Specialized structures of the cell that extend the cell membrane and project out from the cell surface.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Inflammation of the ENDOCARDIUM caused by BACTERIA that entered the bloodstream. The strains of bacteria vary with predisposing factors, such as CONGENITAL HEART DEFECTS; HEART VALVE DISEASES; HEART VALVE PROSTHESIS IMPLANTATION; or intravenous drug use.
Accumulation of purulent material in tissues, organs, or circumscribed spaces, usually associated with signs of infection.
Inflammation of the inner lining of the heart (ENDOCARDIUM), the continuous membrane lining the four chambers and HEART VALVES. It is often caused by microorganisms including bacteria, viruses, fungi, and rickettsiae. Left untreated, endocarditis can damage heart valves and become life-threatening.
Impaired venous blood flow or venous return (venous stasis), usually caused by inadequate venous valves. Venous insufficiency often occurs in the legs, and is associated with EDEMA and sometimes with VENOUS STASIS ULCERS at the ankle.
The innermost layer of the heart, comprised of endothelial cells.
Flaps of tissue that prevent regurgitation of BLOOD from the HEART VENTRICLES to the HEART ATRIA or from the PULMONARY ARTERIES or AORTA to the ventricles.
Pathological conditions involving any of the various HEART VALVES and the associated structures (PAPILLARY MUSCLES and CHORDAE TENDINEAE).

Myosin light chain kinase plays an essential role in S. flexneri dissemination. (1/643)

Shigella flexneri, the causitive agent of bacillary dysentery, has been shown to disseminate in colonic epithelial cells via protrusions that extend from infected cells and are endocytosed by adjacent cells. This phenomenon occurs in the region of the eukaryotic cell's adherens junctions and is inhibited by pharmacological reagents or host cell mutations that completely disrupt the junctional complex. In this study, inhibitors of the myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) were shown to dramatically decrease intercellular spread of S. flexneri but to have no inhibitory effect on bacterial entry, multiplication or actin-based motility within the host cell. Furthermore, cell-to-cell spread of Listeria monocytogenes, another bacterial pathogen that uses an actin-based mechanism to move within the eukaryotic cytoplasm and to spread from cell to cell, was not affected by the MLCK inhibitors, indicating that (1) the inhibition of S. flexneri cell-to-cell spread in treated cells is not due to a complete break down of cell-cell contacts, which was subsequently confirmed by confocal microscopy, and (2) MLCK plays a role in a S. flexneri-specific mechanism of dissemination. Myosin has been shown to play a role in a variety of membrane-based phenomena. The work presented here suggests that activation of this molecule via phosphorylation by MLCK, at the very least participates in the formation of the bacteria-containing protrusion, and could also contribute to the endocytosis of this structure by neighboring cells.  (+info)

Peripodial cells regulate proliferation and patterning of Drosophila imaginal discs. (2/643)

Cells employ a diverse array of signaling mechanisms to establish spatial patterns during development. Nowhere is this better understood than in Drosophila, where the limbs and eyes arise from discrete epithelial sacs called imaginal discs. Molecular-genetic analyses of pattern formation have generally treated discs as single epithelial sheets. Anatomically, however, discs comprise a columnar cell monolayer covered by a squamous epithelium known as the peripodial membrane. Here we demonstrate that during development, peripodial cells signal to disc columnar cells via microtubule-based apical extensions. Ablation and targeted gene misexpression experiments demonstrate that peripodial cell signaling contributes to growth control and pattern formation in the eye and wing primordia. These findings challenge the traditional view of discs as monolayers and provide foundational evidence for peripodial cell function in Drosophila appendage development.  (+info)

ACAPs are arf6 GTPase-activating proteins that function in the cell periphery. (3/643)

The GTP-binding protein ADP-ribosylation factor 6 (Arf6) regulates endosomal membrane trafficking and the actin cytoskeleton in the cell periphery. GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs) are critical regulators of Arf function, controlling the return of Arf to the inactive GDP-bound state. Here, we report the identification and characterization of two Arf6 GAPs, ACAP1 and ACAP2. Together with two previously described Arf GAPs, ASAP1 and PAP, they can be grouped into a protein family defined by several common structural motifs including coiled coil, pleckstrin homology, Arf GAP, and three complete ankyrin-repeat domains. All contain phosphoinositide-dependent GAP activity. ACAP1 and ACAP2 are widely expressed and occur together in the various cultured cell lines we examined. Similar to ASAP1, ACAP1 and ACAP2 were recruited to and, when overexpressed, inhibited the formation of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-induced dorsal membrane ruffles in NIH 3T3 fibroblasts. However, in contrast with ASAP1, ACAP1 and ACAP2 functioned as Arf6 GAPs. In vitro, ACAP1 and ACAP2 preferred Arf6 as a substrate, rather than Arf1 and Arf5, more so than did ASAP1. In HeLa cells, overexpression of either ACAP blocked the formation of Arf6-dependent protrusions. In addition, ACAP1 and ACAP2 were recruited to peripheral, tubular membranes, where activation of Arf6 occurs to allow membrane recycling back to the plasma membrane. ASAP1 did not inhibit Arf6-dependent protrusions and was not recruited by Arf6 to tubular membranes. The additional effects of ASAP1 on PDGF-induced ruffling in fibroblasts suggest that multiple Arf GAPs function coordinately in the cell periphery.  (+info)

Evidence that beta3 integrin-induced Rac activation involves the calpain-dependent formation of integrin clusters that are distinct from the focal complexes and focal adhesions that form as Rac and RhoA become active. (4/643)

Interaction of integrins with the extracellular matrix leads to transmission of signals, cytoskeletal reorganizations, and changes in cell behavior. While many signaling molecules are known to be activated within Rac-induced focal complexes or Rho-induced focal adhesions, the way in which integrin-mediated adhesion leads to activation of Rac and Rho is not known. In the present study, we identified clusters of integrin that formed upstream of Rac activation. These clusters contained a Rac-binding protein(s) and appeared to be involved in Rac activation. The integrin clusters contained calpain and calpain-cleaved beta3 integrin, while the focal complexes and focal adhesions that formed once Rac and Rho were activated did not. Moreover, the integrin clusters were dependent on calpain for their formation. In contrast, while Rac- and Rho-GTPases were dependent on calpain for their activation, formation of focal complexes and focal adhesions by constitutively active Rac or Rho, respectively, occurred even when calpain inhibitors were present. Taken together, these data are consistent with a model in which integrin-induced Rac activation requires the formation of integrin clusters. The clusters form in a calpain-dependent manner, contain calpain, calpain-cleaved integrin, and a Rac binding protein(s). Once Rac is activated, other integrin signaling complexes are formed by a calpain-independent mechanism(s).  (+info)

Dynamic positioning of mitotic spindles in yeast: role of microtubule motors and cortical determinants. (5/643)

In the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, movement of the mitotic spindle to a predetermined cleavage plane at the bud neck is essential for partitioning chromosomes into the mother and daughter cells. Astral microtubule dynamics are critical to the mechanism that ensures nuclear migration to the bud neck. The nucleus moves in the opposite direction of astral microtubule growth in the mother cell, apparently being "pushed" by microtubule contacts at the cortex. In contrast, microtubules growing toward the neck and within the bud promote nuclear movement in the same direction of microtubule growth, thus "pulling" the nucleus toward the bud neck. Failure of "pulling" is evident in cells lacking Bud6p, Bni1p, Kar9p, or the kinesin homolog, Kip3p. As a consequence, there is a loss of asymmetry in spindle pole body segregation into the bud. The cytoplasmic motor protein, dynein, is not required for nuclear movement to the neck; rather, it has been postulated to contribute to spindle elongation through the neck. In the absence of KAR9, dynein-dependent spindle oscillations are evident before anaphase onset, as are postanaphase dynein-dependent pulling forces that exceed the velocity of wild-type spindle elongation threefold. In addition, dynein-mediated forces on astral microtubules are sufficient to segregate a 2N chromosome set through the neck in the absence of spindle elongation, but cytoplasmic kinesins are not. These observations support a model in which spindle polarity determinants (BUD6, BNI1, KAR9) and cytoplasmic kinesin (KIP3) provide directional cues for spindle orientation to the bud while restraining the spindle to the neck. Cytoplasmic dynein is attenuated by these spindle polarity determinants and kinesin until anaphase onset, when dynein directs spindle elongation to distal points in the mother and bud.  (+info)

Interaction of EGF receptor and grb2 in living cells visualized by fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) microscopy. (6/643)

The interaction of activated epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) with the Src homology 2 (SH2) domain of the growth-factor-receptor binding protein Grb2 initiates signaling through Ras and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAP kinase) [1,2]. Activation of EGFRs by ligand also triggers rapid endocytosis of EGF-receptor complexes. To analyze the spatiotemporal regulation of EGFR-Grb2 interactions in living cells, we have combined imaging microscopy with a modified method of measuring fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) on a pixel-by-pixel basis using EGFR fused to cyan fluorescent protein (CFP) and Grb2 fused to yellow fluorescent protein (YFP). Efficient energy transfer between CFP and YFP should only occur if CFP and YFP are less than 50A apart, which requires direct interaction of the EGFR and Grb2 fused to these fluorescent moieties [3]. Stimulation by EGF resulted in the recruitment of Grb2-YFP to cellular compartments that contained EGFR-CFP and a large increase in FRET signal amplitude. In particular, FRET measurements indicated that activated EGFR-CFP interacted with Grb2-YFP in membrane ruffles and endosomes. These results demonstrate that signaling via EGFRs can occur in the endosomal compartment. The work also highlights the potential of FRET microscopy in the study of subcellular compartmentalization of protein-protein interactions in living cells.  (+info)

Pyramidal cells, patches, and cortical columns: a comparative study of infragranular neurons in TEO, TE, and the superior temporal polysensory area of the macaque monkey. (7/643)

The basal dendritic arbors of layer III pyramidal neurons are known to vary systematically among primate visual areas. Generally, those in areas associated with "higher" level cortical processing have larger and more spinous dendritic arbors, which may be an important factor for determining function within these areas. Moreover, the tangential area of their arbors are proportional to those of the periodic supragranular patches of intrinsic connections in many different areas. The morphological parameters of both dendritic and axon arbors may be important for the sampling strategies of cells in different cortical areas. However, in visual cortex, intrinsic patches are a feature of supragranular cortex, and are weaker or nonexistent in infragranular cortex. Thus, the systematic variation in the dendritic arbors of pyramidal cells in supragranular cortex may reflect intrinsic axon projections, rather than differences in columnar organization. The present study was aimed at establishing whether cells in the infragranular layers also vary in terms of dendritic morphology among different cortical areas, and whether these variations mirror the ones demonstrated in supragranular cortex. Layer V pyramidal neurons were injected with Lucifer yellow in flat-mounted cortical slices taken from cytoarchitectonic areas TEO and TE and the superior polysensory area (STP) of the macaque monkey. The results demonstrate that cells in STP were larger, had more bifurcations, and were more spinous than those in TE, which in turn were larger, had more bifurcations and were more spinous than those in TEO. These results parallel morphological variation seen in layer III pyramidal neurons, suggesting that increasing complexity of basal dendritic arbors of cells, with progression through higher areas of the temporal lobe, is a general organizational principle. It is proposed that the differences in microcircuitry may contribute to the determination of the functional signatures of neurons in different cortical areas. Furthermore, these results provide evidence that intrinsic circuitry differs across cortical areas, which may be important for theories of columnar processing.  (+info)

Synaptically driven calcium transients via nicotinic receptors on somatic spines. (8/643)

Dendritic spines commonly receive glutamatergic innervation at postsynaptic densities and compartmentalize calcium influx arising from synaptic signaling. Recently, it was shown that a class of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors containing alpha7 subunits is concentrated on somatic spines emanating from chick ciliary ganglion neurons. The receptors have a high relative calcium permeability and contribute importantly to synaptic currents, although they appear to be excluded from postsynaptic densities. Here we show that low-frequency synaptic stimulation of the alpha7-containing receptors induces calcium transients confined to the spines. High-frequency stimulation induces a transient calcium elevation in the spines and a more sustained cell-wide elevation. The high-frequency transient elevation again depends on alpha7-containing receptors, whereas the sustained elevation can be triggered by other nicotinic receptors and depends on calcium release from internal stores and probably influx through voltage-gated L-type calcium channels as well. Retrograde axonal stimulation of the neurons at high frequency mimics synaptic stimulation in producing sustained cell-wide calcium increases that depend on L-type channels and release from internal stores, but it does not produce calcium transients in the spines. Thus frequent action potentials are sufficient to generate the cell-wide increases, but alpha7-containing receptors are needed for spine-specific effects. Patch-clamp recording indicates that alpha7-containing receptors preferentially desensitize at high-frequency stimulation, accounting for the inability of the stimulation to sustain high calcium levels in the spines. The spatial and temporal differences in the patterns of calcium elevation could enable the neurons to monitor their own firing histories for regulatory purposes.  (+info)

Causes and risk factors:

The most common cause of bacterial endocarditis is a bacterial infection that enters the bloodstream and travels to the heart. This can occur through various means, such as:

* Injecting drugs or engaging in other risky behaviors that allow bacteria to enter the body
* Having a weakened immune system due to illness or medication
* Having a previous history of endocarditis or other heart conditions
* Being over the age of 60, as older adults are at higher risk for developing endocarditis


The symptoms of bacterial endocarditis can vary depending on the severity of the infection and the location of the infected area. Some common symptoms include:

* Fever
* Chills
* Joint pain or swelling
* Fatigue
* Shortness of breath
* Heart murmurs or abnormal heart sounds


Bacterial endocarditis is diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and diagnostic tests such as:

* Blood cultures to identify the presence of bacteria in the bloodstream
* Echocardiogram to visualize the heart and detect any abnormalities
* Chest X-ray to look for signs of infection or inflammation in the lungs or heart
* Electrocardiogram (ECG) to measure the electrical activity of the heart


The treatment of bacterial endocarditis typically involves a combination of antibiotics and surgery. Antibiotics are used to kill the bacteria and reduce inflammation, while surgery may be necessary to repair or replace damaged heart tissue. In some cases, the infected heart tissue may need to be removed.


Preventing bacterial endocarditis involves good oral hygiene, regular dental check-ups, and avoiding certain high-risk activities such as unprotected sex or sharing of needles. People with existing heart conditions should also take antibiotics before dental or medical procedures to reduce the risk of infection.


The prognosis for bacterial endocarditis is generally good if treatment is prompt and effective. However, delays in diagnosis and treatment can lead to serious complications such as heart failure, stroke, or death. Patients with pre-existing heart conditions are at higher risk for complications.


Bacterial endocarditis is a relatively rare condition, affecting approximately 2-5 cases per million people per year in the United States. However, people with certain risk factors such as heart conditions or prosthetic heart valves are at higher risk for developing the infection.


Bacterial endocarditis can lead to a number of complications, including:

* Heart failure
* Stroke or brain abscess
* Kidney damage or failure
* Pregnancy complications
* Nerve damage or peripheral neuropathy
* Skin or soft tissue infections
* Bone or joint infections
* Septicemia (blood poisoning)


Preventive measures for bacterial endocarditis include:

* Good oral hygiene and regular dental check-ups to reduce the risk of dental infections
* Avoiding high-risk activities such as unprotected sex or sharing of needles
* Antibiotics before dental or medical procedures for patients with existing heart conditions
* Proper sterilization and disinfection of medical equipment
* Use of antimicrobial prophylaxis (prevention) in high-risk patients.

Emerging Trends:

Newly emerging trends in the management of bacterial endocarditis include:

* The use of novel antibiotics and combination therapy to improve treatment outcomes
* The development of new diagnostic tests to help identify the cause of infection more quickly and accurately
* The increased use of preventive measures such as antibiotic prophylaxis in high-risk patients.

Future Directions:

Future directions for research on bacterial endocarditis may include:

* Investigating the use of novel diagnostic techniques, such as genomics and proteomics, to improve the accuracy of diagnosis
* Developing new antibiotics and combination therapies to improve treatment outcomes
* Exploring alternative preventive measures such as probiotics and immunotherapy.

In conclusion, bacterial endocarditis is a serious infection that can have severe consequences if left untreated. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment are crucial to improving patient outcomes. Preventive measures such as good oral hygiene and antibiotic prophylaxis can help reduce the risk of developing this condition. Ongoing research is focused on improving diagnostic techniques, developing new treatments, and exploring alternative preventive measures.

There are several types of abscesses, including:

1. Skin abscesses: These occur when a bacterial infection causes pus to accumulate under the skin. They may appear as red, swollen bumps on the surface of the skin.
2. Internal abscesses: These occur when an infection causes pus to accumulate within an internal organ or tissue. Examples include abscesses that form in the liver, lungs, or brain.
3. Perianal abscesses: These occur when an infection causes pus to accumulate near the anus. They may be caused by a variety of factors, including poor hygiene, anal sex, or underlying conditions such as Crohn's disease.
4. Dental abscesses: These occur when an infection causes pus to accumulate within a tooth or the surrounding tissue. They are often caused by poor oral hygiene or dental trauma.

The symptoms of an abscess can vary depending on its location and severity. Common symptoms include:

* Redness, swelling, and warmth around the affected area
* Pain or discomfort in the affected area
* Fever or chills
* Discharge of pus from the affected area
* Bad breath (if the abscess is located in the mouth)

If an abscess is not treated, it can lead to serious complications, including:

* Further spread of the infection to other parts of the body
* Inflammation of surrounding tissues and organs
* Formation of a pocket of pus that can become infected and lead to further complications
* Sepsis, a life-threatening condition caused by the spread of infection through the bloodstream.

Treatment of an abscess usually involves drainage of the pus and antibiotics to clear the infection. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove affected tissue or repair damaged structures.

It's important to seek medical attention if you suspect that you have an abscess, as prompt treatment can help prevent serious complications.

Symptoms of endocarditis may include fever, fatigue, joint pain, and swelling in the legs and feet. In some cases, the condition can lead to serious complications, such as heart valve damage, stroke, or death.

Treatment for endocarditis typically involves antibiotics to clear the infection. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to repair or replace damaged heart tissue. Preventive measures include good dental hygiene, avoiding risky behaviors such as injecting drugs, and keeping wounds clean and covered.

Endocarditis is a serious condition that can have long-term consequences if left untreated. Early diagnosis and treatment are essential to prevent complications and ensure the best possible outcome for patients.

There are several risk factors for developing venous insufficiency, including:

* Age: As we age, our veins become less effective at pumping blood back to the heart, making us more susceptible to venous insufficiency.
* Gender: Women are more likely to develop venous insufficiency than men due to hormonal changes and other factors.
* Family history: If you have a family history of venous insufficiency, you may be more likely to develop the condition.
* Injury or trauma: Injuries or traumas to the veins can damage valves or cause blood clots, leading to venous insufficiency.
* Obesity: Excess weight can put extra pressure on the veins, increasing the risk of venous insufficiency.

Symptoms of venous insufficiency may include:

* Pain, aching, or cramping in the legs
* Swelling, edema, or water retention in the legs
* Skin discoloration or thickening of the skin on the legs
* Itching or burning sensations on the skin
* Ulcers or sores on the skin

If left untreated, venous insufficiency can lead to more serious complications such as:

* Chronic wounds or ulcers
* Blood clots or deep vein thrombosis (DVT)
* Increased risk of infection
* Decreased mobility and quality of life

To diagnose venous insufficiency, a healthcare provider may perform one or more of the following tests:

* Physical examination: A healthcare provider will typically examine the legs and ankles to check for swelling, discoloration, and other symptoms.
* Duplex ultrasound: This non-invasive test uses sound waves to evaluate blood flow in the veins and can detect blockages or other problems.
* Venography: This test involves injecting a dye into the vein to visualize the veins and check for any blockages or abnormalities.
* Imaging tests: Such as MRI, CT scan, or X-rays may be used to rule out other conditions that may cause similar symptoms.

Treatment options for venous insufficiency depend on the underlying cause and severity of the condition, but may include one or more of the following:

* Compression stockings: These specialized stockings provide gentle pressure to the legs and ankles to help improve blood flow and reduce swelling.
* Lifestyle changes: Maintaining a healthy weight, exercising regularly, and avoiding prolonged standing or sitting can help improve symptoms.
* Medications: Such as diuretics, anticoagulants, or pain relievers may be prescribed to manage symptoms and prevent complications.
* Endovenous laser therapy: This minimally invasive procedure uses a laser to heat and seal off the damaged vein, redirecting blood flow to healthier veins.
* Sclerotherapy: This involves injecting a solution into the affected vein to cause it to collapse and be absorbed by the body.
* Vein stripping: In this surgical procedure, the affected vein is removed through small incisions.

It's important to note that these treatments are usually recommended for more severe cases of venous insufficiency, and for those who have not responded well to other forms of treatment. Your healthcare provider will help determine the best course of treatment for your specific case.

There are several types of heart valve diseases, including:

1. Mitral regurgitation: This occurs when the mitral valve does not close properly, allowing blood to flow backward into the left atrium.
2. Aortic stenosis: This occurs when the aortic valve becomes narrowed or blocked, restricting blood flow from the left ventricle into the aorta.
3. Pulmonary stenosis: This occurs when the pulmonary valve becomes narrowed or blocked, restricting blood flow from the right ventricle into the pulmonary artery.
4. Tricuspid regurgitation: This occurs when the tricuspid valve does not close properly, allowing blood to flow backward into the right atrium.
5. Heart valve thickening or calcification: This can occur due to aging, rheumatic fever, or other conditions that cause inflammation in the heart.
6. Endocarditis: This is an infection of the inner lining of the heart, which can damage the heart valves.
7. Rheumatic heart disease: This is a condition caused by rheumatic fever, which can damage the heart valves and cause scarring.
8. Congenital heart defects: These are heart defects that are present at birth, and can affect the heart valves as well as other structures of the heart.

Symptoms of heart valve disease can include shortness of breath, fatigue, swelling in the legs or feet, and chest pain. Treatment options for heart valve disease depend on the specific condition and can range from medication to surgery or other procedures.

Sortases are membrane anchored enzyme that sort these surface proteins onto the bacterial cell surface and anchor them to the ... The N-terminal extension present in SrtB relative to SrtA is very significant. It is known to place the two termini on the same ... The sortase B enzyme catalyzes a cell wall sorting reaction with a surface protein where a signal NXTN motif is cleaved. In the ... IsDC remains buried in the within the cell wall not surface located like IsDA and IsDB anchored by Sortase A. This whole system ...
As mentioned, microvilli are formed as cell extensions from the plasma membrane surface. Actin filaments, present in the ... Microvilli are also of importance on the cell surface of white blood cells, as they aid in the migration of white blood cells. ... Microvilli are also present on immune cells, allowing the immune cells to sense features on the surface of pathogens and other ... Each of these cells has many microvilli.) Microvilli are observed on the plasma surface of eggs, aiding in the anchoring of ...
These membrane extensions increase the surface area of the cell, allowing for greater absorption and secretion. It has been ... The major cell types in the epithelium are: Principal cells: columnar cells that, with the basal cells, form the majority of ... Basal cells: shorter, pyramid-shaped cells which contact the basal lamina but taper off before their apical surfaces reach the ... In the caput (head) region these cells have long stereocilia that are tuft-like extensions that project into the lumen. The ...
They have their own nucleus and are known to internalize thymocytes through extensions of plasma membrane. The cell surfaces of ... Chicken TNC-T cells exhibit greater graft vs host reactivity than peripheral blood T cells or ET cells when TNCs from one ... αβ T cell receptor) of the T cells and MHC antigens on the antigen-presenting cells. This role of MHC restriction was observed ... The extensions of plasma membrane from thymic nurse cells form a cage-like structure, which trap (Hendrix et al., 2010) triple ...
These glycoproteins include the CD98 heavy chain protein of Mus musculus (gbU25708) and the orthologous 4F2 cell surface ... The larger eukaryotic and archaeal proteins possess N- and C-terminal hydrophilic extensions. Some animal proteins, for example ... The final one identified is an ACT sub-family (2.A.3.4.3) member, a GABA permease, present in both cell and vacuolar membranes ... all others are found only in the cell membrane. Two APC family members, LAT1 and LAT2 (TC #2.A.3.8.7), transport a ...
The carcinoma is confined to the surface layer (cells lining) of the cervix. Also called carcinoma in situ (CIS). The carcinoma ... has grown into the cervix, but has not spread beyond it (extension to the corpus would be disregarded). Stage One is subdivided ... Clear cell adenocarcinoma Serous carcinoma Adenosquamous carcinoma Glassy cell carcinoma Adenoid cystic carcinoma Adenoid basal ... There are 10 histopathologic types of cervical cancers: Squamous cell carcinoma (keratinizing; non-keratinizing; papillary, ...
The DEM has a specified cell size that corresponds to the earth's surfaces. The cell contains the average elevation of the ... Programs to manipulate lidar data include ENVI, ERDAS IMAGINE, ArcInfo, and ESRI ArcView (with 3D analyst ext.) One useful ... "solar electromagnetic energy reflected from the earth's surface is dispersed into many contiguous narrow spectral bands by an ...
... they are extended from the cell surface and attach to a substrate. Subsequent pilus retraction drags the cell forward. The ... The PilF and PilT ATPase proteins are responsible for powering the extension and retraction of the type IV pilus, respectively ... Surface proteins called Opa proteins can be used to bind to receptors on immune cells and prevent an immune response. At least ... On its surface, N. gonorrhoeae bears hair-like pili, surface proteins with various functions, and sugars called ...
papilla A small, elongated protuberance on the surface of an organ, usually an extension of one epidermal cell. pappus In daisy ... hair A single elongated cell or row of cells borne on the surface of an organ. half-inferior ovary An ovary partly below and ... sclereid A cell with a thick, lignified, cell wall that is shorter than a fiber cell and dies soon after the thickening of its ... stone cell a sclereid cell, such as the cells that form the tissue of nut shells and the stones of drupes. striate Striped with ...
... and synapse cytoplasmic extensions of muscle cells with contractile fibrils to the nerve cord surface. In amphioxus, myomeres ... Since myomeres are composed of multinucleated myofibers (contractile cells), force can be generated via muscle contraction that ... There are muscle cells within myomeres that send, ...
The migration of cultured cells attached to a surface or in 3D is commonly studied using microscopy. As cell movement is very ... This suggests that extension of the leading edge occurs primarily by addition of membrane at the front of the cell. If so, the ... These observations provide strong support for models of cell movement which depend on a rearward cell surface membrane flow ( ... Cell Migration Gateway The Cell Migration Gateway is a comprehensive and regularly updated resource on cell migration The ...
... giving more surface area to each cell) and have long cytoplasmic extensions that cover more than 95% of the alveolar surface. ... They are the most numerous cells in the alveoli, yet do not cover as much surface area as the squamous type I cells. Type II ... Type II cells, also called type II pneumocytes or type II alveolar cells, release pulmonary surfactant to lower surface tension ... Type I cells are the larger of the two cell types; they are thin, flat epithelial lining cells (membranous pneumocytes), that ...
... extension results in localized amplification of DNA fragments in millions of separate locations across the flow cell surface. ... The flow cell is exposed to reagents for polymerase-based extension, and priming occurs as the free/distal end of a ligated ... von Bubnoff A (March 2008). "Next-generation sequencing: the race is on". Cell. 132 (5): 721-723. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2008.02. ... The surface of the beads contains oligonucleotide probes with sequences that are complementary to the adaptors binding the DNA ...
... certain extensions and modifications of the notion of minimal surface, known as apparent horizons, are significant. In contrast ... Cell. 154 (2): 285-296. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2013.06.031. ISSN 0092-8674. PMC 3767119. PMID 23870120. Yvonne Choquet-Bruhat. ... the first non-orientable minimal surface Bour's minimal surface the Neovius surface: a triply periodic surface Modern surfaces ... triply periodic surfaces that fill R3 Riemann's minimal surface: A posthumously described periodic surface the Enneper surface ...
Other cells use a different method to glide: a small patch of the cell already touching the surface binds to the surface, after ... This results in the extension of this appendage. On the opposite (posterior) end of the cell, plasma gel is then converted to ... binds tightly to the surface. The main bulk of the cell pulls itself toward the bound patch. By repeating this process the cell ... Some cells glide with the same mechanism as crawling, but with larger pseudopods and less surface adhesion. ...
The colony surface is smooth and has a pasty texture. There is considerable cell and colony morphology when S. salmonicolor is ... Ballistoconidia are borne from slender extensions of the cell known as sterigma, and are forcibly ejected into the air upon ... After several generations, they observed a 2:1 ratio of diploid and haploid cells, respectively. The diploid cells were ... The cell wall of S. salmonicolor contains fucose, mannose, glucose and galactose, however xylose is absent. Colonies grow in ...
... in-folding of the Schwann cell surface so that a double membrane of the opposing faces of the in-folded Schwann cell surface is ... At the same time, the periaxonal extension of the glial cell wraps around the axon, giving rise to the paranodal regions. This ... This membrane stretches and spirally wraps itself over and over as the in-folding of the Schwann cell surface continues. As a ... The myelinating glial cells - oligodendrocytes in the central nervous system (CNS), and Schwann cells in the peripheral nervous ...
Each gel unit functions as an individual reaction cell as it is surrounded by a hydrophobic glass surface that prevents mixing ... This lays a foundation for performing ligation, single base extension, PCR amplification of DNA, on-chip MALDI-TOF mass ... rRNA are very abundant in the cell comprising about 80% of the RNA content of the typical eukaryotic cell. The rRNA is pre- ... The fibre-optic pin of the robots has a hydrophobic side surface and a hydrophilic tip, and operates at a dew temperature to ...
... thus promoting extension of the axon towards the optic disc. CSPGs exist along the retinal neuroepithelium (surface over which ... Midget cell (parvocellular, or P pathway; P cells) Parasol cell (magnocellular, or M pathway; M cells) Bistratified cell ( ... A retinal ganglion cell (RGC) is a type of neuron located near the inner surface (the ganglion cell layer) of the retina of the ... bipolar cells and retina amacrine cells. Retina amacrine cells, particularly narrow field cells, are important for creating ...
Galvanic cells are extensions of spontaneous redox reactions, but have been merely designed to harness the energy produced from ... The depositions on the surface of the zinc metal consist of copper metal, and the solution now contains zinc ions. This ... If the concentrations are the same, E cell = E cell o {\displaystyle E_{\text{cell}}=E_{\text{cell}}^{o}} and the Nernst ... Concentration cell Electrolytic cell Electrochemical cell Lemon battery Thermogalvanic cell Bioelectrochemical reactor Resting ...
Varying expression of CD19 on the cell surface modulates tyrosine phosphorylation and Akt kinase signaling and by extension, ... CAR-19 T cells are genetically modified T cells that express a targeting moiety on their surface that confers T cell receptor ( ... Paired box transcription factor 5 (PAX5) plays a major role in B cell differentiation from pro B cell to mature B cell, the ... Rickert RC, Rajewsky K, Roes J (July 1995). "Impairment of T-cell-dependent B-cell responses and B-1 cell development in CD19- ...
... which are actin-based extensions. These extensions are ensheathed in membrane and project from the surface of the cell in order ... Anchoring proteins restricts them to a particular cell surface - for example, the apical surface of epithelial cells that line ... Annular lipid shell Artificial cell Bacterial cell structure Bangstad syndrome Cell cortex Cell damage, including damage to ... they are located on the surface of the cell where they recognize host cells and share information, viruses that bind to cells ...
This mode of division seems to involve the extension of thin protrusions from the cell's surface and these protrusions then ... due to the lack of a cell wall. The cell wall is important for cell division, which, in most bacteria, occurs by binary fission ... The lack of cell wall in L-forms means that division is disorganised, giving rise to a variety of cell sizes, from very tiny to ... Bacterial morphology is determined by the cell wall. Since the L-form has no cell wall, its morphology is different from that ...
The brush border morphology increases a cell's surface area, a trait which is especially useful in absorptive cells. Cells that ... In intestinal cells, the microvilli are referred to as striated border and are protoplasmic extensions contrary to villi which ... Brush border cells are found mainly in the following organs: The small intestine tract: This is where absorption takes place. ... A brush border (striated border or brush border membrane) is the microvilli-covered surface of simple cuboidal and simple ...
The consequence is that the cell is drawn into the water and particles of food are drawn to the surface of heterotrophic ... Typology of flagella with hairs: whiplash flagella (= smooth, acronematic flagella): without hairs but may have extensions , e. ... J. Cell. Biol., 50: 362-384 v t e (Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, Algal anatomy, ... 60-63, [2] Dodge, J.D. (1973). The Fine Structure of Algal Cells. Academic Press, London. pp. 57-79, [3] Lee, R. E. (2008). ...
... a red blood cell surface antigen system DARPA XG, a DARPA communication program Hyundai XG, a Hyundai car model Yamaha XG, a ... Yamaha extension to the General MIDI standard XG (group) a global girl group Extreme-G, a video game Expected goals (xG), a ...
... specific types of cell surface receptors Theatre in Education Time for Inclusive Education, an LGBT campaign group in Scotland ... a rectangular support for the rail Tensilica Instruction Extension, a verilog-like language that is used to describe the ... instruction extensions to the Xtensa processor core Time Independent Escape Sequence, a modem protocol TiE (The Indus ...
The cilia are hair-like, microtubular-based structures on the luminal surface of the epithelium. On each epithelial cell there ... This allows the cilia to penetrate the mucous layer during its full extension in the effector stroke, and to propel the mucus ... away from the cell surface. In the recovery stroke the cilium bends from one end to the other bringing it back to the starting ... The coordinated movement of the cilia on all the cells is carried out in a fashion that is not clear. This produces wave-like ...
The endothelium is a thin layer of single flat (squamous) cells that line the interior surface of blood vessels and lymphatic ... membrane endothelial cells are freed to migrate from the existing blood vessels and begin to proliferate to form extensions ... The endothelium is a single layer of squamous endothelial cells that line the interior surface of blood vessels and lymphatic ... The general outline of angiogenesis is activating signals binding to surface receptors of vascular endothelial cells. activated ...
Twitching depends on the extension, attachment to a surface, and retraction of type IV pili which pull the cell forwards in a ... For this, they forced E. coli planktonic cells into a swarming-cell-phenotype by inhibiting cell division (leading to cell ... Bacteria may use pili not only for twitching but also for cell-cell interactions, surface sensing, and DNA uptake. Gliding ... only at the cell poles or spread over the cell surface. In polar flagellation, the flagella are present at one or both ends of ...
Development proceeds and the oogonia become fully surrounded by a layer of connective tissue cells (pre-granulosa cells). In ... The labia minora, in contrast, arise by the continued growth of the lips of the groove on the under surface of the phallus; the ... The median lobe of the prostate is formed as an extension of the lateral lobes between the common ejaculatory ducts and the ... At about the fifth or sixth month the lumen of the vagina is produced by the breaking down of the central cells of the ...
This can be seen as an extension to a spherical surface of Giles' and Wild's results for reflection at a planar surface with ... Mie theory has been used to determine whether scattered light from tissue corresponds to healthy or cancerous cell nuclei using ... By enforcing the boundary condition on the spherical surface, the expansion coefficients of the scattered field can be computed ... and biological cells and cellular components, a more detailed approach is necessary. The Mie solution is named after its ...
... and a 1955 cell block extension. The 1971 Brooks Center Hospital adjoins the Rotunda, and stands where the original Cell Block ... The Detroit Red Wings played an exhibition game on an outdoor ice surface, in 21 °F (−6 °C) degree weather, against inmates at ... The original 1889 complex included the Administration Building, Rotunda, Cell Block A, and Cell Block B. Cell Block A was ... Connected to the Rotunda is the one-story rectangular Cell Block B, which has arched windows along the sides and is five small ...
... amniotic stem cells and umbilical cord blood stem cells. They are being studied as possible treatments of a number of ... Delivery by extension. The back of the neck presses against the pubic bone and its chin leaves its chest, extending the neck - ... Childbirth can be an intense event and strong emotions, both positive and negative, can be brought to the surface. Abnormal and ... OCLC 748863692.[page needed] Dziadosz M, Basch RS, Young BK (March 2016). "Human amniotic fluid: a source of stem cells for ...
"OSU Extension Catalog - Oregon State University" (PDF). extension.oregonstate.edu. Archived (PDF) from the original on 11 April ... Usually 3.5 to 4 cm (1.4 to 1.6 in) in diameter with longitudinal folds on the interior surface, it can expand to allow the ... Bones are also used to store minerals, and are the site of red blood cell formation. The Appendicular system includes the limbs ... continue to erupt throughout its lifetime as the grinding surface is worn down through chewing. Because of this pattern of wear ...
Lead-containing solder has a lower surface tension, and tends to move slightly to attach itself to exposed metal surfaces that ... In addition the commission entertains requests for deadline extensions or for exclusions by substance categories, substance ... cell phones took their last call in 2005. All told, the EPA estimates that in the U.S. that year, between 1.5 and 1.9 million ... A contact might be composed of a copper strip with a surface coating. A loudspeaker is composed of a permanent magnet, copper ...
The new pump is powered by electricity, derived from a battery pack which is charged by a wind generator and solar cells, with ... The tramway bridge is still in situ, with its rails embedded in the surface. At Blackwater Dike, which runs at right angles to ... By 1845, some 2,000 acres (810 ha) of land towards Fockerby Common were being warped, facilitated by an extension of the ... wide at the surface level of the land. It included two openings in the stonework, each 16 feet (4.9 m) wide, and four large ...
The cell is spindle or cigar-shaped, somewhat pointed at the anterior end. It has a pellicle with parallel finely-ridged ... took the flagellum for a necklike extension of the body, and placed it in the ciliate genus Trachelius. Peranema was correctly ... in a groove along its ventral surface. Next to the reservoir, lies Peranema's highly developed feeding apparatus, a cytostomal ... Peranema cells are gliding flagellates found in freshwater lakes, ponds and ditches, and are often abundant at the bottom of ...
Treatments need to focus on limiting post-injury cell death, promoting cell regeneration, and replacing lost cells. ... Cervical vertebra A portion of the spinal cord, showing its right lateral surface. The dura is opened and arranged to show the ... The spinal cord proper terminates in a region called the conus medullaris, while the pia mater continues as an extension called ... "Spinal Cord-Development and Stem Cells". Stem Cell Development Compendium. Retrieved 2 Dec 2015. Than-Trong, Emmanuel; Bally- ...
This device is essentially a galvanic cell that can be schematically represented as: Glass electrode ,, Reference Solution ,, ... an extension to the Nernst equation. It is given by E = E 0 + R T z i F ln ⁡ [ a i + ∑ j ( k i j a j z i / z j ) ] {\ ... maximizing the surface area of the tool by heat treating the platinum with platinum chloride at red heat, thus enabling a much ... In this schematic representation of the galvanic cell, one will note the symmetry between the left and the right members as ...
With a surface of 3 hectares (7.4 acres), the charterhouse used to be a genuine city within the city. The remaining buildings ... A gallery of the great cloister A monastic cell Religious objects A former 18th-century room A former 18th-century room Bugatti ... Pages using the Kartographer extension). ... several reconstructed monastic cells, and some 18th-century ...
The H-16 retained its eight ESAC internal bomb cells; four bomb cells, as on previous versions could be replaced by a fuel tank ... The column had an extension arm fitted and had the ability to be swung over to the starboard side in case the pilot was ... Later the DB 600Ga engines were added and the wing surface coolers withdrawn. He 111 B-3 Modified B-1 for training purposes. He ... The B-0 could also carry 1,500 kg (3,300 lb) in vertical cells. The B-1 had some minor improvements, including the installation ...
Hidradenitis has been diagnosed through an examination to confirm the presence of neutrophils (a type of immune cell present ... Additionally, preventative measures can include flexion and extension stretches in the wrist at warm-up and throughout gameplay ... causing lesions on the palmar surface of the hands. These lesions develop when people spend prolonged periods of time using ...
President Bush attends a briefing on the extension of the Fast Track Authority in Room 450 of the Old Executive Office Building ... April 13 - President Bush delivers an address in the fuel cell hangar at Maxwell Air Force Base War College in Montgomery, ... President Bush signs the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991. December 19 - President Bush signs the Coast ... In his address, President Bush touts the benefits of the extension and advocates opposing the measure. President Bush makes a ...
"Wnt family proteins are secreted and associated with the cell surface". Molecular Biology of the Cell. 4 (12): 1267-75. doi: ... "A dorsal-ventral gradient of Wnt3a/β-catenin signals controls mouse hindgut extension and colon formation". Development. 147 (8 ... March 2020). "Wnt-3a Induces Epigenetic Remodeling in Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells". Cells. 9 (3): E652. doi:10.3390/ ... Cell. 119 (1): 97-108. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2004.09.019. PMID 15454084. S2CID 18567677. Capurro MI, Shi W, Sandal S, Filmus J ( ...
The orbits are arranged so that at least six satellites are always within line of sight from everywhere on the Earth's surface ... Applications for GPS such as time transfer, traffic signal timing, and synchronization of cell phone base stations, make use of ... and its extensions) forms the axis of the hyperboloid. The receiver is located at the point where three hyperboloids intersect ... The solution for the position of the receiver is then at the intersection of the surfaces of these spheres; see trilateration ( ...
The spirochetes may also induce host cells to secrete quinolinic acid, which stimulates the NMDA receptor on nerve cells, which ... The spread of B. burgdorferi is aided by the attachment of the host protease plasmin to the surface of the spirochete. If ... Extension, New Jersey Agricultural Experiment Station. Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 June 2013. Scribner H (31 May ... Within the tick midgut, the Borrelia's outer surface protein A (OspA) binds to the tick receptor for OspA, known as TROSPA. ...
One of the earliest uses for the III(C) in Canada was as a surface-search system to detect U-boats in the Saint Lawrence River ... Dee claimed that Rowe was "seizing this opportunity to try and filch the GL problem from the ADEE" (the Army Cell) and that " ... Instead of a sharp bell curve like shape, a signal responding to the IFF challenge would have a rectangular extension behind it ... 7 was also used as the illuminator for an early beam riding surface-to-air missile, Brakemine. This description is based on the ...
There are over 2,700 hot springs occurring at the surface, with temperatures exceeding 250 °C. In 1990, the total flow rate of ... From 2005 to 2014, production of solar cells in China has expanded 100-fold. However, China is not expected to achieve grid ... Pages using the Graph extension, Pages with non-numeric formatnum arguments, Pages with reference errors, Pages with incorrect ...
Maneuvers in mid-October led to a flyby of Eros within 5.3 km of the surface at 07:00 UT on October 26. Trajectory graphic ... 22-cell rechargeable super nickel-cadmium battery. Spacecraft guidance was achieved through the use of a sensor suite of five ... After receiving an extension of antenna time on the Deep Space Network, the spacecraft's gamma-ray spectrometer was ... The spacecraft then made a slow controlled descent to the surface of Eros ending with a touchdown just to the south of the ...
The upper surface is more susceptible than the lower surface and in both cases the lesions are concentrated along the veins of ... Elsinochromes were proven to kill cells of the host plant and even cause necrotic legions on live tissue by reactions of a ... University of Florida IFAS Extension. Retrieved 1 December 2015. Teliz, Daniel (2000). El Aguacate Y Su Manejo Integrado. ... The singlet oxygen breaks down proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids in the plant cells. Toxicity has been demonstrated to ...
The gold surfaces are punched to receive niello detail. The plate is hollow and has a hinged back, forming a secret chamber, ... The lid consists of a kidney-shaped cell work-frame enclosing a sheet of the horn, on which were mounted pairs of exquisite ... Pages using the Kartographer extension). ... The outer surface of the so-called "Bromeswell bucket" was ... The surfaces display panels of interlocking stepped garnets and chequer millefiori insets, surrounded by interlaced ornament of ...
Details of the BW program and a chemical weapons program surfaced after the Gulf War (1990-91) during the disarmament of Iraq ... "Single-Cell Protein Production Plant") and the viral biowarfare research site at Al Manal (the "Foot and Mouth Disease Center ... because of fear that discovery of continued activity would result in severe political repercussions including the extension of ...
The Atlas moth is one of the largest lepidopterans, with a wingspan measuring up to 24 cm (9.4 in) and a wing surface area of ... A study concluded that the silk fibers of the atlas moth had about an 80% higher density of cells and growth compared to the ... Both forewings have a prominent extension at the tip, with markings that resemble the head of a snake, a resemblance which is ... and in wing surface area by the Hercules moth (Coscinocera hercules). As in most Lepidoptera, females are noticeably larger and ...
There are sometimes as many as five million cells of these per 1 square centimetre (0.16 sq in) of coral tissue. Up to 50% of ... In many cases, as in the genus Acropora, the eggs and sperm are released in buoyant bundles which rise to the surface. This ... These sheets are continuous with the body wall of the polyps, and include extensions of the gastrovascular cavity, so that food ... The polyps are connected by horizontal sheets of tissue known as coenosarc extending over the outer surface of the skeleton and ...
... ganglion cells receive inputs from bipolar cells and starburst amacrine cells. The DS ganglion cells respond to their preferred ... Also, the neurons that prefer nasal motion had asymmetric dendritic extensions in the nasal direction. Thus, a strong ... signals at various parts of the visual field into a 2-dimensional or global representation of moving objects and surfaces. (It ... There are three known types of DS cells in the vertebrate retina of the mouse, ON/OFF DS ganglion cells, ON DS ganglion cells, ...
Odontocetes, such as the sperm whale, possess teeth with cementum cells overlying dentine cells. Unlike human teeth, which are ... They also have such keen hearing-whether above or below the surface of the water-that some can survive even if they are blind. ... Mysticetes contain a proventriculus as an extension of the oesophagus; this contains stones that grind up food. They also have ... they contain both rod and cone cells, meaning they can see in both dim and bright light, but they have far more rod cells than ...
The lead is connected to the IPG by an extension, an insulated wire that runs below the skin, from the head, down the side of ... Deep and surface electroencephalograms during orgasm". The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease. 154 (1): 3-18. doi:10.1097/ ... More recent (2018) work showed, that forniceal DBS upregulates genes involved in synaptic function, cell survival, and ... The installation of the IPG and extension leads occurs under general anesthesia. The right side of the brain is stimulated to ...
Pennsylvania State University extension bulletin Samuels, G.J.; Dodd, S.L.; Gams, W.; Castlebury, L.A.; Petrini, O. (2002). " ... The biocontrol agent generally grows in its natural habitat on the root surface, and so affects root disease in particular, but ... This affects in the cells action potential profile, as seen in cardiomyocytes, pneumocytes and neurons leading to conduction ... Chlamydospores are typically unicellular subglobose and terminate short hyphae; they may also be formed within hyphal cells. ...
This renovation was an extension of TD Garden's Legendary Transformation, which was a $100 million dollar investment from the ... Hell in a Cell in 2016 and Clash of Champions in 2017. From July 26 to 29, 2004, the TD Garden (then the FleetCenter) was the ... a serious upgrade to the interior overhead lighting of the playing surface had been completed: as with the NHL hockey arenas ...
Cell Nucleus Structures. Chromosome Structures. Euchromatin. Nuclear Pore. Cell Surface Extensions. Chromosomes, Artificial. ... Myeloid Cells. Myeloid Progenitor Cells. Cellular Structures. Cell Membrane Structures. Cell-Matrix Junctions. Focal Adhesions ... 3. A11 - Cells. This vocabulary was reorganized to group the various components of a cell together under Cell Structures ( ... A11.284) and add 27 new cell structure terms. ...
Cell Surface Extensions Actions. * Search in PubMed * Search in MeSH * Add to Search ... Kamanova J. Kamanova J. Front Cell Infect Microbiol. 2020 Sep 4;10:466. doi: 10.3389/fcimb.2020.00466. eCollection 2020. Front ... Over 1,100 genes present in B. avium but not in B. bronchiseptica were identified, and most were predicted to encode surface or ... parapertussis reveals extensive diversity in surface structures associated with host interaction Mohammed Sebaihia 1 , Andrew ...
Categories: Cell Surface Extensions Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, ...
Albrecht-Buehler G. Surface extensions of 3T3 cells towards distant infrared light sources. J Cell Biol. 1991;114(3):493-502.. ... In addition non-thermal effects of infrared-A [39], [40], [41], [42], [43] and effects of wIRA on cells including cell ... Cell attachment to extracellular matrices is modulated by pulsed radiation at 820 nm and chemicals that modify the activity of ... Hoffmann G. Effect of local waterfiltered ultrared A on back extension force and hand grip force. Int J Sports Med. 1999;20 ...
At higher magnification multiple layers of cytoplasmic extensions from arachnoid cells are detectable at the surface of a ... As described by other authors, free cells can be observed on the arachnoid surface and on the surface of the trabeculae.14,15 ... The leptomeningeal cells formed, with their slender processes, either single or multiple layers of surface lining cells (Fig 3B ... Again the surface of the pillars and trabeculae was covered by flat, smooth surfaced cells with small intercellular clefts. ...
Uninucleate, oval, thick cell wall, smooth surface without pseudopodial tubular extensions.. c.. Cyst-5 to 7 µm diameter. Thick ... With extension of infection into distal airways, there is acute tracheitis and fibrinous lobar pneumonia. Extension to organs ... Limited success has been achieved in growing the organism in cell cultures, including the A549 and WI-38 VA 13 cell lines ( ... The HN and F glycoproteins also are T cell-dependent B cell mitogens. The virus agglutinates erythrocytes of many species ( ...
Antibodies can prevent viruses from infecting cells, usually by binding to the surface of the virus. In 2020, researchers at ... AZD7442 is engineered with AstraZenecas proprietary half-life extension technology which helps the therapeutic work for a ... The string-like protrusions extending from the cells are cell projections or pseudopodium. NIAID ... Novel Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 CCL-81 cells heavily infected with SARS-CoV-2 virus particles. The small spherical structures in ...
"LBA has unique function on cell surfaces and has shown potential use in wound healing products,"​ stated Chr Hansen. ... Enzyme targets profitable lactose application extensions. By Neil Merrett 25-Feb-2009. - Last updated on 25-Feb-2009 at 13:37. ...
The vascular papillae, which are extensions of lamina propria, extend less than two thirds of the distance from base to surface ... The basal cell layer is 1-3 cell layers thick and occupies about 10%-15% of the epithelium. ... B-cells, and eosinophils and immunoglobulin E (IgE) expressing mast cells. This landmark study provided scientific evidence for ... together with an increase in the antigen presenting CD1a+ Langerhans cell population. Mast cells are also increased. [56, 57] ...
Antibodies can prevent viruses from infecting cells, usually by binding to the surface of the virus. In 2020, researchers at ... AZD7442 is engineered with AstraZenecas proprietary half-life extension technology which helps the therapeutic work for a ... Colorized scanning electron micrograph of a cell (purple) infected with SARS-COV-2 virus particles (yellow), isolated from a ...
Cell Membrane Extensions Cell Membrane Projections Cell Membrane Protrusions Cell Surface Projections Cell Surface Protrusions ... Specialized structures of the cell that extend the cell membrane and project out from the cell surface.. Terms. Cell Surface ... Specialized structures of the cell that extend the cell membrane and project out from the cell surface.. Entry Term(s). ... Cell Surface Extensions Preferred Concept UI. M0356639. Scope Note. ...
... and allowing the cell cytoplasm and contents to flow into the extension. Lobopodia form at different points along the cell ... surface, allowing the trophozoite to change direction. In their free state, trophozoites feed on bacteria and exhibit aerobic ... white blood cell [WBC] count, red blood cell [RBC] count, glucose and protein levels, bacterial and fungal cultures). ... The spherical cysts have a single nucleus surrounded by a dense cell wall with 1-2 flat pores, which are plugged with mucus. ...
The surface area to volume is much greater in cell extensions; consequently, membrane generated signals can exhibit positive ... Our studies indicate that some of the early matrix signals have long-term consequences on the cell behavior as well as the cell ... 3. Membrane geometry and cell shape play a major role in the signals that the cell generates at membrane-bound adhesion ... we can better model how the cell will generate force and activate signals for the rest of the cell.. For many aspects of the ...
The hDPSCs expressed mesenchymal stem cell markers and served as an abundant source of stem cells with a high proliferation ... In this work, we firstly used a computer-designed, solvent-free scaffold and human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) to ... CD105 and CD166 cell-surface antigens were considered as positive markers, while CD34 and CD45 were considered as negative ... High-magnification SEM images showed that by this time formation of cytoplasmic extensions was observed on PLGC scaffold. Their ...
Surface characteristics influence cellular growth on semiconductor material ... Very few PC12 cells adhered to the smooth surface. And those that did adhere grew normally, forming long, narrow extensions. ... More PC12 cells adhered to the nanowire squares than to any of the other surfaces, but only 50 percent of the cells grew ... Instead of forming narrow extensions, the cells flattened and spread across the GaN surface in all directions. ...
A high degree of heterogeneity in the magnitude of bronchiolar epithelial cell extension into alveolar ducts was noted for each ... a striking similarity was noted by scanning electron microscopy in the surface characteristics of cells lining both terminal ... Age-matched control animals also demonstrated variation in the degree of bronchiolar epithelial cell extension down alveolar ... The presence of Clara cell secretory protein in cells of bronchioles and alveolar ducts was also detected immunohistochemically ...
The present study examines microglial cell morphology and function in cerebellar cell organoid cultures on CLP-PEG hydrogels ... Spontaneous neuronal activity was accompanied by changes in the microglial morphology and behavior, suggesting the cells might ... microglial cells were significantly less active and mostly round-shaped. In addition, the latter hydrogels did not support the ... Neuronal-glial cell cultures are usually grown attached to or encapsulated in an adhesive environment as evenly distributed ...
MeSH Terms: Carcinogenesis/metabolism; Cell Movement/physiology*; Cell Surface Extensions/metabolism*; Cell Transformation, ... Title: Chronic arsenic increases cell migration in BEAS-2B cells by increasing cell speed, cell persistence, and cell ... and observed chronic arsenic treatment enhancing cell migration by increasing cell speed, cell persistence and cell protrusion ... Published In Exp Cell Res, (2021 11 01). Abstract: There is a strong association between arsenic exposure and lung cancer ...
... antibodies to cell surface markers specific for stem/progenitor cells of the pancreas and the use of these antibodies to ... Taking advantage of this new opportunity, this RFA is a limited extension of a previous solicitation, Imaging Pancreatic Beta ... o Investigation of the role of cell-cell interactions, extracellular matrix components, differential cell adhesion, and cell ... 6. Cell Culture Model of the Human Pancreatic Beta Cell Cell lines derived from insulin-producing tumors (e.g., mouse and rat ...
... which are found on the surface of most cell types, including neuronal and glial cells.... ... All ciliopathies are caused by abnormalities in tiny hair-like extensions called primary cilia (Cil), ... we can see they have an increased amount of one immune cell type, namely a type of T-cell called Th17 cells. In... ... Neutrophils make up 40-60% of all white blood cells. They arrive as the first cell type wherever viral, bacterial, or fungal ...
... antibodies to cell surface markers specific for stem/progenitor cells of the pancreas and the use of these antibodies to ... Taking advantage of this new opportunity, this RFA is a limited extension of a previous solicitation, Imaging Pancreatic Beta ... o Investigation of the role of cell-cell interactions, extracellular matrix components, differential cell adhesion, and cell ... 6. Cell Culture Model of the Human Pancreatic Beta Cell Cell lines derived from insulin-producing tumors (e.g., mouse and rat ...
... including filopodial and cytoskeletal rearrangements through phosphorylation signals from glial cells, shapes the photoreceptor ... was mainly observed in cortex and surface glial cells in the optic lobe during phase 2 (arrowheads). Glial cells were labeled ... We observed a significant enhancement in filopodia extension compared to the control, indicating that dilp6 from glial cells ... 2014) Cell surface control of the layer specific targeting in the Drosophila visual system Genes & Genetic Systems 89:9-15. ...
High-density open-cell acoustic Iso-foam pads decouple the speaker from the surface, minimizing vibration transmission for ... Front-firing port with optimized low-frequency tuning alignment for the best possible transient response and extension ... together the low resonance speaker enclosure where a newly designed front-firing port offers exceptional low-end extension, ...
Extension, Cell Membrane Extension, Cell Surface Extensions, Cell Membrane Extensions, Cell Surface Membrane Extension, Cell ... Surface Extension, Cell Surface Extensions, Cell Surface Projection, Cell Surface Projections, Cell Surface Protrusion, Cell ... Cell Membrane Protrusions Cell Surface Extension Cell Surface Projection Cell Surface Projections Cell Surface Protrusion Cell ... Cell Surface Extension. Cell Surface Projection. Cell Surface Projections. Cell Surface Protrusion. Cell Surface Protrusions. ...
Cell Membrane Extensions Cell Membrane Projections Cell Membrane Protrusions Cell Surface Projections Cell Surface Protrusions ... Specialized structures of the cell that extend the cell membrane and project out from the cell surface.. Terms. Cell Surface ... Specialized structures of the cell that extend the cell membrane and project out from the cell surface.. Entry Term(s). ... Cell Surface Extensions Preferred Concept UI. M0356639. Scope Note. ...
Initial fruit growth is primarily cell division. Fruits with more cells initially can then have those cells expanded in the ... Heavy clay soils or sites with a hard pan near the surface of the ground impede water drainage and can result in soil-saturated ... Clemson University Cooperative Extension Service offers its programs to people of all ages, regardless of race, color, gender, ... Is it true that extracts from peach are effective against breast cancer cells?. Answer: Yes. In 2009, a scientific research ...
Some of these techniques will require wet enamel samples and large surface areas or volumes and could be used to determine ... However, this regenerative medicine approach with cells in situ may not be possible in the oral cavity. Additionally, it was ... and extension to root caries. Many acknowledged that saliva and biofilm are the major factors affecting disease progression and ... There is also considerable interest in other outcomes besides decayed, missing, filled surface/teeth (DMFS/T), as well as the ...
Niche cells often wrap membrane extensions around stem cell surfaces. Niche wrapping has been proposed to retain stem cells in ... Stem cell quiescence, proliferation and differentiation are controlled by interactions with niche cells and a specialized ... Niche cells regulate primordial germ cell quiescence in response to basement membrane signaling. ... Niche Cell Wrapping Ensures Primordial Germ Cell Quiescence and Protection from Intercellular Cannibalism. ...
  • A high degree of heterogeneity in the magnitude of bronchiolar epithelial cell extension into alveolar ducts was noted for each isolation and animal. (cdc.gov)
  • Age-matched control animals also demonstrated variation in the degree of bronchiolar epithelial cell extension down alveolar ducts. (cdc.gov)
  • No evidence of inflammation was present in alveolar ducts, suggesting that epithelial cell transformations in alveolar ducts is a natural consequence of lifetime exposures to oxidant gases. (cdc.gov)
  • In animals exposed to ozone , a striking similarity was noted by scanning electron microscopy in the surface characteristics of cells lining both terminal bronchioles and alveolar ducts. (cdc.gov)
  • This deletion is not inherited and is found only in the tumor cells. (medlineplus.gov)
  • In this way, PpIX selectively accumulates at a significant level in tumor cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The hDPSCs expressed mesenchymal stem cell markers and served as an abundant source of stem cells with a high proliferation rate. (nature.com)
  • Multiple myeloma (MM) is an incurable cancer in which uncontrolled plasma cell proliferation disrupts the bone marrow environment and impairs immune function. (hrb.ie)
  • Dr. Deshpande now wishes to assess the effect of these receptors on the size and proliferation of airway smooth muscle cells. (americanasthmafoundation.org)
  • His preliminary studies suggest that bitter taste receptors may block the proliferation of muscle cells. (americanasthmafoundation.org)
  • Specialized structures of the cell that extend the cell membrane and project out from the cell surface. (bvsalud.org)
  • This receptor has three major parts: an extracellular region that sticks out from the surface of the cell, a transmembrane region that anchors the receptor to the cell membrane, and an intracellular region that transmits signals to the interior of the cell. (medlineplus.gov)
  • ADF/cofilin promotes invadopodial membrane recycling during cell invasion in vivo. (duke.edu)
  • Plasma membrane polarization during mating in yeast cells. (duke.edu)
  • To study how protrusions form, we focused on the morphogenesis of microridges, elongated actin-based structures projecting from the apical surfaces of zebrafish skin cells that are arranged inmaze-like patterns. (ed.ac.uk)
  • Light microscopic, morphometric, and immunohistological approaches were used to determine the distribution and degree of differentiation of ciliated and nonciliated bronchiolar epithelial (Clara) cells lining alveolar ducts of the central acinus, a primary target of ozone -induced lung injury. (cdc.gov)
  • The distance that ciliated and nonciliated bronchiolar epithelial (Clara) cells projected down each alveolar duct pathway was determined by placing concentric arcs radiating outward from a single reference point at the level of the first alveolar outpocketing. (cdc.gov)
  • The presence of Clara cell secretory protein in cells of bronchioles and alveolar ducts was also detected immunohistochemically and visualized using confocal laser scanning microscopy in the reflectance mode. (cdc.gov)
  • The finger-like alveolar extension in longitudinal view lies along the dorsal surface of the filamentous reticulum from which the cytopharyngeal microtubular ribbons originate. (cellimagelibrary.org)
  • Our studies demonstrated that the insulin secreted from surface and cortex glia switches the phosphorylation status of Gogo, thereby regulating its two distinct functions. (elifesciences.org)
  • Collectively, our results demonstrate how contraction within the 2D plane of the cortex can pattern 3D cell surfaces. (ed.ac.uk)
  • We wanted to know how a material's texture and structure can influence cell adhesion and differentiation," says Lauren Bain, lead author of a paper describing the work and a Ph.D. student in the joint biomedical engineering program at NC State and UNC-Chapel Hill. (tgdaily.com)
  • Cellular protrusions create complex cell surface topographies, but biomechanical mechanisms regulating their formation and arrangement are largely unknown. (ed.ac.uk)
  • Enucleated cells reveal differential roles of the nucleus in cell migration, polarity, and mechanotransduction. (duke.edu)
  • Journal of Cell Biology , 219 (3), [e201904144]. (ed.ac.uk)
  • The HadGEM2 family includes a coupled atmosphere-ocean configuration, with or without a vertical extension in the atmosphere to include a well-resolved stratosphere, and an Earth-System configuration which includes dynamic vegetation, ocean biology and atmospheric chemistry. (metoffice.gov.uk)
  • Drosophila p120catenin plays a supporting role in cell adhesion but is not an essential adherens junction component. (duke.edu)
  • Intensive efforts are under way to gain more insight into cells, an African green monkey kidney cell line (3), and the mechanisms of viral replication, in order to develop this remains the only in vitro model of SARS-CoV infec- targeted antiviral therapies and vaccines. (cdc.gov)
  • Despite the importance of root cap cell release to root health and plant growth, the mechanisms regulating this phenomenon are not well understood. (mdpi.com)
  • Dr. Liu's studies focus on the mechanisms by which this role for epithelial cells in asthma is regulated. (americanasthmafoundation.org)
  • The main diagnostic procedure for PAM is to obtain cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) for wet-mount examination for N fowleri , along with standard laboratory examination of the CSF (eg, white blood cell [WBC] count, red blood cell [RBC] count, glucose and protein levels, bacterial and fungal cultures). (medscape.com)
  • Cells in the last root cap layer are known as border cells or border-like cells, and have important functions in root protection against bacterial and fungal pathogens. (mdpi.com)
  • Changing the texture and surface characteristics of a semiconductor material at the nanoscale can influence the way that neural cells grow on the material. (tgdaily.com)
  • Basically, we wanted to know if changing the physical characteristics on the surface of a semiconductor could make it easier for an implant to be integrated into neural tissue - or soft tissue generally. (tgdaily.com)
  • This tells us that the actual shape of the surface characteristics influences the behavior of the cells," Bain says. (tgdaily.com)
  • Dr. Nichols is a neurobiologist who studies molecules on the surface of nerve cells called serotonin receptors. (americanasthmafoundation.org)
  • These reactive species can interact with biological molecules in ways that can damage cells. (cdc.gov)
  • The binding of netrin-1 triggers signaling via the intracellular region of the receptor that helps direct the growth of specialized nerve cell extensions called axons. (medlineplus.gov)
  • These receptors alter the function of nerve cells when they are bound by a small molecule called serotonin. (americanasthmafoundation.org)
  • At 24hours after the exposure, significant increases in the pro-inflammatory markers IL-12p70, IL-13, IL-15, IFN-, TNF-, IL-17A, VEGF, MCP-1, and MIP-1 were noted in the basolateral cell culture medium of ABS-exposed cells compared to non-exposed chamber control cells. (cdc.gov)
  • In the last decade, however, it has become clear that epithelial cells may play a central role in eliciting the inflammation of asthma. (americanasthmafoundation.org)
  • In fact epithelial cells may be the cells that first recognize certain allergens in the air, releasing chemicals that promote inflammation. (americanasthmafoundation.org)
  • In particular, she is studying a protein in these cells called Miz1, which dampens the ability of epithelial cells to elicit inflammation. (americanasthmafoundation.org)
  • The paper, "Surface Topography and Chemistry Shape Cellular Behavior on Wide Band-Gap Semiconductors," is published in Acta Biomaterialia. (tgdaily.com)
  • Recent work identified several factors including transcription factors, auxin, and small peptides with roles in the production and release of root cap cells. (mdpi.com)
  • Indeed, reducing surface tension with hyperosmolar media promoted microridge formation. (ed.ac.uk)
  • They trigger the formation of specialized giant cells in the vascular system, enlarge, become immobile, and undergo three additional molts. (oregonstate.edu)
  • We devise a numerical method for passive advection of a surface, such as the interface between two incompressible fluids, across a computational mesh. (arxiv.org)
  • Cell Body" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (childrensmercy.org)
  • The second was to demonstrate the predominant accumulation of PpIX in human prostate cancer cells compared to normal prostate cells by the use of ALA-PDD on the divided surface of excised prostate. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Dr. Stephen Liggett from the University of Southern Florida and Dr. Deshpande made a curious and important discovery: muscle cells of the type that surround the airways (smooth muscle) express on their surface the same proteins that are used by the tongue to detect bitter foods. (americanasthmafoundation.org)
  • And, that because of the loss of ceremides during the aging process, it is important to boost ceramide levels not only on the surface - through the use of lotions, etc, but deep inside the skin cells by the use of internally taken supplements. (fyihealthtalk.com)
  • CD4 cells are a type of white blood cell that are important in maintaining a healthy immune system to help fight infection. (who.int)
  • "LBA has unique function on cell surfaces and has shown potential use in wound healing products," ​ stated Chr Hansen. (foodnavigator-usa.com)
  • When not bound to netrin-1, the netrin-1 receptor acts as a tumor suppressor, which means that it keeps cells from growing and dividing too fast or in an uncontrolled way. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Studies suggest that when the netrin-1 receptor is not bound to netrin-1, it triggers cell death (apoptosis). (medlineplus.gov)
  • The standard atmospheric component has 38 levels extending to ~40km height, with a horizontal resolution of 1.25 degrees of latitude by 1.875 degrees of longitude, which produces a global grid of 192 x 145 grid cells. (metoffice.gov.uk)
  • Success of the procedure is determined by use of a suitable scaffold, a structural support for osteoprogenitor cells and osteoinductive factors necessary to regenerate neo-bone at the site of bone defect 2 . (nature.com)
  • These cells were once thought to be just structural, i.e., they had no role in asthma. (americanasthmafoundation.org)
  • In this work, we firstly used a computer-designed, solvent-free scaffold and human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) to regenerate neo-bone within cranial bone defects. (nature.com)
  • The aim of this study was to investigate whether we could detect positive surgical margins during open and laparoscopic radical prostatectomy by 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) photodynamic diagnosis (PDD) and mapping of red fluorescence in human prostate cancer cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Primary normal human-derived bronchial epithelial cells (NHBEs) were exposed to ABS filament emissions in an ALI for 4hours. (cdc.gov)
  • The alpha energy induces rapid physical changes to localized cell matter in its path and via chemical interactions with the water in human cells. (cdc.gov)
  • Very few PC12 cells adhered to the smooth surface. (tgdaily.com)
  • Each has different kinds of soldier cells, called leukocytes, with unique areas of expertise and responsibility. (fyihealthtalk.com)
  • They also worked with PC12 cells, which are model cells used to mimic the behavior of neurons in lab experiments. (tgdaily.com)
  • A biomechanical model suggested that contraction reduces surface tension to permit the fusion of precursors into microridges. (ed.ac.uk)
  • Second, from the reconstructed surface, we model the motion of the face-interface intersection line for a general polygonal face to obtain the time evolution within a time step of the submerged face area. (arxiv.org)
  • [ 4 ] The term was chosen to distinguish the disease caused by N fowleri from the secondary meningoencephalitis due to the extension of Entamoeba histolytica from another site. (medscape.com)
  • A circular depression on the dorsal surface of the cell marks the expulsion site of a contractile vacuole. (cellimagelibrary.org)
  • The method is called isoAdvector, and is developed for general meshes consisting of arbitrary polyhedral cells. (arxiv.org)
  • As a result, the netrin-1 receptor is not available to trigger apoptosis, resulting in the uncontrolled cell growth and division that leads to cancer. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The results are very satisfactory both in terms of volume conservation, boundedness, surface sharpness, and efficiency. (arxiv.org)
  • For the purpose of this review, dosimetry refers to estimating or mea- suring the amount (mass, or number, surface area, volume, etc.) of PSP at specific target sites at a particular point in time. (cdc.gov)
  • In asthma, the muscle cells around the airways contract, narrowing the opening and reducing the flow of air in the lungs. (americanasthmafoundation.org)
  • As the disease progresses, the muscle cells enlarge and increase in number. (americanasthmafoundation.org)
  • Specifically, infection and atherosclerosis are available with this theory proposed that a mutation or a viral agent some studies showing an association between HCV may represent events able to transform a single smooth seropositivity and carotid artery plaque and carotid muscle cell into the progenitor of a proliferative clone ( 7 ). (who.int)
  • The oceanic component utilizes a latitude-longitude grid with a longitudinal resolution of 1 degree, and latitudinal resolution of 1 degree between the poles and 30 degrees North/South, from which it increases smoothly to one third of a degree at the equator, giving 360 x 216 grid points in total, and 40 unevenly spaced levels in the vertical (a resolution of 10m near the surface). (metoffice.gov.uk)
  • The proper treatment of head and neck aryngeal cancer is one of the most squamous cell carcinoma is based on L common types of head and neck appropriate planning of surgical, malignancy, although its optimal primary radiotherapeutic and medical strategies aimed treatment is still a matter of debate. (who.int)
  • The possible association between HCV positivity and extension of coronary artery disease may refer to the role of HCV in coronary artery disease pathology. (who.int)
  • The importance of this approach was recently demonstrated by Dr. John Fahy and his colleagues at UCSF, who performed bronchoscopy on people with asthma and on people without asthma, obtaining samples of airway cells for study. (americanasthmafoundation.org)
  • In his AAF application, he proposes to adapt these techniques for the study of cells in sputum - material coughed up by patients with asthma. (americanasthmafoundation.org)
  • The isoAdvector method was implemented as an OpenFOAM(R) extension and is published as open source. (arxiv.org)
  • It also increases CD4 cell count in your blood. (who.int)
  • This method is known as Surface Mount Technology and it has effectively replaced the through-hole technology where the components were fitted on to each other via wires passing through punched holes. (globalsmtasia.com)
  • In the contact area between two conjugating cells the tips of the ridges all fuse forming openings between the two cells. (cellimagelibrary.org)
  • The average particle deposition per surface area of the epithelium was 2.29 10(7) 1.47 10(7) particle/cm(2), equivalent to an estimated average particle mass of 0.144 0.042g/cm(2). (cdc.gov)