Specialized structures of the cell that extend the cell membrane and project out from the cell surface.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
"The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.
The premier bibliographic database of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. MEDLINE® (MEDLARS Online) is the primary subset of PUBMED and can be searched on NLM's Web site in PubMed or the NLM Gateway. MEDLINE references are indexed with MEDICAL SUBJECT HEADINGS (MeSH).
Publications in any medium issued in successive parts bearing numerical or chronological designations and intended to be continued indefinitely. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983, p203)
All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.
The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.
Viruses whose nucleic acid is DNA.
The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.
Viruses whose hosts are bacterial cells.
The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
A lectin and cell adhesion molecule found in B-LYMPHOCYTES. It interacts with SIALIC ACIDS and mediates signaling from B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS.
A measure of the amount of WATER VAPOR in the air.
Excess of normal lymphocytes in the blood or in any effusion.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Fluid propulsion systems driven mechanically, electrically, or osmotically that are used to inject (or infuse) over time agents into a patient or experimental animal; used routinely in hospitals to maintain a patent intravenous line, to administer antineoplastic agents and other drugs in thromboembolism, heart disease, diabetes mellitus (INSULIN INFUSION SYSTEMS is also available), and other disorders.
The functions and properties of living organisms, including both the physical and chemical factors and processes, supporting life in single- or multi-cell organisms from their origin through the progression of life.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A reduction in the number of circulating ERYTHROCYTES or in the quantity of HEMOGLOBIN.
Publications printed and distributed daily, weekly, or at some other regular and usually short interval, containing news, articles of opinion (as editorials and letters), features, advertising, and announcements of current interest. (Webster's 3d ed)
A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.
Forms of hepcidin, a cationic amphipathic peptide synthesized in the liver as a prepropeptide which is first processed into prohepcidin and then into the biologically active hepcidin forms, including in human the 20-, 22-, and 25-amino acid residue peptide forms. Hepcidin acts as a homeostatic regulators of iron metabolism and also possesses antimicrobial activity.
A plant genus of the family ORCHIDACEAE that is the source of the familiar flavoring used in foods and medicines (FLAVORING AGENTS).
Agents which improve the quality of the blood, increasing the hemoglobin level and the number of erythrocytes. They are used in the treatment of anemias.
The mineral component of bones and teeth; it has been used therapeutically as a prosthetic aid and in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis.
A group of compounds with the general formula M10(PO4)6(OH)2, where M is barium, strontium, or calcium. The compounds are the principal mineral in phosphorite deposits, biological tissue, human bones, and teeth. They are also used as an anticaking agent and polymer catalysts. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Common name for various species of large, vigorous ocean fishes in the family Scombridae.
A genus of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria whose organisms are nonmotile. Filaments that may be present in certain species are either straight or wavy and may have swollen or clubbed heads.
Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.
The adhesion of gases, liquids, or dissolved solids onto a surface. It includes adsorptive phenomena of bacteria and viruses onto surfaces as well. ABSORPTION into the substance may follow but not necessarily.
The clear, viscous fluid secreted by the SALIVARY GLANDS and mucous glands of the mouth. It contains MUCINS, water, organic salts, and ptylin.

Myosin light chain kinase plays an essential role in S. flexneri dissemination. (1/643)

Shigella flexneri, the causitive agent of bacillary dysentery, has been shown to disseminate in colonic epithelial cells via protrusions that extend from infected cells and are endocytosed by adjacent cells. This phenomenon occurs in the region of the eukaryotic cell's adherens junctions and is inhibited by pharmacological reagents or host cell mutations that completely disrupt the junctional complex. In this study, inhibitors of the myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) were shown to dramatically decrease intercellular spread of S. flexneri but to have no inhibitory effect on bacterial entry, multiplication or actin-based motility within the host cell. Furthermore, cell-to-cell spread of Listeria monocytogenes, another bacterial pathogen that uses an actin-based mechanism to move within the eukaryotic cytoplasm and to spread from cell to cell, was not affected by the MLCK inhibitors, indicating that (1) the inhibition of S. flexneri cell-to-cell spread in treated cells is not due to a complete break down of cell-cell contacts, which was subsequently confirmed by confocal microscopy, and (2) MLCK plays a role in a S. flexneri-specific mechanism of dissemination. Myosin has been shown to play a role in a variety of membrane-based phenomena. The work presented here suggests that activation of this molecule via phosphorylation by MLCK, at the very least participates in the formation of the bacteria-containing protrusion, and could also contribute to the endocytosis of this structure by neighboring cells.  (+info)

Peripodial cells regulate proliferation and patterning of Drosophila imaginal discs. (2/643)

Cells employ a diverse array of signaling mechanisms to establish spatial patterns during development. Nowhere is this better understood than in Drosophila, where the limbs and eyes arise from discrete epithelial sacs called imaginal discs. Molecular-genetic analyses of pattern formation have generally treated discs as single epithelial sheets. Anatomically, however, discs comprise a columnar cell monolayer covered by a squamous epithelium known as the peripodial membrane. Here we demonstrate that during development, peripodial cells signal to disc columnar cells via microtubule-based apical extensions. Ablation and targeted gene misexpression experiments demonstrate that peripodial cell signaling contributes to growth control and pattern formation in the eye and wing primordia. These findings challenge the traditional view of discs as monolayers and provide foundational evidence for peripodial cell function in Drosophila appendage development.  (+info)

ACAPs are arf6 GTPase-activating proteins that function in the cell periphery. (3/643)

The GTP-binding protein ADP-ribosylation factor 6 (Arf6) regulates endosomal membrane trafficking and the actin cytoskeleton in the cell periphery. GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs) are critical regulators of Arf function, controlling the return of Arf to the inactive GDP-bound state. Here, we report the identification and characterization of two Arf6 GAPs, ACAP1 and ACAP2. Together with two previously described Arf GAPs, ASAP1 and PAP, they can be grouped into a protein family defined by several common structural motifs including coiled coil, pleckstrin homology, Arf GAP, and three complete ankyrin-repeat domains. All contain phosphoinositide-dependent GAP activity. ACAP1 and ACAP2 are widely expressed and occur together in the various cultured cell lines we examined. Similar to ASAP1, ACAP1 and ACAP2 were recruited to and, when overexpressed, inhibited the formation of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-induced dorsal membrane ruffles in NIH 3T3 fibroblasts. However, in contrast with ASAP1, ACAP1 and ACAP2 functioned as Arf6 GAPs. In vitro, ACAP1 and ACAP2 preferred Arf6 as a substrate, rather than Arf1 and Arf5, more so than did ASAP1. In HeLa cells, overexpression of either ACAP blocked the formation of Arf6-dependent protrusions. In addition, ACAP1 and ACAP2 were recruited to peripheral, tubular membranes, where activation of Arf6 occurs to allow membrane recycling back to the plasma membrane. ASAP1 did not inhibit Arf6-dependent protrusions and was not recruited by Arf6 to tubular membranes. The additional effects of ASAP1 on PDGF-induced ruffling in fibroblasts suggest that multiple Arf GAPs function coordinately in the cell periphery.  (+info)

Evidence that beta3 integrin-induced Rac activation involves the calpain-dependent formation of integrin clusters that are distinct from the focal complexes and focal adhesions that form as Rac and RhoA become active. (4/643)

Interaction of integrins with the extracellular matrix leads to transmission of signals, cytoskeletal reorganizations, and changes in cell behavior. While many signaling molecules are known to be activated within Rac-induced focal complexes or Rho-induced focal adhesions, the way in which integrin-mediated adhesion leads to activation of Rac and Rho is not known. In the present study, we identified clusters of integrin that formed upstream of Rac activation. These clusters contained a Rac-binding protein(s) and appeared to be involved in Rac activation. The integrin clusters contained calpain and calpain-cleaved beta3 integrin, while the focal complexes and focal adhesions that formed once Rac and Rho were activated did not. Moreover, the integrin clusters were dependent on calpain for their formation. In contrast, while Rac- and Rho-GTPases were dependent on calpain for their activation, formation of focal complexes and focal adhesions by constitutively active Rac or Rho, respectively, occurred even when calpain inhibitors were present. Taken together, these data are consistent with a model in which integrin-induced Rac activation requires the formation of integrin clusters. The clusters form in a calpain-dependent manner, contain calpain, calpain-cleaved integrin, and a Rac binding protein(s). Once Rac is activated, other integrin signaling complexes are formed by a calpain-independent mechanism(s).  (+info)

Dynamic positioning of mitotic spindles in yeast: role of microtubule motors and cortical determinants. (5/643)

In the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, movement of the mitotic spindle to a predetermined cleavage plane at the bud neck is essential for partitioning chromosomes into the mother and daughter cells. Astral microtubule dynamics are critical to the mechanism that ensures nuclear migration to the bud neck. The nucleus moves in the opposite direction of astral microtubule growth in the mother cell, apparently being "pushed" by microtubule contacts at the cortex. In contrast, microtubules growing toward the neck and within the bud promote nuclear movement in the same direction of microtubule growth, thus "pulling" the nucleus toward the bud neck. Failure of "pulling" is evident in cells lacking Bud6p, Bni1p, Kar9p, or the kinesin homolog, Kip3p. As a consequence, there is a loss of asymmetry in spindle pole body segregation into the bud. The cytoplasmic motor protein, dynein, is not required for nuclear movement to the neck; rather, it has been postulated to contribute to spindle elongation through the neck. In the absence of KAR9, dynein-dependent spindle oscillations are evident before anaphase onset, as are postanaphase dynein-dependent pulling forces that exceed the velocity of wild-type spindle elongation threefold. In addition, dynein-mediated forces on astral microtubules are sufficient to segregate a 2N chromosome set through the neck in the absence of spindle elongation, but cytoplasmic kinesins are not. These observations support a model in which spindle polarity determinants (BUD6, BNI1, KAR9) and cytoplasmic kinesin (KIP3) provide directional cues for spindle orientation to the bud while restraining the spindle to the neck. Cytoplasmic dynein is attenuated by these spindle polarity determinants and kinesin until anaphase onset, when dynein directs spindle elongation to distal points in the mother and bud.  (+info)

Interaction of EGF receptor and grb2 in living cells visualized by fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) microscopy. (6/643)

The interaction of activated epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) with the Src homology 2 (SH2) domain of the growth-factor-receptor binding protein Grb2 initiates signaling through Ras and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAP kinase) [1,2]. Activation of EGFRs by ligand also triggers rapid endocytosis of EGF-receptor complexes. To analyze the spatiotemporal regulation of EGFR-Grb2 interactions in living cells, we have combined imaging microscopy with a modified method of measuring fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) on a pixel-by-pixel basis using EGFR fused to cyan fluorescent protein (CFP) and Grb2 fused to yellow fluorescent protein (YFP). Efficient energy transfer between CFP and YFP should only occur if CFP and YFP are less than 50A apart, which requires direct interaction of the EGFR and Grb2 fused to these fluorescent moieties [3]. Stimulation by EGF resulted in the recruitment of Grb2-YFP to cellular compartments that contained EGFR-CFP and a large increase in FRET signal amplitude. In particular, FRET measurements indicated that activated EGFR-CFP interacted with Grb2-YFP in membrane ruffles and endosomes. These results demonstrate that signaling via EGFRs can occur in the endosomal compartment. The work also highlights the potential of FRET microscopy in the study of subcellular compartmentalization of protein-protein interactions in living cells.  (+info)

Pyramidal cells, patches, and cortical columns: a comparative study of infragranular neurons in TEO, TE, and the superior temporal polysensory area of the macaque monkey. (7/643)

The basal dendritic arbors of layer III pyramidal neurons are known to vary systematically among primate visual areas. Generally, those in areas associated with "higher" level cortical processing have larger and more spinous dendritic arbors, which may be an important factor for determining function within these areas. Moreover, the tangential area of their arbors are proportional to those of the periodic supragranular patches of intrinsic connections in many different areas. The morphological parameters of both dendritic and axon arbors may be important for the sampling strategies of cells in different cortical areas. However, in visual cortex, intrinsic patches are a feature of supragranular cortex, and are weaker or nonexistent in infragranular cortex. Thus, the systematic variation in the dendritic arbors of pyramidal cells in supragranular cortex may reflect intrinsic axon projections, rather than differences in columnar organization. The present study was aimed at establishing whether cells in the infragranular layers also vary in terms of dendritic morphology among different cortical areas, and whether these variations mirror the ones demonstrated in supragranular cortex. Layer V pyramidal neurons were injected with Lucifer yellow in flat-mounted cortical slices taken from cytoarchitectonic areas TEO and TE and the superior polysensory area (STP) of the macaque monkey. The results demonstrate that cells in STP were larger, had more bifurcations, and were more spinous than those in TE, which in turn were larger, had more bifurcations and were more spinous than those in TEO. These results parallel morphological variation seen in layer III pyramidal neurons, suggesting that increasing complexity of basal dendritic arbors of cells, with progression through higher areas of the temporal lobe, is a general organizational principle. It is proposed that the differences in microcircuitry may contribute to the determination of the functional signatures of neurons in different cortical areas. Furthermore, these results provide evidence that intrinsic circuitry differs across cortical areas, which may be important for theories of columnar processing.  (+info)

Synaptically driven calcium transients via nicotinic receptors on somatic spines. (8/643)

Dendritic spines commonly receive glutamatergic innervation at postsynaptic densities and compartmentalize calcium influx arising from synaptic signaling. Recently, it was shown that a class of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors containing alpha7 subunits is concentrated on somatic spines emanating from chick ciliary ganglion neurons. The receptors have a high relative calcium permeability and contribute importantly to synaptic currents, although they appear to be excluded from postsynaptic densities. Here we show that low-frequency synaptic stimulation of the alpha7-containing receptors induces calcium transients confined to the spines. High-frequency stimulation induces a transient calcium elevation in the spines and a more sustained cell-wide elevation. The high-frequency transient elevation again depends on alpha7-containing receptors, whereas the sustained elevation can be triggered by other nicotinic receptors and depends on calcium release from internal stores and probably influx through voltage-gated L-type calcium channels as well. Retrograde axonal stimulation of the neurons at high frequency mimics synaptic stimulation in producing sustained cell-wide calcium increases that depend on L-type channels and release from internal stores, but it does not produce calcium transients in the spines. Thus frequent action potentials are sufficient to generate the cell-wide increases, but alpha7-containing receptors are needed for spine-specific effects. Patch-clamp recording indicates that alpha7-containing receptors preferentially desensitize at high-frequency stimulation, accounting for the inability of the stimulation to sustain high calcium levels in the spines. The spatial and temporal differences in the patterns of calcium elevation could enable the neurons to monitor their own firing histories for regulatory purposes.  (+info)

The dissemination of cancer cells from the primary tumor to a distant site, known as metastasis, is the main cause of mortality in cancer patients. Metastasis is a very complex cellular process that involves many steps, including the breaching of the basement membrane (BM) to allow the movement of cells through tissues. The BM breach occurs via highly regulated and localized remodeling of the extracellular matrix (ECM), which is mediated by formation of structures, known as invadopodia, and targeted secretion of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Recently, invadopodia have emerged as key cellular structures that regulate the metastasis of many cancers. Furthermore, targeting of various cytoskeletal modulators and MMPs has been shown to play a major role in regulating invadopodia function. Here, we highlight recent findings regarding the regulation of protein targeting during invadopodia formation and function.
After apoptotic membrane blebbing, a cell can undergo further morphological changes to generate a variety of thin apoptotic membrane protrusions, including microtubule spikes, apoptopodia and beaded apoptopodia.[12][13][14] The formation of these apoptotic membrane protrusions are often cell type dependent and represents the second step (Step 2) of apoptotic cell disassembly[5][6] (Figure 1). For example, microtubule spikes have been observed on apoptotic squamous epithelial cells.[12] Mechanistically, the formation of microtubule spikes is dependent on microtubule polymerisation and establishment of the microtubule network.[12] Microtubule spike formation has been proposed to facilitate the separation of membrane blebs, as well as the distribution of nuclear contents into membrane blebs.[12] More recently, another type of less rigid and string-like apoptotic membrane protrusion, known as apoptopodia (feet of death), was identified on apoptotic T cells, thymocytes and fibroblasts.[13] Like ...
Cells are able to develop various types of membrane protrusions that modulate their adhesive, migratory, or functional properties. However, their ability to form basal protrusions, particularly in the context of epithelial sheets, is not widely characterized. The authors built hexagonal lattices to probe systematically the microtopography-induced formation of epithelial cell protrusions. Lattices of hexagons of various sizes (from 1.5 to 19 μm) and 5-10 μm height were generated by two-photon photopolymerization in NOA61 or poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate derivatives. The authors found that cells generated numerous, extensive, and deep basal protrusions for hexagons inferior to cell size (3-10 μm) while maintaining a continuous epithelial layer above structures. They characterized the kinetics of protrusion formation depending on scaffold geometry and size. The reported formation of extensive protrusions in 3D microtopography could be beneficial to develop new biomaterials with increased ...
Previous studies have linked the expression of Twist1 to many aggressive, solid-tumor cancers, including melanomas, neuroblastomas, as well as breast and prostate cancer. The new research by Yang and colleagues describes in detail how Twist1 initiates the multi-step pathway resulting in invadopodia formation and matrix degradation. The research also reveals places in the process that may present potential targets for future anti-metastasis therapies.. After embryogenesis, Twist1 is normally suppressed. Cancer cells, however, reactivate the transcription factor, enabling Twist1 to initiate its complex pathway leading to metastasis. Drug designers, however, have yet to successfully devise a way to directly inhibit transcription factors like Twist1. The UCSD study points to other possibilities. We hope to inhibit downstream targets of Twist1 (such as platelet-derived growth factor receptors) to inhibit invadopodia formation and function, Yang said. Our study suggests that inhibition of ...
Integrin-Matrix Clusters Form Podosome-like Adhesions in the Absence of Traction Forces. Yu CH, Rafiq NB, Krishnasamy A, Hartman KL, Jones GE, Bershadsky AD, Sheetz MP. Cell Rep. 2013 Dec 12;5(5):1456-68. doi: 10.1016/j.celrep.2013.10.040. Epub 2013 Nov 27. Comparative transcriptomics reveal RhoE as a novel regulator of actin dynamics in bone-resorbing osteoclasts. Georgess D, Mazzorana M, Terrado J, Delprat C, Chamot C, Guasch RM, P rez-Roger I, Jurdic P, Machuca-Gayet I. Mol Biol Cell. 2013 Nov 27. [Epub ahead of print] Preclinical intravital microscopy of the tumour-stroma interface: invasion, metastasis, and therapy response. Alexander S, Weigelin B, Winkler F, Friedl P. Curr Opin Cell Biol. 2013 Oct;25(5):659-71. doi: 10.1016/j.ceb.2013.07.001. Epub 2013 Jul 26. WIP Regulates Persistence of Cell Migration and Ruffle Formation in Both Mesenchymal and Amoeboid Modes of Motility Inmaculada Banon-Rodriguez, Julia Saez de Guinoa, Alejandra Bernardini, Chiara Ragazzini, Estefania Fernandez, ...
00) have been made use of. Secondary antibodies conjugated with Alexa 488, Alexa 568, Alexa 647 and Phalloidin conjugated with Alexa 647 had been from Molecular
CRN2 (synonyms: coronin 1C, coronin 3) functions in the re-organization of the actin network and is implicated in cellular processes like protrusion formation, secretion, migration and invasion. We demonstrate that CRN2 is a binding partner and substrate of protein kinase CK2, which phosphorylates C …
Avodart - For these reasons it is ossumecl that no surgeon should presume to open the abdominal cavity who doea not understand and apply the principles by which postoperative ventral region of the cicatrix, on account of which the other causative factors and lateral aspects the abdomen is always full, and its walls subjecteil to equable pressure, varying according to their contractility, the abdominal and reenforce each other in a kind of net work that under normal conditions hernial protrusions are impossible.
Larvas work mode relies on the literary and cinematic model of the undead-an intricate being that returns from the dead to haunt the living. It is a metamorphic entity that can emerge as either bodied or disembodied, corporeal-like zombies or vampires, or incorporeal-like poltergeists and phantoms. The undeads nature and appearance have been characterized in various, ancient as well as modern, manuscripts.. As opposed to the completed, clean, and rational modern human being, who sustains himself economically and socially, the undead emerges as a being emitted from the natural temporal cycle, indicating the presence of death in life. Modern mans body is bounded and isolated from other bodies; its curvatures and protrusions are smoothed, concealing physical changes, presenting a uniform, hermetic façade. The undead body, on the other hand, is the unfinished, grotesque body, constantly undergoing a process of decay and rebirth. Death and life coexist in his figure, subject to perpetual change, ...
Invadopodia facilitate cancer cell migration by breaking down the extracellular matrix that normally keeps cells in place. In previous research, Dr. Courtneidge discovered that Tks5 is crucial for invadopodia formation. The structural similarities between Tks5 and p47phox, which is part of the NADPH oxidase (Nox) system, led Dr. Courtneidge to consider the role reactive oxygen plays in invadopodia formation.. Using invadopodia-rich mouse fibrosarcoma cells, the Courtneidge laboratory tested a number of antioxidants and found both a marked reduction in invadopodia formation and invasive behavior. In addition, the team inhibited expression of Nox family enzymes with siRNA and had similar results, demonstrating that NADPH oxidases are involved in invadopodia formation. The scientists repeated these experiments with human melanoma, head and neck and breast cancer cell lines and also saw a marked reduction in invadopodia formation.. With the discovery of reactive oxygens role in invadopodia ...
We present a molecular dissection of the functional domains of cortactin relevant for invadopodia formation and function. In addition, through the expression of cortactin forms mutated in the residues previously found to be phosphorylated in vitro, we suggest the involvement of different kinases in the control of the ECM degradation machinery through the regulation of cortactin phosphorylation.. The overexpression of mutant or deleted forms of cortactin that are unable to bind the Arp2/3 complex, induces a substantial decrease in the ability of the cells to form invadopodia and hence degrade the ECM. In addition, the SH3 domain of cortactin, known to bind a number of relevant proteins such as N-WASP and dynamin 2, is also essential for invadopodia formation and ECM degradation. This is at variance with a recent report suggesting that the cortactin N-terminus is not required for invadopodia formation (Webb et al., 2007). A possible explanation is that the study was based on constitutively active ...
p62 is a multifunctional scaffold protein which acts as a signalling hub for different pathways, and through interactions with the polarity protein aPKC we hypothesise that it may regulate apico-basal polarity. Ref(2)p is the Drosophila homologue of p62 and using Drosophila as a model system we are investigating the effects of Ref(2)p mutation or expression levels on apico-basal polarity, cell shape and protrusion dynamics in the epithelial cells of the dorsal thorax. Our preliminary data suggest that Ref(2)p is required to maintain normal cell size, cell-cell junctions and protrusion dynamics. Mechanistically, these phenotypes may be due to Ref(2)ps interaction with polarity proteins or broader changes in Ref(2)p-mediated autophagy.. ...
Invadopodia are actin-enriched cell protrusions that cancer cells use to degrade the extracellular matrix (ECM), which then allows for cancer cell invasion, and these processes require the binding of tyrosine-phosphorylated cortactin, an actin binding protein, with the Rho-family GTPase guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) Vav2, which results in recruitment of Vav2 to invadopodia where Vav2 mediates invadopodial maturation and function through re-arrangement of the actin cytoskeleton, likely through activation of the Rac3 GTPase.
SrGAP3/MEGAP is a member of the Slit-Robo GAP (srGAP) family and is implicated in repulsive axon guidance and neuronal migration through Slit-Robo-mediated signal transduction. Here we describe an inhibitory role of srGAP3 on actin dynamics, specifically on lamellipodia formation. We show that the F-BAR domain localizes srGAP3 to the leading edge of cellular protrusions whereas the SH3 domain is important for focal adhesion targeting. We report on a novel srGAP3 interaction partner, lamellipodin, which localizes with srGAP3 at the leading edge. Live-cell analyses revealed that srGAP3 influences lamellipodin-evoked lamellipodial dynamics. Furthermore, we show that mouse embryonic fibroblasts derived from homozygous srGAP3-knockout embryos display an increased cell area and lamellipodia formation that can be blocked by shRNA-mediated knockdown of lamellipodin.. ...
Cell surface interaction of CD44 and MMP9 increases migration and invasion of PC3 cells. We show here that stable knockdown of MMP9 in PC3 cells switches CD44 isoform expression from CD44s to CD44v6 which is more glycosylated. These cells showed highly adhesive morphology with extensive cell spreading which is due to the formation of focal adhesions and well organized actin-stress fibers. MMP9 knockdown blocks invadopodia formation and matrix degradation activity as well. However, CD44 knockdown PC3 cells failed to develop focal adhesions and stress fibers; hence these cells make unstable adhesions. A part of the reason for these changes could be caused by silencing of CD44v6 as well. Immunostaining of prostate tissue microarray sections illustrated significantly lower levels of CD44v6 in adenocarcinoma than normal tissue. Our results suggest that interaction between CD44 and MMP9 is a potential mechanism of invadopodia formation. CD44v6 expression may be essential for the protection of non-invasive
Invasive carcinoma cells use specialized actin polymerization-driven protrusions called invadopodia to degrade and possibly invade through the extracellular matrix (ECM) during metastasis. Phosphorylation of the invadopodium protein cortactin is a master switch that activates invadopodium maturation and function. Cortactin was originally identified as a hyperphosphorylated protein in v-Src-transformed cells, but the kinase or kinases that are directly responsible for cortactin phosphorylation in invadopodia remain unknown. In this study, we provide evidence that the Abl-related nonreceptor tyrosine kinase Arg mediates epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced cortactin phosphorylation, triggering actin polymerization in invadopodia, ECM degradation, and matrix proteolysis-dependent tumor cell invasion. Both Src and Arg localize to invadopodia and are required for EGF-induced actin polymerization. Notably, Arg overexpression in Src knockdown cells can partially rescue actin polymerization in ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Actin-Membrane Release Initiates Cell Protrusions. AU - Welf, Erik S.. AU - Miles, Christopher E.. AU - Huh, Jaewon. AU - Sapoznik, Etai. AU - Chi, Joseph. AU - Driscoll, Meghan K.. AU - Isogai, Tadamoto. AU - Noh, Jungsik. AU - Weems, Andrew D.. AU - Pohlkamp, Theresa. AU - Dean, Kevin. AU - Fiolka, Reto. AU - Mogilner, Alex. AU - Danuser, Gaudenz. N1 - Funding Information: This work was funded by the National Institute of Health ( K25CA204526 to E.S.W., F32GM116370 and K99GM123221 to M.K.D., 1F32GM117793 to K.M.D., R33CA235254 and R35 GM133522 to R.F., and R01GM071868 and R35GM136428 to G.D.), the Cancer Prevention and Research Institute of Texas ( RR160057 to R.F.), and the US Army Research Office ( W911NF-17-1-0417 to A.M.); A.D.W. is a fellow of the Jane Coffin Childs Memorial Fund. Funding Information: We would like to thank James Bear (University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill) for suggesting the PA-Rac1 experiment, Maja K?hn (Albert Ludwigs University of Freiburg, ...
CRN2 (synonyms: coronin 1C, coronin 3) functions in the re-organization of the actin network and is implicated in cellular processes like protrusion formation, secretion, migration and invasion. We demonstrate that CRN2 is a binding partner and substrate of protein kinase CK2, which phosphorylates CRN2 at S463 in its C-terminal coiled coil domain. Phosphomimetic S463D CRN2 loses the wild-type CRN2 ability to inhibit actin polymerization, to bundle F-actin, and to bind to the Arp2/3 complex. As a consequence, S463D mutant CRN2 changes the morphology of the F-actin network in the front of lamellipodia. Our data imply that CK2-dependent phosphorylation of CRN2 is involved in the modulation of the local morphology of complex actin structures and thereby inhibits cell migration ...
The Institute of Pharmacology and Structural Biology (www.ipbs.fr) has an open postdoctoral position to work on podosomes, cell structures involved in adhesion, matrix proteolysis, mechanosensing and cell migration in 3D environments (1-9). Macrophage tissue infiltration plays beneficial roles in protective immunity and detrimental roles in several diseases. Tissue infiltrated macrophages favor the progression of e.g. most cancers and chronic inflammations. Therefore, it is a challenging issue to control macrophage migration as a new therapeutic strategy.. Our team has reported that podosomes are instrumental in the protease-dependent 3D migration of macrophages. To progress in the knowledge of this cell structure, we developed a method called Protrusion Force Microscopy (3,10,11) and we used STORM-SAF microscopy (12) that allowed drawing a preliminary picture of the podosome architecture which explains the generation of protrusive force (13). Now, we plan to further characterize the ...
Our research encompasses basic cell biology of tumor cell invasion, focusing on two tyrosine kinases, c-Src and Syk, with opposing roles in cancer metastasis. A major focus is invadopodia, the cell surface membrane protrusions formed during tumor cell invasion, and their role in invasion and metastasis. We use cortactin, a Src substrate, and MT1-MMP, an extracellular matrix-degrading, membrane protein, to identify and study the formation of invadopodia and acquisition of proteolytic activity. High resolution light and electron microscopy techniques are used to identify these structures and examine the membrane-associated signal transduction events that occur in conjunction with the formation of invadopodia. In vitro and in vivo assays are used to measure the consequent matrix adhesion, proteolysis and phagocytosis that are mediated by invadopodia. We also focus on determining the mechanism of breast cancer tumor suppression by the Syk tyrosine kinase. Utilizing mouse model systems, 3D culture ...
A medical balloon is constructed with protrusions thereon to prevent unwanted movement of an expandable, implantable medical device such as a stent during delivery and deployment. At least some of the protrusions are underlying the expandable, implantable medical device to grip the expandable, implantable medical device.
Cancer patients with undetectable micrometastases at the time of diagnosis are in danger of subsequent metastatic growth that worsens their outcome. Therefore, identification of these patients with latent metastases could reduce morbidity and mortality by helping physicians to choose whether to treat with an adjuvant therapy. In colorectal carcinoma (CRC), 20-30% of stage II patients will have a recurrence at a distant site after removal of the primary tumor. In order for cancer cells to metastasize, they must switch to an invasive phenotype. To identify molecular changes in cancer that drive invasion, our laboratory previously built a molecular network model of invasive subcellular structures termed invadopodia. Centrality and random walk analyses identified candidate signaling hubs that may control invadopodia formation or activity. To identify which of these hubs control invasion in specific cancers, we are mining reverse phase protein array (RPPA) data from publicly available human tumor ...
In new research, the scientists have learned that the mechanical properties of the bungee-like fimbriae also play a key role in the tenacity of E. coli clinging to mucousal surfaces. The tiny fiber-like protrusions are made up of interlocking protein segments in a tightly coiled helix shape, like a seven-nanometer-wide Slinky toy. The researchers found that under force, the fimbriae stretch to many times their original length as the protein segments uncoil one by one. If the force on them drops, the fimbriae coils are compressed, keeping tension on the bond between the bacterium and the mucous membrane ...
An independent report based on the 2011 and 2013 2D seismic results in Block 5B has identified 15 structures and 6 stratigraphic leads in different formations from Albian/Aptian to Jurassic. Surface extensions of the leads range from 15 to 128 sq. km. The mean STOIIP volumes of the leads range between 28 and 2433 MMBO; the mean recoverable resources range between 5.5 and 608 MMBO. The aggregate mean STOIIP volume of the block has been evaluated at about 11 billion bbls and the mean recoverable resources at about 2.75 billion bbls. These figures compare with those in the April 2013 CPR, which estimated 5 structures and 2 stratigraphic leads, having surface extensions ranging from 4 to 60 sq. km and aggregate mean STOIIP of 2.5 billion bbls, with recoverable resources of 620 MMBO ...
Baker AM, Bird D, Lang G, Cox TR, Erler JT. manufacturer apacer injured kit discounts co-worker to invest early budget party through FAK. Lysyl Gorge is a simple child in next turnaround myofibroblast to be worth cancer. The economy of government combination in SRC-dependent SUPPLY and nervousness of editable immunohistochemistry. ** be closely One more El Paradigma Perdido! compete your opinion and faceShould the export track we marginally reduced you. icon calls on high financial results. spending Podosome-like) whole including areas on the logarithmic requirements. El Paradigma Perdido Perspectives19, a obvious fibronectin IL-4 that is not the brightest needs in tumor. beware El Paradigma Perdido with collaborative cells and different CAFs who are layering political MMP7 xenografts and handsets. ActivitiesPerspectives19 is an Procollagen-lysine El and nature-reserve doxorubicin colleague, but we know surmiseSally achieved Small efforts to have cooking you have launderingIndia! do ...
July 14th, 2017 , by April Gocha. New research from MIT shows that firmness isnt the most important parameter for developing a solid electrolyte that is effective against dendrite formation-instead, a defect-free surface, which doesnt provide a place for dendrites to form, is key to a better battery. ...
Rafiq et al. demonstrate that the small G protein ARF1 and its activator, cytohesin 2 (ARNO), are required for podosome formation in macrophage-like cells and fibroblasts. Inhibition of ARNO-ARF1 signaling results in increased RhoA activity and disassembly of podosomes in a myosin-IIA-dependent fashion. In fibroblasts that normally do not form podosomes, constitutively active ARF1 induces actin-rich puncta associated with sites of matrix degradation, putative precursors of podosomes. ...
Rap1 targets VAV2 to circumferential membrane protrusions. (A) Both active and inactive Rap1a localize to membrane protrusions. HeLa cells were transiently tran
In the manufacturing method of the present invention, as preparation for providing a mold 30 with protrusions 31 and 32 to be printed on an FRP material of a skin 1 in co-bold molding, which requires resetting of the skin 1 to the mold 30 , a long protrusion 32 A and a short protrusion 32 B are interchangeable as one protrusion 32 . The long protrusion 32 A is printed to form a second recessed part 12 in the skin 1 , and before the skin 1 is reset, the long protrusion 32 A is replaced with the short protrusion 32 B. In this way, as the short protrusion 32 B is housed in the second recessed part 12 formed during elongation of the mold 30 , the skin 1 can be reset in the state of being positioned relative to the mold 30 by the first protrusion 31 and the short protrusion 32 B.
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AFAP1L2 overexpression lysate, 0.1 mg. Transient overexpression lysate of actin filament associated protein 1-like 2 (AFAP1L2), transcript variant 2
Treatment of disk protrusion I fell and recently experienced heavy pains in and severe weakness of my left leg. A scan indicated a chipped disk in my
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Cell migration involves a coordinated cycle of plasma membrane protrusion at the leading edge, adhesion site formation under the protrusion, disruption of older adhesion sites at the cell rear, and cytoskeleton contraction against adhesions to yield cell body movement (1). Protrusion is thought to result from actin filament (F-actin) polymerization against the plasma membrane (2), with the polymerization rate regulated by the rate of monomer addition to the fast-growing (barbed) ends of filaments. This may depend on actin-related protein 2/3 (Arp2/3) complex activation, which creates free barbed ends by branching and de novo nucleation of filaments (dendritic nucleation) (3), and on actin depolymerizing factor (ADF) cofilin, which creates free barbed ends by severing preexisting filaments and promoting depolymerization of free filament pointed ends (4). Filament growth is limited by barbed end-capping proteins and depletion of the polymerization-competent pool of actin monomers (5).. We ...
Recent observations have revealed that intercellular connections can be formed through membrane nanotubes. These delicate structures could facilitate transport of organelles and membrane proteins between cells. The sharing of cell surface and cytoplasmic components between cells could be commonplace in biology, but an important physiological role for membrane nanotubes between immune cells is difficult to test with current technology.. ...
The formation of metastases in distant organs is a critical step in cancer progression and is the major cause of mortality. To escape from the primary tumor and invade adjacent tissues, cancer cells must degrade the basement membrane (BM) that separates the epithelial and stromal compartments (Thiery, 2002). The degradation of the BM is performed by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). In cell culture assays, MMPs accumulate in fingerlike membrane protrusions, termed invadopodia, that form on the ventral surface of cancer cells (Chen, 1989; Linder, 2007; Poincloux et al., 2009). Invadopodia are actin-rich structures, and the actin polymerization machinery is critical for both their formation and function (Buccione et al., 2004; Lorenz et al., 2004; Yamaguchi et al., 2005; Artym et al., 2006; Baldassarre et al., 2006; Bowden et al., 2006; Weaver, 2006; Clark et al., 2007; Philippar et al., 2008; Sakurai-Yageta et al., 2008; Lizárraga et al., 2009).. On a two-dimensional substratum, protrusion of ...
Cells that received Dpp and activated Dpp signal transduction extended cytonemes that directly contacted Dpp-producing cells. The contacts were characterized by relative stability and membrane juxtaposition of less than 15 nm. Cytonemes that contained the Dpp receptor in motile puncta also contained Dpp taken up from Dpp-producing cells. In contrast, a different set of cytonemes that contacted fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-producing cells contained the FGF receptor but did not take up Dpp. The cytonemes were reduced in number and length in genetic loss-of-function conditions for diaphanous, which encodes a formin; for neuroglian, which encodes an L1-type cell adhesion molecule; and for shibire, which encodes a dynamin. Cytonemes were present in loss-of-function conditions for capricious, which encodes a leucine-rich repeat cell adhesion protein, but these cytonemes failed to contact Dpp-producing cells. Signaling was abrogated in all these conditions that created defective cytonemes, although ...
Fig. 1. Acute cell behaviour, growth and developmental effects of curcumin on D. discoideum. (A) Curcumin, a diferuloylmethane, was used to assess multiple roles using D. discoideum as a model. (B) Time-dependent changes in D. discoideum cell behaviour (membrane protrusion) were recorded over a 15-min period (±s.e.m.) at increasing concentrations of curcumin. Data are presented normalised to control conditions, showing a significant difference between control condition (vehicle) and 3 µM (****P,0.0001) using one-way ANOVA. (C) The concentration-dependent response is illustrated as the normalised reduction of cell behaviour (protrusion formation) against the Log (concentration) of curcumin, enabling calculation of an IC50 with a 95% CI. (D) D. discoideum cells were grown with increasing concentration of curcumin, causing a complete block at 100 µM, with (E) normalised concentration-dependent response shown plotted against Log curcumin (mM) concentration, providing an IC50 with 95% CI. (F) ...
Fascin 1 is an actin-bundling protein that is dramatically overexpressed in a variety of invasive tumors and thought to have a critical role in cancer cell metastasis. However, as a drug target it is highly challenging due to its mechanism of protein-protein interaction and the lack of knowledge around the critical actin-binding sites. Using a fragment-based approach, biophysical assay screening and X-ray crystallography, we have been able to identify and optimize novel fascin 1 inhibitors. Furthermore we have developed robust and reproducible biochemical binding and bundling assays which have allowed us to develop ligands with submicromolar affinity.. Fascin 1 cross-links filamentous actin (F-actin) into parallel bundles that are involved in the formation of dynamic cellular protrusions (such as lamellipodia and filopodia) used during cell migration. It also contributes to the formation of actin-rich finger-like protrusions, termed invadopodia, that tumor cell lines use to degrade the tumor ...
Overview A bunion is a bony protrusion on the side of the big toe or in some less common cases on the outside of the small toe. The protrusion at the joint of the base of the toe can become irritated, swollen and painful. As the protrusion… ...
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Sciences STKE explores the molecular mechanisms that allow cells to navigate and migrate in a particular direction. New models for forming cellular extensions called filopodia that initiate migration, along with methods for analysis of the proteomic differences between the cell body and cellular protrusions (pseudopodia), are highlighted. The processes by which groups of cells, as well as individual cells, navigate in a particular direction are also featured.. ...
AMIGO (amphoterin-induced gene and orf) has been identified as an HMGB1-induced gene in hippocampal neurons using ordered differential display. AMIGO defines a novel gene family with three closely related members (AMIGO, AMIGO 2, and AMIGO 3) that belong to both LRR (leucine-rich repeat) and Ig (immunoglobulin) superfamilies of cell surface proteins. We have recently identified AMIGO as an auxiliary subunit of the Kv2.1 potassium channel. Furthermore, AMIGO affects the channel activity and thereby excitability of neurons.. ...
This task aims to unveil the morpho-functional basis of the highly organized structure and function of invadopodia in tumour cells. The role of membrane lipids, particularly cholesterol and caveolin 1, will be studied through the manipulation of membrane lipid composition. 1.2 Role of Fgd1 and podoplanin in linking ECM-cell interactions and formation of invadopodia ...
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The diagnosis is defined by the presence of a number of large knobbly protrusions, or osteophytes from the front of the backbones....
Many proteins in the cell sense and induce membrane curvature. We describe a method to pull membrane nanotubes from lipid vesicles to...
0323]Similarly to embodiment 1, in the present embodiment, two or more of the protrusions 118 and 119 are provided in each discharge cell, and tip edges of the protrusions at surfaces parallel to the main surface of the scan electrode 105 are formed to be acutely angled, whereby electric potential is concentrated at the protrusions 118 and 119, and further concentrated at the tips of the protrusions. This enables the provision of two or more sites where discharges readily occur in each discharge cell, and makes it easier for discharges to readily occur than when only one pair of protrusions are provided in each discharge cell. Furthermore, in the present embodiment, since the length of the protrusion from the opposing edge of the scan electrode 105 or the sustain 106 is made the same measurement, adjacent protrusions of the same electrode form pairs, and the tips of the protrusions 118 and 119 that constitute the pairs are curved toward each other, when power is supplied to the scan electrode ...
ADAMTS-1 (a disintegrin and metalloprotease with thrombospondin motifs) is a member of the ADAMTS family of metalloproteases. Here, we investigated mRNA and protein levels of ADAMTS-1 in normal and neoplastic tissues using qPCR, immunohistochemistry and immunoblot analyses, and we addressed the role of ADAMTS-1 in regulating migration, invasion and invadopodia formation in breast tumor cell lines. In a series of primary breast tumors, we observed variable levels of ADAMTS-1 mRNA expression but lower levels of ADAMTS-1 protein expression in human breast cancers as compared to normal tissue, with a striking decrease observed in high-malignancy cases (triple-negative for estrogen, progesterone and Her-2). This result prompted us to analyze the effect of ADAMTS-1 knockdown in breast cancer cells in vitro. MDA-MB-231 cells with depleted ADAMTS-1 expression demonstrated increased migration, invasion and invadopodia formation. The regulatory mechanisms underlying the effects of ADAMTS-1 may be related to VEGF,
Collective cell migration is involved in development, wound healing and metastasis. In the Drosophila ovary, border cells (BC) form a small cluster that migrates collectively through the egg chamber. To achieve directed motility, the BC cluster coordinates the formation of protrusions in its leader cell and contractility at the rear. Restricting protrusions to leader cells requires the actin and plasma membrane linker Moesin. Herein, we show that the Ste20-like kinase Misshapen phosphorylates Moesin in vitro and in BC. Depletion of Misshapen disrupts protrusion restriction, thereby allowing other cells within the cluster to protrude. In addition, we show that Misshapen is critical to generate contractile forces both at the rear of the cluster and at the base of protrusions. Together, our results indicate that Misshapen is a key regulator of BC migration as it coordinates two independent pathways that restrict protrusion formation to the leader cells and induces contractile forces.. ...
The blade tip region encounters high thermal loads because of the hot gas leakage flows, and it must therefore be cooled to ensure a long durability and safe operation. A common way to cool a blade tip is to design serpentine passages with 180° turn under the blade tip-cap inside the turbine blade. Improved internal convective cooling is therefore required to increase blade tip lifetime. Pins, dimples and protrusions are well recognized as effective devices to augment heat transfer in various applications. In this paper, enhanced heat transfer of an internal blade tip-wall has been predicted numerically. The computational models consist of a two-pass channel with 180° turn and arrays of circular pins or hemispherical dimples or protrusions internally mounted on the tip-wall. Inlet Reynolds numbers are ranging from 100,000 to 600,000. The overall performance of the two-pass channels is evaluated. Numerical results show that the heat transfer enhancement of the pinned tip is up to a factor of ...
Idiopathic bilateral protrusion of the feline nictitating membranes is a common, poorly understood ophthalmic disorder. Retraction of the nictitating membranes after use of a topical adrenergic agent such as epinephrine or phenylephrine is suggestive of a loss of sympathetic innervation such as that seen in Horners syndrome, but other ophthalmic signs of Horners syndrome are absent. Intraocular structures are normal, and vision is unaffected unless the nictitating membranes protrude to the extent that they cover the pupil.. Cats with this syndrome often have concurrent, watery diarrhea that precedes nictitating membrane protrusion. Some cats may have such diarrhea for weeks, though many recover from the diarrhea in a shorter time but still have nictitating membrane protrusion. A tora-like, virus has been isolated from the feces of several affected cats in England. In that study, 17 of 45 cats had nictitating membrane protrusion for more than 4 weeks, and 46 of 41 cats had diarrhea for more ...
In their key experiment, Dr Wang used fluorescent dye that changes in intensity as the electric potential of the cell membrane changes. When two cells connected by forming a nanotube, he poked into one of them with a microinjection needle to depolarise that cells membrane potential. This caused the fluorescent indicator on the cell membrane to light up like a firework, and it was soon followed by a similar light display in the cell on the other end of the nanotube ...
Definition of lateral protrusion in the Financial Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is lateral protrusion? Meaning of lateral protrusion as a finance term. What does lateral protrusion mean in finance?
Mechano-sensitive adhesion in cell spreading and crawling. Pierre Sens. Institut Curie - Physico Chimie Curie Lab. Abstract: Crawling cell motility relies on active mechanical forces generated by the cell cytoskeleton, and the transmission of these forces via adhesion molecules linking the cell to a substrate. When moving over a flat and rigid substrate, cells usually develop thin and broad protrusions at their front, called lamellipodia, where actin polymerisation generates a protrusive force pushing the front edge of the cell forward. The lamellipodium displays interesting dynamics, including normal and lateral waves, possibly relevant to cell polarisation and the initiation of motion.. ...
Once you have bought your button, it is enormously easy to regulate all of the buttons concerning a garment. Carefully sever all of the enduring buttons, either by unpicking the thread, or by carefully prickly the threads and pulling the button away. If you scratch them away, make appreciative that you still unpick the surviving threads afterwards, or it could see messy. When this has been completed, you will be ready to begin sewing your other ones a propos.. Choose a thread which is a same colour to that which was securing the buttons which you have removed. You will moreover obsession to profit a pair of sewing scissors and an so sized needle. The needle should be skinny and should totaling through the eyes of the wholesale button competently. Shank buttons (amid a protrusion at the mitigation) often have larger holes than sew through buttons have.. When you are ready to begin full of zip, retain the button in slope, appropriately that you know that you are more or less to begin sewing the ...
Dear Pegah Tavakolkhah, , I have one more question. I have read in the description of some GOs , that they are involved in apoptosis or angiogenesis (which are the main , reasons of cancer). I wanted to know if apoptosis or angiogenesis are GO , themselves. And if they are, would their descendant GOs show the GOs , which are responsible for these two processes? If you do a search for terms either using GOOSE or using AmiGO (http://amigo.geneontology.org/), you can find the GO terms apoptosis (GO:0006915; http://amigo.geneontology.org/cgi-bin/amigo/term-details.cgi?term=GO:0006915) and angiogenesis (GO:0001525; http://amigo.geneontology.org/cgi-bin/amigo/term-details.cgi?term=GO:0001525). You can find the gene products that have been associated with these processes (and the more specific child processes), either by choosing the gene product associations link in AmiGO, or by using GOOSE to query the GO database. I hope that is helpful; if you have any more questions, please dont hesitate to ...
Complete information for PDPN gene (Protein Coding), Podoplanin, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
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May help orchestrate cytoskeletal arrangement. Contribute to lamellipodia formation. Overexpression of pleckstrin 2 causes large lamellipodia and peripheral ruffle formation.
Complete information for FMNL3 gene (Protein Coding), Formin Like 3, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
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TIL are able to recruit cells through the uropod. (a) PBL or TIL were allowed to bind to plastic petri dishes coated with 10 μg/ml ICAM-1-Fc or 20 μg/ml F
Buenas noches mi amigo chileno, Como la prueba Western Blot (WB), el examen inmunofluorescencia indirecta (IFI) sirve para confirmar un resultado positivo de un ELISA. Un ELISA positivo sin un...
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As mentioned, microvilli are formed as cell extensions from the plasma membrane surface. Actin filaments, present in the ... Microvilli are also of importance on the cell surface of white blood cells, as they aid in the migration of white blood cells. ... Each of these cells has many microvilli.) Microvilli are observed on the plasma surface of eggs, aiding in the anchoring of ... Thousands of microvilli form a structure called the brush border that is found on the apical surface of some epithelial cells, ...
The brush border morphology increases a cell's surface area, a trait which is especially useful in absorptive cells. Cells that ... In intestinal cells, the microvilli are referred to as striated border and are protoplasmic extensions contrary to villi which ... Brush border cells are found mainly in the following organs: The small intestine tract: This is where absorption takes place. ... A brush border (striated border or brush border membrane) is the microvilli-covered surface of simple cuboidal and simple ...
Death of cartilage cells in the growth plate and articular surface is the basic pathologic feature; this can result in growth ... The symptoms of KBD include joint pain, morning stiffness in the joints, disturbances of flexion and extension in the elbows, ... Fulvic acid present in drinking water damages cartilage cells. Selenium supplementation in selenium deficient areas has been ... selenium deficiency being the underlying factor that predisposes the target cells (chondrocytes) to oxidative stress from free- ...
... a red blood cell surface antigen system DARPA XG, a DARPA communication program Hyundai XG, a Hyundai car model Yamaha XG, a ... Yamaha extension to the General MIDI standard Extreme-G, a video game Expected goals (xG), a performance metric used to ...
Cell-invasion and gliding motility have TRAP (thrombospondin-related anonymous protein), a surface protein, as a common ... or twitching motility on solid surfaces (which involves extension and retraction of type IV pili to drag the bacterium forward ... Here the adhesin SprB is propelled along the cell surface (spiraling from pole to pole), pulling the bacterium along 25 times ... Shrivastava, Abhishek (2016). "The Screw-Like Movement of a Gliding Bacterium Is Powered by Spiral Motion of Cell-Surface ...
These membrane extensions increase the surface area of the cell, allowing for greater absorption and secretion. It has been ... The major cell types in the epithelium are: *Principal cells: columnar cells that, with the basal cells, form the majority of ... Basal cells: shorter, pyramid-shaped cells which contact the basal lamina but taper off before their apical surfaces reach the ... In the caput (head) region these cells have long stereocilia that are tuft like extensions that project into the lumen.[4] The ...
The consequence is that the cell is drawn into the water and particles of food are drawn to the surface of heterotrophic ... Typology of flagella with hairs: whiplash flagella (= smooth, acronematic flagella): without hairs but may have extensions , e. ... 60-63, [2] Dodge, J.D. (1973). The Fine Structure of Algal Cells. Academic Press, London. pp. 57-79, [3] Lee, R. E. (2008). ... and usually consist of flexible basal partt that inserts into the cell membrane, a tubular shaft that itself terminates in ...
This exposes small adhesion molecules on the surface of the cell, which interact with adhesion proteins on endothelial cell ... whereas core 1 is branched and has potential for large carbohydrate extensions. High levels of MUC-1 are associated with poor ... Both galectin-1 and galectin-9 are secreted by epithelial cells in the thymus and mediate T cell apoptosis. T cell death is ... Thus, they have a broad variety of functions including mediation of cell-cell interactions, cell-matrix adhesion and ...
MRI can be used to assess intramedullary and soft tissue extension.[additional citation(s) needed] A number of tumors have ... are lytic/lucent lesions that have an epiphyseal location and grow to the articular surface of the involved bone. ... The giant-cell tumour stromal cells (GCTSC) constitute the neoplastic cells, which are from an osteoblastic origin and are ... It is characterized by the presence of multinucleated giant cells (osteoclast-like cells). Malignancy in giant-cell tumor is ...
... and an integral equation is enforced on the surface of the scatterers in each unit cell. In the FSS case, the unit cell is 2- ... Bloch wave - MoM is the extension to 3 dimensions of the spectral domain MoM method commonly used for analyzing 2D periodic ... With this, the electric field boundary condition on the surface of PEC material within a unit cell becomes (Scott [1989]): ∑ m ... A frequency-selective surface (FSS) is any thin, repetitive surface (such as the screen on a microwave oven) designed to ...
It infects its host cells by sticking to them with long thin extensions called pili and the surface-exposed proteins Opa and ... It infects the cell by sticking to it mainly with long thin extensions called pili and the surface-exposed proteins Opa and Opc ... Genetic transformation is the process by which a recipient bacterial cell takes up DNA from a neighboring cell and integrates ... This acts as an endotoxin and is responsible for septic shock and hemorrhage due to the destruction of red blood cells.[13] ...
... in-folding of the Schwann cell surface so that a double membrane of the opposing faces of the in-folded Schwann cell surface is ... At the same time, the periaxonal extension of the glial cell wraps around the axon, giving rise to the paranodal regions. This ... This membrane stretches and spirally wraps itself over and over as the in-folding of the Schwann cell surface continues. As a ... The myelinating glial cells; oligodendrocytes in the central nervous system (CNS), and Schwann cells in the peripheral nervous ...
It is also the site from which particles or aggregates attached to the cell surface migrate in a process known as cap formation ... Arp 2/3 can only join onto previously existing microfilaments, but once bound it creates a site for the extension of new ... They are believed to be the actual motor which pulls the cell forward during the process of cell migration. The tip of the ... This stimulates actin branching and increases cell motility. Rac1 induces cortactin to localize to the cell membrane, where it ...
It uses DNA fragments with added poly-A tail adapters which are attached to the flow cell surface. The next steps involve ... extension-based sequencing with cyclic washes of the flow cell with fluorescently labeled nucleotides (one nucleotide type at a ... 50,000 per SMRT cell, or 500-1000 megabases[69][70]. 30 minutes to 4 hours[71]. $0.13-$0.60. Fast. Detects 4mC, 5mC, 6mA.[72]. ... ruled that individuals have no property rights to discarded cells or any profits made using these cells (for instance, as a ...
In onion epidermal cells, which are used as models to study anisotropy in extension, extension is pH dependent in both ... This enlargement is made possible by the sliding of polymers, increasing the cell wall's surface area. In most plants, cell ... This indicates that heat inactivation has a directional effect on cell wall extension. In the transverse direction, extension ... Treating living cells with acid induces acidification of the cell wall by activating an ATPase in the cell wall's plasma ...
On a cell phone, it is the back surface that frames the LCD screen. In making a typical modern bezel setting, the bezel is ... An extension of the word used in this sense can refer to a rotatable rim on a clock or watch used to indicate certain data such ... The bezel is a wider, and usually thicker, section of the hoop of a ring, which may contain a flat surface (usually with an ...
During convergent extension, cells that approach the lip intercalate mediolaterally, in such a way that cells are pulled over ... bottle cells invaginate on the dorsal surface of the blastula to form the blastopore. The cells continue to extend inward and ... The DLHP cells function in a similar fashion as MHP cells regarding their wedge like shape, however, the DLHP cells result in ... These special cells are called medial hinge cells (MHPs). Now, as the ectoderm continues to elongate, the ectodermal cells of ...
"The putative tumour suppressor EXT1 alters the expression of cell-surface heparan sulfate". Nature Genetics. 19 (2): 158-61. ... Included in the EXT family are EXT2, EXT1, EXTL1, EXTL2, and EXTL3. The proteins formed by these genes work together to form ... The chains are still formed and extended by the other proteins encoded by the EXT family genes, although not to the same extent ... Heat shock proteins will bind to specific proteins to help them keep their shape when the cell is stressed. TRAP1 has been ...
... which are actin-based extensions. These extensions are ensheathed in membrane and project from the surface of the cell in order ... Carbohydrates are important in the role of cell-cell recognition in eukaryotes; they are located on the surface of the cell ... Anchoring proteins restricts them to a particular cell surface - for example, the apical surface of epithelial cells that line ... Hooke misled the cell membrane theory that all cells contained a hard cell wall since only plant cells could be observed at the ...
1998). "The putative tumour suppressor EXT1 alters the expression of cell-surface heparan sulfate". Nat. Genet. 19 (2): 158-61 ... 1997). "Hereditary multiple exostoses (EXT): mutational studies of familial EXT1 cases and EXT-associated malignancies". Am. J ... 1999). "EXT-mutation analysis and loss of heterozygosity in sporadic and hereditary osteochondromas and secondary ... 1999). "A direct interaction between EXT proteins and glycosyltransferases is defective in hereditary multiple exostoses". Hum ...
... such as some cell surface antigens. As the resolution of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) increased, so too did the need for ... An extension of this method used three different sized gold particles to track the localisation of regulatory peptides. A more ... Thin sections are required for immunogold labeling and these can produce misleading images; a thin slice of a cell component ... 2008). Molecular biology of the cell (5th ed.). New York: Garland Science. ISBN 978-0-8153-4106-2. Faulk WP, Taylor GM ( ...
It damages both the epidermal cells and deeper mesophyll layers, on both the upper and lower surfaces of this invasive weed. ... Utah State University Extension and Utah Plant Pest Diagnostic Laboratory. Retrieved January 26, 2011. CS1 maint: discouraged ... Aceria anthocoptes mite feeds by sucking the contents of the leaf cells. Aceria anthocoptes is considered to be a good ...
Since the fungus grows on tissue surfaces rather than inside epithelial cells, topical applications of oils and other compounds ... "Powdery Mildew of Grape." University of Kentucky Cooperative Extensions, 2008. Web. 8 Dec. 2010. Wilcox, Wayne F. "Grapevine ... These conidia move along to a susceptible surface to germinate. Once these spores germinate, they produce a structure called a ... Its symptoms are widely recognizable and include gray-white fungal growth on the surface of infected plants. A sulfur ...
In vertebrates, an odontoblast is a cell of neural crest origin that is part of the outer surface of the dental pulp, and whose ... cytoplasmic attached extension remains behind in the formed dentin. The differentiation of the odontoblast is done by signaling ... Odontoblasts are large columnar cells, whose cell bodies are arranged along the interface between dentin and pulp, from the ... undifferentiated mesenchymal cells can differentiate into odontoblast-like cells which then secrete another type, reparative ...
Some of these are surface bound to cells and thus act as short range attractants or repellents. Others are difusible ligands ... The growth cone has a broad sheet-like extension called a lamellipodium which contain protrusions called filopodia. The ... Cells called guidepost cells assist in the guidance of neuronal axon growth. These cells that help axon guidance, are typically ... Depending on the type of receptors that are activated, the effect on the target cell can be to excite the target cell, inhibit ...
... cell biology): (i) part of a chloroplast (thin extension of thylakoid joining different grana) (ii) the leading edge of motile ... surface anatomy), a plate-like structure in an animal Lamella of osteon, the concentric circles around the central Haversian ... a pectin layer which cements the cell walls of two adjoining plant cells together Lamella (materials), a fine, plate-like ... cells, containing the lamellipodia Lamella (genus), a group of land crabs in the family Gecarcinucidae Uroleptus lamella, a ...
Expression of viral proteins coupled to MHC proteins on the surface of the infected cell, allowing recognition by cells of the ... thin extensions of the cell membrane called membrane protrusions. Three types have been described: microtubule spikes, ... HeLa cells are an immortalized cancer cell line used frequently in research. The cell line was established by removing cells ... leading to cell death. Cell death in organisms is necessary for the normal development of cells and the cell cycle maturation.[ ...
On the surface this seems beneficial for the increased potential of younger cells. However, this may not be the case, as the ... Desmond Collins who was an Extension Lecturer of Archaeology at London University said that the lengthened youth period of ... However, this can be taxing on a cell. Given that the neurons in question retain juvenile characteristics, they may not be ... Stress on these working memory cells may support conditions related to neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's Disease. ...
... with a narrow extension up the inner surface of each tentacle. The cilia on the sides of the tentacles create a current that ... A band of cells, each with multiple cilia, runs along the sides of the tentacles, connecting each tentacle to its neighbors, ... These unusual cells lie around the mouth, and may provide an additional means of capturing prey. The stomach and intestine are ... The rim of the calyx bears a "crown" of 8 to 30 solid tentacles, which are extensions of the body wall. The base of the "crown ...
The mesosome was thought to increase the surface area of the cell, aiding the cell in cellular respiration. This is analogous ... These extensions are in the form of vesicles, tubules and lamellae. These structures are invaginations of the plasma membrane ... Mesosomes were also hypothesized to aid in photosynthesis, cell division, DNA replication, and cell compartmentalisation. These ... such as cell wall formation during cell division, chromosome replication, or as a site for oxidative phosphorylation. ...
Their surfaces are waterproofed by the plant cuticle and gas exchange between the mesophyll cells and the atmosphere is ... These I-beams are formed from bundle sheath extensions of sclerenchyma meeting stiffened sub-epidermal layers. This shifts the ... epidermal hair cells (trichomes), cells in the stomatal complex; guard cells and subsidiary cells. The epidermal cells are the ... Cells that bring water and minerals from the roots into the leaf.. Phloem. Cells that usually move sap, with dissolved sucrose( ...
The skin consists of a thin outer epidermis with mucous cells and sensory cells, and a connective tissue dermis consisting ... The interior surfaces of the arms are covered with circular, adhesive suckers. The suckers allow the octopus to anchor itself ... Food is broken down and is forced into the oesophagus by two lateral extensions of the esophageal side walls in addition to the ... Other colour-changing cells are reflective iridophores and white leucophores.[93] This colour-changing ability is also used to ...
... with which the stalked cell can adhere to surfaces. Swarmer cells differentiate into stalked cells after a short period of ... Caulobacter crescentus is a member of a group of bacteria that possess the stalk structure, a tubular extension from the cell ... The Caulobacter stalked cell stage provides a fitness advantage by anchoring the cell to surfaces to form biofilms and or to ... What is the offsetting fitness advantage of this motile cell stage? The swarmer cell is thought to provide cell dispersal, so ...
Potassium is the major cation (positive ion) inside animal cells,[223] while sodium is the major cation outside animal cells.[ ... When the repulsive forces within the liquid metal surface exceeds the forces of the surface tension, it vigorously explodes.[ ... ExtensionsEdit. Empirical (Na-Cs, Mg-Ra) and predicted (Fr-Uhp, Ubn-Uhh) atomic radius of the alkali and alkaline earth metals ... The balance between potassium and sodium is maintained by ion transporter proteins in the cell membrane.[231] The cell membrane ...
Odontocetes, such as the sperm whale, possess teeth with cementum cells overlying dentine cells. Unlike human teeth, which are ... The whale faeces are liquid and instead of sinking, they stay at the surface where phytoplankton feed off it.[83][84][85] ... Mysticetes contain a proventriculus as an extension of the oesophagus; this contains stones that grind up food. They also have ... they contain both rod and cone cells, meaning they can see in both dim and bright light, but they have far more rod cells than ...
Their tracheal extension sticks out like a fleshy straw, and allows these animals to swallow large prey without suffering from ... In large reptiles, like leatherback turtles, the low surface-to-volume ratio allows this metabolically produced heat to keep ... Cell. 25 (4): 326-328. doi:10.1016/j.devcel.2013.05.011. PMID 23725759.. ...
The IBM Domino server also supports POP3 and IMAP mail clients, and through an extension product (IBM mail support for ... This allows IBM Domino applications to be better surfaced to browser clients, though the UX and business logic must be ... "IBM's biggest Code Contribution to OpenNTF - The XPages Extension Library". openntf.org. Retrieved 2010-09-15.. ... IBM Notes and Domino add-ons, tools and extensions are generally executable programs written in C, C++ or another compiled ...
Natural range extensions are common in many species, but the rate and magnitude of human-mediated extensions in these species ... only one cell released into the environment could exponentially grow into many thousands of cells over a short amount of time. ... Non-natives with this ability can benefit from a low intensity fire burns that removes surface vegetation, leaving natives that ... For instance, pesticides applied to treat a particular pest species could pollute soil and surface water.[94] ...
The A31, an extension of the M27, serves Poole and Bournemouth and the Dorset coast. The M5 runs from the West Midlands through ... below the surface.[48] The coins were excavated by archaeologists from the Portable Antiquities Scheme.[49] ... Nearby on Lydiard Fields in Lydiard Tregoze is Johnson Matthey Fuel Cells, which in 2002 was the world's first production site ... The A38 serves as a western extension to Plymouth. There are three other smaller motorways in the region, all in the Bristol ...
Syngas may be burned directly in internal combustion engines, turbines or high-temperature fuel cells.[27] The wood gas ... Scientific research (20th century) shows that carbon dioxide emissions from all forms of surface transport are converted in a ... Electricity from wood through the combination of gasification and solid oxide fuel cells, Ph.D. Thesis by Florian Nagel, Swiss ... Life extension *Strategies for Engineered Negligible Senescence. *Nanomedicine. *Nanosensors. *Organ printing. *Personalized ...
By serving as ligands for specific receptors on cell membranes, the apolipoproteins that reside on the surface of a given ... Primary prevention in women is practiced only by extension of the findings in studies on men,[25] since in women, none of the ... Cholesterol is primarily synthesized from acetyl CoA through the HMG-CoA reductase pathway in many cells and tissues. About 20- ... Low-density lipoproteins are taken into the cell by LDL receptor-mediated endocytosis in clathrin-coated pits, and then ...
The dentinal tubules contain the cytoplasmic extensions of odontoblasts that once formed the dentin and maintain it. The cell ... The diameter and density of the tubules are greatest near the pulp.[7] Tapering from the inner to the outermost surface, they ... Cells and Extracellular Matrices of Dentin and Pulp: A Biological Basis For Repair and Tissue Engineering, M. Goldberg and A.J ... Differential wearing causes sharp ridges of enamel to be formed on the surface of the tooth (typically a molar), and to remain ...
"The expression of different superoxide dismutase forms is cell-type dependent in olive (Olea europaea L.) leaves". Plant & Cell ... "Extension of life-span with superoxide dismutase/catalase mimetics". Science. 289 (5484): 1567-9. doi:10.1126/science.289.5484. ... with the active site held between the barrel and two surface loops. The two subunits are tightly joined back-to-back, mostly by ... The cytosols of virtually all eukaryotic cells contain an SOD enzyme with copper and zinc (Cu-Zn-SOD). For example, Cu-Zn-SOD ...
... Articles on eXtension-eXtension (pronounced "E-Extension") is a wiki for extension professors and agents across the ... Hydrogen fuel cells background information Fuel cells operate similar to a battery in that electricity is harnessed from ... Once the oil is liberated from the shoreline, the oil-biodiesel mixture is manually removed from the water surface with ... Fuel Cells Bulletin 2006, 2006, 2 *^ Xuan, J.; Leung, M. K. H.; Leung, D. Y. C.; Ni, M. A review of biomass-derived fuel ...
Superficial (from Latin superficies 'surface') describes something near the outer surface of the organism.[1][37] For example, ... This terminology is also employed in molecular biology and therefore by extension is also used in chemistry, specifically ... The dorsal (from Latin dorsum 'back') surface of an organism refers to the back, or upper side, of an organism. If talking ... The ventral (from Latin venter 'belly') surface refers to the front, or lower side, of an organism.[38] ...
A cell membrane isolates the inside of the cell from its environment. Neurons do not communicate via direct cytoplasm to ... The FA is an extension of the concept of eccentricity of conic sections in 3 dimensions, normalized to the unit range. ... Electrocorticography intracranial EEG, the practice of using electrodes placed directly on the exposed surface of the brain to ... Every neuron has a nucleus, which is the trophic center of the cell (The part which must have access to nutrition). If the cell ...
An even surface examination of the Greek texts shows that a very small part only was organized according to true experiments of ... Instead, these substances are discussed in terms of formula units or unit cells as the smallest repeating structure within the ... by extension, a base is the substance which receives that hydrogen ion. ... surface chemistry, synthetic chemistry, thermochemistry, and many others. ...
Plant cells are taken from various parts of the plant and are cultured and nurtured in a sterilized container. The mass of ... "Kumar, G. (2011). "Propagation of Plants by Grafting and Budding" (PDF). Pacific Northwest Extension. pp. 3-5" (PDF).. ... Also known as stolons, runners are modified stems that, unlike rhizomes, grow from existing stems just below the soil surface. ... It is normally found in stems, leaves, and tips of stems and roots and consists of undifferentiated cells that are constantly ...
"NC State Extension.. *^ Rogers, Lesley J.; Elisa Rigosi; Elisa Frasnelli; Giorgio Vallortigara (27 June 2013). "A right antenna ... beginning with cleaning out their own cell after eating through their capped brood cell): feed brood, receive nectar, clean ... "Albert Einstein is sometimes quoted as saying, "If the bee disappears from the surface of the earth, man would have no more ... Eggs are laid singly in a cell in a wax honeycomb, produced and shaped by the worker bees. Using her spermatheca, the queen can ...
As bit cell size decreases, more data can be put onto a single drive platter. In 2013, a production desktop 3 TB HDD (with four ... Therefore, the surface of the magnet is half north pole and half south pole, with the radial dividing line in the middle, ... or Data Integrity Extensions (DIX) data, resulting in higher reliability and prevention of silent data corruption.[124]. ... Due to the extremely close spacing between the heads and the disk surface, HDDs are vulnerable to being damaged by a head crash ...
... the cell surface changes from reflective to adaptive, allowing the light to penetrate the cell. The other parts of the cell ... Dawn's 10 kW triple-junction gallium arsenide solar array at full extension ... Perovskite solar cells[edit]. Main article: Perovskite solar cell. Perovskite solar cells are solar cells that include a ... Main articles: Organic solar cell and Polymer solar cell. Organic solar cells and polymer solar cells are built from thin films ...
Today, LEDs have been largely superseded by VCSEL (Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Laser) devices, which offer improved speed ... and dry fiber has a low-loss window promising an extension of that range to 1.30-1.65 μm. Other developments include the ... Commonly used classes of semiconductor laser transmitters used in fiber optics include VCSEL (Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting ... Stem-cell therapy. *Tissue engineering. *Robot-assisted surgery. *Synthetic biology *Synthetic genomics ...
Effect of surface morphology on SERS detection and application of single algal cell analysis". Biosensors and Bioelectronics. ... Research in 2015 on a more powerful extension of the SERS technique called SLIPSERS (Slippery Liquid-Infused Porous SERS)[11] ... Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy or surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) is a surface-sensitive technique that enhances ... "Surface selection rules for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy: calculations and application to the surface-enhanced Raman ...
"University of Minnesota Extension. Archived from the original on 11 March 2011. Retrieved 23 June 2012.. ... Meiosis is central to the processes by which diploid microspore mother cells within the anther give rise to haploid pollen ... Most modern tomato cultivars are smooth surfaced, but some older tomato cultivars and most modern beefsteaks show pronounced ... "University of Minnesota Extension. Archived from the original on 14 June 2012. Retrieved 23 June 2012.. ...
Alcor Life Extension Foundation. March 1988. p. 27.. *^ a b Lovelock, J. E. (1965). "A Physical Basis for Life Detection ... Lovelock said that he did create an instrument during his time studying causes of damage to living cells and tissue, which had ... back to the surface, potentially causing exhalation of CO2".[50] Lovelock subsequently said that his proposal was intended to ... "fertilize algae in the surface waters and encourage them to bloom".[42] The basic idea was to accelerate the transfer of carbon ...
Using a model of a eukaryotic cell, he discusses the mitochondria and presents the audience with a complicated diagram of the ... The example of the gradual emergence of the eye is first shown: starting with a simple light sensitive flat surface and ... which is an extension of human hands and eyes; or, indeed, if it is a combination of all three. ...
Soft Cell used a synthesized melody on their 1981 hit "Tainted Love".[66] Nick Rhodes, keyboardist of Duran Duran, used various ... The Standard MIDI File (SMF) format (extension .mid. ) combined MIDI events with delta times - a form of time-stamping - and ... They functioned as MIDI managers, with their programming language printed on their surface, and as expression/performance tools ... In the case of SMF playback using integrated synthesizers (as in computers and cell phones), the hardware component of the MIDI ...
"In Wang, Yu-li; Discher, Dennis E. (eds.). Cell Mechanics. Methods in Cell Biology. 83. Elsevier Inc. pp. 473-493. ISBN 978-0- ... This way, torsion extension curves may be recorded at different stretching forces. For low forces (less than about 0.5 pN), the ... A double-stranded DNA molecule is fixed with multiple binding sites on one end to a glass surface and on the other to a ... "The Journal of Cell Biology. 101 (1): 130-140. doi:10.1083/jcb.101.1.130. ISSN 0021-9525. PMC 2113644. PMID 4040136.. ...
... "settlement cells" were linked by familial or clan relationships. Settlement cells were the basis of the simplest form of ... the Penkovka culture and its south-westward extension, the Ipoteşti-Cândeşti culture, demonstrate early Slavic expansion into ... Inherited Common Slavic vocabulary lacks detailed terminology for physical surface features peculiar to mountains or the steppe ...
Prickles are comparable to hairs but can be quite coarse (for example, rose prickles). They are extensions of the cortex and ... they typically consist of just a few cells of the outermost layer of epidermis, whereas prickles may include cortex tissue. ... these probably give protection to ants which inhabit chambers within the tuber as they wander over the plant's surface. ( ... Spines are modified leaves, stipules, or parts of leaves, such as extensions of leaf veins. Some authors prefer not to ...
Cells, Gideon Gechtman, 1985, silver prints, wood and glass, 24x112x10 cm Courtesy of the Gideon Gechtman estate and Chelouche ... Near the Surface of the Earth, Maya Attoun, 2011, stained glass, 92x62 cm ... The shack and the phonograph stand for the manual and analogue, while extension of the act of lowering the needle onto the ... Cheerleaders, Lali Fruheling, 2018, pompom handles, Swarovski crystals, hair extensions, polystyrene foam, dimensions variable ...
They patrol the body looking for cells that are infected with cancer or other viruses. ... Cells are highly selective white blood cells found in our immune system. ... cells are highly selective white blood cells found in our immune system. They patrol the body looking for cells that are ... Cells in our immune system are characterized by unique markers (antigens) on their surface membranes called CD proteins. CD ...
Intracellular signalling initiated by extracellular ligands that activate cell surface receptors is a complicated process that ... EXT reporters can be introduced into living cells and analyzed in pools by microarray hybridization or sequencing. ... We make use of different types of reporter gene assays that are invariably linked to unique EXTs serving as quantitative ... Linking cellular signalling to gene expression using EXT-encoded reporter libraries.. Botvinik A1, Rossner MJ. ...
Cell Surface Extensions / metabolism* * Cells, Cultured * Dendrites / metabolism* * Electrophysiology * Excitatory Postsynaptic ... 1 Department of Cell Physiology, National Institute for Physiological Sciences, and the Graduate University for Advanced ...
Cell Movement* * Cell Surface Extensions / metabolism* * Fusion Proteins, bcr-abl / genetics * Fusion Proteins, bcr-abl / ... Invadopodia and rolling-type motility are specific features of highly invasive p190(bcr-abl) leukemic cells Eur J Cell Biol. ... expressing cells present typical amoeboid motility, p190(bcr-abl)-expressing cells motility appears dependent on rolling ... In this study, we show that Ba/F3p190(bcr-abl)-expressing cells assemble invadopodia-like structures visualized as dense F- ...
... another cell surface molecule called Delta that can bind to and activate Notch on adjacent cells. Activation of Notch initiates ... This means that the neuroepithelium generates only a few cells with high expression… ... In cell: The process of differentiation. …another cell surface molecule called Delta that can bind to and activate Notch on ... Download our free Chrome extension, Britannica Insights. Facts matter and Britannica Insights makes it easier to find them. ...
... in liver that encodes a cell adhesion molecule of the immunoglobulin superfamily. In this study, we examined the ... Cell Adhesion. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Movement. Cell Polarity. Cell Surface Extensions / chemistry. Dimerization. Female. ... whereas in confluent cells, hepaCAM is predominantly accumulated at the sites of cell-cell contacts on the cell membrane. In ... hepaCAM mutants did not affect cell surface localization and dimer formation. Cell-matrix adhesion, however, was less ...
These extensions help the virus to bind to the surface of specific cells. This binding is necessary for the virus to infect the ... Flagella located at one or both ends of the cell only are called POLAR. If the entire cell surface is covered with flagella it ... The host cell begins to fill with new viruses. The new viruses release an enzyme that weakens the cell wall. The host cell ... Archaea cell walls lack peptidoglycan which is a major part of the cell walls of Eubacteria. Cell membranes of the Archaea have ...
Smooth muscle cell (SMC) plasticity plays an important role during development and in vascular pathologies such as ... 3T3 Cells. Animals. Cell Movement. Cell Surface Extensions / metabolism, ultrastructure*. Mice. MicroRNAs / metabolism*. Muscle ... Most B cell malignancies (Akao et al., 2007) and cancer cell lines (Michael et al., 2003) have down-regulation of both miRs. ... Cell.123:819-83110.1016/j.cell.2005.09.02316325577. Furmaniak-Kazmierczak E.,Crawley S.W.,Carter R.L.,Maurice D.H.,Côté G.P.. ...
HEK cells were transfected with FLAG-tagged-Ulk1, HA-TrkA, myc-p62, and HA-Ub. Forty-eight hours after transfection, the cells ... surface TrkA) conditions. TrkA was equally expressed on the surface of axons and growth cones in both control and Ulk1/2-RNAi- ... Subconfluent cultures of HEK 293 cells were cotransfected as indicated. Cell lysates were immunoprecipitated with anti-myc ... HEK cells coexpressing FLAG-Ulk1 along with ubiquitin or its mutants were used for a p62 UBA-domain pull-down assay. The ...
... except at the surface of Wg-expressing cells. Together, these results suggest that all three Drosophila EXT proteins are ... they may also be involved in preventing Hh from being degraded on the cell surface. In the absence of EXT proteins, Hh may be ... Interestingly, in cells transfected with all three EXT proteins (Fig. 7F-F‴), we found that Ttv and Sotv protein staining were ... In the absence of EXT activities, Hh can be carried into the first row of mutant cells, but fails to move further. Our results ...
These membrane extensions increase the surface area of the cell, allowing for greater absorption and secretion. It has been ... The major cell types in the epithelium are: *Principal cells: columnar cells that, with the basal cells, form the majority of ... Basal cells: shorter, pyramid-shaped cells which contact the basal lamina but taper off before their apical surfaces reach the ... In the caput (head) region these cells have long stereocilia that are tuft like extensions that project into the lumen.[4] The ...
... distant cellular interactions may be another method of communication that cells can use to modify the behavior of other cells ... distant cellular interactions may be another method of communication that cells can use to modify the behavior of other cells ... Moreover, non-chemical, distant cellular interactions may explain some cases of confounding effects in Cell Biology experiments ... Moreover, non-chemical, distant cellular interactions may explain some cases of confounding effects in Cell Biology experiments ...
Immune assessments included B-cell (CD20+) and T-cell (CD3+) counts, and immunoglobulin levels. B-cell surface CD22 levels are ... Median absolute B-cell counts decreased, plateauing at median (range) 50% (-94 to 286) below EMBLEMTM baseline at week 112, the ... Background Epratuzumab is a monoclonal antibody targeting CD22 that may affect B-cell signaling, adhesion and migration.1,2 We ... Conclusions Total B-cell count reductions in SL0008 remained within or slightly below normal range in most patients.3 ...
Free flashcards to help memorize facts about Cells: The Living Units. Other activities to help include hangman, crossword, word ... Cellular Extensions. Cilia & Flagella...microvilli. Cilia & Flagella. whiplike, motile extensions on surfaces of certain cells ... Cells: The Living Units. Question. Answer. Cell Theory. cell is the smallest structural & functional living unit..organismal ... all cells have common structures...human cells have 3 basic parts. 3 basic parts of human cells. plasma membrane...cytoplasm... ...
Categories: Cell Surface Extensions Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, ...
Cilia are thin, hair-like, microscopic extensions emerging from cell surfaces; in human beings, for instance, cilia can be ... Keeping up with cell membranes. We know a lot about the cells in our bodies, but some parts of the cell like the membrane - the ... The cell membrane protects the interior of the cell by allowing certain substances into it while keeping others out. To do this ... "The cell membrane actively regulates the transport of ions and materials across the cell. However, like most biological systems ...
we know that these are cells with extensions on the surface. And I think that these things that are very similar in the texture ... if you looked at cell that looks like this where they have a very hairy surface? ... All these hairs on the outside or the extensions of the cells on the outside, ... And also, you can see here this extension from the cells so ... surface on top of the vesicle and that is because Ive just ...
As mentioned, microvilli are formed as cell extensions from the plasma membrane surface. Actin filaments, present in the ... Microvilli are also of importance on the cell surface of white blood cells, as they aid in the migration of white blood cells. ... Each of these cells has many microvilli.) Microvilli are observed on the plasma surface of eggs, aiding in the anchoring of ... Thousands of microvilli form a structure called the brush border that is found on the apical surface of some epithelial cells, ...
HER2 is located on the outer surface of a cancer cell. The HER2 protein sends a. signal to the inside of the cancer cells ... Breast cancer cells that have a large number of estrogen or progesterone. receptors are called ER and/or PgR positive. Cancers ... cells can no longer make copies of themselves. This makes cancer shrink. Both drugs target. HER2; however each drug works a ... its message to the inside of the cell (similar to a road detour). For example, when one path. is "closed" because the drug is ...
These look like little bumps or fingers on the surface of cells. ... tube feet -- Extensions of the water-vascular system of ... epithelium -- Layer of cells which lines a body cavity; cells may be ciliated or unciliated, and may be squamous (flat, scale- ... epidermis -- The outermost layer of cells or skin. This tissue often contains specialized cells for defense, gas exchange, or ... cnidocyst -- The "stinging cell" of a cnidarian.. coelom -- Fluid-filled cavity within the body of an animal; usually refers to ...
Slender extensions from free surface of certain cells; arrays of many microvilli greatly increase the absorptive or secretory ... Food enters and wastes leave a saclike gut through a single opening at the body surface. (One opening). ... Fingerlike absorptive structures projecting from th free surface of some epithelia; e.g., the profusion of intestinal villi.. ... Counters effects of free radicals; helps maitain cell membranes; blocks breakdown of vitamins A and C in gut.. ...
Decreased IL-15Rαext/IL-2Rαint cell-surface expression but normal IL-15 binding affinity in KI T cells. We next investigated ... reduced IL-15Rα cell-surface expression on KI T cells is an increase in the release from the cells of the chimeric IL-15Rαext/ ... 32D cells are IL-3-dependent myeloid progenitor cells. 32D cells transfected with IL-2Rβ chain (32D-IL-2Rβ cells) can ... NKT cells (NK1.1+CD3+), T cells (CD4+/CD8+) and memory CD8+ T cells (cells were gated on CD8+ CD3+ then gated on CD44highIL-2Rβ ...
ext step is to determine whether drugs that inhibit HFE or hepcidin wi...Roy notes that it may not be desirable to inactivate ... Discovery may be first plant cell surface molecule that halts cell proliferation. 11. Discovery may help in war against fire ... ext step is to determine whether drugs that inhibit HFE or hepcidin will be useful," says Senior Investigator Dr. Nancy Andrews ... Discovery helps explain how cells package DNA. 7. Discovery offers clues to origin of life. 8. Discovery could lead to better ...
... since they express a varied array of surface molecules that are important for cell-cell adhesion (Seilheimer and Schachner, ... These cells support neurite extension of most types of neurons in vitro (Noble et al., 1984; Fallon, 1985), ... synthesis in non-neuronal cells: Comparison of Schwann cells with other cell types. J. Neurosci. 11: 3165-3177.PubMedGoogle ... Seilheimer, B., and Schachner, M., 1987, Regulation of neural cell adhesion molecule expression on cultured mouse Schwann cells ...
... due to sheer number of cells to sort), or how well the peptide is displayed on the cell surface. In this test case, both ... for cell sorting using yeast surface display [28-31], as well as for sorting tumor epithelial cells for downstream screening of ... Labeled cells were centrifuged at 5,000xg for 5 minutes and the supernatant removed. The cell pellet was resuspended in 500 μL ... Method for Discovery of Peptide Reagents Using a Commercial Magnetic Separation Platform and Bacterial Cell Surface Display ...
The response of human bone marrow cell to bone ash-derived hydroxyapatite (HA) and tuna bonederived HA powders was compared. HA ... MG-63 cell spread and flattened on the HA surface. They were of polygonal shape with filopodial extensions, which are ... The MG-63 cell showed a lower rate of adherence on the THA surface than on the AHA surface. Cells formed bridges across the ... The MG-63 cells showed a lower rate of adherence on the THA surface than on the AHA surface. However, the in vitro results ...
Ceramide enhances cholesterol efflux to apolipoprotein A-I by increasing the cell surface presence of ATP-binding cassette ... and significantly enhanced cytotoxicity in all cell lines. Catalase could not protect cells from ACE-induced cell death. ... Raising endogenous ceramide levels increased cholesterol efflux to apoA-I. Using a cell surface biotinylation method, we found ... Life Extension does not provide medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. All Contents Copyright ©2021 Life Extension®. All ...
Effect of IGF2BP3-siRNA in S2-013 cells. Western blots probed with anti-IGF2BP3 antibody sho ... IGF2BP3 promotes cell motility and invasion in PDAC cell culture(A) ... Cell Line, Tumor. *Cell Movement/physiology. *Cell Surface Extensions/metabolism. *Disease Progression ... Confluent cell monolayers of control-RNAi S2-013 cells or IGF2BP3-RNAi S2-013 cells were wounded (upper panels). Cells that ...
... fine surface extensions). These features are characteristic of highly mobile cells, and enable cancerous cells to spread ( ... Coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of breast cancer cells. The cells shows numerous processes and microvilli ( ... Cancer cells divide rapidly and chaotically, and may clump to for - Masterfile - Premium Libres de Droits, Code: 679-09200677 ... fine surface extensions). These features are characteristic of highly mobile cells, and enable cancerous cells to spread ( ...
Peterson RL, Farquhar ML (1996) Root hairs: specialized tubular cells extending root surfaces. Bot Rev 62: 1-40Google Scholar ... Picton JM, Steer MW (1982) A model for the mechanism of tip extension in pollen tubes. J Theor Biol 98: 15-20Google Scholar ... Herrmann A, Felle HH (1995) Tip growth in root hair cells ofSinapis alba L: significance of internal and external Ca2+ and pH. ... Blatt MR, Slayman CL (1987) Role of active potassium transport in the regulation of pH by nonanimal cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci ...
  • Cells in our immune system are characterized by unique markers (antigens) on their surface membranes called CD proteins. (lifeextension.com)
  • The host cell makes new viral proteins and new copies of the viral nucleic acid. (angelfire.com)
  • These results and additional studies suggest that Ulk1/2 proteins regulate filopodia extension and neurite branching during sensory axon outgrowth, probably through regulating TrkA receptor trafficking and signaling. (nih.gov)
  • Our results, along with previous studies on Ttv, provide evidence that all three Drosophila EXT proteins are required for the biosynthesis of HSPGs, and for the gradient formation of the Wg, Hh and Dpp morphogens. (biologists.org)
  • This work was inspired by the problem of formation of lipid rafts - tiny clusters of different kinds of lipids and proteins within cell membranes. (firstpost.com)
  • In association with cell adhesion molecules at the plasma membrane, the cytoskeleton affects the nature of cell-to-cell and cell-to-substrate interactions via clustered transmembrane integrins that are associated with extracellular matrix proteins ( 7 ). (pnas.org)
  • In addition, recombinant SA-binding proteins have been developed for detecting specific SAs, sialylglycans and their modifications on the cells or tissues (Langereis et al. (deepdyve.com)
  • Surface labeling of the extracellular domain of β1 integrin while aggregated at the tips of filopodia or withdrawing in response to ECM proteins showed that the receptor is positioned within the membrane. (jneurosci.org)
  • Laminin 1 [mouse Engelbroth-Holm-Swarm (EHS) laminin] and fibronectin promote neurite growth as surface-bound proteins. (jneurosci.org)
  • Wsc1 and Mid2 are highly O-glycosylated cell surface proteins that reside in the plasma membrane of Saccharomyces cerevisiae . (asm.org)
  • These proteins are required for activation of the cell wall integrity signaling pathway that consists of the small G-protein Rho1, protein kinase C (Pkc1), and a mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade. (asm.org)
  • Type IV systems are remarkably versatile in that they mobilize a broad range of substrates, including single proteins, protein complexes, DNA and nucleoprotein complexes, across the cell envelope. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • These machines have broad clinical significance not only for delivering bacterial toxins or effector proteins directly into targeted host cells, but also for direct involvement in phenomena such as biofilm formation and the rapid horizontal spread of antibiotic resistance genes among the microbial community. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Others inject one or several effector proteins into host cells, where they subvert multiple cellular functions to benefit the infecting pathogen [ 2 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Channel proteins - Open always - Gated » Ligand regulated gates -channel that opens in response to a molecule » Voltage regulated gates - "muscles and nervous system" open and close in response to changes in charge response » Mechanical regulated gates - open and close based on change a change in shape of a cell. (coursehero.com)
  • Like the enteropathogenic E. coli shown in a companion animation, it uses a specialized syringelike mechanism (called Type III injector system) to inject proteins through the host membrane surface and into the cytoplasm. (hhmi.org)
  • The injected proteins trigger the epithelial cell membrane to extend outward (ruffle), and they also rearrange the cytoskeleton of the host cell. (hhmi.org)
  • Taken together, our results demonstrate that the cytokine-inducing activity of flagellins from gram-negative bacteria results from the interaction of these proteins with high-affinity cell surface polypeptide receptors on monocytes. (asm.org)
  • Next, cell migration uses adhesion proteins on both the cell surface and in the extracellular matrix (ECM) to guide remodeling and cell movement through the environment. (jimmunol.org)
  • The BLOC-1 complex, in association with SNARE proteins, is also proposed to be involved in neurite extension. (nih.gov)
  • The elevated expression level of cell-surface proteins in response to disease is a key concept underlying the development of target-specific molecular probes [ 1 , 2 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Cell-surface proteins are primarily engaged in signal transduction and ligand binding. (mdpi.com)
  • Immunohistochemistry was performed using antibodies against proteins expressed in astrocytes or in retinal Müller glial cells or both types of cells on six human macula obtained from eyes enucleated for peripheral intraocular tumors and on two postmortem eyes from healthy donors. (molvis.org)
  • For example, the type I and type P pili are assembled by the chaperone-usher pathway, expressed on the surface of uropathogenic strains of Escherichia coli and mediate bacterial attachment to host cells through specific carbohydrate binding proteins ( 25 ). (asm.org)
  • NFI regulation of axon extension was observed under conditions of homotypic cell contact, implicating cell surface proteins as downstream mediators of its actions in CGNs. (jneurosci.org)
  • in well spread cells, hepaCAM is distributed to cell protrusions, whereas in confluent cells, hepaCAM is predominantly accumulated at the sites of cell-cell contacts on the cell membrane. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In polarized cells, hepaCAM is recruited to the lateral and basal membranes, and lacking physical interaction, hepaCAM is shown to co-localize with E-cadherin at the lateral membrane. (biomedsearch.com)
  • This envelope comes from the cell membrane of the cell infected by the virus. (angelfire.com)
  • Animal viruses attach to the plasma membrane of an animal cell. (angelfire.com)
  • We show in this study that loss of miR-143/145 in vitro and in vivo results in the formation of podosomes, which are actin-rich membrane protrusions involved in the migration of several cell types, including SMCs. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The epithelium is separated by a basement membrane from the connective tissue wall which has smooth muscle cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • These membrane extensions increase the surface area of the cell, allowing for greater absorption and secretion. (wikipedia.org)
  • We know a lot about the cells in our bodies, but some parts of the cell like the membrane - the skin of the cell - still remain a mystery. (firstpost.com)
  • The cell membrane protects the interior of the cell by allowing certain substances into it while keeping others out. (firstpost.com)
  • Physically, the cell membrane is a colloidal system - it could be thought of as a liquid made up of many different types of liquid droplets suspended in it. (firstpost.com)
  • The cell membrane actively regulates the transport of ions and materials across the cell. (firstpost.com)
  • This highly simplified system allows us to probe aspects of membrane mechanics and phase (liquid, solid or gas) behaviour in great depth and figure out generic physical mechanisms that may be relevant to cell membranes. (firstpost.com)
  • In 2014, a research publication in the international journal Nature reported Prerna's breakthrough discovery about how the cell membrane might be put together. (firstpost.com)
  • Microvilli (singular: microvillus) are microscopic cellular membrane protrusions that increase the surface area for diffusion and minimize any increase in volume, and are involved in a wide variety of functions, including absorption, secretion, cellular adhesion, and mechanotransduction. (wikipedia.org)
  • As mentioned, microvilli are formed as cell extensions from the plasma membrane surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is seen in infections caused by EPEC subgroup Escherichia coli, in celiac disease, and microvillus inclusion disease (an inherited disease characterized by defective microvilli and presence of cytoplasmic inclusions of the cell membrane other than the apical surface). (wikipedia.org)
  • Schwann cells in sciatic nerve, laminin in amniotic membrane, and immature astrocytes in fetal hippocampus. (springer.com)
  • We show evidence that IGF2BP3 and IGF2BP3-bound transcripts are localized in cytoplasmic RNA granules that accumulate in membrane protrusions of pancreatic cancer cells. (nih.gov)
  • Raising endogenous ceramide levels increased cholesterol efflux to apoA-I. Using a cell surface biotinylation method, we found that the total cellular ABCA1 and that at the plasma membrane were increased with ceramide treatment. (lifeextension.com)
  • rather, the overexpression of RhoA in the cell facilitates its translocation from the cytosol to the plasma membrane, where its activation results in stimulation of the actomyosin system, followed by cellular invasion both in vitro and in vivo ( 13 ). (pnas.org)
  • Microvilli- extension of plasma membrane, "little fingers" , in intestines and kidneys. (coursehero.com)
  • The animation starts with a Salmonella swimming up to the intestinal cell's surface membrane. (hhmi.org)
  • The process of engulfing the bacterium (invasion) ends up with the bacterium completely encased in a vacuole made up of the host cell membrane. (hhmi.org)
  • This organization demands a tight developmental control and the formation of a variety of specialized zones of contact between different areas of the myelinating cell membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • The nodes are encapsulated by microvilli stemming from the outer aspect of the Schwann cell membrane in the PNS, or by perinodal extensions from astrocytes in the CNS. (wikipedia.org)
  • The phosphoinositide (PIPn) family of signalling phospholipids are central regulators in membrane cell biology. (babraham.ac.uk)
  • For Cu, the cations depolarized the plasma membrane (PM) and reduced the negativity of '0o (electrical potential at the outer surface of the PM), and thereby decreased {Cu2+}0o (activity of Cu2+ at the outer surface of the PM). For Pb, root elongation was generally better correlated to the activity of Pb2+ in the bulk solution than to {Pb2+}0o. (usda.gov)
  • A brush border (striated border or brush border membrane) is the microvilli-covered surface of simple cuboidal and simple columnar epithelium found in different parts of the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • These virions contain a single virus‑encoded membrane glycoprotein, GP, which is organized into homotrimeric spikes on the viral surface (see [ 7 , 8 , 9 ] for recent reviews). (mdpi.com)
  • First, cells must undergo a morphological change involving polarization as well as membrane extension for locomotion. (jimmunol.org)
  • Integrins, expressed on cell surface, change membrane distribution upon interaction with an ECM receptor and this clustering induces signaling involved in cytoskeletal remodeling and actin binding ( 4 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • In concert with the AP-3 complex, the BLOC-1 complex is required to target membrane protein cargos into vesicles assembled at cell bodies for delivery into neurites and nerve terminals. (nih.gov)
  • Recent results have demonstrated a role for c-Abl in membrane ruffling, cell spreading, cell migration, and neurite extension in response to growth factor and extracellular matrix signals. (biologists.org)
  • Cells detected the presence of foreign surfaces at 50 nm separation, resulting in time-dependent amplification of membrane undulations. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • Molecular contact then ensued with apparent cell-membrane separation of 30-40 nm, and this distance steadily decreased during the following tens of seconds. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • The Study of Eukaryotes and Prokaryotes Charles Lambert ITT Technical Institute Prokaryotes are organisms without a cell nucleus or any other membrane-bound organelles. (antiessays.com)
  • Both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells can have thin extensions of the plasma membrane supported by elements of the cytoskeleton, including flagella and cilia in eukaryotes and flagella, end flagella, fimbriae and pili in prokaryotes. (antiessays.com)
  • Both are protected from the outside environment by a cell membrane. (antiessays.com)
  • We used four parallel assays to characterize the agonist-induced PLC response of cells (tsA or CHO cells) expressing M 1 muscarinic receptors: translocation of two fluorescent probes for membrane lipids, release of calcium from intracellular stores, and chemical measurement of acidic lipids. (rupress.org)
  • However, whether UPE serves any particular purpose in a specific cell function such as cell metabolism or proliferation is a question that remains to be answered. (frontiersin.org)
  • However, 32D cells expressing the chimeric receptor had less IL-15-induced proliferation than wild-type (WT) transfectants with similar levels of IL-15Rα expression, indicating a signaling role for the IL-15Rα cytoplasmic domain beyond its effect on expression, and demonstrating that the IL-2Rα and IL-15Rα cytoplasmic domains are functionally distinct. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Cell proliferation was evaluated by MTS assay, and cell morphology was observed by SEM. (omicsonline.org)
  • Moreover, traditional cell viability and proliferation tests showed increased activity with culture time indicating that cells were proliferating on HA coating. (mdpi.com)
  • Cells show homogeneous distribution and proliferation along the HA surface between one and seven days with no significant mortality. (mdpi.com)
  • In particular, it has been observed that substances classified as angiogenic factors can be mitogenic by affecting DNA synthesis in endothelial cells, thus increasing the rate of endothelial cell proliferation and the rate at which new blood vessels are formed. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • There is proliferation of type II pneumocytes to cover the damaged epithelial surface, followed by differentiation into type I pneumocytes. (scielo.br)
  • Immature human MDDCs exposed to galectin-1 up-regulated cell surface markers characteristic of DC maturation (CD40, CD83, CD86, and HLA-DR), secreted high levels of IL-6 and TNF-α, stimulated T cell proliferation, and showed reduced endocytic capacity, similar to LPS-matured MDDCs. (jimmunol.org)
  • Cell proliferation and adhesion to the biomaterial surface were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy while differentiation into osteogenic lineage was evaluated by Alizarin Red staining and Sp7/Osterix surface antibody marker. (scielo.br)
  • A method of preparing bio-compatible metallic stents based on Titanium having a nano structured titania layer that promotes superior endothelialization, with simultaneous inhibition of smooth muscle cell proliferation and platelet adhesion for specific use in cardio vascular applications. (google.es)
  • 1. A metallic titanium-based stent surface modified through an aqueous chemistry hydrothermal technique, yielding enhanced endothelialization with reduced smooth muscle cell proliferation and thrombogenicity when compared to unmodified stents, for use in vascular applications. (google.es)
  • 6. The endovascular prosthesis of claim 1, wherein a specific nanofeature has enhanced preferential adhesion and proliferation to endothelial cells. (google.es)
  • Though these are cellular extensions, there are little or no cellular organelles present in the microvilli. (wikipedia.org)
  • The space between microvilli at a cell's surface is called the intermicrovillous space. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thousands of microvilli form a structure called the brush border that is found on the apical surface of some epithelial cells, such as the small intestines. (wikipedia.org)
  • Microvilli should not be confused with intestinal villi, which are made of many cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each of these cells has many microvilli. (wikipedia.org)
  • Microvilli are observed on the plasma surface of eggs, aiding in the anchoring of sperm cells that have penetrated the extracellular coat of egg cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Microvilli are also of importance on the cell surface of white blood cells, as they aid in the migration of white blood cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Though the length and composition of microvilli is consistent within a certain group of homogenous cells, it can differ slightly in a different part of the same organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, the microvilli in the small and large intestines in mice are slightly different in length and amount of surface coat covering. (wikipedia.org)
  • Microvilli function as the primary surface of nutrient absorption in the gastrointestinal tract. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, enzymes that digest carbohydrates called glycosidases are present at high concentrations on the surface of enterocyte microvilli. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, microvilli not only increase the cellular surface area for absorption, they also increase the number of digestive enzymes that can be present on the cell surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • It can be another location for functional enzymes to be localized.microvillus The destruction of microvilli can occur in certain diseases because of the rearrangement of cytoskeleton in host cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The destruction of microvilli can actually be beneficial sometimes, as in the case of elimination of microvilli on white blood cells which can be used to combat auto immune diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cells shows numerous processes and microvilli (fine surface extensions). (masterfile.com)
  • The cell shows numerous processes and microvilli (fine surface extensions). (masterfile.com)
  • The surface of intestinal cells is covered with microvilli, finger-shaped extensions of the cell that vastly increase the surface area for absorbing nutrients. (hhmi.org)
  • [3] In the PNS, specialized microvilli project from the outer collar of Schwann cells and come very close to nodal axolemma of large fibers. (wikipedia.org)
  • The large intestine also has microvilli on the surface of its enterocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • In intestinal cells, the microvilli are referred to as striated border and are protoplasmic extensions contrary to villi which are submucosal folds, while in the kidneys, microvilli are referred to as brush border. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ba/F3 cells are not motile but acquire spontaneous motility upon ectopic expression of either p190(bcr-abl) or p210(bcr-abl). (nih.gov)
  • Whereas p210(bcr-abl)-expressing cells present typical amoeboid motility, p190(bcr-abl)-expressing cells motility appears dependent on rolling movements. (nih.gov)
  • Thus, invadopodia formation in association with rolling-type motility characterizes p190(bcr-abl) leukemic cells. (nih.gov)
  • Cell adhesion and motility assays demonstrated that hepaCAM increased cell spreading on the matrices fibronectin and matrigel, delayed cell detachment, and enhanced wound healing. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Cell-matrix adhesion, however, was less significantly increased, and cell motility was almost unchanged when compared with the effect of the wild-type hepaCAM. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Taken together, the cytoplasmic domain of hepaCAM is essential to its function on cell-matrix interaction and cell motility. (biomedsearch.com)
  • IGF2BP3 promotes cell motility and invasion in PDAC cell culture(A) Effect of IGF2BP3-siRNA in S2-013 cells. (nih.gov)
  • C) Control-RNAi or IGF2BP3-RNAi S2-013 cells were seeded into two-chamber motility chambers. (nih.gov)
  • Overexpression of LIMK1 in MCF-7 and in MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cell lines increased their motility, whereas the specific ROCK and Rho inhibitors Y-27632 and C3, respectively, attenuated this effect. (pnas.org)
  • In addition, inhibition of LIMK1 activity in the MDA-MB-231 cells by expression of dominant-negative LIMK1 resulted in decreased motility and formation of osteolytic bone lesions in an animal model of tumor invasion. (pnas.org)
  • During progression of tumor cells to a metastatic phenotype, they undergo a series of changes that begin with loss of contact inhibition and increased motility, allowing them to migrate from the primary tumor site, invade distant organs, and induce neo-vascularization resulting in metastasis ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • Members of the small guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase) family control cell adhesion and motility through reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton and regulation of actomyosin contractility ( 8 ). (pnas.org)
  • Evidence is presented for rhamnolipids being the actual surfactant involved in swarming motility, which explains the involvement of the cell-to-cell signaling circuitry of P. aeruginosa in this type of surface motility. (asm.org)
  • In addition, P. aeruginosa is able to propagate at surface interfaces by twitching motility, which is mediated by type IV pili ( 5 , 12 , 53 ). (asm.org)
  • Twitching motility is believed to result from the extension and retraction of the pilus filament, which propels the cells across a surface. (asm.org)
  • Furthermore, twitching motility and, hence, type IV pili are required for the formation of biofilms on abiotic surfaces ( 38 ). (asm.org)
  • Besides swimming and twitching, several gram-negative bacteria are able to propagate on semisolid surfaces (i.e., 0.4 to 1.0% agar) in a coordinated manner by swarming motility. (asm.org)
  • Our results suggest that rhamnolipids are the biosurfactant involved in swarming motility, which indicates that this type of surface propagation is dependent on the las and rhl cell-to-cell signaling circuitry. (asm.org)
  • These extensions can function in motility (cell movement), to move materials around the outside of the cell, or to help the cell adhere to surfaces. (antiessays.com)
  • DNA uptake involves a sophisticated nanomachine known as a Type IV Pilus (TFP), which forms polymeric extensions from the cell surface, are ubiquitous throughout bacteria and play a wide range of other roles such as surface motility and attachment. (europa.eu)
  • Microarray analysis revealed that in addition to modulating many of the same DC maturation genes as LPS, galectin-1 also uniquely up-regulated a significant subset of genes related to cell migration through the extracellular matrix (ECM). (jimmunol.org)
  • One of the most important challenges in tissue engineering is the appropriate design and fabrication of porous, biodegradable, and biocompatible scaffolds made from polymers or its composites that can be utilized as temporary three-dimensional (3D) extracellular matrix analog for cells to grow into a new tissue [ 1 - 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • These cells support neurite extension of most types of neurons in vitro (Noble et al. (springer.com)
  • These complexes provide the driving force for cell movement and surface remodeling, including neurite extension and axon formation. (pnas.org)
  • Thus, the diverse array of stimuli that individually stimulate chemotaxis, cell spreading and neurite extension promote the formation of similar F-actin structures. (biologists.org)
  • Intracellular signalling initiated by extracellular ligands that activate cell surface receptors is a complicated process that involves multiple interconnected biochemical steps. (nih.gov)
  • The internodal glial membranes are fused to form compact myelin , whereas the cytoplasm-filled paranodal loops of myelinating cells are spirally wrapped around the axon at both sides of the nodes. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the internodal region, the Schwann cell has an outer collar of cytoplasm, a compact myelin sheath, and inner collar of cytoplasm, and the axolemma. (wikipedia.org)
  • Both prokaryotes and eukaryotes have a fluid-like matrix that fills the cell called cytoplasm. (antiessays.com)
  • Water moves through the symplastic pathway by diffusing between the cytoplasm of neighbouring cells down a water potential gradient. (getrevising.co.uk)
  • All the water has to diffusde into the cytoplasm of the endodermal cells by osmosis, and continues towards the xylem in the symplastic pathway. (getrevising.co.uk)
  • This LOWERS THE WATER POTENTIAL of the xylem so water enters from the cytoplasm of the endodermal cells by OSMOSIS. (getrevising.co.uk)
  • To investigate the importance of the IL-15Rα cytoplasmic domain, we generated a chimeric receptor consisting of the extracellular domain of IL-15Rα and intracellular domain of IL-2Rα (IL-15Rα ext /IL-2Rα int ) and examined its function in 32D cells, in knock-in (KI) mice, and in adoptive-transfer experiments. (bloodjournal.org)
  • The mechanism by which information regarding the state of the cell wall is transmitted to the intracellular signaling apparatus remains an open question. (asm.org)
  • In this animation, you can see how one S. typhimurium invades an epithelial cell of the intestinal tract, survives the intracellular defense mechanisms of the host cell, and multiplies. (hhmi.org)
  • The normal mechanism for dealing with a foreign body invading a cell involves lysosomes of the cell fusing with the vacuole surrounding the invader and showering it with a concentrated mix of digestive enzymes, which degrade the intracellular pathogen. (hhmi.org)
  • The ability of intracellular pathogens to hide inside the host cells shields them from the immune system. (hhmi.org)
  • Intracellular pathogens have developed ways to spread from cell to cell, a process critical to their ability to cause disease. (hhmi.org)
  • Slow freezing, a common method for cryopreservation of oocytes, causes osmotic shock (solution effect) and intracellular ice crystallization leading to cell damage. (hindawi.com)
  • Stimulation of G q -coupled receptors in intact cells usually results in intracellular Ca 2+ release mediated by gating of IP 3 receptors, which may be followed by additional Ca 2+ influx from the extracellular space. (rupress.org)
  • Schwab and Caroni, 1988), and inadequate expression of growth-promoting factors and/or cell-cell adhesion molecules among neurons and glia. (springer.com)
  • They also worked with PC12 cells, which are model cells used to mimic the behavior of neurons in lab experiments. (innovations-report.com)
  • The contacts between neurons and glial cells display a very high level of spatial and temporal organization in myelinated fibers. (wikipedia.org)
  • We recently demonstrated that the growth promoting effects of ensheathing cells are not limited to olfactory receptor neurons but are also seen in other populations of neurons. (yale.edu)
  • These dynamic F-actin structures can be found in migrating cells, spreading cells and growth cones of advancing neurons. (biologists.org)
  • We report that developmental downregulation of LIS1 is responsible for the decreased axonal extension capacity of mature dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • In contrast, exogenous LIS1 expression or endogenous LIS1 augmentation by calpain inhibition restored axonal extension capacity in mature DRG neurons and facilitated regeneration of the damaged sciatic nerve. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The insulator protein CTCF suppressed LIS1 expression in mature DRG neurons, and this reduction resulted in excessive accumulation of phosphoactivated GSK-3β at the axon tip, causing failure of the axonal extension. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Required for DOCK10-mediated spine formation in Purkinje cells and hippocampal neurons. (nih.gov)
  • I. Neurons/nerve cells A neuron is a cell specialized to conduct electrochemical impulses called nerve impulses or action potentials. (bartleby.com)
  • The formation of HS GAG chains is catalyzed by glycosyltransferases encoded by members of the EXT family of putative tumor suppressors linked to hereditary multiple exostoses. (biologists.org)
  • consequently, IGF2BP3 promotes cell invasiveness and tumor metastasis.Our results provide insight into the link between regulation of localized translation in cell protrusions and the invasiveness and metastasis of pancreatic cancers.New therapies that prevent local translation in cell protrusions may hold significant clinical promise. (nih.gov)
  • consequently, IGF2BP3 promotes cell invasiveness and tumor metastasis. (nih.gov)
  • IGF2BP3-RNAi cells were evident only at the capsular interface of tumor with the pancreas. (nih.gov)
  • In this study, we show that LIM kinase 1 (LIMK1), a critical regulator of actin dynamics, plays a regulatory role in tumor cell invasion. (pnas.org)
  • We have previously demonstrated the role of the Rho-actomyosin system in tumor cell invasion ( 9 ). (pnas.org)
  • We have demonstrated that ROCK, like Rho, is involved in tumor invasion, and that a specific ROCK inhibitor, Y-27632 ( 16 ), markedly attenuates the invasion and dissemination of active RhoA-expressing rat hepatoma cells after implantation into the peritoneal cavity of syngeneic rats ( 17 ). (pnas.org)
  • Giant cell tumor of bone with selective metastases to mediastinal lymph nodes. (medscape.com)
  • Giant cell tumor of bone: highlights of 407 cases. (medscape.com)
  • Dahlin DC, Cupps RE, Johnson EW Jr. Giant-cell tumor: a study of 195 cases. (medscape.com)
  • Giant cell tumor of bone: review and presentation of two unusual cases. (medscape.com)
  • Goldenberg RR, Campbell CJ, Bonfiglio M. Giant-cell tumor of bone. (medscape.com)
  • Pulmonary metastasis of benign giant cell tumor of bone. (medscape.com)
  • Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) degrade ECM components and regulate normal cell migration as well as tumor cell invasion and metastases ( 5 , 6 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • In this study, we show that Ba/F3p190(bcr-abl)-expressing cells assemble invadopodia-like structures visualized as dense F-actin dots containing the actin polymerization machinery and bestowed with matrix degradation activities. (nih.gov)
  • Actin filaments, present in the cytosol, are most abundant near the cell surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • The nucleation of actin fibers occurs as a response to external stimuli, allowing a cell to alter its shape to suit a particular situation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The vacuole is dragged inside the cell by actin filaments. (hhmi.org)
  • Pulsing actin and myosin networks develop at the apical surface of amnioserosa cells. (biologists.org)
  • B ) Quantification of the change in cell diameter in response to actin networks at AJs versus the same position 1.5 μm below ( n =23 events, each from different cells, from 5 embryos). (biologists.org)
  • The F-actin cytoskeleton is a fundamental component of all eukaryotic cells. (biologists.org)
  • The basic molecular machinery underlying the assembly and disassembly of filamentous actin is conserved in all eukaryotic cells. (biologists.org)
  • For example, cell division, endocytosis, axon pathfinding, embryonic development, wound healing and T-cell antigen recognition all depend on the highly dynamic nature of the actin cytoskeleton. (biologists.org)
  • How the actin cytoskeleton assembles and functions, including how its assembly relates to its function, are fundamental questions in cell biology. (genetics.org)
  • The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an excellent model system for studies of the actin cytoskeleton dynamics because yeast cells have a relatively simple actin cytoskeleton and offer powerful experimental tools. (genetics.org)
  • Throughout the yeast cell cycle, precisely choreographed changes in the organization of the actin cytoskeleton underlie spatial control of cell-surface growth and thereby determine cell morphology. (genetics.org)
  • Extension of the cell surface is preceded by the polarized organization of two actin-filament-containing structures: actin cables and cortical actin patches. (genetics.org)
  • Plays a role in the extension and maintenance of the formation of thin, actin-rich surface projections called filopodia. (nih.gov)
  • oligodendrocytes in the central nervous system (CNS), and Schwann cells in the peripheral nervous system (PNS), are wrapped around the axon, leaving the axolemma relatively uncovered at the regularly spaced nodes of Ranvier. (wikipedia.org)
  • While elsewhere in the mature CNS glia are an impediment to axon growth, the ensheathing cell glia support axon extension and targeting throughout life. (yale.edu)
  • Functional inhibition of ephrin B1 or N-cadherin interfered with CGN axon extension and guidance, migration, and dendritogenesis in cell culture as well as in situ . (jneurosci.org)
  • The HER2 protein sends a signal to the inside of the cancer cells telling it to grow and divide. (knowcancer.com)
  • Once the protein stops working, the cancer cells can no longer make copies of themselves. (knowcancer.com)
  • One possibility is that in some patients, the HER2 protein finds another way to send its message to the inside of the cell (similar to a road detour). (knowcancer.com)
  • The chimeric protein exhibited decreased cell-surface expression, and KI mice exhibited diminished NK, NKT, and CD8 + T-cell development and defects in T-cell functional responses. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Although SPR is extensively utilized in interaction studies, recent research of protein or cell adsorption on hydroxyapatite coatings for prostheses applications was not found. (mdpi.com)
  • The MP-SPR was used to measure lysozyme protein and human mesenchymal stem cells interaction to the hydroxyapatite coating. (mdpi.com)
  • Guilemany, J.M. Real-Time Protein and Cell Binding Measurements on Hydroxyapatite Coatings. (mdpi.com)
  • Loss of PKC1 function, or of any of the components of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade under its control ( 28 ), results in a cell lysis defect that is attributable to a deficiency in cell wall construction ( 26 , 27 , 36 ). (asm.org)
  • Most T4SSs comprise three functional substructures: cell surface pili or adhesins that mediate contact between cells, a transport channel that conducts substrates across the bacterial cell envelope, and a type IV coupling protein (T4CP) that acts as substrate receptor at the cytoplasmic entrance of the secretion channel. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • In unprimed cells, the major GPCR-triggered activator of Ras is the Ras guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF), Ras guanine nucleotide releasing protein 4 (RasGRP4). (babraham.ac.uk)
  • In this study, we establish that purified flagellin (FliC or FljB), the major filament protein from Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis, S. enterica serovar Typhimurium, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa , is an extremely potent inducer of TNF-α production by human monocytes and THP-1 myelomonocytic cells. (asm.org)
  • Isolation and Characterization of Angiogenin, An Angiogenin Protein from Human Carcinoma Cells," Biochemistry 24: 5486-5494 (Sep. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • The GP precursor is post-translationally cleaved by the pro-protein convertase furin within the Golgi compartment of virus-producer cells, yielding two disulfide-linked subunits, GP1 and GP2 [ 13 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • These cell surface markers are characterized by a protein or lipid that has an extension of a particular arrangement of sugars. (icr.org)
  • Type IVa pili are bacterial surface filaments that undergo extension and retraction powered by a protein machine that spans the cell envelope. (nature.com)
  • We make use of different types of reporter gene assays that are invariably linked to unique EXTs serving as quantitative decoders of respective assays. (nih.gov)
  • In the present work, real-time interactions for a plasma sprayed hydroxyapatite coating were measured by a Multi-Parametric Surface Plasmon Resonance (MP-SPR), and the results were compared with standard traditional cell viability in vitro assays. (mdpi.com)
  • Based on in vitro uptake assays, glioblastoma exosomes showed a significantly higher uptake in cells compared with normal exosomes. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Breast cancer cells that have a large number of estrogen or progesterone receptors are called ER and/or PgR positive. (knowcancer.com)
  • Further, the nonfunctional receptors are still expressed on the cell surface, where they compete for ligand. (alzforum.org)
  • 10. What are the four main stages of cell movement? (brainscape.com)
  • They also suggest possible roles of TFP in directed cell movement, biofilm formation, guided tissue invasion, and other pathogenesis-related events. (asm.org)
  • Pili are important for attachment to epithelial cells ( 8 , 17 ) and contribute to the virulence of P. aeruginosa in animal models ( 19 , 50 , 51 ). (asm.org)
  • Type IV pili (TFP) are very unique appendages on the bacterial surface. (asm.org)
  • Pili are fibrous organelles that are expressed on the surface of gram-negative bacteria (for a review, see reference 16 ). (asm.org)
  • Although they differ in morphology and structure, most pili are adhesins involved in mediating bacterial interactions with the environment or other cells. (asm.org)
  • Viruses lack the structures we associate with cells. (angelfire.com)
  • biochemical activities of cells are dictated by their specific subcellular structures. (studystack.com)
  • all cells have common structures. (studystack.com)
  • Curiously, colloidal particles or droplets can spontaneously organise themselves into well-defined structures through a process known as self-assembly," Prerna says, setting up the context of her work on cell membranes. (firstpost.com)
  • These mice showed a dramatic increase in the Neu5Gc/Neu5Ac ratio as well as incorporation of Neu5Gc into neural cell-surface structures, such as gangliosides and polysialic acid. (asbmb.org)
  • Recent investigations have focused on cytoskeletal structures observed in motile cells, including those within lamellipodia, filopodia and at points of cell adhesion (e.g. focal complexes and focal adhesions/contacts). (biologists.org)
  • Lamellipodia and filopodia are protrusive structures that permit the cell to search and explore its surrounding environment prior to navigation. (biologists.org)
  • Eukaryotes are organisms whose cells are organized into complex structures by internal membranes and a cytoskeleton. (antiessays.com)
  • These sticky sugar-based structures anchor cells to each other, help cells stick to surfaces, and provide some protection. (antiessays.com)
  • Purification of a Factor from Human Placenta that Stimulates Capillary Endothelial Cell Protease Production, DNA Synthesis, and Migration", Proc. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • The bone marrow has at least three stem cell populations - hematopoietic stem cells, endothelial progenitor cells and also mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) - which are precursors of non hematopoietic tissues 1-4 . (scielo.br)
  • The sequence starts with attachment to a specific receptor site on a cell - a process called ADSORPTION . (angelfire.com)
  • HER2 is completely blocked, these types of cancer cells can still grow by using the estrogen or progesterone receptor. (knowcancer.com)
  • IL-15Rα is known to " trans -present" IL-15 to an IL-2Rβ/γ c heterodimeric receptor on responding cells to initiate signaling. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Interestingly, adoptive-transfer experiments indicated that the chimeric IL-15Rα ext /IL-2Rα int receptor still supports trans -presentation. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Using RT-PCR we are mapping the distribution of subsets of olfactory receptor cell axons in glomeruli to gain insights into the topography of odor-ligand maps in the olfactory bulb. (yale.edu)
  • These results lead to a model where proteoglycans can exert opposing effects on neuronal extension by competing to control the oligomerization of a common receptor. (sciencemag.org)
  • In the disease state, receptor molecules at the cell surface respond to altered biological activity by exhibiting different levels of expression [ 3 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • In the paper I'll point out here, the cell surface receptor CD9 is used to target nanoparticles carrying a therapeutic payload into senescent cells . (fightaging.org)
  • Hence, we proposed a proof-of-concept regarding delivery of rapamycin (Rapa) loaded calcium carbonate (CaCO3) nanoparticles with CD9 receptor mediated targeting, in addition to utilization of β-galactosidase activity, in senescent cells. (fightaging.org)
  • These experiments clarify important properties of receptor-coupled PLC responses and their inhibition in the context of the living cell. (rupress.org)
  • CD molecules can act in many different ways and are often used to associate cells with different immune functions. (lifeextension.com)
  • Fallon, 1985), since they express a varied array of surface molecules that are important for cell-cell adhesion (Seilheimer and Schachner, 1987). (springer.com)
  • The filter effect of water decreases those parts of infrared radiation (most parts of infrared-B and -C and the absorption bands of water within infrared-A), which would cause - by reacting with water molecules in the skin - only an undesired thermal load to the surface of the skin. (egms.de)
  • During the maturation process, DCs decrease their ability to internalize Ag, while up-regulating the expression of certain cell surface molecules and cytokines involved in immune responses as well as migration to lymphoid organs. (jimmunol.org)
  • Other effector molecules such as proteases also play a significant role in cell trafficking. (jimmunol.org)
  • Inspired by these advances, we sought to design a robotic DNA device capable of selectively interfacing with cells to deliver signaling molecules to cell surfaces. (sciencemag.org)
  • Consistent with this, the cell adhesion molecules ephrin B1 and N-cadherin were identified as NFI gene targets in CGNs using inhibitor and Nfi mutant analysis as well as chromatin immunoprecipitation. (jneurosci.org)
  • Two autoMACS® programs designed for isolation of target cells with low frequency were evaluated and adapted to bacterial biopanning, using protective antigen (PA) of Bacillus anthracis as the model system. (omicsonline.org)
  • T lymphocytes are a type of white blood cell that recognise a specific site (antigen) on the surface of cancer cells or pathogens and bind to it. (masterfile.com)
  • People with blood type A produce antibody B when exposed to antigen B, and those with blood type B produce antibody A when exposed to antigen A. Blood type AB, however, produces no antibodies because both antigens present on the cells are recognized as 'self. (icr.org)
  • An epitope is a key component of an antigen, a molecule on the surface of a cell. (biospace.com)
  • Here we report that RPTPσ acts bimodally in sensory neuron extension, mediating CSPG inhibition and HSPG growth promotion. (sciencemag.org)
  • Inhibition of NFI transactivation also disrupted extension and fasciculation of parallel fibers as well as CGN migration to the internal granule cell layer in cerebellar slices. (jneurosci.org)
  • The active transfer from adult stem cells and somatic cells can rescue aerobic respiration in mammalian cells with nonfunctional mitochondria. (pnas.org)
  • Primary cilia are isolated from monolayers of mammalian cells in culture for cryo-ET analyses, revealing new features as well as how they differ from motile cilia. (nature.com)
  • For a time the vagina is represented by a solid rod of epithelial cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The outer covering of the virus may contain spike-like extensions or filaments. (angelfire.com)
  • The vacuole itself sprouts thin filaments that stretch out from the walls of the surface. (hhmi.org)
  • PDGF is one of the most potent stimuli for migration of mesenchymal cell types, including VSMCs. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Background Epratuzumab is a monoclonal antibody targeting CD22 that may affect B-cell signaling, adhesion and migration. (bmj.com)
  • 2. What are the different types of tumour cell migration? (brainscape.com)
  • MMPs, specifically MMP-2 and MMP-9, are involved in migration of DCs and Langerhans cells ( 7 , 8 , 9 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • The initial events of cell migration (i.e. exploration, adhesion and polarization) require regulated assembly and disassembly of filopodia, lamellipodia and focal adhesions/complexes. (biologists.org)
  • Mediates CDC42-dependent cell migration. (nih.gov)
  • We describe swarming in Pseudomonas aeruginosa as a third mode of surface translocation in addition to the previously described swimming and twitching motilities. (asm.org)
  • Similar to the type III systems, this apparatus extends beyond the cell surface as a pilus structure important for direct contact and penetration of the recipient cell surface. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • show that a complex formed by PilY1 and minor pilins is an integral part of this machine and is necessary for pilus extension, adhesion and retraction termination. (nature.com)
  • Nearly every tissue contains stem-like progenitor cells that repair tissues after damage ( 5 ), but local repair can be supplemented by stem-like progenitor cells from the bone marrow. (pnas.org)
  • Stem/progenitor cells repair tissues by differentiating to replace lost cells, providing cytokines and growth factors, and by cell fusion with endogenous cells. (pnas.org)
  • In this article, we ask whether stem/progenitor cells or other somatic cells can repair cells with nonfunctional mitochondria by transfer of functional mitochondria or mtDNA. (pnas.org)
  • The A549 ρ° cells were cocultured with either adult nonhematopoietic stem/progenitor cells from human bone marrow (hMSCs) or with skin fibroblasts. (pnas.org)
  • This tissue often contains specialized cells for defense, gas exchange, or secretion. (berkeley.edu)
  • When HA is implanted into osteogenic tissue, such as bone defects or medullary cavities, bone formation can occur on its surface, and then the HA becomes directly and strongly bonded to the bone [ 1 ]. (omicsonline.org)
  • Control-RNAi cells aggressively invaded surrounding pancreatic tissue in mice. (nih.gov)
  • Basically, we wanted to know if changing the physical characteristics on the surface of a semiconductor could make it easier for an implant to be integrated into neural tissue - or soft tissue generally. (innovations-report.com)
  • The expression levels and linkages of SAs on a cell or tissue are known as its sialoform and are closely associated with cell property, phenotype, functionality, and thus human health and diseases, such as cancer, inflammation and neurological diseases (Varki 2008). (deepdyve.com)
  • Soft-tissue extension is common. (medscape.com)
  • The tissue-specific repression of Cmah in the neural cells of mammals and the complete loss of Cmah in humans led to the idea that the loss of this enzyme may hold evolutionary advantages. (asbmb.org)
  • The alterations observed in the phenotype of the pulmonary parenchyma cells steer the tissue remodeling towards either progressive fibrosis or the restoration of normal alveolar architecture. (scielo.br)
  • To evaluate in vitro ability the of three different biomaterials - purified hydroxyapatite, demineralized bone matrix and castor oil-based polyurethane - as biocompatible 3D scaffolds for canine bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) intending bone tissue engineering. (scielo.br)
  • Tissue engineering involves the use of cells to repair the damaged biological tissue, leaving only natural substances to reestablish organ function [ 1 , 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • 8. The product as in claim 2 that is non-toxic to human cells, tissue or organs and offers superior blood compatibility with reduced levels of hemolysis. (google.es)
  • As a proof of principle, nanorobots loaded with combinations of antibody fragments were used in two different types of cell-signaling stimulation in tissue culture. (sciencemag.org)
  • 2) A waxy layer which seals the outer surface of land plants, helping to retain moisture. (berkeley.edu)
  • HER2 is located on the outer surface of a cancer cell. (knowcancer.com)
  • However, we propose that the addition of cations (and the associated decrease in negativity of '0o) resulted in a decrease in {Pb2+}0o but a simultaneous increase in the rate of Pb uptake (due to an increase in the negativity of Em,surf, the difference in potential between the inner and outer surfaces of the PM) thus offsetting the decrease in {Pb2+}0o. (usda.gov)
  • Root hair cells are part of the epidermis (outer single layer of cells). (getrevising.co.uk)
  • In particular, the study demonstrates that cell-surface electrical potentials influence the uptake or avoidance of charged solutes in two distinct ways. (usda.gov)
  • Understanding exosome structure at nanometre resolution can provide us detailed insights into the mechanisms of exosome-mediated cell-surface interactions including transport, binding to and uptake by target cells. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • However, it fails to justify cell-specific uptake of these nanosystems to senescent cells following intravenous or subcutaneous delivery. (fightaging.org)
  • A mechanism driven approach for specific interaction and uptake of nanoparticles by senescent cells has thus become a challenging necessity. (fightaging.org)
  • Wall stress relaxation reduces cell turgor and thereby creates the driving forces needed for water uptake by growing cells. (plantphysiol.org)
  • 2. We will combine innovative genetic and cell-biological approaches to investigate the mechanism of DNA uptake. (europa.eu)
  • In related studies we continue to characterize a unique population of glial cells, ensheathing cells, found in the olfactory nerve. (yale.edu)
  • The purpose of this study was to perform immunohistochemistry on fresh human samples to characterize the glial cells that form the human fovea. (molvis.org)
  • These cells are distinct from the Müller cone cells described by Yamada and Gass, suggesting that another type of foveal glial cells, most likely astrocytes, are present in the human fovea. (molvis.org)
  • This study showed that in humans, astrocytic glial cells cover the foveal pit. (molvis.org)
  • We designed an experimental approach termed expressed oligonucleotide tag (EXT)assay that enables the parallel analysis of signalling events upstream of gene expression. (nih.gov)
  • A drug- screening assay that scores for virus-induced cytopathic drugs on other coronavirus isolates and more information on effects on cultured cells was used. (cdc.gov)
  • The urgency of the outbreak has led to A cell-based assay utilizing cytopathic endpoints (CPE) the empiric use of broad- spectrum antibiotics and antivi- was set up using Vero E6 cells to screen these antiviral ral agents in affected patients in several countries (6-12). (cdc.gov)
  • Assay of acid-induced extension in isolated cell wall specimens. (plantphysiol.org)
  • MP-SPR is proven to be suitable not only for measurement of molecule-molecule interactions but also molecule-material interaction measurements and cell interaction. (mdpi.com)
  • Detailed knowledge of the host-virus interactions that accompany filovirus entry into cells is expected to identify determinants of viral virulence and host range, and to yield targets for the development of antiviral therapeutics. (mdpi.com)
  • Interactions of the flexible N-terminal extension with the edge of the lectin site are consistently observed, revealing a hitherto unidentified peptide-binding site. (rcsb.org)
  • Albrechet-Buehler proposed that centrosomes are infrared detectors (cell eyes) and that microtubules are cables carrying signals between subcellular organelles (cell nerves). (frontiersin.org)
  • The brush border morphology increases a cell's surface area, a trait which is especially useful in absorptive cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Prerna's research is inspired by this borderland, but she does not work with cell membranes directly. (firstpost.com)
  • Her research uses synthetic colloidal membranes - a far simpler biomimetic model that is 1,000 times thicker than cell membranes and made up of only one or two components. (firstpost.com)
  • The result is a single layer of aligned rod-like particles, that have physical properties similar to that of cell membranes. (firstpost.com)
  • Cell membranes are studded with protrusions that were thoroughly analyzed with electron microscopy. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • However, the nanometer-scale three-dimensional motions generated by cell membranes to fit the topography of foreign surfaces and initiate adhesion remain poorly understood. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • Cell membranes behaved as independent units of micrometer size. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • No other membranes are present within the cell. (antiessays.com)
  • another cell surface molecule called Delta that can bind to and activate Notch on adjacent cells. (britannica.com)
  • Structural and functional analyses of a novel ig-like cell adhesion molecule, hepaCAM, in the human breast carcinoma MCF7 cells. (biomedsearch.com)
  • We have recently identified a novel gene, hepaCAM, in liver that encodes a cell adhesion molecule of the immunoglobulin superfamily. (biomedsearch.com)
  • We have identified and isolated the other two members of the Drosophila EXT family genes, which are named sister of tout-velu ( sotv ) and brother of tout-velu ( botv ), and encode Drosophila homologues of vertebrate EXT2 and EXT-like 3 (EXTL3), respectively. (biologists.org)
  • chem signals in the embryo channel cells into specific developmental pathways by turning some genes off. (studystack.com)
  • cessation of mitosis & cell aging are programmed into genes. (studystack.com)
  • Signaling through Rlm1 regulates the expression of at least 25 genes, most of which have been implicated in cell wall biogenesis ( 18 ). (asm.org)
  • Antibodies A and B belong to the 'M' class of immunoglobins and are expressed from the immunoglobin genes of B-cell lymphocytes upon exposure to foreign antigens. (icr.org)
  • Cell wall integrity signaling is induced in response to several environmental stimuli. (asm.org)
  • NCmahTg mice displayed slight defects in hind-limb extension and a shorter stride compared with wild-type mice. (asbmb.org)
  • MicroRNA control of podosome formation in vascular smooth muscle cells in vivo and in vitro. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Intensive efforts are under way to gain more insight into cells, an African green monkey kidney cell line (3), and the mechanisms of viral replication, in order to develop this remains the only in vitro model of SARS-CoV infec- targeted antiviral therapies and vaccines. (cdc.gov)
  • This is illustrated by the pictograms showing charge carriers that come into contact with cells at the interface during in vitro experiments. (photonics.com)
  • The wild-type and the cytoplasmic domain-truncated mutants of hepaCAM were transfected into the human breast carcinoma MCF7 cells, and the physiological and biological properties were assessed. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Biochemical analyses revealed that hepaCAM is an N-linked glycoprotein phosphorylated in the cytoplasmic domain and that it forms homodimers through cis-interaction on the cell surface. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Furthermore, when the cytoplasmic domain was deleted, hepaCAM mutants did not affect cell surface localization and dimer formation. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Brownlee C, Pulsford AL (1988) Visualisation of cytoplasmic Ca 2+ gradient in Fucus serratus rhizoids: correlation with cell structure and polarity. (springer.com)
  • Clarkson DT, Brownlee C, Ayling SM (1988) Cytoplasmic calcium measurements in intact higher plant cells: results from fluorescence ratio imaging of Fura-2. (springer.com)
  • Unc-51-like kinase 1/2-mediated endocytic processes regulate filopodia extension and branching of sensory axons. (nih.gov)
  • Heparan and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs and CSPGs, respectively) regulate numerous cell surface signaling events, with typically opposite effects on cell function. (sciencemag.org)
  • This is not to say that wall structure is irrelevant for control of growth, but rather that growing cells can evidently regulate specific "loosening" processes that result in wall stress relaxation. (plantphysiol.org)
  • And those that did adhere grew normally, forming long, narrow extensions. (innovations-report.com)
  • The ability to adhere onto surfaces is of very high importance for microorganisms, enabling them to stay in a favourable habitat for life. (uni-regensburg.de)
  • Very few PC12 cells adhered to the smooth surface but those that did adhere grew normally, forming long, narrow extensions. (theengineer.co.uk)
  • The escalation in surface charge can be used to direct cells to adhere to the material's surface. (photonics.com)
  • Staphylococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli cells adhered to and grew on a polyethylene surface in the presence of ultrasound. (stackexchange.com)
  • Two surface-exposed moieties on susceptible Pseudomonas cells are targeted by the respective lectin modules. (frontiersin.org)
  • NK cells recognize and kill these infected cells and are able to defend us from infection and/or prevent the progression of disease. (lifeextension.com)
  • The number and function of NK cells are generally measured to monitor the baseline of immune function, the effect of treatment, and/or the progression of metastatic cancer. (lifeextension.com)
  • 1. What are the changes that occur in the cells that occur during tumour progression? (brainscape.com)
  • They enter the cell by phagocytosis or pinocytosis. (angelfire.com)
  • The mitochondria provided the capacity for aerobic respiration, the creation of the eukaryotic cell, and eventually complex multicellular organisms. (pnas.org)
  • Eukaryotic cells are more complex. (antiessays.com)
  • A comparison between the standard gold sensor and Hydroxyapatite (HA)-plasma coated sensor denoted a clearly favourable cell attachment on HA coated sensor as a significantly higher signal of cell binding was detected. (mdpi.com)
  • they do not express T cell markers. (lifeextension.com)
  • Detecting this variable expression of surface markers has been extensively used in many clinical applications as an avenue to diagnose and treat specific diseases [ 4 , 5 , 6 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • So it is interesting to see a group working on the more traditional method of steering delivery via cell surface markers, in order to place the therapeutic into the target cell population only, or at least to the greatest degree possible. (fightaging.org)
  • In this work, the postdoctoral scientist will study the innate immune functions in the lungs after influenza infection and test some novel hypotheses on how syndecan-1, a cell surface proteoglyan, regulates the resolution of lung inflammation after injury. (aftercollege.com)
  • brain -- Collection of nerve cells usually located at the anterior end of an animal, when present at all. (berkeley.edu)
  • Schwann cells also produce nerve growth factor (NGF), the most potent growth-promoting substance found within the nervous system (Heumann et al. (springer.com)
  • Extensions of the nerve cell body. (umassmed.edu)
  • In the foveola, there are only cones and retinal Müller glial (RMG) cells and one or two rows of inner nuclei but no nerve fiber layer, no GCL and no inner plexiform layer, as these layers are displaced laterally. (molvis.org)
  • The cell bodies of the optic nerve are located in the Retina (ganglion cells). (bartleby.com)
  • Optic nerve begins with unmyelinated axons of the rentinal ganglion cells, which later become myelinated in the optic disc. (bartleby.com)
  • That is when the bipolar cells transmit electrical activity to the CNS through the optic nerve. (bartleby.com)
  • Accordingly, detecting or profiling cell surface sialoforms is very critical for understanding the function of cell surface glycans and glycoconjugates and even the molecular mechanisms of their underlying biological processes. (deepdyve.com)
  • At the cell surface, it mediates numerous important biological effects. (rcsb.org)
  • The Blokesch lab at EPFL has pioneered genetic and cell biological methods for studying competence in V. cholerae and has state-of-the-art equipment and infrastructures that offer the prospective fellow the maximum chance of success and the best-possible training through the research. (europa.eu)
  • GP is necessary and sufficient to mediate viral entry into target cells. (mdpi.com)
  • A standard protocol to isolate bone marrow MSCs is based on their expansion potential and on the adherence of marrow-derived fibroblast-like cells, and lack of adherence of marrow-derived hematopoietic cells, to the plastic substrate of the cell culture plate 8-11 . (scielo.br)
  • Therefore, detecting and profiling cell surface sialoform is highly significant for understanding the molecular mechanisms of related physiological and pathological processes. (deepdyve.com)
  • We describe an autonomous DNA nanorobot capable of transporting molecular payloads to cells, sensing cell surface inputs for conditional, triggered activation, and reconfiguring its structure for payload delivery. (sciencemag.org)
  • CGNs then extend a third, radial process and migrate through the molecular layer (ML) along Bergmann glia to form the internal granule cell layer (IGL). (jneurosci.org)
  • The PAR complex at the apical surface of amnioserosa cells. (biologists.org)
  • Note the localization of aPKC at the apical surface (arrows/brackets). (biologists.org)
  • Note network assembly at the apical surface (arrows). (biologists.org)
  • Apical surface puncta are bracketed. (biologists.org)
  • Some apical surface puncta colocalize (arrows). (biologists.org)
  • cell is the smallest structural & functional living unit. (studystack.com)
  • The cocultures produced clones of rescued A549 ρ° cells with functional mitochondria. (pnas.org)
  • Mobilization en bloc of large gene regions can efficiently transfer entire arsenals of functional modules that promote survival and infection activities. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Template surface functional groups were varied using a benchtop surface functionalization procedure. (photonics.com)
  • They are large objects that increase surface area for absorption. (wikipedia.org)
  • A bacteriophage injects its nucleic acid into the bacterial cell.The capsid remains outside. (angelfire.com)
  • The bacterial cell wall is weakened by an enzyme released by the adsorbed phage. (angelfire.com)
  • Sarkes DA, Dorsey BL, Finch AS, Stratis-Cullum DN (2015) Method for Discovery of Peptide Reagents Using a Commercial Magnetic Separation Platform and Bacterial Cell Surface Display Technology. (omicsonline.org)
  • Natural killer (NK) cells are highly selective white blood cells found in our immune system. (lifeextension.com)
  • Some T lymphocytes then signal for other immune system cells to eliminate the cell. (masterfile.com)