Cell Surface Extensions: Specialized structures of the cell that extend the cell membrane and project out from the cell surface.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Receptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.PubMed: A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.BooksPublishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.MEDLINE: The premier bibliographic database of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. MEDLINE® (MEDLARS Online) is the primary subset of PUBMED and can be searched on NLM's Web site in PubMed or the NLM Gateway. MEDLINE references are indexed with MEDICAL SUBJECT HEADINGS (MeSH).Serial Publications: Publications in any medium issued in successive parts bearing numerical or chronological designations and intended to be continued indefinitely. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983, p203)Biological Science Disciplines: All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.Capsid: The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.RNA Viruses: Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.DNA Viruses: Viruses whose nucleic acid is DNA.Vaccinia virus: The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.Bacteriophages: Viruses whose hosts are bacterial cells.Virus Assembly: The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.Interleukin-2: A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Durapatite: The mineral component of bones and teeth; it has been used therapeutically as a prosthetic aid and in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis.Hydroxyapatites: A group of compounds with the general formula M10(PO4)6(OH)2, where M is barium, strontium, or calcium. The compounds are the principal mineral in phosphorite deposits, biological tissue, human bones, and teeth. They are also used as an anticaking agent and polymer catalysts. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Tuna: Common name for various species of large, vigorous ocean fishes in the family Scombridae.Actinomyces: A genus of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria whose organisms are nonmotile. Filaments that may be present in certain species are either straight or wavy and may have swollen or clubbed heads.Bone Marrow Cells: Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.Adsorption: The adhesion of gases, liquids, or dissolved solids onto a surface. It includes adsorptive phenomena of bacteria and viruses onto surfaces as well. ABSORPTION into the substance may follow but not necessarily.Saliva: The clear, viscous fluid secreted by the SALIVARY GLANDS and mucous glands of the mouth. It contains MUCINS, water, organic salts, and ptylin.Sialic Acid Binding Ig-like Lectin 2: A lectin and cell adhesion molecule found in B-LYMPHOCYTES. It interacts with SIALIC ACIDS and mediates signaling from B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS.Humidity: A measure of the amount of WATER VAPOR in the air.Lymphocytosis: Excess of normal lymphocytes in the blood or in any effusion.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Infusion Pumps: Fluid propulsion systems driven mechanically, electrically, or osmotically that are used to inject (or infuse) over time agents into a patient or experimental animal; used routinely in hospitals to maintain a patent intravenous line, to administer antineoplastic agents and other drugs in thromboembolism, heart disease, diabetes mellitus (INSULIN INFUSION SYSTEMS is also available), and other disorders.Physiological Phenomena: The functions and properties of living organisms, including both the physical and chemical factors and processes, supporting life in single- or multi-cell organisms from their origin through the progression of life.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.AxisTeaching Materials: Instructional materials used in teaching.Anatomy: A branch of biology dealing with the structure of organisms.Pharmacology, Clinical: The branch of pharmacology that deals directly with the effectiveness and safety of drugs in humans.Competitive Behavior: The direct struggle between individuals for environmental necessities or for a common goal.Video Games: A form of interactive entertainment in which the player controls electronically generated images that appear on a video display screen. This includes video games played in the home on special machines or home computers, and those played in arcades.Spondylolisthesis: Forward displacement of a superior vertebral body over the vertebral body below.Agrobacterium tumefaciens: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria isolated from soil and the stems, leafs, and roots of plants. Some biotypes are pathogenic and cause the formation of PLANT TUMORS in a wide variety of higher plants. The species is a major research tool in biotechnology.Bacterial Secretion Systems: In GRAM NEGATIVE BACTERIA, multiprotein complexes that function to translocate pathogen protein effector molecules across the bacterial cell envelope, often directly into the host. These effectors are involved in producing surface structures for adhesion, bacterial motility, manipulation of host functions, modulation of host defense responses, and other functions involved in facilitating survival of the pathogen. Several of the systems have homologous components functioning similarly in GRAM POSITIVE BACTERIA.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Portraits as Topic: Graphic representations, especially of the face, of real persons, usually posed, living or dead. (From Thesaurus for Graphic Materials II, p540, 1995)Societies, Scientific: Societies whose membership is limited to scientists.

Myosin light chain kinase plays an essential role in S. flexneri dissemination. (1/643)

Shigella flexneri, the causitive agent of bacillary dysentery, has been shown to disseminate in colonic epithelial cells via protrusions that extend from infected cells and are endocytosed by adjacent cells. This phenomenon occurs in the region of the eukaryotic cell's adherens junctions and is inhibited by pharmacological reagents or host cell mutations that completely disrupt the junctional complex. In this study, inhibitors of the myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) were shown to dramatically decrease intercellular spread of S. flexneri but to have no inhibitory effect on bacterial entry, multiplication or actin-based motility within the host cell. Furthermore, cell-to-cell spread of Listeria monocytogenes, another bacterial pathogen that uses an actin-based mechanism to move within the eukaryotic cytoplasm and to spread from cell to cell, was not affected by the MLCK inhibitors, indicating that (1) the inhibition of S. flexneri cell-to-cell spread in treated cells is not due to a complete break down of cell-cell contacts, which was subsequently confirmed by confocal microscopy, and (2) MLCK plays a role in a S. flexneri-specific mechanism of dissemination. Myosin has been shown to play a role in a variety of membrane-based phenomena. The work presented here suggests that activation of this molecule via phosphorylation by MLCK, at the very least participates in the formation of the bacteria-containing protrusion, and could also contribute to the endocytosis of this structure by neighboring cells.  (+info)

Peripodial cells regulate proliferation and patterning of Drosophila imaginal discs. (2/643)

Cells employ a diverse array of signaling mechanisms to establish spatial patterns during development. Nowhere is this better understood than in Drosophila, where the limbs and eyes arise from discrete epithelial sacs called imaginal discs. Molecular-genetic analyses of pattern formation have generally treated discs as single epithelial sheets. Anatomically, however, discs comprise a columnar cell monolayer covered by a squamous epithelium known as the peripodial membrane. Here we demonstrate that during development, peripodial cells signal to disc columnar cells via microtubule-based apical extensions. Ablation and targeted gene misexpression experiments demonstrate that peripodial cell signaling contributes to growth control and pattern formation in the eye and wing primordia. These findings challenge the traditional view of discs as monolayers and provide foundational evidence for peripodial cell function in Drosophila appendage development.  (+info)

ACAPs are arf6 GTPase-activating proteins that function in the cell periphery. (3/643)

The GTP-binding protein ADP-ribosylation factor 6 (Arf6) regulates endosomal membrane trafficking and the actin cytoskeleton in the cell periphery. GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs) are critical regulators of Arf function, controlling the return of Arf to the inactive GDP-bound state. Here, we report the identification and characterization of two Arf6 GAPs, ACAP1 and ACAP2. Together with two previously described Arf GAPs, ASAP1 and PAP, they can be grouped into a protein family defined by several common structural motifs including coiled coil, pleckstrin homology, Arf GAP, and three complete ankyrin-repeat domains. All contain phosphoinositide-dependent GAP activity. ACAP1 and ACAP2 are widely expressed and occur together in the various cultured cell lines we examined. Similar to ASAP1, ACAP1 and ACAP2 were recruited to and, when overexpressed, inhibited the formation of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-induced dorsal membrane ruffles in NIH 3T3 fibroblasts. However, in contrast with ASAP1, ACAP1 and ACAP2 functioned as Arf6 GAPs. In vitro, ACAP1 and ACAP2 preferred Arf6 as a substrate, rather than Arf1 and Arf5, more so than did ASAP1. In HeLa cells, overexpression of either ACAP blocked the formation of Arf6-dependent protrusions. In addition, ACAP1 and ACAP2 were recruited to peripheral, tubular membranes, where activation of Arf6 occurs to allow membrane recycling back to the plasma membrane. ASAP1 did not inhibit Arf6-dependent protrusions and was not recruited by Arf6 to tubular membranes. The additional effects of ASAP1 on PDGF-induced ruffling in fibroblasts suggest that multiple Arf GAPs function coordinately in the cell periphery.  (+info)

Evidence that beta3 integrin-induced Rac activation involves the calpain-dependent formation of integrin clusters that are distinct from the focal complexes and focal adhesions that form as Rac and RhoA become active. (4/643)

Interaction of integrins with the extracellular matrix leads to transmission of signals, cytoskeletal reorganizations, and changes in cell behavior. While many signaling molecules are known to be activated within Rac-induced focal complexes or Rho-induced focal adhesions, the way in which integrin-mediated adhesion leads to activation of Rac and Rho is not known. In the present study, we identified clusters of integrin that formed upstream of Rac activation. These clusters contained a Rac-binding protein(s) and appeared to be involved in Rac activation. The integrin clusters contained calpain and calpain-cleaved beta3 integrin, while the focal complexes and focal adhesions that formed once Rac and Rho were activated did not. Moreover, the integrin clusters were dependent on calpain for their formation. In contrast, while Rac- and Rho-GTPases were dependent on calpain for their activation, formation of focal complexes and focal adhesions by constitutively active Rac or Rho, respectively, occurred even when calpain inhibitors were present. Taken together, these data are consistent with a model in which integrin-induced Rac activation requires the formation of integrin clusters. The clusters form in a calpain-dependent manner, contain calpain, calpain-cleaved integrin, and a Rac binding protein(s). Once Rac is activated, other integrin signaling complexes are formed by a calpain-independent mechanism(s).  (+info)

Dynamic positioning of mitotic spindles in yeast: role of microtubule motors and cortical determinants. (5/643)

In the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, movement of the mitotic spindle to a predetermined cleavage plane at the bud neck is essential for partitioning chromosomes into the mother and daughter cells. Astral microtubule dynamics are critical to the mechanism that ensures nuclear migration to the bud neck. The nucleus moves in the opposite direction of astral microtubule growth in the mother cell, apparently being "pushed" by microtubule contacts at the cortex. In contrast, microtubules growing toward the neck and within the bud promote nuclear movement in the same direction of microtubule growth, thus "pulling" the nucleus toward the bud neck. Failure of "pulling" is evident in cells lacking Bud6p, Bni1p, Kar9p, or the kinesin homolog, Kip3p. As a consequence, there is a loss of asymmetry in spindle pole body segregation into the bud. The cytoplasmic motor protein, dynein, is not required for nuclear movement to the neck; rather, it has been postulated to contribute to spindle elongation through the neck. In the absence of KAR9, dynein-dependent spindle oscillations are evident before anaphase onset, as are postanaphase dynein-dependent pulling forces that exceed the velocity of wild-type spindle elongation threefold. In addition, dynein-mediated forces on astral microtubules are sufficient to segregate a 2N chromosome set through the neck in the absence of spindle elongation, but cytoplasmic kinesins are not. These observations support a model in which spindle polarity determinants (BUD6, BNI1, KAR9) and cytoplasmic kinesin (KIP3) provide directional cues for spindle orientation to the bud while restraining the spindle to the neck. Cytoplasmic dynein is attenuated by these spindle polarity determinants and kinesin until anaphase onset, when dynein directs spindle elongation to distal points in the mother and bud.  (+info)

Interaction of EGF receptor and grb2 in living cells visualized by fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) microscopy. (6/643)

The interaction of activated epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) with the Src homology 2 (SH2) domain of the growth-factor-receptor binding protein Grb2 initiates signaling through Ras and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAP kinase) [1,2]. Activation of EGFRs by ligand also triggers rapid endocytosis of EGF-receptor complexes. To analyze the spatiotemporal regulation of EGFR-Grb2 interactions in living cells, we have combined imaging microscopy with a modified method of measuring fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) on a pixel-by-pixel basis using EGFR fused to cyan fluorescent protein (CFP) and Grb2 fused to yellow fluorescent protein (YFP). Efficient energy transfer between CFP and YFP should only occur if CFP and YFP are less than 50A apart, which requires direct interaction of the EGFR and Grb2 fused to these fluorescent moieties [3]. Stimulation by EGF resulted in the recruitment of Grb2-YFP to cellular compartments that contained EGFR-CFP and a large increase in FRET signal amplitude. In particular, FRET measurements indicated that activated EGFR-CFP interacted with Grb2-YFP in membrane ruffles and endosomes. These results demonstrate that signaling via EGFRs can occur in the endosomal compartment. The work also highlights the potential of FRET microscopy in the study of subcellular compartmentalization of protein-protein interactions in living cells.  (+info)

Pyramidal cells, patches, and cortical columns: a comparative study of infragranular neurons in TEO, TE, and the superior temporal polysensory area of the macaque monkey. (7/643)

The basal dendritic arbors of layer III pyramidal neurons are known to vary systematically among primate visual areas. Generally, those in areas associated with "higher" level cortical processing have larger and more spinous dendritic arbors, which may be an important factor for determining function within these areas. Moreover, the tangential area of their arbors are proportional to those of the periodic supragranular patches of intrinsic connections in many different areas. The morphological parameters of both dendritic and axon arbors may be important for the sampling strategies of cells in different cortical areas. However, in visual cortex, intrinsic patches are a feature of supragranular cortex, and are weaker or nonexistent in infragranular cortex. Thus, the systematic variation in the dendritic arbors of pyramidal cells in supragranular cortex may reflect intrinsic axon projections, rather than differences in columnar organization. The present study was aimed at establishing whether cells in the infragranular layers also vary in terms of dendritic morphology among different cortical areas, and whether these variations mirror the ones demonstrated in supragranular cortex. Layer V pyramidal neurons were injected with Lucifer yellow in flat-mounted cortical slices taken from cytoarchitectonic areas TEO and TE and the superior polysensory area (STP) of the macaque monkey. The results demonstrate that cells in STP were larger, had more bifurcations, and were more spinous than those in TE, which in turn were larger, had more bifurcations and were more spinous than those in TEO. These results parallel morphological variation seen in layer III pyramidal neurons, suggesting that increasing complexity of basal dendritic arbors of cells, with progression through higher areas of the temporal lobe, is a general organizational principle. It is proposed that the differences in microcircuitry may contribute to the determination of the functional signatures of neurons in different cortical areas. Furthermore, these results provide evidence that intrinsic circuitry differs across cortical areas, which may be important for theories of columnar processing.  (+info)

Synaptically driven calcium transients via nicotinic receptors on somatic spines. (8/643)

Dendritic spines commonly receive glutamatergic innervation at postsynaptic densities and compartmentalize calcium influx arising from synaptic signaling. Recently, it was shown that a class of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors containing alpha7 subunits is concentrated on somatic spines emanating from chick ciliary ganglion neurons. The receptors have a high relative calcium permeability and contribute importantly to synaptic currents, although they appear to be excluded from postsynaptic densities. Here we show that low-frequency synaptic stimulation of the alpha7-containing receptors induces calcium transients confined to the spines. High-frequency stimulation induces a transient calcium elevation in the spines and a more sustained cell-wide elevation. The high-frequency transient elevation again depends on alpha7-containing receptors, whereas the sustained elevation can be triggered by other nicotinic receptors and depends on calcium release from internal stores and probably influx through voltage-gated L-type calcium channels as well. Retrograde axonal stimulation of the neurons at high frequency mimics synaptic stimulation in producing sustained cell-wide calcium increases that depend on L-type channels and release from internal stores, but it does not produce calcium transients in the spines. Thus frequent action potentials are sufficient to generate the cell-wide increases, but alpha7-containing receptors are needed for spine-specific effects. Patch-clamp recording indicates that alpha7-containing receptors preferentially desensitize at high-frequency stimulation, accounting for the inability of the stimulation to sustain high calcium levels in the spines. The spatial and temporal differences in the patterns of calcium elevation could enable the neurons to monitor their own firing histories for regulatory purposes.  (+info)

After apoptotic membrane blebbing, a cell can undergo further morphological changes to generate a variety of thin apoptotic membrane protrusions, including microtubule spikes, apoptopodia and beaded apoptopodia.[12][13][14] The formation of these apoptotic membrane protrusions are often cell type dependent and represents the second step (Step 2) of apoptotic cell disassembly[5][6] (Figure 1). For example, microtubule spikes have been observed on apoptotic squamous epithelial cells.[12] Mechanistically, the formation of microtubule spikes is dependent on microtubule polymerisation and establishment of the microtubule network.[12] Microtubule spike formation has been proposed to facilitate the separation of membrane blebs, as well as the distribution of nuclear contents into membrane blebs.[12] More recently, another type of less rigid and string-like apoptotic membrane protrusion, known as apoptopodia (feet of death), was identified on apoptotic T cells, thymocytes and fibroblasts.[13] Like ...
Previous studies have linked the expression of Twist1 to many aggressive, solid-tumor cancers, including melanomas, neuroblastomas, as well as breast and prostate cancer. The new research by Yang and colleagues describes in detail how Twist1 initiates the multi-step pathway resulting in invadopodia formation and matrix degradation. The research also reveals places in the process that may present potential targets for future anti-metastasis therapies.. After embryogenesis, Twist1 is normally suppressed. Cancer cells, however, reactivate the transcription factor, enabling Twist1 to initiate its complex pathway leading to metastasis. Drug designers, however, have yet to successfully devise a way to directly inhibit transcription factors like Twist1. The UCSD study points to other possibilities. "We hope to inhibit downstream targets of Twist1 (such as platelet-derived growth factor receptors) to inhibit invadopodia formation and function," Yang said. "Our study suggests that inhibition of ...
Integrin-Matrix Clusters Form Podosome-like Adhesions in the Absence of Traction Forces. Yu CH, Rafiq NB, Krishnasamy A, Hartman KL, Jones GE, Bershadsky AD, Sheetz MP. Cell Rep. 2013 Dec 12;5(5):1456-68. doi: 10.1016/j.celrep.2013.10.040. Epub 2013 Nov 27. Comparative transcriptomics reveal RhoE as a novel regulator of actin dynamics in bone-resorbing osteoclasts. Georgess D, Mazzorana M, Terrado J, Delprat C, Chamot C, Guasch RM, P rez-Roger I, Jurdic P, Machuca-Gayet I. Mol Biol Cell. 2013 Nov 27. [Epub ahead of print] Preclinical intravital microscopy of the tumour-stroma interface: invasion, metastasis, and therapy response. Alexander S, Weigelin B, Winkler F, Friedl P. Curr Opin Cell Biol. 2013 Oct;25(5):659-71. doi: 10.1016/j.ceb.2013.07.001. Epub 2013 Jul 26. WIP Regulates Persistence of Cell Migration and Ruffle Formation in Both Mesenchymal and Amoeboid Modes of Motility Inmaculada Banon-Rodriguez, Julia Saez de Guinoa, Alejandra Bernardini, Chiara Ragazzini, Estefania Fernandez, ...
Avodart - For these reasons it is ossumecl that no surgeon should presume to open the abdominal cavity who doea not understand and apply the principles by which postoperative ventral region of the cicatrix, on account of which the other causative factors and lateral aspects the abdomen is always full, and its walls subjecteil to equable pressure, varying according to their contractility, the abdominal and reenforce each other in a kind of net work that under normal conditions hernial protrusions are impossible.
Invadopodia facilitate cancer cell migration by breaking down the extracellular matrix that normally keeps cells in place. In previous research, Dr. Courtneidge discovered that Tks5 is crucial for invadopodia formation. The structural similarities between Tks5 and p47phox, which is part of the NADPH oxidase (Nox) system, led Dr. Courtneidge to consider the role reactive oxygen plays in invadopodia formation.. Using invadopodia-rich mouse fibrosarcoma cells, the Courtneidge laboratory tested a number of antioxidants and found both a marked reduction in invadopodia formation and invasive behavior. In addition, the team inhibited expression of Nox family enzymes with siRNA and had similar results, demonstrating that NADPH oxidases are involved in invadopodia formation. The scientists repeated these experiments with human melanoma, head and neck and breast cancer cell lines and also saw a marked reduction in invadopodia formation.. With the discovery of reactive oxygens role in invadopodia ...
We present a molecular dissection of the functional domains of cortactin relevant for invadopodia formation and function. In addition, through the expression of cortactin forms mutated in the residues previously found to be phosphorylated in vitro, we suggest the involvement of different kinases in the control of the ECM degradation machinery through the regulation of cortactin phosphorylation.. The overexpression of mutant or deleted forms of cortactin that are unable to bind the Arp2/3 complex, induces a substantial decrease in the ability of the cells to form invadopodia and hence degrade the ECM. In addition, the SH3 domain of cortactin, known to bind a number of relevant proteins such as N-WASP and dynamin 2, is also essential for invadopodia formation and ECM degradation. This is at variance with a recent report suggesting that the cortactin N-terminus is not required for invadopodia formation (Webb et al., 2007). A possible explanation is that the study was based on constitutively active ...
Invadopodia are actin-enriched cell protrusions that cancer cells use to degrade the extracellular matrix (ECM), which then allows for cancer cell invasion, and these processes require the binding of tyrosine-phosphorylated cortactin, an actin binding protein, with the Rho-family GTPase guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) Vav2, which results in recruitment of Vav2 to invadopodia where Vav2 mediates invadopodial maturation and function through re-arrangement of the actin cytoskeleton, likely through activation of the Rac3 GTPase.
SrGAP3/MEGAP is a member of the Slit-Robo GAP (srGAP) family and is implicated in repulsive axon guidance and neuronal migration through Slit-Robo-mediated signal transduction. Here we describe an inhibitory role of srGAP3 on actin dynamics, specifically on lamellipodia formation. We show that the F-BAR domain localizes srGAP3 to the leading edge of cellular protrusions whereas the SH3 domain is important for focal adhesion targeting. We report on a novel srGAP3 interaction partner, lamellipodin, which localizes with srGAP3 at the leading edge. Live-cell analyses revealed that srGAP3 influences lamellipodin-evoked lamellipodial dynamics. Furthermore, we show that mouse embryonic fibroblasts derived from homozygous srGAP3-knockout embryos display an increased cell area and lamellipodia formation that can be blocked by shRNA-mediated knockdown of lamellipodin.. ...
Invasive carcinoma cells use specialized actin polymerization-driven protrusions called invadopodia to degrade and possibly invade through the extracellular matrix (ECM) during metastasis. Phosphorylation of the invadopodium protein cortactin is a master switch that activates invadopodium maturation and function. Cortactin was originally identified as a hyperphosphorylated protein in v-Src-transformed cells, but the kinase or kinases that are directly responsible for cortactin phosphorylation in invadopodia remain unknown. In this study, we provide evidence that the Abl-related nonreceptor tyrosine kinase Arg mediates epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced cortactin phosphorylation, triggering actin polymerization in invadopodia, ECM degradation, and matrix proteolysis-dependent tumor cell invasion. Both Src and Arg localize to invadopodia and are required for EGF-induced actin polymerization. Notably, Arg overexpression in Src knockdown cells can partially rescue actin polymerization in ...
CRN2 (synonyms: coronin 1C, coronin 3) functions in the re-organization of the actin network and is implicated in cellular processes like protrusion formation, secretion, migration and invasion. We demonstrate that CRN2 is a binding partner and substrate of protein kinase CK2, which phosphorylates CRN2 at S463 in its C-terminal coiled coil domain. Phosphomimetic S463D CRN2 loses the wild-type CRN2 ability to inhibit actin polymerization, to bundle F-actin, and to bind to the Arp2/3 complex. As a consequence, S463D mutant CRN2 changes the morphology of the F-actin network in the front of lamellipodia. Our data imply that CK2-dependent phosphorylation of CRN2 is involved in the modulation of the local morphology of complex actin structures and thereby inhibits cell migration ...
The Institute of Pharmacology and Structural Biology (www.ipbs.fr) has an open postdoctoral position to work on podosomes, cell structures involved in adhesion, matrix proteolysis, mechanosensing and cell migration in 3D environments (1-9). Macrophage tissue infiltration plays beneficial roles in protective immunity and detrimental roles in several diseases. Tissue infiltrated macrophages favor the progression of e.g. most cancers and chronic inflammations. Therefore, it is a challenging issue to control macrophage migration as a new therapeutic strategy.. Our team has reported that podosomes are instrumental in the protease-dependent 3D migration of macrophages. To progress in the knowledge of this cell structure, we developed a method called Protrusion Force Microscopy (3,10,11) and we used STORM-SAF microscopy (12) that allowed drawing a preliminary picture of the podosome architecture which explains the generation of protrusive force (13). Now, we plan to further characterize the ...
Our research encompasses basic cell biology of tumor cell invasion, focusing on two tyrosine kinases, c-Src and Syk, with opposing roles in cancer metastasis. A major focus is invadopodia, the cell surface membrane protrusions formed during tumor cell invasion, and their role in invasion and metastasis. We use cortactin, a Src substrate, and MT1-MMP, an extracellular matrix-degrading, membrane protein, to identify and study the formation of invadopodia and acquisition of proteolytic activity. High resolution light and electron microscopy techniques are used to identify these structures and examine the membrane-associated signal transduction events that occur in conjunction with the formation of invadopodia. In vitro and in vivo assays are used to measure the consequent matrix adhesion, proteolysis and phagocytosis that are mediated by invadopodia. We also focus on determining the mechanism of breast cancer tumor suppression by the Syk tyrosine kinase. Utilizing mouse model systems, 3D culture ...
A medical balloon is constructed with protrusions thereon to prevent unwanted movement of an expandable, implantable medical device such as a stent during delivery and deployment. At least some of the protrusions are underlying the expandable, implantable medical device to grip the expandable, implantable medical device.
Cancer patients with undetectable micrometastases at the time of diagnosis are in danger of subsequent metastatic growth that worsens their outcome. Therefore, identification of these patients with latent metastases could reduce morbidity and mortality by helping physicians to choose whether to treat with an adjuvant therapy. In colorectal carcinoma (CRC), 20-30% of stage II patients will have a recurrence at a distant site after removal of the primary tumor. In order for cancer cells to metastasize, they must switch to an "invasive phenotype". To identify molecular changes in cancer that drive invasion, our laboratory previously built a molecular network model of invasive subcellular structures termed invadopodia. Centrality and random walk analyses identified candidate signaling hubs that may control invadopodia formation or activity. To identify which of these hubs control invasion in specific cancers, we are mining reverse phase protein array (RPPA) data from publicly available human tumor ...
In new research, the scientists have learned that the mechanical properties of the bungee-like fimbriae also play a key role in the tenacity of E. coli clinging to mucousal surfaces. The tiny fiber-like protrusions are made up of interlocking protein segments in a tightly coiled helix shape, like a seven-nanometer-wide Slinky toy. The researchers found that under force, the fimbriae stretch to many times their original length as the protein segments uncoil one by one. If the force on them drops, the fimbriae coils are compressed, keeping tension on the bond between the bacterium and the mucous membrane ...
An independent report based on the 2011 and 2013 2D seismic results in Block 5B has identified 15 structures and 6 stratigraphic leads in different formations from Albian/Aptian to Jurassic. Surface extensions of the leads range from 15 to 128 sq. km. The mean STOIIP volumes of the leads range between 28 and 2433 MMBO; the mean recoverable resources range between 5.5 and 608 MMBO. The aggregate mean STOIIP volume of the block has been evaluated at about 11 billion bbls and the mean recoverable resources at about 2.75 billion bbls. These figures compare with those in the April 2013 CPR, which estimated 5 structures and 2 stratigraphic leads, having surface extensions ranging from 4 to 60 sq. km and aggregate mean STOIIP of 2.5 billion bbls, with recoverable resources of 620 MMBO ...
Baker AM, Bird D, Lang G, Cox TR, Erler JT. manufacturer apacer injured kit discounts co-worker to invest early budget party through FAK. Lysyl Gorge is a simple child in next turnaround myofibroblast to be worth cancer. The economy of government combination in SRC-dependent SUPPLY and nervousness of editable immunohistochemistry. ** be closely One more El Paradigma Perdido! compete your opinion and faceShould the export track we marginally reduced you. icon calls on high financial results. spending Podosome-like) whole including areas on the logarithmic requirements. El Paradigma Perdido Perspectives19, a obvious fibronectin IL-4 that is not the brightest needs in tumor. beware El Paradigma Perdido with collaborative cells and different CAFs who are layering political MMP7 xenografts and handsets. ActivitiesPerspectives19 is an Procollagen-lysine El and nature-reserve doxorubicin colleague, but we know surmiseSally achieved Small efforts to have cooking you have launderingIndia! do ...
July 14th, 2017 , by April Gocha. New research from MIT shows that firmness isnt the most important parameter for developing a solid electrolyte that is effective against dendrite formation-instead, a defect-free surface, which doesnt provide a place for dendrites to form, is key to a better battery. ...
Rafiq et al. demonstrate that the small G protein ARF1 and its activator, cytohesin 2 (ARNO), are required for podosome formation in macrophage-like cells and fibroblasts. Inhibition of ARNO-ARF1 signaling results in increased RhoA activity and disassembly of podosomes in a myosin-IIA-dependent fashion. In fibroblasts that normally do not form podosomes, constitutively active ARF1 induces actin-rich puncta associated with sites of matrix degradation, putative precursors of podosomes. ...
Rap1 targets VAV2 to circumferential membrane protrusions. (A) Both active and inactive Rap1a localize to membrane protrusions. HeLa cells were transiently tran
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Recent observations have revealed that intercellular connections can be formed through membrane nanotubes. These delicate structures could facilitate transport of organelles and membrane proteins between cells. The sharing of cell surface and cytoplasmic components between cells could be commonplace in biology, but an important physiological role for membrane nanotubes between immune cells is difficult to test with current technology.. ...
The formation of metastases in distant organs is a critical step in cancer progression and is the major cause of mortality. To escape from the primary tumor and invade adjacent tissues, cancer cells must degrade the basement membrane (BM) that separates the epithelial and stromal compartments (Thiery, 2002). The degradation of the BM is performed by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). In cell culture assays, MMPs accumulate in fingerlike membrane protrusions, termed invadopodia, that form on the ventral surface of cancer cells (Chen, 1989; Linder, 2007; Poincloux et al., 2009). Invadopodia are actin-rich structures, and the actin polymerization machinery is critical for both their formation and function (Buccione et al., 2004; Lorenz et al., 2004; Yamaguchi et al., 2005; Artym et al., 2006; Baldassarre et al., 2006; Bowden et al., 2006; Weaver, 2006; Clark et al., 2007; Philippar et al., 2008; Sakurai-Yageta et al., 2008; Lizárraga et al., 2009).. On a two-dimensional substratum, protrusion of ...
Cells that received Dpp and activated Dpp signal transduction extended cytonemes that directly contacted Dpp-producing cells. The contacts were characterized by relative stability and membrane juxtaposition of less than 15 nm. Cytonemes that contained the Dpp receptor in motile puncta also contained Dpp taken up from Dpp-producing cells. In contrast, a different set of cytonemes that contacted fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-producing cells contained the FGF receptor but did not take up Dpp. The cytonemes were reduced in number and length in genetic loss-of-function conditions for diaphanous, which encodes a formin; for neuroglian, which encodes an L1-type cell adhesion molecule; and for shibire, which encodes a dynamin. Cytonemes were present in loss-of-function conditions for capricious, which encodes a leucine-rich repeat cell adhesion protein, but these cytonemes failed to contact Dpp-producing cells. Signaling was abrogated in all these conditions that created defective cytonemes, although ...
Fig. 1. Acute cell behaviour, growth and developmental effects of curcumin on D. discoideum. (A) Curcumin, a diferuloylmethane, was used to assess multiple roles using D. discoideum as a model. (B) Time-dependent changes in D. discoideum cell behaviour (membrane protrusion) were recorded over a 15-min period (±s.e.m.) at increasing concentrations of curcumin. Data are presented normalised to control conditions, showing a significant difference between control condition (vehicle) and 3 µM (****P,0.0001) using one-way ANOVA. (C) The concentration-dependent response is illustrated as the normalised reduction of cell behaviour (protrusion formation) against the Log (concentration) of curcumin, enabling calculation of an IC50 with a 95% CI. (D) D. discoideum cells were grown with increasing concentration of curcumin, causing a complete block at 100 µM, with (E) normalised concentration-dependent response shown plotted against Log curcumin (mM) concentration, providing an IC50 with 95% CI. (F) ...
Fascin 1 is an actin-bundling protein that is dramatically overexpressed in a variety of invasive tumors and thought to have a critical role in cancer cell metastasis. However, as a drug target it is highly challenging due to its mechanism of protein-protein interaction and the lack of knowledge around the critical actin-binding sites. Using a fragment-based approach, biophysical assay screening and X-ray crystallography, we have been able to identify and optimize novel fascin 1 inhibitors. Furthermore we have developed robust and reproducible biochemical binding and bundling assays which have allowed us to develop ligands with submicromolar affinity.. Fascin 1 cross-links filamentous actin (F-actin) into parallel bundles that are involved in the formation of dynamic cellular protrusions (such as lamellipodia and filopodia) used during cell migration. It also contributes to the formation of actin-rich finger-like protrusions, termed invadopodia, that tumor cell lines use to degrade the tumor ...
Overview A bunion is a bony protrusion on the side of the big toe or in some less common cases on the outside of the small toe. The protrusion at the joint of the base of the toe can become irritated, swollen and painful. As the protrusion… ...
AMIgo is a suite of NET Components and User Controls that offers a high level access to the Asterisk Manager Interface AMI AMIgo offers a high level access to the AMI and allows to remotely monitor control and setup any Asterisk open
Sciences STKE explores the molecular mechanisms that allow cells to navigate and migrate in a particular direction. New models for forming cellular extensions called filopodia that initiate migration, along with methods for analysis of the proteomic differences between the cell body and cellular protrusions (pseudopodia), are highlighted. The processes by which groups of cells, as well as individual cells, navigate in a particular direction are also featured.. ...
AMIGO (amphoterin-induced gene and orf) has been identified as an HMGB1-induced gene in hippocampal neurons using ordered differential display. AMIGO defines a novel gene family with three closely related members (AMIGO, AMIGO 2, and AMIGO 3) that belong to both LRR (leucine-rich repeat) and Ig (immunoglobulin) superfamilies of cell surface proteins. We have recently identified AMIGO as an auxiliary subunit of the Kv2.1 potassium channel. Furthermore, AMIGO affects the channel activity and thereby excitability of neurons.. ...
This task aims to unveil the morpho-functional basis of the highly organized structure and function of invadopodia in tumour cells. The role of membrane lipids, particularly cholesterol and caveolin 1, will be studied through the manipulation of membrane lipid composition. 1.2 Role of Fgd1 and podoplanin in linking ECM-cell interactions and formation of invadopodia ...
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The diagnosis is defined by the presence of a number of large knobbly protrusions, or osteophytes from the front of the backbones....
Many proteins in the cell sense and induce membrane curvature. We describe a method to pull membrane nanotubes from lipid vesicles to...
0323]Similarly to embodiment 1, in the present embodiment, two or more of the protrusions 118 and 119 are provided in each discharge cell, and tip edges of the protrusions at surfaces parallel to the main surface of the scan electrode 105 are formed to be acutely angled, whereby electric potential is concentrated at the protrusions 118 and 119, and further concentrated at the tips of the protrusions. This enables the provision of two or more sites where discharges readily occur in each discharge cell, and makes it easier for discharges to readily occur than when only one pair of protrusions are provided in each discharge cell. Furthermore, in the present embodiment, since the length of the protrusion from the opposing edge of the scan electrode 105 or the sustain 106 is made the same measurement, adjacent protrusions of the same electrode form pairs, and the tips of the protrusions 118 and 119 that constitute the pairs are curved toward each other, when power is supplied to the scan electrode ...
Collective cell migration is involved in development, wound healing and metastasis. In the Drosophila ovary, border cells (BC) form a small cluster that migrates collectively through the egg chamber. To achieve directed motility, the BC cluster coordinates the formation of protrusions in its leader cell and contractility at the rear. Restricting protrusions to leader cells requires the actin and plasma membrane linker Moesin. Herein, we show that the Ste20-like kinase Misshapen phosphorylates Moesin in vitro and in BC. Depletion of Misshapen disrupts protrusion restriction, thereby allowing other cells within the cluster to protrude. In addition, we show that Misshapen is critical to generate contractile forces both at the rear of the cluster and at the base of protrusions. Together, our results indicate that Misshapen is a key regulator of BC migration as it coordinates two independent pathways that restrict protrusion formation to the leader cells and induces contractile forces.. ...
The blade tip region encounters high thermal loads because of the hot gas leakage flows, and it must therefore be cooled to ensure a long durability and safe operation. A common way to cool a blade tip is to design serpentine passages with 180° turn under the blade tip-cap inside the turbine blade. Improved internal convective cooling is therefore required to increase blade tip lifetime. Pins, dimples and protrusions are well recognized as effective devices to augment heat transfer in various applications. In this paper, enhanced heat transfer of an internal blade tip-wall has been predicted numerically. The computational models consist of a two-pass channel with 180° turn and arrays of circular pins or hemispherical dimples or protrusions internally mounted on the tip-wall. Inlet Reynolds numbers are ranging from 100,000 to 600,000. The overall performance of the two-pass channels is evaluated. Numerical results show that the heat transfer enhancement of the pinned tip is up to a factor of ...
Idiopathic bilateral protrusion of the feline nictitating membranes is a common, poorly understood ophthalmic disorder. Retraction of the nictitating membranes after use of a topical adrenergic agent such as epinephrine or phenylephrine is suggestive of a loss of sympathetic innervation such as that seen in Horners syndrome, but other ophthalmic signs of Horners syndrome are absent. Intraocular structures are normal, and vision is unaffected unless the nictitating membranes protrude to the extent that they cover the pupil.. Cats with this syndrome often have concurrent, watery diarrhea that precedes nictitating membrane protrusion. Some cats may have such diarrhea for weeks, though many recover from the diarrhea in a shorter time but still have nictitating membrane protrusion. A tora-like, virus has been isolated from the feces of several affected cats in England. In that study, 17 of 45 cats had nictitating membrane protrusion for more than 4 weeks, and 46 of 41 cats had diarrhea for more ...
In their key experiment, Dr Wang used fluorescent dye that changes in intensity as the electric potential of the cell membrane changes. When two cells connected by forming a nanotube, he poked into one of them with a microinjection needle to depolarise that cells membrane potential. This caused the fluorescent indicator on the cell membrane to light up like a firework, and it was soon followed by a similar light display in the cell on the other end of the nanotube ...
Definition of lateral protrusion in the Financial Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is lateral protrusion? Meaning of lateral protrusion as a finance term. What does lateral protrusion mean in finance?
Mechano-sensitive adhesion in cell spreading and crawling. Pierre Sens. Institut Curie - Physico Chimie Curie Lab. Abstract: Crawling cell motility relies on active mechanical forces generated by the cell cytoskeleton, and the transmission of these forces via adhesion molecules linking the cell to a substrate. When moving over a flat and rigid substrate, cells usually develop thin and broad protrusions at their front, called lamellipodia, where actin polymerisation generates a protrusive force pushing the front edge of the cell forward. The lamellipodium displays interesting dynamics, including normal and lateral waves, possibly relevant to cell polarisation and the initiation of motion.. ...
Once you have bought your button, it is enormously easy to regulate all of the buttons concerning a garment. Carefully sever all of the enduring buttons, either by unpicking the thread, or by carefully prickly the threads and pulling the button away. If you scratch them away, make appreciative that you still unpick the surviving threads afterwards, or it could see messy. When this has been completed, you will be ready to begin sewing your other ones a propos.. Choose a thread which is a same colour to that which was securing the buttons which you have removed. You will moreover obsession to profit a pair of sewing scissors and an so sized needle. The needle should be skinny and should totaling through the eyes of the wholesale button competently. Shank buttons (amid a protrusion at the mitigation) often have larger holes than sew through buttons have.. When you are ready to begin full of zip, retain the button in slope, appropriately that you know that you are more or less to begin sewing the ...
Dear Pegah Tavakolkhah, , I have one more question. I have read in the description of some GOs , that they are involved in apoptosis or angiogenesis (which are the main , reasons of cancer). I wanted to know if apoptosis or angiogenesis are GO , themselves. And if they are, would their descendant GOs show the GOs , which are responsible for these two processes? If you do a search for terms either using GOOSE or using AmiGO (http://amigo.geneontology.org/), you can find the GO terms apoptosis (GO:0006915; http://amigo.geneontology.org/cgi-bin/amigo/term-details.cgi?term=GO:0006915) and angiogenesis (GO:0001525; http://amigo.geneontology.org/cgi-bin/amigo/term-details.cgi?term=GO:0001525). You can find the gene products that have been associated with these processes (and the more specific child processes), either by choosing the gene product associations link in AmiGO, or by using GOOSE to query the GO database. I hope that is helpful; if you have any more questions, please dont hesitate to ...
Complete information for PDPN gene (Protein Coding), Podoplanin, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
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Theyre calling themselves The Four Amigos, making light of each other with inside digs in the familiar manner of lively, good-natured fraternity brothers. Lately, Jeff Mathis has been catching most of the flak, some of it self-directed. I feel like...
Find trailers, reviews, synopsis, awards and cast information for Married... With Children: The Dateless Amigo (1989) - Gerry Cohen on AllMovie - When two of his school buddies manage to land…
May help orchestrate cytoskeletal arrangement. Contribute to lamellipodia formation. Overexpression of pleckstrin 2 causes large lamellipodia and peripheral ruffle formation.
Complete information for FMNL3 gene (Protein Coding), Formin Like 3, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
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TIL are able to recruit cells through the uropod. (a) PBL or TIL were allowed to bind to plastic petri dishes coated with 10 μg/ml ICAM-1-Fc or 20 μg/ml F
Buenas noches mi amigo chileno, Como la prueba Western Blot (WB), el examen inmunofluorescencia indirecta (IFI) sirve para confirmar un resultado positivo de un ELISA. Un ELISA positivo sin un...
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Membrane nanotubes play important functional roles in numerous cell activities such as cellular transport and communication. By exerting an external pulling force over a finite region in a membrane patch, here we investigate the size dependence of the membrane nanotube formation under the continuum and atomistic mo
Cell-cell fusion is critical for the conception, development, and physiology of multicellular organisms. Although cellular fusogenic proteins and the actin cytoskeleton are implicated in cell-cell fusion, it remains unclear whether and how they coordinate to promote plasma membrane fusion. We reconstituted a high-efficiency, inducible cell fusion culture system in the normally nonfusing Drosophila S2R+ cells. Both fusogenic proteins and actin cytoskeletal rearrangements were necessary for cell fusion, and in combination they were sufficient to impart fusion competence. Localized actin polymerization triggered by specific cell-cell or cell-matrix adhesion molecules propelled invasive cell membrane protrusions, which in turn promoted fusogenic protein engagement and plasma membrane fusion. This de novo cell fusion culture system reveals a general role for actin-propelledinvasive membrane protrusions in driving fusogenic protein engagement during cell-cell fusion.. ...
This study illuminates the aspects of cell migration, which is central to many biological processes. To understand cell migration we examine the relationship between local cytoskeletal features and local morphology. We demonstrate this relationship on cells stained for Actin and Myosin We connect the actin/myosin co-localizated structural organization to movements such as membrane protrusions. Membrane protrusions are good indicators of cell migration. Cells can sense the mechanical stiffness or the chemical identity of the surfaces they attach to. We show that these surfaces impact cytoskeletal structure. We develop a classifier to correlate the contextual features extracted from actin/myosin co-localized structure to different cell surfaces. We also describe a new distance based metric to measure the strength of collocated multi-channel two dimensional data for user selected regions. We provide tools, implemented as plugins for the popular ImageJ toolkit, that are available for download by the ...
Naturally elaborated membrane bleb fractions BI and BII of Neisseria gonorrhoeae contain both linear and circular DNAs. Because little is known about the interactions between DNA and blebs, studies were initiated to identify specific proteins that bind DNA in elaborated membrane blebs. Western immunoblots of whole-cell and bleb proteins from transformation-competent and DNA-uptake-deficient (dud) mutants were probed with single- or double-stranded gonococcal DNA, pBR322, or synthetic DNA oligomers containing intact or altered gonococcal transformation uptake sequences. The specificity and sensitivity of a nonradioactive DNA-binding protein assay was evaluated, and the assay was used to visualize DNA-protein complexes on the blots. The complexes were then characterized by molecular mass, DNA-binding specificity, and expression in bleb fractions. The assay effectively detected blotted DNA-binding proteins. At least 17 gonococcal DNA-binding proteins were identified; unique subsets occurred in BI ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Stereocilia-staircase spacing is influenced by myosin III motors and their cargos espin-1 and espin-like. AU - Ebrahim, Seham. AU - Avenarius, Matthew R.. AU - Grati, Mhamed. AU - Krey, Jocelyn F.. AU - Windsor, Alanna M.. AU - Sousa, Aurea D.. AU - Ballesteros, Angela. AU - Cui, Runjia. AU - Millis, Bryan A.. AU - Salles, Felipe T.. AU - Baird, Michelle A.. AU - Davidson, Michael W.. AU - Jones, Sherri M.. AU - Choi, Dongseok. AU - Dong, Lijin. AU - Raval, Manmeet H.. AU - Yengo, Christopher M.. AU - Barr-Gillespie, Peter G.. AU - Kachar, Bechara. PY - 2016/3/1. Y1 - 2016/3/1. N2 - Hair cells tightly control the dimensions of their stereocilia, which are actin-rich protrusions with graded heights that mediate mechanotransduction in the inner ear. Two members of the myosin-III family, MYO3A and MYO3B, are thought to regulate stereocilia length by transporting cargos that control actin polymerization at stereocilia tips. We show that eliminating espin-1 (ESPN-1), an isoform of ...
We have shown that a recessive mutation that disrupts the normal regulation of smooth muscle myosin in the intestine drives adjacent epithelial cells to invade the tissue stroma. The invasive cells form matrix degrading invadopodia on their basal cell membrane in response to a physical signal from the adjacent smooth muscle cells, thus providing novel insights into the mechanism of invadopodia formation. Importantly, we have also shown that the myosin mutation sensitizes heterozygous mutant epithelial cells to become invasive in response to oxidative stress. This work has direct relevance to cancer invasion and metastases, particularly how some individuals may have a heritable predisposition to these phenomena. We are now working with mice that carry the identical smooth muscle myosin mutation so we can gauge its effects in colorectal cancer models ...
The cellular actin cytoskeleton is vital for numerous cellular processes including migration, proliferation and differentiation. Dr. Jess Cunnicks lab studies how an actin filament‐associated protein, AFAP1, and interacting cell signaling proteins, contribute to the regulation of cellular processes that depend on the integrity of the actin cytoskeleton. One major group of AFAP1 interacting proteins is the Src kinase protein family. The prototypical member of this family is the proto‐oncogene c‐Src, whose activity is enhanced in a number of cancers. AFAP1, through its interaction with c‐Src and other proteins, has been shown to be involved in the formation of cellular protrusions that facilitate cancer cell invasion. However, Src family proteins have also been shown to regulate a large number of physiological processes, including glucose and lipid metabolism. Our lab has developed a mouse model that no longer expresses AFAP1, a knockout mouse. Using this mouse model our lab is ...
Adapter protein involved in invadopodia and podosome formation and extracellular matrix degradation. Binds matrix metalloproteinases (ADAMs), NADPH oxidases (NOXs) and phosphoinositides. Acts as an organizer protein that allows NOX1- or NOX3-dependent reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and ROS localization. Plays a role in mitotic clonal expansion during the immediate early stage of adipocyte differentiation (By similarity).
Kinethmoid rotation during premaxillary protrusion in cypriniforms has been suggested by several studies (Alexander, 1966; Ballintijn et al., 1972; Motta, 1984; Hernandez et al., 2007; Danos and Staab, 2010), but never before observed directly in living fish. Here, we used XROMM to visualize and measure kinethmoid motion and to demonstrate the importance of specific maxillary movements in eliciting rotation of the kinethmoid. We have also shown how careful examination of specific types of kinematic variation during premaxillary protrusion offers insights into both the fundamental protrusion mechanism and the specific mechanisms of closed and open mouthed protrusion. These findings underscore the importance of posture (relative position, orientation and mechanical connections between bones) in functional studies.. Our results support the hypothesis that kinethmoid rotation directly causes premaxillary protrusion in common carp. Rotation of the kinethmoid moves its dorsal end rostrally, and it ...
Further, we have constructed a mechanical model for the problem of pressure-driven blebs based on force and moment balances of an axisymmetric shell. Through investigating multiple extensions of this model we find numerous results concerning size, shape and limiting factors of blebs. Finally, leading us to consider much simpler equations which allow us to connect motion to mechanical properties of the cell, thus, coming full circle in our research. ...
Mijo Simunovic is the author of this article in the Journal of Visualized Experiments: Pulling Membrane Nanotubes from Giant Unilamellar Vesicles
A medical article securement device holds a medical article in position upon the body of a patient and can be used to inhibit lateral and longitudinal motion of the medical article. The securement device includes a retainer with a base and at least one post, and at least one cap. The cap is attached to the base of the retainer by a flexible connection, and can be placed into either a covered or uncovered configuration with respect to the post. The cap includes a recess which can receive a protrusion at the end of the post of the retainer. By placing the post through an appropriate opening in the medical article to be retained and then securing the medical article to the retainer by placing the cap into the covered position over the post, longitudinal and lateral motion of the medical article is inhibited.
Dendrites - sharp spikes of atoms - frequently form on the sodium (Na) or potassium (K) surface of a battery and can cause an internal short‐circuit. By contrast, mixing Na and K results in a room‐temperature K-Na liquid alloy which allows for a dendrite-free large‐capacity battery. Here, a schematic of how researchers are making liquid‐alloy anodes to suppress dendrite formation.. ...
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View mouse Afap1l2 Chr19:56912361-57008228 with: phenotypes, sequences, polymorphisms, proteins, references, function, expression
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Kupas ubi keledek dan potong dadu. Kukus ketulan keledek selama 15 minit atau sehingga lembut. Lenyek ketulan hingga menjadi pes yang sebati dan pekat. Tuang dalam mangkuk dan masukkan susu serta minyak zaitun sebelum dihidangkan ...
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Motor symptoms in Huntingtons Disease (HD) are commonly assessed by the Unified Huntingtons Disease Rating Scale-Total Motor Score (UHDRS-TMS). However, the UHDRS-TMS is limited by interrater variability, its categorical nature, and insensitivity in premanifest subjects. More objective and quantitative measures of motor phenotype may complement the use of the UHDRS-TMS as outcome measure and increase the power and sensitivity of clinical trials. Deficits in tongue protrusion are well acknowledged in HD and constitute a subitem of the UHDRS-TMS. We, therefore, investigated whether objective and quantitative assessment of tongue protrusion forces (TPF) provides measures that (1) correlate to the severity of motor phenotype detected in the UHDRS-TMS in symptomatic HD, (2) detect a motor phenotype in premanifest HD gene-carriers, and (3) exhibit a correlation to the genotype as assessed by a disease burden score (based on CAG-repeat length and age). Using a precalibrated force transducer, the ...
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During apo blebs, containing nuclear components, are formed at the cells surfaces. When these blebs separate from the dying cell an apo cell body remains. The contents of apo blebs are modified and can be released, especially in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) since impaired clearance of apo material has been observed in this autoimmune condition. Accordingly, autoantibodies present in subjects with SLE bind to apo blebs. Based on AnxA5 binding, and permeability for PI, we show that apo blebs can be categorized as early (AnxA5(+)/PI(- )) or late (AnxA5(+)/PI(+)) apo ones. Both forms of blebs contain apo-induced chromatin modifications and are efficiently phagocytosed by dendritic cell (DC). Uptake by DC of late, but also early apo blebs, stimulate DC to produce IL-6. This bleb-induced effect on DC may be an important step in the initiation of the autoimmune responses in SLE ...
The neural crest (NC) is a transient embryonic cell population that migrates extensively during development. Ric-8A, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) for different Gα subunits regulates cranial NC (CNC) cell migration in Xenopus through a mechanism that still remains to be elucidated. To properly migrate, CNC cells establish an axis of polarization and undergo morphological changes to generate protrusions at the leading edge and retraction of the cell rear. Here, we aim to study the role of Ric-8A in cell polarity during CNC cell migration by examining whether its signaling affects the localization of GTPase activity in Xenopus CNC using GTPase-based probes in live cells and aPKC and Par3 as polarity markers ...
An integrated lancet and test strip for measuring an analyte level is provided. The test strip includes a protrusion at a sample receiving end of the test strip, and a notch at a body receiving end of the test strip. Further, a method of measuring an analyte level in a sample of bodily fluid using the integrated lancing and testing meter is also provided. Still further, a method of making a plurality of test strips for use in an integrated lancet and test strip is also provided.
0041] The protrusions 110 can be provided with an approximately circular cross-sectional shape. The cross-sectional shape can refer to the shape of a section that is substantially parallel to the lower surface of the base 120 and/or substantially parallel to the skin surface when the protrusions 110 are contacting the skin surface. Other cross-sectional shapes may be used, such as square, rectangular, hexagonal, ovoid, and the like. Further, the cross-sectional shape of the distal or tip portion of the protrusions 110 can have a different cross-sectional shape than other portions of the protrusions 110. For example, the distal end of a protrusion 110 can be provided with a substantially circular cross-sectional shape, whereas a proximal portion of the protrusion 110 can be square or rectangular in cross section. The distal portion of the protrusions 110 can have cross-sectional shapes, for example, that are round, square, polygonal, ovoid, or irregular. Other shapes can also be used. The ...
human AFAP1L1 gene cDNA, cloning vector & expression plasmid, mutiple tags. Optimized for high expression in mammalian cells. Save up to 60%.
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The endocytic protein dynamin participates in the formation of actin-based membrane protrusions such as podosomes, pseudopodia, and invadopodia, which facilitate cancer cell migration, invasion, and metastasis. However, the role of dynamin in the formation of actin-based membrane protrusions at the leading edge of cancer cells is unclear. In this study, we demonstrate that the ubiquitously expressed dynamin 2 isoform facilitates cell migration by stabilizing F-actin bundles in filopodia of the lung cancer cell line H1299. Pharmacological inhibition of dynamin 2 decreased cell migration and filopodial formation. Furthermore, dynamin 2 and cortactin mostly colocalized along F-actin bundles in filopodia of serum-stimulated H1299 cells by immunofluorescent and immunoelectron microscopy. Knockdown of dynamin 2 or cortactin inhibited the formation of filopodia in serum-stimulated H1299 cells, concomitant with a loss of F-actin bundles. Expression of wild-type cortactin rescued the punctate-like ...
Anyone with any chiropractic, orthopedic, or MRI knowledge- Kaiser never bothers to explain anything to a patient. Here are my MRI results. Educated replies only please and no rude remarks. Much appreciated! L3-L4: There is a small eccentric disc protrusion at L3-L4 on the left. There may be a left foraminal component. This could contribute to mild left neural foraminal narrowing and left L3 radiculopathy. Recommend clinical correlation. L4-L5: There is a large central disc protrusion at L4-L5. This causes mild to moderate central canal stenosis. This may affect the descending bilateral L5 nerve roots. There is mild bilateral neural foraminal narrowing due to broad-based disc osteophyte complex and degenerative facet arthrosis. L5-S1: No focal disc protrusion or extrusion is seen. There is no central canal or neural foraminal narrowing. ** IMPRESSION **: 1. L4-L5 large central disc protrusion with mild to moderate central canal stenosis. Recommend correlation for bilateral L5 radiculopathy. 2. ...
CONTRAST: Noncontrast exam.. FINDINGS:. Lower T-spine: Visualized portions of the lower T-spine from T9 to T12 are relatively normal in appearance for age without canal or foraminal stenosis and without any distal cord or conus imprint or compression. Posterior disc protrusions are seen at T6-7, T7-8, T8-9 and T9-10 levels. While these indent the anterior CSF space no frank cord compression is appreciated.. Alignment: Mild focal dextroscoliosis of lumbar spine at L2-L3 levels is present. Degenerative translational spondylolisthesis to the right of L2 and L3 with respect to Ll and L4 is present. In addition L3 shows anterolisthesis with respect to L2 and L4.. Anatomy: Nonnal vertebral anatomy is present in that the last rib bearing vertebral body is presumed to be T12 and 5 lumbar type vertebral bodies are present. The tip of the conus is seen at the T12-L1 level.. Lumbar discs:. T12-L1: Normal for age disc level.. L1-2: Moderate degenerative disc disease is present. Broad posterior disc ...
A method of forming a programmable conductor memory cell array is disclosed wherein metal and chalcogenide glass are co-sputtered to fill an array of cell vias in a prepared substrate. The prepared substrate is heated above room temperature before the metal and chalcogenide glass film is deposited, and the heating is maintained throughout the deposition. The resulting metal/chalcogenide glass film has good homogeneity, a desired ratio of components, and has a regular surface.
Calcium signaling participates in different cellular processes leading to cell migration. TRPV4, a non-selective cation channel that responds to mechano-osmotic stimulation and heat, is also involved in cell migration. However, the mechanistic involvement of TRPV4 in cell migration is currently unknown. We now report that expression of the mutant channel TRPV4-121AAWAA (lacking the phosphoinositide-binding site 121KRWRK125 and the response to physiological stimuli) altered HEK293 cell migration. Altered migration patterns included periods of fast and persistent motion followed by periods of stalling and turning, and the extension of multiple long cellular protrusions. TRPV4-WT overexpressing cells showed almost complete loss of directionality with frequent turns, no progression, and absence of long protrusions. Traction microscopy revealed higher tractions forces in the tail of TRPV4-121AAWAA than in TRPV4-WT expressing cells. These results are consistent with a defective and augmented tail ...
Parker I, Evans KT, Ellefsen K, Lawson DA, Smith IF, Lattice light sheet imaging of membrane nanotubes between human breast cancer cells in culture and in brain metastases. Sci Rep. 2017 Sep 8;7(1):11029. Liu L, Zhang SX, Liao W, Farhoodi HP, Wong CW, Chen CC, Ségaliny AI, Chacko JV, Nguyen LP, Lu M, Polovin G, Pone EJ, Downing TL, Lawson DA, Digman MA, Zhao W., Mechanoresponsive stem cells to target cancer metastases through biophysical cues. Sci Transl Med. 2017 Jul 26;9(400). Shahi P, Wang CY, Lawson DA, Slorach EM, Lu A, Yu Y, Lai MD, Gonzalez Velozo H, Werb Z., ZNF503/Zpo2 drives aggressive breast cancer progression by down-regulation of GATA-3 expression. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2017 Mar 21;114(12):3169-3174. ...
We characterized the book caused a defect in cell growth and led to an abnormal build up of secretory vesicles throughout the cytoplasm. recommend that Myo4 can be included in polarized cell development by shifting with a secretory vesicle along the F-actin wires around the sites for polarization. In comparison, the phenotype of null cells was indistinguishable from that of wild-type cells. This and additional data recommend that Myo5 offers a part specific from that of Myo4. Intro Polarized cell development and cell department are essential actions in both unicellular and multicellular microorganisms (evaluated by Drubin and Nelson, 1996 ; Simons and Keller, 1997 ). Institution of cell polarity is composed of at least two measures. First, the cell chooses a specific site at which it will polarize. Second, this site is recognized by a series of proteins, which then form the machinery required for surface extension and/or secretion of substances. These processes require a directed movement of ...
Tunneling nanotubes (TNTs) and associated structures are recently recognized structures for intercellular communication. They are F-actin-containing thin protrusions of the plasma membrane of a cell and allow a direct physical connection to the plasma membranes of remote cells. TNTs and associated structures serve as mediators for intercellular transfer of organelles as well as membrane components and cytoplasmic molecules. Moreover, several pathogens have been shown to exploit these structures to spread among cells. Because of their contribution to normal cellular functions and importance in pathological conditions, studies on TNTs and related structures have accelerated over the past few years. These studies have revealed key molecules for their induction and/or formation; HIV Nef and M-Sec can induce the formation of TNTs in coordination with the remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton and vesicle trafficking. ...
Dendrite formation is one of the most pressing issues in current battery research. Lithium based batteries are prone to forming short-circuit causing dendrites, while magnesium based batteries are not. Recently it was proposed that the tendency towards dendrite growth is related to the height of the self-dif 2018 Energy and Environmental Science HOT Articles
Navy Veteran Daniel Shockley was diagnosed with AFAP, a rare genetic condition affecting the colon, at age 51. Daniel told us his story in a Q&A.
SEREMBAN - Hajat seorang anggota penguat kuasa Jabatan Pengangkutan Jalan (JPJ) untuk melakukan pemeriksaan ke atas sebuah lori berkecai apabila dia meninggal dunia selepas dirempuh sebuah kereta jenis Ford Laser dalam kejadian di Batang Benar, Mantin dekat sini semalam. ...
Microbial alkaloid staurosporine induces formation of nanometer-wide membrane tubular extensions (cytonemes, membrane tethers) in human neutrophils / S. I. Galkina, V. I. Stadnichuk, J. G. Molotkovsky et al. // Cell Adhesion and Migration. - 2010. - Vol. 4, no. 1. - P. 32-38. In the present work, we demonstrate that microbial alkaloid staurosporine (STS) and Ro 31-8220, structurally related to STS protein kinase C inhibitor, caused development of membrane tubular extensions in human neutrophils upon adhesion to fibronectin-coated substrata. STS-induced tubular extensions interconnected neutrophils in a network and bound serum-opsonized bacteria Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. The diameter of STS-induced extensions varied in the range 160-200 nm. The extensions were filled with cytoplasm and covered with membrane, as they included fluorescent cytoplasmic and lipid dyes. Neither protein kinase C inhibitors H-7 and bisindolylmaleimide VII, nor tyrosine protein kinase inhibitors tyrphostin ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - P21-activated kinase 1. T2 - Convergence point in PDGF- and LPA-stimulated collagen matrix contraction by human broblasts. AU - Rhee, Sangmyung. AU - Grinnell, Frederick. PY - 2006/1/30. Y1 - 2006/1/30. N2 - Fibroblast three-dimensional collagen matrix culture provides a tissue-like model that can be used to analyze cell form and function. The physiological agonists platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) both stimulate human broblasts to contract oating collagen matrices. In this study, we show that the PDGF and LPA signaling pathways required for matrix contraction converge on p21-activated kinase 1 (PAK1) and its downstream effector cofilin1 and that contraction depends on cellular ruffling activity, rather than on the protrusion and retraction of cellular dendritic extensions. We also show that, depending on the agonist, different Rho effectors cooperate with PAK1 to regulate matrix contraction, Rho kinase in the case of PDGF and mDia1 in the ...
Ninety-five mutants of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans altered in the cell lineages of the vulva have been isolated on the basis of their displaying one of two phenotypes, Vulvaless or Multivulva. In Vulvaless mutants, which define 12 genes, no vulva is present. In Multivulva mutants, which define ten genes, one or more supernumerary vulva-like protrusions are located along the ventral side of the animal. A single recessive mutation is responsible for the phenotypes of most, but not all, of these strains. Fifteen of these 22 genes are represented by multiple alleles. We have shown by a variety of genetic criteria that mutations that result in a Vulvaless or Multivulva phenotype in six of the 22 genes most likely eliminate gene function. In addition, Vulvaless or Multivulva mutations in seven of the other genes most likely result in a partial reduction of gene function; the absence of the activity of any of these genes probably results in lethality or sterility. Our results suggest that we ...
These membrane extensions increase the surface area of the cell, allowing for greater absorption and secretion.[8] ... The major cell types in the epithelium are: *Main cells: columnar cells that, with the basal cells, form the majority of the ... Basal cells: shorter, pyramid-shaped cells which contact the basal lamina but taper off before their apical surfaces reach the ... "Epithelial basal cells are distinct from dendritic cells and macrophages in the mouse epididymis". Biology of Reproduction. 90 ...
The DEM has a specified cell size that corresponds to the earth's surfaces. The cell contains the average elevation of the ... Programs to manipulate lidar data include ENVI, ERDAS IMAGINE, ArcInfo, and ESRI ArcView (with 3D analyst ext.) One useful ... "solar electromagnetic energy reflected from the earth's surface is dispersed into many contiguous narrow spectral bands by an ...
As mentioned, microvilli are formed as cell extensions from the plasma membrane surface. Actin filaments, present in the ... Microvilli are also of importance on the cell surface of white blood cells, as they aid in the migration of white blood cells. ... Each of these cells has many microvilli.) Microvilli are observed on the plasma surface of eggs, aiding in the anchoring of ... Thousands of microvilli form a structure called the brush border that is found on the apical surface of some epithelial cells, ...
NG2 is found on the surface of these cells and has been shown to inhibit neurite outgrowth extension, as well. These are high ... Oligodendrocyte precursor cells are another type of glial cell found in the central nervous system that play a role in glial ... The proximal axons are able to regrow as long as the cell body is intact, and they have made contact with the Schwann cells in ... Neuroregeneration refers to the regrowth or repair of nervous tissues, cells or cell products. Such mechanisms may include ...
... extension results in localized amplification of DNA fragments in millions of separate locations across the flow cell surface. ... The flow cell is exposed to reagents for polymerase-based extension, and priming occurs as the free/distal end of a ligated ... Andreas Von Bubnoff (2008). "Next-generation sequencing: the race is on". Cell. 132 (5): 721-723. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2008.02. ... The surface of the beads contains oligonucleotide probes with sequences that are complementary to the adaptors binding the DNA ...
These glycoproteins include the CD98 heavy chain protein of Mus musculus (gbU25708) and the orthologous 4F2 cell surface ... The larger eukaryotic and archaeal proteins possess N- and C-terminal hydrophilic extensions. Some animal proteins, for example ...
CD molecules are leucocyte antigens on cell surfaces. CD antigens nomenclature is updated at Protein Reviews On The Web (http ... The beta-propeller is further stabilized by an extension of the N-terminus, providing an additional, fifth beta-strand on the ... CD100 increases PMA, CD3 and CD2 induced T cell proliferation, increases CD45 induced T cell adhesion, induces B cell homotypic ... Cell. 95 (7): 903-916. doi:10.1016/S0092-8674(00)81715-8. PMID 9875845. Nikolov DB; Himanen JP; Rajashankar KR; Lu M; Antipenko ...
This novel mode of division seems to involve the extension of thin protrusions from the cell's surface and these protrusions ... due to the lack of a cell wall. The cell wall is important for cell division, which, in most bacteria, occurs by binary fission ... The lack of cell wall in L-forms means that division is disorganised, giving rise to a variety of cell sizes, from very tiny to ... Bacterial morphology is determined by the cell wall. Since the L-form has no cell wall, its morphology is different from that ...
Death of cartilage cells in the growth plate and articular surface is the basic pathologic feature; this can result in growth ... The symptoms of KBD include joint pain, morning stiffness in the joints, disturbances of flexion and extension in the elbows, ... Fulvic acid present in drinking water damages cartilage cells. Selenium supplementation in selenium deficient areas has been ... selenium deficiency being the underlying factor that predisposes the target cells (chondrocytes) to oxidative stress from free- ...
It infects its host cells by sticking to them with long thin extensions called pili and the surface-exposed proteins Opa and ... It infects the cell by sticking to it mainly with long thin extensions called pili and the surface-exposed proteins Opa and Opc ... Genetic transformation is the process by which a recipient bacterial cell takes up DNA from a neighboring cell and integrates ... This acts as an endotoxin and is responsible for septic shock and hemorrhage due to the destruction of red blood cells.[13] ...
... studies indicate that these extensions become successively exposed at the particle surface during virus maturation and cell ... A virion attaches to receptors on the surface of a potential host cell. In the case of B19 virus the host cell is a red blood ... The cell RNA polymerase II transcribes the virus genes and cell transcription factors play key roles. The primary transcript(s ... have mechanisms that allow mature virions to be trafficked out of viable host cells prior to cell lysis, but members of most ...
The brush border morphology increases a cell's surface area, a trait which is especially useful in absorptive cells. Cells that ... In intestinal cells, the microvilli are referred to as striated border and are protoplasmic extensions contrary to villi which ... is the microvilli-covered surface of simple cuboidal epithelium and simple columnar epithelium cells found in certain locations ... Brush border cells are found in the following main locations: The small intestine tract: This is where absorption takes place. ...
... whose surface consists of four cylindrical cells and one square torus. spherinder (3-ball × 1-ball), whose surface consists of ... The cubinder is a rotachoron as it can be formed via extension of a cylinder or rotation of a cube. The rotation of cubinder to ... duocylinder (2-ball × 2-ball), whose surface consists of two toroidal cells. The cubinder is also a rotatope (more specifically ... The square torus that binds the Cubinder forms a circular surface along who the Cubinder can roll. Like a circle and a cylinder ...
It uses DNA fragments with added poly-A tail adapters which are attached to the flow cell surface. The next steps involve ... extension-based sequencing with cyclic washes of the flow cell with fluorescently labeled nucleotides (one nucleotide type at a ... 50,000 per SMRT cell, or 500-1000 megabases[69][70]. 30 minutes to 4 hours[71]. $0.13-$0.60. Fast. Detects 4mC, 5mC, 6mA.[72]. ... ruled that individuals have no property rights to discarded cells or any profits made using these cells (for instance, as a ...
... in-folding of the Schwann cell surface so that a double membrane of the opposing faces of the in-folded Schwann cell surface is ... At the same time, the periaxonal extension of the glial cell wraps around the axon, giving rise to the paranodal regions. This ... This membrane stretches and spirally wraps itself over and over as the in-folding of the Schwann cell surface continues. As a ... The myelinating glial cells; oligodendrocytes in the central nervous system (CNS), and Schwann cells in the peripheral nervous ...
Stage 0 The carcinoma is confined to the surface layer (cells lining) of the cervix. Also called carcinoma in situ (CIS). Stage ... with no extension to the pelvic wall IIIB Extension to the pelvic wall and/or hydronephrosis or non-functioning kidney Stage IV ... 3.0 mm and not >5.0 mm with an extension of not >7.0 mm IB Clinically visible lesions limited to the cervix uteri or pre- ... I The carcinoma has grown deeper into the cervix, but has not spread beyond it (extension to the corpus would be disregarded). ...
... they do not appear to use mobile appendages such as pili or flagella attached to their cell body or cell surface. Such methods ... or twitching motility on solid surfaces (which involves extension and retraction of Type IV pili to drag the bacterium forward ... Generally, the process occurs whereby the cell, or organism, moves along a surface in the general direction of its long axis. ... Here the adhesin SprB is propelled along the cell surface (spiraling from pole to pole), pulling the bacterium along 25 times ...
hair a single elongated cell or row of cells borne on the surface of an organ. half-inferior of ovary, partly below and partly ... usually an extension of one epidermal cell. pappus in daisy florets, a tuft or ring of hairs or scales borne above the ovary ... sclereid a cell with a thick, often lignified, cell wall that is shorter than a fiber cell and dies soon after the thickening ... fiber 1. a fiber cell. 2. any flexible, strong, stringy, and very elongate structure. fiber cell a type of cell that is found ...
Play media The migration of cultured cells attached to a surface is commonly studied using microscopy. As cell movement is very ... It is possible that both underlying processes contribute to cell extension. Experimentation has shown that there is rapid actin ... March 2011). "Cell physician: reading cell motion. A mathematical diagnostic technique through analysis of single cell motion ... "What is Cell Migration?". Cell Migration Gateway. Cell MIgration Consortium. Retrieved 24 March 2013. Abercrombie, M; Heaysman ...
... which are actin-based extensions. These extensions are ensheathed in membrane and project from the surface of the cell in order ... Anchoring proteins restricts them to a particular cell surface - for example, the apical surface of epithelial cells that line ... they are located on the surface of the cell where they recognize host cells and share information, viruses that bind to cells ... Hooke misled the cell membrane theory that all cells contained a hard cell wall since only plant cells could be observed at the ...
It is a deep infolding, or little channel, which serves to increase the surface area, e.g. for secretion. The parietal cell ... by extension, absorption of Vitamin B12. Pernicious anemia also leads to megaloblastic anemia. Atrophic gastritis, particularly ... Illustration of Chief cells and Parietal cells at anatomyatlases.org The Parietal Cell: Mechanism of Acid Secretion at vivo. ... Parietal cells (also known as oxyntic or delomorphous cells), are the epithelial cells that secrete hydrochloric acid (HCl) and ...
They have their own nucleus and are known to internalize thymocytes through extensions of plasma membrane. The cell surfaces of ... αβ T cell receptor) of the T cells and MHC antigens on the antigen-presenting cells. This role of MHC restriction was observed ... The extensions of plasma membrane from thymic nurse cells form a cage-like structure, which trap (Hendrix et. al., 2010) triple ... Other players that mediate this process are ICAM-1, which is a cell adhesion molecule found on the surface of vacuoles and TNCs ...
... thus promoting extension of the axon towards the optic disc. CSPGs exist along the retinal neuroepithelium (surface over which ... Midget cell (Parvocellular, or P pathway; P cells) Parasol cell (Magnocellular, or M pathway; M cells) Bistratified cell ( ... The six types of retinal neurons are bipolar cells, ganglion cells, horizontal cells, retina amacrine cells, and rod and cone ... A retinal ganglion cell (RGC) is a type of neuron located near the inner surface (the ganglion cell layer) of the retina of the ...
Surface proteins called Opa proteins can be used to bind to receptors on immune cells and prevent an immune response. There are ... A set of ATPase proteins power the pulling actions of the type IV pilus: Pil F (extension) and Pil T (retraction). The adhesive ... On its surface, N. gonorrhoeae bears hair-like pili, surface proteins with various functions, and sugars called ... It is a sugar (saccharide) side chain attached to lipid A (thus "lipo-") in the outer membrane coating the cell wall of the ...
... (TAG-72) is a glycoprotein found on the surface of many cancer cells, including ovary,[ ... This assay has a good specificity for gastric cancer, with a correlation to the neoplasia's extension. It is used to identify ...
... curves upward and backward on the side of the head Parietal cell in the stomach Parietal eminence, external surface of the ... part of the margin of the aperture of a snail shell The term may also refer to an extension of bone, popularly known as a neck ... portion of the parietal lobe on the outside surface of the brain Parietal pericardium, double-walled sac that contains the ...
Their surfaces are waterproofed by the plant cuticle and gas exchange between the mesophyll cells and the atmosphere is ... These I-beams are formed from bundle sheath extensions of sclerenchyma meeting stiffened sub-epidermal layers. This shifts the ... epidermal hair cells (trichomes), cells in the stomatal complex; guard cells and subsidiary cells. The epidermal cells are the ... Cells that bring water and minerals from the roots into the leaf.. Phloem. Cells that usually move sap, with dissolved sucrose( ...
There are also various biochemical techniques for analysis of cell surface markers (phosphatidylserine exposure versus cell ... Some cell types, under specific conditions, may develop different types of long, thin extensions of the cell membrane called ... HeLa cells are an immortalized cancer cell line used frequently in research. The cell line was established by removing cells ... leading to cell death. Cell death in organisms is necessary for the normal development of cells and the cell cycle maturation. ...
They patrol the body looking for cells that are infected with cancer or other viruses. ... Cells are highly selective white blood cells found in our immune system. ... cells are highly selective white blood cells found in our immune system. They patrol the body looking for cells that are ... Cells in our immune system are characterized by unique markers (antigens) on their surface membranes called CD proteins. CD ...
Intracellular signalling initiated by extracellular ligands that activate cell surface receptors is a complicated process that ... EXT reporters can be introduced into living cells and analyzed in pools by microarray hybridization or sequencing. ... We make use of different types of reporter gene assays that are invariably linked to unique EXTs serving as quantitative ... Linking cellular signalling to gene expression using EXT-encoded reporter libraries.. Botvinik A1, Rossner MJ. ...
... another cell surface molecule called Delta that can bind to and activate Notch on adjacent cells. Activation of Notch initiates ... This means that the neuroepithelium generates only a few cells with high expression… ... In cell: The process of differentiation. …another cell surface molecule called Delta that can bind to and activate Notch on ... Download our free Chrome extension, Britannica Insights. Facts matter and Britannica Insights makes it easier to find them. ...
... in liver that encodes a cell adhesion molecule of the immunoglobulin superfamily. In this study, we examined the ... Cell Adhesion. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Movement. Cell Polarity. Cell Surface Extensions / chemistry. Dimerization. Female. ... whereas in confluent cells, hepaCAM is predominantly accumulated at the sites of cell-cell contacts on the cell membrane. In ... hepaCAM mutants did not affect cell surface localization and dimer formation. Cell-matrix adhesion, however, was less ...
Smooth muscle cell (SMC) plasticity plays an important role during development and in vascular pathologies such as ... 3T3 Cells. Animals. Cell Movement. Cell Surface Extensions / metabolism, ultrastructure*. Mice. MicroRNAs / metabolism*. Muscle ... Most B cell malignancies (Akao et al., 2007) and cancer cell lines (Michael et al., 2003) have down-regulation of both miRs. ... Cell.123:819-83110.1016/j.cell.2005.09.02316325577. Furmaniak-Kazmierczak E.,Crawley S.W.,Carter R.L.,Maurice D.H.,Côté G.P.. ...
Current models for protrusive motility in animal cells focus on cytoskeleton-based mechanisms, where localized protrusion is ... Cell Surface Extensions / drug effects * Cell Surface Extensions / physiology* * Cytoplasm / drug effects ... Here, we use cell blebs as reporters of local pressure in the cytoplasm. When we locally perfuse blebbing cells with cortex- ... Non-equilibration of Hydrostatic Pressure in Blebbing Cells Nature. 2005 May 19;435(7040):365-9. doi: 10.1038/nature03550. ...
All MeSH CategoriesAnatomy CategoryCellsCellular StructuresCell Surface ExtensionsPseudopodia ... A dynamic actin-rich extension of the surface of an animal cell used for locomotion or prehension of food. ...
These extensions help the virus to bind to the surface of specific cells. This binding is necessary for the virus to infect the ... Flagella located at one or both ends of the cell only are called POLAR. If the entire cell surface is covered with flagella it ... The host cell begins to fill with new viruses. The new viruses release an enzyme that weakens the cell wall. The host cell ... Archaea cell walls lack peptidoglycan which is a major part of the cell walls of Eubacteria. Cell membranes of the Archaea have ...
Categories: Cell Surface Extensions Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, ...
These membrane extensions increase the surface area of the cell, allowing for greater absorption and secretion.[8] ... The major cell types in the epithelium are: *Main cells: columnar cells that, with the basal cells, form the majority of the ... Basal cells: shorter, pyramid-shaped cells which contact the basal lamina but taper off before their apical surfaces reach the ... "Epithelial basal cells are distinct from dendritic cells and macrophages in the mouse epididymis". Biology of Reproduction. 90 ...
These look like little bumps or fingers on the surface of cells. ... tube feet -- Extensions of the water-vascular system of ... epithelium -- Layer of cells which lines a body cavity; cells may be ciliated or unciliated, and may be squamous (flat, scale- ... epidermis -- The outermost layer of cells or skin. This tissue often contains specialized cells for defense, gas exchange, or ... cnidocyst -- The "stinging cell" of a cnidarian.. coelom -- Fluid-filled cavity within the body of an animal; usually refers to ...
Decreased IL-15Rαext/IL-2Rαint cell-surface expression but normal IL-15 binding affinity in KI T cells. We next investigated ... reduced IL-15Rα cell-surface expression on KI T cells is an increase in the release from the cells of the chimeric IL-15Rαext/ ... 32D cells are IL-3-dependent myeloid progenitor cells. 32D cells transfected with IL-2Rβ chain (32D-IL-2Rβ cells) can ... NKT cells (NK1.1+CD3+), T cells (CD4+/CD8+) and memory CD8+ T cells (cells were gated on CD8+ CD3+ then gated on CD44highIL-2Rβ ...
Free flashcards to help memorize facts about Cells: The Living Units. Other activities to help include hangman, crossword, word ... Cellular Extensions. Cilia & Flagella...microvilli. Cilia & Flagella. whiplike, motile extensions on surfaces of certain cells ... Cells: The Living Units. Question. Answer. Cell Theory. cell is the smallest structural & functional living unit..organismal ... all cells have common structures...human cells have 3 basic parts. 3 basic parts of human cells. plasma membrane...cytoplasm... ...
... due to sheer number of cells to sort), or how well the peptide is displayed on the cell surface. In this test case, both ... for cell sorting using yeast surface display [28-31], as well as for sorting tumor epithelial cells for downstream screening of ... Labeled cells were centrifuged at 5,000xg for 5 minutes and the supernatant removed. The cell pellet was resuspended in 500 μL ... Method for Discovery of Peptide Reagents Using a Commercial Magnetic Separation Platform and Bacterial Cell Surface Display ...
The response of human bone marrow cell to bone ash-derived hydroxyapatite (HA) and tuna bonederived HA powders was compared. HA ... MG-63 cell spread and flattened on the HA surface. They were of polygonal shape with filopodial extensions, which are ... The MG-63 cell showed a lower rate of adherence on the THA surface than on the AHA surface. Cells formed bridges across the ... The MG-63 cells showed a lower rate of adherence on the THA surface than on the AHA surface. However, the in vitro results ...
Cilia are thin, hair-like, microscopic extensions emerging from cell surfaces; in human beings, for instance, cilia can be ... Keeping up with cell membranes. We know a lot about the cells in our bodies, but some parts of the cell like the membrane - the ... The cell membrane protects the interior of the cell by allowing certain substances into it while keeping others out. To do this ... "The cell membrane actively regulates the transport of ions and materials across the cell. However, like most biological systems ...
we know that these are cells with extensions on the surface. And I think that these things that are very similar in the texture ... if you looked at cell that looks like this where they have a very hairy surface? ... All these hairs on the outside or the extensions of the cells on the outside, ... And also, you can see here this extension from the cells so ... surface on top of the vesicle and that is because Ive just ...
Immune assessments included B-cell (CD20+) and T-cell (CD3+) counts, and immunoglobulin levels. B-cell surface CD22 levels are ... Median absolute B-cell counts decreased, plateauing at median (range) 50% (-94 to 286) below EMBLEMTM baseline at week 112, the ... Background Epratuzumab is a monoclonal antibody targeting CD22 that may affect B-cell signaling, adhesion and migration.1,2 We ... Conclusions Total B-cell count reductions in SL0008 remained within or slightly below normal range in most patients.3 ...
Effect of IGF2BP3-siRNA in S2-013 cells. Western blots probed with anti-IGF2BP3 antibody sho ... IGF2BP3 promotes cell motility and invasion in PDAC cell culture(A) ... Cell Line, Tumor. *Cell Movement/physiology. *Cell Surface Extensions/metabolism. *Disease Progression ... Confluent cell monolayers of control-RNAi S2-013 cells or IGF2BP3-RNAi S2-013 cells were wounded (upper panels). Cells that ...
... fine surface extensions). These features are characteristic of highly mobile cells, and enable cancerous cells to spread ( ... Coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of breast cancer cells. The cells shows numerous processes and microvilli ( ... Cancer cells divide rapidly and chaotically, and may clump to for - Masterfile - Premium Libres de Droits, Code: 679-09200677 ... fine surface extensions). These features are characteristic of highly mobile cells, and enable cancerous cells to spread ( ...
Peterson RL, Farquhar ML (1996) Root hairs: specialized tubular cells extending root surfaces. Bot Rev 62: 1-40Google Scholar ... Picton JM, Steer MW (1982) A model for the mechanism of tip extension in pollen tubes. J Theor Biol 98: 15-20Google Scholar ... Herrmann A, Felle HH (1995) Tip growth in root hair cells ofSinapis alba L: significance of internal and external Ca2+ and pH. ... Blatt MR, Slayman CL (1987) Role of active potassium transport in the regulation of pH by nonanimal cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci ...
... the Global T Cell Specific Surface Glycoprotein CD28 Market is valued at USD XX million in 2016 and is expected to reach USD XX ... Occasions identified with cardiology have a wide extension scope throughout the world. These major logical occasions come up ... 4.3 China T Cell Specific Surface Glycoprotein CD28 Sales Volume and Market Share by Type. 4.4 China T Cell Specific Surface ... 5.3 Europe T Cell Specific Surface Glycoprotein CD28 Sales Volume and Market Share by Type. 5.4 Europe T Cell Specific Surface ...
Chapter 3 Cells: The Living Units. Other activities to help include hangman, crossword, word scramble, games, matching, quizes ... Fingerlike extension that increase the surface area of the cell. Microvilli. What is a impermeable junction?. Tight junctions. ... What cell structures are involved in propelling substances across cell surfaces?. Cilia. ... Anatomy & Physiology I - Chapter 3 Cells: The Living Units. Question. Answer. Name four concepts of the cell theory. 1) Basic ...
... result of denser branching of the cell extensions. The highest , postnatal growth rates among extant tetrapods occur in modern ... Re: Bird bones cells surface area + next-generation paleornithology + worm lizards and end-Cretaceous mass extinction. *To: don ... In support of this , relationship is finding the lowest cell surface density among the , saurischians examined in Dinornis, a ... Previous by thread: Re: Bird bones cells surface area + next-generation paleornithology + worm lizards and end-Cretaceous mass ...
HER2 is located on the outer surface of a cancer cell. The HER2 protein sends a. signal to the inside of the cancer cells ... Breast cancer cells that have a large number of estrogen or progesterone. receptors are called ER and/or PgR positive. Cancers ... cells can no longer make copies of themselves. This makes cancer shrink. Both drugs target. HER2; however each drug works a ... its message to the inside of the cell (similar to a road detour). For example, when one path. is "closed" because the drug is ...
  • CD molecules can act in many different ways and are often used to associate cells with different immune functions. (lifeextension.com)
  • The filter effect of water decreases those parts of infrared radiation (most parts of infrared-B and -C and the absorption bands of water within infrared-A), which would cause - by reacting with water molecules in the skin - only an undesired thermal load to the surface of the skin. (egms.de)
  • In the disease state, receptor molecules at the cell surface respond to altered biological activity by exhibiting different levels of expression [ 3 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Inspired by these advances, we sought to design a robotic DNA device capable of selectively interfacing with cells to deliver signaling molecules to cell surfaces. (sciencemag.org)
  • During the maturation process, DCs decrease their ability to internalize Ag, while up-regulating the expression of certain cell surface molecules and cytokines involved in immune responses as well as migration to lymphoid organs. (jimmunol.org)
  • Other effector molecules such as proteases also play a significant role in cell trafficking. (jimmunol.org)
  • They bind to and influence the activity of a variety of molecules like growth factors, proteases and morphogens and are thus involved in various cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. (cancerindex.org)
  • Their laminar nature is not templated by an external surface, but likely reflects a linear arrangement of regulatory molecules. (elifesciences.org)
  • Over the past 15 years, my laboratory has explored the role of a large family of cell recognition molecules, the Dscam1 family, in neural circuit assembly. (hhmi.org)
  • Thus, a similar molecular strategy to achieve self-avoidance has evolved in flies and mammals in the context of different families of cell recognition molecules. (hhmi.org)
  • For hydrostatic pressure to drive localized protrusion in animal cells, it would have to be locally regulated, but current models treating cytoplasm as an incompressible viscoelastic continuum or viscous liquid require that hydrostatic pressure equilibrates essentially instantaneously over the whole cell. (nih.gov)
  • Here, we use cell blebs as reporters of local pressure in the cytoplasm. (nih.gov)
  • Water moves through the symplastic pathway by diffusing between the cytoplasm of neighbouring cells down a water potential gradient. (getrevising.co.uk)
  • All the water has to diffusde into the cytoplasm of the endodermal cells by osmosis, and continues towards the xylem in the symplastic pathway. (getrevising.co.uk)
  • This LOWERS THE WATER POTENTIAL of the xylem so water enters from the cytoplasm of the endodermal cells by OSMOSIS. (getrevising.co.uk)
  • The internodal glial membranes are fused to form compact myelin , whereas the cytoplasm-filled paranodal loops of myelinating cells are spirally wrapped around the axon at both sides of the nodes. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the internodal region, the Schwann cell has an outer collar of cytoplasm, a compact myelin sheath, and inner collar of cytoplasm, and the axolemma. (wikipedia.org)
  • Both prokaryotes and eukaryotes have a fluid-like matrix that fills the cell called cytoplasm. (antiessays.com)
  • To investigate the importance of the IL-15Rα cytoplasmic domain, we generated a chimeric receptor consisting of the extracellular domain of IL-15Rα and intracellular domain of IL-2Rα (IL-15Rα ext /IL-2Rα int ) and examined its function in 32D cells, in knock-in (KI) mice, and in adoptive-transfer experiments. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Slow freezing, a common method for cryopreservation of oocytes, causes osmotic shock (solution effect) and intracellular ice crystallization leading to cell damage. (hindawi.com)
  • In this animation, you can see how one S. typhimurium invades an epithelial cell of the intestinal tract, survives the intracellular defense mechanisms of the host cell, and multiplies. (hhmi.org)
  • The normal mechanism for dealing with a foreign body invading a cell involves lysosomes of the cell fusing with the vacuole surrounding the invader and showering it with a concentrated mix of digestive enzymes, which degrade the intracellular pathogen. (hhmi.org)
  • The ability of intracellular pathogens to hide inside the host cells shields them from the immune system. (hhmi.org)
  • Intracellular pathogens have developed ways to spread from cell to cell, a process critical to their ability to cause disease. (hhmi.org)
  • However, some microscopists correctly identified at this time that while invisible, it could be inferred that cell membranes existed in animal cells due to intracellular movement of components internally but not externally and that membranes weren't the equivalent of a cell wall to plant cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • We used four parallel assays to characterize the agonist-induced PLC response of cells (tsA or CHO cells) expressing M 1 muscarinic receptors: translocation of two fluorescent probes for membrane lipids, release of calcium from intracellular stores, and chemical measurement of acidic lipids. (rupress.org)
  • Stimulation of G q -coupled receptors in intact cells usually results in intracellular Ca 2+ release mediated by gating of IP 3 receptors, which may be followed by additional Ca 2+ influx from the extracellular space. (rupress.org)
  • We make use of different types of reporter gene assays that are invariably linked to unique EXTs serving as quantitative decoders of respective assays. (nih.gov)
  • In the present work, real-time interactions for a plasma sprayed hydroxyapatite coating were measured by a Multi-Parametric Surface Plasmon Resonance (MP-SPR), and the results were compared with standard traditional cell viability in vitro assays. (mdpi.com)
  • Based on in vitro uptake assays, glioblastoma exosomes showed a significantly higher uptake in cells compared with normal exosomes. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Five dimeric constructs of the minimized E07 (MinE07) aptamer were tested using flow cytometry assays on A431 cells. (utexas.edu)
  • Depending on the conditions of the A431 cells, the cell surface and subsequent assays can change dramatically. (utexas.edu)
  • Two autoMACS® programs designed for isolation of target cells with low frequency were evaluated and adapted to bacterial biopanning, using protective antigen (PA) of Bacillus anthracis as the model system. (omicsonline.org)
  • T lymphocytes are a type of white blood cell that recognise a specific site (antigen) on the surface of cancer cells or pathogens and bind to it. (masterfile.com)
  • People with blood type A produce antibody B when exposed to antigen B, and those with blood type B produce antibody A when exposed to antigen A. Blood type AB, however, produces no antibodies because both antigens present on the cells are recognized as 'self. (icr.org)
  • These glycoproteins include the CD98 heavy chain protein of Mus musculus (gbU25708) and the orthologous 4F2 cell surface antigen heavy chain of Homo sapiens (spP08195). (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, cell division, endocytosis, axon pathfinding, embryonic development, wound healing and T-cell antigen recognition all depend on the highly dynamic nature of the actin cytoskeleton. (biologists.org)
  • An epitope is a key component of an antigen, a molecule on the surface of a cell. (biospace.com)
  • We show in this study that loss of miR-143/145 in vitro and in vivo results in the formation of podosomes, which are actin-rich membrane protrusions involved in the migration of several cell types, including SMCs. (biomedsearch.com)
  • PDGF is one of the most potent stimuli for migration of mesenchymal cell types, including VSMCs. (biomedsearch.com)
  • 2. What are the different types of tumour cell migration? (brainscape.com)
  • Purification of a Factor from Human Placenta that Stimulates Capillary Endothelial Cell Protease Production, DNA Synthesis, and Migration", Proc. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Inhibition of NFI transactivation also disrupted extension and fasciculation of parallel fibers as well as CGN migration to the internal granule cell layer in cerebellar slices. (jneurosci.org)
  • Functional inhibition of ephrin B1 or N-cadherin interfered with CGN axon extension and guidance, migration, and dendritogenesis in cell culture as well as in situ . (jneurosci.org)
  • Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) degrade ECM components and regulate normal cell migration as well as tumor cell invasion and metastases ( 5 , 6 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • MMPs, specifically MMP-2 and MMP-9, are involved in migration of DCs and Langerhans cells ( 7 , 8 , 9 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Mediates CDC42-dependent cell migration. (nih.gov)
  • Subsequent breakthroughs in microscope technology and molecular biology have strengthened the link between cell morphology and locomotion, and we now know that crawling cells from many eukaryotic phyla create a variety of dynamic protrusions that project forward, in the direction of migration. (elifesciences.org)
  • This mode of cell migration appears to be restricted to the animal lineage, where it relies on the presence of specific ligands in the extracellular environment and plays essential roles in embryonic development, wound healing, and tissue homeostasis. (elifesciences.org)
  • This mode of cell migration is associated with formation of complex, three-dimensional pseudopods filled with branched networks of actin filaments, nucleated and organized by the Arp2/3 complex. (elifesciences.org)
  • In addition, photobleaching must be minimized in order to observe living cells for sufficient time to track their complex three-dimensional migration. (elifesciences.org)
  • Although many genes involved in germ cell migration and SGP specification have been characterized, only three downstream genes have been identified that specifically coordinate the morphogenetic movements of gonad formation. (biologists.org)
  • Here, we have developed a methodology for bacterial cell sorting using the semi-automated autoMACS® Pro Separator for the first time, and have produced a complete method for sorting of bacteria displaying 15-mer peptides on their cell surface using this device, including downstream bioinformatic analysis of candidates for binding to a target of interest. (omicsonline.org)
  • As compared with yeast and phage display, bacterial display is ideal because of the fast doubling time of bacteria, about 20 minutes for Escherichia coli ( E. coli ) [ 7 ] versus about 2 hours for Saccharomyces cerevisiae ( S. cerevisiae ) [ 8 , 9 ], and direct amplification of the bound bacterial cells containing plasmid DNA encoding the displayed peptide responsible for binding, without elution and reinfection. (omicsonline.org)
  • Type IV secretion occurs across a wide range of prokaryotic cell envelopes: Gram-negative, Gram-positive, cell wall-less bacteria and some archaea. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • We ( 1 , 3 ) and others ( 14 ) have shown that flagella or small fragments of flagella from several species of gram-negative bacteria stimulate TNF-α and interleukin-1β synthesis in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). (asm.org)
  • At present, we do not know how the bacteria escape from the host cell to infect other cells. (hhmi.org)
  • Some types of bacteria, such as Salmonella and Listeria , live inside human cells. (hhmi.org)
  • Pili are fibrous organelles that are expressed on the surface of gram-negative bacteria (for a review, see reference 16 ). (asm.org)
  • It is found in the cell wall of Gram positive bacteria , where it stains with the dye crystal-violet. (berkeley.edu)
  • However, whether this can also explain the ability of sponge cells to differentiate between symbiotic bacteria and those in the ambient water, as demonstrated by Wilkinson et al. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • MP-SPR is proven to be suitable not only for measurement of molecule-molecule interactions but also molecule-material interaction measurements and cell interaction. (mdpi.com)
  • Detailed knowledge of the host-virus interactions that accompany filovirus entry into cells is expected to identify determinants of viral virulence and host range, and to yield targets for the development of antiviral therapeutics. (mdpi.com)
  • Understanding exosome structure at nanometre resolution can provide us detailed insights into the mechanisms of exosome-mediated cell-surface interactions including transport, binding to and uptake by target cells. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Although they differ in morphology and structure, most pili are adhesins involved in mediating bacterial interactions with the environment or other cells. (asm.org)
  • Here we report that RPTPσ acts bimodally in sensory neuron extension, mediating CSPG inhibition and HSPG growth promotion. (sciencemag.org)
  • A cell growth assay using E07 and the anti-EGFR mAb, Cetuximab, revealed that a much larger dose of aptamer was needed to achieve the same level of growth inhibition as Cetuximab. (utexas.edu)
  • MicroRNA control of podosome formation in vascular smooth muscle cells in vivo and in vitro. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Intensive efforts are under way to gain more insight into cells, an African green monkey kidney cell line (3), and the mechanisms of viral replication, in order to develop this remains the only in vitro model of SARS-CoV infec- targeted antiviral therapies and vaccines. (cdc.gov)
  • This is illustrated by the pictograms showing charge carriers that come into contact with cells at the interface during in vitro experiments. (photonics.com)
  • While elsewhere in the mature CNS glia are an impediment to axon growth, the ensheathing cell glia support axon extension and targeting throughout life. (yale.edu)
  • Here we show that MMPs are not required for axon extension in the Drosophila embryo, but rather are specifically required for the execution of several stereotyped motor axon pathfinding decisions. (biologists.org)
  • consequently, IGF2BP3 promotes cell invasiveness and tumor metastasis.Our results provide insight into the link between regulation of localized translation in cell protrusions and the invasiveness and metastasis of pancreatic cancers.New therapies that prevent local translation in cell protrusions may hold significant clinical promise. (nih.gov)
  • consequently, IGF2BP3 promotes cell invasiveness and tumor metastasis. (nih.gov)
  • IGF2BP3-RNAi cells were evident only at the capsular interface of tumor with the pancreas. (nih.gov)
  • Giant cell tumor of bone with selective metastases to mediastinal lymph nodes. (medscape.com)
  • Giant cell tumor of bone: highlights of 407 cases. (medscape.com)
  • Dahlin DC, Cupps RE, Johnson EW Jr. Giant-cell tumor: a study of 195 cases. (medscape.com)
  • Giant cell tumor of bone: review and presentation of two unusual cases. (medscape.com)
  • Goldenberg RR, Campbell CJ, Bonfiglio M. Giant-cell tumor of bone. (medscape.com)
  • Pulmonary metastasis of benign giant cell tumor of bone. (medscape.com)
  • In particular, the study demonstrates that cell-surface electrical potentials influence the uptake or avoidance of charged solutes in two distinct ways. (usda.gov)
  • However, we propose that the addition of cations (and the associated decrease in negativity of '0o) resulted in a decrease in {Pb2+}0o but a simultaneous increase in the rate of Pb uptake (due to an increase in the negativity of Em,surf, the difference in potential between the inner and outer surfaces of the PM) thus offsetting the decrease in {Pb2+}0o. (usda.gov)
  • However, it fails to justify cell-specific uptake of these nanosystems to senescent cells following intravenous or subcutaneous delivery. (fightaging.org)
  • A mechanism driven approach for specific interaction and uptake of nanoparticles by senescent cells has thus become a challenging necessity. (fightaging.org)
  • Wall stress relaxation reduces cell turgor and thereby creates the driving forces needed for water uptake by growing cells. (plantphysiol.org)
  • 2. We will combine innovative genetic and cell-biological approaches to investigate the mechanism of DNA uptake. (europa.eu)
  • In related studies we continue to characterize a unique population of glial cells, ensheathing cells, found in the olfactory nerve. (yale.edu)
  • The purpose of this study was to perform immunohistochemistry on fresh human samples to characterize the glial cells that form the human fovea. (molvis.org)
  • These cells are distinct from the Müller cone cells described by Yamada and Gass, suggesting that another type of foveal glial cells, most likely astrocytes, are present in the human fovea. (molvis.org)
  • This study showed that in humans, astrocytic glial cells cover the foveal pit. (molvis.org)
  • The dependence of cell behavior on both the topographic morphology and surface chemistry is thus demonstrated, providing further evidence for the importance of surface modification for modulating bio-inorganic interfaces. (innovations-report.com)
  • We know less about the morphology and function of complex pseudopods than adherent lamellipodia in part due to the technical limitations of live-cell light microscopy. (elifesciences.org)
  • 2) A waxy layer which seals the outer surface of land plants, helping to retain moisture. (berkeley.edu)
  • HER2 is located on the outer surface of a cancer cell. (knowcancer.com)
  • For Cu, the cations depolarized the plasma membrane (PM) and reduced the negativity of '0o (electrical potential at the outer surface of the PM), and thereby decreased {Cu2+}0o (activity of Cu2+ at the outer surface of the PM). For Pb, root elongation was generally better correlated to the activity of Pb2+ in the bulk solution than to {Pb2+}0o. (usda.gov)
  • Root hair cells are part of the epidermis (outer single layer of cells). (getrevising.co.uk)
  • in well spread cells, hepaCAM is distributed to cell protrusions, whereas in confluent cells, hepaCAM is predominantly accumulated at the sites of cell-cell contacts on the cell membrane. (biomedsearch.com)
  • IGF2BP3-mediated translation in cell protrusions promotes cell invasiveness and metastasis of pancreatic cancer. (nih.gov)
  • Our results provide insight into the link between regulation of localized translation in cell protrusions and the invasiveness and metastasis of pancreatic cancers. (nih.gov)
  • New therapies that prevent local translation in cell protrusions may hold significant clinical promise. (nih.gov)
  • Interestingly, in native environments, epithelial cells extend thin finger-like protrusions along the basal-lateral surface ( 1 , 2 ). (pnas.org)
  • Thin, flat protrusions produced by strongly adherent cells are generally called lamellipodia. (elifesciences.org)
  • Staphylococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli cells adhered to and grew on a polyethylene surface in the presence of ultrasound. (stackexchange.com)
  • A dynamic actin-rich extension of the surface of an animal cell used for locomotion or prehension of food. (nih.gov)
  • First, cells must undergo a morphological change involving polarization as well as membrane extension for locomotion. (jimmunol.org)
  • Although we find that Arp2/3-dependent pseudopods are dispensable for three-dimensional locomotion, their elimination dramatically decreases the frequency of cell turning, and pseudopod dynamics increase when cells change direction, highlighting the important role pseudopods play in pathfinding. (elifesciences.org)
  • NCmahTg mice displayed slight defects in hind-limb extension and a shorter stride compared with wild-type mice. (asbmb.org)
  • Plays a role in the extension and maintenance of the formation of thin, actin-rich surface projections called filopodia. (nih.gov)
  • they do not express T cell markers. (lifeextension.com)
  • Detecting this variable expression of surface markers has been extensively used in many clinical applications as an avenue to diagnose and treat specific diseases [ 4 , 5 , 6 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • So it is interesting to see a group working on the more traditional method of steering delivery via cell surface markers, in order to place the therapeutic into the target cell population only, or at least to the greatest degree possible. (fightaging.org)
  • NK cells recognize and kill these infected cells and are able to defend us from infection and/or prevent the progression of disease. (lifeextension.com)
  • The number and function of NK cells are generally measured to monitor the baseline of immune function, the effect of treatment, and/or the progression of metastatic cancer. (lifeextension.com)
  • 1. What are the changes that occur in the cells that occur during tumour progression? (brainscape.com)
  • 9. No previous or current malignancies at other sites within the last 5 years, with exception of adequately treated cone-biopsied in situ carcinoma of the cervix uteri and basal or squamous cell carcinoma of the skin. (knowcancer.com)
  • It predisposes the skin to intraepidermal carcinoma (Bowen disease or squamous cell carcinoma in situ) and invasive squamous cell carcinoma. (news-medical.net)
  • We describe an autonomous DNA nanorobot capable of transporting molecular payloads to cells, sensing cell surface inputs for conditional, triggered activation, and reconfiguring its structure for payload delivery. (sciencemag.org)
  • CGNs then extend a third, radial process and migrate through the molecular layer (ML) along Bergmann glia to form the internal granule cell layer (IGL). (jneurosci.org)
  • Molecular analysis of the putative tumour-suppressor gene EXTL1 in neuroblastoma patients and cell lines. (cancerindex.org)
  • To analyze three-dimensional pseudopods we: (i) developed fluorescent probe combinations that distinguish cortical actin from dynamic, pseudopod-forming actin networks, and (ii) adapted molecular visualization tools from structural biology to render and analyze complex cell surfaces. (elifesciences.org)
  • The response of human bone marrow cell to bone ash-derived hydroxyapatite (HA) and tuna bonederived HA powders was compared. (omicsonline.org)
  • A standard protocol to isolate bone marrow MSCs is based on their expansion potential and on the adherence of marrow-derived fibroblast-like cells, and lack of adherence of marrow-derived hematopoietic cells, to the plastic substrate of the cell culture plate 8-11 . (scielo.br)
  • Megakaryocytes are derived from hematopoietic stem cell precursor cells in the bone marrow. (sciencephoto.com)
  • Such cells can clump to form tumours, which often invade and destroy surrounding tissues. (masterfile.com)
  • Clumps (tumours) of these cells may form and can invade and destroy surrounding tissues. (masterfile.com)
  • 4. What did a comparison of the expression profile of invasive cells vs primary tumours show to be upregulated in invasive cells? (brainscape.com)
  • U87 and U251 are human primary glioblastoma cell lines from grade IV tumours [ 16 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Deletions of the chromosome region 1p36.1, including the EXTL1 gene, were detected in several neuroblastoma cell lines and primary tumours. (cancerindex.org)
  • The cell membrane actively regulates the transport of ions and materials across the cell. (firstpost.com)
  • In this work, the postdoctoral scientist will study the innate immune functions in the lungs after influenza infection and test some novel hypotheses on how syndecan-1, a cell surface proteoglyan, regulates the resolution of lung inflammation after injury. (aftercollege.com)
  • This is the first demonstration of self-contact-induced membrane fusion in mammalian cells and that membrane fusion may be an underlying mechanism for seamless tubule formation. (pnas.org)
  • The Study of Eukaryotes and Prokaryotes Charles Lambert ITT Technical Institute Prokaryotes are organisms without a cell nucleus or any other membrane-bound organelles. (antiessays.com)
  • GP is necessary and sufficient to mediate viral entry into target cells. (mdpi.com)
  • The method of nano texturing of stents involves subjecting the metallic surface to hydo-thermal treatment in alkaline conditions at elevated temperatures. (google.es)
  • Embryonic gonad formation involves intimate contact between germ cells and specialized somatic cells along with the complex morphogenetic movements necessary to create proper gonad architecture. (biologists.org)
  • Heparan and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs and CSPGs, respectively) regulate numerous cell surface signaling events, with typically opposite effects on cell function. (sciencemag.org)
  • A comparison between the standard gold sensor and Hydroxyapatite (HA)-plasma coated sensor denoted a clearly favourable cell attachment on HA coated sensor as a significantly higher signal of cell binding was detected. (mdpi.com)
  • Neural circuits assemble through the highly choreographed presentation of specific extracellular signals and the diverse mechanisms by which these signals are interpreted by different neuronal cell types. (hhmi.org)
  • A bacteriophage injects its nucleic acid into the bacterial cell.The capsid remains outside. (angelfire.com)
  • The bacterial cell wall is weakened by an enzyme released by the adsorbed phage. (angelfire.com)
  • Sarkes DA, Dorsey BL, Finch AS, Stratis-Cullum DN (2015) Method for Discovery of Peptide Reagents Using a Commercial Magnetic Separation Platform and Bacterial Cell Surface Display Technology. (omicsonline.org)
  • This tells us that the actual shape of the surface characteristics influences the behavior of the cells," Bain says. (innovations-report.com)
  • The researchers chose to use rapamycin as the drug payload, as for one it doesn't matter too greatly if it gets into other cells, and secondly there is a fairly active line of research involving mTOR and its influence over the behavior of senescent cells. (fightaging.org)
  • RALEIGH, N.C. - Use of light to alter the conductivity of semiconductor material could provide a new way to control cell behavior on semiconductors used for bioelectronics. (photonics.com)
  • The conductivity of one template was altered through exposure to UV light and the behavior of PC12 cells was mapped under different substrate conductivity. (photonics.com)
  • There's a great deal of interest in being able to control cell behavior in relation to semiconductors - that's the underlying idea behind bioelectronics," said Ivanisevic. (photonics.com)
  • epidermis -- The outermost layer of cells or skin. (berkeley.edu)
  • Water is taken in by the root hair cells in the epidermis of younger parts of roots. (getrevising.co.uk)
  • Leukoplakia is one of the most common forms of AC and it may lead to SCC of the oral mucosa, which is defined as an uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells (white patch) arising in the squamous cells i.e., in the epidermis. (news-medical.net)
  • This observation correlated with the presence of HVEM on the keratinocyte surface in epidermis and with the lack of HVEM expression in nectin-1-deficient primary keratinocytes. (asm.org)
  • There was a clear, quantitative difference between the two groups - more cells adhered to the materials that had been exposed to light," said professor Albena Ivanisevic. (photonics.com)
  • To improve the interface formed between probe material and cell or biosystem, surface topography and chemistry can be applied to modify the ways in which the device interacts with its environment. (innovations-report.com)
  • Further, during neurite outgrowth, surface chemistry and initial conductivity difference were used to facilitate the extension to smoother areas on the GaN surface. (photonics.com)
  • 1 ⇓ - 3 IL-2 was discovered as a T-cell growth factor but in addition has other important roles, for example related to the development of regulatory T cells, 4 in activation-induced cell death (AICD), 5 and in the boosting of natural killer (NK)-cell cytolytic activity. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Schwann cells also produce nerve growth factor (NGF), the most potent growth-promoting substance found within the nervous system (Heumann et al. (springer.com)
  • Ultrasound was employed to increase the growth rate of bacterial cells attached to surfaces. (stackexchange.com)
  • 2 W/cm2) increased the growth rate of the cells compared to growth without ultrasound. (stackexchange.com)
  • Remarkably, motor axon growth cones are able to both interpret and integrate the signals present in this complex environment en route to their individual muscle targets. (biologists.org)
  • however, cell density is a critical factor affecting the cell growth 8 . (scielo.br)
  • Cervical dysplasia is the abnormal growth of the cells that line the surface of the cervix. (lifeextension.com)
  • This auxin effect was partly explained in the early 1970s by the discovery of "acid growth": Plant cells grow faster and their walls become more extensible at acidic pH. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Auxin was hypothesized to stimulate growth, in part, by inducing plant cells to acidify their extracellular space. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Nucleus - directs cell growth and reproduction. (thoughtco.com)
  • periphyton -- Dense strands of algal growth that cover the water surface between the emergant aquatic plants. (berkeley.edu)