Cell Surface Extensions
Receptors, Cell Surface
Molecular Sequence Data
Amino Acid Sequence
Myosin light chain kinase plays an essential role in S. flexneri dissemination. (1/643)Shigella flexneri, the causitive agent of bacillary dysentery, has been shown to disseminate in colonic epithelial cells via protrusions that extend from infected cells and are endocytosed by adjacent cells. This phenomenon occurs in the region of the eukaryotic cell's adherens junctions and is inhibited by pharmacological reagents or host cell mutations that completely disrupt the junctional complex. In this study, inhibitors of the myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) were shown to dramatically decrease intercellular spread of S. flexneri but to have no inhibitory effect on bacterial entry, multiplication or actin-based motility within the host cell. Furthermore, cell-to-cell spread of Listeria monocytogenes, another bacterial pathogen that uses an actin-based mechanism to move within the eukaryotic cytoplasm and to spread from cell to cell, was not affected by the MLCK inhibitors, indicating that (1) the inhibition of S. flexneri cell-to-cell spread in treated cells is not due to a complete break down of cell-cell contacts, which was subsequently confirmed by confocal microscopy, and (2) MLCK plays a role in a S. flexneri-specific mechanism of dissemination. Myosin has been shown to play a role in a variety of membrane-based phenomena. The work presented here suggests that activation of this molecule via phosphorylation by MLCK, at the very least participates in the formation of the bacteria-containing protrusion, and could also contribute to the endocytosis of this structure by neighboring cells. (+info)
Peripodial cells regulate proliferation and patterning of Drosophila imaginal discs. (2/643)Cells employ a diverse array of signaling mechanisms to establish spatial patterns during development. Nowhere is this better understood than in Drosophila, where the limbs and eyes arise from discrete epithelial sacs called imaginal discs. Molecular-genetic analyses of pattern formation have generally treated discs as single epithelial sheets. Anatomically, however, discs comprise a columnar cell monolayer covered by a squamous epithelium known as the peripodial membrane. Here we demonstrate that during development, peripodial cells signal to disc columnar cells via microtubule-based apical extensions. Ablation and targeted gene misexpression experiments demonstrate that peripodial cell signaling contributes to growth control and pattern formation in the eye and wing primordia. These findings challenge the traditional view of discs as monolayers and provide foundational evidence for peripodial cell function in Drosophila appendage development. (+info)
ACAPs are arf6 GTPase-activating proteins that function in the cell periphery. (3/643)The GTP-binding protein ADP-ribosylation factor 6 (Arf6) regulates endosomal membrane trafficking and the actin cytoskeleton in the cell periphery. GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs) are critical regulators of Arf function, controlling the return of Arf to the inactive GDP-bound state. Here, we report the identification and characterization of two Arf6 GAPs, ACAP1 and ACAP2. Together with two previously described Arf GAPs, ASAP1 and PAP, they can be grouped into a protein family defined by several common structural motifs including coiled coil, pleckstrin homology, Arf GAP, and three complete ankyrin-repeat domains. All contain phosphoinositide-dependent GAP activity. ACAP1 and ACAP2 are widely expressed and occur together in the various cultured cell lines we examined. Similar to ASAP1, ACAP1 and ACAP2 were recruited to and, when overexpressed, inhibited the formation of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-induced dorsal membrane ruffles in NIH 3T3 fibroblasts. However, in contrast with ASAP1, ACAP1 and ACAP2 functioned as Arf6 GAPs. In vitro, ACAP1 and ACAP2 preferred Arf6 as a substrate, rather than Arf1 and Arf5, more so than did ASAP1. In HeLa cells, overexpression of either ACAP blocked the formation of Arf6-dependent protrusions. In addition, ACAP1 and ACAP2 were recruited to peripheral, tubular membranes, where activation of Arf6 occurs to allow membrane recycling back to the plasma membrane. ASAP1 did not inhibit Arf6-dependent protrusions and was not recruited by Arf6 to tubular membranes. The additional effects of ASAP1 on PDGF-induced ruffling in fibroblasts suggest that multiple Arf GAPs function coordinately in the cell periphery. (+info)
Evidence that beta3 integrin-induced Rac activation involves the calpain-dependent formation of integrin clusters that are distinct from the focal complexes and focal adhesions that form as Rac and RhoA become active. (4/643)Interaction of integrins with the extracellular matrix leads to transmission of signals, cytoskeletal reorganizations, and changes in cell behavior. While many signaling molecules are known to be activated within Rac-induced focal complexes or Rho-induced focal adhesions, the way in which integrin-mediated adhesion leads to activation of Rac and Rho is not known. In the present study, we identified clusters of integrin that formed upstream of Rac activation. These clusters contained a Rac-binding protein(s) and appeared to be involved in Rac activation. The integrin clusters contained calpain and calpain-cleaved beta3 integrin, while the focal complexes and focal adhesions that formed once Rac and Rho were activated did not. Moreover, the integrin clusters were dependent on calpain for their formation. In contrast, while Rac- and Rho-GTPases were dependent on calpain for their activation, formation of focal complexes and focal adhesions by constitutively active Rac or Rho, respectively, occurred even when calpain inhibitors were present. Taken together, these data are consistent with a model in which integrin-induced Rac activation requires the formation of integrin clusters. The clusters form in a calpain-dependent manner, contain calpain, calpain-cleaved integrin, and a Rac binding protein(s). Once Rac is activated, other integrin signaling complexes are formed by a calpain-independent mechanism(s). (+info)
Dynamic positioning of mitotic spindles in yeast: role of microtubule motors and cortical determinants. (5/643)In the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, movement of the mitotic spindle to a predetermined cleavage plane at the bud neck is essential for partitioning chromosomes into the mother and daughter cells. Astral microtubule dynamics are critical to the mechanism that ensures nuclear migration to the bud neck. The nucleus moves in the opposite direction of astral microtubule growth in the mother cell, apparently being "pushed" by microtubule contacts at the cortex. In contrast, microtubules growing toward the neck and within the bud promote nuclear movement in the same direction of microtubule growth, thus "pulling" the nucleus toward the bud neck. Failure of "pulling" is evident in cells lacking Bud6p, Bni1p, Kar9p, or the kinesin homolog, Kip3p. As a consequence, there is a loss of asymmetry in spindle pole body segregation into the bud. The cytoplasmic motor protein, dynein, is not required for nuclear movement to the neck; rather, it has been postulated to contribute to spindle elongation through the neck. In the absence of KAR9, dynein-dependent spindle oscillations are evident before anaphase onset, as are postanaphase dynein-dependent pulling forces that exceed the velocity of wild-type spindle elongation threefold. In addition, dynein-mediated forces on astral microtubules are sufficient to segregate a 2N chromosome set through the neck in the absence of spindle elongation, but cytoplasmic kinesins are not. These observations support a model in which spindle polarity determinants (BUD6, BNI1, KAR9) and cytoplasmic kinesin (KIP3) provide directional cues for spindle orientation to the bud while restraining the spindle to the neck. Cytoplasmic dynein is attenuated by these spindle polarity determinants and kinesin until anaphase onset, when dynein directs spindle elongation to distal points in the mother and bud. (+info)
Interaction of EGF receptor and grb2 in living cells visualized by fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) microscopy. (6/643)The interaction of activated epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) with the Src homology 2 (SH2) domain of the growth-factor-receptor binding protein Grb2 initiates signaling through Ras and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAP kinase) [1,2]. Activation of EGFRs by ligand also triggers rapid endocytosis of EGF-receptor complexes. To analyze the spatiotemporal regulation of EGFR-Grb2 interactions in living cells, we have combined imaging microscopy with a modified method of measuring fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) on a pixel-by-pixel basis using EGFR fused to cyan fluorescent protein (CFP) and Grb2 fused to yellow fluorescent protein (YFP). Efficient energy transfer between CFP and YFP should only occur if CFP and YFP are less than 50A apart, which requires direct interaction of the EGFR and Grb2 fused to these fluorescent moieties . Stimulation by EGF resulted in the recruitment of Grb2-YFP to cellular compartments that contained EGFR-CFP and a large increase in FRET signal amplitude. In particular, FRET measurements indicated that activated EGFR-CFP interacted with Grb2-YFP in membrane ruffles and endosomes. These results demonstrate that signaling via EGFRs can occur in the endosomal compartment. The work also highlights the potential of FRET microscopy in the study of subcellular compartmentalization of protein-protein interactions in living cells. (+info)
Pyramidal cells, patches, and cortical columns: a comparative study of infragranular neurons in TEO, TE, and the superior temporal polysensory area of the macaque monkey. (7/643)The basal dendritic arbors of layer III pyramidal neurons are known to vary systematically among primate visual areas. Generally, those in areas associated with "higher" level cortical processing have larger and more spinous dendritic arbors, which may be an important factor for determining function within these areas. Moreover, the tangential area of their arbors are proportional to those of the periodic supragranular patches of intrinsic connections in many different areas. The morphological parameters of both dendritic and axon arbors may be important for the sampling strategies of cells in different cortical areas. However, in visual cortex, intrinsic patches are a feature of supragranular cortex, and are weaker or nonexistent in infragranular cortex. Thus, the systematic variation in the dendritic arbors of pyramidal cells in supragranular cortex may reflect intrinsic axon projections, rather than differences in columnar organization. The present study was aimed at establishing whether cells in the infragranular layers also vary in terms of dendritic morphology among different cortical areas, and whether these variations mirror the ones demonstrated in supragranular cortex. Layer V pyramidal neurons were injected with Lucifer yellow in flat-mounted cortical slices taken from cytoarchitectonic areas TEO and TE and the superior polysensory area (STP) of the macaque monkey. The results demonstrate that cells in STP were larger, had more bifurcations, and were more spinous than those in TE, which in turn were larger, had more bifurcations and were more spinous than those in TEO. These results parallel morphological variation seen in layer III pyramidal neurons, suggesting that increasing complexity of basal dendritic arbors of cells, with progression through higher areas of the temporal lobe, is a general organizational principle. It is proposed that the differences in microcircuitry may contribute to the determination of the functional signatures of neurons in different cortical areas. Furthermore, these results provide evidence that intrinsic circuitry differs across cortical areas, which may be important for theories of columnar processing. (+info)
Synaptically driven calcium transients via nicotinic receptors on somatic spines. (8/643)Dendritic spines commonly receive glutamatergic innervation at postsynaptic densities and compartmentalize calcium influx arising from synaptic signaling. Recently, it was shown that a class of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors containing alpha7 subunits is concentrated on somatic spines emanating from chick ciliary ganglion neurons. The receptors have a high relative calcium permeability and contribute importantly to synaptic currents, although they appear to be excluded from postsynaptic densities. Here we show that low-frequency synaptic stimulation of the alpha7-containing receptors induces calcium transients confined to the spines. High-frequency stimulation induces a transient calcium elevation in the spines and a more sustained cell-wide elevation. The high-frequency transient elevation again depends on alpha7-containing receptors, whereas the sustained elevation can be triggered by other nicotinic receptors and depends on calcium release from internal stores and probably influx through voltage-gated L-type calcium channels as well. Retrograde axonal stimulation of the neurons at high frequency mimics synaptic stimulation in producing sustained cell-wide calcium increases that depend on L-type channels and release from internal stores, but it does not produce calcium transients in the spines. Thus frequent action potentials are sufficient to generate the cell-wide increases, but alpha7-containing receptors are needed for spine-specific effects. Patch-clamp recording indicates that alpha7-containing receptors preferentially desensitize at high-frequency stimulation, accounting for the inability of the stimulation to sustain high calcium levels in the spines. The spatial and temporal differences in the patterns of calcium elevation could enable the neurons to monitor their own firing histories for regulatory purposes. (+info)
Causes and risk factors:
The most common cause of bacterial endocarditis is a bacterial infection that enters the bloodstream and travels to the heart. This can occur through various means, such as:
* Injecting drugs or engaging in other risky behaviors that allow bacteria to enter the body
* Having a weakened immune system due to illness or medication
* Having a previous history of endocarditis or other heart conditions
* Being over the age of 60, as older adults are at higher risk for developing endocarditis
The symptoms of bacterial endocarditis can vary depending on the severity of the infection and the location of the infected area. Some common symptoms include:
* Joint pain or swelling
* Shortness of breath
* Heart murmurs or abnormal heart sounds
Bacterial endocarditis is diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and diagnostic tests such as:
* Blood cultures to identify the presence of bacteria in the bloodstream
* Echocardiogram to visualize the heart and detect any abnormalities
* Chest X-ray to look for signs of infection or inflammation in the lungs or heart
* Electrocardiogram (ECG) to measure the electrical activity of the heart
The treatment of bacterial endocarditis typically involves a combination of antibiotics and surgery. Antibiotics are used to kill the bacteria and reduce inflammation, while surgery may be necessary to repair or replace damaged heart tissue. In some cases, the infected heart tissue may need to be removed.
Preventing bacterial endocarditis involves good oral hygiene, regular dental check-ups, and avoiding certain high-risk activities such as unprotected sex or sharing of needles. People with existing heart conditions should also take antibiotics before dental or medical procedures to reduce the risk of infection.
The prognosis for bacterial endocarditis is generally good if treatment is prompt and effective. However, delays in diagnosis and treatment can lead to serious complications such as heart failure, stroke, or death. Patients with pre-existing heart conditions are at higher risk for complications.
Bacterial endocarditis is a relatively rare condition, affecting approximately 2-5 cases per million people per year in the United States. However, people with certain risk factors such as heart conditions or prosthetic heart valves are at higher risk for developing the infection.
Bacterial endocarditis can lead to a number of complications, including:
* Heart failure
* Stroke or brain abscess
* Kidney damage or failure
* Pregnancy complications
* Nerve damage or peripheral neuropathy
* Skin or soft tissue infections
* Bone or joint infections
* Septicemia (blood poisoning)
Preventive measures for bacterial endocarditis include:
* Good oral hygiene and regular dental check-ups to reduce the risk of dental infections
* Avoiding high-risk activities such as unprotected sex or sharing of needles
* Antibiotics before dental or medical procedures for patients with existing heart conditions
* Proper sterilization and disinfection of medical equipment
* Use of antimicrobial prophylaxis (prevention) in high-risk patients.
Newly emerging trends in the management of bacterial endocarditis include:
* The use of novel antibiotics and combination therapy to improve treatment outcomes
* The development of new diagnostic tests to help identify the cause of infection more quickly and accurately
* The increased use of preventive measures such as antibiotic prophylaxis in high-risk patients.
Future directions for research on bacterial endocarditis may include:
* Investigating the use of novel diagnostic techniques, such as genomics and proteomics, to improve the accuracy of diagnosis
* Developing new antibiotics and combination therapies to improve treatment outcomes
* Exploring alternative preventive measures such as probiotics and immunotherapy.
In conclusion, bacterial endocarditis is a serious infection that can have severe consequences if left untreated. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment are crucial to improving patient outcomes. Preventive measures such as good oral hygiene and antibiotic prophylaxis can help reduce the risk of developing this condition. Ongoing research is focused on improving diagnostic techniques, developing new treatments, and exploring alternative preventive measures.
There are several types of abscesses, including:
1. Skin abscesses: These occur when a bacterial infection causes pus to accumulate under the skin. They may appear as red, swollen bumps on the surface of the skin.
2. Internal abscesses: These occur when an infection causes pus to accumulate within an internal organ or tissue. Examples include abscesses that form in the liver, lungs, or brain.
3. Perianal abscesses: These occur when an infection causes pus to accumulate near the anus. They may be caused by a variety of factors, including poor hygiene, anal sex, or underlying conditions such as Crohn's disease.
4. Dental abscesses: These occur when an infection causes pus to accumulate within a tooth or the surrounding tissue. They are often caused by poor oral hygiene or dental trauma.
The symptoms of an abscess can vary depending on its location and severity. Common symptoms include:
* Redness, swelling, and warmth around the affected area
* Pain or discomfort in the affected area
* Fever or chills
* Discharge of pus from the affected area
* Bad breath (if the abscess is located in the mouth)
If an abscess is not treated, it can lead to serious complications, including:
* Further spread of the infection to other parts of the body
* Inflammation of surrounding tissues and organs
* Formation of a pocket of pus that can become infected and lead to further complications
* Sepsis, a life-threatening condition caused by the spread of infection through the bloodstream.
Treatment of an abscess usually involves drainage of the pus and antibiotics to clear the infection. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove affected tissue or repair damaged structures.
It's important to seek medical attention if you suspect that you have an abscess, as prompt treatment can help prevent serious complications.
Symptoms of endocarditis may include fever, fatigue, joint pain, and swelling in the legs and feet. In some cases, the condition can lead to serious complications, such as heart valve damage, stroke, or death.
Treatment for endocarditis typically involves antibiotics to clear the infection. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to repair or replace damaged heart tissue. Preventive measures include good dental hygiene, avoiding risky behaviors such as injecting drugs, and keeping wounds clean and covered.
Endocarditis is a serious condition that can have long-term consequences if left untreated. Early diagnosis and treatment are essential to prevent complications and ensure the best possible outcome for patients.
There are several risk factors for developing venous insufficiency, including:
* Age: As we age, our veins become less effective at pumping blood back to the heart, making us more susceptible to venous insufficiency.
* Gender: Women are more likely to develop venous insufficiency than men due to hormonal changes and other factors.
* Family history: If you have a family history of venous insufficiency, you may be more likely to develop the condition.
* Injury or trauma: Injuries or traumas to the veins can damage valves or cause blood clots, leading to venous insufficiency.
* Obesity: Excess weight can put extra pressure on the veins, increasing the risk of venous insufficiency.
Symptoms of venous insufficiency may include:
* Pain, aching, or cramping in the legs
* Swelling, edema, or water retention in the legs
* Skin discoloration or thickening of the skin on the legs
* Itching or burning sensations on the skin
* Ulcers or sores on the skin
If left untreated, venous insufficiency can lead to more serious complications such as:
* Chronic wounds or ulcers
* Blood clots or deep vein thrombosis (DVT)
* Increased risk of infection
* Decreased mobility and quality of life
To diagnose venous insufficiency, a healthcare provider may perform one or more of the following tests:
* Physical examination: A healthcare provider will typically examine the legs and ankles to check for swelling, discoloration, and other symptoms.
* Duplex ultrasound: This non-invasive test uses sound waves to evaluate blood flow in the veins and can detect blockages or other problems.
* Venography: This test involves injecting a dye into the vein to visualize the veins and check for any blockages or abnormalities.
* Imaging tests: Such as MRI, CT scan, or X-rays may be used to rule out other conditions that may cause similar symptoms.
Treatment options for venous insufficiency depend on the underlying cause and severity of the condition, but may include one or more of the following:
* Compression stockings: These specialized stockings provide gentle pressure to the legs and ankles to help improve blood flow and reduce swelling.
* Lifestyle changes: Maintaining a healthy weight, exercising regularly, and avoiding prolonged standing or sitting can help improve symptoms.
* Medications: Such as diuretics, anticoagulants, or pain relievers may be prescribed to manage symptoms and prevent complications.
* Endovenous laser therapy: This minimally invasive procedure uses a laser to heat and seal off the damaged vein, redirecting blood flow to healthier veins.
* Sclerotherapy: This involves injecting a solution into the affected vein to cause it to collapse and be absorbed by the body.
* Vein stripping: In this surgical procedure, the affected vein is removed through small incisions.
It's important to note that these treatments are usually recommended for more severe cases of venous insufficiency, and for those who have not responded well to other forms of treatment. Your healthcare provider will help determine the best course of treatment for your specific case.
There are several types of heart valve diseases, including:
1. Mitral regurgitation: This occurs when the mitral valve does not close properly, allowing blood to flow backward into the left atrium.
2. Aortic stenosis: This occurs when the aortic valve becomes narrowed or blocked, restricting blood flow from the left ventricle into the aorta.
3. Pulmonary stenosis: This occurs when the pulmonary valve becomes narrowed or blocked, restricting blood flow from the right ventricle into the pulmonary artery.
4. Tricuspid regurgitation: This occurs when the tricuspid valve does not close properly, allowing blood to flow backward into the right atrium.
5. Heart valve thickening or calcification: This can occur due to aging, rheumatic fever, or other conditions that cause inflammation in the heart.
6. Endocarditis: This is an infection of the inner lining of the heart, which can damage the heart valves.
7. Rheumatic heart disease: This is a condition caused by rheumatic fever, which can damage the heart valves and cause scarring.
8. Congenital heart defects: These are heart defects that are present at birth, and can affect the heart valves as well as other structures of the heart.
Symptoms of heart valve disease can include shortness of breath, fatigue, swelling in the legs or feet, and chest pain. Treatment options for heart valve disease depend on the specific condition and can range from medication to surgery or other procedures.
Thymic nurse cell
Cervical cancer staging
Remote Sensing Center
Glossary of botanical terms
Massive parallel sequencing
Node of Ranvier
Retinal ganglion cell
Development of the reproductive system
Marquette Branch Prison
Restriction of Hazardous Substances Directive
Swinefleet Warping Drain
Musée de la Chartreuse, Molsheim
Heinkel He 111
Timeline of the George H. W. Bush presidency (1991)
Global Positioning System
GL Mk. III radar
Renewable energy in China
Iraqi biological weapons program
Deep brain stimulation
What's New for 2001 MeSH. NLM Technical Bulletin. Nov-Dec 2000
DeCS - Termos Novos
Comparison of the genome sequence of the poultry pathogen Bordetella avium with those of B. bronchiseptica, B. pertussis, and B...
Advanced Search Results - Public Health Image Library(PHIL)
GMS | GMS German Medical Science - an Interdisciplinary Journal | Influence of water-filtered infrared-A (wIRA) on reduction of...
Architecture of arachnoid trabeculae, pillars, and septa in the subarachnoid space of the human optic nerve: anatomy and...
Respiratory System - Infectious Diseases of Mice and Rats - NCBI Bookshelf
Clinical trial in hospitalized COVID-19 patients evaluates long-acting antibody therapy | National Institutes of Health (NIH)
Enzyme targets profitable lactose application extensions
Eosinophilic Esophagitis: Definition, Etiology, Epidemiology
Clinical Trial in Hospitalized COVID-19 Patients Evaluates Long-Acting Antibody Therapy | NIH: National Institute of Allergy...
Pediatric Naegleria: Practice Essentials, Background, Pathophysiology
Nanomedicine - Nanotechnology Center for Mechanics in Regenerative Medicine - 2008 Progress Report
A computer-designed scaffold for bone regeneration within cranial defect using human dental pulp stem cells | Scientific Reports
Surface characteristics influence cellular growth on semiconductor material - TGDaily
NIOSHTIC-2 Search Results - Full View
Biomedicines | Free Full-Text | Comparison of Microglial Morphology and Function in Primary Cerebellar Cell Cultures on...
RFA-DK-01-014: BETA CELL BIOLOGY CONSORTIUM
RFA-DK-01-014: BETA CELL BIOLOGY CONSORTIUM
Glial insulin regulates cooperative or antagonistic Golden goal/Flamingo interactions during photoreceptor axon guidance | eLife
KRK ROKIT 5 G4 5″ Powered Studio Monitor (Each) - The House of Guitars®
Frequently Asked Questions | College of Agriculture, Forestry and Life Sciences | Clemson University, South Carolina
Remineralization: Current State of Science and Future Directions Meeting Summary | National Institute of Dental and...
Pesquisa | Portal Regional da BVS
- A high degree of heterogeneity in the magnitude of bronchiolar epithelial cell extension into alveolar ducts was noted for each isolation and animal. (cdc.gov)
- Age-matched control animals also demonstrated variation in the degree of bronchiolar epithelial cell extension down alveolar ducts. (cdc.gov)
- No evidence of inflammation was present in alveolar ducts, suggesting that epithelial cell transformations in alveolar ducts is a natural consequence of lifetime exposures to oxidant gases. (cdc.gov)
Scanning electron m1
- In animals exposed to ozone , a striking similarity was noted by scanning electron microscopy in the surface characteristics of cells lining both terminal bronchioles and alveolar ducts. (cdc.gov)
- The hDPSCs expressed mesenchymal stem cell markers and served as an abundant source of stem cells with a high proliferation rate. (nature.com)
- Multiple myeloma (MM) is an incurable cancer in which uncontrolled plasma cell proliferation disrupts the bone marrow environment and impairs immune function. (hrb.ie)
- Dr. Deshpande now wishes to assess the effect of these receptors on the size and proliferation of airway smooth muscle cells. (americanasthmafoundation.org)
- His preliminary studies suggest that bitter taste receptors may block the proliferation of muscle cells. (americanasthmafoundation.org)
- Specialized structures of the cell that extend the cell membrane and project out from the cell surface. (bvsalud.org)
- This receptor has three major parts: an extracellular region that sticks out from the surface of the cell, a transmembrane region that anchors the receptor to the cell membrane, and an intracellular region that transmits signals to the interior of the cell. (medlineplus.gov)
- ADF/cofilin promotes invadopodial membrane recycling during cell invasion in vivo. (duke.edu)
- Plasma membrane polarization during mating in yeast cells. (duke.edu)
- To study how protrusions form, we focused on the morphogenesis of microridges, elongated actin-based structures projecting from the apical surfaces of zebrafish skin cells that are arranged inmaze-like patterns. (ed.ac.uk)
- Light microscopic, morphometric, and immunohistological approaches were used to determine the distribution and degree of differentiation of ciliated and nonciliated bronchiolar epithelial (Clara) cells lining alveolar ducts of the central acinus, a primary target of ozone -induced lung injury. (cdc.gov)
- The distance that ciliated and nonciliated bronchiolar epithelial (Clara) cells projected down each alveolar duct pathway was determined by placing concentric arcs radiating outward from a single reference point at the level of the first alveolar outpocketing. (cdc.gov)
- The presence of Clara cell secretory protein in cells of bronchioles and alveolar ducts was also detected immunohistochemically and visualized using confocal laser scanning microscopy in the reflectance mode. (cdc.gov)
- The finger-like alveolar extension in longitudinal view lies along the dorsal surface of the filamentous reticulum from which the cytopharyngeal microtubular ribbons originate. (cellimagelibrary.org)
- Our studies demonstrated that the insulin secreted from surface and cortex glia switches the phosphorylation status of Gogo, thereby regulating its two distinct functions. (elifesciences.org)
- Collectively, our results demonstrate how contraction within the 2D plane of the cortex can pattern 3D cell surfaces. (ed.ac.uk)
- We wanted to know how a material's texture and structure can influence cell adhesion and differentiation," says Lauren Bain, lead author of a paper describing the work and a Ph.D. student in the joint biomedical engineering program at NC State and UNC-Chapel Hill. (tgdaily.com)
- Cellular protrusions create complex cell surface topographies, but biomechanical mechanisms regulating their formation and arrangement are largely unknown. (ed.ac.uk)
- Enucleated cells reveal differential roles of the nucleus in cell migration, polarity, and mechanotransduction. (duke.edu)
- Journal of Cell Biology , 219 (3), [e201904144]. (ed.ac.uk)
- The HadGEM2 family includes a coupled atmosphere-ocean configuration, with or without a vertical extension in the atmosphere to include a well-resolved stratosphere, and an Earth-System configuration which includes dynamic vegetation, ocean biology and atmospheric chemistry. (metoffice.gov.uk)
- Drosophila p120catenin plays a supporting role in cell adhesion but is not an essential adherens junction component. (duke.edu)
- Intensive efforts are under way to gain more insight into cells, an African green monkey kidney cell line (3), and the mechanisms of viral replication, in order to develop this remains the only in vitro model of SARS-CoV infec- targeted antiviral therapies and vaccines. (cdc.gov)
- Despite the importance of root cap cell release to root health and plant growth, the mechanisms regulating this phenomenon are not well understood. (mdpi.com)
- Dr. Liu's studies focus on the mechanisms by which this role for epithelial cells in asthma is regulated. (americanasthmafoundation.org)
Bacterial and fungal2
- The main diagnostic procedure for PAM is to obtain cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) for wet-mount examination for N fowleri , along with standard laboratory examination of the CSF (eg, white blood cell [WBC] count, red blood cell [RBC] count, glucose and protein levels, bacterial and fungal cultures). (medscape.com)
- Cells in the last root cap layer are known as border cells or border-like cells, and have important functions in root protection against bacterial and fungal pathogens. (mdpi.com)
- Changing the texture and surface characteristics of a semiconductor material at the nanoscale can influence the way that neural cells grow on the material. (tgdaily.com)
- Basically, we wanted to know if changing the physical characteristics on the surface of a semiconductor could make it easier for an implant to be integrated into neural tissue - or soft tissue generally. (tgdaily.com)
- This tells us that the actual shape of the surface characteristics influences the behavior of the cells," Bain says. (tgdaily.com)
- The binding of netrin-1 triggers signaling via the intracellular region of the receptor that helps direct the growth of specialized nerve cell extensions called axons. (medlineplus.gov)
- These receptors alter the function of nerve cells when they are bound by a small molecule called serotonin. (americanasthmafoundation.org)
- At 24hours after the exposure, significant increases in the pro-inflammatory markers IL-12p70, IL-13, IL-15, IFN-, TNF-, IL-17A, VEGF, MCP-1, and MIP-1 were noted in the basolateral cell culture medium of ABS-exposed cells compared to non-exposed chamber control cells. (cdc.gov)
- In the last decade, however, it has become clear that epithelial cells may play a central role in eliciting the inflammation of asthma. (americanasthmafoundation.org)
- In fact epithelial cells may be the cells that first recognize certain allergens in the air, releasing chemicals that promote inflammation. (americanasthmafoundation.org)
- In particular, she is studying a protein in these cells called Miz1, which dampens the ability of epithelial cells to elicit inflammation. (americanasthmafoundation.org)
- The paper, "Surface Topography and Chemistry Shape Cellular Behavior on Wide Band-Gap Semiconductors," is published in Acta Biomaterialia. (tgdaily.com)
- Recent work identified several factors including transcription factors, auxin, and small peptides with roles in the production and release of root cap cells. (mdpi.com)
- We devise a numerical method for passive advection of a surface, such as the interface between two incompressible fluids, across a computational mesh. (arxiv.org)
- Cell Body" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (childrensmercy.org)
- The second was to demonstrate the predominant accumulation of PpIX in human prostate cancer cells compared to normal prostate cells by the use of ALA-PDD on the divided surface of excised prostate. (biomedcentral.com)
- Dr. Stephen Liggett from the University of Southern Florida and Dr. Deshpande made a curious and important discovery: muscle cells of the type that surround the airways (smooth muscle) express on their surface the same proteins that are used by the tongue to detect bitter foods. (americanasthmafoundation.org)
- And, that because of the loss of ceremides during the aging process, it is important to boost ceramide levels not only on the surface - through the use of lotions, etc, but deep inside the skin cells by the use of internally taken supplements. (fyihealthtalk.com)
- CD4 cells are a type of white blood cell that are important in maintaining a healthy immune system to help fight infection. (who.int)
- "LBA has unique function on cell surfaces and has shown potential use in wound healing products," stated Chr Hansen. (foodnavigator-usa.com)
- When not bound to netrin-1, the netrin-1 receptor acts as a tumor suppressor, which means that it keeps cells from growing and dividing too fast or in an uncontrolled way. (medlineplus.gov)
- Studies suggest that when the netrin-1 receptor is not bound to netrin-1, it triggers cell death (apoptosis). (medlineplus.gov)
- The standard atmospheric component has 38 levels extending to ~40km height, with a horizontal resolution of 1.25 degrees of latitude by 1.875 degrees of longitude, which produces a global grid of 192 x 145 grid cells. (metoffice.gov.uk)
- Success of the procedure is determined by use of a suitable scaffold, a structural support for osteoprogenitor cells and osteoinductive factors necessary to regenerate neo-bone at the site of bone defect 2 . (nature.com)
- These cells were once thought to be just structural, i.e., they had no role in asthma. (americanasthmafoundation.org)
- In this work, we firstly used a computer-designed, solvent-free scaffold and human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) to regenerate neo-bone within cranial bone defects. (nature.com)
- The aim of this study was to investigate whether we could detect positive surgical margins during open and laparoscopic radical prostatectomy by 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) photodynamic diagnosis (PDD) and mapping of red fluorescence in human prostate cancer cells. (biomedcentral.com)
- Primary normal human-derived bronchial epithelial cells (NHBEs) were exposed to ABS filament emissions in an ALI for 4hours. (cdc.gov)
- The alpha energy induces rapid physical changes to localized cell matter in its path and via chemical interactions with the water in human cells. (cdc.gov)
- Very few PC12 cells adhered to the smooth surface. (tgdaily.com)
- Each has different kinds of soldier cells, called leukocytes, with unique areas of expertise and responsibility. (fyihealthtalk.com)
- They also worked with PC12 cells, which are model cells used to mimic the behavior of neurons in lab experiments. (tgdaily.com)
- A biomechanical model suggested that contraction reduces surface tension to permit the fusion of precursors into microridges. (ed.ac.uk)
- Second, from the reconstructed surface, we model the motion of the face-interface intersection line for a general polygonal face to obtain the time evolution within a time step of the submerged face area. (arxiv.org)
- [ 4 ] The term was chosen to distinguish the disease caused by N fowleri from the secondary meningoencephalitis due to the extension of Entamoeba histolytica from another site. (medscape.com)
- A circular depression on the dorsal surface of the cell marks the expulsion site of a contractile vacuole. (cellimagelibrary.org)
- The method is called isoAdvector, and is developed for general meshes consisting of arbitrary polyhedral cells. (arxiv.org)
- As a result, the netrin-1 receptor is not available to trigger apoptosis, resulting in the uncontrolled cell growth and division that leads to cancer. (medlineplus.gov)
- The results are very satisfactory both in terms of volume conservation, boundedness, surface sharpness, and efficiency. (arxiv.org)
- For the purpose of this review, dosimetry refers to estimating or mea- suring the amount (mass, or number, surface area, volume, etc.) of PSP at specific target sites at a particular point in time. (cdc.gov)
- In asthma, the muscle cells around the airways contract, narrowing the opening and reducing the flow of air in the lungs. (americanasthmafoundation.org)
- As the disease progresses, the muscle cells enlarge and increase in number. (americanasthmafoundation.org)
- Specifically, infection and atherosclerosis are available with this theory proposed that a mutation or a viral agent some studies showing an association between HCV may represent events able to transform a single smooth seropositivity and carotid artery plaque and carotid muscle cell into the progenitor of a proliferative clone ( 7 ). (who.int)
- The oceanic component utilizes a latitude-longitude grid with a longitudinal resolution of 1 degree, and latitudinal resolution of 1 degree between the poles and 30 degrees North/South, from which it increases smoothly to one third of a degree at the equator, giving 360 x 216 grid points in total, and 40 unevenly spaced levels in the vertical (a resolution of 10m near the surface). (metoffice.gov.uk)
- The proper treatment of head and neck aryngeal cancer is one of the most squamous cell carcinoma is based on L common types of head and neck appropriate planning of surgical, malignancy, although its optimal primary radiotherapeutic and medical strategies aimed treatment is still a matter of debate. (who.int)
- The possible association between HCV positivity and extension of coronary artery disease may refer to the role of HCV in coronary artery disease pathology. (who.int)
- The importance of this approach was recently demonstrated by Dr. John Fahy and his colleagues at UCSF, who performed bronchoscopy on people with asthma and on people without asthma, obtaining samples of airway cells for study. (americanasthmafoundation.org)
- In his AAF application, he proposes to adapt these techniques for the study of cells in sputum - material coughed up by patients with asthma. (americanasthmafoundation.org)
- The isoAdvector method was implemented as an OpenFOAM(R) extension and is published as open source. (arxiv.org)
- It also increases CD4 cell count in your blood. (who.int)
- This method is known as Surface Mount Technology and it has effectively replaced the through-hole technology where the components were fitted on to each other via wires passing through punched holes. (globalsmtasia.com)
- In the contact area between two conjugating cells the tips of the ridges all fuse forming openings between the two cells. (cellimagelibrary.org)
- The average particle deposition per surface area of the epithelium was 2.29 10(7) 1.47 10(7) particle/cm(2), equivalent to an estimated average particle mass of 0.144 0.042g/cm(2). (cdc.gov)
- The cells that line the airways are called epithelial cells. (americanasthmafoundation.org)