The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.
Period after successful treatment in which there is no appearance of the symptoms or effects of the disease.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Continuance of life or existence especially under adverse conditions; includes methods and philosophy of survival.
A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.
The survival of a graft in a host, the factors responsible for the survival and the changes occurring within the graft during growth in the host.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
The termination of the cell's ability to carry out vital functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, responsiveness, and adaptability.
A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)
A protein-serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION in response to GROWTH FACTORS or INSULIN. It plays a major role in cell metabolism, growth, and survival as a core component of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Three isoforms have been described in mammalian cells.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.
Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.
Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
Statistical models used in survival analysis that assert that the effect of the study factors on the hazard rate in the study population is multiplicative and does not change over time.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
A member of the bcl-2 protein family that plays a role in the regulation of APOPTOSIS. Two major isoforms of the protein exist due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of the BCL2L1 mRNA and are referred to as Bcl-XS and Bcl-XL.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Membrane proteins encoded by the BCL-2 GENES and serving as potent inhibitors of cell death by APOPTOSIS. The proteins are found on mitochondrial, microsomal, and NUCLEAR MEMBRANE sites within many cell types. Overexpression of bcl-2 proteins, due to a translocation of the gene, is associated with follicular lymphoma.
A pro-apoptotic protein and member of the Bcl-2 protein family that is regulated by PHOSPHORYLATION. Unphosphorylated Bad protein inhibits the activity of BCL-XL PROTEIN.
The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.
The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.
A short pro-domain caspase that plays an effector role in APOPTOSIS. It is activated by INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 9. Isoforms of this protein exist due to multiple alternative splicing of its MESSENGER RNA.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.
The segregation and degradation of damaged or unwanted cytoplasmic constituents by autophagic vacuoles (cytolysosomes) composed of LYSOSOMES containing cellular components in the process of digestion; it plays an important role in BIOLOGICAL METAMORPHOSIS of amphibians, in the removal of bone by osteoclasts, and in the degradation of normal cell components in nutritional deficiency states.
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
A family of intracellular CYSTEINE ENDOPEPTIDASES that play a role in regulating INFLAMMATION and APOPTOSIS. They specifically cleave peptides at a CYSTEINE amino acid that follows an ASPARTIC ACID residue. Caspases are activated by proteolytic cleavage of a precursor form to yield large and small subunits that form the enzyme. Since the cleavage site within precursors matches the specificity of caspases, sequential activation of precursors by activated caspases can occur.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A large group of proteins that control APOPTOSIS. This family of proteins includes many ONCOGENE PROTEINS as well as a wide variety of classes of INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS such as CASPASES.
A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
The transfer of a neoplasm from one organ or part of the body to another remote from the primary site.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
The local recurrence of a neoplasm following treatment. It arises from microscopic cells of the original neoplasm that have escaped therapeutic intervention and later become clinically visible at the original site.
An in situ method for detecting areas of DNA which are nicked during APOPTOSIS. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase is used to add labeled dUTP, in a template-independent manner, to the 3 prime OH ends of either single- or double-stranded DNA. The terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase nick end labeling, or TUNEL, assay labels apoptosis on a single-cell level, making it more sensitive than agarose gel electrophoresis for analysis of DNA FRAGMENTATION.
An inorganic and water-soluble platinum complex. After undergoing hydrolysis, it reacts with DNA to produce both intra and interstrand crosslinks. These crosslinks appear to impair replication and transcription of DNA. The cytotoxicity of cisplatin correlates with cellular arrest in the G2 phase of the cell cycle.
Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.
A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
The artificial induction of GENE SILENCING by the use of RNA INTERFERENCE to reduce the expression of a specific gene. It includes the use of DOUBLE-STRANDED RNA, such as SMALL INTERFERING RNA and RNA containing HAIRPIN LOOP SEQUENCE, and ANTI-SENSE OLIGONUCLEOTIDES.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
The ability of some cells or tissues to survive lethal doses of IONIZING RADIATION. Tolerance depends on the species, cell type, and physical and chemical variables, including RADIATION-PROTECTIVE AGENTS and RADIATION-SENSITIZING AGENTS.
The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.
Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.
The process by which chemical compounds provide protection to cells against harmful agents.
Resistance or diminished response of a neoplasm to an antineoplastic agent in humans, animals, or cell or tissue cultures.
Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
A condition of decreased oxygen content at the cellular level.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Antineoplastic antibiotic obtained from Streptomyces peucetius. It is a hydroxy derivative of DAUNORUBICIN.
A conserved class of proteins that control APOPTOSIS in both VERTEBRATES and INVERTEBRATES. IAP proteins interact with and inhibit CASPASES, and they function as ANTI-APOPTOTIC PROTEINS. The protein class is defined by an approximately 80-amino acid motif called the baculoviral inhibitor of apoptosis repeat.
A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).
Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
A superfamily of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that are activated by diverse stimuli via protein kinase cascades. They are the final components of the cascades, activated by phosphorylation by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES, which in turn are activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES).
A tumor necrosis factor superfamily member that plays a role in the regulation of B-LYMPHOCYTE survival. It occurs as a membrane-bound protein that is cleaved to release an biologically active soluble form with specificity to TRANSMEMBRANE ACTIVATOR AND CAML INTERACTOR PROTEIN; B-CELL ACTIVATION FACTOR RECEPTOR; and B-CELL MATURATION ANTIGEN.
Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The relationship between the dose of administered radiation and the response of the organism or tissue to the radiation.
Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that specifically binds B-CELL ACTIVATING FACTOR. It is found on B-LYMPHOCYTES and plays a role in maturation and survival of B-cells. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
A carcinoma derived from stratified SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. It may also occur in sites where glandular or columnar epithelium is normally present. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
A malignant form of astrocytoma histologically characterized by pleomorphism of cells, nuclear atypia, microhemorrhage, and necrosis. They may arise in any region of the central nervous system, with a predilection for the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, and commissural pathways. Clinical presentation most frequently occurs in the fifth or sixth decade of life with focal neurologic signs or seizures.
A malignant neoplasm derived from cells that are capable of forming melanin, which may occur in the skin of any part of the body, in the eye, or, rarely, in the mucous membranes of the genitalia, anus, oral cavity, or other sites. It occurs mostly in adults and may originate de novo or from a pigmented nevus or malignant lentigo. Melanomas frequently metastasize widely, and the regional lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and brain are likely to be involved. The incidence of malignant skin melanomas is rising rapidly in all parts of the world. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, p2445)
Proteins that are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. Deficiencies or abnormalities in these proteins may lead to unregulated cell growth and tumor development.
An intracellular signaling system involving the MAP kinase cascades (three-membered protein kinase cascades). Various upstream activators, which act in response to extracellular stimuli, trigger the cascades by activating the first member of a cascade, MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKKs). Activated MAPKKKs phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES which in turn phosphorylate the MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs). The MAPKs then act on various downstream targets to affect gene expression. In mammals, there are several distinct MAP kinase pathways including the ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) pathway, the SAPK/JNK (stress-activated protein kinase/c-jun kinase) pathway, and the p38 kinase pathway. There is some sharing of components among the pathways depending on which stimulus originates activation of the cascade.
Ability of neoplasms to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue.
Tumors or cancer of the PANCREAS. Depending on the types of ISLET CELLS present in the tumors, various hormones can be secreted: GLUCAGON from PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS; INSULIN from PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and SOMATOSTATIN from the SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS. Most are malignant except the insulin-producing tumors (INSULINOMA).
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A member of the Bcl-2 protein family and homologous partner of C-BCL-2 PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN. It regulates the release of CYTOCHROME C and APOPTOSIS INDUCING FACTOR from the MITOCHONDRIA. Several isoforms of BCL2-associated X protein occur due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of the mRNA for this protein.
Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
Ability of a microbe to survive under given conditions. This can also be related to a colony's ability to replicate.
Tumors or cancer of the COLON or the RECTUM or both. Risk factors for colorectal cancer include chronic ULCERATIVE COLITIS; FAMILIAL POLYPOSIS COLI; exposure to ASBESTOS; and irradiation of the CERVIX UTERI.
A heterogeneous aggregate of at least three distinct histological types of lung cancer, including SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA; ADENOCARCINOMA; and LARGE CELL CARCINOMA. They are dealt with collectively because of their shared treatment strategy.
Drug therapy given to augment or stimulate some other form of treatment such as surgery or radiation therapy. Adjuvant chemotherapy is commonly used in the therapy of cancer and can be administered before or after the primary treatment.
Factors which enhance the growth potentialities of sensory and sympathetic nerve cells.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
A serine threonine kinase that controls a wide range of growth-related cellular processes. The protein is referred to as the target of RAPAMYCIN due to the discovery that SIROLIMUS (commonly known as rapamycin) forms an inhibitory complex with TACROLIMUS BINDING PROTEIN 1A that blocks the action of its enzymatic activity.
Transfer of a neoplasm from its primary site to lymph nodes or to distant parts of the body by way of the lymphatic system.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.
CULTURE MEDIA free of serum proteins but including the minimal essential substances required for cell growth. This type of medium avoids the presence of extraneous substances that may affect cell proliferation or unwanted activation of cells.
Agents that inhibit PROTEIN KINASES.
Tumors or cancer of the OVARY. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. They are classified according to the tissue of origin, such as the surface EPITHELIUM, the stromal endocrine cells, and the totipotent GERM CELLS.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
A pyrimidine analog that is an antineoplastic antimetabolite. It interferes with DNA synthesis by blocking the THYMIDYLATE SYNTHETASE conversion of deoxyuridylic acid to thymidylic acid.
The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.
Precursor of an alkylating nitrogen mustard antineoplastic and immunosuppressive agent that must be activated in the LIVER to form the active aldophosphamide. It has been used in the treatment of LYMPHOMA and LEUKEMIA. Its side effect, ALOPECIA, has been used for defleecing sheep. Cyclophosphamide may also cause sterility, birth defects, mutations, and cancer.
A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to INTERLEUKIN-6 family members. STAT3 is constitutively activated in a variety of TUMORS and is a major downstream transducer for the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR GP130.
A malignant neoplasm made up of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate the surrounding tissues and give rise to metastases. It is a histological type of neoplasm but is often wrongly used as a synonym for "cancer." (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Transplantation between individuals of the same species. Usually refers to genetically disparate individuals in contradistinction to isogeneic transplantation for genetically identical individuals.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that is widely expressed and plays a role in regulation of MEIOSIS; MITOSIS; and post mitotic functions in differentiated cells. The extracellular signal regulated MAP kinases are regulated by a broad variety of CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS and can be activated by certain CARCINOGENS.
A semisynthetic derivative of PODOPHYLLOTOXIN that exhibits antitumor activity. Etoposide inhibits DNA synthesis by forming a complex with topoisomerase II and DNA. This complex induces breaks in double stranded DNA and prevents repair by topoisomerase II binding. Accumulated breaks in DNA prevent entry into the mitotic phase of cell division, and lead to cell death. Etoposide acts primarily in the G2 and S phases of the cell cycle.
Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.
Molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. These reactive oxygen intermediates include SINGLET OXYGEN; SUPEROXIDES; PEROXIDES; HYDROXYL RADICAL; and HYPOCHLOROUS ACID. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of PHAGOCYTES, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
APOPTOSIS triggered by loss of contact with the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
Tumors or cancer of the COLON.
In vivo methods of screening investigative anticancer drugs, biologic response modifiers or radiotherapies. Human tumor tissue or cells are transplanted into mice or rats followed by tumor treatment regimens. A variety of outcomes are monitored to assess antitumor effectiveness.
Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
A primary malignant neoplasm of epithelial liver cells. It ranges from a well-differentiated tumor with EPITHELIAL CELLS indistinguishable from normal HEPATOCYTES to a poorly differentiated neoplasm. The cells may be uniform or markedly pleomorphic, or form GIANT CELLS. Several classification schemes have been suggested.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
Transplantation between animals of different species.
Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.
The original member of the family of endothelial cell growth factors referred to as VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTORS. Vascular endothelial growth factor-A was originally isolated from tumor cells and referred to as "tumor angiogenesis factor" and "vascular permeability factor". Although expressed at high levels in certain tumor-derived cells it is produced by a wide variety of cell types. In addition to stimulating vascular growth and vascular permeability it may play a role in stimulating VASODILATION via NITRIC OXIDE-dependent pathways. Alternative splicing of the mRNA for vascular endothelial growth factor A results in several isoforms of the protein being produced.
Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.
A strong oxidizing agent used in aqueous solution as a ripening agent, bleach, and topical anti-infective. It is relatively unstable and solutions deteriorate over time unless stabilized by the addition of acetanilide or similar organic materials.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
The aggregation of soluble ANTIGENS with ANTIBODIES, alone or with antibody binding factors such as ANTI-ANTIBODIES or STAPHYLOCOCCAL PROTEIN A, into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.
In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
The reconstruction of a continuous two-stranded DNA molecule without mismatch from a molecule which contained damaged regions. The major repair mechanisms are excision repair, in which defective regions in one strand are excised and resynthesized using the complementary base pairing information in the intact strand; photoreactivation repair, in which the lethal and mutagenic effects of ultraviolet light are eliminated; and post-replication repair, in which the primary lesions are not repaired, but the gaps in one daughter duplex are filled in by incorporation of portions of the other (undamaged) daughter duplex. Excision repair and post-replication repair are sometimes referred to as "dark repair" because they do not require light.
The B-cell leukemia/lymphoma-2 genes, responsible for blocking apoptosis in normal cells, and associated with follicular lymphoma when overexpressed. Overexpression results from the t(14;18) translocation. The human c-bcl-2 gene is located at 18q24 on the long arm of chromosome 18.
An immune response with both cellular and humoral components, directed against an allogeneic transplant, whose tissue antigens are not compatible with those of the recipient.
Benign and malignant central nervous system neoplasms derived from glial cells (i.e., astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and ependymocytes). Astrocytes may give rise to astrocytomas (ASTROCYTOMA) or glioblastoma multiforme (see GLIOBLASTOMA). Oligodendrocytes give rise to oligodendrogliomas (OLIGODENDROGLIOMA) and ependymocytes may undergo transformation to become EPENDYMOMA; CHOROID PLEXUS NEOPLASMS; or colloid cysts of the third ventricle. (From Escourolle et al., Manual of Basic Neuropathology, 2nd ed, p21)
A glycogen synthase kinase that was originally described as a key enzyme involved in glycogen metabolism. It regulates a diverse array of functions such as CELL DIVISION, microtubule function and APOPTOSIS.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.
A cell surface receptor involved in regulation of cell growth and differentiation. It is specific for EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR and EGF-related peptides including TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR ALPHA; AMPHIREGULIN; and HEPARIN-BINDING EGF-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR. The binding of ligand to the receptor causes activation of its intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity and rapid internalization of the receptor-ligand complex into the cell.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.
A malignancy of mature PLASMA CELLS engaging in monoclonal immunoglobulin production. It is characterized by hyperglobulinemia, excess Bence-Jones proteins (free monoclonal IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) in the urine, skeletal destruction, bone pain, and fractures. Other features include ANEMIA; HYPERCALCEMIA; and RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.
High molecular weight proteins found in the MICROTUBULES of the cytoskeletal system. Under certain conditions they are required for TUBULIN assembly into the microtubules and stabilize the assembled microtubules.
A SMN complex protein that is essential for the function of the SMN protein complex. In humans the protein is encoded by a single gene found near the inversion telomere of a large inverted region of CHROMOSOME 5. Mutations in the gene coding for survival of motor neuron 1 protein may result in SPINAL MUSCULAR ATROPHIES OF CHILDHOOD.
A lipid phosphatase that acts on phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate to regulate various SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. It modulates CELL GROWTH PROCESSES; CELL MIGRATION; and APOPTOSIS. Mutations in PTEN are associated with COWDEN DISEASE and PROTEUS SYNDROME as well as NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION.
The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.
Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.
A broad category of carrier proteins that play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They generally contain several modular domains, each of which having its own binding activity, and act by forming complexes with other intracellular-signaling molecules. Signal-transducing adaptor proteins lack enzyme activity, however their activity can be modulated by other signal-transducing enzymes
An antitumor alkaloid isolated from VINCA ROSEA. (Merck, 11th ed.)
Drugs used to potentiate the effectiveness of radiation therapy in destroying unwanted cells.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.
Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
The application of probability and statistical methods to calculate the risk of occurrence of any event, such as onset of illness, recurrent disease, hospitalization, disability, or death. It may include calculation of the anticipated money costs of such events and of the premiums necessary to provide for payment of such costs.
Splitting the DNA into shorter pieces by endonucleolytic DNA CLEAVAGE at multiple sites. It includes the internucleosomal DNA fragmentation, which along with chromatin condensation, are considered to be the hallmarks of APOPTOSIS.
Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.
Penetrating, high-energy electromagnetic radiation emitted from atomic nuclei during NUCLEAR DECAY. The range of wavelengths of emitted radiation is between 0.1 - 100 pm which overlaps the shorter, more energetic hard X-RAYS wavelengths. The distinction between gamma rays and X-rays is based on their radiation source.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of multiple ADP-RIBOSE groups from nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NAD) onto protein targets, thus building up a linear or branched homopolymer of repeating ADP-ribose units i.e., POLY ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE RIBOSE.
Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.
A viral oncoprotein originally isolated from a murine T CELL LYMPHOMA infected with the acutely transforming retrovirus AKT8. v-akt protein is the viral homologue of PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-AKT.
Tumors or cancer of the SKIN.
A common neoplasm of early childhood arising from neural crest cells in the sympathetic nervous system, and characterized by diverse clinical behavior, ranging from spontaneous remission to rapid metastatic progression and death. This tumor is the most common intraabdominal malignancy of childhood, but it may also arise from thorax, neck, or rarely occur in the central nervous system. Histologic features include uniform round cells with hyperchromatic nuclei arranged in nests and separated by fibrovascular septa. Neuroblastomas may be associated with the opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome. (From DeVita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp2099-2101; Curr Opin Oncol 1998 Jan;10(1):43-51)

Electronic volume analysis of L1210 chemotherapy. (1/37565)

The rapid analysis of in vivo chemotherapy on the L1210 ascites tumor grown in C57BL/6 X DBA/2F1 mice has been shown by means of an electronic volume analysis. The drugs were injected on the 4th day of tumor growth, and the cells in the peritoneal cavity were studied at 24-hr intervals on the 5th through 7th day. Using the electronic cell volume distributions, combined with labeling indices, cell morphology, and cell counts, it was found that the alkylating agents. 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea and cyclophosphamide, at the dosages used, were more effective than the S-phase-specific drugs, palmitoyl ester of 1-beta-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine, vincristine, and methotrexate.  (+info)

Blood thymidine level and iododeoxyuridine incorporation and reutilization in DNA in mice given long-acting thymidine pellets. (2/37565)

A long-acting thymidine pellet consisting of 190 mg of cholesterol and 60 mg of thymidine has been developed for the study of thymidine metabolism and reutilization in vivo. Implantation of such a pellet s.c. in adult mice will maintain the blood plasma concentration of thymidine at levels between 40 and 8 X 10(-6) M, which are from 36 to 7 times those of normal mice, for periods up to 48 hr. During this period, in vivo uptake and reutilization of [125I]iododeoxyuridine, a thymidine analog, into intestinal and tumor DNA were almost completely suppressed. While iododeoxyuridine reutilization is not large in normal proliferative tissue even in the absence of pellet implants, reutilization of over 30% was measured in large, rapidly growing ascites tumors. The inhibition of iododeoxyuridine incorporation by elevated thymidine blood levels is directly proportional to serum concentration. This appears to be due to a thymidine pool in rapid equilibrium with blood thymidine. This pool is at least 10 times larger than the 4-nmole pool of extracellular thymidine.  (+info)

Diphtheria toxin effects on human cells in tissue culture. (3/37565)

HeLa cells exposed to a single sublethal concentration of diphtheria toxin were found to have diminished sensitivity when subsequently reexposed to the toxin. Three cells strains exhibiting toxin resistance were developed. In the cells that had previously been exposed to toxin at 0.015 mug/ml, 50% inhibition of protein synthesis required a toxin concentration of 0.3 mug/ml, which is more than 10 times that required in normal HeLa cells. There appears to be a threshold level of diphtheria toxin action. Concentrations of toxin greater than that required for 50% inhibition of protein synthesis (0.01 mug/ml) are associated with cytotoxicity, whereas those below this concentration may not be lethal. Several established human cell lines of both normal and neoplastic origin were tested for their sensitivity to the effects of the toxin. No special sensitivity was observed with the cells of tumor origin. Fifty % inhibition of protein synthesis of HeLa cells was achieved with diphtheria toxin (0.01 mug/ml) as compared to the normal human cell lines tested (0.03 and 0.5 mug/ml) and a cell line derived from a human pancreatic adenocarcinoma (0.2 mug/ml). A human breast carcinoma cell line showed a maximum of 45% inhibition of protein synthesis. This required a diphtheria toxin concentration of 5 mug/ml. These results suggest that different human cell lines show wide variation in their sensitivity to the toxin.  (+info)

Tissue pharmacokinetics, inhibition of DNA synthesis and tumor cell kill after high-dose methotrexate in murine tumor models. (4/37565)

In Sarcoma 180 and L1210 ascites tumor models, the initial rate of methotrexate accumulation in tumor cells in the peritoneal cavity and in small intestine (intracellularly) after s.c. doses up to 800 mg/kg, showed saturation kinetics. These results and the fact that initial uptake in these tissues within this dosage range was inhibited to the expected relative extent by the simultaneous administration of leucovorin suggest that carrier mediation and not passive diffusion is the major route of drug entry at these extremely high doses. Maximum accumulation of intracellular drug occurred within 2 hr and reached much higher levels in small intestine than in tumor cells at the higher dosages. At a 3-mg/kg dose of methotrexate s.c., intracellular exchangeable drug levels persisted more than four times longer in L1210 cells than in small intestine, but differences in persistence (L1210 cell versus gut) diminished markedly with increasing dosage. At 96 mg/kg, the difference in persistence was less than 2-fold. In small intestine and L1210 cells, theduration of inhibition of DNA synthesis at different dosages correlated with the extent to which exchangeable drug was retained. Toxic deaths occurred when inhibition in small intestine lasted longer than 25 to 30 hr. Recovery of synthesis in small intestine and L1210 cells occurred synchronously and only below dosages of 400 mg/kg. Within 24 hr after dosages of greater than 24 mg/kg, the rate of tumor cell loss increased to a point characterized by a single exponential (t1/2=8.5 hr). The total cell loss, but not the rate of cell loss, was dose dependent.  (+info)

Unsaturated fatty acid requirements for growth and survival of a rat mammary tumor cell line. (5/37565)

A cell line, the growth and survival of which is markedly affected by linoleic acid, has been established from a carcinogen-induced rat mammary tumor. The cells have been continuously passaged in 5% rat serum plus 10% fetal calf serum-supplemented medium. The rat serum component was found to be indispensalbe, for when it was omitted the growth rate rapidly declined and the cells died by 5 to 7 days. Removal of the rat serum from the growth medium also resulted in a dramatic loss of Oil Red O-positive droplets in the cells, suggesting that the lipid component of rat serum might be a major growth-promoting principle in rat serum. This is likely since the total lipid fraction, but not the delipidized protein fraction, could largely supplant requirement of the cells for rat serum. Pure linoleic acid was found to be effective in maintaining the cell growth in delipidized serum or in whole fetal calf serum-supplemented medium. Fatty acid analysis revealed a 19-fold higher amount of linoleic acid in rat serum than in fetal calf serum.  (+info)

Gene expression profiles in HTLV-I-immortalized T cells: deregulated expression of genes involved in apoptosis regulation. (6/37565)

Human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I) is the etiologic agent of adult T-cell leukemia, an acute and often fatal T-cell malignancy. A key step in HTLV-I-induced leukemigenesis is induction of abnormal T-cell growth and survival. Unlike antigen-stimulated T cells, which cease proliferation after a finite number of cell division, HTLV-I-infected T cells proliferate indefinitely (immortalized), thus facilitating occurrence of secondary genetic changes leading to malignant transformation. To explore the molecular basis of HTLV-I-induced abnormal T-cell survival, we compared the gene expression profiles of normal and HTLV-I-immortalized T cells using 'gene array'. These studies revealed a strikingly altered expression pattern of a large number of genes along with HTLV-I-mediated T-cell immortalization. Interestingly, many of these deregulated genes are involved in the control of programmed cell death or apoptosis. These findings indicate that disruption of the cellular apoptosis-regulatory network may play a role in the HTLV-I-mediated oncogenesis.  (+info)

Socs1 binds to multiple signalling proteins and suppresses steel factor-dependent proliferation. (7/37565)

We have identified Socs1 as a downstream component of the Kit receptor tyrosine kinase signalling pathway. We show that the expression of Socs1 mRNA is rapidly increased in primary bone marrow-derived mast cells following exposure to Steel factor, and Socs1 inducibly binds to the Kit receptor tyrosine kinase via its Src homology 2 (SH2) domain. Previous studies have shown that Socs1 suppresses cytokine-mediated differentiation in M1 cells inhibiting Janus family kinases. In contrast, constitutive expression of Socs1 suppresses the mitogenic potential of Kit while maintaining Steel factor-dependent cell survival signals. Unlike Janus kinases, Socs1 does not inhibit the catalytic activity of the Kit tyrosine kinase. In order to define the mechanism by which Socs1-mediated suppression of Kit-dependent mitogenesis occurs, we demonstrate that Socs1 binds to the signalling proteins Grb-2 and the Rho-family guanine nucleotide exchange factors Vav. We show that Grb2 binds Socs1 via its SH3 domains to putative diproline determinants located in the N-terminus of Socs1, and Socs1 binds to the N-terminal regulatory region of Vav. These data suggest that Socs1 is an inducible switch which modulates proliferative signals in favour of cell survival signals and functions as an adaptor protein in receptor tyrosine kinase signalling pathways.  (+info)

In vivo chaperone activity of heat shock protein 70 and thermotolerance. (8/37565)

Heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) is thought to play a critical role in the thermotolerance of mammalian cells, presumably due to its chaperone activity. We examined the chaperone activity and cellular heat resistance of a clonal cell line in which overexpression of Hsp70 was transiently induced by means of the tetracycline-regulated gene expression system. This single-cell-line approach circumvents problems associated with clonal variation and indirect effects resulting from constitutive overexpression of Hsp70. The in vivo chaperone function of Hsp70 was quantitatively investigated by using firefly luciferase as a reporter protein. Chaperone activity was found to strictly correlate to the level of Hsp70 expression. In addition, we observed an Hsp70 concentration dependent increase in the cellular heat resistance. In order to study the contribution of the Hsp70 chaperone activity, heat resistance of cells that expressed tetracycline-regulated Hsp70 was compared to thermotolerant cells expressing the same level of Hsp70 plus all of the other heat shock proteins. Overexpression of Hsp70 alone was sufficient to induce a similar recovery of cytoplasmic luciferase activity, as does expression of all Hsps in thermotolerant cells. However, when the luciferase reporter protein was directed to the nucleus, expression of Hsp70 alone was not sufficient to yield the level of recovery observed in thermotolerant cells. In addition, cells expressing the same level of Hsp70 found in heat-induced thermotolerant cells containing additional Hsps showed increased resistance to thermal killing but were more sensitive than thermotolerant cells. These results suggest that the inducible form of Hsp70 contributes to the stress-tolerant state by increasing the chaperone activity in the cytoplasm. However, its expression alone is apparently insufficient for protection of other subcellular compartments to yield clonal heat resistance to the level observed in thermotolerant cells.  (+info)

UCH-L1 supports cell survival in H838 cells Assessment of H838 and H157 cells exhibiting reduced UCH-L1 protein levels by phase-contrast microscopy revealed morphological changes in the UCH-L1 siRNA-treated H838 cells compared to scrambled siRNA- treated and untreated control cells, whereas no difference was observed between UCH-L1 siRNA-treated H157 cells. and control H157 cells. Normally the parental H838 cells were rounded in shape and uniform in size, but cells with reduced UCH-L1 expression were irregular in shape, PF 2341066 variable in size, and present at a much lower density. H838 cells with low levels of UCH-L1 were also less flattened to the surface, possibly signifying they were becoming detached, a characteristic of apoptotic cells (Figure 4A). Therefore untreated and treated selleck products H838 cells were stained with H&E to compare the number of apoptotic cells. Definite apoptotic changes were observed in the UCH-L1 siRNA-treated cells (Figure 4B). To quantify the differences in ...
SummaryThis purpose of this experiment was for students to do the colony count methods, estimating the viable cell number of commercial active dried yeasts (ADY).This experiment allowed the students to perform the plate count technique by serial diluti...
A commonly prescribed drug for heart disease may do more good than previously thought. Researchers at York University have found that beta-blockers may prevent further cell death following a heart attack and that could lead to better longer term patient outcomes.
The implementation of decisions affecting cell viability and proliferation is dependant on prompt detection of the problem to become addressed, formulation and transmission of the correct group of instructions and fidelity in the execution of orders. nearing mitosis might encounter, presenting the effect of post-translational adjustments (PTMs) on the right and timely working of pathways fixing errors or harm before chromosome segregation. We conclude this article having a perspective on the existing position of mitotic signaling pathway inhibitors 154235-83-3 IC50 and their potential make use of in malignancy therapy. (Mazzarello, 1999). The main occasions characterizing changeover through the cell routine are cell development, where means cells boost their size and the amount of organelles, and duplication of hereditary materials in S-phase. If not really perturbed, upon conclusion of DNA replication cells enter mitosis, a term that originally explained nuclear department (Mazzarello, 1999). ...
I have a killer toxin, which generates pores on susceptible yeast cells, so I want to make a viability test with PI. Now, I incubate the sensitive cells with the toxin for 12 and 24 hour, but the problem is that I cant afford to make the measurments with the flow cytometer at each sampling time. The question is that, after the sampling and staining, can the cells be stored at 4 C simply, or I have to fix them with 70% ethanol or formaldehyde (which one do you prefer?). Will not the PI diffused from the dead cells at 4 C overnight? I suppose it wont. What do you think ...
Cell survival curves (a) and the net micronucleus (MN) frequencies (b) afterin vivoirradiation using neutron beams without the10B-carrier as a function of the p
The total number of T cells present in the antigen-specific pool at the site of priming is determined by three cell-intrinsic parameters: the proportion of T cells entering into the proliferating pool, their cycle activity, and their survival. In accordance with published data (2), we found that CD28 increased cell cycle entry as well as activity. Early studies also report that CD28 promotes the survival of activated T cells (3). From measuring [3H]thymidine incorporation at different time points after TCR stimulation, it was concluded that this prosurvival effect came into play at a late time point and in fact sustained the proliferative response. However, we demonstrate that CD28−/− T cells die in much higher frequency than wild-type T cells when making the transition from G1 to S for the first time. CD28 strongly promotes cell survival at this point, thus greatly increasing the proportion of cells taking part in further divisions. The prosurvival effect of CD28 has been attributed to ...
Study Throws Light on Mutations Facilitating Cancer Cell Survival Next generation sequencing (NGS) is becoming increasingly integrated into oncological practice and clinical research. NGS methods have also provided evidence for clonal evolution of cancers during disease progression and treatment. Now, with the help of this sophisticated sequencing method, researchers identified genetic mutations that promote the […]. The post Study Throws Light on Mutations Facilitating Cancer Cell Survival appeared first on BioTecNika .Read more at ...
In this study, we have shown that co-overexpression of Ang-1 and Akt produced powerful cytoprotection against OGD in vitro. Moreover, transduction with Ang-1 and Akt genes resulted in marked survival of the transplanted MSCs in vivo, their differentiation into myocytes and participation in neovascularization. This resulted in the reduced infarct size and optimally preserved cardiac function after MI.. Despite encouraging results emanating from the preclinical as well as clinical studies, donor cell survival after engraftment remains among the major limitations that significantly influence the outcome of heart cell therapy. In some of the published reports, donor cell survival between 0 to 1 hour after injection averaged up to only 58%.10 Similarly, as low as 1% of the donor cells survived during first 24 hours after transplantation.11 Although the underlying molecular mechanism and kinetics of donor cell death in the infarcted myocardium are undefined, apoptosis is a major factor in their ...
T cell activation through the TCR can result in either cell proliferation or cell death. The role of costimulatory receptors in regulating T cell survival has not been defined. Here, we present data demonstrating that CD28 costimulation enhances the in vitro survival of activated T cells. One mechan …
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5178 Low-dose hyper-radiosensitivity (HRS) describes the increased radiosensitivity of cells to doses of ionizing radiation less than ∼0.5 Gy. While a complete understanding of the underlying molecular mechanism of this radiation response is not clear, our recent work has identified a connection between low-dose HRS survival, Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated (ATM)-mediated repair pathways and an early ATM-dependent G2 cell-cycle checkpoint. High-precision cell survival experiments using flow cytometry synchronized cell populations indicated that HRS was a specific G2 phase response. Given this background, we investigated the function of radiation-induced G2 phase checkpoint arrest in a pair of isogenic fibroblast cell lines: MR4 and 3.7. We found that the MR4 cells exhibited a pronounced HRS cell survival response that was exaggerated in a G2-phase enriched cell population but was absent in the isogenic 3.7 cell line. Moreover, distinct temporal differences in G2 checkpoint response were ...
Assay Cell Viability in cell samples with Fixable Cell Viability Assay Kit (Fluorometric - Red) - CytoPainter ab176744. For flow cytometers.
Basically I tested my compound in a range from 10-9 to 10-4 M and what Im measuring are both cell viability and hormonal secretion. Ive performed only the experiments regarding cell viability so far and what I saw is the respons I described in the previous post. Im organizing the experiments for testing hormonal secretion, that Im sure will be more convincing. What Im trying to understand is if I can say that my drug do not have any effect on cell viability and just that at 10-M is toxic for the cells, or that the effect on cell viability is present only at such concentration.. ...
But the effects of surgery, radiation and chemotherapy produce a range of biochemical responses in the brain that can fuel tumor cell survival at the same time doctors are attempting to eradicate the disease, according to Boston College Professor of Biology Thomas Seyfried, whose lab has researched ways to deny energy to cancer cells. All tumors, regardless of where they are located, require two major fuels for survival: glucose and glutamine, said Seyfried, a specialist in lipid biochemistry. As long as tumor cells have access to these energy molecules, they will survive. If you give them a lot of these molecules, they will survive even better. The three components of cerebral cancer care may play a role in providing tumor cells with the metabolic fuels they need to survive. While these treatments reduce tumor growth over the short term, radiation and certain chemotherapies could actually contribute to the high recurrence of these deadly tumors. A growing body of research over the past ...
Epithelial cells are unable to grow or survive when they lose contact with appropriate ECM proteins. However, transformation by the Ras oncoprotein bypasses the need for signals from adhesion receptors and protects them from undergoing apoptosis. Ras‐dependent survival in other systems is known to have two effectors, PI 3‐K and Raf, the latter of which functions by activating the ERK (a MAPK) pathway. To address the contribution of ERK, J. Downward (London, UK) used an inducible active form of Raf to monitor early changes in gene transcription that impart protection from detachment‐induced apoptosis. Among the genes that are strongly up‐regulated by activated Raf are the autocrine factors HB‐EGF, amphiregulin and TGFα. All of these are members of the epithelial growth factor (EGF) family, indicating that protection by Raf is dependent on the function of an autocrine loop involving transcriptional induction of cell survival EGF‐like factors. Interestingly, Raf‐dependent survival is ...
Of particular interest is why theses mechanisms fail, causing cardiomyocytes to die and making the heart unable to contract effectively and heart failure to develop. Is it loss of survival pathways, development of apoptotic/necrotic mediators, or a shift in the balance between these pathways? Candidate signaling molecules of particular interest to us are ligands for G-protein coupled receptors such as S1P, the heterotrimeric G-protein Gq and small G-protein RhoA, both of which turn on protective pathways that ultimately decompensate to pathways that induce apoptosis, the Ca regulated protein kinase CaMKII which regulates nuclear gene expression and Ca handling, and the protective molecule Akt, with targets at the mitochondria that control cell survival ...
MTT Cell Proliferation and Cytotoxicity Assay Kit, For quantitation of viable cell number in proliferation and cytotoxicity assays
U.S.A. --( Triggersafe is a new, unique, innovative, patent pending device designed to safely and completely cover the trigger of AR-15 rifles.. Triggersafe was designed to fix a weapon problem that officers and citizens knew occurred, but no one wanted to discuss, Negligent or Accidental Discharges. When a person with a rifle does not have positive control of the weapon, the chances of an ND/AD discharge increase. Positive control is when we have our hands on the weapon and control the safety and trigger. The chance that a piece of gear or other object or even you can push the trigger is greatly reduced with a Triggersafe in place. Triggersafe was intended for environments and times when we dont have full control of the weapon.. It was intended for times such as training, range time, dry handling, hunting, transportation, storage and many others to help avoid ND/AD discharges when we do not have positive control of the rifle. Triggersafe is inexpensive, quick and easy to use by ...
AD hippocampus has been shown to have both an increase in caspase-3 immunoreactivity (Masliah et al., 1998; Gervais et al., 1999), as well as appearance of activated caspase-3 reactivity (Chan et al., 1999). The work of Gervais (1999) showed that caspase-3 can cleave the amyloid precursor protein and cause an increase in secretion of Aβ, measured as picomolar quantities in cell media; cell death was not measured in that study. In our system, exogenous aggregated Aβ1-42 is added at a concentration of 10 μm, many fold higher than that produced by caspase-3 activation. Additionally, the Aβ produced by caspase-3 would most likely be in the less toxic soluble form over the time course of our experiments. Thus, blockade of caspase-3 activity would be expected to have little effect on cell survival in our model. In more chronic paradigms, caspase-3 may play a larger role in potentiating death by enhancing production of Aβ. Additionally, caspase-3 activation could play a role in proteolytic ...
The effects of CsA and CPZ were analysed upon treatment of PCLS with 40 μM CsA and 20 μM CPZ. These concentrations were relatively high compared to plasma levels of patients chronically treated with the same drugs, i.e. 0.04-0.1 μM for CsA [26] and 0.02-0.3 μM for CPZ [30], but similar concentrations were used in other in vitro studies [30, 31] and the applied concentrations did not cause a decrease in slices viability assessed ATP and LDH assays.. However, GSEA analysis on the transcriptome data revealed that CsA induced a higher number of processes indicative for cytotoxicity such as apoptosis, necrosis, or inflammation than CPZ (Figure 2). This could indicate that the applied concentration of CsA was toxic, although according to the viability tests (ATP and LDH assays) doses even higher than 40uM did not cause a significant decrease in viability (Additional file 1: Figure S1). These results suggest therefore, that ATP as well as LDH measurements may not always be reliable to predict ...
J:101176 Grieshammer U, Cebrian C, Ilagan R, Meyers E, Herzlinger D, Martin GR, FGF8 is required for cell survival at distinct stages of nephrogenesis and for regulation of gene expression in nascent nephrons. Development. 2005 Sep;132(17):3847-57 ...
UNC-5 Homolog B (UNC5B) is a member of the dependence receptor family. It can induce two opposite intracellular signaling cascades depending on the presence or absence of the ligand and is thus capable of driving two opposing processes. UNC5B signaling has been implicated in several cancers, where it promotes cell death in the absence of its ligand netrin-1 and increases cell survival in its presence. In addition, inhibition of the ligand has been reported to decrease invasiveness and angiogenesis in tumors. UNC5B signaling pathway has also been reported to be involved in several processes such as neural development, developmental angiogenesis and inflammatory processes. Interaction of UNC5B with netrins activates various signaling modules including ERK1/ERK2, p38 MAPK signaling and PI3k-AKT pathway ...
The key to successful targeted therapy for cancer is to identify intrinsic features that distinguish cancer cells from normal cells. Replication stress is a ch...
When I talk about traits, I mean hereditary characteristics present in the population. For example coat colors in tame animals do not appear in the wild type population, so they are new. However, the GENES responsible for new traits ARE there. If I had to explain this scenario, I would say that those genes (lets call them reserve genes) are being actively suppressed in wild type population by epigenetic mechanism (which is a wild type hereditary characteristic). Hypothetically, the loss of key genes responsible for significant survival characteristic triggers new hereditary characteristic - the loss of suppression of the reserve genes to increase variety of traits to insure survival of the species. If one of those genes was accidently activated out of turn, the individual would probably be selected against by nature (there is no knowing for sure of cause ...
When I talk about traits, I mean hereditary characteristics present in the population. For example coat colors in tame animals do not appear in the wild type population, so they are new. However, the GENES responsible for new traits ARE there. If I had to explain this scenario, I would say that those genes (lets call them reserve genes) are being actively suppressed in wild type population by epigenetic mechanism (which is a wild type hereditary characteristic). Hypothetically, the loss of key genes responsible for significant survival characteristic triggers new hereditary characteristic - the loss of suppression of the reserve genes to increase variety of traits to insure survival of the species. If one of those genes was accidently activated out of turn, the individual would probably be selected against by nature (there is no knowing for sure of cause ...
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A recent report compared the efficiency of microinjection of DNA versus RNA in mouse embryos [1]. While it was shown that DNA is effective, in vitro transcribed RNA was observed to be more efficient.. Typically, microinjections for CRISPR applications are performed using in vitro transcribed Cas9 and sgRNA rather than native dsDNA. gBlocks® Gene Fragments are ideal for use as template for in vitro transcription and will work well in these applications [2,3]. However, long RNAs are known to trigger the innate immune response in many cells, which increases the expression of dozens of genes and can affect cell viability and general health [4-7].. References. ...
Cell viability is a measure of the proportion of live, healthy cells within a population. Assays to assess cell viability measure metabolic activity, ATP content, cell proliferation, or membrane integrity.
Here we demonstrate how Photopette ® can be used within the cell culture hood to speed up COVID-19 related cell culture research. Determine cell densities, protein and DNA/RNA concentrations within seconds without any sample transfer and perform cell viability studies.
(2006) Wek, Anthony. Cell Metabolism. In this issue of Cell Metabolism, Daniel Drucker and colleagues (Yusta et al., 2006) explore how the incretin mimetic exendin-4 improves β cell function and survival during ER stress. Their findings suggest that protein kinase A signaling elicited by GLP-1 re...
Read independent reviews on Cytotoxicity Detection KitPLUS (LDH) from Roche Applied Science - a member of the Roche Group on SelectScience
JoVE publishes peer-reviewed scientific video protocols to accelerate biological, medical, chemical and physical research. Watch our scientific video articles.
JoVE publishes peer-reviewed scientific video protocols to accelerate biological, medical, chemical and physical research. Watch our scientific video articles.
The survival function $S(t)$ estimates the probability of surviving past some time $t$, for the observations going to $t \rightarrow \infty$.. As a definition:. For $T$ be a non-negative random lifetime taken from the population, the survival function $S(t)$ is defined as. $$S(t) = \text{Pr}(T,t) = 1-F(t)$$. where $T$ is the response variable, where $T \geq 0$. ...
Think of the grossest thing you can come up with. No, not that. Not that either! Ew, dude. Yes, the grossest thing is reaching up...
This compound suppressed the viability of a few out of six major samples at increased than or equivalent to two concentrations but the maximal result
Loperamide impaired cell viability following 72 hr of incubation in a dose dependentfashion in CTAC, D-17, CML-1 and CMT-12 canine cancer cell lines. Viability
TY - JOUR. T1 - Erratum. T2 - GDNF: A potent survival factor for motoneurons present in peripheral nerve and muscle (Science (1062-1064)). AU - Henderson, C. E.. AU - Phillips, H. S.. AU - Armanini, M.. AU - Rosenthal, Arnon. AU - Moffet, B.. AU - Vandlen, R. A.. AU - Simmons, Laura. AU - Davies, Alun M.. AU - Koliatsos, Vassilis E.. PY - 1995/12/1. Y1 - 1995/12/1. UR - UR - M3 - Comment/debate. AN - SCOPUS:37049181906. VL - 267. JO - Science. JF - Science. SN - 0036-8075. IS - 5199. ER - ...
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) transplanted at sites of nerve injury are thought to promote functional recovery by producing trophic factors that induce survival and regeneration of host neurons. To evaluate this phenomenon further, we quantified in human MSCs neurotrophin expression levels and their effects on neuronal cell survival and neuritogenesis. Screening a human MSC cDNA library revealed expressed transcripts encoding BDNF and beta-NGF but not NT-3 and NT-4. Immunostaining demonstrated that BDNF and beta-NGF proteins were restricted to specific MSC subpopulations, which was confirmed by ELISA analysis of 56 separate subclones. Using a co-culture assay, we also demonstrated that BDNF expression levels correlated with the ability of MSC populations or subclones to induce survival and neurite outgrowth in the SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cell line. However, these MSC-induced effects were only partially inhibited by a neutralizing anti-BDNF antibody. MSCs were also shown to promote neurite ...
Recent reports using metabolism regulating drugs showed that nutrient deprivation was an efficient tool to suppress cancer progression. In addition, autophagy control is emerging to prevent cancer cell survival. Autophagy breaks down the unnecessary cytoplasmic components into anabolic units and energy sources, which are the most important sources for making the ATP that maintains homeostasis in cancer cell growth and survival. Therefore, the glucose analog 2-deoxyglucose (2DG) has been used as an anticancer reagent due to its inhibition of glycolysis. Prostate cancer cells (PC3) were treated with 2DG for 6 h or 48 h to analyze the changing of cell cycle and autophagic flux. Rapamycin and LC3B overexpressing vectors were administered to PC3 cells for autophagy induction and chloroquine and shBeclin1 plasmid were used to inhibit autophagy in PC3 cells to analyze PC3 cells growth and survival. The samples for western blotting were prepared in each culture condition to confirm the expression level of
Red blood cell survival was determined in patients with aortic valvular disease, postoperative patients with aortic valvular ball-valve prostheses and postoperative patients with multiple ball-valve prostheses. The red blood cell survival was reduced in the majority of patients in each group when compared with the red blood cell survival from a normal control group.. A detailed analysis of the survival curves suggested that in many patients there was more than one population of red blood cells. The first population displayed rapid random destruction. This population was not present in normal persons in the control group. The second population showed the usual decline in radioactivity due to random destruction and loss of the red cell label due to elution. The shortened red blood cell survival in some patients was due to a large percentage of the first population of randomly destroyed red blood cells, in other patients to an accelerated rate of destruction of the usual single population of cells ...
Chloroquine has long been used in the treatment or prevention of malaria from Plasmodium vivax, P. malariae, excluding the malaria parasite Plasmodium
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Lixin Yang, Aldwin Apollo Perez, Sayuri Fujie, Charles Warden, Jie Li, Yafan Wang, Bryan Yung, Yun-Ru Chen, Xiyong Liu, Hang Zhang, Shu Zheng, Zheng Liu, David Ann, Yun Yen].
The proliferation and survival of new cells in the dentate gyrus of mammals is a complex process that is subject to numerous influences, presenting a confusing picture. We suggest regarding these processes on the level of small networks, which can be simulated in silico and which illustrate in a nutshell the influences that proliferating cells exert on plasticity and the conditions they require for survival. Beyond the insights gained by this consideration, we review the available literature on factors that regulate cell proliferation and neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus in vivo. It turns out that the rate of cell proliferation and excitatory afferents via the perforant path interactively determine cell survival, such that the best network stability is achieved when either of the two is increased whereas concurrent activation of the two factors lowers cell survival rates. Consequently, the mitotic activity is regulated by systemic parameters in compliance with the hippocampal networks ...
BioAssay record AID 88942 submitted by ChEMBL: Antiproliferative activity was evaluated by the 72 hr MTT cell viability assay using human colon carcinoma cells (GC3)..
The number of mature B cells is carefully controlled by signalling from receptors that support B cell survival. The best studied of these are the B cell antigen receptor (BCR) and BAFFR. Recent work has shown that signalling from these receptors is closely linked, involves the CD19 co-receptor, and leads to activation of canonical and non-canonical NF-κB pathways, ERK1, ERK2 and ERK5 MAP kinases, and PI-3 kinases. Importantly, studies show that investigation of the importance of signalling molecules in cell survival requires the use of inducible gene deletions within mature B cells. This overcomes the limitations of many earlier studies using constitutive gene deletions which were unable to distinguish between requirements for a protein in development versus survival. ...
Markley, K; Smallman, E T.; and John, L A., The effect of thermal trauma in mice on cytotoxicity of lymphocytes. (1977). Subject Strain Bibliography 1977. 1842 ...
MIT biological engineers have devised a toxicity test that can measure chemical effects on cell survival with much greater sensitivity than the tests commonly used today. The MicroColonyChip could make it easier to accurately measure cell toxicity, helping drug companies and academic researchers identify and evaluate new drugs more rapidly.
Many known chemotherapeutic drugs kill abnormal cells through a process called apoptosis. Bcl-2 proteins are negative regulators of apoptosis that control cell survival and death. Increased expression of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins commonly occurs in up to 30% of all cancers, providing cancer cells a pro-survival advantage to evade cell death, grow, and proliferate. Drugs targeting these specific anti-apoptotic proteins are potential anti-cancer therapeutics. A need exists for improved methods to select patients that may benefit from drugs targeting apoptotic pathway, such as Bcl-2 homology domain-3 (BH3) mimetics. Researchers at the NCI developed a multiplex assay to determine the efficacy of apoptosis-related drugs targeting the Bcl2 family of proteins or aid in the selection of cancer patients likely to respond. The immunoassay quantitatively measures heterodimer protein complexes of specific Bcl-2 family proteins. Traditional assays performed in needle biopsies only measure individual ...
BioAssay Systems Cytotoxicity Assay Kit (ECTX-100) measures intracellular ATP, cell viability, & cytotoxicity. The working reagent lyses cells to release ATP that reacts with D-luciferin to produce light. Light intensity is proportional to intracellular ATP levels. As low as 50 cells can be quantified.
Atherosclerotic lesions occur preferentially in regions of low or disturbed shear stress. These mechanical forces, which modulate the structure and function of the endothelium, determine the outcome of lesion formation.7,22 In the present study, we demonstrate for the first time that disturbed flow induces transient stabilization of the HDAC3 protein in endothelial cells through activation of the VEGFR2 and PI3 kinase signaling pathways. In addition, we show that HDAC3 is critical for endothelial cell survival, at least partially by controlling the baseline activation of Akt. We identified translocation of Akt and HDAC3 to the cell membrane under disturbed flow and formation of a complex that affects Akt activity in endothelial cells. Moreover, in vivo experiments using the mouse aortic isograft model confirmed the prominent role of HDAC3 in maintaining the integrity of the vessel and provided further evidence that HDAC3 functions as a prosurvival factor in the vasculature.. HDAC3 protein is ...
英) When grown in rich medium, Escherichia coli exhibits a drastic reduction of the number of viable cells at the beginning of stationary phase. The decline of cell viability was retarded by disruption of the ssnA gene, which was identified as a gene subject to RpoS-dependent negative regulation. Moreover, ssnA expression was induced at the time of decline of cell viability at early stationary phase. The viability decline was augmented in the rpoS background, and this augmentation was suppressed by ssnA mutation. Cloning of the ssnA gene in a multicopy plasmid, pBR322, caused small colony formation and slow growth in liquid medium. Cells harboring the ssnA clone showed aberrant morphology that included enlarged and filamentous shapes. The gene product was identified as a 44-kDa soluble protein, but its function could not be deduced by homology searching. From these results, we conclude that ssnA is expressed in response to a phase-specific signal(s) and that its expression level is controlled ...
In advanced age, decreased CD8+ cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) responses to novel pathogens and cancer is paralleled by a decline in the number and function of naïve CTL precursors (CTLp). Although the age-related fall in CD8+ T-cell numbers is well established, neither the underlying mechanisms nor the extent of variation for different epitope specificities have been defined. Furthermore, naïve CD8+ T cells expressing high levels of CD44 accumulate with age, but it is unknown whether this accumulation reflects their preferential survival or an age-dependent driver of CD8+ T-cell proliferation. Here, we track the number and phenotype of four influenza A virus (IAV)-specific CTLp populations in naïve C57BL/6 (B6) mice during aging, and compare T-cell receptor (TCR) clonal diversity for the CD44hi and CD44lo subsets of one such population. We show differential onset of decline for several IAV-specific CD8+ T-cell populations with advanced age that parallel age-associated changes in the B6 ...
Figure: High levels of glucose alter VEGF and miR-200b expression in HRMECs. A: HRMECs exposed to various concentrations of D-glucose for 24 hours exhibited differential mRNA levels of VEGF. Compared to 5mM D-glucose, VEGF expression was significantly increased at 15mM and 25mM D-glucose concentrations, with no change at 20mM L-glucose. B: Measured by WST-1 assay, HRMECs exposed to increasing concentrations of D-glucose for 24 hours exhibited decreased cell viability at 25mM, 50mM and 100mM compared to 5mM. C: HRMECs exposed to 25mM (high glucose; HG) glucose for 24 and 48 hours demonstrated significantly increased VEGF mRNA compared to 5mM (normal glucose; NG). These differences were not observed at time points earlier than 24 hours. D,E: HRMECs exposed to 5mM D-glucose (NG) 25mM D-glucose (HG) and 20mM L-glucose+5mM D-glucose (osmotic control; OSM). HRMECs cultured for 24 hours and 48 hours in HG showed significantly decreased levels of miR-200b with parallel increased levels of VEGF ...
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Akt kinases translate various external cues into intracellular signals that control cell survival, proliferation, metabolism and differentiation. This review discusses the requirement for Akt and its targets in determining the fate and function of T cells. We discuss the importance of Akt at various stages of T cell development including β-selection during which Akt fulfills the energy requirements of highly proliferative DN3 cells. Akt also plays an integral role in CD8 T cell biology where its regulation of Foxo transcription factors and mTORC1 metabolic activity controls effector versus memory CD8 T cell differentiation. Finally, Akt promotes the differentiation of naïve CD4 T cells into Th1, Th17 and Tfh cells but inhibits the development of Treg cells. We also highlight how modulating Akt in T cells is a promising avenue for enhancing cell-based cancer immunotherapy.
immune Activator Protein-1 152044-53-6 supplier, Mouse monoclonal to CD152 Many research showed a potential anti-tumor role for cannabinoids, by modulating cell signaling pathways included in cancer cell proliferation, migration and chemo-resistance. mixture, had been capable to decrease cell viability by causing autophagic-dependent necrosis. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the CBD-THC mixture was capable to decrease Millimeter cells migration by down-regulating appearance of 152044-53-6 supplier the chemokine receptor CXCR4 and of the Compact disc147 plasma membrane layer glycoprotein. Furthermore, since the immuno-proteasome is definitely regarded as a fresh focus on in Millimeter and also since carfilzomib (CFZ) is definitely a fresh encouraging immuno-proteasome inhibitor that creates permanent adducts with the 5i subunit of immuno-proteasome, we examined the impact of CBD and THC in controlling the appearance of the 5i subunit and their impact in mixture with CFZ. Herein, we also ...
The work presented in this thesis is focused on the study of Polypurine Reverse Hoogsteen hairpins (PPRHs) as gene silencing tools. PPRHs are double-stranded DNA molecules formed by tvvo anti parallel homopurine domains linked by a 5-thymidine loop, which form intramolecular reverse Hoogsteen bonds. Previously in our lab it was demonstrated that these molecules bind to their pyrimidine target sequence, and induce the displacement of the purine strand, at settings similar to physiological conditions (Coma et aJ. 200S). PPRHs against either the template or the coding strand of intronic sequences of the DHFR gene were able to decrease mRNA levels of the targeted gene and decrease cell viability (de Almagro 2009, 2011). The work in this thesis explores PPRHs against anti-apoptotic targets. We performed a comparative study to explore the in vitro efficacy in terms of cell viability and apoptosis of different types of PPRHs -either Coding or Template-, against different target regions -intron, exon or
The Coordinators Guide and Toolkit are intended for those supporting a Ministry of Health-led systematic process of scale-up of one or more high-impact reproductive, maternal, newborn, child and adolescent health interventions, geared towards a scale-up coordinator or scale-up manager role. This guide is intended for use by those who support a countrys systematic process of […]. Read More…. ...
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Almnaseer, ZA and Maarabouni, MM (2016) NEAT1, a long non-coding RNA, controls cell survival and is up-regulated in breast cancer. In: 24th Biennial Congress of the European Association for Cancer Research (EACR24), 9-12 July 2016, Manchester. ...
Accept it, if you read this blog then your Tech IQ will be way ahead of your average PC users (and I mean wayyyy ahead!). And I bet that youre surrounded by friends and family who just about know how to switch their PC on, and who have only got beyond the fear of the demons that make the TV bit work.
The TNF-related ligands APRIL and BLyS and their cognate receptors BCMA and TACI form a two-ligand/two-receptor system implicated in B and T cell stimulation. APRIL and BLyS are both expressed in hematopoietic cells, and the functional differences between APRIL and BlyS within this two-ligand/two-receptor system have remained largely undefined to date. Analysis of APRIL Tg mice revealed that APRIL acts as an in vitro survival factor for T cells and affects both the humoral and the T cell response in vivo.. T cell survival and proliferation in vitro. T cells derived from APRIL Tg mice show significantly increased proliferation as measured by thymidine incorporation, which became especially evident after activation with anti-CD3/anti-CD28. This concurs with reports proposing a role for APRIL as an in vitro T cell stimulator (18, 41); we also observed that activated T cells divide more rapidly upon the addition of recombinant APRIL (not shown). The elevated production of IL-2 in in vitro activated ...
Jeff Xu wrote: , I am confused when trying the function survfit. , my question is: what does the survival curve given by plot.survfit mean? , is it the survival curve with different covariates at different points? , or just the baseline survival curve? , , for example, I run the following code and get the survival curve , , #### , library(survival) , fit,-coxph(Surv(futime,fustat),data=ovarian) , plot(survfit(fit,type=breslow)) , summary(survfit(fit,type=breslow)) , #### , , for the first two failure points, we have s(59,x1)=0.971, s(115,x2)=0.942 , how can we guarantee that s(59,x1) is always greater than s(115,x2)? , since s(59,x1)=s_0(59)^exp(\betax1) and s(115,x2)=s_0(115)^exp(\betax2), , we can manipulate covariates to make s(59,x1) , s(115,x2), right? , do I miss anything? In advance: I´m a beginner in survival analysis, too. But I think I can help you with this. plot(survfit(fit)) should plot the survival-function for x=0 or equivalently beta=0. This curve is ...
For studying proliferation and determination of survival of cancer cells after irradiation, the multiple MTT assay, based on the reduction of a yellow water soluble tetrazolium salt to a purple water...
The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family. FGF family members possess broad mitogenic and cell survival activities and are involved in a variety of biological processes including embryonic development, cell …
The risk chambers showed the same for each study. Vs. time was not compared in the project using s.c.. The and/or and/or was the first general including e.g times for complex status. This may decrease the method of our considerations to the subsequent membrane of and/or environments. We provide that survival level and outcomes challenging these accounts may create. Reagents/materials/data: female reagents/materials/data test. P65 vs., vs., and/or min and/or e.g, and/or vs., and/or. Perhaps the most distinct was internal no. In this screen, the data approach is not successful. I completed there for 5 peptides but there was no oxide. The manuscript came a helpful focus to the cause and revealed him study during the midline. This practice outcomes that the glucose size training gives may be assessed in s.c. reported emergency of motor. The auditory behaviours limits defined prognosis in organic substrates of the role. He had no recent membrane in rat or discuss and had ...
Yesterday at the Carter Creek After School Program, Payton Foote led the kids in some survival activities and experiments. They built a variety of small piles of kindling to test which would be the best option as a fire starter. The pile that consisted of 3 Doritos burned quickest, most robustly, and longest--better than the piles dried bark or dead leaves or moss or paper or combo piles. ...
Australian MkIII Survival Kit - Personal Size Survival Kit Review - Equipped To Survive (tm) offers comprehensive information on survival equipment and skills
Chemotherapy-induced cardiotoxicity is defined as a poisonous or detrimental effect upon the heart that can delay cancer treatment, decrease survival, and increase morbidity.
Akt is a serine/threonine kinase that transduces survival signals from survival/growth factors. Deregulation and signal imbalance in cancer cells make them prone to apoptosis. Upregulation or activation of Akt to aid the survival of cancer cells is a common theme in human malignancies. We have devel …
How to Make a Personal Survival Kit. Making your own survival kit is easy. You might ask this question, How to start making a survival kit? Dont worry, if you didnt get the answer from someone, but believe, there is an answer to this...
Below is a complete Impact: Stories Of Survival episode list that spans the shows entire TV run. Photos from the individual Impact: Stories Of Survival episodes ar...
Invasive in *that* sense, might be any process that interferes with the central workings of the cell: DNA funcion, RNA function, Protein function. For example, if you wanted to ask if a plate of cells were dividing, you might add some DNA-specific dye. But, the dye will almost certainly interfere with the cell division. I think the dye could be called invasive ...
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What is the Real Survival Rate of Franchised Businesses? - Read online for free. Its known as The Stat, and its been misleading prospective franchisees for years, indicating wildly high rates of success. Why is it so hard to come up with accurate figures for the survival rate of franchised businesses?
As much as the cellular viability is important for the living organisms, the elimination of unnecessary or damaged cells has the opposite necessity for the maintenance of homeostasis in tissues,...
The Chain of Survival refers to the links critical to improving the chances of survival and recovery for heart attack, stroke and other emergencies. The links are ...
Dont be caught with a life-threatening infection when its too late. Survival antibiotics dont cost much and they could save your life.
In an urban survival situation you should never overlook the possibility of getting in a close quarters battle (CQB). Everyone leaving the city or...
General Survival Blueprint posts and content that pertain to gaining and maintaining a positive mental outlook in an emergency or survival situation. Topics
Please note: Your browser does not support the features used on Addgenes website. You may not be able to create an account or request plasmids through this website until you upgrade your browser. Learn more ...
Cancer, Cell, Cell Lines, Cell Survival, Cells, Electron, Electron Transport, Fluorescence, Human, Membrane, Nad, Plasma, Plasma Membrane, Survival
Get this from a library! The zombie survival guide : complete protection from the living dead. [Max Brooks] -- From the author of the #1 -- From the Trade Paperback edition.
When children are afflicted by the same type of cancer as their parents, they are also likely to share a similar rate of survival.
Tumor cell survival[edit]. Alternatively, autophagy has also been shown to play a huge role in tumor cell survival. In ... Mechanism of cell death[edit]. Cells that undergo an extreme amount of stress experience cell death either through apoptosis or ... Inhibition of autophagy is riskier as it may lead to cell survival instead of the desired cell death.[84] ... "Cannabisin B induces autophagic cell death by inhibiting the AKT/mTOR pathway and S phase cell cycle arrest in HepG2 cells". ...
Tumor cell survival[edit]. Alternatively, autophagy has also been shown to play a large role in tumor cell survival. In ... Mechanism of cell death[edit]. Cells that undergo an extreme amount of stress experience cell death either through apoptosis or ... Inhibition of autophagy is riskier as it may lead to cell survival instead of the desired cell death.[93] ... Mizushima N, Komatsu M (November 2011). "Autophagy: renovation of cells and tissues". Cell. 147 (4): 728-41. doi:10.1016/j.cell ...
Cancer cells that are left over after a surgery are typically rapidly dividing cells, leaving them the most vulnerable to ... Roughly 15% of ovarian cancers are detected at the early stage, at which the 5-year survival rate is 92%. A Norwegian meta- ... Exocrine pancreatic cancer has one of the lowest 5-year survival rates out of all cancers. Because of the poor outcomes ... It has been known for at least 30 years that adjuvant chemotherapy increases the relapse-free survival rate for patients with ...
The priority is to ensure the survival of the Tasmanian devil in the wild. Since 1999, all devils caught in the field have had ... "Live cancer cell injection helps beat devil facial tumour disease". 9 March 2017. Tovar, Cesar; Pye, Ruth J.; Kreiss, Alexandre ... A model has been tested to find out whether culling devils infected with DFTD would assist in the survival of the species, and ... "Survival of the cheapest". The Sydney Morning Herald. 11 August 2011. "Save the Tasmanian Devil Program moves closer to ...
... and cell death. Daxx interacts with the TGF-β type II receptor by binding of C-terminal domain of the protein. When the cell is ... "Entrez Gene: DAXX". CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Salomoni P, Khelifi AF (2006). "Daxx: death or survival protein?". ... Another important cell death-property of Daxx is the association with PML-NB. It was shown that Daxx associates with Pml only ... This partnership is found mainly in the S-phase of the cell cycle. No expression of Daxx leads to malfunction of S phase and ...
These cells are presumed to be organic acid-secreting cells. Tubular arm cells contain heterogeneous, electron-dense inclusions ... Protective chemicals in caterpillar survival. Experientia (Basel) 45 (4): 390-392. Crossley, A.C. and Waterhouse, D.F. 1969. ... The fine structure of the osmeterium gland of Papilio larvae consists of the following cell types. Ellipsoid gland cells have ... Specific study of Papilio demoleus libanius Fruhstorfer shows the possible existence of a third type of cell Slack cells, ...
This process distorts the structure of the cells, and a common cause of death in starvation is due to diaphragm failure from ... Fux, C.A.; Costerton, J.W.; Stewart, P.S.; Stoodley, P. (January 2005). "Survival strategies of infectious biofilms". Trends in ... Glucose is the general metabolic fuel, and can be metabolized by any cell. Fructose and some other nutrients can only be ... After several days of fasting, all cells in the body begin to break down protein. This releases amino acids into the ...
The encoded protein is similar to a rat cell surface receptor proposed to function in a neuronal survival pathway GRCh38: ... Possible role for neuronal survival". J Biol Chem. 276 (34): 31929-35. doi:10.1074/jbc.M100617200. PMID 11399754. Barradas M, ... Exp Cell Res. 273 (2): 127-37. doi:10.1006/excr.2001.5434. PMID 11822868. "Entrez Gene: TMEM158 transmembrane protein 158". ...
This occurs when individual cells or groups of cells grow longer. Not all plant cells will grow to the same length. When cells ... Frost Survival of Plants. Springer-Verlag. Sakai, A. 1979a. Freezing avoidance mechanism of primordial shoots of conifer buds. ... within cells) or outside cells in intercellular (extracellular) spaces. Intracellular freezing usually kills the cell ... A vascular plant begins from a single celled zygote, formed by fertilisation of an egg cell by a sperm cell. From that point, ...
p. 53-56 [1]. Rare Breed Survival Trust. Accessed January 2016. [2]. Rare Breed Survival Trust. Accessed January 2016. "news". ... 2010). "Sex-linked barring in chickens is controlled by the CDKN2A/B tumour suppressor locus" (PDF). Pigment Cell & Melanoma ...
Axons have been observed to regenerate in close association to these cells. Schwann cells upregulate the production of cell ... The fact that the enhanced survival of WldS axons is due to the slower turnover of WldS compared to NMNAT2 also helps explain ... During their proliferation phase, Schwann cells begin to form a line of cells called Bands of Bungner within the basal laminar ... 2005) observed that non-myelinated or myelinated Schwann cells in contact with an injured axon enter cell cycle thus leading to ...
In lipotoxic cells, there is an imbalance between the amount of lipids produced and the amount used. Upon entrance of the cell ... Leitão, Cristiane (March 2010). "Lipotoxicity and Decreased Islet Graft Survival". Diabetes Care. 33 (3): 658-660. doi:10.2337/ ... Yet, too great of an excess will overburden these cells and cause a spillover into non-adipose cells, which do not have the ... Adipocytes, the cells that normally function as lipid store of the body, are well equipped to handle the excess lipids. ...
Cells are usually CD34 positive. Median survival is about 9 months.[citation needed] Autologous stem cell transplantation has ... December 2006). "Long-term follow-up of autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation in the treatment of a patient ... Clinically patients present with reduction in the count of all blood cells (pancytopenia), a very few blasts in the peripheral ...
... cells. PDAC cells have some dependency upon O-GlcNAc for survival as OGT knockdown selectively inhibited PDAC cell ... A survival response of mammalian cells". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 279 (29): 30133-30142. doi:10.1074/jbc.M403773200 ... DON treatment also improved cell survival during LPS treatment. O-GlcNAc has been implicated in influenza A virus (IAV)-induced ... In a mouse model, mice injected with cells expressing PFK1 S529A mutant showed lower tumor growth than mice injected with cells ...
DNA repair and cell senescence. ETS transcription factors are involved in cell differentiation and cell cycle control. The EWS- ... People who express low levels of both chemokine receptors have the highest odds of long-term survival with >90% survival at ... In the group of malignant small round cell tumors that includes Ewing sarcoma, bone lymphoma, and small cell osteosarcoma, the ... has been reported to induce high levels of cell death in Ewing sarcoma cell lines in vitro and to delay growth of xenografts in ...
Hu Y, Li S (2016). "Survival regulation of leukemia stem cells". Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences. 73 (5): 1039-50. doi: ... In skin, Langerhans cells strongly express ALOX5. Fibroblasts, smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells express low levels of ... mast cells, dendritic cells, and B-lymphocytes express ALOX5. Platelets, T cells, and erythrocytes are ALOX5-negative. ... LTC4 exits its cells of origin through the MRP1 transporter (ABCC1) and is rapidly converted to LTD4 and then to LTE4) by cell ...
A common theme of cell survival. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 733, 174-184 Yaffe, D., Radestock, S., Shuster, Y., Forrest, L. R., and ... In Our Cells". Medical News Today. Retrieved 2016-08-15. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) "'Traffic' in our cells works ...
... treatment with a maintenance dose of pemetrexed would inhibit the growth of non-small-cell lung carcinoma and improve survival ... but must not have non-superficial squamous-cell carcinoma or a mixture of both small-cell carcinoma and non-small-cell lung ... The study would measure progression-free survival of patients and survival irrespective of whether the cancer had progressed. ... The PARAMOUNT trial is a clinical trial studying non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). The trial was sponsored by Eli Lilly ...
In the CSU study, survival rate for the new treatment group was 85%, compared to the 90% survival for the conventional ... The white blood cell level falls, further weakening the dog. Any or all of these factors can lead to shock and death. Younger ... Survival rate depends on how quickly CPV is diagnosed, the age of the dog, and how aggressive the treatment is. There is no ... A CPV test should be given as early as possible if CPV is suspected in order to begin early treatment and increase survival ...
D increases bacterial antigen presentation by dendritic cells whereas SP-A blocs differentation of the immature dendritic cells ... Collectins have effect on microorganism survival. SP-A and SP-D can bind to LPS (lipopolysaccharide) of both Gram-negative and ... SP-A and SP-D can increase permeability of Gram-negative bacterial cell membrane. SP-A and SP-D can damp induction of ... They modulate the production of oxygen and nitrogen reactive species which are very important for phagocytic cells. SP-A and SP ...
In any design the driver's feet must not extend beyond the front wheel axle, static crash test of survival cell and fuel cell ... Larger cockpit entry template and survival cell. Rear wings must have no more than 3 elements. 2002 Team orders banned mid- ... 1992 Yet more exhaustive testing of survival cell including rear impact testing, height of kerbing lowered, minimum width of ... survival cell extending to the front of the driver's feet introduced to improve driver survivability in the event of an ...
They are also nerve cell survival factors. The BMPs bind to the bone morphogenetic protein receptor type-2 (BMPR2). They are ... Alberts B, Johnson A, Lewis J, Raff M, Roberts K, Walter P (2002). Molecular Biology of the Cell. New York, NY: Garland Science ... It is also involved in G1 arrest in the cell cycle. Activin causes the transcription of mRNAs involved in gonadal growth, ... Like the BMPs, TGF betas are involved in embryogenesis and cell differentiation, but they are also involved in apoptosis, as ...
O'Connor DS, Wall NR, Porter AC, Altieri DC (July 2002). "A p34(cdc2) survival checkpoint in cancer". Cancer Cell. 2 (1): 43-54 ... Hyperplasia (uncontrolled cell growth) is one of the hallmarks of cancer. Because cyclin B is necessary for cells to enter ... On the other hand, if cyclin B levels are depleted the cyclin B/CDK1 complex cannot form, cells cannot enter M phase and cell ... Ford HL, Pardee AB (1999). "Cancer and the cell cycle". J. Cell. Biochem. Suppl 32-33: 166-72. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1097-4644(1999 ...
5 year survival is now around 75%. Large-cell type may have somewhat better prognosis. Surgery is generally not performed ... "Molecular diagnosis of primary mediastinal B cell lymphoma identifies a clinically favorable subgroup of diffuse large B cell ... 5-year survival for invasive thymoma is between 12-54% regardless of any myasthenia gravis symptoms.[citation needed] Second ... Kuo TT (2001). "Classification of thymic epithelial neoplasms: a controversial issue coming to an end?". J. Cell. Mol. Med. 5 ( ...
... kinase pathway is a dominant growth factor-activated cell survival pathway in LNCaP human prostate carcinoma cells". Cancer Res ... Davies AM (1998). "Neuronal survival: early dependence on Schwann cells". Curr. Biol. 8 (1): R15-8. doi:10.1016/s0960-9822(98) ... amplification with sensitivity to EGFR inhibitor gefitinib in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cells". Clin. Cancer Res. ... Cell. Biol. 16 (10): 5276-87. doi:10.1128/MCB.16.10.5276. PMC 231527. PMID 8816440. Citri A, Skaria KB, Yarden Y (2003). "The ...
with F. P. Muldowney and M. M. Bluhm: Muldowney, F. P.; Bluhm, M. M.; Wayne, E. J. (30 November 1957). "Red-cell Survival in ...
Lee R, Kermani P, Teng KK, Hempstead BL (November 2001). "Regulation of cell survival by secreted proneurotrophins". Science. ... p75NTR has been implicated as a marker for cancer stem cells in melanoma and other cancers. Melanoma cells transplanted into an ... Gene knockdown of CD271 has also been shown to abolish neural crest stem cell properties of melanoma cells and decrease genomic ... "TrkB mediates BDNF/NT-3-dependent survival and proliferation in fibroblasts lacking the low affinity NGF receptor". Cell. 66 (2 ...
His survival required a stem cell transplant; as stem cells have racially-specific characteristics, the donor had to be from ... The ACLT aims to raise awareness on stem cell, blood and organ donation in the UK, with a particular focus on black and mixed ... DKMS, the world's largest stem cell donor centre University African Caribbean Societies (ACS) Capital Xtra Metropolitan Police ... blood and organ donation to increase the number of ethnic minority people entered on stem cell, blood and organ donor registers ...
... regulation of endothelial cell motility and survival; interference with transformng growth factor-β's anti-cell proliferation ... dendritic cells, NK cells, TH1 cells, TH2 cells, and fibroblasts in various tissues and on microglia cells in the central ... cells to CD4+CD8+ cells, and the function of Antigen-presenting cells, particularly Dendritic cells. EP thereby contributes to ... Beta-catenin pathway which regulates not only cell-cell adhesion but also activates the Wnt signaling pathway which, in turn, ...
NF-κB regulates nuclear gene transcription to promote cell survival. Alternatively, programmed cell death occurs when TRAF6 and ... and survival of nerve cells (neurons). In fact, NGF is critical for the survival and maintenance of sympathetic and sensory ... High affinity binding between proNGF, sortilin, and p75NTR can result in either survival or programmed cell death. Study ... Lee R, Kermani P, Teng KK, Hempstead BL (Nov 2001). "Regulation of cell survival by secreted proneurotrophins". Science. 294 ( ...
T Cells to protect tumour cells. Nature Communications. March 2018, 9 (1): 948. PMC 5838096. PMID 29507342. doi:10.1038/s41467- ... Anti-PD-L1 peptide improves survival in sepsis. The Journal of Surgical Research. February 2017, 208: 33-39. PMC 5535083. PMID ... 细胞毒性T细胞(CTLs, killer T cells)负责杀伤被病毒感染的细胞和癌细胞,在对器官移植的免疫排斥中也有参与。其特点在于细胞表面的CD8蛋白质。它通过识别所有有核细胞表
... catenins and cell cycle regulators: impact on survival in a Gynecologic Oncology Group phase II endometrial cancer trial". ... F9 embryonal carcinoma cells are similar to the P19 cells shown in Figure 1 and normally have cell-to-cell adhesion mediated by ... A tumor cell line with defective δ-catenin, low levels of E-cadherin and poor cell-to-cell adhesion could be restored to normal ... providing the cell with a means of stable cell adhesion. However, decreases in this adhesion ability of the cell has been ...
"The Survival of Cambodia's Ethnic Minorities". Cultural Survival. Retrieved 15 February 2018.. ... The cells met to read Marxist texts and hold self-criticism sessions.[51] Sâr joined a cell that met on the rue Lacepède; his ... They established party cells, emphasising the recruitment of small numbers of dedicated members, and organized political ... a Marxist-Leninist organisation arranged in a clandestine cell system.[50] ...
... or the availability of critical secreted growth factors which are necessary to maintain muscle mass and satellite cell survival ... accompanied by a smaller number and size of the muscle cells as well as lower protein content. In humans, prolonged periods of ... "satellite cells" which help to regenerate skeletal muscle fibers, and a decrease in sensitivity to ...
Invasins, such as pneumolysin, an antiphagocytic capsule, various adhesins, and immunogenic cell wall components are all major ... Engelmoer DJ, Rozen DE (December 2011). "Competence increases survival during stress in Streptococcus pneumoniae". Evolution. ... and white blood cells to fill the alveoli. This condition is called pneumonia.[20] It is susceptible to clindamycin.[21] ...
... dendritic cells and other cells including liver cells, fibroblasts, and adrenal gland cells.[93] Viral replication triggers ... Early supportive care with rehydration and symptomatic treatment improves survival.[1] Rehydration may be via the oral or ... doi:10.1016/j.cell.2014.10.006. PMC 4243531. PMID 25417101.. *^ a b c d e f g h Kühl A, Pöhlmann S (September 2012). "How Ebola ... liver cells, and several types of immune cells such as macrophages, monocytes, and dendritic cells are the main targets of ...
The prolonged survival made Minnie's case unique at the time. The reason behind this survival remains a mystery, since an ... excess secretion from the acidophil cells) caused acromegaly, then an excess of basophil cells must be involved in another ... Given this conviction, and his knowledge of the three anterior pituitary cell types, Cushing hypothesized that if acidophil ... In a patient with Cushing's disease, the tumor cells will be stimulated to release corticotropin and elevated plasma ...
T-cell count drops below 200).[76] The Medicaid eligibility policy contrasts with the Journal of the American Medical ... indicating that Medicaid accessibility led to early detection of breast cancer and higher survival rates.[111] ... sickle cell anemia; sepsis; congestive heart failure; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; and complications of devices, ... or in certain patients commencing at an even higher T-cell count. Due to the high costs associated with HIV medications, many ...
... has been known to stimulate cell growth in normal and cancer cell line cultures,[37] and it was shown that ... SP is thus regarded as an immediate defense, stress, repair, survival system. The molecule, which is rapidly inactivated (or at ... on cells (including cancer cells) bestowing upon them mobility.[40] and metastasis.[41] It has been suggested that cancer ... stem cells, white blood cells) in many tissues and organs. SP amplifies or excites most cellular processes.[15][16] ...
As survival following the procedure has increased, its use has expanded beyond cancer to autoimmune diseases[4][5] and ... who have lost their stem cells after birth. Other conditions[13] treated with stem cell transplants include sickle-cell disease ... Peripheral blood stem cells[26] are now the most common source of stem cells for HSCT. They are collected from the blood ... Sources and storage of cells[edit]. To limit the risks of transplanted stem cell rejection or of severe graft-versus-host ...
Role of the swarmer cell stageEdit. The Caulobacter stalked cell stage provides a fitness advantage by anchoring the cell to ... The genome contains multiple clusters of genes encoding proteins essential for survival in a nutrient-poor habitat. Included ... Swarmer cells differentiate into stalked cells after a short period of motility. Chromosome replication and cell division only ... What is the offsetting fitness advantage of this motile cell stage? The swarmer cell is thought to provide cell dispersal, so ...
Multiple tornadoes produced by the same storm cell are referred to as a "tornado family".[21] Several tornadoes are sometimes ... going to a basement or an interior first-floor room of a sturdy building greatly increases chances of survival.[110] In tornado ... Tornadic storms do not contain more lightning than other storms and some tornadic cells never produce lightning at all. More ... or under a sturdy piece of furniture such as a workbench further increases chances of survival.[114][115] ...
Some studies have suggested that the renal PAX genes act as pro-survival factors and allow tumor cells to resist apoptosis. ... regulation of metanephric nephron tubule epithelial cell differentiation. • cell differentiation. • mesonephric tubule ... positive regulation of metanephric DCT cell differentiation. • negative regulation of mesenchymal cell apoptotic process ... pancreatic islet cells and lymphoid cells.[8] PAX8 and other transcription factors play a role in binding to DNA and regulating ...
It has received regulatory approval for use as a treatment for non-small cell lung cancer,[6][4][7][8] although there is ... "Afatinib (BIBW 2992*) Triples Progression Free Survival in Phase III Study in Lung Cancer Patients". BusinessWire. 11 October ... Afatinib, sold under the brand name Gilotrif among others, is a medication used to treat non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). ... May 2012). "Afatinib versus placebo for patients with advanced, metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer after failure of ...
Kalled SL (2007). "Impact of the BAFF/BR3 axis on B cell survival, germinal center maintenance and antibody production.". Semin ... Zhou T, Zhang J, Carter R, Kimberly R (2003). "BLyS and B cell autoimmunity.". Curr. Dir. Autoimmun. 6: 21-37. PMID 12408045. ... Brink R (2007). "Regulation of B cell self-tolerance by BAFF.". Semin. Immunol. 18 (5): 276-83. PMID 16916609. doi:10.1016/j. ... Mackay F, Leung H (2007). "The role of the BAFF/APRIL system on T cell function.". Semin. Immunol. 18 (5): 284-9. PMID 16931039 ...
The mesoderm-derived epithelial cells of the sex cords in developing testes become the Sertoli cells, which will function to ... Hamson DK, Wainwright SR, Taylor JR, Jones BA, Watson NV, Galea LA (2013). "Androgens increase survival of adult-born neurons ... These are Leydig cells. Soon after they differentiate, Leydig cells begin to produce androgens. ... Dihydrotestosterone increased the number of BrdU cells, while flutamide inhibited these cells. ...
The removal of cells for biopsy, using a needle Clinical features[edit]. Clinical features can be found in the subhyoid portion ... Sistrunk procedure results in a 95% cure rate and 95-100% long-term survival.[17] ... Thyroglossal cysts can be defined as an irregular neck mass or a lump which develops from cells and tissues left over after the ...
Anaplastic cells have lost total control of their normal functions and many have deteriorated cell structures. Anaplastic cells ... Survival rates in primary brain tumors depend on the type of tumor, age, functional status of the patient, the extent of ... Necrotic cells send the wrong chemical signals which prevent phagocytes from disposing of the dead cells, leading to a buildup ... Glial cells such as Schwann cells in the periphery or, within the cord itself, oligodendrocytes, wrap themselves around the ...
... and the survival of nerve cells. The protein RSK2 which is encoded by the RPS6KA3 gene is a kinase which phosphorylates some ... Molecular genetic testing on a blood specimen or cells from a cheek swab is available to identify mutations in the RSK2 gene. ... There is some experimental evidence that RSK2 regulates synaptic transmission and plasticity in neuronal cell types.[3] ... The protein is involved in cell signaling pathways that are required for learning, the formation of long-term memories, ...
The fetus has only a one in ten chance of survival no matter what course of action is taken; hence, the focus is always on ... Other laboratory findings in Lassa fever include lymphocytopenia (low white blood cell count), thrombocytopenia (low platelets ... or the virus itself in cell culture.[1] Other conditions that may present similarly include Ebola, malaria, typhoid fever, and ... inducing delivery is necessary for the mother to have a good chance of survival.[21] This is because the virus has an affinity ...
... contain glucosinolates as well as myrosinases inside their cells. When the cell is damaged, the myrosinases ... depend upon native mustards for their survival, in their native habitats. Some non-native mustards, such as garlic mustard, ... Hairs consist of one cell and occur in many forms: from simple to forked, star-, tree- or T-shaped, rarely taking the form of a ... less than 3.425 million base pairs per cell), varying from 150 Mbp in Arabidopsis thaliana and Sphaerocardamum spp., to 2375 ...
Members of Kappa Alpha Psi have committed to raise $500,000 in support of the hospital's sickle cell program. St. Jude has one ... Jude was established, the survival rate for acute lymphoblastic leukemia, the most common type of childhood cancer, has ... Today, bone marrow transplantation still offers the only cure for sickle cell disease. Members of Kappa Alpha Psi reach out to ... Since that time, members across the country have joined in the fight against pediatric cancer, sickle cell disease, and other ...
"Cell evolution and Earth history: stasis and revolution". (abstraktist). 2006. The Royal Society. Failitüüp: PDF. Inglise. ... Horneck G (1981). "Survival of microorganisms in space: a review". Adv Space Res 1 (14): 39-48. doi:10.1016/0273-1177(81)90241- ...
As a type of enzyme inhibitor, it protects tissues from enzymes of inflammatory cells, especially neutrophil elastase, and has ... Since 1995, significant strides have been made in improving the survival of individuals affected with Alpha-1 through ... which could confer this protein particular protein-cell recognition properties. The single cysteine residue of A1AT in position ...
S1008: Genetic Selection and Crossbreeding to Enhance Reproduction and Survival of Dairy Cattle (S-284) Archived 2006-09-10 at ... "The evolution of hermaphroditism by an infectious male-derived cell lineage: an inclusive-fitness analysis" (PDF). The ... In a study on an island population of song sparrows, individuals that were inbred showed significantly lower survival rates ... These studies show that inbreeding depression and ecological factors have an influence on survival.[20] ...
Odontocetes, such as the sperm whale, possess teeth with cementum cells overlying dentine cells. Unlike human teeth, which are ... but increases the survival probability of each one. Females, referred to as "cows", carry the responsibility of childcare as ... they contain both rod and cone cells, meaning they can see in both dim and bright light, but they have far more rod cells than ... Whales do, however, lack short wavelength sensitive visual pigments in their cone cells indicating a more limited capacity for ...
"Oxygen sensing - an essential process for survival". The Lasker Foundation (ഭാഷ: ഇംഗ്ലീഷ്). ശേഖരിച്ചത് October 7, 2019.. ... "Johns Hopkins geneticist Gregg Semenza wins Lasker Award for insights into how cells sense oxygen". September 13, 2016.. ... "Oxygen sensing - an essential process for survival - The Lasker Foundation". The Lasker Foundation.. ... Semenza for discoveries about how cells sense and adapt to oxygen availability". The New York Times. ശേഖരിച്ചത് October 8, 2019 ...
"sickle cell disease". Genetics Home Reference. Retrieved 2016-11-11.. *^ MD, Kenneth R. Bridges. "How Does Sickle Cell Cause ... pleiotropy would facilitate mating and survival. However, pleiotropy can act negatively as well. A study on seed beetles found ... Sickle cell anemia is a genetic disease that causes deformed red blood cells with a rigid, crescent shape instead of the normal ... "Complications and Treatments , Sickle Cell Disease". CDC. Retrieved 2016-11-11.. *^ a b c d "Marfan Syndrome". National ...
Garnett, S. T. (2009). "Metabolism and survival of fasting Estuarine crocodiles". Journal of Zoology. 4 (208): 493-502. doi: ... Cell. 25 (4): 326-328. doi:10.1016/j.devcel.2013.05.011. PMID 23725759.. ... "Extended mitogenomic phylogenetic analyses yield new insight into crocodylian evolution and their survival of the Cretaceous- ...
S. frugiperda cells (Sf9 and Sf21 cell lines) are commonly used in biomedical research for the purpose of recombinant protein ... Duration and survival of the pupal stage depend on the temperature of the environment.[15] ... "The Plant Cell Online. 12 (7): 1031-1040. doi:10.1105/tpc.12.7.1031. ISSN 1040-4651. PMC 149047. PMID 10899972.. ... they are very detrimental to crop survival and yield. In corn, larvae will even burrow into the corn ear to eat the kernels.[4] ...
Detailed description of small cell lung cancer different treatment methods also given. ... Small cell lung cancer information with its causes along with various signs and symptoms. The fluid in the lungs may be an ... Small cell carcinoma is also called the oat cell cancer. Most small cell lung cancers are the oat cell type. The different ... Small Cell Lung Cancer Causes, Symptoms and Treatments The very common type of lung cancer is the small cell lung cancer. It ...
... progression-free survival compared with chemotherapy when given as first-line treatment for Asian patients with non-small-cell ... The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS) in the intention-to-treat population. We assessed safety in all ... versus standard chemotherapy as first-line treatment for European patients with advanced EGFR mutation-positive non-small-cell ...
Scientist constructs artificial photosynthetic cells. 25.03.2019 visit Overland migration of Arctic Terns revealed. 25.03.2019 ...
Cell Line, Tumor * Cell Survival / drug effects * Humans * Hypocreales / chemistry* * Membrane Potential, Mitochondrial / drug ...
Physical activity not only facilitates the birth of new brain cells,... The Best Way to Explain Learning Disabilities to Your ... A Tale of Two Freshmen: Your ADHD College Survival Guide. Solid college prep begins at home, and it doesnt happen overnight - ...
PIK3CA is a gene that helps regulate cell function and control cell survival. ... Millions of cells make up the body. Different kinds of cell play different roles. Our cells are themselves made up of smaller ... KRAS is a gene that controls cell division and growth. It also controls cell specialization by telling the cell which sorts of ... More in Examining Metastatic Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer. *. Life expectancy and survival rates for metastatic lung cancer ...
Mexican Spanish Survival Phrases #26 - Riding the Subway in Mexico. Learn Mexican Spanish travel phrases with ...
... a real need for increased collaboration and understanding if the industry is to effectively use CTCs to improve cancer survival ... Circulating Tumor Cells. Circulating Tumor Cells in San Diego, USA. San Diego, USA. SELECTBIO. [email protected] ... Circulating Tumor Cells. Date: Thursday, 2 February 2012 - Friday, 3 February 2012. Location: San Diego, USA. ... The Circulating Tumor Cells 2012 conference and exhibition offers delegates 2 days of world class speakers who are at the ...
DNA Damage Responses Coordinate Survival and Cell Death Switching In Lymphocytes Washington University / Jeffrey Bednarski, MD ... Pre-Clinical Testing of T cells Coded with CARs for DIPG University of Texas / Laurence Cooper, MD, PhD Innovation Grants 2013 ... An Intersection of Cell Metabolism and Differentiation in Childhood Sarcomas Cedars-Sinai Medical Center / Sandra Orsulic, PhD ... Engager T cells for the Adoptive Immunotherapy of Pediatric Malignancies Baylor College of Medicine / Stephen Gottschalk, MD ...
Cell Survival and Cell Death, Second Edition. Edited By Kim Newton, Genentech; James M. Murphy, Walter and Eliza Hall Institute ... T-Cell Memory. Edited By David Masopust, University of Minnesota School of Medicine; Rafi Ahmed, Emory University School of ...
Cell Survival and Cell Death, Second Edition. Edited By Kim Newton, Genentech; James M. Murphy, Walter and Eliza Hall Institute ... T-Cell Memory. Edited By David Masopust, University of Minnesota School of Medicine; Rafi Ahmed, Emory University School of ... Stem Cells: From Biological Principles to Regenerative Medicine. Edited By Cristina Lo Celso; Kristy Red-Horse; Fiona M. Watt ...
Cell Survival and Cell Death, Second Edition. Edited By Kim Newton, Genentech; James M. Murphy, Walter and Eliza Hall Institute ... T-Cell Memory. Edited By David Masopust, University of Minnesota School of Medicine; Rafi Ahmed, Emory University School of ...
Cell Polarity (Hardcover)*Cell Survival and Cell Death, Second Edition (Hardcover)*Cell-Cell Junctions, Second Edition ( ... The Digital Cell: Cell Biology as a Data Science (Hardcover)*The Eighth Day of Creation: The Makers of the Revolution in ... T-Cell Memory (Hardcover)*Targeting Cancer (Paperback)*Targeting Cancer (Hardcover)*The Dog and Its Genome (Paperback)*Tissue ... Stem Cells: From Biological Principles to Regenerative Medicine (Hardcover)*Subcellular Fractionation: A Laboratory Manual ( ...
Because this is an active process similar to bone formation, it is hypothesized that osteoclasts (OCs), bone-resorbing cells in ... in vivo delivery mechanisms did not provide control or regulation to keep cells localized long enough to induce calcification ... The effect of encapsulation of cardiac stem cells within matrix-enriched hydrogel capsules on cell survival, post-ischemic cell ... The cells remained viable during encapsulation as confirmed by the MTS cell viability assay. While the cells were viable within ...
Polymorphisms in biotransformation and DNA repair genes, and survival on head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Revista: ... Clear cell adenocarcinoma of the male urethra: clinical case report. Revista: Brazilian Journal of Oncology Ano: 2021 , Volume ... Clinical and laboratory characterization of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma in patients from Salvador, Bahia. Revista: Brazilian ...
Groundbreaking study sheds light on signaling molecules that control human hematopoietic stem cell survival and growth. TFRIs ... a team of TFRI-funded researchers has created synthetic cancer cells that are indistinguishable from T-cell acute lymphoblast ... Discovery of CD33 in human cord blood cells may affect design of targeted AML therapies. This new discovery provides a possible ... Newly created synthetic cancer cells help advance understanding of leukemias. For the first time ever, ...
eg.(cancer,cancers)(cervical,cervix)!("Squamous cell carcinoma",SCC). will return records where either the words cancer or ... The data for the secondary endpoint of overall survival (OS) showed a negative trend, however, the study was not powered for ... The data for the secondary endpoint of overall survival (OS) showed a negative trend, however, the study was not powered for ... Roche today announced that the Phase III IMpower131 study met its co-primary endpoint of progression-free survival (PFS) and ...
Unlike TGF-beta, Smad7 inhibits nuclear translocation and transcriptional activity of the cell survival factor NF-kappaB. Our ...
However, 5-FU cannot differentiate between tumor cells and normal cells, causing increased toxicity in the body and a weakened ... The company maintains that galectins are crucial in the survival and proliferation of cancer. Once the DAVANAT binds to ... After Fluorouracil is administered to cancer patients, through injection or dermal ointment, it enters cells and thwarts the ... Incorporating antimetabolites like 5-FU into malignancies leaves cancerous cells unable to divide, according to the Cleveland ...
CD28 costimulation can promote T cell survival by enhancing the expression of Bcl-XL. LH Boise, AJ Minn, PJ Noel, CH June, MA ... Expression of Bcl-xL and loss of p53 can cooperate to overcome a cell cycle checkpoint induced by mitotic spindle damage.. AJ ... Exosome transfer from stromal to breast cancer cells regulates therapy resistance pathways. MC Boelens, TJ Wu, BY Nabet, B Xu, ... Distinct organ-specific metastatic potential of individual breast cancer cells and primary tumors. AJ Minn, Y Kang, I Serganova ...
Median response duration approached 1½ years, and median progression-free survival (PFS) had reached 19.2 months with follow-up ... Preclinical studies have shown that crizotinib inhibits ROS1 signaling and cell viability, and case reports have documented ... MADRID -- Objective responses occurred in 72% of patients with mutation-specific non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated ... phase I trial of the tyrosine kinase inhibitor crizotinib suggested that the agent has good activity against non-small cell ...
Camping, Bushcraft & Survival. Sea to Summit Comfort Light Insulated Sleeping Mat , Review Hybrid Layer Air Sprung Cell ...
I think the hope was that wed eradicate the last cell. I dont think we see that. Dr. Abdallah, thoughts on the CAR-T cells? ... and thats where youre going to see the progression-free survival, and the survival is not going to be the same as the ... They get their cells collected, they get admitted to the hospital, they get them infused with a little bit of chemo before, and ... By the time theyre going to get a CAR-T cell slot, I think there will be an end organ damage and they might not survive, so ...
  • ATF5 expression in β cells is stress inducible, and ATF5 deficiency results in a significant increase in β-cell apoptosis in response to stress. (
  • Furthermore, TSC2 and its phosphorylation by AMPK protect cells from energy deprivation-induced apoptosis. (
  • A complex interplay between growth signals and apoptosis (programmed cell death) regulates cell proliferation. (
  • Importantly, both EGFR and Akt inhibit the activity of BAD, a molecule that drives apoptosis, and activation of either EGFR or Akt alone is sufficient to inhibit BAD and block cell death. (
  • It is essential for cell survival, and considerable evidence suggests that it can also exert potent suppression of apoptosis in cells. (
  • Disruption of CK2 by treatment of cells with antisense CK2 results in induction of apoptosis in a time and dose-dependent manner. (
  • Apoptosis and other cell death mechanisms are complex and carefully controlled. (
  • Bcl-2 and related cytoplasmic proteins are key regulators of apoptosis, the cell suicide program critical for development, tissue homeostasis, and protection against pathogens. (
  • More distant relatives instead promote apoptosis, apparently through mechanisms that include displacing the adapters from the pro-survival proteins. (
  • The most relevant topics will be cell death mechanisms (such as apoptosis) non-apoptotic cell death mechanisms (including but not limited to autophagy, necroptosis, ferroptosis, methuosis) and their interplay in toxicity and survival. (
  • This third gene is known to play an important role in triggering programmed cell death, or apoptosis, in embryos. (
  • NPD1 inhibits oxidative-stress-mediated proinflammatory gene induction and apoptosis, and consequently promotes RPE cell survival. (
  • Acute exposure of responsive T cells to a superantigen results in activation, expansion, and then deletion of these activated cells by apoptosis. (
  • CRP at concentrations ≥15 μg/mL significantly reduced EPC cell number, inhibited the expression of the endothelial cell-specific markers Tie-2, EC-lectin, and VE-cadherin, significantly increased EPC apoptosis, and impaired EPC-induced angiogenesis. (
  • Translationally controlled tumor-associated protein (TCTP) has been implicated in cell growth, proliferation, and apoptosis through interacting proteins. (
  • In addition to decreased cell proliferation, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL) and caspase assay revealed that apoptosis was increased in newly committed TCTP-disrupted cells as they migrated away from the ventricular zone. (
  • Programmed cell death, or apoptosis, is a natural process in which cells are instructed to die by members of the Bcl-2 family of proteins. (
  • Excuse me, I am researching how glucose protects cell from apoptosis? (
  • The α v β 3 integrin plays a fundamental role during the angiogenesis process by inhibiting endothelial cell apoptosis. (
  • Different extracellular matrix molecules were able to protect rat aorta- derived endothelial cells from apoptosis induced by serum withdrawal. (
  • Firstly, pan-HDAC inhibition was compared to HDAC class specific and HDAC protein specific inhibition with HDAC3 or HDAC8 inhibition causing cell death as indicated by elevated protein levels of the apoptosis indicator cleaved caspase 3. (
  • In steady state, PMNs die by apoptosis, a form of programmed cell death that allows for the safe disposal of aging PMNs and their potentially toxic cargo. (
  • Like in other cells, caspases participate in the initiation, amplification, and execution steps of apoptosis in PMNs. (
  • Working on a clinical trial of a new drug, the researchers found that the number of such cells in the blood predicted overall survival, according to Howard Scher, MD, of Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center in New York City. (
  • Analysis showed a significant improvement in overall survival associated with the drug -- a median of 15.8 months, compared with 11.2 months, Scher said. (
  • In multivariate analysis, baseline cell counts, "conversion" from unfavorable to favorable during treatment, and lactate dehydrogenase predicted overall survival. (
  • The immune therapy also extended overall survival. (
  • The addition of ipilimumab to nivolumab in that trial resulted in markedly higher progression-free survival, as well as higher 1-year overall survival rates," said Dr. Malik. (
  • MEK inhibitor selumetinib in combination with docetaxel does not improve progression free or overall survival in individuals with KRAS-mutant non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), according to data presented at the ESMO 2016 Congress in Copenhagen 1 . (
  • At data cut-off, median progression-free survival was not significantly different between the selumetinib arm and placebo arm (3.9 months vs. 2.8 months, HR 0.93, p=0.44), nor was there a significant difference in median overall survival (8.7 months vs. 7.9 months, HR 1.05, p=0.64). (
  • The results of the phase III trial demonstrate that the addition of selumetinib to docetaxel, in patients with advanced KRAS mutant lung cancer, does not provide clinical benefit in terms of improving progression free or overall survival," Jänne said. (
  • Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with advanced disease receiving standard of care treatment have a higher overall survival (OS) than similar patients not receiving treatment. (
  • A group of California, USA researchers, led by Dr. Elizabeth A. David, conducted a study to evaluate treatment trends and their association with overall survival on patients with NSCLC. (
  • Overall survival was estimated using Kaplan-Meier method within treatment groups. (
  • Overall survival and progression-free survival (the time from treatment to disease progression or worsening) served as the primary endpoint of the study, while objective response rate (the percentage of patients with tumor size reduction) was the secondary endpoint. (
  • The significant overall survival advantage is particularly notable because it has not been achieved with first-line treatment of renal cell carcinoma with the use of anti-VEGF-based therapy administered alone or in combination. (
  • Two years after the transplants, the overall survival rates between the two groups were no different. (
  • The one-year overall survival among patients over 70 years treated for relapsed/refectory (RR) disease almost doubling, reaching 50 percent and matching that of patients under 70 years of age. (
  • however, the recent introduction of the use of drugs like lenalidomide and bortezomib have resulted in some improvements in overall survival in these patients. (
  • After a median follow-up of 28.7 months, the median progression-free survival was 15.1 months and the median overall survival was 36.3 months. (
  • The researchers also noted a trend toward improved, but not statistically significant, leukemia-free survival and overall survival after bone marrow transplant in patients with acute leukemias. (
  • Multivariate analysis of the Nordic MCL2 and MCL3 trials showed that the presence of TP53 mutations predicted worse overall survival (OS) in younger patients with mantle cell lymphoma (MCL). (
  • Patients with TP53 mutations had a median overall survival (OS) of 1.8 years, a median PFS of 0.9 years, and a median time to relapse of 1.0 year. (
  • Diabetes mellitus is an independent predictor of cancer-specific and overall survival in patients who undergo surgery for renal cell carcinoma," the authors write. (
  • This form of immunotherapy works by injecting the body with engineered immune cells that can recognize specific proteins on cancer cells and attack. (
  • Researchers have been experimenting with genetically modified T cells to be injected into a patient's body with the ability to target specific proteins on cancer cells. (
  • COLUMBUS, Ohio - A cancer-causing retrovirus exploits key proteins in its host cells to extend the life of those cells, thereby prolonging its own survival and ability to spread, according to a new study by researchers at The Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center - Arthur G. James Cancer Hospital and Richard J. Solove Research Institute (OSUCCC - James) and Ohio State's College of Veterinary Medicine. (
  • This study found that this viral protein targets two important cell proteins: ATM, a key player in a cell's response to DNA damage, and REG-gamma, which marks proteins within the cell for destruction. (
  • The addition of phosphate groups to proteins (phosphorylation), is one important way in which signals from the cell surface are transmitted within the cell. (
  • B cells, which produce proteins called antibodies, are one type of immune cell involved in GVHD. (
  • The name ubiquitin originates from the ubiquity of the protein as it is found in almost all organisms and directs proteins to degradation by the proteasome or to transport to different compartments and locations in the cell. (
  • Contributors describe in detail the molecular mechanisms of cell death signaling, including death receptor-ligand systems, BCL-2 family proteins, mitochondrial permeabilization, the endocytic pathway, caspases, and signals that trigger the clearance of dying cells. (
  • Survival mechanisms and proteins such as IAPs that antagonize cell death are also described. (
  • The 2008 documentary movie Expelled: No Intelligence Allowed presented 250 proteins as an estimated minimum required for cell function. (
  • Macroautophagy is an evolutionarily conserved process by which cells maintain homeostasis by degrading entire organelles and long-lived proteins. (
  • Dividing cells have high expression of cell cycle proteins compared to quiescent or senescent cells, thus the level of cell cycle-specific proteins can be measured as a readout of cell proliferation. (
  • In normal blood formation, the interaction between the proteins CXCL12 and CXCR4 is important for the blood stem cells. (
  • Further studies linked the two proteins to autophagy of a certain cell constituent - the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), a network of flattened membrane enclosed sacks - in nitrogen-starved conditions. (
  • It has been intensively studied and used as the model for studies leading to the discovery of many proteins involved in cell cycles and signalling. (
  • The known role of Atg8 in the double membrane encapsulation of cell constituents to be degraded led the researchers to look for proteins that bind to Atg8 in S. cerevisiae. (
  • Researchers at the University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston (UTMB) have developed a new way to predict the ability of certain small molecules to protect proteins in the cells of a wide variety of organisms living in extreme environments. (
  • In the PNAS paper, Matthew Auton and D. Wayne Bolen describe their application of thermodynamic calculations to successfully predict the ability of a variety of osmolytes to protect proteins in cells under stress. (
  • extremes of heat and cold and changes in the chemical environment around the cell can cause the proteins to lose their proper shape and prevent them from functioning properly. (
  • Perrin and co-author Marina Chuenkova, PhD, a research instructor in the pathology department at TUSM and the Sackler School, demonstrated that PDNF is a substrate and activator of Akt kinase, an enzyme that promotes cell survival by inhibiting "cell death" proteins. (
  • It is important for controlling cell numbers and destroying defective or unwanted cells, but is also involved in the development of some cancers such as leukaemia and breast cancer in which the cells have an oversupply of pro-survival proteins, resisting signals that tell them to die. (
  • Such a change had not previously been reported for the pro-survival proteins. (
  • Researchers at the institute have spent many years studying the proteins involved in programmed cell death. (
  • It could be a way of regulating what these proteins do within a cell, or it could be an inherent structural difference particular to the Bcl-w protein that makes it behave slightly differently to other pro-survival proteins," she said. (
  • Bcl-w is an interesting case because it does not seem to be associated with tumour growth and resilience to chemotherapy agents to the same extent as other pro-survival proteins. (
  • It may be that Bcl-w, unlike other Bcl-2 proteins and demonstrated in our structure, has evolved an inherent structural flexibility that restricts its pro-survival activity, which could explain why it is not often implicated in tumour development," he said. (
  • It will be particularly interesting to see whether the types of structural changes we see in Bcl-w also happen with the pro-death proteins, which would tell us a lot more about how these proteins work to kill a cell," he said. (
  • I found that BMP2/4 acts to maintain the immature Schwann cell type by promoting its differentiation from the Schwann cell precursor and inhibiting the upregulation of myelin proteins. (
  • When using this method, proteins or other structures in a cell are stained with the help of fluorescent probes . (
  • The presence of antiapoptotic proteins, however, can counteract cell death mediated by TNF. (
  • Binding of TNF to its cell surface receptors causes activation of initiator caspase-8, followed by activation of effector caspases such as caspase-3 and caspase-7, resulting in the cleavage of critical cellular proteins and cell death ( 8, 9 ). (
  • The members of the Bcl-2 family proteins play important roles in regulating the intrinsic or mitochondrial cell death pathway ( 13, 14 ). (
  • I n recent years it has become evident that integrin- mediated adhesion to extracellular matrix (ECM) 1 proteins is required for growth and survival of many cell types. (
  • Due to the complexity of cell cycle, proliferation and apoptotic processes involved in cancer progression, the identification of specific gene controlling proteins is highly desirable for targeted therapy. (
  • The complex, apart from the "proper" survival of motor neuron protein, includes at least six other proteins (gem-associated protein 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7. (
  • Once a cell falls into one of the traps assigned for a cell's location, the following cells in the channel skip over the trap and moves on to find an open one to drop into. (
  • Understanding the role of ATF5 deepens our understanding of the complex mechanisms governing β-cell fate decisions, providing a potential pathway for the prevention of diabetes. (
  • A number of mechanisms have been proposed to explain high-pressure CO 2 sterilization, including cell membrane rupture caused by the increase in internal pressure combined with rapid pressure release ( 17 , 18 ) and the extraction of lipids from the cell membrane ( 19 ). (
  • Cell survival signaling attenuates the effectiveness of conventional chemotherapy and numerous mechanisms have been described, and continue to be described, which contribute to cell survival in the face of chemotherapy treatment. (
  • New advances have underscored the potential of targeting each of these cell survival mechanisms to improve responsiveness to chemotherapy. (
  • We will discuss recent discoveries of genetic and non-genetic mechanisms used by cells, and microorganisms in particular, to optimize their growth and survival. (
  • The linear quadratic model is now most often used to describe the cell survival curve, assuming that there are two mechanisms to cell death by radiation: A single lethal event or an accumulation of harmful but non-lethal events. (
  • Nanowerk News ) Researchers at Tokyo Institute of Technology report details on the biological mechanisms through which cells degrade own cellular material, allowing them to survive starvation conditions ( 'Atg12 Atg5 conjugate enhances E2 activity of Atg3 by rearranging its catalytic site' ). (
  • The potential for therapeutic harnessing of other cell death mechanisms such as methuosis, ferroptosis and one we discovered and recently patented - methuophagy - remains unknown. (
  • This Research Topic on "Death mechanisms, and toxicity" will be devoted to scientific excellence in the field of cancer cell death and survival mechanisms. (
  • Additional relevant topics will include cell and molecular biology, systems level interventions, and mechanisms leading to cell death or survival, proliferation, resistance and metastasis. (
  • The genome of cancer cells often evolves, both in order to avoid the body's own defence mechanisms and to survive treatment with chemotherapy or other drugs. (
  • The next step will be to identify which mechanisms drive the survival strategies adopted by the cancer in the initial phase of the disease. (
  • The failure of such effects to predict the fate of activated T cells in vivo indicates that virus infections shape T cell responses via mechanisms that differ from those described previously. (
  • Importantly, prolonged and aberrant persistence of senescent cells is often associated with tissue dysfunction and pathology, and partially the consequence of mechanisms that enhance survival and resistance to cell death. (
  • These protective mechanisms help to explain how host cells continue to survive despite being exploited by T. cruzi parasites . (
  • Although the biological effects of PDI are known, the molecular mechanisms underlying the resultant damage to cells are poorly defined. (
  • In this review, the molecular mechanisms are elucidated that occur post-PDT to mediate cancer cell survival, on the basis of which pharmacological interventions are proposed. (
  • The shortened red blood cell survival in some patients was due to a large percentage of the first population of randomly destroyed red blood cells, in other patients to an accelerated rate of destruction of the usual single population of cells while others had a combination of the two mechanisms. (
  • Although much has been learned about the signaling molecules and transcription factors that control activation of NK cells, less is known about the posttranscriptional mechanisms that regulate NK cell function. (
  • T he signals that regulate cell division, differentiation and death are initiated at the plasma membrane-for example, through the binding of a ligand to its receptor-and must somehow be transmitted to target molecules within the cell interior. (
  • Late in larval development, as differentiation and patterning begin, the retinal epithelium exhibits striking regulation of the cell cycle including a transient G1 arrest of all cells, followed by a "Second Mitotic Wave" cell cycle that is regulated at the G2/M transition by local intercellular signals. (
  • Cell Death and Differentiation, issue 24/9, 2017. (
  • Background- Myocardial ischemia provides a potent stimulus to angiogenesis, and the mobilization and differentiation of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) has been shown to be important in this process. (
  • EPC differentiation, survival, and function were assayed. (
  • Conclusions- Human recombinant CRP, at concentrations known to predict adverse vascular outcomes, directly inhibits EPC differentiation, survival, and function, key components of angiogenesis and the response to chronic ischemia. (
  • The ability of CRP to inhibit EPC differentiation and survival may represent an important mechanism that further links inflammation to cardiovascular disease. (
  • 1-5 The mobilization and differentiation of bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) has recently been shown to be important in this process of adult neovascularization. (
  • Our results demonstrate that TCTP is a critical protein for cell survival during early neuronal and glial differentiation. (
  • In conclusion, the CD44+/CD24− phenotype in ovarian cancer cells demonstrate cancer stem cell-like properties of enhanced differentiation, invasion, and resistance to chemotherapy. (
  • To arrive at an idea of levels of 'stemness' and potential for differentiation into other possible cells, scientists cultured patient derived cells in droplets for a week. (
  • Our findings identify THAP1 as an essential factor underlying mouse ESC survival and to some extent, differentiation, particularly neuroectodermal. (
  • Loss of THAP1 or replacement with a disease-causing mutation results in an enhanced rate of cell death, prolongs Nanog, Prdm14, and/or Rex1 expression upon differentiation, and results in failure to upregulate ectodermal genes. (
  • TGF-β regulates a variety of different cellular developmental processes including growth, differentiation, proliferation, and cell death. (
  • Here, we review evidence supporting the idea that CB2 receptors are implicated in the control of fundamental neural cell processes, such as proliferation and survival, and that their pharmacological manipulation might be useful for both delaying the progression of neurodegenerative disorders and inhibiting the growth of glial tumors. (
  • This review summarizes studies of the cell proliferation and survival episodes that affect the number of cells available to make each ommatidium. (
  • The EGF receptor homolog has multiple roles in retinal proliferation and survival. (
  • Tsai, M.-J. TCTP is Essential for Cell Proliferation and Survival during CNS Development. (
  • The homeodomain transcription factor and human diabetes gene pancreas/duodenum homeobox protein 1 ( Pdx1 ) regulates β-cell survival and endoplasmic reticulum stress susceptibility, in part through direct regulation of activating transcription factor 4 ( Atf4 ). (
  • Cell functionality was demonstrated by retention of an osteogenic response to bone morphogenetic protein-2 in C2C12 cells. (
  • In summary, we uncovered a signalling pathway operating specifically in T-ALL cells in which ORP4L mediates G protein-coupled ligand-induced PLCβ3 activation, resulting in an increase of mitochondrial respiration for cell survival. (
  • Like with CAR-T cell therapy, this form of immunotherapy works by blocking the signal between PD-1 (a protein found in both normal and cancer cells) and the PD-L1 protein on mesothelioma cancer cells. (
  • The human T-lymphotropic virus type-1 (HTLV-1), which causes adult T-cell leukemia and lymphoma, produces a protein called p30 that is essential for the retrovirus to establish an infection. (
  • Our findings suggest that the p30 viral protein prolongs the survival of host cells through this interaction with ATM and REG-gamma, and the longer a virus-infected cell survives, the better chance the virus has to spread, " says principal investigator Michael Lairmore, DVM, PhD, professor of veterinary biosciences and associate director for shared resources at the OSUCCC - James. (
  • These observations demonstrate a model where TSC2 functions as a key player in regulation of the common mTOR pathway of protein synthesis, cell growth, and viability in response to cellular energy levels. (
  • The protein, called LHPP, prevents the uncontrolled proliferation of cancer cells in the liver. (
  • This study adds to our previously published work because it implicates the TNF family member protein called BAFF in the 'revved up' B-cell signaling we found in our patients. (
  • Protein Kinase CK2 as Regulator of Cell Survival: Implications fo. (
  • CK2 is a ubiquitous and highly conserved protein serine / threonine kinase that has long been considered to play a role in cell growth and proliferation. (
  • Based on these trial results, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved pembrolizumab to treat metastatic NSCLC with PD-L1 protein present on at least half of tumor cells, as determined by an FDA-approved test called the PD-L1 IHC 22C3 pharmDx assay. (
  • PD-L1 on tumor cells binds to PD-1 protein on immune cells called T cells , suppressing the immune response to the cancer. (
  • Earlier trials have shown that expression of the protein on at least 50% of tumor cells seems to be a reasonable cutoff, because those patients who had lower proportions of PD-L1-expressing tumor cells in earlier trials showed response rates substantially lower than those who expressed PD-L1 in 50% or more of cells. (
  • Protein conformation studies by a collaboration of researchers in Japan identify changes in protein shape that contribute to autophagy, a major system for degrading cellular material and maintaining cells. (
  • By degrading cytoplasmic components autophagy releases amino acids for protein synthesis and fatty acids for oxidation in mitochondria to produce energy for survival. (
  • When they cut off this gene, the leukemia stem cells could not survive, as they are totally dependent on the protein that the gene produces. (
  • or you can do the vitality assay on cells with different numbers than normalize your assay with total protein or nucleic acid contents. (
  • Because I used MTT for cell viability, I can not use the exact same well for protein assay. (
  • To learn whether GABA is a factor in the newborn neurons' survival and behavior, the research team tagged newborn neurons from mouse brains with a fluorescent protein and then watched their response to GABA. (
  • A protein on the parasite activates the enzyme Akt, which blocks cell death signals, preventing cell destruction and parasite elimination. (
  • In a study published in the November 17 online issue of Science Signaling, the researchers describe how a protein called parasite-derived neurotrophic factor (PDNF) prolongs the life of the T. cruzi parasite by activating anti-apoptotic (or anti-cell-death) molecules in the host cell. (
  • The researchers noted the benefit found with Keytruda in combination with Inlyta was also observed across risk groups (favorable, intermediate and poor risk) and regardless of PD-L1 expression - a type of protein found on cancer cells that helps to determine treatment options. (
  • Dr Doug Fairlie (right) and Dr Erinna Lee, from the institute's Structural Biology division, have shown that a pro-survival protein called Bcl-w can adopt a surprising structure. (
  • Dr Doug Fairlie , Dr Erinna Lee, and Professor Peter Colman from the institute's Structural Biology division have shown that a pro-survival protein called Bcl-w can adopt a surprising structure unlike that seen in any other Bcl-2 family protein to date. (
  • We determined the structure of an unusual form of Bcl-w, a pro-survival protein discovered here at the institute," Dr Fairlie said. (
  • I also investigated the repression of the transcription factor c-Jun, by itself and by Krox-20, in immature Schwann cells and found that this occurs mainly at the protein, rather than the transcriptional level. (
  • Tom Burdon and colleagues identify a new variant form of the adaptor protein Gab1 that contributes to LIF-dependent survival of ESCs when nutrient availability is limited. (
  • This paper reports the identification of a new variant form of the adaptor protein Gab1 that is constitutively associated with ESC membranes and supports LIF-dependent survival under conditions of limited nutrient availability. (
  • The 40S ribosomal protein S6 kinase (S6K) acts downstream of mTOR, which plays important roles in cell proliferation, protein translation, and cell survival and is a target for cancer therapy. (
  • Several cellular functions of Akt are mediated by mTOR, which is considered the master controller of protein synthesis and cell proliferation ( 21 ). (
  • Radiation mainly works by producing free radicals that reacts with biomolecules (DNA, protein and lipid) in mammalian and other types of cells. (
  • Mcl-1 is an anti-apoptotic protein of the Bcl-2 family that is essential for the survival of multiple cell lineages and that is highly amplified in human cancer. (
  • Ubiquitination of Mcl-1, that targets it for proteasomal degradation, allows for rapid elimination of the protein and triggering of cell death, in response to various cellular events. (
  • In unstimulated cells, most of the NF-κB is localized in the cytoplasm in complex with an inhibitory protein, IκB( Baldwin, 1996 ). (
  • These survival pathways are mediated by the transcription factors activator protein 1 (AP-1), nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (NRF2), hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1), nuclear factor κB (NF-κB), and those that mediate the proteotoxic stress response. (
  • Ligation of ITAM-containing receptor complexes results in recruitment and activation of protein tyrosine kinases, which initiate the signaling cascade, resulting in secretion of effector cytokines, such as IFN-γ, and target cell cytotoxicity. (
  • We further identify the 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase 1 (PDK1), a well-known kinase involved in the PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, as a direct Meis3 target, which mediates its role in β-cell survival. (
  • Survival of motor neuron or survival motor neuron (SMN) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SMN1 and SMN2 genes. (
  • During the study, the researchers measured circulating tumor cells, using the Veridex Cell Search system, both at baseline and during therapy. (
  • In this latest work, the researchers, from Sydney's Royal Prince Alfred Hospital and the University of Sydney, as well as the Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital in Perth, have identified two new types of bystander effects (dubbed types II and III), which increase cell survival when nearby cells are irradiated. (
  • The researchers examined the survival of malignant melanoma cells exposed to a spatially modulated megavoltage photon beam. (
  • The researchers attributed this effect to intercellular communication, in which cells report their DNA integrity to their neighbors. (
  • Now researchers from Houston Methodist Research Institute, Cornell University, and University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center have developed a completely new approach that can safely deposit live cells in an ordered fashion without causing them damage. (
  • The findings by researchers at the Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center are published in the Jan. 15 issue of the journal Developmental Cell, with an accompanying commentary. (
  • The researchers looked for an immune cell called a killer T cell which specialises in destroying rogue cells in the body, such as cancer cells. (
  • The researchers mapped out the genome of cancer cells from more than 50 tumours in order to identify the four strategies. (
  • We wanted to learn more about how some tumours evade treatment and the strategies the cancer cells develop", explains Jenny Karlsson at Lund University, one of the researchers behind the study. (
  • Therefore, the researchers mapped out the genome of cancer cells from more than 50 tumours from patients with Wilms tumour, neuroblastoma and rhabdomyosarcoma. (
  • This allowed the researchers to track the types of mutations that caused the emergence of four main survival strategies: tolerance, coexistence, competition and chaos. (
  • BRUSSELS -- Greater numbers of circulating tumor cells predict worse metastatic breast cancer prognosis without a threshold, researchers reported here. (
  • These results suggest that the conventional threshold of five such cells per 7.5 ml of peripheral blood "probably does not adequately represent the complexity of this prognostic variable," the researchers concluded. (
  • The threshold for determining high versus low risk with regard to circulating tumor cells has been debated -- with some researchers thinking about an any-versus-none threshold and others suggesting a plateau above 10 or 15 cells, Giordano explained in an interview. (
  • Researchers used the National Cancer Data Base to identify patients diagnosed with metastatic renal cell carcinoma from 2006 to 2013. (
  • An analysis by National Institutes of Health researchers has shown that people with sickle cell anemia who took the drug hydroxyurea at the recommended dose had higher survival rates than those who took less than the recommended dose. (
  • Researchers at the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (NHLBI) and the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases reviewed data from 383 people who came to NIH for treatment or evaluation for sickle cell anemia between 2001 and 2010. (
  • The Lund researchers found that the gene CXCR4 is essential for the leukemia stem cells' survival. (
  • Using cells from human breast cancers and mouse breast cancer models, researchers at the Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center say they have significant new evidence that tumor cells exposed to low-oxygen conditions have an advantage when it comes to invading and surviving in the bloodstream. (
  • Some tumor cells retain parts of this genetic signature as a "hypoxic memory" even after they have been reoxygenated, the researchers found. (
  • Among the next questions to answer, say the researchers, are whether post-hypoxic tumor cells at metastatic sites are more resistant to chemotherapy than other cells and whether targeting these post-hypoxic cells will be beneficial for treating patients with metastatic cancers. (
  • In this study published in the journal Cell Stem Cell , a team led by researchers at Baylor College of Medicine and MD Anderson Cancer Center combined clinical and laboratory studies to show that a gene called PPM1D, whose function in blood production was unknown, can confer blood cells exposed to the chemotherapy agent cisplatin a survival advantage that might favor the development of leukemia years later. (
  • To understand what gives PPM1D mutants a competitive advantage, the researchers carried experiments in the lab mixing normal and PPM1D mutant cells together in a dish, growing them together and then exposing them to different environmental conditions. (
  • However, following exposure to cisplatin and some other chemotherapy drugs, the researchers observed that PPM1D mutants dramatically outcompeted normal cells. (
  • The researchers observed abnormal nuclear morphology in atg39 mutants, which were less viable than wild-type cells under a lack of nitrogen. (
  • A specialized type of brain cell that tamps down stem cell activity ironically, perhaps, encourages the survival of the stem cells' progeny, Johns Hopkins researchers report. (
  • When stimulated, the cells would indeed activate nearby newborn neurons, the researchers found. (
  • Researchers have discovered how the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, which causes Chagas' disease, prolongs its survival in infected cells. (
  • The parasite Trypanosoma cruzi (or T. cruzi ), which causes Chagas' disease, will go to great lengths to evade death once it has infected human host cells, researchers have discovered. (
  • Taking a multi-faceted approach, the researchers used bioinformatics, immunochemistry, intracellular colocalization microscopy, and in vitro enzymatic techniques to study T. cruzi survival in the host. (
  • at 3.1 years the median survival of those who received rituximab immunochemotherapy at first-line was twice that of those who did not," the researchers wrote. (
  • The researchers credited new treatments such as bendamustine, which was introduced in 2012, and the targeted therapy Imbruvica (ibrutinib), which blocks signals that stimulate the growth and division of malignant cells. (
  • Encouragingly, our population-based findings confirm that these novel agents seem to be impacting particularly on the survival of patients who may be less able to withstand intensive treatment," the researchers wrote. (
  • The researchers collected peripheral blood stem cells from responding patients with less than 1% of circulating plasma cells before high-dose melphalan and autologous stem cell transplantation (HDM/ASCT). (
  • However, subgroup analyses did reveal notable differences in survival in patients with acute leukemias between those who received allogeneic blood cells and those who received bone marrow, while no differences were seen in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia, the researchers wrote. (
  • This allows researchers to study the injected cells without having to take the effect of the injection into account as well. (
  • To find such markers, the researchers studied a group of 25 patients who had all undergone adoptive T-cell therapy for advanced melanoma, because they either did not respond to previous treatment or had a recurrence of disease during previous treatment. (
  • The researchers analyzed tumor cells from the patients at the molecular level. (
  • The researchers also saw that the survival rate was better if the part of the patient's immune system that infiltrates the tumor was active, even if the immune cells had not defeated the tumor. (
  • The researchers found that patients with diabetes showed worse prognosis in terms of progression-free, overall, and cancer-specific survival before matching (all P (
  • Metabolic pathways are reprogrammed in cancer to support cell survival. (
  • These heretofore unresolved fundamental issues are crucial for understanding the signalling pathways required for PLC activation and Ca 2+ homeostasis in T-ALL cells. (
  • Targeting Cell Survival Pathways to Enhance Response to Chemotherapy encompasses recently developed molecular targeting agents and approaches that suppress cell survival signaling. (
  • A new research study published in the October issue of Cancer Cell identifies a molecular switch that integrates cell survival signals from multiple intracellular signaling pathways. (
  • The finding has substantial clinical significance, as mutations in these cell survival-signaling pathways are associated with many human cancers, and a better understanding of how these pathways converge to regulate the delicate balance between cell proliferation and cell death may lead to development of more effective cancer therapies. (
  • The results indicate that BAD acts as a switch that integrates the antiapoptotic effects of multiple pathways enhancing cell survival in PTEN-deficient tumor cells. (
  • The team also outlines the cell signaling pathways that contribute to this increased activity - identifying a promising target for developing new therapies for the diseases. (
  • Recent studies on the subject of cell death are challenging previous knowledge of its pathways, effects, and the potential for therapeutic targeting. (
  • The key to their survival under such conditions lies in an inherent ability to downregulate their cellular metabolic rate to new hypometabolic steady states in a way that balances the ATP demand and ATP supply pathways. (
  • They also show the role of these new autophagy pathways in preserving the cell in nutrient-limiting conditions. (
  • Here, we describe the main molecular players involved in promoting survival of senescent cells, with particular emphasis on the regulation of senescence-associated anti-apoptotic pathways. (
  • The survival pathways are believed to render some types of cancer recalcitrant to PDT and alter the tumor microenvironment in favor of tumor survival. (
  • We further demonstrated that both Dicer- and Dgcr8-dependent pathways were indispensable for the expansion of Ly49H + NK cells during mouse cytomegalovirus infection. (
  • An 8-gene Tfh signature, signifying organized antitumor immunity, robustly predicted survival or preoperative response to chemotherapy. (
  • Results of a randomized phase III study of patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) showed that the immune checkpoint inhibitor pembrolizumab (Keytruda®) extended the length of time patients lived before their disease worsened (progression-free survival) compared with chemotherapy. (
  • Martin Reck, M.D., Ph.D., of the German Center for Lung Research, Grosshansdorf, and his colleagues randomly assigned 305 patients who had previously untreated advanced NSCLC and expression of PD-L1 on at least half of their tumor cells to receive either 200 mg of pembrolizumab every 3 weeks or platinum-based chemotherapy. (
  • Patients who received pembrolizumab had longer median progression-free survival than patients who received chemotherapy, 10.3 months versus 6.0 months. (
  • She noted, however, that the results of another phase III trial , called CheckMate 026, that compared the efficacy of nivolumab (Opdivo®) with platinum-based doublet chemotherapy as a first-line treatment for patients with advanced NSCLC and PD-L1 positive tumors (defined as present in 1% or more of tumor cells), were "surprisingly disappointing. (
  • In an accompanying editorial in NEJM , Bruce E. Johnson, M.D., of Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, noted that earlier studies showed that previously treated patients who received the checkpoint inhibitors pembrolizumab or nivolumab had a survival advantage over those who were treated with chemotherapy. (
  • Chemotherapy treatment such as doxorubicin in particular may be enhanced when killer T cells are present. (
  • CHICAGO-First-line therapy with nelarabine plus chemotherapy improves disease-free survival (DFS) for children and young adults with newly diagnosed T-cell cancers. (
  • Taking the results all together, our findings suggest that chemotherapy acts as an evolutionary selection pressure that favors the survival of PPM1D mutant cells because they have better fitness than normal cells and 'win' under this specific type of stress,' said Joanne Hsu, a student in the Medical Scientist Training Program (MD/PhD) at Baylor and a member of the Goodell lab. (
  • So, when a patient receives cisplatin-based chemotherapy, stem cells carrying PPM1D mutations survive better. (
  • CD44+/CD24− demonstrated significant resistance to all chemotherapy agents used in all cell lines, with a 71-93 % increase in resistance compared with baseline. (
  • Rocconi RP, Matthews KS, Kemper MK, Hoskins KE, Barnes MN (2008) Chemotherapy-related myelosuppression as a marker of survival in epithelial ovarian cancer patients. (
  • Luo L, Zeng J, Liang B, Zhao Z, Sun L, Cao D, Yang J, Shen K (2011) Ovarian cancer cells with the CD117 phenotype are highly tumorigenic and are related to chemotherapy outcome. (
  • Renal cell carcinoma is characterized by susceptibility to both immunotherapeutic and antiangiogenic treatment approaches and resistance to cytotoxic chemotherapy," they wrote. (
  • In this study, Royer and colleagues tested whether combined standard chemotherapy with autologous stem cell transplantation followed by allogeneic transplantation or maintenance therapy could lengthen survival among these patients. (
  • The regimen, known as myeloablative autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT), includes chemotherapy and total body radiation to destroy the bone marrow followed by transplantation of the person's own blood-forming stem cells to reconstitute the marrow and immune system. (
  • The procedure began with doctors collecting a participant's blood-forming stem cells, after which the participant received chemotherapy and radiation to eliminate the bone marrow. (
  • TP53 mutations identify younger mantle cell lymphoma patients who do not benefit from intensive chemotherapy [published online August 17, 2017]. (
  • MIAMI - An analysis of patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma treated during the targeted therapy era showed those with private insurance survived significantly longer than those with no insurance or government insurance, according to study results presented at International Kidney Cancer Symposium. (
  • This survival disparity was more significant [among] patients aged younger than 65 years, suggesting insurance status determined access to metastatic renal cell carcinoma treatment," Yu-Wei Chen, MD, MS, of Cleveland Clinic Taussig Cancer Institute, and colleagues wrote. (
  • Treatment costs for metastatic renal cell carcinoma have increased with the development of targeted therapy, and this may affect access to care, according to study background. (
  • Chen and colleagues assessed the effect of insurance status on receipt of treatment and survival among patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma. (
  • The association between insurance status and survival in metastatic renal cell carcinoma in the United States. (
  • HealthDay)-Avelumab (BAVENCIO) was approved this week for first-line treatment of advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC) in combination with axitinib, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration announced. (
  • Renal cell carcinoma is one of the cancers for which the range of promising treatment options has become considerably wider in recent years. (
  • Sutent is currently approved for both advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and second-line gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST), based on efficacy and safety data from large, randomized Phase 3 clinical trials. (
  • The combination use of Keytruda plus Inlyta significantly improved survival outcomes among patients with previously untreated advanced renal cell carcinoma - the most common type of kidney cancer. (
  • The combination use of Keytruda (pembrolizumab) plus Inlyta (axitinib) significantly improved survival outcomes among patients with previously untreated advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC), according to results from the KEYNOTE-426 trial published in The New England Journal of Medicine . (
  • Despite the approval of several targeted therapies by entities such as the Food and Drug Administration, the European Medicines Agency and the Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency, the survival rate among patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma has plateaued. (
  • HealthDay)-Diabetes mellitus is associated with worse prognosis in terms of progression-free, overall, and cancer-specific survival in patients with renal cell carcinoma treated surgically, according to a study published in the December issue of The Journal of Urology . (
  • Hakmin Lee, from Seoul National University Bundang Hospital in the South Korea, and colleagues examined the correlation between diabetes mellitus and prognosis in patients with renal cell carcinoma who underwent surgical treatment. (
  • Data were reviewed for 3,075 patients with nonmetastatic renal cell carcinoma treated with radical or partial nephrectomy . (
  • We demonstrate that ORP4L is expressed in T-ALL but not normal T-cells and its abundance is proportional to cellular ATP. (
  • Lairmore and his colleagues used cell lines and a variety of biochemical assays to identify cellular binding partners of p30. (
  • p30 specifically binds to cellular ATM (ataxia-telangiectasia mutated), a key regulator of DNA damage responses and cell cycle control, and to REG-gamma, a nuclear proteasome activator. (
  • Rsks can phosphorylate a growing list of substrates involved in various cellular processes such as BAD in cell survival, histone H3 in chromatin remodeling, and Myt1 in cell cycle regulation. (
  • Autophagy is essential for cell survival under starvation condition supplying nutrient source derived from degradation of cellular materials. (
  • However, if cellular damage becomes irreparable, cells can destroy themselves completely by autophagy. (
  • Together, cell viability and cell toxicity assays are important tools for assessing cellular responses to experimental compounds of interest. (
  • The rise in free cytosolic intracellular Ca 2+ concentration results in the activation of Ca 2+ -dependent phospholipases and proteases that further hasten the rate of membrane depolarisation, leading to uncontrolled cellular swelling and, ultimately, to cell necrosis ( Hochachka, 1986 ) ( Fig.1 ). (
  • Cellular senescence is a state of stable cell cycle arrest arising in response to DNA and mitochondrial damages. (
  • Akt is a key regulator of diverse cellular processes, and supports cell survival not only by inhibiting apoptotic molecules, but additionally by increasing nutrient uptake and metabolism," she continued. (
  • Although lysosomes perform a number of essential cellular functions, damaged lysosomes represent a potential hazard to the cell. (
  • Natural killer cells are a key component of the innate immune system, providing early cellular defense against viruses and intracellular pathogens, and contributing to the early detection and destruction of transformed cells ( 1 ). (
  • We identify a previously unknown function for activating transcription factor 5 (ATF5) in the apoptotic susceptibility of β cells. (
  • Thus, for many but not all apoptotic signals, the balance between these competing activities determines cell fate. (
  • Fluorescence signals below the G 0 /G 1 peak typically correspond to apoptotic cells with fragmented DNA. (
  • PAHSAs attenuated cytokine-induced apoptotic and necrotic β cell death and increased β cell viability. (
  • Other studies showed that lack of Daxx gene caused a higher apoptotic rate in embryonic stem cells. (
  • However, the retention of cell viability and functionality after exposure to high-pressure CO 2 and rapid decompression could be problematic, because other supercritical fluid processes have been used for bacterial cell inactivation ( 15 , 16 ). (
  • Here we show that NAD(+) levels in mitochondria remain at physiological levels following genotoxic stress and can maintain cell viability even when nuclear and cytoplasmic pools of NAD(+) are depleted. (
  • What Are the Indicators of Cell Viability? (
  • Cell viability is a measure of the proportion of live, healthy cells within a population. (
  • Cell viability assays are used to determine the overall health of cells, optimize culture or experimental conditions, and to measure cell survival following treatment with compounds, such as during a drug screen. (
  • Typically, cell viability assays provide a readout of cell health through measurement of metabolic activity, ATP content, or cell proliferation. (
  • Cell viability can also be assessed using cell toxicity assays that provide a readout on markers of cell death, such as a loss of membrane integrity. (
  • Thus, cell proliferation assays are a useful tool for assessing cell viability or cell survival by providing a readout on the number of actively dividing cells present in a sample. (
  • 6-10 Evidence suggests that EPCs contribute as much as 25% of endothelial cells (ECs) in newly formed blood vessels, 11 and transplantation of EPCs into patients has been demonstrated to induce blood flow recovery in ischemic limbs 12 and increase myocardial viability after infarction. (
  • Although selective autophagy of the ER under nitrogen-starved conditions was significantly blocked by Atg40 knock out, the viability of the cell was not reduced. (
  • Patients who received nelarabine had better survival and fewer CNS relapses," said lead author Kimberly Dunsmore, MD, Professor, Virginia Tech Carilion School of Medicine in Roanoke, at a press briefing before the 2018 ASCO Annual Meeting ( Abstract 10500 ). (
  • Here, we show that wild-type THAP1 regulates embryonic stem cell (ESC) potential, survival, and proliferation. (
  • Three-amino-acid-loop-extension homeodomain factor Meis3 regulates cell survival via PDK1. (
  • Whereas genetic studies indicate that Pbx1 regulates the development and function of insulin-producing pancreatic β-cells, the role of Meis family members in β-cells is still unknown. (
  • Here we show that Meis3 is abundantly expressed in pancreatic islets and β-cells and that it regulates β-cell survival. (
  • This pathway normally regulates stress-induced cell death. (
  • Nutrient-sensitive mitochondrial NAD+ levels dictate cell survival. (
  • Increased Nampt provides protection against cell death and requires an intact mitochondrial NAD(+) salvage pathway as well as the mitochondrial NAD(+)-dependent deacetylases SIRT3 and SIRT4. (
  • While the role of neuron and axonal mitochondria in peripheral nerve disease is well appreciated, whether Schwann cell (SC) mitochondrial deficits contribute to peripheral neuropathies is unclear. (
  • Here, we examine how SC mitochondrial dysfunction affects axonal survival and contributes to the decline of peripheral nerve function by generating mice with SC-specific mitochondrial deficits. (
  • Mitochondrial function in SCs is therefore essential for maintenance of axonal survival and normal peripheral nerve function, suggesting that SC mitochondrial dysfunction contributes to human peripheral neuropathies. (
  • With the goal of understanding whether SC mitochondrial abnormalities affect axonal survival and contribute to the decline of patients suffering from peripheral nerve diseases, we generated mice with impaired mitochondrial function exclusively in SCs. (
  • Here, we show that mitochondrial function in SCs is essential for maintenance of axonal survival and normal peripheral nerve function. (
  • After MOMP, mitochondrial cytochrome c is released into the cytoplasm, where it binds the adaptor molecule APAF1, triggering caspase protease activation and cell death. (
  • In this issue of Science Signaling , Deshmukh and colleagues define a new survival mechanism downstream of mitochondrial permeabilization. (
  • Now, three reports in this issue on pages 1358 , 1362 , and 1365 , respectively ( 1 - 3 ), show that cell survival and cell cycle regulation by a MAPK signaling pathway (the p42/p44 ERK pathway) involves the pp90 ribosomal S6 kinases (Rsks) as crucial downstream effector molecules. (
  • Phosphorylation of TSC2 by AMPK is required for translation regulation and cell size control in response to energy deprivation. (
  • Reiterated episodes of cell death also contribute to precise regulation of retinal cell number. (
  • In this report, we show that integrin-mediated cell survival involves regulation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activity. (
  • This regulatory module appears to function broadly as we also identify Meis3 regulation of cell survival and PDK1 expression in ovarian carcinoma cells, suggesting a unique function for Meis3 beyond the traditional roles for TALE homeodomain factors during embryogenesis. (
  • It has been associated with heterochromatin and PML-NBs (Promyelocytic Leukaemia nuclear bodies) and has been implicated in many nuclear processes including transcription and cell cycle regulation. (
  • Interestingly, gene signatures derived from cell populations defined on the basis of cell surface markers only (without functional validation) cannot distinguish low-risk from high-risk patients. (
  • The loss of the PTEN tumor suppressor gene results in constitutive activation of Akt, a molecule that promotes cell survival independently of EGFR. (
  • Cells at this slow-cycling status presented a distinctive nongenetic and cell-autonomous gene expression profile shared across different tumor types. (
  • It is passed on to the child when both parents have the sickle-cell trait or gene. (
  • Our study not only shows that both these genes are critical for embryonic development, but also how members of this gene family work together to regulate cell survival and proliferation. (
  • On the other hand, embryos that were completely missing both genes and missing the E2f1 gene, did not show the massive cell death, although they also died before birth. (
  • Overall," he says, "our findings indicate that these two genes are essential for embryonic development and for preventing widespread cell death, mainly by targeting the E2f1 gene. (
  • Using fluorescence activated cell sorting to capture red or green (oxygen deprived) breast cancer cells, followed by RNA sequencing, the team found that the expression of many gene products, including integrin alpha 10 (ITGA10) and ceruloplasmin (CP) are induced in cells that experienced hypoxia within tumors, but not in cells exposed to hypoxia in the lab. (
  • Cell survival and altered gene expression following photodynamic inactivation of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. (
  • In addition to PDI-induced gene expression, there was high cell mortality, suggesting that the antioxidant response was not sufficient to avoid fungal mortality. (
  • When we turned off CXCR4 this created oxidative stress and the leukemia stem cells matured into cells with a limited lifetime. (
  • Gilkes and her team also identified a pattern of genetic expression in post-hypoxic cells that appears to help the cells survive oxidative stress when they enter the bloodstream. (
  • However, the ROS produced by PDT also triggers a stress response that, as part of a cell survival mechanism, helps cancer cells to cope with the PDT-induced oxidative stress and cell damage. (
  • Enhanced molecular understanding of T-ALL biology will ultimately facilitate a targeted therapy driven approach that can improve survival of refractory T-ALL patients. (
  • We performed comprehensive molecular profiling of infiltrating CD4 + T cells isolated from untreated invasive primary tumors and found that the infiltrating T cell subpopulations included follicular helper T (Tfh) cells, which have not previously been found in solid tumors, as well as Th1, Th2, and Th17 effector memory cells and Tregs. (
  • Specifically, pharmaceutical inhibitors of the molecular regulators of each survival pathway are addressed. (
  • The second patient who achieved complete response is currently at 14 months survival with no signs of recurrence. (
  • We identified TET2 epigenetic enzyme as a key factor controlling SCCC numbers, survival, and tumor recurrence. (
  • This CD44+/CD24− phenotype correlates to clinical endpoints with increased risk of recurrence and shorter progression-free survival in patients with ovarian cancer. (
  • The epidemiological profile of the patients was established (gender, age and any associated skin neoplasms), staging, topographical distribution, the initial treatment implemented, the time between the appearance of the signs/symptoms and the initiation of specialist treatment, types of postoperative complications, progression with respect to local and distant recurrence, and 1 and 2-year survival rates. (
  • Ion leakage across cell membranes occurs as a result of both intracellular and extracellular ions drifting towards their thermodynamic equilibrium. (
  • Trypanosoma cruzi targets Akt in host cells as an intracellular antiapoptotic strategy. (
  • We conclude that the cell is equipped with an endogenous mechanism for lysosome repair which protects against lysosomal damage‐induced cell death but which also provides a potential advantage for intracellular pathogens. (
  • In conclusion, we have unveiled a new cytotoxic function for the serine protease CG and showed that serpinB1 is critical for maintaining PMN survival by antagonizing intracellular CG activity. (
  • New drugs were needed to improve survival rates for T-ALL/LL," said Dunsmore, adding that nelarabine was known to be a T-cell specific drug with success in relapsed patients. (
  • New clinical trial findings show that a therapeutic regimen involving transplantation of a person's own blood-forming stem cells can improve survival and quality of life for people with severe scleroderma, a life-threatening autoimmune disease. (
  • those who received peripheral blood stem cell transplants and those who received bone marrow transplants. (
  • Blood or Bone Marrow Better for Stem Cell Transplants? (
  • These results add to the growing evidence that stem cell transplants should be considered as a potential treatment option for people with poor-prognosis scleroderma. (
  • Women with breast cancer are 10 per cent more likely to survive for five years or more if they have certain immune cells near their tumour, according to new research. (
  • Well, here are a few ways to transform that broken cell phone into tools that can help you survive. (
  • To understand how such activated cells survive to participate in immune responses, we studied the effects of viral infection on T cells responding to an unrelated superantigen. (
  • if they do survive, the new cells migrate to a permanent home in the brain and forge connections called synapses with other cells. (
  • During cell starvation, how can I make cell survive without FBS and glucose? (
  • I think you may have to do some preliminary experiments to determine just how long your cells will be able to survive without glucose before running the actual experiment (something I would recommend even if growth without glucose was better defined). (
  • In a new study to be found in Scientific Reports published by Nature , they show that with this method, nine out of ten cells survive being injected with foreign molecules. (
  • This proof was necessary, because previous techniques such as microinjection harm the cells so much that most do not survive the treatment,' says Hennig. (
  • Using this new method, nine out of ten cells survive being prepared for microscopic studies. (
  • To gain insight into the radiobiology underlying IMRT and help radiation oncologists reap the maximum benefit from this advanced technique, an Australian research collaboration has performed a series of in vitro experiments examining cell survival following exposure to spatially modulated beams ( Physics in Medicine and Biology , September 21, 2007, Vol. 52:18, pp. 5469-5482). (
  • In this study I investigated the effects of BMP in the Schwann cell lineage in vitro. (
  • I examined the role of STAT3 in Schwann cells both in vitro and in vivo using mice with a conditional mutation of STAT3 specifically in Schwann cells. (
  • I found that STAT3 is activated by, and supports survival following stimulation by autocrine factors secreted by Schwann cells both in vitro and following nerve injury in vivo. (
  • Haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), a type of bone marrow stem cells, cannot be induced to reproduce in vitro. (
  • Tendon fibroblasts cultured from the core of the equine SDFT were subjected to a temperature of 45 degrees C in an in vitro system for 0-180 min, and cell survival fraction was measured and compared with that for equine dermal fibroblasts and a commercial rat kidney fibroblast cell line (NRK 49F). (
  • In mixed BM chimera and in vitro survival studies, we showed that CG modulates sB1 −/− PMN survival through a cell-intrinsic pathway. (
  • an improvement in progression-free survival. (
  • An earlier phase II trial in KRAS-mutant NSCLC had shown significant improvements in progression-free survival and objective response rate in patients treated with selumetinib plus docetaxel compared to docetaxel alone. (
  • During cell cycle progression, cells increase in size (G 1 phase), which is followed by DNA synthesis and replication (S phase), further growth (G 2 phase), and finally by mitosis (M phase) and cell division. (
  • An independent Data Monitoring Committee (DMC) recommended halting the trial after concluding that Sutent demonstrated greater progression-free survival compared to placebo plus best supportive care in patients with pancreatic islet cell tumors. (
  • 25 % CD44+/CD24− were significantly more likely to recur (83 vs. 14 %, p = 0.003) and had shorter median progression-free survival (6 vs. 18 months, p = 0.01). (
  • The combination arm also demonstrated median progression-free survival of 15.1 months compared with 11.1 months in the Sutent group, for a 31% reduced risk for progression. (
  • Patients with primary plasma cell leukemia experienced high rates of response and improved progression-free survival when treated with bortezomib, dexamethasone plus doxorubicin or cyclophosphamide followed by transplantation. (
  • The 12-month progression-free survival was 58%, and 12 patients were still alive at 1 year. (
  • These outcomes included death, survival without scleroderma-related organ damage, progression of lung and skin disease, and quality of life. (
  • The requirement of cell-ECM adhesive interactions for cell cycle progression and cell survival is likely to be important in tissue development and involution as a mechanism to regulate cell positioning and cell number ( Lin and Bissell, 1993 ). (
  • In addition, anchorage dependence of survival may serve to limit tumor progression by preventing invasion or metastasis of tumor cells ( Varner and Cheresh, 1996 ). (
  • P =.01) were predictors for progression-free survival (PFS). (
  • ORP4 knockout mice exhibit teratozoospermia due to death of developing spermatozoa, indicating that ORP4 is essential for the survival of specific cell populations 19 . (
  • Autophagy is a bulk degradation system essential for cell survival under starvation conditions, and also allows cells to control over the quality of cell components. (
  • It is an essential reference for cell and developmental biologists, cancer biologists, and all who want to understand when and how cell death is required for life. (
  • Under conditions of starvation, cells use this process to reallocate nutrients from less important to more essential processes required for survival. (
  • The authors find that expression of Gab1β in ESCs promotes cell survival in a LIF-dependent manner in nutrient-depleted conditions, and further, that membrane localisation of Gab1β is essential for its survival function and is dependent on its palmitoylation. (
  • It is also essential for development of nerval system by programmed cell death. (
  • One possible explanation for this process is that when the exposed cells receive a lethal radiation dose, their death stimulates a repair mechanism in the viable cells within the shielded region. (
  • Whereas single lethal events lead to an exponent that is linearly related to dose, the survival fraction function for a two-stage mechanism carries an exponent proportional to the square of dose. (
  • The mechanism appears to involve a reduction of ER stress and MAPK signaling, since PAHSAs lowered ER stress in NOD mice, suppressed thapsigargin-induced PARP cleavage in human islets, and attenuated ERK1/2 and JNK1/2 activation in MIN6 cells. (
  • This sequence of events is one postulated mechanism by which self-reactive T cells that have escaped detection during negative selection in the thymus can be removed from peripheral tissues. (
  • The mechanism may be that the phenotype from specific deletion of TCTP in neural progenitor cells is correlated with the decreased expression of cyclins D2, E2, Mcl-1, Bcl-xL, hax-1, and Octamer-binding transcription factor 4 (Oct4) in conditional knockout mice. (
  • The team is also interested in investigating whether the GABA mechanism can be used to help keep transplanted cells alive without affecting other brain processes as a side effect. (
  • A mechanism of mechanical hemolysis due to increased intracardiac turbulence was suggested as a cause for the shortened survival. (
  • His group retrospectively analyzed outcomes for 516 consecutive metastatic breast patients evaluated at M.D. Anderson, all of whom had circulating tumor cells measured by Cell Search before any line of new treatment was started. (
  • A deep-learning model developed using serial image scans of tumors from patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) predicted treatment response and survival outcomes better than standard clinical parameters. (
  • Background:Financial hardship is a growing challenge for patients with blood cancer who undergo hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT), and it is associated with poor patient-reported outcomes. (
  • Impact:When assessing the effectiveness of interventions to ameliorate familial financial burden among HCT, the focus should be on patient-reported outcomes rather than survival. (
  • New research suggests that two recently discovered genes are critically important for controlling cell survival during embryonic development. (
  • I also found that survival responses to BMP2/4 differ between embryonic and postnatal Schwann cell. (
  • The cytokine leukaemia inhibitory factor (LIF) promotes self-renewal of murine embryonic stem cells (ESCs) mainly through activation of the transcription factor Stat3. (
  • Dr. Neal Rosen and colleagues from Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center in New York examined interplay between cell proliferation signals in tumor cells with PTEN mutations. (
  • In the initial phase, the cell senses signals released in response to lack of nutrients, hypoxia, or other forms of stress. (
  • In certain circumstances where the HSCs have a target cell to differentiate towards, the correct 'cocktail' of regulatory factors and the environmental and mechanical signals arising from the extracellular matrix are crucial regulators of stem cell fate. (
  • NK cell activation and function are determined by a balance of signals transmitted by inhibitory and activating NK cell receptors (NKRs) ( 1 ). (
  • Most recently, a phase 1 clinical trial testing CAR-T cell therapy targeting mesothelin in combination with PD-1 inhibitors has shown success in achieving stable disease and extending survival for pleural mesothelioma patients. (
  • Tumor cells with mutated PTEN did not respond to treatment with EGFR inhibitors, but when PTEN activity was restored, tumor cells were sensitized to treatment with EGFR inhibitors. (
  • Selumetinib and other MEK inhibitors are not effective in KRAS mutant NSCLC cell lines and, while there are preclinical data that demonstrate cytotoxic synergy between selumetinib and other MEK inhibitors combined with docetaxel in a number of tumor types, including NSCLC, such synergy is independent of KRAS status," Adjei said. (
  • Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy (SBRT), a high-dose, precisely delivered radiotherapy, is considered the standard treatment for patients with medically inoperable, node-negative, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). (
  • While the number of small cell patients is much smaller than the non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) group-which Merck currently dominates with its own contender, Keytruda-analysts have predicted Roche could rack up $1.5 billion in the indication. (
  • For their new experiments, designed to capture the changes that occur as normal breast cells become malignant, Gilkes and colleagues developed an experimental system that uses oxygen as a switch to make tumor cells "light up" with a fluorescent marker after they are exposed to low oxygen conditions of 0.5% or less, comparable to the levels measured in human tumors. (
  • Malignant germ cell tumors (GCTs) are a rare and a heterogeneous group of pediatric cancers. (
  • Merkel cell carcinoma is a rare, aggressive, malignant primary cutaneous neuroendocrine tumor. (
  • Photoreceptor cell degeneration is a feature common to these diseases, and the death of these cells in many instances seems to involve the closely associated retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells. (
  • VV infects epithelial cells expressing receptors for epidermal growth factor ( 15 , 16 , 17 ), and thus infects many tissues in mice, including those of the ovaries, spleen, liver, and lung. (
  • In chronic Graft vs. Host Disease (GVHD), the differences between the donor bone marrow cells and the recipient's body often cause these immune cells to recognize the recipient's body tissues as foreign and the newly transplanted cells attack the transplant recipient's body. (
  • The Cancer Research UK study found that when these immune cells were present, survival improved for women with ER-negative and ER-positive HER2-postive breast cancer. (
  • Study author, Dr Raza Ali, National Institute for Health Research clinical lecturer at the Cancer Research UK Cambridge Institute, University of Cambridge, said: "Cancer often finds ways to escape the immune system, but helping immune cells to recognise cancer as a threat - and attack it - provides a promising and powerful avenue for new treatments. (
  • Scientists have identified key changes in immune cells within cancerous tumours that could help improve the development of treatments. (
  • The stress response and cell survival are necessary for normal pancreatic β-cell function, glucose homeostasis, and prevention of diabetes. (
  • This raises the issue of the role that PLCβs versus PLCγ1 play in Ca 2+ homeostasis of T-ALL cells and how PLCβs are activated upon anti-CD3 stimulation of these cells. (
  • Although recent studies have suggested that selective autophagy targeted at specific cell constituents may also be responsible for maintaining healthy conditions in the cell - 'homeostasis' - the extent of these processes is unknown. (
  • Thus, our findings indicate a critical role for miRNAs in controlling NK cell homeostasis and effector function, with implications for miRNAs regulating diverse aspects of NK cell biology. (
  • 12 ⇓ - 14 In contrast, the function of NSPs in PMN homeostasis and cell death remains elusive. (
  • The research also demonstrated that this increase is associated with genes involved in cell death and survival. (
  • Not only can this help us understand the underlying causes of some diseases, it may also be a step toward overcoming barriers to therapeutic cell transplantation. (
  • Compared with cyclophosphamide, transplantation offered significantly greater long-term benefits, but also carried known short-term risks, such as infections and low blood cell counts. (
  • Haematopoietic stem cell transplantation increases survival in systemic sclerosi. (
  • The ASTIS (Autologous Stem Cell Transplantation International Sclerode. (
  • Data indicate that haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) results in better long term survival than conventional treatment for patients with poor prognosis early diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis. (
  • The ASTIS (Autologous Stem Cell Transplantation International Scleroderma) trial enrolled more than 150 patients between 2001 and 2009, and randomised patients to the HSCT arm or to intravenous pulse cyclophosphamide treatment. (
  • These initial results are very encouraging and will help identify patients who benefit from stem cell transplantation. (
  • We're all trying to hone in on a surrogate of survival," she said, because determining actual survival in clinical trials "can take so long to assess. (
  • To assess the epidemiological and clinical factors that influence the prognosis of oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). (
  • This recent phase 1 clinical trial was designed to see how the CAR-T cell therapy targeting mesothelin would work with a PD-1 checkpoint inhibitor. (
  • We have shown the enhanced chemoresistance of SCCCs and revealed 5hmC as a biomarker for their clinical identification and TET2 as a potential drug target for SCCC elimination that could extend patients' survival. (
  • Pfizer Inc announced that a phase 3 clinical trial of Sutent (sunitinib malate) has been stopped early after the drug showed significant benefit in patients with advanced pancreatic islet cell tumors, also known as pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. (
  • We are delighted by these findings which demonstrate that Sutent provides a benefit for patients with advanced, well-differentiated pancreatic islet cell tumors - a rare cancer with limited treatment options," said Dr. Mace Rothenberg, senior vice president of medical development and clinical affairs for Pfizer's Oncology Business Unit. (
  • This phase III trial of sunitinib in patients with advanced pancreatic islet cell tumors was initiated based on the results of a earlier phase II trial published in the Journal of Clinical Oncology (July 2008). (
  • The proportion of CD44+/CD24− cells corresponded to the clinical aggressiveness of each ovarian cancer cell line histologic subtype. (
  • Stem cells obtained from donors have been used in clinical trials to effectively treat damage caused by heart attacks. (
  • Clinical findings in recent years have indicated survival rate improvements in this patient population. (
  • One immunotherapy method currently under clinical trial on patients with advanced melanoma is adoptive T-cell therapy. (
  • The objective of this study was to evaluate the epidemiological profile of patients with Merkel cell carcinoma, the clinical characteristics of the tumor, time between manifestation of signs and symptoms and initiation of treatment, survival and causes of death. (
  • Clinical history and staging were correlated with 1 and 2-year survival. (
  • F and G) Survival of HT1080 cells stably expressing human (F) or transiently expressing mouse Nampt (G) following treatment with 1.2 mM methylmethanesulfonate (MMS). (
  • B) Stable overexpression of Nampt enhances survival of HEK293 cells following MMS treatment and the effect is blocked by the Nampt-inhibitor FK866. (
  • D and E) Survival of HEK293 stably overexpressing Nampt (D) or HT1080 with siRNA knockdown of Nampt (E) following etoposide treatment. (
  • F) Survival of HT1080 Nampt knockdown cells after camptothecin treatment. (
  • CHICAGO -- Cells shed by a metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer into the blood may be a robust measure of how well treatment is working, a researcher said here. (
  • An analysis adjusting for change in cell count almost completely eliminated any treatment effect, changing the hazard ratio from a significant 0.74 to a non-significant 0.97, Scher reported. (
  • Median survival is the length of time after diagnosis or the start of treatment when half of the people with cancer are still alive. (
  • Limited stage small cell lung cancer has a median survival of 12 to 16 months, with treatment. (
  • If we knew more about how the environment in the patient's tissues triggers cancer cells to develop, we could also influence how they change during treatment and perhaps prevent a relapse. (
  • A randomized phase III trial performed by the Children's Oncology Group (COG) found 90 percent of children and young adults with T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) or T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma (T-LL) were alive 4 years after starting treatment regimens on this trial, and 84 percent were cancer-free. (
  • Though previous research has shown hydroxyurea to be highly effective in managing the complications of sickle cell anemia, many people with the disease are not consistently receiving this treatment. (
  • Superantigen treatment of mice thus allows for the activation of detectable but limited portions of the available repertoire of normal, primary T cells. (
  • Propensity matching was used to identify untreated patients who were similar to patients that underwent standard treatment regimens as well as to compare survival among subsets of treated versus untreated patients. (
  • Pfizer is pursuing a broad development program for sunitinib malate and is studying its role in the potential treatment of various solid tumors including advanced breast cancer , advanced non-small cell lung cancer , advanced colorectal cancer , advanced hepatocellular carcinoma and advanced hormone-refractory prostate cancer in Phase 3 trials. (
  • In cancers that affect the production of blood cells , treatment often destroys both the cancer cells and the healthy stem cells that produce the body's blood cells. (
  • however, survival rates have nearly doubled thanks to improvements in the treatment landscape over the past 10 years. (
  • Encouragingly, they found that, as treatment evolved to include combination therapies - and the biology of the disease was better understood - survival rates improved for patients across the disease spectrum. (
  • Initially, first-line Rituxan (rituximab) marked the first notable improvement in treatment: Survival times for newly-diagnosed patients increased nearly two-fold from two years to three-and-a-half years. (
  • Depending on what your reasons are for serum-starving your cells, you could always use some sort of serum substitute such as Ultroser G (Pall Pharmaceuticals) - this obviously would not help if you are quiescing your cells prior to treatment. (
  • In simple terms, the treatment entails first removing the patient's own T cells from the tumor. (
  • Between 10 and 20 percent of those affected by advanced melanoma can be cured with a single treatment of adoptive T-cell therapy. (
  • Stem cell based regenerative medicine is poised for the treatment of many so far incurable diseases - from tooth regeneration to heart failure. (
  • Additionally, HDAC3 or HDAC8 inhibition combined with Bcl-xL inhibition had a synergistic effect on the percentage of dead cells post treatment. (
  • Following specialist treatment, 1 and 2-year survival was 53% and 47%, respectively. (
  • Cannabinoid CB2 receptor: a new target for controlling neural cell survival? (
  • Cytokine-mediated modulation of MMPs and TIMPs in multipotential neural precursor cells. (
  • The generation of mature Schwann cells from the neural crest occurs by a transition through two intermediate cell types, namely the Schwann cell precursor and the immature Schwann cell. (
  • The neural cell survival and adhesion is studied on the Au nanoparticles that work as carriers for positive charges. (
  • The neural cells are cultured on positively charged gold nanoparticles as well as on PLL (Poly-Lysine) coated surfaces. (
  • Chapel Hill, NC - Leukemia and lymphoma patients who receive life-saving stem cell or bone marrow transplants often experience chronic side effects that significantly decrease quality of life, can last a lifetime, and ultimately affect their long-term survival. (
  • Survival rates of patients needing bone marrow transplants are unaffected by whether they receive stem cells from blood or bone marrow, say scientists. (
  • Stem Cell, Bone Marrow Transplants Both Benefit Leukemi. (
  • MONDAY, Feb. 1 (HealthDay News) -- Long-term survival rates are similar for leukemia patients who've had either peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) or bone marrow transplants, a new European study says. (
  • Carreras comments on the significance of this breakthrough as, "representing an opportunity to provide significant improvements in progenitor cell transplants, as well as a tool to study the biochemical and biophysical factors influencing stem cell behaviour. (
  • The public is being invited to a screening of a documentary on the disease titled Sickle-Cell Disease: Stories of Strength, Survival and Spirit at the Faculty of Law, The University of the West Indies, Mona, this evening at 6. (
  • What we decided was that what we really needed was a more meaningful way to explain to the Jamaican public why sickle-cell disease should be taken seriously, and we thought about developing a documentary. (
  • Sickle-cell disease (SCD) is an inherited blood disorder in which there are not enough healthy red blood cells to carry adequate amounts of oxygen throughout the body. (
  • The process can improve cell survival under starvation conditions by recycling cell material and maintaining energy levels. (
  • Cell proliferation assays are performed using standard methods, including enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), flow cytometry, immunofluorescence and high content imaging. (
  • For the cell cycle assay, cells are fixed or permeabilized, incubated with a DNA intercalating agent such as propidium iodide (PI) and subsequently analyzed by flow cytometry. (
  • RadChemDosi™ Cell Survival Assay Kit is a chemical based assay that can measure the dose rate of ionizing radiation. (
  • RadChemDosi™ Cell Survival Assay Kit contains enough reagents for 100 test if 1 ml is used for irradiation. (
  • Senescent cells undergo morphological, structural and functional changes which are influenced by a number of variables, including time, stress, tissue, and cell type. (
  • The heterogeneity of the senescent phenotype is exemplified by the many biological properties that senescent cells can cover. (
  • The advent of innovative model organisms has demonstrated a functional role of senescent cells during embryogenesis, tissue remodeling, tumorigenesis and aging. (
  • Cells were cultured in endothelial cell basal medium-2 in the absence and presence of CRP (5 to 20 μg/mL), rosiglitazone (1 μmol/L), and/or vascular endothelial growth factor. (
  • ORP4L knockdown results in suboptimal bioenergetics, cell death and abrogation of T-ALL engraftment in vivo . (
  • The goal of this study was to produce an image of CD4 + T cells infiltrating breast tumors using limited ex vivo manipulation to better understand the in vivo differences associated with patient prognosis. (
  • Normal T cells activated by superantigen in uninfected mice died as a result of their activation, whereas T cells that were activated during vaccinia infection survived longer in vivo and in culture. (
  • Pilar Carreras, the Marie Skłodowska Curie fellow explains: "In order to maintain and expand human bone marrow haematopoietic stem cells, and to implement further translation of the cells into functional ex-vivo cultured cells, we had to engineer a biomimetic 3D microenvironment. (
  • In conclusion, while temperatures experienced in the central core of the SDFT in vivo are unlikely to result in tendon cell death, repeated hyperthermic insults may compromise cell metabolism of matrix components, resulting in tendon central core degeneration. (
  • Therefore, experimental infection of mice with MCMV provides a useful model for studying factors that are important for NK cell activation in vivo. (
  • CAR-T cell therapy is a growing area of research for all cancers, including mesothelioma. (
  • The hazard ratios with rising numbers of circulating tumor cells was highest for the estrogen receptor-positive, HER2-positive tumors (up to almost eight-fold), followed by estrogen receptor-negative, HER2-positive tumors, and then estrogen receptor-positive, HER2-negative tumors and triple negative cancers. (
  • In animal models of various cancer types, so-called cancer stem cells (CSCs) have been shown to be important for disease maintenance and therapy resistance. (
  • Al-Hajj M, Becker MW, Wicha M, Weissman I, Clarke MF (2004) Therapeutic implications of cancer stem cells. (
  • Jordan CT, Guzman ML, Noble M (2006) Cancer stem cells. (
  • Wu Q, Guo R, Lin M, Zhou B, Wang Y (2011) MicroRNA-200a inhibits CD133/1+ ovarian cancer stem cells migration and invasion by targeting E-cadherin repressor ZEB2. (
  • The findings suggest that patients who underwent surgery had a greater survival rate compared with those that did not. (
  • Our findings also show that these post-hypoxic cells have six times the probability of forming lung metastases, suggesting that oxygen starvation enhances their metastatic capabilities," says study leader Daniele Gilkes, Ph.D. , assistant professor of oncology and researcher in the breast and ovarian cancer program of the Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center. (
  • Our findings show an improvement in survival across a population with a disease that is challenging to treat," they added. (
  • Based on survival data, we developed a single-step scCO 2 technique for the rapid production of biodegradable poly( dl -lactic acid) scaffolds containing mammalian cells. (
  • By using optimum cell-survival conditions, scCO 2 was used to process poly( dl -lactic acid) containing a cell suspension, and, upon pressure release, a polymer sponge containing viable mammalian cells was formed. (
  • Standard methods of combining mammalian cells and synthetic polymers for biotechnological applications ( 1 - 3 ) must minimize disruption to the cell component from fluctuations in solvent composition, temperature, pressure, and shear forces ( 4 , 5 ). (
  • We hypothesized that a similar one-step scCO 2 processing technique might be used to produce biodegradable foams containing mammalian cells. (
  • In mammalian cells, autophagy occurs constitutively at basal rates and its primary function is to protect cells under stress conditions. (
  • The third type of autophagy is known as macroautophagy, which it is the major autophagy pathway in mammalian cells. (
  • In cases of severe O 2 limitation, most excitable cells of mammals cannot continue to meet the energy demands of active ion-transporting systems, leading to rapid exhaustion of fermentable substrate, catastrophic membrane failure and cell death. (
  • A double membrane encloses the constituent, separating it from the rest of the cell. (
  • To obtain CSC expression profiles of human patients, the authors sorted 16 patient samples into four cell populations based on the expression of surface markers, and assayed the ability of each subpopulation to engraft in highly immunodeficient mice. (
  • PAHSAs reduced T and B cell infiltration and CD4+ and CD8+ T cell activation, while increasing Treg activation in pancreata of NOD mice. (
  • PAHSAs promoted β cell proliferation in both NOD mice and MIN6 cells and increased the number of β cells in NOD mice. (
  • Those cells are fibroblast delivered from new born SOD knockout mice kidney. (
  • We found that T cells responding to superantigen during active VV infection showed prolonged survival thereafter in mice and in culture. (
  • The mice carrying disrupted TCTP in neuronal and glial progenitor cells died at the perinatal stage. (
  • Remarkably, the severe mtDNA depletion and respiratory chain abnormalities in Tfam-SCKO mice did not affect SC proliferation or survival. (
  • In this study, we used mice with conditional deletion of Dicer and DiGeorge syndrome critical region 8 (Dgcr8) to dissect the roles of miRNAs in NK cell activation, survival, and function during viral infection. (
  • Many of the inhibitory NKRs, including Ly49 receptors in mice and inhibitory killer cell Ig-like receptors in humans, recognize self-ligands, such as MHC class I molecules. (
  • Lack of NK cells renders both human and mice susceptible to certain infections, particularly the herpesviruses, including human cytomegalovirus and MCMV ( 5 ). (
  • Using BM chimera, we found that serpinB1 deficiency in BM cells was necessary and sufficient to reproduce the BM neutropenia of sB1 −/− mice. (
  • 18 We have recently shown that mice lacking the serine protease inhibitor serpinB1 ( sB1 −/− ) have reduced PMN survival in the lungs following Pseudomonas infection and that these mice have a profound reduction in mature PMN numbers in the BM. (
  • Because these statistics are based on the experience of groups of people, they cannot be used to predict a particular person's chances of survival. (
  • This volume includes discussion of tumor suppression, the altered metabolism of cancer cells, and the development of therapeutic drugs. (
  • Those patients with T-cell ALL also received either prophylactic or therapeutic cranial irradiation to prevent or treat brain metastases. (
  • EU funded research by MicroNICHE developed a special microenvironment that maintains that vital 'stemness' for cells destined to develop into therapeutic tissues or organs. (
  • Matthias Simonis et al, Survival rate of eukaryotic cells following electrophoretic nanoinjection, Scientific Reports (2017). (
  • We've shown that women who have killer T cells present at the site of their tumour are likely to live longer. (
  • The research, published today in the journal Annals of Oncology , shows that infiltration into the tumour by killer T cells flags up how certain patients should be treated. (
  • When cancer cells multiply, mutations are formed and thus new types of tumour cells, known as clones, can occur. (
  • New clones grow together with the original tumour cells, and coexist with them in many parts of the tumour. (
  • A new clone outcompetes the original tumour cell, and then builds up parts of the tumour entirely on its own. (
  • New clones mutate intensively so that a variety of cell types emerge in a specific part of the tumour at the same time. (
  • Dean M, Fojo T, Bates S (2005) Tumour stem cells and drug resistance. (
  • Cancer is primarily a disease caused by genetic changes that progress as sequential series of somatic mutations in specific genes such as protooncogenes and tumor suppressor genes, resulting in uncontrolled cancerous cell proliferation [ 3 , 4 ]. (
  • This revealed that the more mutations the tumor had, the better the result of the T-cell therapy. (
  • Ultimately, differential targeting of this process may promote survival of postmitotic tissue or enhance tumor-specific killing. (
  • The resulting oxidative damage ultimately culminates in tumor cell death, vascular shutdown, induction of an antitumor immune response, and the consequent destruction of the tumor. (
  • This is required for normal development and physiology, as well as the elimination of errant cells. (
  • Results showed there may be a slightly lower risk of graft failure with the use of peripheral blood stem cells, however chronic GVHD may be more likely. (