIS AND MEIOSIS Name: Date: ... that produces cells genetically identical to the original cell ... Mitosis Cell Cycle Telophase Cytokinesis Cell Division Metaphase 4 Daughter Cells Prophase Meiosis Diploid Somatic Cells ... CELL GROWTH AND DIVISION. Chapter 10 CELL GROWTH AND DIVISION Chapter 10 Cell division = The formation of 2 daughter cells from ...
In cells without a nucleus ( prokaryotic cells e.g. bacteria), the cell cycle occurs through a process termed binary fission . ... There are now two genetically identical daughter cells. They are identical to the parent cell and to each other. ... The cytoplasm then divides during a process called cytokinesis . Note -cytokinesis is not a stage of mitosis but the process of ... just after which the cell splits itself into two distinct cells, called "daughter cells". The cell-division cycle is a vital ...
Describe cytokinesis... cytoplasm divides; parent cell becomes 2 daughter cells (diploid) with identical genetic information ... Prokaryotic cells divide how? binary fission 2 Define gene. sections of DNA that code for one product (protein) ... stem cells - give rise to other stem cells & other types of cells eg. stem to stem, & stem to neuron. other cells capable of ... G1: cell growth & differentiation. S: synthesis of DNA; chromosomal duplication. G2: cell growth & preparation for cell ...
All living organisms need energy and resources to carry out life processes; are composed of one or more cells; respond and ... Then the rest of the cell will divide by cytokinesis.. *Cell division is more complicated in eukaryotic than prokaryotic cells ... A prokaryotic cell grows in size, replicates its DNA, and then divides, typically by binary fission. A eukaryotic cell goes ... Plants that reproduce asexually produce offspring that are genetically identical to each other and to the parent. If Mendel had ...
1 of 4 of my cell cycle unit. Image Credits: Biology (Campbell) 9th edition, copyright Pearson 2011, & The Internet. Provided ... Cytokinesis: cell membrane divides. Growth. Replication of DNA. Preparation for division. Most of a cells life cycle. Newt, ... How does cell division provide for continuity of life processes in an individual and in a species?. Binary Fission. The ... Explain how mitosis produces two genetically identical cells. Explain how interphase prepares a cell for mitosis.. Explain why ...
DNA to two daughter cells. This article takes you through the various stages in cell division. ... Cell division calls for the distribution of identical genetic material, i.e., ... In prokaryotic cells (cells without nucleus), cell division occurs through a process called binary fission. ... One diploid parent cell divides into two genetically identical diploid daughter cells. ...
binary fission: the process whereby a cell divides asexually to produce two daughter cells ... Binary Fission. Binary fission is the method by which prokaryotes produce new individuals that are genetically identical to the ... However, the FtsZ protein that plays such a vital role in prokaryotic cytokinesis is structurally and functionally very similar ... Binary Fission. Prokaryotes, such as bacteria, propagate by binary fission. For unicellular organisms, cell division is the ...
binary fission. fertilization. meiosis. Which process must the cell undergo to have genetically different cells at the end of ... Which part of cell division is different in plant and animal cells?. cytokinesis. anaphase. mitosis. eukaryotic. cytokinesis. ... four identical daughter cells. four different daughter cells. two identical daughter cells. two different daughter cells. 4 ... The cell is prokaryotic because it has DNA.. The cell is prokaryotic because it has cytoplasm.. The cell is eukaryotic because ...
... phase of the cell cycle-the division of the mother cell into two daughter cells, genetically identical to each other and to ... It is generally followed immediately by cytokinesis, which divides the nuclei, cytoplasm, organelles and cell membrane into two ... cells containing roughly equal shares of these cellular components. Mitosis and cytokinesis together define the mitotic (M) ... their parent cell. This accounts for approximately 10% of the cell cycle. ...
  • After S phase, a cell enters G2, or "Gap 2," and it involves another period of growth. (istudy.pk)
  • When working properly, cell division assures healthy growth. (phys.org)
  • An increase in bacterial growth is restricted by various factors that include nutrient availability and space available, so this process of binary fission takes place at much lower rates once they get into the stationary growth phase. (byjus.com)
  • Naturally, cell development through this stage will depend upon growth factors, such as nutrients, etc. (biologywise.com)
  • Otherwise, the cell is committed to divide when growth signals are present and nutrients are available. (slideshare.net)
  • VOCABULARY growth factor benign carcinogen apoptosis malignant cancer metastasize MAIN IDEA: Internal and external factors regulate cell divi sion. (mat-com.pl)
  • Cancer , or malignant disease, is the result of the genes controlling mitosis not working properly, leading to unchecked replication and out-of-control cell and tissue growth. (sciencing.com)
  • After growth, cell division by mitosis allows for continual construction and repair of the organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • G 1 is a time of growth for the cell where specialized cellular functions occur in order to prepare the cell for DNA Replication. (wikipedia.org)
  • During G 2 , the cell undergoes the final stages of growth before it enters the M phase, where spindles are synthesized. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cell Mitosis Puzzle" is a free online knowledge level game, about the 7 phases of cell division and growth, made interactive to help in classes and for fun studies. (saltotech.it)
  • 1: Cell Growth, Division, and. (saltotech.it)
  • These cells can be gametes (in animals) or spores (in plants). (mat-com.pl)
  • These two possible orientations lead to the production of genetically different gametes. (pressbooks.pub)
  • It is a two-part cell division process that ultimately produces an organism's gametes. (thoughtco.com)
  • This article must therefore be hereby marked advertisement in accordance with 18 U.S.C solely to indicate this fact by The National Academy of Sciences $ PNAS is available online at http: The recent advent of microfertilization techniques has enabled us to use immature male germ cells (spermatogenic cells) as substitute gametes. (healthdocbox.com)
  • For simple unicellular microorganisms such as the amoeba , one cell division is equivalent to reproduction - an entire new organism is created. (wikipedia.org)
  • Without it, the cells in your body could not replicate, and life as you know it wouldn't exist. (sciencing.com)
  • Some specialized cells like nerve and muscle cells almost never reproduce and are in a special stage called G 0. (saltotech.it)
  • Algae may reproduce sexually or asexually , and are often compared to plants , though they lack most of the complex cell and tissue types that characterize true plants. (wikimd.org)