Killer Cells, Natural: Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.Receptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.Killer Cells, Lymphokine-Activated: Cytolytic lymphocytes with the unique capacity of killing natural killer (NK)-resistant fresh tumor cells. They are INTERLEUKIN-2-activated NK cells that have no MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX restriction or need for antigen stimulation. LAK cells are used for ADOPTIVE IMMUNOTHERAPY in cancer patients.Cytotoxicity, Immunologic: The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.Receptors, Immunologic: Cell surface molecules on cells of the immune system that specifically bind surface molecules or messenger molecules and trigger changes in the behavior of cells. Although these receptors were first identified in the immune system, many have important functions elsewhere.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Receptors, Natural Killer Cell: Receptors that are specifically found on the surface of NATURAL KILLER CELLS. They play an important role in regulating the cellular component of INNATE IMMUNITY.Killer Factors, Yeast: Protein factors released from one species of YEAST that are selectively toxic to another species of yeast.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Receptors, KIR: A family of receptors found on NK CELLS that have specificity for a variety of HLA ANTIGENS. KIR receptors contain up to three different extracellular immunoglobulin-like domains referred to as D0, D1, and D2 and play an important role in blocking NK cell activation against cells expressing the appropriate HLA antigens thus preventing cell lysis. Although they are often referred to as being inhibitory receptors, a subset of KIR receptors may also play an activating role in NK cells.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Cytokine-Induced Killer Cells: Mononuclear leukocytes that have been expanded in CELL CULTURE and activated with CYTOKINES such as INTERLEUKIN-2 to produce large numbers of highly cytotoxic cells.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Interleukin-2: A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Whale, Killer: The species Orcinus orca, in the family Delphinidae, characterized by its black and white coloration, and huge triangular dorsal fin. It is the largest member of the DOLPHINS and derives its name from the fact that it is a fearsome predator.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Endocytosis: Cellular uptake of extracellular materials within membrane-limited vacuoles or microvesicles. ENDOSOMES play a central role in endocytosis.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Receptors, Virus: Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Natural Killer T-Cells: A specialized subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES that exhibit features of INNATE IMMUNITY similar to that of NATURAL KILLER CELLS. They are reactive to glycolipids presented in the context of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I-like molecule, CD1D ANTIGEN.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Mice, Inbred C57BLLectins, C-Type: A class of animal lectins that bind to carbohydrate in a calcium-dependent manner. They share a common carbohydrate-binding domain that is structurally distinct from other classes of lectins.Receptors, IgG: Specific molecular sites on the surface of various cells, including B-lymphocytes and macrophages, that combine with IMMUNOGLOBULIN Gs. Three subclasses exist: Fc gamma RI (the CD64 antigen, a low affinity receptor), Fc gamma RII (the CD32 antigen, a high affinity receptor), and Fc gamma RIII (the CD16 antigen, a low affinity receptor).Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.CHO Cells: CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.NK Cell Lectin-Like Receptor Subfamily C: A subclass of NK cell lectin-like receptors that associates with members of NK CELL LECTIN-LIKE RECEPTOR SUBFAMILY D to form heterodimeric receptors for HLA-E antigen.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Mice, Inbred BALB CSpleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Binding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.Antigens, CD44: Acidic sulfated integral membrane glycoproteins expressed in several alternatively spliced and variable glycosylated forms on a wide variety of cell types including mature T-cells, B-cells, medullary thymocytes, granulocytes, macrophages, erythrocytes, and fibroblasts. CD44 antigens are the principle cell surface receptors for hyaluronate and this interaction mediates binding of lymphocytes to high endothelial venules. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)Receptors, Fc: Molecules found on the surface of some, but not all, B-lymphocytes, T-lymphocytes, and macrophages, which recognize and combine with the Fc (crystallizable) portion of immunoglobulin molecules.NK Cell Lectin-Like Receptor Subfamily D: A subclass of NK cell lectin-like receptors that associates with a variety of members of NK CELL LECTIN-LIKE RECEPTOR SUBFAMILY C to form heterodimeric receptors for HLA-E antigen.HLA-C Antigens: Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) antigens encoded by a small cluster of structural genes at the C locus on chromosome 6. They have significantly lower immunogenicity than the HLA-A and -B determinants and are therefore of minor importance in donor/recipient crossmatching. Their primary role is their high-risk association with certain disease manifestations (e.g., spondylarthritis, psoriasis, multiple myeloma).NK Cell Lectin-Like Receptor Subfamily K: An activating NK cell lectin-like receptor subfamily that regulates immune responses to INFECTION and NEOPLASMS. Members of this subfamily generally occur as homodimers.Antibody-Dependent Cell Cytotoxicity: The phenomenon of antibody-mediated target cell destruction by non-sensitized effector cells. The identity of the target cell varies, but it must possess surface IMMUNOGLOBULIN G whose Fc portion is intact. The effector cell is a "killer" cell possessing Fc receptors. It may be a lymphocyte lacking conventional B- or T-cell markers, or a monocyte, macrophage, or polynuclear leukocyte, depending on the identity of the target cell. The reaction is complement-independent.Receptors, KIR2DL3: A KIR receptor that has specificity for HLA-C ANTIGEN. It is an inhibitory receptor that contains D1 and D2 extracellular immunoglobulin-like domains and a long cytoplasmic tail. It is similar in structure and function to the KIR2DL2 RECEPTORS and the KIR2DL3 RECEPTORS.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Receptors, KIR3DL1: A KIR receptor that has specificity for HLA-B ANTIGENS. It is an inhibitory receptor that contains D0, D1, and D2 extracellular immunoglobulin-like domains and a long cytoplasmic tail.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Histocompatibility Antigens Class I: Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.Cytotoxicity Tests, Immunologic: The demonstration of the cytotoxic effect on a target cell of a lymphocyte, a mediator released by a sensitized lymphocyte, an antibody, or complement.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Receptors, KIR2DL4: A KIR receptor that has specificity for HLA-G antigen. It contains D0 and D2 extracellular immunoglobulin-like domains and a long cytoplasmic tail.Interleukin-15: Cytokine that stimulates the proliferation of T-LYMPHOCYTES and shares biological activities with IL-2. IL-15 also can induce proliferation and differentiation of B-LYMPHOCYTES.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Antigens, CD3: Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).Granzymes: A family of serine endopeptidases found in the SECRETORY GRANULES of LEUKOCYTES such as CYTOTOXIC T-LYMPHOCYTES and NATURAL KILLER CELLS. When secreted into the intercellular space granzymes act to eliminate transformed and virus-infected host cells.Perforin: A calcium-dependent pore-forming protein synthesized in cytolytic LYMPHOCYTES and sequestered in secretory granules. Upon immunological reaction between a cytolytic lymphocyte and a target cell, perforin is released at the plasma membrane and polymerizes into transmembrane tubules (forming pores) which lead to death of a target cell.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Integrins: A family of transmembrane glycoproteins (MEMBRANE GLYCOPROTEINS) consisting of noncovalent heterodimers. They interact with a wide variety of ligands including EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS; COMPLEMENT, and other cells, while their intracellular domains interact with the CYTOSKELETON. The integrins consist of at least three identified families: the cytoadhesin receptors(RECEPTORS, CYTOADHESIN), the leukocyte adhesion receptors (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION), and the VERY LATE ANTIGEN RECEPTORS. Each family contains a common beta-subunit (INTEGRIN BETA CHAINS) combined with one or more distinct alpha-subunits (INTEGRIN ALPHA CHAINS). These receptors participate in cell-matrix and cell-cell adhesion in many physiologically important processes, including embryological development; HEMOSTASIS; THROMBOSIS; WOUND HEALING; immune and nonimmune defense mechanisms; and oncogenic transformation.Receptors, Mitogen: Glycoprotein molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes, that react with molecules of antilymphocyte sera, lectins, and other agents which induce blast transformation of lymphocytes.Receptors, KIR2DL1: A KIR receptor that has specificity for HLA-C ANTIGENS. It is an inhibitory receptor that contains D1 and D2 extracellular immunoglobulin-like domains and a long cytoplasmic tail. It is similar in structure and function to the KIR2DL2 RECEPTOR and the KIR2DL3 RECEPTORS.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Receptors, Transferrin: Membrane glycoproteins found in high concentrations on iron-utilizing cells. They specifically bind iron-bearing transferrin, are endocytosed with its ligand and then returned to the cell surface where transferrin without its iron is released.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Immunity, Innate: The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte: Antigens expressed on the cell membrane of T-lymphocytes during differentiation, activation, and normal and neoplastic transformation. Their phenotypic characterization is important in differential diagnosis and studies of thymic ontogeny and T-cell function.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Receptors, Concanavalin A: Glycoprotein moieties on the surfaces of cell membranes that bind concanavalin A selectively; the number and location of the sites depends on the type and condition of the cell.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Cell SeparationCell Adhesion Molecules: Surface ligands, usually glycoproteins, that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion. Their functions include the assembly and interconnection of various vertebrate systems, as well as maintenance of tissue integration, wound healing, morphogenic movements, cellular migrations, and metastasis.K562 Cells: An ERYTHROLEUKEMIA cell line derived from a CHRONIC MYELOID LEUKEMIA patient in BLAST CRISIS.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Lectins: Proteins that share the common characteristic of binding to carbohydrates. Some ANTIBODIES and carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. PLANT LECTINS are carbohydrate-binding proteins that have been primarily identified by their hemagglutinating activity (HEMAGGLUTININS). However, a variety of lectins occur in animal species where they serve diverse array of functions through specific carbohydrate recognition.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Immunophenotyping: Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Monocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Lymphocyte Subsets: A classification of lymphocytes based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Receptors, KIR2DL2: A KIR receptor that has specificity for HLA-C ANTIGENS. It is an inhibitory receptor that contains D1 and D2 extracellular immunoglobulin-like domains and a long cytoplasmic tail. It is similar in structure and function to the KIR2DL1 RECEPTORS and the KIR2DL3 RECEPTORS.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Antigens, CD56: The 140 kDa isoform of NCAM (neural cell adhesion molecule) containing a transmembrane domain and short cytoplasmic tail. It is expressed by all lymphocytes mediating non-MHC restricted cytotoxicity and is present on some neural tissues and tumors.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Antigens, CD2: Glycoprotein members of the immunoglobulin superfamily which participate in T-cell adhesion and activation. They are expressed on most peripheral T-lymphocytes, natural killer cells, and thymocytes, and function as co-receptors or accessory molecules in the T-cell receptor complex.Glycosylation: The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.COS Cells: CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.GPI-Linked Proteins: A subclass of lipid-linked proteins that contain a GLYCOSYLPHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOL LINKAGE which holds them to the CELL MEMBRANE.Jurkat Cells: A CELL LINE derived from human T-CELL LEUKEMIA and used to determine the mechanism of differential susceptibility to anti-cancer drugs and radiation.Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Immunologic Capping: An energy dependent process following the crosslinking of B CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS by multivalent ligands (bivalent anti-antibodies, LECTINS or ANTIGENS), on the B-cell surface. The crosslinked ligand-antigen receptor complexes collect in patches which flow to and aggregate at one pole of the cell to form a large mass - the cap. The caps may then be endocytosed or shed into the environment.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Biotinylation: Incorporation of biotinyl groups into molecules.Pore Forming Cytotoxic Proteins: Proteins secreted from an organism which form membrane-spanning pores in target cells to destroy them. This is in contrast to PORINS and MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS that function within the synthesizing organism and COMPLEMENT immune proteins. These pore forming cytotoxic proteins are a form of primitive cellular defense which are also found in human LYMPHOCYTES.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.Cell Communication: Any of several ways in which living cells of an organism communicate with one another, whether by direct contact between cells or by means of chemical signals carried by neurotransmitter substances, hormones, and cyclic AMP.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic: Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.Fibronectins: Glycoproteins found on the surfaces of cells, particularly in fibrillar structures. The proteins are lost or reduced when these cells undergo viral or chemical transformation. They are highly susceptible to proteolysis and are substrates for activated blood coagulation factor VIII. The forms present in plasma are called cold-insoluble globulins.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Hyaluronic Acid: A natural high-viscosity mucopolysaccharide with alternating beta (1-3) glucuronide and beta (1-4) glucosaminidic bonds. It is found in the UMBILICAL CORD, in VITREOUS BODY and in SYNOVIAL FLUID. A high urinary level is found in PROGERIA.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Receptors, NK Cell Lectin-Like: Structurally-related receptors that are typically found on NATURAL KILLER CELLS. They are considered lectin-like proteins in that they share sequence homology with the carbohydrate binding domains of C-TYPE LECTINS. They differ from classical C-type lectins, however, in that they appear to lack CALCIUM-binding domains.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Microscopy, Confocal: A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.Natural Cytotoxicity Triggering Receptor 3: A 30 kDa stimulatory receptor found on resting and activated NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Precipitin Tests: Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.NK Cell Lectin-Like Receptor Subfamily B: A subclass of NK cell lectin-like receptors that includes both inhibitory and stimulatory members.Receptors, Fibronectin: Specific cell surface receptors which bind to FIBRONECTINS. Studies have shown that these receptors function in certain types of adhesive contact as well as playing a major role in matrix assembly. These receptors include the traditional fibronectin receptor, also called INTEGRIN ALPHA5BETA1 and several other integrins.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Concanavalin A: A MANNOSE/GLUCOSE binding lectin isolated from the jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis). It is a potent mitogen used to stimulate cell proliferation in lymphocytes, primarily T-lymphocyte, cultures.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Endosomes: Cytoplasmic vesicles formed when COATED VESICLES shed their CLATHRIN coat. Endosomes internalize macromolecules bound by receptors on the cell surface.Extracellular Matrix: A meshwork-like substance found within the extracellular space and in association with the basement membrane of the cell surface. It promotes cellular proliferation and provides a supporting structure to which cells or cell lysates in culture dishes adhere.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell: Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.Lysosomes: A class of morphologically heterogeneous cytoplasmic particles in animal and plant tissues characterized by their content of hydrolytic enzymes and the structure-linked latency of these enzymes. The intracellular functions of lysosomes depend on their lytic potential. The single unit membrane of the lysosome acts as a barrier between the enzymes enclosed in the lysosome and the external substrate. The activity of the enzymes contained in lysosomes is limited or nil unless the vesicle in which they are enclosed is ruptured. Such rupture is supposed to be under metabolic (hormonal) control. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)NK Cell Lectin-Like Receptor Subfamily A: An inhibitory subclass of NK cell lectin-like receptors that interacts with CLASS I MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS and prevents the activation of NK CELLS.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Receptors, Interleukin-2: Receptors present on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and B-LYMPHOCYTES that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-2 and play an important role in LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION. They are heterotrimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT, the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT, and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN.Antigens, Differentiation: Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Antigens, CD95: A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype found in a variety of tissues and on activated LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for FAS LIGAND and plays a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. Multiple isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.3T3 Cells: Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Leukocytes, Mononuclear: Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.Asialoglycoproteins: Endogenous glycoproteins from which SIALIC ACID has been removed by the action of sialidases. They bind tightly to the ASIALOGLYCOPROTEIN RECEPTOR which is located on hepatocyte plasma membranes. After internalization by adsorptive ENDOCYTOSIS they are delivered to LYSOSOMES for degradation. Therefore receptor-mediated clearance of asialoglycoproteins is an important aspect of the turnover of plasma glycoproteins. They are elevated in serum of patients with HEPATIC CIRRHOSIS or HEPATITIS.Natural Cytotoxicity Triggering Receptor 1: A 46-kD stimulatory receptor found on resting and activated NATURAL KILLER CELLS. It has specificity for VIRAL HEMAGGLUTININS that are expressed on infected cells.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Tyrosine: A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.Receptors, Drug: Proteins that bind specific drugs with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Drug receptors are generally thought to be receptors for some endogenous substance not otherwise specified.Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled: The largest family of cell surface receptors involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They share a common structure and signal through HETEROTRIMERIC G-PROTEINS.Clone Cells: A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Interferon Type I: Interferon secreted by leukocytes, fibroblasts, or lymphoblasts in response to viruses or interferon inducers other than mitogens, antigens, or allo-antigens. They include alpha- and beta-interferons (INTERFERON-ALPHA and INTERFERON-BETA).Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Laminin: Large, noncollagenous glycoprotein with antigenic properties. It is localized in the basement membrane lamina lucida and functions to bind epithelial cells to the basement membrane. Evidence suggests that the protein plays a role in tumor invasion.G(M1) Ganglioside: A specific monosialoganglioside that accumulates abnormally within the nervous system due to a deficiency of GM1-b-galactosidase, resulting in GM1 gangliosidosis.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Proteoglycans: Glycoproteins which have a very high polysaccharide content.Immunotherapy: Manipulation of the host's immune system in treatment of disease. It includes both active and passive immunization as well as immunosuppressive therapy to prevent graft rejection.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Oligopeptides: Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.Receptors, Urokinase Plasminogen Activator: An extracellular receptor specific for UROKINASE-TYPE PLASMINOGEN ACTIVATOR. It is attached to the cell membrane via a GLYCOSYLPHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOL LINKAGE and plays a role in the co-localization of urokinase-type plasminogen activator with PLASMINOGEN.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Receptors, KIR3DL2: A KIR receptor that has specificity for HLA-A3 ANTIGEN. It is an inhibitory receptor that contains D0, D1, and D2 extracellular immunoglobulin-like domains and a long cytoplasmic tail.Antigens, CD4: 55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.Receptors, Interferon: Specific molecular sites or structures on or in cells with which interferons react or to which they bind in order to modify the function of the cells. Interferons exert their pleiotropic effects through two different receptors. alpha- and beta-interferon crossreact with common receptors, while gamma-interferon initiates its biological effects through its own specific receptor system.Viral Envelope Proteins: Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.Lymphoma: A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Virus Internalization: The entering of cells by viruses following VIRUS ATTACHMENT. This is achieved by ENDOCYTOSIS, by direct MEMBRANE FUSION of the viral membrane with the CELL MEMBRANE, or by translocation of the whole virus across the cell membrane.Antigens, CD57: Oligosaccharide antigenic determinants found principally on NK cells and T-cells. Their role in the immune response is poorly understood.Heparitin Sulfate: A heteropolysaccharide that is similar in structure to HEPARIN. It accumulates in individuals with MUCOPOLYSACCHARIDOSIS.T-Lymphocyte Subsets: A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.Cross-Linking Reagents: Reagents with two reactive groups, usually at opposite ends of the molecule, that are capable of reacting with and thereby forming bridges between side chains of amino acids in proteins; the locations of naturally reactive areas within proteins can thereby be identified; may also be used for other macromolecules, like glycoproteins, nucleic acids, or other.Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor: Cell surface receptors that bind TUMOR NECROSIS FACTORS and trigger changes which influence the behavior of cells.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Cricetulus: A genus of the family Muridae consisting of eleven species. C. migratorius, the grey or Armenian hamster, and C. griseus, the Chinese hamster, are the two species used in biomedical research.Protein Processing, Post-Translational: Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.Mycotoxins: Toxic compounds produced by FUNGI.Antigens, Ly: A group of lymphocyte surface antigens located on mouse LYMPHOCYTES. Specific Ly antigens are useful markers for distinguishing subpopulations of lymphocytes.Receptors, Laminin: Glycoprotein molecules on the surface of cells that react with or bind to laminin whose function allows the binding of epithelial cells to the basement membrane. The molecular weight of this high-affinity receptor is 67 kD.Interferons: Proteins secreted by vertebrate cells in response to a wide variety of inducers. They confer resistance against many different viruses, inhibit proliferation of normal and malignant cells, impede multiplication of intracellular parasites, enhance macrophage and granulocyte phagocytosis, augment natural killer cell activity, and show several other immunomodulatory functions.Solubility: The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
"Effects of prolactin and cortisol on natural killer (NK) cell surface expression and function of human natural cytotoxicity ... Natural killer cells are affected by cortisol.[12] Cortisol stimulates many copper enzymes (often to 50% of their total ... Receptor/signaling modulators. Glucocorticoids and antiglucocorticoids. Mineralocorticoid receptor modulators. List of ... alpha by antigen-presenting cells (APCs) and T helper (Th)1 cells, but upregulates IL-4, IL-10, and IL-13 by Th2 cells. This ...
... and natural cytotoxicity receptors regulate multiple myeloma cell recognition by natural killer cells". Blood. 105 (1): 251-8. ... 1997). "p46, a Novel Natural Killer Cell-specific Surface Molecule That Mediates Cell Activation". J. Exp. Med. 186 (7): 1129- ... 2005). "Ligands for natural killer cell-activating receptors are expressed upon the maturation of normal myelomonocytic cells ... 1999). "NKp44, A Triggering Receptor Involved in Tumor Cell Lysis by Activated Human Natural Killer Cells, Is a Novel Member of ...
... alcoholic beverage Killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptor, a class of receptors on the surface of natural killer cells Kir ...
... such as B cells and natural killer cells, by the presence of a T-cell receptor on the cell surface. They are called T cells ... Cytotoxic (Killer) CD8 +ve Cytotoxic T cells (TC cells, CTLs, T-killer cells, killer T cells) destroy virus-infected cells and ... Recently, Treg17 cells have been added to this list. Natural killer T cells (NKT cells - not to be confused with natural killer ... A T cell becomes a CD4+ cell by down-regulating expression of its CD8 cell surface receptors. If the cell does not lose its ...
... is also known as Natural Killer Cell Receptor 2B4 This gene encodes a cell surface receptor expressed on natural killer cells ( ... natural killer cell receptor 2B4". Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) 605554 "CD244 molecule, natural killer cell ... 1999). "2B4, the Natural Killer and T Cell Immunoglobulin Superfamily Surface Protein, Is a Ligand for CD48". J. Exp. Med. 188 ... Kumaresan PR, Mathew PA (2000). "Structure of the human natural killer cell receptor 2B4 gene and identification of a novel ...
Tumor cell surveillance[edit]. Natural killer cells often lack antigen-specific cell surface receptors, so are part of innate ... Not to be confused with Natural killer T cell.. Natural killer cells, or NK cells, are a type of cytotoxic lymphocyte critical ... NK cells possess two types of surface receptors: activating receptors and inhibitory receptors, including killer-cell ... NK cells do not express T-cell antigen receptors (TCR) or pan T marker CD3 or surface immunoglobulins (Ig) B cell receptors, ...
... red blood cells), megakaryocytes/platelets, mast cells, T-lymphocytes, B-lymphocytes, dendritic cells, natural killer cells, ... Fetal liver kinase-1 (Flk-1) is a cell surface receptor protein that is commonly used as a marker for ESCs and EPCs. CD34 is ... For stem cells, this usually occurs through several stages, where a cell proliferates giving rise to daughter cells that are ... These parent stem cells, ESCs, give rise to progenitor cells, which are intermediate stem cells that lose potency. Progenitor ...
Because natural killer cells target virally infected host cells and tumor cells, inhibitory KIR receptors are important in ... KIR3DS1 NK cell receptors bind directly to the MHC class I molecules on the surface of target cells. Human killer cell ... Structure and function of natural killer cell surface receptors. Annual Review of Biophysics and Biomolecular Structure 32: 93- ... Natural killer (NK) cells are a type of lymphocyte cell involved in the innate immune system's response to viral infection and ...
NK cells possess two types of surface receptors: activating receptors and inhibitory receptors, including killer-cell ... Natural killer cells often lack antigen-specific cell surface receptors, so are part of innate immunity, i.e. able to react ... NK cells do not express T-cell antigen receptors (TCR) or pan T marker CD3 or surface immunoglobulins (Ig) B cell receptors, ... Natural Body Guards: How Your Killer Cells Get Motivated. Livescience.com. Retrieved on 2007-10-20. Natural Killer Cells at the ...
... peripheral blood mononuclear cell), of which a small percentage are NK cells (Natural Killer cell); less often they are purfied ... which has bound to the surface of a pathogen-infected target cell. The most common Fc receptor on the surface of an NK cell is ... NK cells are involved in killing tumor cells and other cells that may lack MHC I on their surface, indicating a non-self cell. ... Once the Fc receptor binds to the Fc region of IgG, the Natural Killer cell releases cytotoxic factors that cause the death of ...
FcγRIII receptors on the surface of natural killer (NK) cells stimulate the NK cells to release cytotoxic molecules from their ... On NK cellsEdit. The Fc receptor on NK cells recognize IgG that is bound to the surface of a pathogen-infected target cell and ... Trinchieri G, Valiante N (1993). "Receptors for the Fc fragment of IgG on natural killer cells". Natural Immunity. 12 (4-5): ... natural killer cells) or adaptive immune system (e.g., B cells).[17][18][19] They allow these cells to bind to antibodies that ...
... is a low affinity Fc receptor. It is a cluster of differentiation molecule found on the surface of natural killer cells, ... These receptors bind to the Fc portion of IgG antibodies which then activates the NK cell for antibody-dependent cell-mediated ... using fluorescent-activated cell sorting or magnetic-activated cell sorting. CD16 has been identified as Fc receptors FcγRIIIa ... and can kill primary leukemic cells, cancer cell lines, and cells infected with hepatitis B virus. A lack of CD16 in a given ...
The CD8 co-receptor is predominantly expressed on the surface of cytotoxic T cells, but can also be found on natural killer ... This affinity keeps the T cell receptor of the cytotoxic T cell and the target cell bound closely together during antigen- ... Cytotoxic T cells with CD8 surface protein are called CD8+ T cells. The main recognition site is a flexible loop at the α3 ... In addition to aiding with cytotoxic T cell antigen interactions the CD8 co-receptor also plays a role in T cell signaling. The ...
... of differentiation and a receptor that is involved in cell signaling and is expressed on the surface of natural killer cells in ... on the surface of natural killer cells interacts with Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA)-E on target cells. Natural killer (NK) ... "Human natural killer cell receptors for HLA-class I molecules. Evidence that the Kp43 (CD94) molecule functions as receptor for ... Vance RE, Kraft JR, Altman JD, Jensen PE, Raulet DH (Nov 1998). "Mouse CD94/NKG2A is a natural killer cell receptor for the ...
FcγRIII receptors on the surface of natural killer (NK) cells stimulate the NK cells to release cytotoxic molecules from their ... The Fc receptor on NK cells recognize IgG that is bound to the surface of a pathogen-infected target cell and is called CD16 or ... natural killer cells, T and B cells) and the signalling properties of each receptor. All of the Fcγ receptors (FcγR) belong to ... Trinchieri G, Valiante N (1993). "Receptors for the Fc fragment of IgG on natural killer cells". Natural Immunity. 12 (4-5): ...
Killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) are transmembrane glycoproteins expressed by natural killer cells and subsets ... surface molecule homologous to the p58/p50 family of receptors is selectively expressed on a subset of human natural killer ... 2001). "Recognition of HLA-Cw4 but not HLA-Cw6 by the NK cell receptor killer cell Ig-like receptor two-domain short tail ... Fan QR, Long EO, Wiley DC (2000). "Cobalt-mediated dimerization of the human natural killer cell inhibitory receptor". J. Biol ...
... is a protein normally expressed near the surface membrane of T cells and natural killer cells. It is part of the T cell ... "Tandem SH2 domains of ZAP-70 bind to T cell antigen receptor zeta and CD3 epsilon from activated Jurkat T cells". The Journal ... dendritic cells and B cells) via the MHC. Upon this activation, the TCR co-receptor CD4 or CD8 binds to the MHC, activating the ... Neumeister EN, Zhu Y, Richard S, Terhorst C, Chan AC, Shaw AS (June 1995). "Binding of ZAP-70 to phosphorylated T-cell receptor ...
These receptors and surface markers confer the capability of acting against cells that do not display the major ... of CIK cells by the National Cancer Institute Natural killer cell Natural killer T cell Lymphokine-activated killer cell ... CIK cells is distinctive from that of natural killer cells or LAK cells because they can lyse cells that NK cells and LAK cells ... Cytokine-induced killer cells or CIK cells are a group of immune effector cells featuring a mixed T- and natural killer (NK) ...
... is a receptor for natural killer cells. There are 7 NKG2 types: A, B, C, D, E, F and H. NKG2D is an activating receptor on the ... NK cell surface. NKG2A dimerizes with CD94 to make an inhibitory receptor (CD94/NKG2). IPH2201 is a monoclonal antibody ...
T cells, and many other cell types in the immune system. The activation of T lymphocytes and Natural Killer (NK) Cells, both in ... a C-type lectin receptor evolutionarily related with the gene families of natural killer cell-specific receptors". Eur. J. ... This molecule, which appears to be the earliest inducible cell surface glycoprotein acquired during lymphoid activation, is ... including natural killer (NK) cells, and platelets (Cambiaggi et al., 1992) [supplied by OMIM]. Cluster of differentiation ...
... is a cell adhesion molecule found on the surface of T cells and natural killer (NK) cells. It has also been called T-cell ... surface antigen T11/Leu-5, LFA-2, LFA-3 receptor, erythrocyte receptor and rosette receptor. It interacts with other adhesion ... "The OX-44 molecule couples to signaling pathways and is associated with CD2 on rat T lymphocytes and a natural killer cell line ... Seed B, Aruffo A (1987). "Molecular cloning of the CD2 antigen, the T-cell erythrocyte receptor, by a rapid immunoselection ...
Fc receptors are found on many immune system cells, including natural killer cells. When natural killer cells encounter ... the T-cell receptor binding to an antigen-MHC complex and T-cell surface receptor CD28 binding to CD80 or CD86 proteins. CTLA4 ... Cell types that can be used in this way are natural killer cells, lymphokine-activated killer cells, cytotoxic T cells and ... Dendritic cell therapies include the use of antibodies that bind to receptors on the surface of dendritic cells. Antigens can ...
Killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) are transmembrane glycoproteins expressed by natural killer cells and subsets ... "Disulfide bond-mediated dimerization of HLA-G on the cell surface". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99 (25): 16180-5. doi:10.1073 ... "Structure of the inhibitory receptor for human natural killer cells resembles haematopoietic receptors". Nature. 389 (6646): 96 ... Fan QR, Long EO, Wiley DC (2000). "A disulfide-linked natural killer cell receptor dimer has higher affinity for HLA-C than ...
... are receptors expressed on the plasmatic membrane of Natural Killer cells (NK cells). KARs work with inhibitory Killer-cell ... Then, Killer Inhibitory Receptors (KIRs) examine the surface of the tumor cell in order to determine the levels of MHC class I ... and Killer Inhibition Receptors (KIRs). Both type of receptors act together to activate or not activate the Natural Killer cell ... natural killer cells can discharge their function properly through two types of receptors: Killer Activation Receptor (KAR) ...
... to the effector cell surface receptor, CD16 (FcγRIII)), which in turn kill these tagged cells. Type I hypersensitivity Type III ... These tagged cells are then recognised by natural killer cells (NK) and macrophages (recognised via IgG bound (via the Fc ... These cells are recognized by macrophages or dendritic cells, which act as antigen-presenting cells. This causes a B cell ... Another form of type II hypersensitivity is called antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC). Here, cells exhibiting ...
Natural killer T cell. NK cells. *Cytokine-induced killer cell. *Lymphokine-activated killer cell ... and presented on its extracellular surface to CD4+ T cells (sometimes called T helper cells). These T cells bind to the MHC II- ... the Interleukin-6 receptor and lack of expression of CD45. In humans, CD27 is a good marker for plasma cells, naive B cells are ... Plasma cells, also called plasma B cells, plasmocytes, plasmacytes, or effector B cells, are white blood cells that secrete ...
Because natural killer cells target virally infected host cells and tumor cells, inhibitory KIR receptors are important in ... KIR3DS1 NK cell receptors bind directly to the MHC class I molecules on the surface of target cells. Human killer cell ... Structure and function of natural killer cell surface receptors. Annual Review of Biophysics and Biomolecular Structure 32: 93- ... Natural killer (NK) cells are a type of lymphocyte cell involved in the innate immune systems response to viral infection and ...
Natural killer (NK) cell dysfunction may be responsible for this phenomenon, however, the exact relationship between tumor ... Altered percentage of surface receptors and cytotoxic granules positive NK cells may play a vital role in tumor ... Percentage of the surface receptors NKG2A, KIR3DL1, NKG2D, NKp30, NKp44, NKp46, and DNAM-1, as well as the cytotoxic granules ... Percentage of NKG2D, NKp30, NKp46, and perforin positive NK cells was significantly down-regulated in patients with PC compared ...
... cell degranulation in response to virus-infected cells is triggered by interactions between invariant NK cell surface receptors ... Although HIV-1 Vpr induces expression of ligands for NK cell activation receptor, NKG2D, on infected cells, this is n … ... cell degranulation in response to virus-infected cells is triggered by interactions between invariant NK cell surface receptors ... Normally, NK cell surface NTB-A binds to NTB-A on CD4+ T cells. However, HIV-1 Vpu downmodulates NTB-A on infected T cells. Vpu ...
... natural killer cell (T/NK) and B-cell (B) types,we comparatively analyzed the... ... Soluble interleukin 2 receptors are released from the cell surface of normal murine B lymphocytes stimulated with interleukin 5 ... de Totero D, di Celle PF, Cignetti A, Foa R. The IL-2 receptor complex: expression and function on normal and leukemic B cells. ... A Comparative Analysis of B-Cell and T-Cell/Natural Killer Cell Lymphomas. ...
Evidence that the KIR2DS5 gene codes for a surface receptor triggering natural killer cell function. Eur. J. Immunol. 38: 2284- ... class-I molecules in human natural-killer (NK) cells: anti-P58 antibodies reconstitute lysis of MHC class-I-protected cells in ... The natural killer cell receptor specific for HLA-A allotypes: a novel member of the p58/p70 family of inhibitory receptors ... Natural killer cell receptors in the horse: evidence for the existence of multiple transcribed LY49 genes. Eur. J. Immunol. 34 ...
Natural killer (NK) cells with diverse cell-surface receptors provide front-line innate immunity against tumors and viral ... which is linked to the natural killer cell gene complex, is mediated by natural killer cells. J Immunol 149:581-589. ... 2007) Natural killer cells promote early CD8 T cell responses against cytomegalovirus. PLoS Pathog 3:e123. ... 2000) Nonstochastic coexpression of activation receptors on murine natural killer cells. J Exp Med 191:1341-1354. ...
Natural killer (NK) cells rely on surface receptors to distinguish healthy cells from cancer cells. We designed a receptor ... A Chimeric Receptor with NKG2D Specificity Enhances Natural Killer Cell Activation and Killing of Tumor Cells. Yu-Hsiang Chang ... A Chimeric Receptor with NKG2D Specificity Enhances Natural Killer Cell Activation and Killing of Tumor Cells ... A Chimeric Receptor with NKG2D Specificity Enhances Natural Killer Cell Activation and Killing of Tumor Cells ...
Fc receptors are found on the surface of immune cells, such as natural killer cells. The Fc receptor binds to the Fc region of ... protection was dependent upon the ability of antibodies to interact with immune cell Fc receptors. ... We saw that the KA antibody, which could still bind to the Fc receptors on the immune cells but not to the complement cascade, ... Stem cell research- now Nobel Laureates join the debate. 3. Researchers urge caution in using ear tube surgery. 4. Paracetamol ...
Professor of Reproductive Cell Biology Research institute: Molecular and Clinical Sciences Research Institute Tel: 020 8725 ... Oxygen modulates decidual natural killer cell surface receptor expression and interactions with trophoblast. Biology of ... Decidual natural killer cells regulate vessel stability: implications for impaired spiral artery remodelling.J Reprod Immunol. ... Decidual natural killer cell receptor expression is altered in pregnancies with impaired vascular remodelling and a higher risk ...
... and comprise the third kind of cells other than B and T Lymphocytes. They usually... ... Natural Killer Cells are also defined as large granular lymphocytes (LGL) ... Natural Killer Cell includes two types of surface receptors (activating receptor and inhibitory receptor) to control their ... Importance of Natural killers cells: Natural killer cells are derived from Pluripotent Hematopoietic stem cells and are ...
"Effects of prolactin and cortisol on natural killer (NK) cell surface expression and function of human natural cytotoxicity ... Natural killer cells are affected by cortisol.[12] Cortisol stimulates many copper enzymes (often to 50% of their total ... Receptor/signaling modulators. Glucocorticoids and antiglucocorticoids. Mineralocorticoid receptor modulators. List of ... alpha by antigen-presenting cells (APCs) and T helper (Th)1 cells, but upregulates IL-4, IL-10, and IL-13 by Th2 cells. This ...
Activating receptors bind ligands on the target cell surface and trigger NK cell activation and target cell lysis. However ... such as the antibodies produced by B cells or the T cell receptor expressed by T cells, they are equipped with various ... Natural killer cell mediated cytotoxicity - Homo sapiens (human) [ Pathway menu , Organism menu , Pathway entry , Download KGML ... Natural killer (NK) cells are lymphocytes of the innate immune system that are involved in early defenses against both ...
The natural killer cells had surface receptors, indicating they can leave the blood and migrate to the infected area of the ... Their blood and skin sample analyses showed that a type of immune cell called natural killer (NK) cells were especially ... Natural Killer Cells, Q Fever, Research, Skin, Vaccine, Virus ... Medical School show that so-called natural killer cells were ... The cells were activated by cytokines, small molecules that spread in the bloodstream and are produced by other cells in the ...
Surface expression of the NK-cell inhibitory receptor CD158b increased in expanded NK cells; compared with fresh NK cells, the ... Expanded Introduction receptors expressed on target cells. They can also mediate Natural killer (NK) cells are innate immune ... 3, 341Á355 Clinical-grade ex vivo-expanded human natural killer cells up-regulate activating receptors and death receptor ... NK cells, co-cultured with K562 and renal cell carcinoma tumor Cancer immunotherapy involving natural killer (NK) cell ...
Triggers cytolytic activity only in natural killer cells (NK) expressing high surface densities of natural cytotoxicity ... SLAM receptors triggered by homo- or heterotypic cell-cell interactions are modulating the activation and differentiation of a ... T-cells and NKT cells. Negatively regulates germinal center formation by inhibiting T-cell:B-cell adhesion; the function ... cell lineage (PubMed:18031695). Promotes T cell differentiation into a helper T-cell Th17 phenotype leading to increased IL-17 ...
... are cell surface molecules that mediate interactions between cells and immunoglobulins. Phagocytic cells, such as monocytes/ ... OShea, J. J., Weissman, A. M., Kennedy, I. C., and Ortaldo, J. R., 1991, Engagement of the natural killer cell IgG Fc receptor ... Fc receptors (FcRs) are cell surface molecules that mediate interactions between cells and immunoglobulins. Phagocytic cells, ... Myeloid Cell Human Monocyte Human Neutrophil Toxoplasma Gondii Human Natural Killer Cell These keywords were added by machine ...
Cell surface receptor that protects target cells against natural killer cell-mediated lysis. Zusätzlich bieten wir Ihnen ... Cell surface receptor that protects target cells against natural killer cell-mediated lysis. Modulates signaling cascades and ...
Other cell surface receptors commonly expressed in NK cells fall within three families. They are, 1) killer immunoglobulin like ... Reconstitution of natural killer cell receptors influences natural killer activity and relapse rate after haploidentical ... Keywords: Natural killer cells, immunological functions, stem cell, post-transplant Introduction. NK cells protect against a ... Natural killer (NK) cells are one of the first cells to recover following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation ( ...
IL-12 binds to its receptor (IL-12R) on the surface of activated T-cells and natural killer cells. The IL-12/IL-12R complex ... Roesler J, Horwitz ME, Picard C, et al. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for complete IFN-γ receptor 1 deficiency: a ... Vitamin D receptor polymorphisms. Vitamin D receptors (VDRs) are expressed on the surface of macrophages and activated ... This receptor is a heterodimer, with IFN-γR1 and IFN-γR2 chains, and is present on the surface of many inflammatory cells. ...
Elotuzumab is a monoclonal IgG- κ antibody directed against SLAMF7, a cell surface receptor involved in natural killer cell ... Daratumumab is a monoclonal IgG-κ antibody that binds to CD38, a transmembrane protein found on the surface of myeloma cells ... Chimeric antigen receptor T-cell therapy for chronic lymphocytic leukemia: a narrative review. The treatment landscape for ... Long-Term Outcomes of Hairy Cell Leukemia Treated With Purine Analogs: A Comparison With the General Population. Hairy cell ...
Structure and function of natural killer cell surface receptors. Annu. Rev. Biophys. Biomol. Struct. ... Structure and function of natural killer cell surface receptors. Annu. Rev. Biophys. Biomol. Struct. ... Natural killer cell inhibitory receptors block actin cytoskeleton-dependent recruitment of 2B4 (CD244) to lipid rafts. J. Exp. ... Natural killer cell inhibitory receptors block actin cytoskeleton-dependent recruitment of 2B4 (CD244) to lipid rafts. J. Exp. ...
When an infection is detected, a small subset of the most effective killer cells is identified and selectively expanded-as a ... Their role is to detect virus-infected cells and destroy them. ... Natural killer cells are part of the innate immune system. ... Graphic shows the distribution of the Ly49H-receptor on the surface of different natural killer cells (NK). Image: ediundsepp/ ... Distinct Surface Expression of Activating Receptor Ly49H Drives Differential Expansion of NK Cell Clones upon Murine ...
Increased natural killer cell subsets with inhibitory cytokines and inhibitory surface receptors in patients with recurrent ... Single-cell mapping of the thymic stroma identifies IL-25-producing tuft epithelial cells. ... Paired-cell sequencing enables spatial gene expression mapping of liver endothelial cells. ... Decreased NK cell immunity in kidney transplant recipients late post-transplant and increased NK-cell immunity in patients with ...
A spectrum of activating and inhibitory receptors at the NK cell surface leads to an unusual and difficult-to-study mechanism ... as well as a very high capacity for diversity at the single-cell level. Here, we review the evidence for the role of NK cells ... A spectrum of activating and inhibitory receptors at the NK cell surface leads to an unusual and difficult-to-study mechanism ... and contributes to their ability to kill virus-infected cells. Finally, we look to the future, where emerging single-cell ...
... cell immune responses are regulated by a balance of activating and inhibitory signals transmitted by cell surface receptors. ... Immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibition motifs in the cytoplasmic domains of inhibitory NK receptors recruit tyrosine or lipid ... suggest that NK cells possess a robust and potentially redundant receptor system to ensure their development and function. ... Natural killer cell receptor signaling Curr Opin Immunol. 2003 Jun;15(3):308-14. doi: 10.1016/s0952-7915(03)00039-6. ...
  • abstract = "NK cells play important roles in innate defenses against viruses and in the control of tumor growth and metastasis. (elsevier.com)
  • We investigated the ability of interleukin-2 (IL-2) and IL-12 to enhance the cytotoxicity of neonatal (cord blood) and adult mononuclear cells (MNCs) in both natural killer (NK) cell and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) assays. (asm.org)
  • Newborn mononuclear cells (MNCs) have decreased antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) compared to the ADCC of MNCs from adults ( 11 , 12 ), and newborns have decreased numbers of NK cells with both CD16 and CD56, a phenotype associated with greater cytotoxicity ( 32 ). (asm.org)
  • 4 , 6 - 8 In addition, several reports have demonstrated functional impairment of NK cells, including reduced cc-chemokine production, 9 - 11 antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), 12 , 13 and changes in cytokine secretion. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Although other NK-like subsets that share functions with conventional NK cells have been recently described 7 , 8 , for the purpose of this review article, we will focus on conventional NK cells. (jcancer.org)
  • First, NK cells share phenotypic properties with various T cell populations such as CD1d-restricted NKT cells, γδ T cells, and discrete subsets of antigen-experienced CD122 + CD8 + T cells ( 8 ). (pnas.org)
  • Yet, N-CAM is also expressed by T cell subsets, muscle cells, and neurons, but it is not expressed by murine NK cells ( 9 ). (pnas.org)
  • In the rat, NK cells express the activating receptor NKR-P1A, but this molecule is also expressed by T cell subsets ( 10 ). (pnas.org)
  • Most of these receptors are not unique to NK cells and can be present in other T cell subsets as well. (bionity.com)
  • To this day, various subsets of these endothelial-regenerating cells have been identified according to cellular origin, phenotype, and properties in vivo and in vitro. (ahajournals.org)
  • We have taken advantage of recent advances in cell purification, RNA amplification, and microarray technologies that allow the study of gene expression of purified subsets of cells on a genome-wide scale. (bloodjournal.org)
  • If the immunobiology of RA plays by the rules governed by traditional paradigms of autoimmunity, then we would predict that RA synovial T cells infiltrating affected synovial joints would express a cell surface phenotype that is compatible with prior antigen experience, is indicative of extensive proliferative activity, is suggestive of clonal expansions of subsets of antigen-specific T cells, is consistent with enhanced migratory competence, and favors survival in situ . (biomedcentral.com)
  • Taken together, these studies demonstrate a sequential impairment of NK cell function with persistent viral replication resulting from a progressive deregulation of NK cell subsets with distinct functional properties. (bloodjournal.org)
  • 1 Three subsets of NK cells can be defined by their differential expression of CD56 and CD16. (bloodjournal.org)
  • They usually express surface marker CD16, CD56, and CD8 (only 80% of NK cell) in human. (sooperarticles.com)
  • In contrast, the NK cell-activation receptors CD16 and 2B4 induced cytotoxicity but not IFN-γ production. (jimmunol.org)
  • CD16 has been identified as Fc receptors FcγRIIIa (CD16a) and FcγRIIIb (CD16b), encoded by two nearly identical genes, FCGR3A and the FCGR3B. (ptglab.com)
  • 1X10^6 U-937 cells were stained with 0.2ug CD16 antibody (16559-1-AP, red) and control antibody (blue). (ptglab.com)
  • Incubation of cord blood cells, but not adult cells, with IL-2 or IL-12 for 1 week increased the percentage of CD16 + /CD56 + cells two- to fivefold and enhanced ADCC activity. (asm.org)
  • NK cells also have Fc receptors (CD16) on their surfaces. (asm.org)
  • The most common Fc receptor that exists on the surface of NK Cell is called CD16 or FcγRIII. (bionity.com)
  • To achieve this objective, haNK cells have been engineered to express IL-2 and the high-affinity variant of the CD16 receptor (V158 FcγRIIIa). (businesswire.com)
  • Dr. Soon-Shiong added, "As only about 10% of patients are born with the high affinity CD16 receptor, we believe the potential for haNK cell therapy to improve patient outcomes for the other 90% of the patient population and become part of the standard-of-care for cancer patients is very compelling. (businesswire.com)
  • Acute HIV-1 infection was associated with elevated NK cell numbers, with an expansion of CD3 neg CD56 dim CD16 pos NK cells and an early depletion of CD3 neg CD56 bright CD16 neg NK cells. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Ongoing viral replication resulted in a depletion of CD3 neg CD56 dim CD16 pos NK cells with a paralleled increase in functionally anergic CD3 neg CD56 neg CD16 pos NK cells, accompanied by reduced functional activity, as measured by CD107a expression and cytokine secretion. (bloodjournal.org)
  • 3 Finally, the last subset consists of the recently described CD3 neg CD56 neg CD16 pos NK cells. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Significant changes have been observed within the NK cell compartment during chronic HIV-1 infection, such as a decline in the proportion of CD3 neg CD56 pos cells as well as an expansion of CD3 neg CD56 neg CD16 pos NK cells. (bloodjournal.org)
  • NK cell subpopulations were defined by the expression of CD3, CD56, and CD16. (bloodjournal.org)
  • NK cell-mediated murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) resistance ( Cmv r ) is under H-2 k control in MA/My mice, but the underlying gene(s) is unclear. (pnas.org)
  • In addition, recent studies of gene-deficient animals, in particular Syk and ZAP70 double-deficient mice, suggest that NK cells possess a robust and potentially redundant receptor system to ensure their development and function. (nih.gov)
  • Neonatal thymectomy at three days of age in mice results in autoimmunity, which provided the data which reignited interest in suppressor/regulatory T cells. (statemaster.com)
  • DT injection in these mice leads to a complete and selective NK cell ablation. (pnas.org)
  • In the mouse, the widely used PK136 antibody reacts with NK1.1, an epitope shared by the activating receptor NKR-P1C in C57BL/6 mice and the inhibitory receptor NKR-P1B in SJL mice ( 11 ). (pnas.org)
  • Transgenic mice lacking NK cells but with a normal T/NKT cell compartment have been reported ( 17 ). (pnas.org)
  • The cause of NK cell ablation in these mice is unknown, but is linked to the expression of the ubiquitous transcription factor ATF2, raising the possibility of other defects yet to be further investigated ( 18 ). (pnas.org)
  • Within this group, distinguishable subpopulations have been identified, including CD4 + CD8 - cells and CD4 - CD8 - cells that are present in mice and humans, and CD4 - CD8 + cells that are found only in humans. (rndsystems.com)
  • Here we have studied NK cell development in Vav1-/- mice and found that, in contrast to T and NK-T cells, the absolute numbers of phenotypically mature NK cells were not reduced. (pasteur.fr)
  • The presence of a proper bone marrow microenvironment is thought to be necessary for proper NK function, since mice treated with agents that affect the bone marrow, such as 89 Sr (( 13 )) or estradiol (( 14 )), are unable to fully support the maturation of NK cells. (rupress.org)
  • BALB/c mice were immunized i.p. five times with 5 × 10 6 NK3.3 cells and boosted once with 50 μg 2DL4-Ig fusion protein. (jimmunol.org)
  • Kaufman's team created the mouse models by transplanting human ovarian cancer cells into mice whose immune systems had been suppressed to prevent them from rejecting the human cells. (the-scientist.com)
  • The mice that got the CAR-T cells actually wound up getting sick, losing weight, and getting these toxicities, whereas the CAR-NK-cell-treated mice didn't," Kaufman says. (the-scientist.com)
  • The serum- and glucocorticoid-dependent kinases-1-3 (SGK1-3) are downstream effectors of PI3 kinases, implicated in various cell responses including colon cancer tumorigenesis in mice. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Cardoso-Alves investigated the infection in mice whose NK cells did not have TRAIL and found that these mice were able to fight the virus better than the control animals. (scitechdaily.com)
  • Mice without TRAIL had more protective T cells and were therefore better able to remove virus-infected cells. (scitechdaily.com)
  • This is not limited to mice, but also affects human NK cells. (scitechdaily.com)
  • Initial expression of KIRs on NK cells is stochastic, but there is an educational process that NK cells undergo as they mature that alters the expression of KIRs to maximize the balance between effective defense and self-tolerance. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a result of KIR's role in killing unhealthy self-cells and not killing healthy self-cells, KIRs are involved in protection against and propensity to viral infection, autoimmune disease, and cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • KNOW YOUR ENEMY: Natural killer cells, like the one attacking this larger cancer cell, can be activated by cell-surface receptors called activating KIRs. (the-scientist.com)
  • Unlike other clonally distributed KIRs, 2DL4 is transcribed by all NK cells ( 7 , 8 , 9 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • In order to protect the body from virus and other pathogen, NK cell's require mechanism that could determine weather a cell is infected or not. (sooperarticles.com)
  • When you contract a viral disease, the pathogen enters your body and infects your cells. (lewrockwell.com)
  • PGA13 encodes a GPI protein in the human pathogen Candida albicans, which is highly up-regulated during cell wall regeneration in protoplasts. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Ludmila Cardoso-Alves at the Institute of Pathology studied the role of TRAIL in the response against a virus that is a natural pathogen in rodents and often serves as a model of viral infection in immunology. (scitechdaily.com)
  • The development of an electroporation method that permits rapid expression of the receptor in a large number of human NK cells facilitates clinical translation of this NK-based strategy for a generalized cellular therapy that may be useful to treat a wide range of cancers. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Immunology and Cell Biology 92: 237-244. (els.net)
  • For Lewis Lanier , leader of the University of California, San Francisco's cancer immunology program who was not involved in the study, the findings serve as a proof of concept, "that you can take the IPS cell and actually get a product out of it," he says. (the-scientist.com)
  • This review presents the evidence supporting a role of LILRs as myeloid cell regulators and ongoing efforts to understand the functional immunology surrounding this family. (springermedizin.de)
  • NK cells also mediate anti-viral protection, in particular against cytomegalovirus (CMV), an infection that causes significant morbidity and mortality following transplant. (jcancer.org)
  • Here, we review the evidence for the role of NK cells in the earliest stage of human viral infection, and in its prevention. (frontiersin.org)
  • This is achieved through an array of cell surface receptors surveilling host cells for alterations in human leukocyte antigen class I (HLA-I) expression and other ligands as signs of viral infection, malignant transformation, and cellular stress. (harvard.edu)
  • Moreover, this viral protein contributes to increased MCMV growth during acute infection in the mouse by protecting against NK cell mediated surveillance. (prolekare.cz)
  • In pathological condition, some strategies have been developed to tilt the balance of NK cell receptor signalling, which are involved in the onset and progress of malignant tumour, viral infection and other pertinent diseases. (els.net)
  • Activating receptors recognize ligands that are overexpressed or expressed de novo upon cell stress, viral infection, or tumor transformation. (elsevier.com)
  • NK cells are involved in both viral disease and diseases such as cancer and autoimmune conditions. (lewrockwell.com)
  • Research confirms that when you are deficient in NK cells, you're far more susceptible to viral infections, and likely tumor formation as well. (lewrockwell.com)
  • Natural killer (NK) cells help fight viral infections as part of the body's innate immune response. (the-scientist.com)
  • While screening for viral peptides that stimulate one receptor, KIR2DS2, hepatologist Salim Khakoo 's group at the University of Southampton, U.K., stumbled across an amino acid sequence that appears highly conserved across multiple flaviviruses, from Zika to Japanese encephalitis. (the-scientist.com)
  • HLA-E seems to play a major role in the immune response to different viral infections and to affect transplantation outcome, in Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation, for example. (hindawi.com)
  • The data confirm that a straightforward process for the generation of receptor-targeted viral vectors has been established. (uzh.ch)
  • However, use of viral transduction methods raises the safety concern of viral integration into the NK cell genome. (plos.org)
  • In this study, we used trogocytosis as a non-viral method to modify NK cells for immunotherapy. (plos.org)
  • Reference: "Non-apoptotic TRAIL function modulates NK cell activity during viral infection" by Ludmila Cardoso Alves, Michael D. Berger, Thodoris Koutsandreas, Nick Kirschke, Christoph Lauer, Roman Spörri, Aristotelis Chatziioannou, Nadia Corazza and Philippe Krebs, 19 November 2019, EMBO Reports . (scitechdaily.com)
  • Several defects have been identified in NK cells of newborn infants, and these defects may make newborn infants particularly more susceptible to viral infections than adults ( 1 , 11 , 24 , 27 , 47 , 49 , 52 ). (asm.org)
  • Natural killer (NK) cells are critical in the first-line defense against viral infections. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Humans and chimpanzees have orthologous MHC class I, but few orthologous killer cell Ig-like receptors (KIR). (jimmunol.org)
  • This finding could also be significant for humans, since human NKs possess an equivalent receptor, which plays an important role during CMV infection. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Although NK cells might appear to be redundant in several conditions of immune challenge in humans, NK cell manipulation seems to hold promise in efforts to improve hematopoietic and solid organ transplantation, promote antitumor immunotherapy and control inflammatory and autoimmune disorders. (lewrockwell.com)
  • In humans, bone marrow in large bones produces new blood cells. (absoluteastronomy.com)
  • Once a blocker is designed to stop inflammatory cell death, Li and his colleagues plan to run clinical studies in humans to see if the same events take place. (eurekalert.org)