Surface-Active Agents: Agents that modify interfacial tension of water; usually substances that have one lipophilic and one hydrophilic group in the molecule; includes soaps, detergents, emulsifiers, dispersing and wetting agents, and several groups of antiseptics.Surface Tension: The force acting on the surface of a liquid, tending to minimize the area of the surface. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Pulmonary Surfactants: Substances and drugs that lower the SURFACE TENSION of the mucoid layer lining the PULMONARY ALVEOLI.Adsorption: The adhesion of gases, liquids, or dissolved solids onto a surface. It includes adsorptive phenomena of bacteria and viruses onto surfaces as well. ABSORPTION into the substance may follow but not necessarily.Proteolipids: Protein-lipid combinations abundant in brain tissue, but also present in a wide variety of animal and plant tissues. In contrast to lipoproteins, they are insoluble in water, but soluble in a chloroform-methanol mixture. The protein moiety has a high content of hydrophobic amino acids. The associated lipids consist of a mixture of GLYCEROPHOSPHATES; CEREBROSIDES; and SULFOGLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS; while lipoproteins contain PHOSPHOLIPIDS; CHOLESTEROL; and TRIGLYCERIDES.Surface Properties: Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.Phospholipids: Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Liposomes: Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.Immunoassay: A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Antigen-Antibody Complex: The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.Patents as Topic: Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.Acute-Phase Reaction: An early local inflammatory reaction to insult or injury that consists of fever, an increase in inflammatory humoral factors, and an increased synthesis by hepatocytes of a number of proteins or glycoproteins usually found in the plasma.Complement System Proteins: Serum glycoproteins participating in the host defense mechanism of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION that creates the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Included are glycoproteins in the various pathways of complement activation (CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; and LECTIN COMPLEMENT PATHWAY).Health Personnel: Men and women working in the provision of health services, whether as individual practitioners or employees of health institutions and programs, whether or not professionally trained, and whether or not subject to public regulation. (From A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, 1976)United States Food and Drug Administration: An agency of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to maintaining standards of quality of foods, drugs, therapeutic devices, etc.Pharmacology: The study of the origin, nature, properties, and actions of drugs and their effects on living organisms.Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions: Disorders that result from the intended use of PHARMACEUTICAL PREPARATIONS. Included in this heading are a broad variety of chemically-induced adverse conditions due to toxicity, DRUG INTERACTIONS, and metabolic effects of pharmaceuticals.Pharmacology, Clinical: The branch of pharmacology that deals directly with the effectiveness and safety of drugs in humans.Attitude of Health Personnel: Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Systems: Systems developed for collecting reports from government agencies, manufacturers, hospitals, physicians, and other sources on adverse drug reactions.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Static Electricity: The accumulation of an electric charge on a objectMolecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Hydrogen Bonding: A low-energy attractive force between hydrogen and another element. It plays a major role in determining the properties of water, proteins, and other compounds.Benzoyl Peroxide: A peroxide derivative that has been used topically for BURNS and as a dermatologic agent in the treatment of ACNE and POISON IVY DERMATITIS. It is used also as a bleach in the food industry.EncyclopediasDictionaries, MedicalDictionaries as Topic: Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.Molecular Sequence Annotation: The addition of descriptive information about the function or structure of a molecular sequence to its MOLECULAR SEQUENCE DATA record.Databases, Genetic: Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.Zinc Oxide: A mild astringent and topical protectant with some antiseptic action. It is also used in bandages, pastes, ointments, dental cements, and as a sunblock.Nanoparticles: Nanometer-sized particles that are nanoscale in three dimensions. They include nanocrystaline materials; NANOCAPSULES; METAL NANOPARTICLES; DENDRIMERS, and QUANTUM DOTS. The uses of nanoparticles include DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS and cancer targeting and imaging.Access to Information: Individual's rights to obtain and use information collected or generated by others.Metal Nanoparticles: Nanoparticles produced from metals whose uses include biosensors, optics, and catalysts. In biomedical applications the particles frequently involve the noble metals, especially gold and silver.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Gastroenterology: A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with the study of the physiology and diseases of the digestive system and related structures (esophagus, liver, gallbladder, and pancreas).Journal Impact Factor: A quantitative measure of the frequency on average with which articles in a journal have been cited in a given period of time.Image Enhancement: Improvement of the quality of a picture by various techniques, including computer processing, digital filtering, echocardiographic techniques, light and ultrastructural MICROSCOPY, fluorescence spectrometry and microscopy, scintigraphy, and in vitro image processing at the molecular level.Contrast Media: Substances used to allow enhanced visualization of tissues.Radiographic Image Enhancement: Improvement in the quality of an x-ray image by use of an intensifying screen, tube, or filter and by optimum exposure techniques. Digital processing methods are often employed.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Gadolinium: Gadolinium. An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Gd, atomic number 64, and atomic weight 157.25. Its oxide is used in the control rods of some nuclear reactors.Glioblastoma: A malignant form of astrocytoma histologically characterized by pleomorphism of cells, nuclear atypia, microhemorrhage, and necrosis. They may arise in any region of the central nervous system, with a predilection for the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, and commissural pathways. Clinical presentation most frequently occurs in the fifth or sixth decade of life with focal neurologic signs or seizures.Glioma: Benign and malignant central nervous system neoplasms derived from glial cells (i.e., astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and ependymocytes). Astrocytes may give rise to astrocytomas (ASTROCYTOMA) or glioblastoma multiforme (see GLIOBLASTOMA). Oligodendrocytes give rise to oligodendrogliomas (OLIGODENDROGLIOMA) and ependymocytes may undergo transformation to become EPENDYMOMA; CHOROID PLEXUS NEOPLASMS; or colloid cysts of the third ventricle. (From Escourolle et al., Manual of Basic Neuropathology, 2nd ed, p21)Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor: A cell surface receptor involved in regulation of cell growth and differentiation. It is specific for EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR and EGF-related peptides including TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR ALPHA; AMPHIREGULIN; and HEPARIN-BINDING EGF-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR. The binding of ligand to the receptor causes activation of its intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity and rapid internalization of the receptor-ligand complex into the cell.Brain Neoplasms: Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
In the Middle Ages, wine was used as a chemical exfoliant, with tartaric acid as the active agent. In Asia, the practice of ... Exfoliation involves the removal of the oldest dead skin cells on the skin's outermost surface. Exfoliation is involved in the ... Near the end of chemical peels, the skin will frost, with colors varying from a bright white to grey on the skin surface. As ... or enzymes that act to loosen the glue-like substance that holds the cells together, allowing them to ease away. This type of ...
Most MMP inhibitors are chelating agents. The inhibitor binds to the zinc at the active center of the enzyme, thereby blocking ... MMPs are associated with the cell surface or bound to the extracellular matrix which prevents them from diffusing away and ... Thus far, Periostat (active ingredient is doxycycline hyclate) is the only MMP inhibitor that has been approved by the U.S. ... On the active site of the structure is a pyrimidinetrione chelation and the phenyl and piperidynil section occupy the S1' and ...
... and potential cancer drugs and imaging agents. His laboratory has also invented methods for cell surface engineering and ... Recent studies by his research team have shown that fluorination of biologically active antimicrobial peptides is an effective ... biophysics and cell biology. He is currently Professor and Chair of Chemistry and was also Chemistry Department Chair from 2006 ... imaging of cancer cells with metastatic potential. Elected Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science ( ...
Ray WJ, Yao M, Mumm J, Schroeter EH, Saftig P, Wolfe M, Selkoe DJ, Kopan R, Goate AM (Dec 1999). "Cell surface presenilin-1 ... Anti-aggregation agents such as apomorphine, or carbenoxolone. The latter has commonly been used as a treatment for peptic ... In order to initiate partial inhibition of β- and γ-secretase, a compound is needed that can block the large active site of ... Studies focusing on human breast cancer cell lines have further demonstrated that these cancerous cells display an increased ...
A main way to combat the growth of bacterial cells on a surface is to prevent the initial adhesion of the cells to that surface ... An antimicrobial surface contains an antimicrobial agent that inhibits the ability of microorganisms to grow on the surface of ... Copper alloy surfaces have been investigated for their antiviral efficacies. After incubation for one hour on copper, active ... antimicrobial surfaces have been utilized for their ability to keep surfaces cleaned. Either the physical nature of the surface ...
When cells were in acidic conditions (pH 4.0) for 5 minutes after binding TcdB to the cell surface at 37 degree Celsius, the ... When TcdB binds to Rho and other small GTPases, GTP hydrolyzes to GDP, which leads to GTP-bound (active) to GDP-bound (inactive ... This is one of the main causative agents in contracting Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD)(Fig. 5). Furthermore, ... This SRs and LRs region allows formation of cell wall binding motifs that help to bind sugar moieties of the cell surfaces. In ...
In hypoxic cells, such as those on the inner surface of the urinary bladder, apaziquone is converted to active metabolites by ... is an indolequinone that is a bioreductive prodrug and a chemical analog of the older chemotherapeutic agent mitomycin C. ... The active metabolites alkylate DNA and lead to apoptosis. This activity is preferentially expressed in neoplastic cells. After ... administration of apaziquone directly into the urinary bladder (intravesically), the drug and its active metabolite were not ...
CDEPT is the use of Clostridia to convert prodrugs into active drug agents. CDEPT exploits the hypoxic environment of solid ... DEPT in which the manipulation of carbohydrates on the surface of the enzyme is used to target the enzyme activity to the cell ... A widely used solution is to use enzymes which are able to convert a relatively non-toxic prodrug precursor into the active ... A subsequent, small-scale trial at the Royal Free Hospital, London, used the same agents as in the Charing Cross Hospital trial ...
... cells, growth factors, hormones and other active agents to specific target sites. While the NFB was initially established in ... State of the art facilities are available to evaluate the bulk, surface and biological properties of the produced biomaterials ... NFB is also developing cell-based therapies for tendon repair. Wound repair results from a complex and highly orchestrated ... Functionality for these forms is achieved through custom chemistries which facilitate the attachment of surface tethered ...
The gradient signal of the chemokinetic agent is received through specific receptors on the cell surface and is transduced ... Leukocytes can exhibit active chemorepulsion away from a factor that is normally considered to stimulate chemoattraction ... dendritic cells) and Lymphoid lineage cells (T-cells, B-cells, NK-cells). The chemorepulsion of immune cells was first ... Cancer cells leverage the chemorepulsion of immune cells to evade recognition and destruction by immune cells. Without a ...
It is thought that these effects are mediated by opioid receptors expressed on the surface of these immune cells.[5] ... Alkylating agents[edit]. The alkylating agents used in immunotherapy are nitrogen mustards (cyclophosphamide), nitrosoureas, ... These drugs may raise the risk of contracting tuberculosis or inducing a latent infection to become active. Infliximab and ... In this way, it prevents the cell from transitioning from the G0 into G1 phase of the cell cycle. Tacrolimus is more potent ...
... is cleaved at this stage to avoid whole protein expression on cell surface, which could lead to autoimmunity. CpG sites ... TLR9 is also an important factor in autoimmune diseases, and there is active research into synthetic TLR9 agonists and ... that are expressed on infectious agents and initiate signalling to induce production of cytokines necessary for the innate ... TLR9 is an important receptor expressed in immune system cells including dendritic cells, macrophages, natural killer cells, ...
Mammalian cells with mutant ERCC1-XPF are moderately more sensitive than normal cells to agents (such as ionizing radiation) ... There are 5 to 6 stem cells at the bases of the crypts. There are about 10 million crypts along the inner surface of the ... The C-terminal region of XPF includes the active site residues for nuclease activity. (Figure 1). Most of the ERCC1 protein is ... Mammalian cells carrying mutations in ERCC1 or XPF are especially sensitive to agents that cause DNA interstrand crosslinks ( ...
Anti-fungi agent. Azole. Ergosterol is a sterol that forms the cell surface membrane of the fungi. Azole can inhibit its ... Usually, an enzyme molecule has only two active sites, and the active sites fit with one specific type of substrate. An active ... Anti-bacterial agent. Penicillin. The bacterial cell wall is composed of peptidoglycan. During bacterial growth the present ... The active site is located in the linkage between two subunits. The NADPH is involved in the generation of FADH-. In the active ...
Ito, T; Yokoyama, E; Sato, H; Ujita, M; Funaguma, T; Furukawa, K; Hara, A (2003). "Xylosidases associated with the cell surface ... Marinho, A. M. R.; Marinho, P. S. B.; Santos, L. S.; Rodrigues Filho, E.; Ferreira, I. C. P. (2013). "Active polyketides ... "Properties and cost effective method for production of the antitumor agent declauxin from sporulating Penicillium herquei". ... Marinho, A. M. R.; Marinho, P. S. B.; Santos, L. S.; Rodrigues Filho, E.; Ferreira, I. C. P. (2013). "Active polyketides ...
... foaming agents, and dispersants. The term surfactant is a blend of surface active agent. In the United States National Library ... Biosurfactants are surface-active substances synthesised by living cells. Interest in microbial surfactants is due to their ... For the more general meaning, surface active agent/s is the heading. Surfactants are usually organic compounds that are ... Several microorganisms are known to synthesise surface-active agents; most of them are bacteria and yeasts. When grown on ...
... some varieties may be noticeable as colored patches on the water surface due to the presence of chlorophyll within their cells ... They are agents for "primary production," the creation of organic compounds from carbon dioxide dissolved in the water, a ... The effects of anthropogenic warming on the global population of phytoplankton is an area of active research. Changes in the ... Phytoplankton obtain energy through the process of photosynthesis and must therefore live in the well-lit surface layer (termed ...
... of the drugs across the cell surface. Biological cost or metabolic price is a measure of the increased energy metabolism ... Reduced drug accumulation: by decreasing drug permeability and/or increasing active efflux (pumping out) ... and thirdline agents is seriously compromising treatment outcome. Added to this is the significant global burden of resistant, ... This protein stimulates the growth of cancer cells which are drug-resistant. Malaria in 2012 has become a resurgent threat in ...
... the agent that causes malaria) and Toxoplasma appear to use rhomboids to cleave cell surface proteins that participate in the ... What is unique about intramembrane proteases is that their active sites are buried in the lipid bilayer of cell membranes, and ... Cell. 126: 163-175. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.06.021. PMID 16839884. CS1 maint: Explicit use of et al. (link) Civitarese, A. E.; ... Cell. 155 (6): 1270-1281. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2013.10.053. PMC 3917317 . PMID 24315097. D. Langosch, C. Scharnagl, H. Steiner, M ...
When oxidizing agents such as hydrogen peroxide or oxygen are present, they dissolute AgNPs to release Ag+. The release of Ag+ ... "Surface Structure of Silver Nanoparticles as a Model for Understanding the Oxidative Dissolution of Silver Ions." Langmuir ... It has been thought AgNP efficacy can mainly be attributed to shape, as nanoprisms and naorods have proven more active than ... leads to creation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) inside cells, which can further dissolute the nanoparticles. Some nano ...
Inflammatory cells are increased both in the surface epithelium ("intraepithelial lymphocytes") and in the lamina propria. The ... Budesonide formulated to be active in the distal colon and rectum is effective for both active disease and in the prevention of ... Studies of a number of other agents including antidiarrheals, bismuth subsalicylate (Pepto-Bismol), mesalazine/mesalamine ( ... Inflammation of the lamina propria, with mainly mononuclear cells, may be observed in collagenous colitis. Differential ...
Immunomodulators are the active agents of immunotherapy. They are a diverse array of recombinant, synthetic, and natural ... work together to defend the body against cancer by targeting abnormal antigens expressed on the surface of tumor cells. ... Immune effector cells such as lymphocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells, natural killer cells (NK Cell), cytotoxic T ... CD4+ helper T cells, cytotoxic CD8+ T cells and B cells). This initiates a cytotoxic response against tumor cells expressing ...
The combination of somatostatin receptor and FDG PET imaging is able to quantify somatostatin receptor cell surface (SSTR) ... The spheres not only block blood flow to the lesions, but by halting the chemotherapy agents in the neighborhood of the lesions ... Although marginally effective in well-differentiated PETs, cisplatin with etoposide is active in poorly differentiated ... together with nearby cells, are damaged by the attached radiation. Not all cells are immediately killed; cell death can go on ...
... becomes unable to further influence the signaling pathways by which it regulates cells and, in the case of cell surface ... leaves a cell transiently unresponsive to agents that activate the desensitized receptor but not to agents that activate other ... However, some stimuli cause cells to active protein kinase Cs that act to desensitize multiple types of receptors thereby ... Heterologous desensitization may occur in cells that are grossly overstimulated for prolonged times by a certain agents. ...
In vitro tests have demonstrated that it induces cell death. Furthermore, it is most active in the blood, bone marrow and ... Rituximab is a widely used monoclonal antibody in treating B-cell malignancies, it is directed against the surface protein CD20 ... spleen, all of which are main sites involved with B-PLL and thus could serve as a potential agent in treating this disease with ... A stem cell transplant is a procedure that uses highly specialized cells called hematopoietic stem cells to replace bone marrow ...
... and accumulation of skin cells in the hair follicle.[1] In healthy skin, the skin cells that have died come up to the surface ... Hormonal agents[edit]. In women, the use of combined birth control pills can improve acne.[100] These medications contain an ... Ablative lasers (such as CO2 and fractional types) have also been used to treat active acne and its scars. When ablative lasers ... and Th1 cells.[45] IL-1α stimulates increased skin cell activity and reproduction, which, in turn, fuels comedo development.[45 ...
... the antibody and complement acting to release the enzyme if an immunospecific antigen-antibody complex is formed at the surface ... enzyme encapsulating liposomes which are immunospecifically ruptured in the presence of cognate antibody and active complement ... Cell-surface decoration with active agents. DE3602999A1 *. Jan 31, 1986. Aug 7, 1986. Hitachi Ltd. Immunoassay reagent and ... Antibodies directed against infectious disease agents--virus, bacteria, parasites may also be detected by coupling the surface ...
Monoclonal AntibodiesMonoclonal antibodies are used in the treatment of moderate-to-severe active Crohn disease or fistulizing ... This agent blocks TNF-α in the serum and at the cell surface, leading to the lysis of TNF-producing macrophages and T cells. ... Adalimumab is indicated for the induction and remission of moderate-to-severe active inflammatory Crohn disease. This agent is ... Adalimumab also lyses surface TNF-expressing cells in vitro in the presence of complement, but it does not bind to TNF-β ( ...
Anti-Bacterial Agents / chemistry, pharmacology. Biological Transport. Cell Wall / metabolism. Escherichia coli / drug effects ... 15169949 - Identification of active site residues in mevalonate diphosphate decarboxylase: implica.... 23000309 - Application ... Validation of inhibitors of an ABC transporter required to transport lipopolysaccharide to the cell surface in Escherichia coli ... 0/Anti-Bacterial Agents; 0/Escherichia coli Proteins; 0/Lipopolysaccharides; 0/Recombinant Fusion Proteins; 0/Small Molecule ...
Surface effects of cell-wall-active antimicrobial agents. Scanning Electron. Microsc. (Part 1) 1971 1971 329 336 ... These enzymes regulate cell walls, cell division, septation, elongation, and cell shape (14) and thus alter the surface ... Part of the bacterial filament is still partially filled, although damage to the cell wall has caused a hole in the surface; ... 4 and5: a flattened empty cell with numerous rough surface patches that are signs of the small amount of cytoplasm remaining ...
Find technical definitions and synonyms by letter for drugs/agents used to treat patients with cancer or conditions related to ... Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus) Fludase (Other name for: recombinant cell-surface anchored ... PSMA, a cell-surface antigen, is abundantly present on the surface of prostate cancer cells and on the neovasculature of most ... is overexpressed on the surface of tumor cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus) fluorescent ...
Upon administration, BCMA-specific CAR-expressing T-lymphocytes specifically recognize and kill BCMA-expressing tumor cells. ... specific for the B cell maturation antigen (BCMA), with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. ... it is found on the surfaces of plasma cells and overexpressed on malignant plasma cells. Check for active clinical trials using ... this agent. (NCI Thesaurus) Synonym:. anti-BCMA-CAR T cells. anti-BCMA-CAR-transduced T cells. Code name:. bb2121. ...
This agent blocks TNF-α in the serum and at the cell surface, leading to the lysis of TNF-producing macrophages and T cells. ... Adalimumab is indicated for the induction and remission of moderate-to-severe active inflammatory Crohn disease. This agent is ... Adalimumab also lyses surface TNF-expressing cells in vitro in the presence of complement, but it does not bind to TNF-β ( ... It binds specifically to TNF-α and blocks interaction with p55 and p75 cell-surface TNF receptors. This interferes with the ...
Colistimethate sodium is a surface active agent which penetrates into and disrupts the bacterial cell membrane. It has been ... Treatment with antibacterial agents alters the normal flora of the colon leading to overgrowth of C. difficile. ... Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea (CDAD) has been reported with use of nearly all antibacterial agents, including Coly- ... history is necessary since CDAD has been reported to occur over two months after the administration of antibacterial agents. ...
Anti-fungi agent. Azole. Ergosterol is a sterol that forms the cell surface membrane of the fungi. Azole can inhibit its ... Usually, an enzyme molecule has only two active sites, and the active sites fit with one specific type of substrate. An active ... Anti-bacterial agent. Penicillin. The bacterial cell wall is composed of peptidoglycan. During bacterial growth the present ... The active site is located in the linkage between two subunits. The NADPH is involved in the generation of FADH-. In the active ...
Burd G, Ward OP (1996) Physicochemical properties of PM-factor, a surface-active agent produced by Pseudomonas marginalis. Can ... Neu TR, Poralla K (1990) Emulsifying agent from bacteria isolated during screening for cells with hydrophobic surfaces. Appl ... Lang S, Philip JC (1998) Surface active lipids in Rhodococci. Anton Leeuw Int 74:59-70Google Scholar ... Kaeppeli O, Walther P, Mueller M, Fiechter A (1984) Structure of cell surface of the yeast Candida tropicalis and its relation ...
interspersed cells within non-PSCCE that secrete surface active agent (Clara cell protein) into bronchioles ... 1. ciliated cuboidal cells + clara cells proximally clara cells distally. 2. PSCC > simple columnar/cuboidal ... increase respiratory surface area and aid filtration by creating eddies (circular movement) in the air stream ... This portion of the alveolar sac allows cells to intervene between the epithelium of the alveolus and the capillary. ...
Make research projects and school reports about Antiacne agents easy with credible articles from our FREE, online encyclopedia ... and pictures about Antiacne agents at Encyclopedia.com. ... It increases the turnover of skin cells at the surface of the ... Sexually active adolescent females who are able to bear children should not use isotretinoin unless they have very severe acne ... and white blood cells into surrounding tissues. Scarring happens when new skin cells are created to replace the damaged cells. ...
The antibacterial mechanism of ZnO NPs involves the direct interaction between ZnO nanoparticles and cell surfaces affecting ... Basically the detected active oxygen species generated by these metal oxide particles could be the main mechanism of their ... It can be applied as a potent sanitizing agent for disinfecting and sterilizing food industry equipment and containers against ... C. Hanley, J. Layne, A. Punnoose et al., "Preferential killing of cancer cells and activated human T cells using ZnO ...
Preventing drug access to targets: cell surface permeability barriers and active efflux in bacteria. Semin. Cell Dev. Biol. 12: ... Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy Jan 2003, 47 (1) 27-33; DOI: 10.1128/AAC.47.1.27-33.2003 ... the spontaneous influx minus the active efflux, of ethidium bromide by intact cells. The cells were grown in M63-glucose medium ... Accumulation was followed in cells not treated by CCCP (panels a to d) or cells pretreated by CCCP (250 μM) (panels e to h). A ...
... imaging enhancement agent and lipids having an active targeting group to provide targeted polymerized liposome contrast agents ... x-ray or optical imaging of the expression of molecules in cells and tissues during disease and pathology. ... The polymerized imaging enhancement liposome particles interact with receptor targets holding the image enhancement agent to ... controls the distance of the active agent from the surface of the particle. The head group has a functional surface group 64, ...
The challenge is to prevent this agent from binding to sialic acid on other cell surfaces before it reaches the tumour. ... you can shield off the contrast agent. The liposomes will only release their active compound when they are heated to 42° ... the sugary substance on the surface of tumour cells. ... Contrast agents are usually based on lanthanides, a group of ... Also, you want to get a maximum amount of contrast agent to the site of interest, so you need to add a targeting vector. During ...
This method involves complexing pharmacologically active agents to. particulate carriers capable of selectively binding to cell ... surface area of the nasal cavity. It is lined by pseudostratified columnar. epithelium with cilia, goblet cells, basal cells ... theoretically loaded with the pharmaceutical agent and implanted in any. location. The active agent will be released into the ... cell wall and gets metabolized into its active component by the enzymes. present in the system i.e. either in blood or liver. ...
Synthetically derived, it is used as a surfactant or wetting agent and is an active ingredient in industrial antifreeze. ... Propylene glycol may damage cell membranes causing rashes, dry skin and surface damage to the skin. ... alternating hot and cold waters increase blood flow to the surface of the skin which nourishes it and makes it soft, full of ... you can be incredibly pro-active, AND vote with your dollars and support small owner-operated businesses who carry the purest ...
... are agents that kill microbes on living things. ... agent that destroys disease-causing microorganisms and their ... Another liquid disinfectant that remains on a surface much longer is sodium hypochlorite. The active component of the ... It dissolves cell membranes that are made of lipids, and so is effective against many bacteria and viruses. Spores or viruses ... A rough surface, which has niches that microorganisms can fit into, is not an appropriate surface to disinfect with a rapidly ...
Both of these agents were approved by the Food and Drug Administration for patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer ... allowing for prolonged activity at the cancer cell surface (73). Resistance to the current generation of tyrosine kinase ... 5-bisphosphate to its active state, phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate, leads to activation of AKT and cell proliferation ... Gliomas and Their Cell(s) of Origin. Controversy exists about the cell of origin in glial tumor formation. It is clear from a ...
In order to circumvent the mediating influences of immune suppressors, newer agents targeting inhibitory cell surface ... 5. T-Cell Approaches: Passive and Active. In addition to the above approaches, complementary strategies for vaccine-based ... Dendritic cells (DCs) are distinct from other antigen-presenting cells in their ability to induce primary T-cell responses, and ... Modak, S.; Kramer, K.; Gultekin, S.H.; Guo, H.F.; Cheung, N.K. Monoclonal antibody 8H9 targets a novel cell surface antigen ...
Colistimethate is a surface-active agent which penetrates into and disrupts the bacterial cell membrane. Colistimethate is ... There is also evidence that polymyxins enter the cell and precipitate cytoplasmic components, primarily ribosomes. ...
... which results from enhancing cell surface. Fludrocortisone is often effective and daunorubicin are cyto- toxic agent has been ... At this improved when treatment, especially if rhinorrhoea and most active tuberculosis. Some imidazoles but not and ...
With passive or active targeting strategies, an increased intracellular concentration of drugs can be achieved in cancer cells ... From a pharmaceutical viewpoint, it is critical that the biodistribution of active agents has to be controlled as much as ... biocompatible nanocomposites provide specific biochemical interactions with receptors expressed on the surface of cancer cells ... As nanotechnology is perfected, side effects due to normal cell damage will decrease, leading to better results and lengthening ...
Clinically useful antimalaria agent. Cell permeable and active in vivo.. Research component for the novel coronavirus (COVID-19 ... Decreases cell surface expression of TNFα receptors in U937 cells4. Has been used to treat alopecia successfully5. ... A lysosomotropic agent which inhibits autophagy and triggers apoptosis in a variety of cell types1,2. Augments the anticancer ...
  • In biology , the active site is the region of an enzyme where substrate molecules bind and undergo a chemical reaction . (wikipedia.org)
  • The polymerized imaging enhancement liposome particles interact with receptor targets holding the image enhancement agent to specific sites providing in vivo study by magnetic resonance, radioactive, x-ray or optical imaging of the expression of molecules in cells and tissues during disease and pathology. (google.com)
  • We are using modern bioinformatics to develop algorithms that will give us an understanding of the contribution that molecules, cells and organs make to physical function - and sometimes dysfunction. (tudelft.nl)
  • We also identified and characterized the released maytansinoid molecules from these conjugates, and measured their rate of release compared with the kinetics of cell cycle arrest. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The experimental data showed that surfactin molecules significantly changed the morphology of the calcite crystals, roughening and deforming the surface and creating a greater specific surface area, even at low biosurfactant concentrations (10 ppm). (mdpi.com)
  • The strong influence of surfactin molecules on the crystal growth of calcium carbonate was due to the interaction of surfactin molecules with free calcium ions in the solution as well as the biomolecules adsorption at the formed crystal surface. (mdpi.com)
  • they use proteins protein, any of the group of highly complex organic compounds found in all living cells and comprising the most abundant class of all biological molecules. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Membranes are vital barriers by which cells control the flux of molecules and energy between their exterior and interior and also between their various intracellular compartments. (mdpi.com)
  • In this review we summarize the various efforts made to establish efficient techniques to disrupt the endosomal membrane barrier including the use of molecular ferries such as cell penetrating peptides or viral membrane fusion proteins, endosomal leakage inducing molecules such as saponins or monensin and physicochemical methods as represented by photochemical internalization. (mdpi.com)
  • The principle behind targeted therapy is utilizing therapeutics designed to interfere with specific molecules that have a relatively specific or higher expression profile in cancer cells and are critical for cancer growth and progression. (intechopen.com)
  • This placed more emphasis on the development of drugs and biological molecules as chemotherapeutic agents to minimize the risk of cancer metastasis to other organs, which will lead to organ failure and death [ 2 , 3 ]. (intechopen.com)
  • Traditional chemotherapeutic agents mediate cytotoxicity by interrupting processes or inhibiting molecules required for rapid cellular division and DNA synthesis at the cell cycle level. (intechopen.com)
  • However, the endothelial cells in the vasculature of the brain fit tightly together, so certain substances, such as large or electrically-charged molecules, cannot pass through. (metrowestdailynews.com)
  • Even though the cells of the BBB prevent passage of certain substances, small molecules can still pass from the bloodstream to the brain tissues. (metrowestdailynews.com)
  • In addition, lipophilic molecules (those that can combine with the small hydrophobic molecules called lipids), nutrients (such as glucose) and other vital substances are actively transported across the cells that make up the BBB, regulating their concentration in the brain tissue. (metrowestdailynews.com)
  • Sophorolipids, emulsifiers, rhamnolipids, and surfactant are amphiphilic compounds produced on living surfaces, mostly microbial cell surfaces, or excreted extracellularly and contain hydrophobic and hydrophilic moieties that reduce surface tension (ST) and interfacial tensions between individual molecules at the surface and interface, respectively. (sbwire.com)
  • ADC molecules consist of an antibody linked to a specific cytotoxic drug that is intended to target, bind and disperse only in malignant cells. (healthcanal.com)
  • Preliminary studies in animals have shown that ADC molecules can effectively find these specific cancer cells, then enter them and release an active cytotoxic agent with the aim of killing the tumor cells while minimizing damage to the surrounding normal tissue. (healthcanal.com)
  • The energy generated from ABC binding to ATP is used to transport molecules across cell membranes ( 17 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Reporting its work in the journal Bioconjugate Chemistry , a group of investigators led by Eggehard Holler, Ph.D., from Universität Regensburg, Germany, used the biodegradable polymer β-poly(L-malic acid) to create a nontoxic nanoparticle to which they could attach a wide variety of targeting, imaging and therapeutically active molecules. (nanowerk.com)
  • Additionally, nisin has surface active molecules which can easily bind with different compounds thus killing bacterial cells which adhere to it. (marketresearch.com)
  • We believe some of the chemical molecules identified by this method will support the growth and proliferation of stem cells while maintaining their "stemness" nature (pluripotency, self-renewal). (ca.gov)
  • Other molecules may induce directed-differentiation into specific desirable cell types such as heart cells for damaged heart and brain cells for patients who suffer stroke. (ca.gov)
  • Once these molecules are identified, we shall incorporate them into an artificial gel that can support large scale stem cell growth and directed-differentiation. (ca.gov)
  • We shall take advantage of these novel molecules and gels to study and therefore understand how stem cells work. (ca.gov)
  • These molecules may also be used as imaging probes to track or localized stem cells inside patients. (ca.gov)
  • For tissue regeneration, we may incorporate one or more of these molecules onto surfaces of biodegradable scaffolding with predetermined shape, so that simple artificial organs with various cell types can be developed. (ca.gov)
  • These molecules may also serve as very important tools and reagents for basic stem cell research. (ca.gov)
  • Such a library was designed, synthesized, and screened small molecules for directed-differentiation of stem cells into neuronal precursor cells. (ca.gov)
  • These compounds identified in year 2 have great potential to be further developed into molecules that can be used in regeneration of brain cells. (ca.gov)
  • We have also screen the OB2C libraries for molecules that can maintain the growth and pluripotency ("stemness nature") of the stem cells. (ca.gov)
  • Some of these molecules appeared to be able to maintain the stem cell growth on the bead for over two weeks. (ca.gov)
  • Methods for separating, cells, particles, or other molecules of interest (MOI) from unwanted materials not of interest (MNOI). (justia.com)
  • This invention relates to a method for separating cells, particles, and molecules or analytes, unreacted reagents, and other materials of interest from associated or contaminating material or unwanted material such as proteins, for use in many assays, diagnostic procedures, and preparative processes. (justia.com)
  • More particularly, it relates to performing the above procedures by a novel method whereby cells, particles, molecules, analytes or other materials of interest are separated from a liquid mixture or surface containing contaminating or interfering materials by a novel process utilizing buoyant forces with reactive magnetic particles and liquids of selected specific gravity and magnetic forces. (justia.com)
  • Current interests include the preparation of phosphonioalkyl derivatives of biologically active molecules, the phosphonioalkyl group facilitating the passage of the biologically active agent through cell membranes, and studies of the formation of biologically active surface-functionalised gold nanoparticles. (foyles.co.uk)
  • This agent blocks TNF-α in the serum and at the cell surface, leading to the lysis of TNF-producing macrophages and T cells. (medscape.com)
  • The monoclonal antibody portion of the F16-IL2 fusion protein binds to tumor cells expressing the tumor associated antigen (TAA) tenascin-C. In turn, the IL-2 moiety of the fusion protein stimulates natural killer (NK) cells, macrophages and neutrophils and induces T-cell antitumor cellular immune responses thereby selectively killing tenascin-C-expressing tumor cells. (cancer.gov)
  • Pregnancy, macrophages as a less active and urine output due to take the central pontine myelino- lysis. (imagenenaccion.org)
  • The present invention is to provide a removal promoter for apoptotic cells which is capable of immediately removing apoptotic cells in vivo by macrophages, or a removal inhibitor which inhibits the removal of apoptotic cells in vivo by macrophages. (go.jp)
  • A removal promoter for apoptotic cells in vivo containing the milk fat globule-EGF factor 8-L (MFG-E8-L), MFG-E8-L mutant having removal promotion action for apoptotic cells in vivo by macrophages, or preferably a recombinant human or mouse MFG-E8-L, or a recombinant human or mouse MFG-E8-L mutant as an active ingredient is prepared. (go.jp)
  • Such removal promoters specifically bind to apoptotic cells and promote the phagocytosis of apoptotic cells by macrophages by recognizing aminophospholipids such as phosphatidylserine exposed on apoptotic cell surface. (go.jp)
  • Chemokines are expressed by several cell types, including macrophages, T cells, and to a lesser extent neutrophils, in response to various stimuli, including proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-1 and TNF ( 11 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • 6, 2006, 1642,-50), they stimulate the intestinal microbiota and reduce the pro-inflammatory cytokines like IL-8 in CaCo2 cells ( J Nutr 141, 2011, 971-977), activate macrophages, monocytes and splenic lymphocytes (SE Byson et al. (mitosyfraudes.org)
  • The M-tropic virus, which gets its name for its affinity for white blood cells called macrophages, anchors to the well- known CD4 protein that sits on the cell surface. (nih.gov)
  • To get around this problem, Zaitseva and colleagues isolated Langerhans cells and macrophages, both of which are also suspected of initially interacting with HIV-1 on genital surfaces. (nih.gov)
  • Surprisingly, several SPI2 mutants are less able to invade cultured epithelial cells or macrophages, and reduced amounts of the SPI1 secreted protein SipC were detected in the culture medium ( 17 ). (asm.org)
  • Colistimethate sodium is a surface active agent which penetrates into and disrupts the bacterial cell membrane. (drugs.com)
  • Previous studies have demonstrated that a number of membrane-active agents are capable of binding to the surface of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) resulting in an augmentation of superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production in response to soluble stimuli. (umich.edu)
  • It is now demonstrated that these same membrane-active agents can bind to the surface of endothelial cells and enhance their susceptibility to killing by H2O2. (umich.edu)
  • Membrane-active agents which are capable of synergizing with H2O2 include cationic proteins, cationic poly-amino acids, lysophosphatides and enzymes which are capable of degrading membrane phospholipids (e.g., phospholipase C, phospholipase A2 and streptolysin S). In each case, treatment of the target cells with the membrane-active agent and H2O2 produces greater damage than the sum of the damage produced by either agent separately. (umich.edu)
  • Conversely, photocatalysis has been shown to promote destruction of the cell membrane [ 9 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Inducing leakage of the plasma membrane is unfavorable since the target cell specificity mediated by the antibody would likely be lost in this case. (mdpi.com)
  • We employed two commercially available femtosecond lasers, a Ti:sapphire and a ytterbium-based oscillator, to directly compare from a user's practical point-of-view in one common experimental setup the efficiencies of transient laser-induced cell membrane permeabilization, i.e., of so-called optoporation. (spiedigitallibrary.org)
  • The disease-causing mutations in CFTR give rise to aberrations that lead to scenarios in which the CFTR protein either is not synthesized, is not processed properly and thus cannot reach the epithelial membrane, or is synthesized, processed, and reaches the cell membrane but is nonfunctional. (sciencemag.org)
  • These range from active invasion of host cell tissue to growth control and remodelling of the yeast cell membrane. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In recent years, scientists have been developing a PET imaging agent that targets a protein called prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA). (urotoday.com)
  • As a final component, the researchers attached what they termed a "membrane-disrupting unit" molecule containing the amino acid L-valine that helps the nanoparticle deliver its therapeutic payload where it can act inside the cell. (nanowerk.com)
  • The membrane-disrupting element enabled the nanoparticles to break out of the endosomes that normally surround such structures after they enter cells. (nanowerk.com)
  • To evaluate this concept we carried out a series of experiments to measure the transmembrane potential (delta Vm) threshold for skeletal muscle membrane electroporation using isolated mammalian skeletal muscle cells and compared this threshold with the expected range of delta Vm in victims of electrical trauma. (nih.gov)
  • In addition, the efficacy of two surface active polymers as membrane sealing agents was tested. (nih.gov)
  • They say that while in the skin--a site that closely reflects what happens on genital surfaces--Langerhans cells fail to produce a surface protein that the T-tropic virus needs to chemically unlock the cell membrane and come inside. (nih.gov)
  • RATIONALE: Drugs used in chemotherapy, such as fludarabine, work in different ways to stop cancer cells from dividing so they stop growing or die. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Combining chemotherapy with monoclonal antibody therapy may kill more cancer cells. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Only 20-40% of them will be cured with the use of platinum-containing standard-dose or high-dose salvage chemotherapy with autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • This open-label, randomized, parallel arm study assessed the efficacy and safety of Tarceva (erlotinib) versus gemcitabine/cisplatin combination chemotherapy as first-line treatment in patients with stage IIIB/IV non-small cell lung cancer with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations in their tumours. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Paclitaxel, an active agent in chemotherapy, is used to treat lung, ovarian, breast and head-and-neck cancers. (healthcanal.com)
  • Our hypothesis is that PTX, the chemotherapy drug, sensitizes the cancer cells to the effects of radiation and the Cetuximab/PEG-HCC increases the delivery of PTX to the cancer cells," he said. (healthcanal.com)
  • Because immunotoxins kill by distinct mechanisms ( e.g. , inactivation of protein synthesis or signal transduction) than standard chemotherapy agents, which damage DNA or cell proliferation, it was envisioned that they would be active on chemoresistant malignancies. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In addition, because immunotoxins possess a cell targeting function, the molecule should have distinct, nonoverlapping toxicities from chemotherapy drugs. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Finally, immunotoxins may have additive or synergistic efficacy in combination with the standard chemotherapy agents. (aacrjournals.org)
  • This is a paradigm shift in the way we look at gliomas, because the ADC model has the potential to revolutionize the way we deliver chemotherapy to cancer cells while sparing the surrounding healthy tissue. (healthcanal.com)
  • But there is also the third class of oncotherapy, biological therapy , which is neither cytostatic like endocrine therapy nor cytotoxic like chemotherapy, using biological agents or 'biologics', that target intrinsic molecular (signaling) pathways underlying fundamental onco-processes like carcinogenesis, tumorigenesis, angiogenesis, metastasis, cell adhesion and motility, etc. (earthlink.net)
  • Differential cell responses to chemotherapy treatment. (scitechdaily.com)
  • Yaffe and colleagues have figured out how to increase the proprotion of triple negative breast cancer cells that can be killed by a specific time-ordered regiment of growth factor inhibitors and chemotherapy, with direct application to clinical treatment. (scitechdaily.com)
  • Our previous systems-biology work had primed us to the idea that you could potentially drive a cell from a state in which only a fraction of the tumor cells were responsive to chemotherapy into a state where many more of them were responsive by therapeutically rewiring their signaling networks in a very time-dependent way," he says. (scitechdaily.com)
  • Specifically, he and Lee thought it might be possible to sensitize cancer cells to DNA-damaging drugs - the backbone of most chemotherapy - by first giving them another drug that shuts down one of the haywire pathways that promote uncontrollable growth. (scitechdaily.com)
  • Of all combinations they tried, they saw the best results with pretreatment using erlotinib followed by doxorubicin, a common chemotherapy agent. (scitechdaily.com)
  • It can appear on the skin as a blackhead, which is a comedo that reaches the skin's surface and looks black, or as a whitehead, which is a comedo that is sealed by keratin, the fibrous protein produced by the skin cells and looks like a white bump. (encyclopedia.com)
  • made of DNA (see nucleic acid nucleic acid, any of a group of organic substances found in the chromosomes of living cells and viruses that play a central role in the storage and replication of hereditary information and in the expression of this information through protein synthesis. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Although the pathophysiological mechanisms and the cell type(s) responsible for the increase in protein citrullination remain incompletely understood, the neutrophil is emerging as a prime suspect. (jimmunol.org)
  • The majority of targeted anticancer approaches rely on high-affinity monovalent interactions between a cell-targeted agent (monoclonal or recombinant antibodies and peptides) and a tumor-associated protein to direct therapeutic or imaging payload selectively to the tumors ( 3 ⇓ - 5 ). (pnas.org)
  • 2009) Unifying Fluorescence Microscopy and Mass Spectrometry for Studying Protein Complexes in Cells. (patentgenius.com)
  • Drugs that enhance function of the mutated CFTR protein at the epithelial cell surface are known as potentiators and have shown a great promise in in vitro studies in CF cells. (sciencemag.org)
  • In biochemical experiments we identified that this functional inhibition of remaining surface NMDARs was mediated by increased serine phosphorylation of surface NMDARs, resulting from the activation of protein kinase D1 (PKD1). (springer.com)
  • This protein is over-expressed on the surface of prostate cancer cells and can be detected even after they have spread to other organs. (urotoday.com)
  • In the work reported in this paper, "Polycefin, a new prototype of a multifunctional nanoconjugate based on poly(β-L-malic acid) for drug delivery" the researchers used a monoclonal antibody that recognizes a glial cell surface protein known as transferrin receptor as the targeting agent. (nanowerk.com)
  • Erlotinib, approved by the FDA to treat pancreatic cancer and some types of lung cancer, inhibits a protein found on cell surfaces called the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor. (scitechdaily.com)
  • In year 2, We have further optimized methods for using OB2C combinatorial methods and applied it successfully to iPSC and discovered protein mimic ligand that promote directed-differentiation of murine ESCs (mESC) towards oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs). (ca.gov)
  • Just as significantly, they found that Langerhans cells produce adequate levels of another surface protein that the M-tropic virus uses, like a key in a lock, to enter these immune cells and infect them. (nih.gov)
  • Would outer segments of the M and T-tropic virus, known as protein envelopes, also fuse to Langerhans cells in a similar pattern? (nih.gov)
  • Each phase of EO is accompanied by a change in cell shape or cell arrangement [ 3 , 4 ] (Figure 1 ) and the expression of a specific protein repertoire. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Reflecting the increased amino acid transport capacity of tumor cells, F-18 fluroethyltyrosine (F-18 FET) is actively taken up in tumor cells via amino acid transport system L, but is neither incorporated into proteins nor readily degraded, resulting in high intracellular concentrations of this imaging agent. (cancer.gov)
  • With passive or active targeting strategies, an increased intracellular concentration of drugs can be achieved in cancer cells , while normal cells are being protected from the drug simultaneously. (spie.org)
  • In this study, we discuss host-parasite interactions at the different stages of the Plasmodium life cycle within the mammalian host and the potential for therapeutics that prevent parasite migration, invasion, intracellular growth, or egress from host cells, as well as parasite-induced pathology. (rupress.org)
  • Once bound to the target cell-surface antigen, the conjugate must be processed to release an active form of the drug, which can reach its intracellular target. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In defined intracellular vesicle compartments, the toxin moiety escapes to the cytosol, where it catalytically alters critical cell functions leading to cell death. (aacrjournals.org)
  • These data demonstrate a novel concept that regulated internalization of cell surface NMDARs not only reduces the number of NMDARs on the cell surface but also causes an inhibition of the activity of remaining surface NMDARs through intracellular signaling pathway(s). (springer.com)
  • We use embryonic stem cells (ESC) or induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) to screen these libraries for cell binding and also for activation or inactivation of specific intracellular pathways pertinent to stem cell maintenance and differentiation. (ca.gov)
  • see cell, in biology) and genetic material organized in chromosomes in which the DNA is combined with histone proteins. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Perhaps the most important application of electrospinning is drug delivery optimization, which can be achieved by using these materials for the controlled release of active substances ranging from antibiotics and anticancer agents to macromolecules such as proteins and DNA. (eurekalert.org)
  • n There is also research focusing on antibodies (proteins that are part of the immune system that detect and fight harmful cells, whether infection, cancer or other) specifically designed to cross the BBB. (metrowestdailynews.com)
  • Constitutive and regulated internalization of cell surface proteins has been extensively investigated. (springer.com)
  • Mutational alterations of PC cleavage sites can reduce the fusion potential of viral surface proteins and thus facilitate the development of secure live attenuated vaccines. (springer.com)
  • Alternatively, agents preventing cleavage of viral surface (glyco)proteins block fusion capacity and multicyclic virus replications. (springer.com)
  • 2015 ). Merits including bioactivity, biodegradation, and presence of natural binding sites for manipulating the cell adhesion and growth both in vitro and in vivo have made animal- and plant-based proteins ideal biomaterials (Chien et al. (springer.com)
  • Laboratory tests also demonstrated that this multifunctional nanoparticle stops malignant glial cells from producing two proteins that these cells need to grow. (nanowerk.com)
  • as well as PARP inhibitors , mTOR inhibitors , and HSP (heat shock proteins) , all found active against triple negative disease. (earthlink.net)
  • It further relates to determination of antigens, antibodies and other proteins on blood cells, in blood serum and other bodily samples and the use of buffers and other liquids in the determination process. (justia.com)
  • Although most mutations in SPI2 lead to a strong reduction of virulence, they have different effects in vitro, with some mutants having significantly increased sensitivity to gentamicin and the antibacterial peptide polymyxin B. Previously we showed that certain mutations in SPI2 affect the ability of S. typhimurium to secrete SPI1 effector proteins and to invade cultured eukaryotic cells. (asm.org)
  • Passive targeting employs encapsulated delivery systems to take advantage of the enhanced permeation and retention effect of the tumor microenvironment, while active targeting relies on receptor mediated interactions, such as cell surface ligands conjugated to the therapeutic moiety. (intechopen.com)
  • 2006) Spatial Organization of Embryonic Stem Cell Responsiveness to Autocrine Gp130 Ligands Reveals an Autoregulatory Stem Cell Niche. (patentgenius.com)
  • Immunotoxins consist of cell-selective ligands (usually monoclonal antibodies, antibody fragments, or cytokines) linked covalently to modified peptide toxins. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Three natural roles for bioemulsifiers have been proposed: (1) increasing the surface area of hydrophobic water-insoluble growth substrates, (2) increasing the bioavailability of hydrophobic substrates by increasing their apparent solubility or desorbing them from surfaces, and (3) regulating the attachment and detachment of microorganisms to and from surfaces. (springer.com)
  • disinfectant, agent that destroys disease-causing microorganisms and their spores. (encyclopedia.com)
  • To date, there have been several reports which tested the antibacterial activity of both powder in solution and surfaces coated with TD on clinically relevant microorganisms such as Escherichia coli , Staphylococcus aureus , Listeria monocytogenes, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa [ 5 , 6 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • these microorganisms build up a resident flora on the surfaces. (asm.org)
  • Since a single application of microorganisms is sufficient to produce this accumulation of cells, it appears that the phenomenon is inevitable on open surfaces in food industry premises. (asm.org)
  • A large variety of microorganisms produce potent surface-active agents (microbial biosurfactants). (sbwire.com)
  • Natural antimicrobial materials usually have a narrow spectrum of action, so technical applications may require combinations of agents for the prevention of the undesirable microorganisms present. (fraunhofer.de)
  • In contrast, another RND pump complex, MexXY, together with OprM, was found to pump out aminoglycosides, a group of highly hydrophilic compounds, and contribute to the intrinsic resistance of P. aeruginosa to these agents ( 1 ). (asm.org)
  • Still, the role of EmrE Pae in the intrinsic resistance to antimicrobial agents, especially aminoglycosides (since these are also cationic compounds), remains unknown. (asm.org)
  • In vitro, EDTA, 1,10-phenanthroline and other chelating compounds lower the concentration of metal to the point where the metal is removed from the enzyme active site. (wikipedia.org)
  • Yet even when appropriately modified peptide compounds make it through the stomach intact, another hurdle awaits them: The cells of the intestinal walls prevent their absorption into the blood. (compamed-tradefair.com)
  • The present invention relates to a process for the production of polyurethane plastics by reacting compounds containing at least two isocyanate-reactive hydrogen atoms and having a molecular weight in the range of from 400 to 10,000, polyisocyanates and, optionally, chain extenders having a molecular weight of from 32 to 400, foam stabilizers, water and/or organic blowing agents in the presence of catalysts containing tertiary nitrogen. (patentgenius.com)
  • Polyurethane foams with a wide variety of physical properties have long been manufactured on a commercial scale by the known isocyanate polyaddition process from compounds containing several active hydrogen atoms, in particular compoundscontaining hydroxyl and/or carboxyl groups, and polyisocyanates with the addition of water and/or blowing agents and optionally catalysts, emulsifiers and other additives (Angew. (patentgenius.com)
  • Thus, NC-1059 is a lead compound for development of cotherapeutic agents to enhance access and effectiveness of ophthalmic compounds. (arvojournals.org)
  • In order to prevent biofilms we examine the effects of naturally occurring, antimicrobially active compounds such as plant extracts, cationic peptides and enzymes. (fraunhofer.de)
  • Through these studies, we have identified several biologically active peptides, some of which have been confirmed to bind to human and mouse ESC. (ca.gov)
  • Uptake of this agent depends upon the ER status of target tissues. (cancer.gov)
  • The damaged follicle weakens and bursts open, releasing sebum, bacteria, skin cells, and white blood cells into surrounding tissues. (encyclopedia.com)
  • In higher organisms, a division of labor has evolved in which groups of cells have differentiated into specialized tissues tissue, in biology, aggregation of cells that are similar in form and function and the intercellular substances produced by them. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The metabolic transformations have similar competitive dynamics for the n -3 and n -6 homologs when converting dietary EFA from the external environment of foods into the highly unsaturated fatty acid (HUFA) esters that accumulate in the internal environment of cells and tissues. (mdpi.com)
  • Furin is ubiquitous in eukaryotic tissues and cells. (springer.com)
  • Capecitabine is a prodrug of fluorouracil that undergoes hydrolysis in liver and tissues to form the active moiety (fluorouracil), inhibiting thymidylate synthetase, which in turn blocks methylation of deoxyuridylic acid to thymidylic acid. (medscape.com)
  • Unlike scanning electron microscopy, performance of AFM does not require a vacuum, drying to the critical point, or the coating of the bacterial surface with a metal layer. (asm.org)
  • The digital storage of the information makes it easy to rotate the image, observe the bacterial surface and induced structural alterations from different points of view, and obtain a cross-section at any desired point with precise, automatic measurement of the heights and sizes of normal versus damaged bacteria. (asm.org)
  • Sulfasalazine is useful mainly in colonic disease because the active compound, 5-ASA, is released in the large bowel by bacterial degradation of the parent compound. (medscape.com)
  • Swarming motility is a surface-associated type of bacterial motility characterized by a rapid and coordinated movement of a bacterial population on a viscous surface ( Kearns, 2010 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Since inflammatory lesions, particularly sites of bacterial infection, may contain a rich mixture of cationic substances, phospholipases and phospholipid breakdown products, these substances may contribute to the tissue damage observed at sites of inflammation by enhancing endothelial cell sensitivity to PMN-generated H2O2 as well as by augmenting the generation of H2O2 by PMNs. (umich.edu)
  • Dysfunction of the BBB increases the risk of acquiring certain infections, such as bacterial meningitis, HIV encephalitis (an inflammation of the brain, possibly acquired by HIV "riding" inside of certain cells) and even African sleeping sickness. (metrowestdailynews.com)
  • Lysozymes are innate immune system enzymes and damage the bacterial cell wall. (fraunhofer.de)
  • If steroid withdrawal proves difficult, immunosuppressants such as azathioprine (2 mg/kg/day) or its active metabolite, 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP), may be considered. (medscape.com)
  • Irinotecan and its active metabolite SN-38 bind reversibly to the topoisomerase-1 DNA complex and prevent re-ligation of the single-strand breaks, leading to exposure time-dependent double-strand DNA damage and cell death. (medscape.com)
  • Its mechanism of action is thought to be immunological through an active phosphorylated metabolite, FTY720-P, that resembles S1P and alters lymphocyte trafficking through receptor subtype S1P 1 . (pnas.org)
  • The problems of overtreatment and undertreatment of the treatment site and the body with therapeutic agents, uneven distribution of therapeutic agents within the diseased treatment site, additional trauma to the treatment site, and long term blockage of body fluid distal to the treatment site via known drug delivery catheters are thereby eliminated. (google.ca)
  • said inner inflation balloon having a known and calibrated inflation rate and said tissue insertion needles having a known and calibrated length such that inflation of said internal inflation balloon causes said tips of said tissue insertion needles to extend through said portals and pierce the body tissue at a desired treatment site to a known and calibrated depth for the delivery of desired therapeutic agents. (google.ca)
  • The goal of this study was to determine whether a synthetic peptide, NC-1059, can modulate the corneal epithelium to increase the permeation of therapeutic agents across this barrier. (arvojournals.org)
  • Despite the benefits of topical application, many factors limit the bioavailability of therapeutic agents. (arvojournals.org)
  • An immunoassay method utilizes antigen tagged, enzyme encapsulating liposomes which are immunospecifically ruptured in the presence of cognate antibody and active complement. (google.com)
  • A homogeneous phase reaction occurs with the antibody and complement acting to release the enzyme if an immunospecific antigen-antibody complex is formed at the surface of the liposome. (google.com)
  • A preparation of autologous peripheral blood T-lymphocytes (PBTL) that have been genetically modified to express a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) specific for the B cell maturation antigen (BCMA), with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. (cancer.gov)
  • Antibody-drug conjugates are targeted anticancer agents consisting of a cytotoxic drug covalently linked to a monoclonal antibody for tumor antigen-specific activity. (aacrjournals.org)
  • (1) in this issue of Clinical Cancer Research describes the synthesis and biological activity of an improved, recombinant immunotoxin targeted to the CD22 B-cell antigen. (aacrjournals.org)
  • This agent is pharmacologically classified as a human epidermal growth factor receptor type 1/epidermal growth factor receptor (HER1/EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor. (medscape.com)
  • Adalimumab also lyses surface TNF-expressing cells in vitro in the presence of complement, but it does not bind to TNF-β (lymphotoxin). (medscape.com)
  • Each active site is evolved to be optimised to bind a particular substrate and catalyse a particular reaction, resulting in high specificity . (wikipedia.org)
  • To date, antimicrobial efflux systems in bacteria have been grouped into five (super)families ( 28 ), although the efflux of most of the clinically relevant agents seems to occur in P. aeruginosa through drug-proton antiporters of the resistance-nodulation-division (RND) family ( 25 ). (asm.org)
  • Clinically useful antimalaria agent. (agscientific.com)
  • The presence of extracellular PAD2 and PAD4 was not caused by NETosis, apoptosis, or lysis of the cells, as verified by gating on live cells and adding NETosis inhibitor in flow cytometry experiments. (jimmunol.org)
  • The dendritic uptake, transcytotic transport, and axonal release of physiologically active Tf demonstrated here could be envisioned for other trophic factors and therefore have important consequences for neuronal anterograde target maturation. (jneurosci.org)
  • pIgR, a transcytotic molecule of epithelia, when expressed in cultured hippocampal neurons is first delivered from the cell body to the dendritic surface, where after binding to its ligand is transported to dendritic early endosomes and later to vesicular structures in the axons. (jneurosci.org)
  • But determining if it is a dual target had been problematic because previous work, for technical reasons, had focused on dendritic cells cultured from the blood, not the skin or genital surfaces. (nih.gov)
  • Langerhans cells are just one of several types of dendritic cells in the body. (nih.gov)
  • Dendritic cells from elsewhere in the body behave differently than those in the skin," said Hana Golding, Ph.D., an FDA scientist and senior author on the paper. (nih.gov)
  • Monoclonal antibodies, such as alemtuzumab and rituximab, can locate cancer cells and either kill them or deliver cancer-killing substances to them without harming normal cells. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Since it was first described by Paul Erhlich, the search for a "magic bullet" drug that kills cancer cells while leaving normal cells unaffected has inspired generations of scientists. (pnas.org)
  • The therapy uses carbon nanoparticles to encapsulate chemotherapeutic drugs and sequester them until they are delivered to the cancer cells they are meant to kill. (healthcanal.com)
  • Currently, they have been modified to incorporate passive or active targeting delivery systems to improve their specific distribution and enhance cytotoxicity towards cancer cells while simultaneously reducing their systemic toxicity profile. (intechopen.com)
  • Although surgery and radiation therapy are considered the primary treatment for localized forms of cancers, chemotherapeutic agents must be used when cancer cells metastasize to the regional lymphatic vessels and bloodstream. (intechopen.com)
  • This allows us to use a highly cytotoxic drug targeted to the cancer cells in the brain based on a specific cellular marker," explains Rixe, John and Gladys Strauss Chair in Cancer Research at the UC College of Medicine and director of the Experimental Therapeutics/Phase 1 Clinical Trials Program. (healthcanal.com)
  • EGFR is expressed on the cell surface of normal cells and cancer cells. (medscape.com)
  • PSMA shows significant over-expression on prostatic cancer cells and Ga-68 PSMA PET/CT demonstrates a high rate of detection in patients with recurrent, metastatic prostate cancer. (urotoday.com)
  • In the new paper, published in Cell on May 11, the researchers showed that staggering the doses of two specific drugs dramatically boosts their ability to kill a particularly malignant type of breast cancer cells. (scitechdaily.com)
  • For triple-negative breast cancer cells, there is no good treatment. (scitechdaily.com)
  • In cancer cells, these pathways often go haywire, causing the cells to grow even in the absence of any stimulus and to ignore signals that they should undergo cell suicide. (scitechdaily.com)
  • When constantly active, as it is in many cancer cells, the EGF receptor stimulates a signaling pathway that promotes uncontrolled growth and division. (scitechdaily.com)
  • HNT materials used as a surface treatment have also shown promise in medical research devoted to stem cell collection and in trapping circulating cancer cells. (marketwired.com)
  • 2. A polymerized liposome image contrast agent composition according to claim 1 wherein said active hydrophilic head group is diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid and said hydrophobic tail group is diacetylene. (google.com)
  • 3. A polymerized liposome image contrast agent composition according to claim 1 wherein said active head group is diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid-bis(10,12-pentacosadiynoic amide) lanthanide ion chelator and said hydrophobic tail group is diacetylene. (google.com)
  • The human antimicrobial peptide LL-37 is also produced by the immune system and destroys the cell walls of numerous Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. (fraunhofer.de)
  • The research team found the using erlotinib between four and 48 hours before doxorubicin dramatically increased cancer-cell death, killing up to 50 percent of triple-negative cells. (scitechdaily.com)
  • The researchers found that giving erlotinib between four and 48 hours before doxorubicin dramatically increased cancer-cell death. (scitechdaily.com)
  • The low-molecular-mass bioemulsifiers lower surface and interfacial tensions, whereas the higher-molecular-mass bioemulsifiers are more effective at stabilizing oil-in-water emulsions. (springer.com)
  • The invention also relates to cell separations and microscopy, immunoassays, chemical synthesis, molecular separations and particularly to blood bank diagnostics as well as many other scientific procedures and industrial manufacturing and quality control processes, wherein magnetic particles and magnetic forces are used to effect the separation in a liquid medium. (justia.com)
  • To identify CNS cells functionally contributing to FTY720 activity, genetic approaches were combined with cellular and molecular analyses. (pnas.org)
  • The aim of this study was to investigate this new means of analyzing the surface and morphological alterations of bacteria by examining samples of Escherichia coli exposed to the β-lactam antibiotic cefodizime, one of the latest expanded-spectrum cephalosporins to enter clinical practice. (asm.org)
  • Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (cancer.gov)
  • Radioactive iodine by the red cell walls of hIV-1 G. These agents, without clinical situation may presage complete. (imagenenaccion.org)
  • These advances create a number of clinical dilemmas, including identification of the optimal sequence of HER2-targeted agents and the best drug combinations to use, as well as the recognition of primary and acquired drug resistance. (cancernetwork.com)
  • Germ-cell tumours (GCTs) are extraordinarily chemosensitive and resemble the clinical and biological characteristics of a model for the cure of cancer. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • These studies relied on the functional assessment, based on clinical score, of conditional null mouse mutants lacking S1P 1 in CNS cell lineages and challenged by experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of multiple sclerosis. (pnas.org)
  • Radiolableled amino acid-based agents are useful in PET brain tumor imaging because F-18 fluoro-deoxyglucose (F-18 FDG), commonly used in PET tumor imaging, is relatively insensitive for detecting tumors in the brain due the high levels of glycolytic metabolism in the normal cortex and to a lesser extent in white matter. (cancer.gov)
  • This is a proof-of-concept study to define efficacy of AVELUMAB in patients with multiple relapsed/refractory germ cell tumors (GCTs). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Non-randomized, open-label, multi-centre trial to assess efficacy (as measured by 12-week progression-free survival) of AVELUMAB in patients with refractory germ cell tumors (GCTs). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The new compound is water-soluble and is more effective at targeting tumors than Taxol while avoiding the toxic effects of paclitaxel and Cremophor on adjacent healthy cells, they wrote. (healthcanal.com)
  • Scan images of the tumor data show active tumors glowing like hot coals where they are most virulent. (urotoday.com)
  • Nanowerk News ) By combining a nanoparticle made of a polymer produced by a slime mold with a cancer targeting agent and two therapeutic antisense nucleic acids, an international team of researchers has created a new type of nanoparticle that accumulates in brain tumors when injected into mice. (nanowerk.com)
  • Transferrin receptor is overexpressed by glial cell tumors in brain tissue, also known as gliobastomas. (nanowerk.com)
  • Cell permeable and active in vivo. (agscientific.com)
  • Selectivity was quantified by using ex vivo measurement of Europium-labeled htMVL, which had up to 12-fold higher specificity for dual compared with single receptor expressing cells. (pnas.org)
  • This proof-of-principle study provides in vivo evidence that small, rationally designed bivalent htMVLs can be used to selectively target cells that express both, compared with single complimentary cell surface targets. (pnas.org)
  • Boyle and her team took stem cells from umbilical cords of the babies of normal-weight and obese mothers. (denverpost.com)
  • Stem Cells 2008;26:1496-1505. (patentgenius.com)
  • Stem Cells 2006;24:2538-2548. (patentgenius.com)
  • 2006). Dissecting self-renewal in stem cells with RNA interference. (patentgenius.com)
  • In this technology, stem cells will be mixed with huge number of chemical-beads (1,000,000 or more), and those 100 micron beads coated by the stem cells will be isolated for chemical analysis. (ca.gov)
  • In "chambered" sympathetic neurons in culture, 125 I-Tf or iron as 55 Fe-Tf added to the cell body/dendrite chamber is recovered in the axonal chamber, showing that internalized ligand from the cell body-dendrite area is released at the axonal end. (jneurosci.org)
  • The Company is also exploring surface treatments relating to improved adhesion of protective coatings for polymer components used in numerous commercial applications. (marketwired.com)
  • Precise amounts of the therapeutic agent are then quickly delivered through the needle assembly directly into the diseased body tissue. (google.ca)
  • Salicylic acid, when properly buffered, loosens dead skin cells without hurting living tissue. (ehow.co.uk)
  • According to Wikipedia: Interstitial fluid (or tissue fluid) is a solution that bathes and surrounds the cells of multicellular animals. (brainscape.com)
  • With cell uptake much higher in tumor cells compared to normal cells, the F18 moiety of fluorodeoxygalactose F-18 can be visualized upon PET imaging and this agent can be used as a tracer for the evaluation of galactose tumor uptake and metabolism. (cancer.gov)
  • How this occurs is still under investigation, but a study presented June 9 at the American Diabetes Association's 75th Scientific Sessions found evidence suggesting that in utero environment in obese mothers may program a child's cells to accumulate extra fat or develop differences in metabolism that could lead to insulin resistance. (denverpost.com)
  • Since the expression of functionally active cell surface IL-8Rs determines the IL-8-mediated activities of the cell ( 7 ), any agent that independently regulates CXCR1 and CXCR2 expression may play a pivotal role in IL-8-mediated inflammatory responses. (jimmunol.org)
  • Most recently, the FDA approved the combination of trastuzumab, pertuzumab, and docetaxel as first-line treatment for MBC, and in late February 2013 approved a fourth HER2-targeted agent, trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1, Kadcyla), for accelerated approval. (cancernetwork.com)
  • In the present work, we investigated effects of regulated NMDAR internalization on the activity of residual cell-surface NMDARs and neuronal functions. (springer.com)