Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Survival Rate: The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.Disease-Free Survival: Period after successful treatment in which there is no appearance of the symptoms or effects of the disease.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Survival: Continuance of life or existence especially under adverse conditions; includes methods and philosophy of survival.Survival Analysis: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.Graft Survival: The survival of a graft in a host, the factors responsible for the survival and the changes occurring within the graft during growth in the host.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Cell Death: The termination of the cell's ability to carry out vital functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, responsiveness, and adaptability.Kaplan-Meier Estimate: A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt: A protein-serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION in response to GROWTH FACTORS or INSULIN. It plays a major role in cell metabolism, growth, and survival as a core component of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Three isoforms have been described in mammalian cells.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Proto-Oncogene Proteins: Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases: Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Neoplasm Staging: Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.Proportional Hazards Models: Statistical models used in survival analysis that assert that the effect of the study factors on the hazard rate in the study population is multiplicative and does not change over time.Mice, Inbred C57BLBlotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.bcl-X Protein: A member of the bcl-2 protein family that plays a role in the regulation of APOPTOSIS. Two major isoforms of the protein exist due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of the BCL2L1 mRNA and are referred to as Bcl-XS and Bcl-XL.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2: Membrane proteins encoded by the BCL-2 GENES and serving as potent inhibitors of cell death by APOPTOSIS. The proteins are found on mitochondrial, microsomal, and NUCLEAR MEMBRANE sites within many cell types. Overexpression of bcl-2 proteins, due to a translocation of the gene, is associated with follicular lymphoma.bcl-Associated Death Protein: A pro-apoptotic protein and member of the Bcl-2 protein family that is regulated by PHOSPHORYLATION. Unphosphorylated Bad protein inhibits the activity of BCL-XL PROTEIN.Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols: The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Lung Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.Combined Modality Therapy: The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Caspase 3: A short pro-domain caspase that plays an effector role in APOPTOSIS. It is activated by INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 9. Isoforms of this protein exist due to multiple alternative splicing of its MESSENGER RNA.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Autophagy: The segregation and degradation of damaged or unwanted cytoplasmic constituents by autophagic vacuoles (cytolysosomes) composed of LYSOSOMES containing cellular components in the process of digestion; it plays an important role in BIOLOGICAL METAMORPHOSIS of amphibians, in the removal of bone by osteoclasts, and in the degradation of normal cell components in nutritional deficiency states.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Caspases: A family of intracellular CYSTEINE ENDOPEPTIDASES that play a role in regulating INFLAMMATION and APOPTOSIS. They specifically cleave peptides at a CYSTEINE amino acid that follows an ASPARTIC ACID residue. Caspases are activated by proteolytic cleavage of a precursor form to yield large and small subunits that form the enzyme. Since the cleavage site within precursors matches the specificity of caspases, sequential activation of precursors by activated caspases can occur.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.NF-kappa B: Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins: A large group of proteins that control APOPTOSIS. This family of proteins includes many ONCOGENE PROTEINS as well as a wide variety of classes of INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS such as CASPASES.Adenocarcinoma: A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Tumor Suppressor Protein p53: Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Neoplasm Metastasis: The transfer of a neoplasm from one organ or part of the body to another remote from the primary site.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Neoplasm Recurrence, Local: The local recurrence of a neoplasm following treatment. It arises from microscopic cells of the original neoplasm that have escaped therapeutic intervention and later become clinically visible at the original site.In Situ Nick-End Labeling: An in situ method for detecting areas of DNA which are nicked during APOPTOSIS. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase is used to add labeled dUTP, in a template-independent manner, to the 3 prime OH ends of either single- or double-stranded DNA. The terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase nick end labeling, or TUNEL, assay labels apoptosis on a single-cell level, making it more sensitive than agarose gel electrophoresis for analysis of DNA FRAGMENTATION.Cisplatin: An inorganic and water-soluble platinum complex. After undergoing hydrolysis, it reacts with DNA to produce both intra and interstrand crosslinks. These crosslinks appear to impair replication and transcription of DNA. The cytotoxicity of cisplatin correlates with cellular arrest in the G2 phase of the cell cycle.Tumor Markers, Biological: Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Gene Knockdown Techniques: The artificial induction of GENE SILENCING by the use of RNA INTERFERENCE to reduce the expression of a specific gene. It includes the use of DOUBLE-STRANDED RNA, such as SMALL INTERFERING RNA and RNA containing HAIRPIN LOOP SEQUENCE, and ANTI-SENSE OLIGONUCLEOTIDES.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Radiation Tolerance: The ability of some cells or tissues to survive lethal doses of IONIZING RADIATION. Tolerance depends on the species, cell type, and physical and chemical variables, including RADIATION-PROTECTIVE AGENTS and RADIATION-SENSITIZING AGENTS.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.ChromonesDNA Damage: Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.Cytoprotection: The process by which chemical compounds provide protection to cells against harmful agents.Drug Resistance, Neoplasm: Resistance or diminished response of a neoplasm to an antineoplastic agent in humans, animals, or cell or tissue cultures.Brain Neoplasms: Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Cell Hypoxia: A condition of decreased oxygen content at the cellular level.MorpholinesNeurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Doxorubicin: Antineoplastic antibiotic obtained from Streptomyces peucetius. It is a hydroxy derivative of DAUNORUBICIN.Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins: A conserved class of proteins that control APOPTOSIS in both VERTEBRATES and INVERTEBRATES. IAP proteins interact with and inhibit CASPASES, and they function as ANTI-APOPTOTIC PROTEINS. The protein class is defined by an approximately 80-amino acid motif called the baculoviral inhibitor of apoptosis repeat.Oxidative Stress: A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).Liver Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A superfamily of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that are activated by diverse stimuli via protein kinase cascades. They are the final components of the cascades, activated by phosphorylation by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES, which in turn are activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES).B-Cell Activating Factor: A tumor necrosis factor superfamily member that plays a role in the regulation of B-LYMPHOCYTE survival. It occurs as a membrane-bound protein that is cleaved to release an biologically active soluble form with specificity to TRANSMEMBRANE ACTIVATOR AND CAML INTERACTOR PROTEIN; B-CELL ACTIVATION FACTOR RECEPTOR; and B-CELL MATURATION ANTIGEN.Mice, Nude: Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Mice, Inbred BALB CDose-Response Relationship, Radiation: The relationship between the dose of administered radiation and the response of the organism or tissue to the radiation.Neoplasm Proteins: Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.B-Cell Activation Factor Receptor: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that specifically binds B-CELL ACTIVATING FACTOR. It is found on B-LYMPHOCYTES and plays a role in maturation and survival of B-cells. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Carcinoma, Squamous Cell: A carcinoma derived from stratified SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. It may also occur in sites where glandular or columnar epithelium is normally present. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Glioblastoma: A malignant form of astrocytoma histologically characterized by pleomorphism of cells, nuclear atypia, microhemorrhage, and necrosis. They may arise in any region of the central nervous system, with a predilection for the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, and commissural pathways. Clinical presentation most frequently occurs in the fifth or sixth decade of life with focal neurologic signs or seizures.Melanoma: A malignant neoplasm derived from cells that are capable of forming melanin, which may occur in the skin of any part of the body, in the eye, or, rarely, in the mucous membranes of the genitalia, anus, oral cavity, or other sites. It occurs mostly in adults and may originate de novo or from a pigmented nevus or malignant lentigo. Melanomas frequently metastasize widely, and the regional lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and brain are likely to be involved. The incidence of malignant skin melanomas is rising rapidly in all parts of the world. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, p2445)Tumor Suppressor Proteins: Proteins that are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. Deficiencies or abnormalities in these proteins may lead to unregulated cell growth and tumor development.MAP Kinase Signaling System: An intracellular signaling system involving the MAP kinase cascades (three-membered protein kinase cascades). Various upstream activators, which act in response to extracellular stimuli, trigger the cascades by activating the first member of a cascade, MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKKs). Activated MAPKKKs phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES which in turn phosphorylate the MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs). The MAPKs then act on various downstream targets to affect gene expression. In mammals, there are several distinct MAP kinase pathways including the ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) pathway, the SAPK/JNK (stress-activated protein kinase/c-jun kinase) pathway, and the p38 kinase pathway. There is some sharing of components among the pathways depending on which stimulus originates activation of the cascade.Neoplasm Invasiveness: Ability of neoplasms to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue.Pancreatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PANCREAS. Depending on the types of ISLET CELLS present in the tumors, various hormones can be secreted: GLUCAGON from PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS; INSULIN from PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and SOMATOSTATIN from the SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS. Most are malignant except the insulin-producing tumors (INSULINOMA).Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.bcl-2-Associated X Protein: A member of the Bcl-2 protein family and homologous partner of C-BCL-2 PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN. It regulates the release of CYTOCHROME C and APOPTOSIS INDUCING FACTOR from the MITOCHONDRIA. Several isoforms of BCL2-associated X protein occur due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of the mRNA for this protein.Prostatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Microbial Viability: Ability of a microbe to survive under given conditions. This can also be related to a colony's ability to replicate.Colorectal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON or the RECTUM or both. Risk factors for colorectal cancer include chronic ULCERATIVE COLITIS; FAMILIAL POLYPOSIS COLI; exposure to ASBESTOS; and irradiation of the CERVIX UTERI.Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung: A heterogeneous aggregate of at least three distinct histological types of lung cancer, including SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA; ADENOCARCINOMA; and LARGE CELL CARCINOMA. They are dealt with collectively because of their shared treatment strategy.Chemotherapy, Adjuvant: Drug therapy given to augment or stimulate some other form of treatment such as surgery or radiation therapy. Adjuvant chemotherapy is commonly used in the therapy of cancer and can be administered before or after the primary treatment.Nerve Growth Factors: Factors which enhance the growth potentialities of sensory and sympathetic nerve cells.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases: A serine threonine kinase that controls a wide range of growth-related cellular processes. The protein is referred to as the target of RAPAMYCIN due to the discovery that SIROLIMUS (commonly known as rapamycin) forms an inhibitory complex with TACROLIMUS BINDING PROTEIN 1A that blocks the action of its enzymatic activity.Lymphatic Metastasis: Transfer of a neoplasm from its primary site to lymph nodes or to distant parts of the body by way of the lymphatic system.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Cell Count: The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.Culture Media, Serum-Free: CULTURE MEDIA free of serum proteins but including the minimal essential substances required for cell growth. This type of medium avoids the presence of extraneous substances that may affect cell proliferation or unwanted activation of cells.Protein Kinase Inhibitors: Agents that inhibit PROTEIN KINASES.Ovarian Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the OVARY. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. They are classified according to the tissue of origin, such as the surface EPITHELIUM, the stromal endocrine cells, and the totipotent GERM CELLS.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Fluorouracil: A pyrimidine analog that is an antineoplastic antimetabolite. It interferes with DNA synthesis by blocking the THYMIDYLATE SYNTHETASE conversion of deoxyuridylic acid to thymidylic acid.Stress, Physiological: The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.Cyclophosphamide: Precursor of an alkylating nitrogen mustard antineoplastic and immunosuppressive agent that must be activated in the LIVER to form the active aldophosphamide. It has been used in the treatment of LYMPHOMA and LEUKEMIA. Its side effect, ALOPECIA, has been used for defleecing sheep. Cyclophosphamide may also cause sterility, birth defects, mutations, and cancer.STAT3 Transcription Factor: A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to INTERLEUKIN-6 family members. STAT3 is constitutively activated in a variety of TUMORS and is a major downstream transducer for the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR GP130.Carcinoma: A malignant neoplasm made up of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate the surrounding tissues and give rise to metastases. It is a histological type of neoplasm but is often wrongly used as a synonym for "cancer." (From Dorland, 27th ed)Transplantation, Homologous: Transplantation between individuals of the same species. Usually refers to genetically disparate individuals in contradistinction to isogeneic transplantation for genetically identical individuals.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases: A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that is widely expressed and plays a role in regulation of MEIOSIS; MITOSIS; and post mitotic functions in differentiated cells. The extracellular signal regulated MAP kinases are regulated by a broad variety of CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS and can be activated by certain CARCINOGENS.Etoposide: A semisynthetic derivative of PODOPHYLLOTOXIN that exhibits antitumor activity. Etoposide inhibits DNA synthesis by forming a complex with topoisomerase II and DNA. This complex induces breaks in double stranded DNA and prevents repair by topoisomerase II binding. Accumulated breaks in DNA prevent entry into the mitotic phase of cell division, and lead to cell death. Etoposide acts primarily in the G2 and S phases of the cell cycle.Stem Cells: Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Reactive Oxygen Species: Molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. These reactive oxygen intermediates include SINGLET OXYGEN; SUPEROXIDES; PEROXIDES; HYDROXYL RADICAL; and HYPOCHLOROUS ACID. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of PHAGOCYTES, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Anoikis: APOPTOSIS triggered by loss of contact with the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Colonic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON.Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays: In vivo methods of screening investigative anticancer drugs, biologic response modifiers or radiotherapies. Human tumor tissue or cells are transplanted into mice or rats followed by tumor treatment regimens. A variety of outcomes are monitored to assess antitumor effectiveness.Mice, SCID: Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Carcinoma, Hepatocellular: A primary malignant neoplasm of epithelial liver cells. It ranges from a well-differentiated tumor with EPITHELIAL CELLS indistinguishable from normal HEPATOCYTES to a poorly differentiated neoplasm. The cells may be uniform or markedly pleomorphic, or form GIANT CELLS. Several classification schemes have been suggested.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Transplantation, Heterologous: Transplantation between animals of different species.Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Registries: The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A: The original member of the family of endothelial cell growth factors referred to as VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTORS. Vascular endothelial growth factor-A was originally isolated from tumor cells and referred to as "tumor angiogenesis factor" and "vascular permeability factor". Although expressed at high levels in certain tumor-derived cells it is produced by a wide variety of cell types. In addition to stimulating vascular growth and vascular permeability it may play a role in stimulating VASODILATION via NITRIC OXIDE-dependent pathways. Alternative splicing of the mRNA for vascular endothelial growth factor A results in several isoforms of the protein being produced.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Hydrogen Peroxide: A strong oxidizing agent used in aqueous solution as a ripening agent, bleach, and topical anti-infective. It is relatively unstable and solutions deteriorate over time unless stabilized by the addition of acetanilide or similar organic materials.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Immunoprecipitation: The aggregation of soluble ANTIGENS with ANTIBODIES, alone or with antibody binding factors such as ANTI-ANTIBODIES or STAPHYLOCOCCAL PROTEIN A, into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Recurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.DNA Repair: The reconstruction of a continuous two-stranded DNA molecule without mismatch from a molecule which contained damaged regions. The major repair mechanisms are excision repair, in which defective regions in one strand are excised and resynthesized using the complementary base pairing information in the intact strand; photoreactivation repair, in which the lethal and mutagenic effects of ultraviolet light are eliminated; and post-replication repair, in which the primary lesions are not repaired, but the gaps in one daughter duplex are filled in by incorporation of portions of the other (undamaged) daughter duplex. Excision repair and post-replication repair are sometimes referred to as "dark repair" because they do not require light.Genes, bcl-2: The B-cell leukemia/lymphoma-2 genes, responsible for blocking apoptosis in normal cells, and associated with follicular lymphoma when overexpressed. Overexpression results from the t(14;18) translocation. The human c-bcl-2 gene is located at 18q24 on the long arm of chromosome 18.Graft Rejection: An immune response with both cellular and humoral components, directed against an allogeneic transplant, whose tissue antigens are not compatible with those of the recipient.Glioma: Benign and malignant central nervous system neoplasms derived from glial cells (i.e., astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and ependymocytes). Astrocytes may give rise to astrocytomas (ASTROCYTOMA) or glioblastoma multiforme (see GLIOBLASTOMA). Oligodendrocytes give rise to oligodendrogliomas (OLIGODENDROGLIOMA) and ependymocytes may undergo transformation to become EPENDYMOMA; CHOROID PLEXUS NEOPLASMS; or colloid cysts of the third ventricle. (From Escourolle et al., Manual of Basic Neuropathology, 2nd ed, p21)Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3: A glycogen synthase kinase that was originally described as a key enzyme involved in glycogen metabolism. It regulates a diverse array of functions such as CELL DIVISION, microtubule function and APOPTOSIS.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Neoplasm Transplantation: Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor: A cell surface receptor involved in regulation of cell growth and differentiation. It is specific for EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR and EGF-related peptides including TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR ALPHA; AMPHIREGULIN; and HEPARIN-BINDING EGF-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR. The binding of ligand to the receptor causes activation of its intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity and rapid internalization of the receptor-ligand complex into the cell.Ultraviolet Rays: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.Multiple Myeloma: A malignancy of mature PLASMA CELLS engaging in monoclonal immunoglobulin production. It is characterized by hyperglobulinemia, excess Bence-Jones proteins (free monoclonal IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) in the urine, skeletal destruction, bone pain, and fractures. Other features include ANEMIA; HYPERCALCEMIA; and RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.Microtubule-Associated Proteins: High molecular weight proteins found in the MICROTUBULES of the cytoskeletal system. Under certain conditions they are required for TUBULIN assembly into the microtubules and stabilize the assembled microtubules.Survival of Motor Neuron 1 Protein: A SMN complex protein that is essential for the function of the SMN protein complex. In humans the protein is encoded by a single gene found near the inversion telomere of a large inverted region of CHROMOSOME 5. Mutations in the gene coding for survival of motor neuron 1 protein may result in SPINAL MUSCULAR ATROPHIES OF CHILDHOOD.PTEN Phosphohydrolase: A lipid phosphatase that acts on phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate to regulate various SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. It modulates CELL GROWTH PROCESSES; CELL MIGRATION; and APOPTOSIS. Mutations in PTEN are associated with COWDEN DISEASE and PROTEUS SYNDROME as well as NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION.Embryo, Mammalian: The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.Cell Cycle Proteins: Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.Cell Transformation, Neoplastic: Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing: A broad category of carrier proteins that play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They generally contain several modular domains, each of which having its own binding activity, and act by forming complexes with other intracellular-signaling molecules. Signal-transducing adaptor proteins lack enzyme activity, however their activity can be modulated by other signal-transducing enzymesVincristine: An antitumor alkaloid isolated from VINCA ROSEA. (Merck, 11th ed.)Radiation-Sensitizing Agents: Drugs used to potentiate the effectiveness of radiation therapy in destroying unwanted cells.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Drug Administration Schedule: Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.Gene Silencing: Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Actuarial Analysis: The application of probability and statistical methods to calculate the risk of occurrence of any event, such as onset of illness, recurrent disease, hospitalization, disability, or death. It may include calculation of the anticipated money costs of such events and of the premiums necessary to provide for payment of such costs.DNA Fragmentation: Splitting the DNA into shorter pieces by endonucleolytic DNA CLEAVAGE at multiple sites. It includes the internucleosomal DNA fragmentation, which along with chromatin condensation, are considered to be the hallmarks of APOPTOSIS.Bone Marrow Cells: Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.Gamma Rays: Penetrating, high-energy electromagnetic radiation emitted from atomic nuclei during NUCLEAR DECAY. The range of wavelengths of emitted radiation is between 0.1 - 100 pm which overlaps the shorter, more energetic hard X-RAYS wavelengths. The distinction between gamma rays and X-rays is based on their radiation source.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of multiple ADP-RIBOSE groups from nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NAD) onto protein targets, thus building up a linear or branched homopolymer of repeating ADP-ribose units i.e., POLY ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE RIBOSE.Cell Growth Processes: Processes required for CELL ENLARGEMENT and CELL PROLIFERATION.Endothelial Cells: Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.Oncogene Protein v-akt: A viral oncoprotein originally isolated from a murine T CELL LYMPHOMA infected with the acutely transforming retrovirus AKT8. v-akt protein is the viral homologue of PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-AKT.Skin Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the SKIN.

Electronic volume analysis of L1210 chemotherapy. (1/37565)

The rapid analysis of in vivo chemotherapy on the L1210 ascites tumor grown in C57BL/6 X DBA/2F1 mice has been shown by means of an electronic volume analysis. The drugs were injected on the 4th day of tumor growth, and the cells in the peritoneal cavity were studied at 24-hr intervals on the 5th through 7th day. Using the electronic cell volume distributions, combined with labeling indices, cell morphology, and cell counts, it was found that the alkylating agents. 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea and cyclophosphamide, at the dosages used, were more effective than the S-phase-specific drugs, palmitoyl ester of 1-beta-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine, vincristine, and methotrexate.  (+info)

Blood thymidine level and iododeoxyuridine incorporation and reutilization in DNA in mice given long-acting thymidine pellets. (2/37565)

A long-acting thymidine pellet consisting of 190 mg of cholesterol and 60 mg of thymidine has been developed for the study of thymidine metabolism and reutilization in vivo. Implantation of such a pellet s.c. in adult mice will maintain the blood plasma concentration of thymidine at levels between 40 and 8 X 10(-6) M, which are from 36 to 7 times those of normal mice, for periods up to 48 hr. During this period, in vivo uptake and reutilization of [125I]iododeoxyuridine, a thymidine analog, into intestinal and tumor DNA were almost completely suppressed. While iododeoxyuridine reutilization is not large in normal proliferative tissue even in the absence of pellet implants, reutilization of over 30% was measured in large, rapidly growing ascites tumors. The inhibition of iododeoxyuridine incorporation by elevated thymidine blood levels is directly proportional to serum concentration. This appears to be due to a thymidine pool in rapid equilibrium with blood thymidine. This pool is at least 10 times larger than the 4-nmole pool of extracellular thymidine.  (+info)

Diphtheria toxin effects on human cells in tissue culture. (3/37565)

HeLa cells exposed to a single sublethal concentration of diphtheria toxin were found to have diminished sensitivity when subsequently reexposed to the toxin. Three cells strains exhibiting toxin resistance were developed. In the cells that had previously been exposed to toxin at 0.015 mug/ml, 50% inhibition of protein synthesis required a toxin concentration of 0.3 mug/ml, which is more than 10 times that required in normal HeLa cells. There appears to be a threshold level of diphtheria toxin action. Concentrations of toxin greater than that required for 50% inhibition of protein synthesis (0.01 mug/ml) are associated with cytotoxicity, whereas those below this concentration may not be lethal. Several established human cell lines of both normal and neoplastic origin were tested for their sensitivity to the effects of the toxin. No special sensitivity was observed with the cells of tumor origin. Fifty % inhibition of protein synthesis of HeLa cells was achieved with diphtheria toxin (0.01 mug/ml) as compared to the normal human cell lines tested (0.03 and 0.5 mug/ml) and a cell line derived from a human pancreatic adenocarcinoma (0.2 mug/ml). A human breast carcinoma cell line showed a maximum of 45% inhibition of protein synthesis. This required a diphtheria toxin concentration of 5 mug/ml. These results suggest that different human cell lines show wide variation in their sensitivity to the toxin.  (+info)

Tissue pharmacokinetics, inhibition of DNA synthesis and tumor cell kill after high-dose methotrexate in murine tumor models. (4/37565)

In Sarcoma 180 and L1210 ascites tumor models, the initial rate of methotrexate accumulation in tumor cells in the peritoneal cavity and in small intestine (intracellularly) after s.c. doses up to 800 mg/kg, showed saturation kinetics. These results and the fact that initial uptake in these tissues within this dosage range was inhibited to the expected relative extent by the simultaneous administration of leucovorin suggest that carrier mediation and not passive diffusion is the major route of drug entry at these extremely high doses. Maximum accumulation of intracellular drug occurred within 2 hr and reached much higher levels in small intestine than in tumor cells at the higher dosages. At a 3-mg/kg dose of methotrexate s.c., intracellular exchangeable drug levels persisted more than four times longer in L1210 cells than in small intestine, but differences in persistence (L1210 cell versus gut) diminished markedly with increasing dosage. At 96 mg/kg, the difference in persistence was less than 2-fold. In small intestine and L1210 cells, theduration of inhibition of DNA synthesis at different dosages correlated with the extent to which exchangeable drug was retained. Toxic deaths occurred when inhibition in small intestine lasted longer than 25 to 30 hr. Recovery of synthesis in small intestine and L1210 cells occurred synchronously and only below dosages of 400 mg/kg. Within 24 hr after dosages of greater than 24 mg/kg, the rate of tumor cell loss increased to a point characterized by a single exponential (t1/2=8.5 hr). The total cell loss, but not the rate of cell loss, was dose dependent.  (+info)

Unsaturated fatty acid requirements for growth and survival of a rat mammary tumor cell line. (5/37565)

A cell line, the growth and survival of which is markedly affected by linoleic acid, has been established from a carcinogen-induced rat mammary tumor. The cells have been continuously passaged in 5% rat serum plus 10% fetal calf serum-supplemented medium. The rat serum component was found to be indispensalbe, for when it was omitted the growth rate rapidly declined and the cells died by 5 to 7 days. Removal of the rat serum from the growth medium also resulted in a dramatic loss of Oil Red O-positive droplets in the cells, suggesting that the lipid component of rat serum might be a major growth-promoting principle in rat serum. This is likely since the total lipid fraction, but not the delipidized protein fraction, could largely supplant requirement of the cells for rat serum. Pure linoleic acid was found to be effective in maintaining the cell growth in delipidized serum or in whole fetal calf serum-supplemented medium. Fatty acid analysis revealed a 19-fold higher amount of linoleic acid in rat serum than in fetal calf serum.  (+info)

Gene expression profiles in HTLV-I-immortalized T cells: deregulated expression of genes involved in apoptosis regulation. (6/37565)

Human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I) is the etiologic agent of adult T-cell leukemia, an acute and often fatal T-cell malignancy. A key step in HTLV-I-induced leukemigenesis is induction of abnormal T-cell growth and survival. Unlike antigen-stimulated T cells, which cease proliferation after a finite number of cell division, HTLV-I-infected T cells proliferate indefinitely (immortalized), thus facilitating occurrence of secondary genetic changes leading to malignant transformation. To explore the molecular basis of HTLV-I-induced abnormal T-cell survival, we compared the gene expression profiles of normal and HTLV-I-immortalized T cells using 'gene array'. These studies revealed a strikingly altered expression pattern of a large number of genes along with HTLV-I-mediated T-cell immortalization. Interestingly, many of these deregulated genes are involved in the control of programmed cell death or apoptosis. These findings indicate that disruption of the cellular apoptosis-regulatory network may play a role in the HTLV-I-mediated oncogenesis.  (+info)

Socs1 binds to multiple signalling proteins and suppresses steel factor-dependent proliferation. (7/37565)

We have identified Socs1 as a downstream component of the Kit receptor tyrosine kinase signalling pathway. We show that the expression of Socs1 mRNA is rapidly increased in primary bone marrow-derived mast cells following exposure to Steel factor, and Socs1 inducibly binds to the Kit receptor tyrosine kinase via its Src homology 2 (SH2) domain. Previous studies have shown that Socs1 suppresses cytokine-mediated differentiation in M1 cells inhibiting Janus family kinases. In contrast, constitutive expression of Socs1 suppresses the mitogenic potential of Kit while maintaining Steel factor-dependent cell survival signals. Unlike Janus kinases, Socs1 does not inhibit the catalytic activity of the Kit tyrosine kinase. In order to define the mechanism by which Socs1-mediated suppression of Kit-dependent mitogenesis occurs, we demonstrate that Socs1 binds to the signalling proteins Grb-2 and the Rho-family guanine nucleotide exchange factors Vav. We show that Grb2 binds Socs1 via its SH3 domains to putative diproline determinants located in the N-terminus of Socs1, and Socs1 binds to the N-terminal regulatory region of Vav. These data suggest that Socs1 is an inducible switch which modulates proliferative signals in favour of cell survival signals and functions as an adaptor protein in receptor tyrosine kinase signalling pathways.  (+info)

In vivo chaperone activity of heat shock protein 70 and thermotolerance. (8/37565)

Heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) is thought to play a critical role in the thermotolerance of mammalian cells, presumably due to its chaperone activity. We examined the chaperone activity and cellular heat resistance of a clonal cell line in which overexpression of Hsp70 was transiently induced by means of the tetracycline-regulated gene expression system. This single-cell-line approach circumvents problems associated with clonal variation and indirect effects resulting from constitutive overexpression of Hsp70. The in vivo chaperone function of Hsp70 was quantitatively investigated by using firefly luciferase as a reporter protein. Chaperone activity was found to strictly correlate to the level of Hsp70 expression. In addition, we observed an Hsp70 concentration dependent increase in the cellular heat resistance. In order to study the contribution of the Hsp70 chaperone activity, heat resistance of cells that expressed tetracycline-regulated Hsp70 was compared to thermotolerant cells expressing the same level of Hsp70 plus all of the other heat shock proteins. Overexpression of Hsp70 alone was sufficient to induce a similar recovery of cytoplasmic luciferase activity, as does expression of all Hsps in thermotolerant cells. However, when the luciferase reporter protein was directed to the nucleus, expression of Hsp70 alone was not sufficient to yield the level of recovery observed in thermotolerant cells. In addition, cells expressing the same level of Hsp70 found in heat-induced thermotolerant cells containing additional Hsps showed increased resistance to thermal killing but were more sensitive than thermotolerant cells. These results suggest that the inducible form of Hsp70 contributes to the stress-tolerant state by increasing the chaperone activity in the cytoplasm. However, its expression alone is apparently insufficient for protection of other subcellular compartments to yield clonal heat resistance to the level observed in thermotolerant cells.  (+info)

UCH-L1 supports cell survival in H838 cells Assessment of H838 and H157 cells exhibiting reduced UCH-L1 protein levels by phase-contrast microscopy revealed morphological changes in the UCH-L1 siRNA-treated H838 cells compared to scrambled siRNA- treated and untreated control cells, whereas no difference was observed between UCH-L1 siRNA-treated H157 cells. and control H157 cells. Normally the parental H838 cells were rounded in shape and uniform in size, but cells with reduced UCH-L1 expression were irregular in shape, PF 2341066 variable in size, and present at a much lower density. H838 cells with low levels of UCH-L1 were also less flattened to the surface, possibly signifying they were becoming detached, a characteristic of apoptotic cells (Figure 4A). Therefore untreated and treated selleck products H838 cells were stained with H&E to compare the number of apoptotic cells. Definite apoptotic changes were observed in the UCH-L1 siRNA-treated cells (Figure 4B). To quantify the differences in ...
SummaryThis purpose of this experiment was for students to do the colony count methods, estimating the viable cell number of commercial active dried yeasts (ADY).This experiment allowed the students to perform the plate count technique by serial diluti...
A commonly prescribed drug for heart disease may do more good than previously thought. Researchers at York University have found that beta-blockers may prevent further cell death following a heart attack and that could lead to better longer term patient outcomes.
I have a killer toxin, which generates pores on susceptible yeast cells, so I want to make a viability test with PI. Now, I incubate the sensitive cells with the toxin for 12 and 24 hour, but the problem is that I cant afford to make the measurments with the flow cytometer at each sampling time. The question is that, after the sampling and staining, can the cells be stored at 4 C simply, or I have to fix them with 70% ethanol or formaldehyde (which one do you prefer?). Will not the PI diffused from the dead cells at 4 C overnight? I suppose it wont. What do you think ...
Cell survival curves (a) and the net micronucleus (MN) frequencies (b) afterin vivoirradiation using neutron beams without the10B-carrier as a function of the p
The total number of T cells present in the antigen-specific pool at the site of priming is determined by three cell-intrinsic parameters: the proportion of T cells entering into the proliferating pool, their cycle activity, and their survival. In accordance with published data (2), we found that CD28 increased cell cycle entry as well as activity. Early studies also report that CD28 promotes the survival of activated T cells (3). From measuring [3H]thymidine incorporation at different time points after TCR stimulation, it was concluded that this prosurvival effect came into play at a late time point and in fact sustained the proliferative response. However, we demonstrate that CD28−/− T cells die in much higher frequency than wild-type T cells when making the transition from G1 to S for the first time. CD28 strongly promotes cell survival at this point, thus greatly increasing the proportion of cells taking part in further divisions. The prosurvival effect of CD28 has been attributed to ...
Study Throws Light on Mutations Facilitating Cancer Cell Survival Next generation sequencing (NGS) is becoming increasingly integrated into oncological practice and clinical research. NGS methods have also provided evidence for clonal evolution of cancers during disease progression and treatment. Now, with the help of this sophisticated sequencing method, researchers identified genetic mutations that promote the […]. The post Study Throws Light on Mutations Facilitating Cancer Cell Survival appeared first on BioTecNika .Read more at www.biotecnika.org/2018/03/study-throws-light-on-mutations-facilitating-cancer-cell-survival/. ...
In this study, we have shown that co-overexpression of Ang-1 and Akt produced powerful cytoprotection against OGD in vitro. Moreover, transduction with Ang-1 and Akt genes resulted in marked survival of the transplanted MSCs in vivo, their differentiation into myocytes and participation in neovascularization. This resulted in the reduced infarct size and optimally preserved cardiac function after MI.. Despite encouraging results emanating from the preclinical as well as clinical studies, donor cell survival after engraftment remains among the major limitations that significantly influence the outcome of heart cell therapy. In some of the published reports, donor cell survival between 0 to 1 hour after injection averaged up to only 58%.10 Similarly, as low as 1% of the donor cells survived during first 24 hours after transplantation.11 Although the underlying molecular mechanism and kinetics of donor cell death in the infarcted myocardium are undefined, apoptosis is a major factor in their ...
T cell activation through the TCR can result in either cell proliferation or cell death. The role of costimulatory receptors in regulating T cell survival has not been defined. Here, we present data demonstrating that CD28 costimulation enhances the in vitro survival of activated T cells. One mechan …
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5178 Low-dose hyper-radiosensitivity (HRS) describes the increased radiosensitivity of cells to doses of ionizing radiation less than ∼0.5 Gy. While a complete understanding of the underlying molecular mechanism of this radiation response is not clear, our recent work has identified a connection between low-dose HRS survival, Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated (ATM)-mediated repair pathways and an "early" ATM-dependent G2 cell-cycle checkpoint. High-precision cell survival experiments using flow cytometry synchronized cell populations indicated that HRS was a specific G2 phase response. Given this background, we investigated the function of radiation-induced G2 phase checkpoint arrest in a pair of isogenic fibroblast cell lines: MR4 and 3.7. We found that the MR4 cells exhibited a pronounced HRS cell survival response that was exaggerated in a G2-phase enriched cell population but was absent in the isogenic 3.7 cell line. Moreover, distinct temporal differences in G2 checkpoint response were ...
Assay Cell Viability in cell samples with Fixable Cell Viability Assay Kit (Fluorometric - Red) - CytoPainter ab176744. For flow cytometers.
Basically I tested my compound in a range from 10-9 to 10-4 M and what Im measuring are both cell viability and hormonal secretion. Ive performed only the experiments regarding cell viability so far and what I saw is the respons I described in the previous post. Im organizing the experiments for testing hormonal secretion, that Im sure will be more convincing. What Im trying to understand is if I can say that my drug do not have any effect on cell viability and just that at 10-M is toxic for the cells, or that the effect on cell viability is present only at such concentration.. ...
But the effects of surgery, radiation and chemotherapy produce a range of biochemical responses in the brain that can fuel tumor cell survival at the same time doctors are attempting to eradicate the disease, according to Boston College Professor of Biology Thomas Seyfried, whose lab has researched ways to deny energy to cancer cells. "All tumors, regardless of where they are located, require two major fuels for survival: glucose and glutamine," said Seyfried, a specialist in lipid biochemistry. "As long as tumor cells have access to these energy molecules, they will survive. If you give them a lot of these molecules, they will survive even better." The three components of cerebral cancer care may play a role in providing tumor cells with the metabolic fuels they need to survive. While these treatments reduce tumor growth over the short term, radiation and certain chemotherapies could actually contribute to the high recurrence of these deadly tumors. A growing body of research over the past ...
Epithelial cells are unable to grow or survive when they lose contact with appropriate ECM proteins. However, transformation by the Ras oncoprotein bypasses the need for signals from adhesion receptors and protects them from undergoing apoptosis. Ras‐dependent survival in other systems is known to have two effectors, PI 3‐K and Raf, the latter of which functions by activating the ERK (a MAPK) pathway. To address the contribution of ERK, J. Downward (London, UK) used an inducible active form of Raf to monitor early changes in gene transcription that impart protection from detachment‐induced apoptosis. Among the genes that are strongly up‐regulated by activated Raf are the autocrine factors HB‐EGF, amphiregulin and TGFα. All of these are members of the epithelial growth factor (EGF) family, indicating that protection by Raf is dependent on the function of an autocrine loop involving transcriptional induction of cell survival EGF‐like factors. Interestingly, Raf‐dependent survival is ...
emscope:(USP_PRODUCAO),scope:(USP_EBOOKS),scope:("PRIMO"),scope:(USP),scope:(USP_EREVISTAS),scope:(USP_FISICO),primo_central_multiple_fe ...
... , For quantitation of viable cell number in proliferation and cytotoxicity assays
U.S.A. --(Ammoland.com)- Triggersafe is a new, unique, innovative, patent pending device designed to safely and completely cover the trigger of AR-15 rifles.. Triggersafe was designed to fix a weapon problem that officers and citizens knew occurred, but no one wanted to discuss, Negligent or Accidental Discharges. When a person with a rifle does not have "positive control" of the weapon, the chances of an ND/AD discharge increase. Positive control is when we have our hands on the weapon and control the safety and trigger. The chance that a piece of gear or other object or even you can push the trigger is greatly reduced with a Triggersafe in place. Triggersafe was intended for environments and times when we dont have full control of the weapon.. It was intended for times such as training, range time, dry handling, hunting, transportation, storage and many others to help avoid ND/AD discharges when we do not have positive control of the rifle. Triggersafe is inexpensive, quick and easy to use by ...
AD hippocampus has been shown to have both an increase in caspase-3 immunoreactivity (Masliah et al., 1998; Gervais et al., 1999), as well as appearance of activated caspase-3 reactivity (Chan et al., 1999). The work of Gervais (1999) showed that caspase-3 can cleave the amyloid precursor protein and cause an increase in secretion of Aβ, measured as picomolar quantities in cell media; cell death was not measured in that study. In our system, exogenous aggregated Aβ1-42 is added at a concentration of 10 μm, many fold higher than that produced by caspase-3 activation. Additionally, the Aβ produced by caspase-3 would most likely be in the less toxic soluble form over the time course of our experiments. Thus, blockade of caspase-3 activity would be expected to have little effect on cell survival in our model. In more chronic paradigms, caspase-3 may play a larger role in potentiating death by enhancing production of Aβ. Additionally, caspase-3 activation could play a role in proteolytic ...
The effects of CsA and CPZ were analysed upon treatment of PCLS with 40 μM CsA and 20 μM CPZ. These concentrations were relatively high compared to plasma levels of patients chronically treated with the same drugs, i.e. 0.04-0.1 μM for CsA [26] and 0.02-0.3 μM for CPZ [30], but similar concentrations were used in other in vitro studies [30, 31] and the applied concentrations did not cause a decrease in slices viability assessed ATP and LDH assays.. However, GSEA analysis on the transcriptome data revealed that CsA induced a higher number of processes indicative for cytotoxicity such as apoptosis, necrosis, or inflammation than CPZ (Figure 2). This could indicate that the applied concentration of CsA was toxic, although according to the viability tests (ATP and LDH assays) doses even higher than 40uM did not cause a significant decrease in viability (Additional file 1: Figure S1). These results suggest therefore, that ATP as well as LDH measurements may not always be reliable to predict ...
J:101176 Grieshammer U, Cebrian C, Ilagan R, Meyers E, Herzlinger D, Martin GR, FGF8 is required for cell survival at distinct stages of nephrogenesis and for regulation of gene expression in nascent nephrons. Development. 2005 Sep;132(17):3847-57 ...
UNC-5 Homolog B (UNC5B) is a member of the dependence receptor family. It can induce two opposite intracellular signaling cascades depending on the presence or absence of the ligand and is thus capable of driving two opposing processes. UNC5B signaling has been implicated in several cancers, where it promotes cell death in the absence of its ligand netrin-1 and increases cell survival in its presence. In addition, inhibition of the ligand has been reported to decrease invasiveness and angiogenesis in tumors. UNC5B signaling pathway has also been reported to be involved in several processes such as neural development, developmental angiogenesis and inflammatory processes. Interaction of UNC5B with netrins activates various signaling modules including ERK1/ERK2, p38 MAPK signaling and PI3k-AKT pathway ...
The key to successful targeted therapy for cancer is to identify intrinsic features that distinguish cancer cells from normal cells. Replication stress is a ch...
When I talk about "traits", I mean "hereditary characteristics" present in the population. For example coat colors in tame animals do not appear in the wild type population, so they are new. However, the GENES responsible for new traits ARE there. If I had to explain this scenario, I would say that those genes (lets call them reserve genes) are being actively suppressed in wild type population by epigenetic mechanism (which is a wild type hereditary characteristic). Hypothetically, the loss of key genes responsible for significant survival characteristic triggers new hereditary characteristic - the loss of suppression of the reserve genes to increase variety of traits to insure survival of the species. If one of those genes was accidently activated out of turn, the individual would probably be selected against by nature (there is no knowing for sure of cause ...
When I talk about "traits", I mean "hereditary characteristics" present in the population. For example coat colors in tame animals do not appear in the wild type population, so they are new. However, the GENES responsible for new traits ARE there. If I had to explain this scenario, I would say that those genes (lets call them reserve genes) are being actively suppressed in wild type population by epigenetic mechanism (which is a wild type hereditary characteristic). Hypothetically, the loss of key genes responsible for significant survival characteristic triggers new hereditary characteristic - the loss of suppression of the reserve genes to increase variety of traits to insure survival of the species. If one of those genes was accidently activated out of turn, the individual would probably be selected against by nature (there is no knowing for sure of cause ...
A recent report compared the efficiency of microinjection of DNA versus RNA in mouse embryos [1]. While it was shown that DNA is effective, in vitro transcribed RNA was observed to be more efficient.. Typically, microinjections for CRISPR applications are performed using in vitro transcribed Cas9 and sgRNA rather than native dsDNA. gBlocks® Gene Fragments are ideal for use as template for in vitro transcription and will work well in these applications [2,3]. However, long RNAs are known to trigger the innate immune response in many cells, which increases the expression of dozens of genes and can affect cell viability and general health [4-7].. References. ...
Cell viability is a measure of the proportion of live, healthy cells within a population. Assays to assess cell viability measure metabolic activity, ATP content, cell proliferation, or membrane integrity.
Here we demonstrate how Photopette ® can be used within the cell culture hood to speed up COVID-19 related cell culture research. Determine cell densities, protein and DNA/RNA concentrations within seconds without any sample transfer and perform cell viability studies.
(2006) Wek, Anthony. Cell Metabolism. In this issue of Cell Metabolism, Daniel Drucker and colleagues (Yusta et al., 2006) explore how the incretin mimetic exendin-4 improves β cell function and survival during ER stress. Their findings suggest that protein kinase A signaling elicited by GLP-1 re...
Read independent reviews on Cytotoxicity Detection KitPLUS (LDH) from Roche Applied Science - a member of the Roche Group on SelectScience
JoVE publishes peer-reviewed scientific video protocols to accelerate biological, medical, chemical and physical research. Watch our scientific video articles.
JoVE publishes peer-reviewed scientific video protocols to accelerate biological, medical, chemical and physical research. Watch our scientific video articles.
Think of the grossest thing you can come up with. No, not that. Not that either! Ew, dude. Yes, the grossest thing is reaching up...
This compound suppressed the viability of a few out of six major samples at increased than or equivalent to two concentrations but the maximal result
Loperamide impaired cell viability following 72 hr of incubation in a dose dependentfashion in CTAC, D-17, CML-1 and CMT-12 canine cancer cell lines. Viability
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) transplanted at sites of nerve injury are thought to promote functional recovery by producing trophic factors that induce survival and regeneration of host neurons. To evaluate this phenomenon further, we quantified in human MSCs neurotrophin expression levels and their effects on neuronal cell survival and neuritogenesis. Screening a human MSC cDNA library revealed expressed transcripts encoding BDNF and beta-NGF but not NT-3 and NT-4. Immunostaining demonstrated that BDNF and beta-NGF proteins were restricted to specific MSC subpopulations, which was confirmed by ELISA analysis of 56 separate subclones. Using a co-culture assay, we also demonstrated that BDNF expression levels correlated with the ability of MSC populations or subclones to induce survival and neurite outgrowth in the SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cell line. However, these MSC-induced effects were only partially inhibited by a neutralizing anti-BDNF antibody. MSCs were also shown to promote neurite ...
Recent reports using metabolism regulating drugs showed that nutrient deprivation was an efficient tool to suppress cancer progression. In addition, autophagy control is emerging to prevent cancer cell survival. Autophagy breaks down the unnecessary cytoplasmic components into anabolic units and energy sources, which are the most important sources for making the ATP that maintains homeostasis in cancer cell growth and survival. Therefore, the glucose analog 2-deoxyglucose (2DG) has been used as an anticancer reagent due to its inhibition of glycolysis. Prostate cancer cells (PC3) were treated with 2DG for 6 h or 48 h to analyze the changing of cell cycle and autophagic flux. Rapamycin and LC3B overexpressing vectors were administered to PC3 cells for autophagy induction and chloroquine and shBeclin1 plasmid were used to inhibit autophagy in PC3 cells to analyze PC3 cells growth and survival. The samples for western blotting were prepared in each culture condition to confirm the expression level of
Red blood cell survival was determined in patients with aortic valvular disease, postoperative patients with aortic valvular ball-valve prostheses and postoperative patients with multiple ball-valve prostheses. The red blood cell survival was reduced in the majority of patients in each group when compared with the red blood cell survival from a normal control group.. A detailed analysis of the survival curves suggested that in many patients there was more than one population of red blood cells. The first population displayed rapid random destruction. This population was not present in normal persons in the control group. The second population showed the usual decline in radioactivity due to random destruction and loss of the red cell label due to elution. The shortened red blood cell survival in some patients was due to a large percentage of the first population of randomly destroyed red blood cells, in other patients to an accelerated rate of destruction of the usual single population of cells ...
Chloroquine has long been used in the treatment or prevention of malaria from Plasmodium vivax, P. malariae, excluding the malaria parasite Plasmodium
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Lixin Yang, Aldwin Apollo Perez, Sayuri Fujie, Charles Warden, Jie Li, Yafan Wang, Bryan Yung, Yun-Ru Chen, Xiyong Liu, Hang Zhang, Shu Zheng, Zheng Liu, David Ann, Yun Yen].
BioAssay record AID 88942 submitted by ChEMBL: Antiproliferative activity was evaluated by the 72 hr MTT cell viability assay using human colon carcinoma cells (GC3)..
The number of mature B cells is carefully controlled by signalling from receptors that support B cell survival. The best studied of these are the B cell antigen receptor (BCR) and BAFFR. Recent work has shown that signalling from these receptors is closely linked, involves the CD19 co-receptor, and leads to activation of canonical and non-canonical NF-κB pathways, ERK1, ERK2 and ERK5 MAP kinases, and PI-3 kinases. Importantly, studies show that investigation of the importance of signalling molecules in cell survival requires the use of inducible gene deletions within mature B cells. This overcomes the limitations of many earlier studies using constitutive gene deletions which were unable to distinguish between requirements for a protein in development versus survival. ...
Markley, K; Smallman, E T.; and John, L A., "The effect of thermal trauma in mice on cytotoxicity of lymphocytes." (1977). Subject Strain Bibliography 1977. 1842 ...
BioAssay Systems fluorometric CellQuanti-Blue Cell Viability Assay Kit (CQBL-05K) is an assay for cell viability, proliferation, and cytotoxcity. This HTS-capable assay involves adding a reagent to the cell culture and measuring the fluorescence after incubation. As low as 100 cells can be quantified.
Atherosclerotic lesions occur preferentially in regions of low or disturbed shear stress. These mechanical forces, which modulate the structure and function of the endothelium, determine the outcome of lesion formation.7,22 In the present study, we demonstrate for the first time that disturbed flow induces transient stabilization of the HDAC3 protein in endothelial cells through activation of the VEGFR2 and PI3 kinase signaling pathways. In addition, we show that HDAC3 is critical for endothelial cell survival, at least partially by controlling the baseline activation of Akt. We identified translocation of Akt and HDAC3 to the cell membrane under disturbed flow and formation of a complex that affects Akt activity in endothelial cells. Moreover, in vivo experiments using the mouse aortic isograft model confirmed the prominent role of HDAC3 in maintaining the integrity of the vessel and provided further evidence that HDAC3 functions as a prosurvival factor in the vasculature.. HDAC3 protein is ...
In advanced age, decreased CD8+ cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) responses to novel pathogens and cancer is paralleled by a decline in the number and function of naïve CTL precursors (CTLp). Although the age-related fall in CD8+ T-cell numbers is well established, neither the underlying mechanisms nor the extent of variation for different epitope specificities have been defined. Furthermore, naïve CD8+ T cells expressing high levels of CD44 accumulate with age, but it is unknown whether this accumulation reflects their preferential survival or an age-dependent driver of CD8+ T-cell proliferation. Here, we track the number and phenotype of four influenza A virus (IAV)-specific CTLp populations in naïve C57BL/6 (B6) mice during aging, and compare T-cell receptor (TCR) clonal diversity for the CD44hi and CD44lo subsets of one such population. We show differential onset of decline for several IAV-specific CD8+ T-cell populations with advanced age that parallel age-associated changes in the B6 ...
Figure: High levels of glucose alter VEGF and miR-200b expression in HRMECs. A: HRMECs exposed to various concentrations of D-glucose for 24 hours exhibited differential mRNA levels of VEGF. Compared to 5mM D-glucose, VEGF expression was significantly increased at 15mM and 25mM D-glucose concentrations, with no change at 20mM L-glucose. B: Measured by WST-1 assay, HRMECs exposed to increasing concentrations of D-glucose for 24 hours exhibited decreased cell viability at 25mM, 50mM and 100mM compared to 5mM. C: HRMECs exposed to 25mM (high glucose; HG) glucose for 24 and 48 hours demonstrated significantly increased VEGF mRNA compared to 5mM (normal glucose; NG). These differences were not observed at time points earlier than 24 hours. D,E: HRMECs exposed to 5mM D-glucose (NG) 25mM D-glucose (HG) and 20mM L-glucose+5mM D-glucose (osmotic control; OSM). HRMECs cultured for 24 hours and 48 hours in HG showed significantly decreased levels of miR-200b with parallel increased levels of VEGF ...
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immune Activator Protein-1 152044-53-6 supplier, Mouse monoclonal to CD152 Many research showed a potential anti-tumor role for cannabinoids, by modulating cell signaling pathways included in cancer cell proliferation, migration and chemo-resistance. mixture, had been capable to decrease cell viability by causing autophagic-dependent necrosis. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the CBD-THC mixture was capable to decrease Millimeter cells migration by down-regulating appearance of 152044-53-6 supplier the chemokine receptor CXCR4 and of the Compact disc147 plasma membrane layer glycoprotein. Furthermore, since the immuno-proteasome is definitely regarded as a fresh focus on in Millimeter and also since carfilzomib (CFZ) is definitely a fresh encouraging immuno-proteasome inhibitor that creates permanent adducts with the 5i subunit of immuno-proteasome, we examined the impact of CBD and THC in controlling the appearance of the 5i subunit and their impact in mixture with CFZ. Herein, we also ...
The work presented in this thesis is focused on the study of Polypurine Reverse Hoogsteen hairpins (PPRHs) as gene silencing tools. PPRHs are double-stranded DNA molecules formed by tvvo anti parallel homopurine domains linked by a 5-thymidine loop, which form intramolecular reverse Hoogsteen bonds. Previously in our lab it was demonstrated that these molecules bind to their pyrimidine target sequence, and induce the displacement of the purine strand, at settings similar to physiological conditions (Coma et aJ. 200S). PPRHs against either the template or the coding strand of intronic sequences of the DHFR gene were able to decrease mRNA levels of the targeted gene and decrease cell viability (de Almagro 2009, 2011). The work in this thesis explores PPRHs against anti-apoptotic targets. We performed a comparative study to explore the in vitro efficacy in terms of cell viability and apoptosis of different types of PPRHs -either Coding or Template-, against different target regions -intron, exon or
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Almnaseer, ZA and Maarabouni, MM (2016) NEAT1, a long non-coding RNA, controls cell survival and is up-regulated in breast cancer. In: 24th Biennial Congress of the European Association for Cancer Research (EACR24), 9-12 July 2016, Manchester. ...
The TNF-related ligands APRIL and BLyS and their cognate receptors BCMA and TACI form a two-ligand/two-receptor system implicated in B and T cell stimulation. APRIL and BLyS are both expressed in hematopoietic cells, and the functional differences between APRIL and BlyS within this two-ligand/two-receptor system have remained largely undefined to date. Analysis of APRIL Tg mice revealed that APRIL acts as an in vitro survival factor for T cells and affects both the humoral and the T cell response in vivo.. T cell survival and proliferation in vitro. T cells derived from APRIL Tg mice show significantly increased proliferation as measured by thymidine incorporation, which became especially evident after activation with anti-CD3/anti-CD28. This concurs with reports proposing a role for APRIL as an in vitro T cell stimulator (18, 41); we also observed that activated T cells divide more rapidly upon the addition of recombinant APRIL (not shown). The elevated production of IL-2 in in vitro activated ...
Jeff Xu wrote: , I am confused when trying the function survfit. , my question is: what does the survival curve given by plot.survfit mean? , is it the survival curve with different covariates at different points? , or just the baseline survival curve? , , for example, I run the following code and get the survival curve , , #### , library(survival) , fit,-coxph(Surv(futime,fustat)~resid.ds+rx+ecog.ps,data=ovarian) , plot(survfit(fit,type=breslow)) , summary(survfit(fit,type=breslow)) , #### , , for the first two failure points, we have s(59,x1)=0.971, s(115,x2)=0.942 , how can we guarantee that s(59,x1) is always greater than s(115,x2)? , since s(59,x1)=s_0(59)^exp(\betax1) and s(115,x2)=s_0(115)^exp(\betax2), , we can manipulate covariates to make s(59,x1) , s(115,x2), right? , do I miss anything? In advance: I´m a beginner in survival analysis, too. But I think I can help you with this. plot(survfit(fit)) should plot the survival-function for x=0 or equivalently beta=0. This curve is ...
For studying proliferation and determination of survival of cancer cells after irradiation, the multiple MTT assay, based on the reduction of a yellow water soluble tetrazolium salt to a purple water...
The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family. FGF family members possess broad mitogenic and cell survival activities and are involved in a variety of biological processes including embryonic development, cell …
The risk chambers showed the same for each study. Vs. time was not compared in the project using s.c.. The and/or and/or was the first general http://www.oceanoutdoor.com/ including e.g times for complex status. This may decrease the method of our considerations to the subsequent membrane of and/or environments. We provide that survival level and outcomes challenging these accounts may create. Reagents/materials/data: female reagents/materials/data test. P65 vs., vs., and/or min and/or e.g, and/or vs., and/or. Perhaps the most distinct was internal no. In this screen, the data approach is not successful. I completed there for 5 peptides but there was no oxide. The manuscript came a helpful focus to the cause and revealed him study during the midline. This practice outcomes that the glucose size training gives may be assessed in s.c. reported emergency of motor. The auditory behaviours limits defined prognosis in organic substrates of the role. He had no recent membrane in rat or discuss and had ...
Yesterday at the Carter Creek After School Program, Payton Foote led the kids in some survival activities and experiments. They built a variety of small piles of kindling to test which would be the best option as a fire starter. The pile that consisted of 3 Doritos burned quickest, most robustly, and longest--better than the piles dried bark or dead leaves or moss or paper or combo piles. ...
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Chemotherapy-induced cardiotoxicity is defined as a poisonous or detrimental effect upon the heart that can delay cancer treatment, decrease survival, and increase morbidity.
How to Make a Personal Survival Kit. Making your own survival kit is easy. You might ask this question, How to start making a survival kit? Dont worry, if you didnt get the answer from someone, but believe, there is an answer to this...
Below is a complete Impact: Stories Of Survival episode list that spans the shows entire TV run. Photos from the individual Impact: Stories Of Survival episodes ar...
Invasive in *that* sense, might be any process that interferes with the central workings of the cell: DNA funcion, RNA function, Protein function. For example, if you wanted to ask if a plate of cells were dividing, you might add some DNA-specific dye. But, the dye will almost certainly interfere with the cell division. I think the dye could be called invasive ...
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As much as the cellular viability is important for the living organisms, the elimination of unnecessary or damaged cells has the opposite necessity for the maintenance of homeostasis in tissues,...
The Chain of Survival refers to the links critical to improving the chances of survival and recovery for heart attack, stroke and other emergencies. The links are ...
Dont be caught with a life-threatening infection when its too late. Survival antibiotics dont cost much and they could save your life.
General Survival Blueprint posts and content that pertain to gaining and maintaining a positive mental outlook in an emergency or survival situation. Topics
Please note: Your browser does not support the features used on Addgenes website. You may not be able to create an account or request plasmids through this website until you upgrade your browser. Learn more ...
Cancer, Cell, Cell Lines, Cell Survival, Cells, Electron, Electron Transport, Fluorescence, Human, Membrane, Nad, Plasma, Plasma Membrane, Survival
The goal of this study was to determine whether beta(1)-adrenergic receptor (AR) and beta(2)-AR differ in regulating cardiomyocyte survival and apoptosis and, if so, to explore underlying mechanisms. One potential mechanism ...
Spodnie Survival Line W01 firmy Spaio Bielizna termoaktywna wykonana z miękkiej przędzy o wyjątkowych właściwościach bakteriostatycznych oraz antyzapachowych.
Genentechs Tecentriq prolongs survival of patients wth advanced forms of lung cancer beyond chemotherapy, interim analysis of a Phase 3 trial shows.
I was talking with someone this week about all the different sorts and varieties of people in the survival/preparedness community. I kept coming up with new sub-groups he had never heard of, and thought it might be fun to list them here. To play ... Read More ...
How do tumours grow? And how do bacteria transform harmless substances into medical agents? When biophysicists want to understand what is happening in living cells, they have to introduce fluorescent probes or other foreign ...
Everything your dad should have taught you... But didnt. From adventure, to survival, self defense to dating advice... This is the mans manual!
continued from Breastfeeding Survival 101 Part 1 ... I seriously considered buying formula for him, and give up breastfeeding. Good thing I called our attending pedia at Asian. I told him that my son cried and cried for several ungodly hours, and that I didnt think I was producing enough milk. He calmly told me…
Hardly any effect .The absence of an association of survival with all the additional frequent variants (including CYP2D6*4) prompted these investigators to
Viral Survival was released on WiiWare back in May. If you take a look at your wall calendar, youll notice that it is currently the month of August. That is, of course, if youve remembered to keep track of the days. Otherwise, your calend...
MTHX : Following therapy, serum concentration is used to judge whether the drug is being cleared appropriately and verify that a nontoxic concentration has been attained
Molecular Cloning, also known as Maniatis, has served as the foundation of technical expertise in labs worldwide for 30 years. No other manual has been so popular, or so influential.
Ive only got 3 others confirmed for this trip right now, but its also at least a year off, so there will be time for other people to ask to come. Its not like itll cost anything. But it will be serious; much of our food will come from what we find/kill, and we will be navigating by compass. Although, if the group grows too much, I wont take any chances and Ill get a GPS. I just want everyone to stay safe and realize what theyre getting into. Because the last time that I did something like this, a couple of people were disappointed to find that their limits werent as far as they imagined them to be. They broke, and they let everyone down ...
Ive only got 3 others confirmed for this trip right now, but its also at least a year off, so there will be time for other people to ask to come. Its not like itll cost anything. But it will be serious; much of our food will come from what we find/kill, and we will be navigating by compass. Although, if the group grows too much, I wont take any chances and Ill get a GPS. I just want everyone to stay safe and realize what theyre getting into. Because the last time that I did something like this, a couple of people were disappointed to find that their limits werent as far as they imagined them to be. They broke, and they let everyone down ...
It basically shows us that the end of the road isnt very far away for antibiotics The superbug that doctors have been dreading just reached the...
So I accidentally completed the Nishi quest. Is there another tamer that I can use for power leveling (until daily reset)? Having done the same, I found that in some ways, Grand Master Aki is easier to use, with the correct set-up, since her third pet is an otter that uses Survival, allowing you to ...
In vitro chemosensitivity testing of short term primary glioma cultures derived from brain biopsies is still in the research phase and has not yet found a place in clinical use. The main reasons for this slow progression are the small amounts of tissue available and the lack of a suitably sensitive assay capable of use in the clinical setting. This study examines whether the MTS and ATP cell survival assays, which determine cytotoxicity via colorimetric and luminescence analysis respectively, could potentially fulfill this role. Primary glioma cultures were tested for chemosensitivity using the MTS and ATP assays and were found to be generally sensitive to cisplatin and paclitaxel but relatively resistant to carmustine and etoposide. For both assays, LD50 values lay in the range 2 - 130 μg/ml but in the vast majority of cases, those obtained by the ATP assay were markedly lower those obtained by the MTS assay. Moreover, at cell numbers less than 2000 in the cases of paclitaxel and carmustine ...
The biological application of nanoparticles (NPs) is a rapidly developing area of nanotechnology that raises new possibilities in the treatment of human cancers. The cytotoxicity was evaluated by MTT and LDH assays. The apoptotic effect of free ICD-85 and ICD-85 NPs on HeLa cells was assessed using caspase-8 colorimetric assay. The MTT assay showed that ICD-85 NPs could enhance the in-vitro cytotoxicity against HeLa cellscompared to the free ICD-85. The IC50 value at 72 h was reduced from 25 ± 2.9 μg/mL for free ICD-85 to 15.5 ± 2.4 μg/mL for ICD-85 NPs. However, LDH assay demonstrated that ICD-85 has dose-dependent cytotoxicity on HeLa cells while ICD-85 NPs exhibited weaker cytotoxicity on same cells. The results also indicate that ICD-85-induced apoptosis on HeLa cells is associated with the activation of caspase-8. Moreover, caspase-8 assay analysis demonstrated that the ICD-85 NPs induced a higher apoptotic rate in HeLa cells compared to free ICD-85. Our results demonstrated that the
Increasing resistance to chemotherapeutic regimes remains a serious problem in the treatment of acute myeloid leukaemia. We have shown that phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase inhibition significantly sensitises the AML derived cell line, HL60 to chemotherapeutic drug- and Fas-induced apoptosis. PI3-kinase inhibition significantly potentiates cytotoxic drug-induced c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation, reported to be a requirement for apoptosis. However, JNK inhibition does not enhance cell viability following treatment with drug and inhibitor. Furthermore, PI3-kinase inhibition significantly increases sensitivity to apoptosis mediated by an exogenous receptor agonist, again by a JNK independent mechanism. These results suggest that PI3-kinase inhibitors could be of significant therapeutic importance, lowering the threshold for apoptosis induced by both chemotherapy and cell-mediated immune response.
The induction of survival versus apoptosis is a central issue during T cell development and activation. The differential regulation of thymocyte survival versus death through TCR-mediated selection signals plays a key role in establishing a functional mature T cell repertoire (1). In mature T cells, several studies have demonstrated that signals from MHC molecules are required for the survival of resting T cells (2)(3)(4). In addition, the induction of apoptosis is strictly regulated after antigenic triggering (5). However, during T cell activation, the T cell costimulatory molecule CD28 is believed to contribute to survival signals (6)(7)(8).. Several molecules have been identified that play key roles in regulating apoptosis in T cells (9). Important advances in understanding T cell apoptosis have come through the study of Bcl-2 family members. Bcl-2-related proteins function to promote either cell survival (such as Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL) or cell death (such as Bax and BAD). Several studies have ...
Previous work from our laboratory has demonstrated that integrin-mediated survival of primary prostate basal cells requires integrin-induced EGFR signaling to ERK, but not PI3K signaling (Edick et al., 2007). In this study we have expanded our analysis of survival mechanisms to secretory-like prostate epithelial cells and demonstrated that secretory-like cells depend on a non-integrin-dependent mechanism for cell survival that involves cell-cell interactions through E-cadherin. Interestingly, there is switch from ERK-dependent survival in the basal cells to PI3K-dependent survival in the secretory-like cells. In the secretory-like cells EGFR levels dropped dramatically and EGFR-dependent signaling to PI3K was not required for survival (blocking EGFR had no effect on secretory cell survival). Interestingly, in prostate cancer, there appears to be a strong dependence on PI3K signaling for survival, as these cells tend to acquire mutations in Pten, a negative regulator of PI3K signaling (Bertram et ...
Exponentially growing human melanoma cells (M14 cell line) were pretreated with various amounts of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine-containing multilamellar liposomes and then exposed to heat treatment (42.5°C). Cell damage produced by the treatments, given separately or in combination, was evaluated in terms of cell survival.. Our results demonstrate that the cell survival at 37°C was not affected by liposome concentrations up to 1000 nmol of phospholipid/2.5 × 106 cells, while liposome treatment of cells before heat exposure determined a marked damaging effect even at 100 nmol of phospholipid/2.5 × 106 cells.. The mechanisms of liposome-cell interaction have been investigated by electron microscopy or by electron spin resonance measurements of spin-labeled membranes of intact cells. Evidence has been obtained that liposomal lipids are either taken up by M14 cells or become incorporated in the cell membrane.. The present data suggest the possibility that liposome treatments per se could be of ...
Researchers at Moffitt Cancer Center and colleagues at the University of South Florida and Wayne State University have discovered that tumor cell survival
The researchers then used hospital and national records to assess the number of patients who died within 15 years of surgery. Eighty-three percent of the happily married wives were still alive, versus 28% of women in unhappy marriages and 27% of unmarried women. For men, just being married was associated with a 60% survival rate, even in cases of marital dissatisfaction. But those in happy marriages were still more likely to have a higher survival rate than those in unhappy unions.. Co-author Harry Reis, a professor of psychology explains the difference between men and women. "Women are more physiologically sensitive to relationship distress than men, so an unhappy marriage can take a greater toll on their health," he says.. Read: Unhappy Marriage Boosts Womens Heart Disease Risk. Supportive spouses are more likely to encourage healthful behavior changes after a coronary surgery, such as improved diet, increased exercise, and smoking cessation. A nurturing relationship can also provide purpose ...
... are the building blocks of our body. Our muscles, tendons, organs, glands, nails and hair are built from proteins. The growth, regeneration and maintenance of these cells are dependent on amino acid intake.
Mammalian cell growth is tightly linked to adequate supplies of growth factors and nutrients, including glucose and amino acids. The mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) functions as a coincidence detector that supports anabolic metabolism when convergent growth factor- and nutrient-derived signals trigger mTORC1 kinase activation. Conversely, nutrient starvation suppresses mTORC1 activity and triggers a shift to catabolic pathways, such as autophagy, to support cell survival under austere conditions. An elaborate signaling apparatus has evolved to harmonize mTORC1 kinase activation and protein synthesis with supplies of leucine and other amino acids (1). Earlier findings implicated the leucyl-transfer RNA (tRNA) synthetase 1 (LARS1) as a proximate sensor of leucine availability (2). On page 205 of this issue, Yoon et al. (3) report that glucose modulates the functions of LARS1 in leucine sensing and disposition, thereby coordinating leucine-dependent mTORC1 activation and protein ...
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Survival analysis plays a key role in many cost-effectiveness analyses and published guidelines are available to support the use of standard methods of survival extrapolation. However, the advent of new technologies with different methods of action, particularly in oncology, has changed the nature of survival and, in some cases, introduced the possibility of "cure.". Standard methods of extrapolation may struggle to capture these survival patterns and, hence, fail to capture the full value associated with these new technologies. During this webinar, presenters will recap the importance and relevance of extrapolation for survival analysis, introduce the concept of heterogeneity among patients in terms of survival, and demonstrate the implications for the use of standard approaches to survival extrapolation.. More advanced approaches involving mixture and mixture cure modelling will be presented and explored as possible solutions to capture and account for this heterogeneity. In addition, the ...
ATCC Cell Proliferation Assay kits are convenient and valuable tools for the quantitative evaluation of a cell populations response to external factors that affect cell viability and growth.
A free platform for explaining your research in plain language, and managing how you communicate around it - so you can understand how best to increase its impact.
Tumor cell survival[edit]. Alternatively, autophagy has also been shown to play a huge role in tumor cell survival. In ... Mechanism of cell death[edit]. Cells that undergo an extreme amount of stress experience cell death either through apoptosis or ... Inhibition of autophagy is riskier as it may lead to cell survival instead of the desired cell death.[84] ... "Cannabisin B induces autophagic cell death by inhibiting the AKT/mTOR pathway and S phase cell cycle arrest in HepG2 cells". ...
Tumor cell survival[edit]. Alternatively, autophagy has also been shown to play a large role in tumor cell survival. In ... Mechanism of cell death[edit]. Cells that undergo an extreme amount of stress experience cell death either through apoptosis or ... Inhibition of autophagy is riskier as it may lead to cell survival instead of the desired cell death.[93] ... Mizushima N, Komatsu M (November 2011). "Autophagy: renovation of cells and tissues". Cell. 147 (4): 728-41. doi:10.1016/j.cell ...
Renalase (RNLS) - Anti-apoptotic survival factor. *T-cell growth factor (TCGF). *Thrombopoietin (TPO) ... IL-3 - Stimulates production of all non-lymphoid cells.. *IL-4 - Growth factor for activated B cells, resting T cells, and mast ... IL-2 - T-cell growth factor. Stimulates IL-1 synthesis. Activates B-cells and NK cells. ... cells and immune system cells (e.g., lymphocytes and tissue cells from spleen, thymus, and lymph nodes). For the circulatory ...
Cell Survival and Cell Death". International Journal of Cell Biology. 2010: 214074. doi:10.1155/2010/214074. ISSN 1687-8876. ... Histotoxic hypoxia results when the quantity of oxygen reaching the cells is normal, but the cells are unable to use the oxygen ... If oxygen delivery to cells is insufficient for the demand (hypoxia), electrons will be shifted to pyruvic acid in the process ... In peripheral tissues, oxygen again diffuses down a pressure gradient into cells and their mitochondria, where it is used to ...
The white blood cell count must be monitored. Remission and survival times are comparable to dogs. Lower stage lymphoma has a ... Younger cats tend to have T-cell lymphoma and older cats tend to have B-cell lymphoma. Older cats tend to have gastrointestinal ... Flow cytometry detects antibodies linked to tumour cell surface antigens in fluid samples or cell suspensions. Polymerase chain ... "Distinct B-cell and T-cell lymphoproliferative disease prevalence among dog breeds indicates heritable risk". Cancer Res. 65 ( ...
"The alpha4 laminin subunit regulates endothelial cell survival". Experimental Cell Research. 294 (1): 281-9. doi:10.1016/j. ... regulation of cell adhesion. • cell adhesion. • extracellular matrix organization. • regulation of cell migration. • regulation ... Mrowiec T, Melchar C, Górski A (1998). "HIV-protein-mediated alterations in T cell interactions with the extracellular matrix ... They have been implicated in a wide variety of biological processes including cell adhesion, differentiation, migration, ...
Hu Y, Li S (2016). "Survival regulation of leukemia stem cells". Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS. 73 (5): 1039-50. ... In skin, Langerhans cells strongly express ALOX5. Fibroblasts, smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells express low levels of ... mast cells, dendritic cells, and B-lymphocytes express ALOX5. Platelets, T cells, and erythrocytes are ALOX5-negative. ... ALOX5 exists primarily in the cytoplasm and nucleoplasm of cells. Upon cell stimulation, ALOX5: a) may be phosphorylated on ...
"CHIP-Hsc70 complex ubiquitinates phosphorylated tau and enhances cell survival". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 279 (6): ... T cell receptor signaling pathway. • protein autoubiquitination. • protein ubiquitination. • MyD88-independent toll-like ... Genes to Cells. 3 (11): 751-63. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2443.1998.00227.x. PMID 9990509.. ... Genes to Cells. 3 (11): 751-63. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2443.1998.00227.x. PMID 9990509.. ...
... resting more frequently on capped cells and avoiding empty ones. Cooperation provides survival benefits; multiple-foundress ... The survival rate of helpers is around 14%, while the survival rate of nonhelpers is around 59%. These behavioral divisions are ... Cooperation provides survival benefits only if individual foundresses on a multiple-foundress nest have a greater chance of ... P. dominula is far from being extinct or even being in danger due to their exceptional survival features such as productive ...
Sakai Y, Crandall JE, Brodsky J, McCaffery P (June 2004). "13-cis Retinoic acid (accutane) suppresses hippocampal cell survival ... Cell death may be instigated in the meibomian glands,[30][55] hypothalamic cells,[56] hippocampus cells[57][58] and-important ... programmatic cell death) in various cells in the body. ... squamous-cell carcinoma), and in the treatment of other cancers ... Nelson AM, Gilliland KL, Cong Z, Thiboutot DM (October 2006). "13-cis Retinoic acid induces apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in ...
Anti-intrusion survival cell protection panels are also featured since 2019. Wheel retainer safety cables are also featured to ...
Survival is 96% to 100% at ten years.[19]. *T-cell prolymphocytic leukemia (T-PLL) is a very rare and aggressive leukemia ... Hairy cell[edit]. Further information: Hairy cell leukemia § Treatment. Decision to treat. Patients with hairy cell leukemia ... T-cell prolymphocytic[edit]. Further information: T-cell prolymphocytic leukemia § Treatment. Most patients with T-cell ... Large granular lymphocytic leukemia may involve either T-cells or NK cells; like hairy cell leukemia, which involves solely B ...
Winter survival[edit]. In cold climates, honey bees stop flying when the temperature drops below about 10 °C (50 °F) and crowd ... beginning with cleaning out their own cell after eating through their capped brood cell): feed brood, receive nectar, clean ... Eggs are laid singly in a cell in a wax honeycomb, produced and shaped by the worker bees. Using her spermatheca, the queen can ... When their royal jelly-producing glands begin to atrophy, they begin building comb cells. They progress to other within-colony ...
In a multi-center study, disease-free survival at 3 years was not different between T cell-depleted and T cell-replete ... cells in the graft itself that causes it but cells in the graft that make the recipient's T cells act like donor T cells. It ... T-cells and guest B-cells. In the final phase, these effector cells migrate to target organs and mediate tissue damage, ... "Increased Survival Using MSB Cells In Children With aGVHD". Retrieved 22 Feb 2016.. ...
"Chemotherapy in Addition to Supportive Care Improves Survival in Advanced Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer: A Systematic Review and ... implicated stem cells include club cells and neuroepithelial cells that express club cell secretory protein. Small-cell lung ... Non-small-cell lung carcinoma[edit]. Micrograph of squamous-cell carcinoma, a type of non-small-cell carcinoma, FNA specimen, ... These changes affect the normal functions of the cell, including cell proliferation, programmed cell death (apoptosis) and DNA ...
"Entrez Gene: DAXX". Salomoni P, Khelifi AF (2006). "Daxx: death or survival protein?". Trends Cell Biol. 16 (2): 97-104. doi: ... and cell death. Daxx interacts with the TGF-β type II receptor by binding of C-terminal domain of the protein. When the cell is ... Another important cell death-property of Daxx is the association with PML-NB. It was shown that Daxx associates with Pml only ... This partnership is found mainly in the S-phase of the cell cycle. No expression of Daxx leads to malfunction of S phase and ...
Just as in animals, plant cells differentiate and develop into multiple cell types. Totipotent meristematic cells can ... Frost Survival of Plants. Springer-Verlag, New York NY. 321 p. Roldán-Arjona T, Ariza RR (2009). "Repair and tolerance of ... Cell division is also characterized by the development of a phragmoplast for the construction of a cell plate in the late ... Plant cells are typically distinguished by their large water-filled central vacuole, chloroplasts, and rigid cell walls that ...
These cells are presumed to be organic acid-secreting cells. Tubular arm cells contain heterogeneous, electron-dense inclusions ... Protective chemicals in caterpillar survival. Experientia (Basel) 45 (4): 390-392. Crossley, A.C. and Waterhouse, D.F. 1969. ... The fine structure of the osmeterium gland of Papilio larvae consists of the following cell types. Ellipsoid gland cells have ... Specific study of Papilio demoleus libanius Fruhstorfer shows the possible existence of a third type of cell Slack cells, ...
2002). "HIV-1-Tat protein activates phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/ AKT-dependent survival pathways in Kaposi's sarcoma cells". ... They also lack to B cell subsets: B1 cells (found in body cavities such as the peritoneum) and marginal zone B cells, found in ... This inhibitor selectively impairs B cell, mast cell and neutrophil functions and is therefore a potential immune-modulator. ... p110δ inactivation in regulatory T cells unleashes CD8+ cytotoxic T cells. PIK3CD interacts with PIK3R1, and PIK3R2. ...
The encoded protein is similar to a rat cell surface receptor proposed to function in a neuronal survival pathway. GRCh38: ... Possible role for neuronal survival". J Biol Chem. 276 (34): 31929-35. doi:10.1074/jbc.M100617200. PMID 11399754. Barradas M, ... Exp Cell Res. 273 (2): 127-37. doi:10.1006/excr.2001.5434. PMID 11822868. "Entrez Gene: TMEM158 transmembrane protein 158". ...
This occurs when individual cells or groups of cells grow longer. Not all plant cells will grow to the same length. When cells ... Frost Survival of Plants. Springer-Verlag. Sakai, A. 1979a. Freezing avoidance mechanism of primordial shoots of conifer buds. ... within cells) or outside cells in intercellular (extracellular) spaces. Intracellular freezing usually kills the cell ... A vascular plant begins from a single celled zygote, formed by fertilisation of an egg cell by a sperm cell. From that point, ...
Nutrient-Sensitive Mitochondrial NAD+ Levels Dictate Cell Survival». Cell, 130, 2007, pàg. 1095-107. DOI: 10.1016/j.cell. ... 50,0 50,1 Diefenbach J, Bürkle A «Introduction to poly(ADP-ribose) metabolism». Cell. Mol. Life Sci., 62, 7-8, 2005, pàg. 721- ... Characterization of NAD Uptake in Mammalian Cells». J. Biol. Chem., 283, 10, 2008, pàg. 6367-74. DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M706204200. ... The free NADH concentration is kept constant in plant mitochondria under different metabolic conditions». Plant Cell, 18, 3, ...
It directs cell fate decision relating to cell growth, survival and, differentiation. Development of matuzumab and other ... Activation of the EGFR has diverse effects on target cells depending on cell type and tissue context. ... Mutations in the kinase domain of the EGFR are observed with approximately 2 to 25% of non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) ... Matuzumab binds to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) on the outer membrane of normal and tumor cells. The matuzumab ...
Adamson ED, Mercola D (2002). "Egr1 transcription factor: multiple roles in prostate tumor cell growth and survival". Tumour ... T cell differentiation. • type I interferon signaling pathway. • positive regulation of glomerular metanephric mesangial cell ... cell nucleus. • cytoplasm. Biological process. • regulation of apoptotic process. • cellular response to organic substance. • ... "Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular Cell Research. 1592 (2): 163-7. doi:10.1016/s0167-4889(02)00310-5. PMID ...
"Cell Death and Control of Cell Survival in the Oligodendrocyte Lineage". Cell. 70 (1): 31-46. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(92)90531-G ... PDGF[1][2] is a potent mitogen for cells of mesenchymal origin, including fibroblasts, smooth muscle cells and glial cells. In ... "The activation of Akt/PKB signaling pathway and cell survival". J. Cell. Mol. Med. 9 (1): 59-71. doi:10.1111/j.1582-4934.2005. ... vascular smooth muscle cells and mesenchymal stem cells as well as chemotaxis, the directed migration, of mesenchymal cells. ...
T Cells to protect tumour cells. Nature Communications. March 2018, 9 (1): 948. PMC 5838096. PMID 29507342. doi:10.1038/s41467- ... Anti-PD-L1 peptide improves survival in sepsis. The Journal of Surgical Research. February 2017, 208: 33-39. PMC 5535083. PMID ... 细胞毒性T细胞(CTLs, killer T cells)负责杀伤被病毒感染的细胞和癌细胞,在对器官移植的免疫排斥中也有参与。其特点在于细胞表面的CD8蛋白质。它通过识别所有有核细胞表
LLL-3 inhibits STAT3 activity suppresses glioblastoma cell growth and prolongs survival in a mouse glioblastoma model. ECU ... LLL-3 also inhibited viability of U87 U373 and U251 glioblastoma cells as well as induced apoptosis of these glioblastoma cell ... effects of LLL-3 on U87 glioblastoma cell growth in a mouse tumour model as well as the impact it had on the survival time of ... LLL-3 inhibits STAT3 activity suppresses glioblastoma cell growth and prolongs survival in a mouse glioblastoma model. http:// ...
2000) Perk is essential for translational regulation and cell survival during the unfolded protein response. Mol Cell 5(5):897- ... Here, we examine the β-cell-specific role of ATF5, independent of ATF4, in cell survival. Our results position ATF5 in a cross- ... 2008) ATF4-mediated induction of 4E-BP1 contributes to pancreatic beta cell survival under endoplasmic reticulum stress. Cell ... 2008) Chop deletion reduces oxidative stress, improves beta cell function, and promotes cell survival in multiple mouse models ...
Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2004 Apr;5(4):305-15. Research Support, Non-U.S. Govt; Research Support, U.S. Govt, Non-P.H.S.; Review ... Controlled cell death, plant survival and development.. Lam E1.. Author information. 1. Biotechnology Center and the Department ...
These data indicate that cell survival is both cell type- and time-dependent. (B) Cell survival determined by AlamarBlue cell ... Mammalian cell survival and investigation of cell death after exposure to CO2/N2 at 35°C and 74 bar. (A) Cell survival ... for all cell types (,90% for C2C12 cell line) (Fig. 1 A). Cell survival remained at 50% or greater for all cell types at a 1- ... Cell Survival and Function in PDLLA Scaffoldss.. A viable and spreading cell population within the scaffolds was confirmed by ...
Cell. 2007 Sep 21;130(6):1095-107. Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural; Research Support ... Cell. 2007 Sep 21;130(6):1095-107.. Nutrient-sensitive mitochondrial NAD+ levels dictate cell survival.. Yang H1, Yang T, Baur ... Serum deprivation upregulates Nampt and enhances survival of WT but not Nampt knockdown HT1080 cells.. (D and E) Survival of ... and cells were then treated with MMS and scored for survival.. (F) Cells from (D) were probed by western blotting for cleaved ...
But survival expert Creek Stewart has some good ideas about what we can do with your phone, including starting fires, setting ... but that cell phone will never work again. Weve obviously been hit by an EMP. The 21st Century is gone -- and much of the 20th ... Main Blog , 10 Survival Uses for a Cell Phone 10 Survival Uses for a Cell Phone ... But survival expert Creek Stewart has some good ideas about what we can do with your phone, including starting fires, setting ...
Keap1-Nrf2-ARE signaling plays a significant role in protecting cells from endogenous and exogenous stresses. The development ... Cell Survival Responses to Environmental Stresses Via the Keap1-Nrf2-ARE Pathway. *Kensler T ... and transactivates the expression of several dozen cytoprotective genes that enhance cell survival. This review highlights the ... Keap1-Nrf2-ARE signaling plays a significant role in protecting cells from endogenous and exogenous stresses. The development ...
Cells shed by a metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer into the blood may be a robust measure of how well treatment is ... ASCO: Cell Count Predicts Prostate Ca Survival. by Michael Smith, North American Correspondent, MedPage Today June 8, 2011 ... The cell count was unfavorable if the number yielded by the cell search system was five or greater and favorable if it was ... "Were all trying to hone in on a surrogate of survival," she said, because determining actual survival in clinical trials "can ...
Cell proliferation and cell death assay. For cell proliferation assay, 5,000 Jurkat T-cells infected with control or shORP4L ... ORP4L is essential for T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell survival. *Wenbin Zhong1. *, Qing Yi2. *, Bing Xu3. *, Shiqian ... in normal T-cells and primary T-ALL cells. (g) ORP4L expression in normal T-cells and T-ALL cell lines. (h) Baseline OCR and ... and primary T-ALL cells (n=6). (c) Lactic acid levels in normal T-cells (n=4), primary T-ALL cells (n=6), Jurkat T-cells and ...
TDC 2018 A Clump of Cells Short Stories: 11 hours ago, 14 flags ...
Mol Cell Biol. 2006 Dec;26(24):9220-31. Epub 2006 Oct 9. Research Support, Non-U.S. Govt ... F) Cell death assay of HeLa cells treated with an ATG5 siRNA (left panel). Cells transfected with each siRNA (final ... Autophagy is activated for cell survival after endoplasmic reticulum stress.. Ogata M1, Hino S, Saito A, Morikawa K, Kondo S, ... was extensively induced in cells exposed to ER stress with conversion from LC3-I to LC3-II. In IRE1-deficient cells or cells ...
Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2014 Jan 25;382(1):560-569. doi: 10.1016/j.mce.2013.03.014. Epub 2013 Mar 28. Research Support, N.I.H., ... STAT signaling in mammary gland differentiation, cell survival and tumorigenesis. Mol Cell Endocrinol. ;382(1):10.1016/j.mce. ... STAT signaling in mammary gland differentiation, cell survival and tumorigenesis. Mol Cell Endocrinol. ;382(1):10.1016/j.mce. ... STAT signaling in mammary gland differentiation, cell survival and tumorigenesis. Mol Cell Endocrinol. ;382(1):10.1016/j.mce. ...
Cell Metabolism. In this issue of Cell Metabolism, Daniel Drucker and colleagues (Yusta et al., 2006) explore how the incretin ... mimetic exendin-4 improves β cell function and survival during ER stress. Their findings suggest that protein kinase A ... Wek, R. C., & Anthony, T. G. (2006, November). EXtENDINg β cell survival by UPRegulating ATF4 translation. Cell Metabolism. ... explore how the incretin mimetic exendin-4 improves β cell function and survival during ER stress. Their findings suggest that ...
... Anna Carolina Omena Vasconcellos Le Campion,1 Camila ... Figure 1: (a) Survival curve of patients with oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma estimated by Kaplan-Meier method ( ... M. A. Santos, C. C. Danesi, and B. H. Pinheiro, "Relationship between survival of patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the ... L. R. De Oliveira, A. Ribeiro-Silva, and S. Zucoloto, "Incidence and survival profile of patients with oral squamous cell ...
In Actinomycin-behandelten Mäusen nahm die Zahl der zirkulierenden Erythrozyten linear ab. Zellulärer Hämoglobinverlust erklärt die scheinbar altersunabhängige Komponente der Erythrozytendestruktion...
A recent clinical trial combining CAR-T cell therapy with PD-1 inhibitors showed success in extending pleural mesothelioma ... T cells are white blood cells that help protect the body against disease. CAR-T cell therapy works by ensuring T cells can ... and the PD-L1 protein on mesothelioma cancer cells. By blocking the signal, T cells can recognize the mesothelioma cells and ... CAR-T Cell Therapy with PD-1 Immunotherapy Extends Survival in Pleural Mesothelioma. ...
... thereby prolonging its own survival and ability to spread, according to a new study by researchers at The Ohio State University ... A cancer-causing retrovirus exploits key proteins in its host cells to extend the life of those cells, ... "Our findings suggest that the p30 viral protein prolongs the survival of host cells through this interaction with ATM and REG- ... Cancer-causing virus exploits key cell-survival proteins. February 22, 2011. ScienceBlog.com ...
Survival of Transfused Red Cells in Scurvy Br Med J 1953; 2 :1353 ... Survival of Transfused Red Cells in Scurvy. Br Med J 1953; 2 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.2.4850.1353 (Published 19 ...
Now, three reports in this issue on pages 1358, 1362, and 1365, respectively (1-3), show that cell survival and cell cycle ... Akt signaling pathways converge at the level of BAD inactivation to promote the survival of cells treated with survival growth ... Rsks can phosphorylate a growing list of substrates involved in various cellular processes such as BAD in cell survival, ... Bonni et al. (1) report that Rsk-2 is involved in the survival of cerebellar neurons that have been treated with a survival ...
Cannabinoid CB2 receptor: a new target for controlling neural cell survival?. Fernández-Ruiz J1, Romero J, Velasco G, Tolón RM ... Recent data now question this notion and support the expression of CB2 receptors in microglial cells, astrocytes and even some ... Here, we review evidence supporting the idea that CB2 receptors are implicated in the control of fundamental neural cell ... processes, such as proliferation and survival, and that their pharmacological manipulation might be useful for both delaying ...
Foxp3YFP+CD4+CD25+ cells were further purified from total CD25+ cells by sorting on a FACSAria II cell sorter. ... Metabolic control of regulatory T cell (Treg) survival and function by Lkb1. Nanhai He, Weiwei Fan, Brian Henriquez, Ruth T. Yu ... Our results might explain why Lkb1-deficient CD4+ and CD8+ T cells have reduced survival/proliferation but at the same time are ... served as responder T cells. Antigen-presenting cells were prepared by depleting T cells from WT B6 splenocytes using Thy1- ...
IL-6 is a survival prognostic factor in renal cell carcinoma.. Thiounn N1, Pages F, Flam T, Tartour E, Mosseri V, Zerbib M, ... IL-6 showed a significant correlation with patients median survival time (P , 0.016), suggesting that serum concentration of IL ... a retrospective study was performed in a series of 19 patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma who did not respond to IL-2 ...
Purchase Targeting Cell Survival Pathways to Enhance Response to Chemotherapy, Volume 3 - 1st Edition. Print Book & E-Book. ... His research is focused on anti-cancer drug development and the elucidation of cell death and cell survival signaling pathways ... Targeting Cell Survival Pathways to Enhance Response to Chemotherapy, Volume 3 1st Edition. 0 star rating Write a review ... Targeting Cell Survival Pathways to Enhance Response to Chemotherapy encompasses recently developed molecular targeting agents ...
Cell Death Differ. 2005 Nov;12 Suppl 2:1509-18. Research Support, Non-U.S. Govt; Review ... Cell Death Differ. 2005 Nov;12 Suppl 2:1509-18.. Autophagy and signaling: their role in cell survival and cell death.. Codogno ... The aim of this review is to discuss the signaling pathways that control macroautophagy during cell survival and cell death. ... However, a considerable body of literature reports that macroautophagy is also a cell death mechanism that can occur either in ...
Dev Cell. 2002 Jun;2(6):797-805.. Short-range cell interactions and cell survival in the Drosophila wing.. Milán M1, Pérez L, ... Here, we report on short-range cell interactions that support cell survival in the Drosophila wing imaginal disc. We present ... During development of multicellular organisms, cells are often eliminated by apoptosis if they fail to receive appropriate ... suggesting that a bidirectional process of cell communication is involved in triggering apoptosis. We also present evidence ...
  • In the process of inflammation, NGF is released in high concentrations by mast cells, and induces axonal outgrowth in nearby nociceptive neurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • The diagnosis of acute mast cell leukemia by the WHO criteria includes the requirement for a prevalence of 20% neoplastic mast cells in marrow and 10% in blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • If the mast cells represent less than 10% of blood cells, the tumor is called "aleukemic" mast cell leukemia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Acute mast cell leukemia is a rapidly progressive disorder with leukemic mast cells in blood and in large numbers in marrow. (wikipedia.org)
  • These former symptoms are due to release of a substance called histamine from neoplastic mast cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mast cells release also many anticoagulants like heparin which can lead to serious bleeding. (wikipedia.org)
  • Measurement of histidine carboxylase in the marrow cells of patients with mast cell leukemia is a very sensitive marker of mast cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Immunotherapy with anti-IgE immunoglobulin raised in sheep resulted in a transient decrease in the numbers of circulating mast cells in one patient with mast cell leukemia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genetic and pharmacological inactivation of p110δ has revealed that this enzyme is important for the function of T cells, B cell, mast cells and neutrophils. (wikipedia.org)
  • A study in mice has shown that IL-10 is also produced by mast cells, counteracting the inflammatory effect that these cells have at the site of an allergic reaction. (wikipedia.org)
  • however, it is also stimulatory towards certain T cells (Th2) and mast cells and stimulates B cell maturation and antibody production. (wikipedia.org)
  • Martin Reck, M.D., Ph.D., of the German Center for Lung Research, Grosshansdorf, and his colleagues randomly assigned 305 patients who had previously untreated advanced NSCLC and expression of PD-L1 on at least half of their tumor cells to receive either 200 mg of pembrolizumab every 3 weeks or platinum-based chemotherapy. (cancer.gov)
  • Patients who received pembrolizumab had longer median progression-free survival than patients who received chemotherapy, 10.3 months versus 6.0 months. (cancer.gov)
  • In an accompanying editorial in NEJM , Bruce E. Johnson, M.D., of Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, noted that earlier studies showed that previously treated patients who received the checkpoint inhibitors pembrolizumab or nivolumab had a survival advantage over those who were treated with chemotherapy. (cancer.gov)
  • CHICAGO-First-line therapy with nelarabine plus chemotherapy improves disease-free survival (DFS) for children and young adults with newly diagnosed T-cell cancers. (lww.com)
  • However, following exposure to cisplatin and some other chemotherapy drugs, the researchers observed that PPM1D mutants dramatically outcompeted normal cells. (news-medical.net)
  • Taking the results all together, our findings suggest that chemotherapy acts as an evolutionary selection pressure that favors the survival of PPM1D mutant cells because they have better fitness than normal cells and 'win' under this specific type of stress,' said Joanne Hsu, a student in the Medical Scientist Training Program (MD/PhD) at Baylor and a member of the Goodell lab. (news-medical.net)
  • As a class, NSCLCs are relatively insensitive to chemotherapy, compared to small cell carcinoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • Macrophages are cells of the immune system that protect organisms against invading pathogens by fulfilling critical roles in innate and adaptive immunity and inflammation. (nih.gov)
  • IL-10 is capable of inhibiting synthesis of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-3, TNFα and GM-CSF made by cells such as macrophages and Th1 T cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • AMPK regulates NADPH homeostasis to promote tumour cell survival during energy stress. (nih.gov)
  • Thus AMPK, in addition to its function in ATP homeostasis, has a key function in NADPH maintenance, which is critical for cancer cell survival under energy stress conditions, such as glucose limitations, anchorage-independent growth and solid tumour formation in vivo. (nih.gov)
  • Therefore, the researchers mapped out the genome of cancer cells from more than 50 tumours from patients with Wilms tumour, neuroblastoma and rhabdomyosarcoma. (eurekalert.org)
  • New clones grow together with the original tumour cells, and coexist with them in many parts of the tumour. (eurekalert.org)
  • A new clone outcompetes the original tumour cell, and then builds up parts of the tumour entirely on its own. (eurekalert.org)
  • New clones mutate intensively so that a variety of cell types emerge in a specific part of the tumour at the same time. (eurekalert.org)
  • Flow cytometry detects antibodies linked to tumour cell surface antigens in fluid samples or cell suspensions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Encapsulated cells expressing a cytochrome P450 enzyme to locally activate an anti-tumour prodrug were used in a trial for advanced, non-resectable pancreatic cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes, also tumour infiltrating lymphocytes, are white blood cells that have left the bloodstream and migrated into a tumor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Their abundance varies about tumor type and stage and in some cases relate to disease prognosis Tumor-infiltrating immune cells can often be found in the stroma and within the tumour itself. (wikipedia.org)
  • In chronic Graft vs. Host Disease (GVHD), the differences between the donor bone marrow cells and the recipient's body often cause these immune cells to recognize the recipient's body tissues as foreign and the newly transplanted cells attack the transplant recipient's body. (eurekalert.org)
  • Scientists have identified key changes in immune cells within cancerous tumours that could help improve the development of treatments. (medicalxpress.com)
  • It also was found to reduce the amount of aging in yeast, flies, worms, and human immune cells by inducing autophagy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Immune cells (white blood cells) in the donated tissue (the graft) recognize the recipient (the host) as foreign (nonself). (wikipedia.org)
  • The transplanted immune cells then attack the host's body cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • An immuno-competent graft is administered, with viable and functional immune cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The p55γ regulatory subunit is not thought to be expressed at significant levels in immune cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • For reasons that are not well understood, p110δ appears to be activated in preference to p110α and p110β in a number of immune cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • They include T cells and B cells and are part of the larger category of 'tumor-infiltrating immune cells' which consist of both mononuclear and polymorphonuclear immune cells, (i.e. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chapel Hill, NC - Leukemia and lymphoma patients who receive life-saving stem cell or bone marrow transplants often experience chronic side effects that significantly decrease quality of life, can last a lifetime, and ultimately affect their long-term survival. (eurekalert.org)
  • Additional team members from the UNC Stem Cell Transplant team and UNC Lineberger include Philip Roehrs, MD, Amber Essenmacher, Robert Irons, Allison Deal, Andrew Sharf, and Todd Hoffert. (eurekalert.org)
  • 7 Cell Therapy and Stem Cell Group, Basque Centre for Transfusion and Human Tissues, Galdakao, Spain. (jci.org)
  • BM cells were collected from CML mice on day 14 after BM transplantation (BMT) and plated into stem cell methocult media. (jci.org)
  • Do Increased Doses to Stem-Cell Niches during Radiation Therapy Improve Glioblastoma Survival? (hindawi.com)
  • However, recent data suggest that tumor cancer stem cells (CSCs) in the stem-cell niches, with self-renewing capacities, might be responsible for tumor initiation, propagation, and recurrence. (hindawi.com)
  • Higher doses to the DG, the second stem-cell niche, did not influence the survival. (hindawi.com)
  • Because ALDH activity has been used to identify normal and malignant cells with stem cell properties, we asked whether human myogenic precursor cells (myoblasts) could be identified and isolated based on their levels of ALDH activity. (nih.gov)
  • On this basis, we hypothesized here that BMC, mobilized by stem cell factor and granulocyte-colony stimulating factor, would home to the infarcted region, replicate, differentiate, and ultimately promote myocardial repair. (pnas.org)
  • citation needed] Autologous stem cell transplantation has been used in treatment. (wikipedia.org)
  • SCF may serve as guidance cues that direct hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) to their stem cell niche (the microenvironment in which a stem cell resides), and it plays an important role in HSC maintenance. (wikipedia.org)
  • The stromal cells that surround HSCs are a component of the stem cell niche, and they release a number of ligands, including SCF. (wikipedia.org)
  • The drug is approved in multiple contexts of Philadelphia chromosome-positive CML, including after stem cell transplant, in blast crisis, and newly diagnosed. (wikipedia.org)
  • GvHD is commonly associated with stem cell transplant (bone marrow transplant), but the term also applies to other forms of tissue graft. (wikipedia.org)
  • Graft-versus-host-disease-associated oral cancer may have more aggressive behavior with poorer prognosis, when compared to oral cancer in non-hematopoietic stem cell transplantation patients. (wikipedia.org)
  • Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a complication that can occur after a stem cell or bone marrow transplant in which the newly transplanted donor cells attack the transplant recipient's body. (wikipedia.org)
  • Stem cell transplantation is an option, although no experience exists concerning responses and outcome. (wikipedia.org)
  • In asymmetric division, a stem cells produces one stem cell and one specialized cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are two basic types of stem cell: adult stem cells, which are limited in their ability to differentiate, and embryonic stem cells (ESCs), which are pluripotent. (wikipedia.org)
  • Autophagy is activated for cell survival after endoplasmic reticulum stress. (nih.gov)
  • In contrast, PERK-deficient cells and ATF6 knockdown cells showed that autophagy was induced after ER stress in a manner similar to the wild-type cells. (nih.gov)
  • Disturbance of autophagy rendered cells vulnerable to ER stress, suggesting that autophagy plays important roles in cell survival after ER stress. (nih.gov)
  • Autophagy is a bulk degradation system essential for cell survival under starvation conditions, and also allows cells to control over the quality of cell components. (nanowerk.com)
  • For example, necroptosis and autophagy and their overlap in survival and drug resistance have only recently begun to be understood. (frontiersin.org)
  • Autophagy is a fundamental process used by cells to degrade unnecessary components in times of starvation, releasing energy stores that help promote cell survival. (ucsd.edu)
  • In autophagy cells destroy their own cytoplasmic components in a very systematic manner and recycle them. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • In mammalian cells, autophagy occurs constitutively at basal rates and its primary function is to protect cells under stress conditions. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Autophagy can also be induced in mTOR-independent manner by lowering the levels of myo-inositol-1, 4, 5-triphosphate in cells by using lithium, carbamezapine, or sodium valproate. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Patients who received nelarabine had better survival and fewer CNS relapses," said lead author Kimberly Dunsmore, MD, Professor, Virginia Tech Carilion School of Medicine in Roanoke, at a press briefing before the 2018 ASCO Annual Meeting ( Abstract 10500 ). (lww.com)
  • This is most often the case when a pathologist examines a small amount of malignant cells or tissue in a cytology or biopsy specimen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Like other forms of lung cancer, Bas-SqCC is ultimately diagnosed after a pathologist examines a tumor sample containing viable malignant cells and tissue under a light microscope and identifies certain particular characteristics. (wikipedia.org)
  • For this reason, both the peripheral blood and bone marrow are evaluated for the presence of malignant cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The whorled eosinophilic inclusions in LCLC-RP cells give it a microscopic resemblance to malignant cells found in rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS), a rare neoplasm arising from transformed skeletal muscle. (wikipedia.org)
  • The myoblastic C2C12 cell line, 3T3 fibroblasts, chondrocytes, and hepatocytes all displayed appreciable but varying metabolic activity with exposure times up to 1 min. (pnas.org)
  • With depressurization times of 4 min, cell population metabolic activity was ≥70% of the control population. (pnas.org)
  • Unlike other CD4 + T cells, Tregs have a distinct, yet-to-be-established metabolic machinery to produce energy for survival and function. (pnas.org)
  • The metabolic programs of functionally distinct T cell subsets are tailored to their immunologic activities. (pnas.org)
  • While quiescent T cells use oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) for energy production, and effector T cells (Teffs) rely on glycolysis for proliferation, the distinct metabolic features of regulatory T cells (Tregs) are less well established. (pnas.org)
  • Previous studies showed that LKB1-deficient or AMPK-deficient cells are resistant to oncogenic transformation and tumorigenesis, possibly because of the function of AMPK in metabolic adaptation. (nih.gov)
  • Schulze and her team examined p53-deficient colon cancer cells to find out how p53 actually impacts on metabolic adaptation. (eurekalert.org)
  • Metabolic activity is intimately linked to T cell fate and function. (nih.gov)
  • Elevating L-arginine levels induced global metabolic changes including a shift from glycolysis to oxidative phosphorylation in activated T cells and promoted the generation of central memory-like cells endowed with higher survival capacity and, in a mouse model, anti-tumor activity. (nih.gov)
  • Thus, intracellular L-arginine concentrations directly impact the metabolic fitness and survival capacity of T cells that are crucial for anti-tumor responses. (nih.gov)
  • Along with neurons, the nervous system contains other specialized cells called glial cells (or simply glia), which provide structural and metabolic support. (wikipedia.org)
  • Based on survival data, we developed a single-step scCO 2 technique for the rapid production of biodegradable poly( dl -lactic acid) scaffolds containing mammalian cells. (pnas.org)
  • By using optimum cell-survival conditions, scCO 2 was used to process poly( dl -lactic acid) containing a cell suspension, and, upon pressure release, a polymer sponge containing viable mammalian cells was formed. (pnas.org)
  • Standard methods of combining mammalian cells and synthetic polymers for biotechnological applications ( 1 - 3 ) must minimize disruption to the cell component from fluctuations in solvent composition, temperature, pressure, and shear forces ( 4 , 5 ). (pnas.org)
  • We hypothesized that a similar one-step scCO 2 processing technique might be used to produce biodegradable foams containing mammalian cells. (pnas.org)
  • Most recently, a phase 1 clinical trial testing CAR-T cell therapy targeting mesothelin in combination with PD-1 inhibitors has shown success in achieving stable disease and extending survival for pleural mesothelioma patients. (mesothelioma.com)
  • Tumor cells with mutated PTEN did not respond to treatment with EGFR inhibitors, but when PTEN activity was restored, tumor cells were sensitized to treatment with EGFR inhibitors. (innovations-report.com)
  • Selumetinib and other MEK inhibitors are not effective in KRAS mutant NSCLC cell lines and, while there are preclinical data that demonstrate cytotoxic synergy between selumetinib and other MEK inhibitors combined with docetaxel in a number of tumor types, including NSCLC, such synergy is independent of KRAS status," Adjei said. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Arginine Arms T Cells to Thrive and Survive. (nih.gov)
  • Because it is unable to penetrate the calcified cell walls, the animal can only feed for part of the year, relying on the ingested chloroplasts to survive whilst the foodstuff is calcified, until later in the season when the calcification is lost and the grazing can continue. (wikipedia.org)
  • The prevalence of basement membranes in the tissues of Eumetazoans means that most cell types require attachment to survive. (wikipedia.org)
  • It prevents the cell communicating the stress that it is under, which is crucial if the cell is to survive. (wikipedia.org)
  • CAR-T cell therapy works by ensuring T cells can still recognize the cancer cells in the body, as many have been able to trick the immune system into thinking they are normal, healthy cells. (mesothelioma.com)
  • The researchers now intend to investigate this potential treatment strategy in more detail in cancer cells and animal experiments. (eurekalert.org)
  • In order to mimic the deficient environment inside a cancerous tumor in a Petri dish, the researchers let the cancer cells grow into small spheroids. (eurekalert.org)
  • Colon cancer cells with intact p53 adapted to the deficient environment by restricting their growth. (eurekalert.org)
  • In deficient environments, cancer cells are more heavily dependent on this substance - also called coenzyme Q10 - to synthesize new DNA. (eurekalert.org)
  • Cancer cells in children tend to develop by following four main trajectories - and two of them are linked to relapse of the disease, research led by Lund University in Sweden shows. (eurekalert.org)
  • The researchers mapped out the genome of cancer cells from more than 50 tumours in order to identify the four strategies. (eurekalert.org)
  • We wanted to learn more about how some tumours evade treatment and the strategies the cancer cells develop", explains Jenny Karlsson at Lund University, one of the researchers behind the study. (eurekalert.org)
  • It seems that some cancer cells are programmed from the outset to single-handedly create a relapse. (eurekalert.org)
  • If we knew more about how the environment in the patient's tissues triggers cancer cells to develop, we could also influence how they change during treatment and perhaps prevent a relapse. (eurekalert.org)
  • A scanning micrograph of dividing cancer cells. (ucsd.edu)
  • Cancer cells tend to become more aggressive as they adapt to low oxygen levels," says Gilkes, "but we were surprised to find that cells that were exposed to hypoxia in the primary tumor maintained their aggressive features even when they were reoxygenated in the blood. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • EMT as the ultimate survival mechanism of cancer cells. (nih.gov)
  • Some anti-cancer therapies have been designed to prevent cyclin B/CDK1 complex formation in cancer cells to slow or prevent cell division. (wikipedia.org)
  • The fact that cyclin B is often disregulated in cancer cells makes cyclin B an attractive biomarker. (wikipedia.org)
  • RGMs can coordinate Smad-dependent and Smad-independent signalling of BMPs in prostate cancer and breast cancer cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Smoothened Agonist was capable of inducing androgen production in both prostate and bone stromal cells that was significantly greater than even similarly treated prostate cancer cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • PAK2 is cleaved through activated caspase-3 in fibroblast and cancer cells exposed to ultraviolet, hyperosmotic shock, and ionizing radiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • CIS is a fully malignant lesion, but by definition, the cancer cells have not yet invaded beyond the tissue delimiting their original site of genesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • 13-MTD brings stability to the cell by down-regulating signals that the cell receives and sends, and also by activating necessary agents to combat cancer cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Theodor Boveri, in 1914, described centrosome aberrations in cancer cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Secreted LOX is responsible for the invasive properties of hypoxic cancer cells through focal adhesion kinase activity and cell-to-matrix adhesion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Treatment of SK-N-SH neuroblastoma cells with ER stressors markedly induced the formation of autophagosomes, which were recognized at the ultrastructural level. (nih.gov)
  • In contrast to SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells, HL60 leukemia cells demonstrated no binding of CERK even in the presence of ATRA. (wikipedia.org)
  • In neuroblastoma cells, there can be amplification of genomic DNA regions, loss of genomic DNA regions, and genetic abnormalities. (wikipedia.org)
  • GD2 is a glycolipid that is expressed on the surface of neuroblastoma cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • RGMs may play inhibitory roles in prostate cancer by suppressing cell growth, adhesion, migration and invasion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Adhesins are cell-surface components or appendages of bacteria that facilitate adhesion or adherence to other cells or to surfaces, usually the host they are infecting or living in. (wikipedia.org)
  • The majority of bacterial pathogens exploit specific adhesion to host cells as their main virulence factor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Together, these data demonstrate that OX40 engagement augments CD4 T cell survival and the formation of long-lived memory CD4 T cells through an IL-12 and STAT4-dependent mechanism. (nih.gov)
  • The mechanism appears to involve a reduction of ER stress and MAPK signaling, since PAHSAs lowered ER stress in NOD mice, suppressed thapsigargin-induced PARP cleavage in human islets, and attenuated ERK1/2 and JNK1/2 activation in MIN6 cells. (jci.org)
  • Whereas single lethal events lead to an exponent that is linearly related to dose, the survival fraction function for a two-stage mechanism carries an exponent proportional to the square of dose. (wikipedia.org)
  • This mechanism may be a distinct way to control the survival of a neuron. (wikipedia.org)
  • WT BM cells were transduced with GFP retrovirus or MSCV-Selp retrovirus, followed by transplantation into recipient mice. (jci.org)
  • BM cells from CML mice were plated, and colonies were counted 7 days later. (jci.org)
  • D ) PD146176 caused a significant reduction of leukemia cells in the PB of secondary recipient mice. (jci.org)
  • E ) CML mice were treated with placebo ( n = 3) or PD146176 ( n = 6) beginning on day 8 after CML induction, and after a 7-day treatment, BM cells were injected into secondary recipient mice. (jci.org)
  • G ) CML mice were treated with placebo, PD146176, imatinib, or PD146176 and imatinib (PD + IM) for 7 days, and the percentage of PB leukemia cells or BM LSCs was compared. (jci.org)
  • In these mice, the mechanoelectrical transduction currents are totally abolished in the auditory hair cells, whilst they remain unchanged in the vestibular hair cells. (nih.gov)
  • This essential role of CIB2 in mechanotransduction and cell survival that, we show, is restricted to the cochlea, probably accounts for the presence in CIB2 -/- mice and CIB2 patients, unlike in Usher syndrome, of isolated hearing loss without balance and vision deficits. (nih.gov)
  • Conversely, RGC survival and axon growth were unaltered in RGCs from AC1/AC8 double knock-out mice or after specifically inhibiting tmACs. (nih.gov)
  • Validated anti-sAC antibody detects sAC in retinal cells even in Sacytm1Lex/Sacytm1Lex KO mice. (nih.gov)
  • PAHSAs reduced T and B cell infiltration and CD4+ and CD8+ T cell activation, while increasing Treg activation in pancreata of NOD mice. (jci.org)
  • PAHSAs promoted β cell proliferation in both NOD mice and MIN6 cells and increased the number of β cells in NOD mice. (jci.org)
  • To test this possibility, mice were injected with SCF and G-CSF to increase the number of circulating stem cells from 29 in nontreated controls to 7,200 in cytokine-treated mice ( 13 ). (pnas.org)
  • Those cells are fibroblast delivered from new born SOD knockout mice kidney. (protocol-online.org)
  • Eliminating the senescent cells in mice prevented the side effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genetic inactivation of p110δ in mice causes T cells to be less responsive to antigen as determined by their reduced ability to proliferate and secrete interleukin 2. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some researchers believe that alginates with high-M content could produce an inflammatory response and an abnormal cell growth while some have demonstrated that alginate with high-G content lead to an even higher cell overgrowth and inflammatory reaction in vivo as compared to intermediate-G alginates. (wikipedia.org)