Cell Size: The quantity of volume or surface area of CELLS.Cell Enlargement: Growth processes that result in an increase in CELL SIZE.Cell Count: The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.Hypertrophy: General increase in bulk of a part or organ due to CELL ENLARGEMENT and accumulation of FLUIDS AND SECRETIONS, not due to tumor formation, nor to an increase in the number of cells (HYPERPLASIA).Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Adipose Tissue: Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.Cardiomegaly: Enlargement of the HEART, usually indicated by a cardiothoracic ratio above 0.50. Heart enlargement may involve the right, the left, or both HEART VENTRICLES or HEART ATRIA. Cardiomegaly is a nonspecific symptom seen in patients with chronic systolic heart failure (HEART FAILURE) or several forms of CARDIOMYOPATHIES.TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases: A serine threonine kinase that controls a wide range of growth-related cellular processes. The protein is referred to as the target of RAPAMYCIN due to the discovery that SIROLIMUS (commonly known as rapamycin) forms an inhibitory complex with TACROLIMUS BINDING PROTEIN 1A that blocks the action of its enzymatic activity.Cell Biology: The study of the structure, behavior, growth, reproduction, and pathology of cells; and the function and chemistry of cellular components.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinases, 70-kDa: A family of ribosomal protein S6 kinases that are considered the major physiological kinases for RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6. Unlike RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 KINASES, 90KDa the proteins in this family are sensitive to the inhibitory effects of RAPAMYCIN and contain a single kinase domain. They are referred to as 70kDa proteins, however ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of mRNAs for proteins in this class also results in 85kDa variants being formed.Ploidies: The degree of replication of the chromosome set in the karyotype.Genome Size: The amount of DNA (or RNA) in one copy of a genome.Volvocida: An order of CHLOROPHYTA commonly found in freshwater habitats. Characteristics include the presence of a cellulose wall and two to four equal, smooth, apical flagella.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Plant Epidermis: A thin layer of cells forming the outer integument of seed plants and ferns. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Lipid Mobilization: LIPOLYSIS of stored LIPIDS in the ADIPOSE TISSUE to release FREE FATTY ACIDS. Mobilization of stored lipids is under the regulation of lipolytic signals (CATECHOLAMINES) or anti-lipolytic signals (INSULIN) via their actions on the hormone-sensitive LIPASE. This concept does not include lipid transport.Polyploidy: The chromosomal constitution of a cell containing multiples of the normal number of CHROMOSOMES; includes triploidy (symbol: 3N), tetraploidy (symbol: 4N), etc.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Cell Nucleus Size: The quantity of volume or surface area of a CELL NUCLEUS.Mitosis: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Phytoplankton: Free-floating minute organisms that are photosynthetic. The term is non-taxonomic and refers to a lifestyle (energy utilization and motility), rather than a particular type of organism. Most, but not all, are unicellular algae. Important groups include DIATOMS; DINOFLAGELLATES; CYANOBACTERIA; CHLOROPHYTA; HAPTOPHYTA; CRYPTOMONADS; and silicoflagellates.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)WingTime Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.G1 Phase: The period of the CELL CYCLE preceding DNA REPLICATION in S PHASE. Subphases of G1 include "competence" (to respond to growth factors), G1a (entry into G1), G1b (progression), and G1c (assembly). Progression through the G1 subphases is effected by limiting growth factors, nutrients, or inhibitors.Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinases: A family of protein serine/threonine kinases which act as intracellular signalling intermediates. Ribosomal protein S6 kinases are activated through phosphorylation in response to a variety of HORMONES and INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS. Phosphorylation of RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 by enzymes in this class results in increased expression of 5' top MRNAs. Although specific for RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 members of this class of kinases can act on a number of substrates within the cell. The immunosuppressant SIROLIMUS inhibits the activation of ribosomal protein S6 kinases.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Vestibular Nucleus, Lateral: Vestibular nucleus lying immediately superior to the inferior vestibular nucleus and composed of large multipolar nerve cells. Its upper end becomes continuous with the superior vestibular nucleus.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Protein Kinases: A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.Myocytes, Cardiac: Striated muscle cells found in the heart. They are derived from cardiac myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, CARDIAC).Carlavirus: A genus of RNA plant viruses in the family FLEXIVIRIDAE, containing slightly flexuous filaments, often transmitted by aphids in a non-persistent manner. Carnation latent virus is the type species.Osmium: Osmium. A very hard, gray, toxic, and nearly infusible metal element, atomic number 76, atomic weight 190.2, symbol Os. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Schizosaccharomyces: A genus of ascomycetous fungi of the family Schizosaccharomycetaceae, order Schizosaccharomycetales.Cell Shape: The quality of surface form or outline of CELLS.Allium: A genus of the plant family Liliaceae (sometimes classified as Alliaceae) in the order Liliales. Many produce pungent, often bacteriostatic and physiologically active compounds and are used as VEGETABLES; CONDIMENTS; and medicament, the latter in traditional medicine.Endothelium, Corneal: Single layer of large flattened cells covering the surface of the cornea.Sirolimus: A macrolide compound obtained from Streptomyces hygroscopicus that acts by selectively blocking the transcriptional activation of cytokines thereby inhibiting cytokine production. It is bioactive only when bound to IMMUNOPHILINS. Sirolimus is a potent immunosuppressant and possesses both antifungal and antineoplastic properties.Plankton: Community of tiny aquatic PLANTS and ANIMALS, and photosynthetic BACTERIA, that are either free-floating or suspended in the water, with little or no power of locomotion. They are divided into PHYTOPLANKTON and ZOOPLANKTON.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Cell SeparationCytological Techniques: Methods used to study CELLS.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Cyclins: A large family of regulatory proteins that function as accessory subunits to a variety of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES. They generally function as ENZYME ACTIVATORS that drive the CELL CYCLE through transitions between phases. A subset of cyclins may also function as transcriptional regulators.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Buttocks: Either of two fleshy protuberances at the lower posterior section of the trunk or HIP in humans and primate on which a person or animal sits, consisting of gluteal MUSCLES and fat.Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.Microscopy: The use of instrumentation and techniques for visualizing material and details that cannot be seen by the unaided eye. It is usually done by enlarging images, transmitted by light or electron beams, with optical or magnetic lenses that magnify the entire image field. With scanning microscopy, images are generated by collecting output from the specimen in a point-by-point fashion, on a magnified scale, as it is scanned by a narrow beam of light or electrons, a laser, a conductive probe, or a topographical probe.Cell Cycle Proteins: Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.Adipocytes: Cells in the body that store FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. WHITE ADIPOCYTES are the predominant type and found mostly in the abdominal cavity and subcutaneous tissue. BROWN ADIPOCYTES are thermogenic cells that can be found in newborns of some species and hibernating mammals.Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Cell Physiological Phenomena: Cellular processes, properties, and characteristics.Ribosomal Protein S6: A ribosomal protein that may play a role in controlling cell growth and proliferation. It is a major substrate of RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 KINASES and plays a role in regulating the translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) of RNAs that contain an RNA 5' TERMINAL OLIGOPYRIMIDINE SEQUENCE.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Potassium Isotopes: Stable potassium atoms that have the same atomic number as the element potassium, but differ in atomic weight. K-41 is a stable potassium isotope.Schizosaccharomyces pombe Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species Schizosaccharomyces pombe. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Multiprotein Complexes: Macromolecular complexes formed from the association of defined protein subunits.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Arabidopsis Proteins: Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Methylobacterium extorquens: A species of METHYLOBACTERIUM which can utilize acetate, ethanol, or methylamine as a sole carbon source. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)Gene Expression Regulation, Fungal: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in fungi.Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Geniculate Bodies: Part of the DIENCEPHALON inferior to the caudal end of the dorsal THALAMUS. Includes the lateral geniculate body which relays visual impulses from the OPTIC TRACT to the calcarine cortex, and the medial geniculate body which relays auditory impulses from the lateral lemniscus to the AUDITORY CORTEX.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Meristem: A group of plant cells that are capable of dividing infinitely and whose main function is the production of new growth at the growing tip of a root or stem. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Global Warming: Increase in the temperature of the atmosphere near the Earth's surface and in the troposphere, which can contribute to changes in global climate patterns.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Photomicrography: Photography of objects viewed under a microscope using ordinary photographic methods.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Uridine Diphosphate Glucose: A key intermediate in carbohydrate metabolism. Serves as a precursor of glycogen, can be metabolized into UDPgalactose and UDPglucuronic acid which can then be incorporated into polysaccharides as galactose and glucuronic acid. Also serves as a precursor of sucrose lipopolysaccharides, and glycosphingolipids.Mesophyll Cells: Large and highly vacuolated cells possessing many chloroplasts occuring in the interior cross-section of leaves, juxtaposed between the epidermal layers.Gene Expression Regulation, Plant: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Phenylephrine: An alpha-1 adrenergic agonist used as a mydriatic, nasal decongestant, and cardiotonic agent.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Epididymis: The convoluted cordlike structure attached to the posterior of the TESTIS. Epididymis consists of the head (caput), the body (corpus), and the tail (cauda). A network of ducts leaving the testis joins into a common epididymal tubule proper which provides the transport, storage, and maturation of SPERMATOZOA.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Diatoms: The common name for the phylum of microscopic unicellular STRAMENOPILES. Most are aquatic, being found in fresh, brackish, and salt water. Diatoms are noted for the symmetry and sculpturing of their siliceous cell walls. They account for 40% of PHYTOPLANKTON, but not all diatoms are planktonic.PhosphoproteinsSodium Isotopes: Stable sodium atoms that have the same atomic number as the element sodium, but differ in atomic weight. Na-23 is a stable sodium isotope.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Body Size: The physical measurements of a body.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt: A protein-serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION in response to GROWTH FACTORS or INSULIN. It plays a major role in cell metabolism, growth, and survival as a core component of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Three isoforms have been described in mammalian cells.Lipid Metabolism: Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.S Phase: Phase of the CELL CYCLE following G1 and preceding G2 when the entire DNA content of the nucleus is replicated. It is achieved by bidirectional replication at multiple sites along each chromosome.Drosophila: A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases: Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.Cells: The fundamental, structural, and functional units or subunits of living organisms. They are composed of CYTOPLASM containing various ORGANELLES and a CELL MEMBRANE boundary.Larva: Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.Microscopy, Confocal: A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.Atrial Natriuretic Factor: A potent natriuretic and vasodilatory peptide or mixture of different-sized low molecular weight PEPTIDES derived from a common precursor and secreted mainly by the HEART ATRIUM. All these peptides share a sequence of about 20 AMINO ACIDS.Glycerol: A trihydroxy sugar alcohol that is an intermediate in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. It is used as a solvent, emollient, pharmaceutical agent, and sweetening agent.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Plant Cells: Basic functional unit of plants.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Drosophila melanogaster: A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.Eukaryota: One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and ARCHAEA), also called Eukarya. These are organisms whose cells are enclosed in membranes and possess a nucleus. They comprise almost all multicellular and many unicellular organisms, and are traditionally divided into groups (sometimes called kingdoms) including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and various algae and other taxa that were previously part of the old kingdom Protista.DNA Replication: The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.Erythrocyte Indices: ERYTHROCYTE size and HEMOGLOBIN content or concentration, usually derived from ERYTHROCYTE COUNT; BLOOD hemoglobin concentration; and HEMATOCRIT. The indices include the mean corpuscular volume (MCV), the mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), and the mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC).Image Cytometry: A technique encompassing morphometry, densitometry, neural networks, and expert systems that has numerous clinical and research applications and is particularly useful in anatomic pathology for the study of malignant lesions. The most common current application of image cytometry is for DNA analysis, followed by quantitation of immunohistochemical staining.Actins: Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.Plants, Genetically Modified: PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.Contact Lenses, Extended-Wear: Hydrophilic contact lenses worn for an extended period or permanently.Single-Cell Analysis: Assaying the products of or monitoring various biochemical processes and reactions in an individual cell.G2 Phase: The period of the CELL CYCLE following DNA synthesis (S PHASE) and preceding M PHASE (cell division phase). The CHROMOSOMES are tetraploid in this point.Biomass: Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.Water Movements: The flow of water in enviromental bodies of water such as rivers, oceans, water supplies, aquariums, etc. It includes currents, tides, and waves.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-myc: Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-myc genes. They are normally involved in nucleic acid metabolism and in mediating the cellular response to growth factors. Elevated and deregulated (constitutive) expression of c-myc proteins can cause tumorigenesis.Plant Roots: The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Carbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.Cyclin-Dependent Kinases: Protein kinases that control cell cycle progression in all eukaryotes and require physical association with CYCLINS to achieve full enzymatic activity. Cyclin-dependent kinases are regulated by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation events.

Sex differences in the effects of early neocortical injury on neuronal size distribution of the medial geniculate nucleus in the rat are mediated by perinatal gonadal steroids. (1/5001)

Freezing injury to the cortical plate of rats induces cerebrocortical microgyria and, in males but not females, a shift toward greater numbers of small neurons in the medial geniculate nucleus (MGN). The purpose of the current study was to examine a hormonal basis for this sex difference. Cross-sectional neuronal areas of the MGN were measured in male rats, untreated female rats and female rats treated perinatally with testosterone propionate, all of which had received either neonatal cortical freezing or sham injury. Both male and androgenized female rats with microgyria had significantly smaller MGN neurons when compared to their sham-operated counterparts, whereas untreated females with microgyria did not. These differences were also reflected in MGN neuronal size distribution: both male and androgenized female rats with microgyria had more small and fewer large neurons in their MGN in comparison to shams, while there was no difference in MGN neuronal size distribution between lesioned and sham females. These findings suggest that perinatal gonadal steroids mediate the sex difference in thalamic response to induction of microgyria in the rat cortex.  (+info)

Expression of the naturally occurring truncated trkB neurotrophin receptor induces outgrowth of filopodia and processes in neuroblastoma cells. (2/5001)

We have investigated the effects of the truncated trkB receptor isoform T1 (trkB.T1) by transient transfection into mouse N2a neuroblastoma cells. We observed that expression of trkB.T1 leads to a striking change in cell morphology characterized by outgrowth of filopodia and processes. A similar morphological response was also observed in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells and NIH3T3 fibroblasts transfected with trkB.T1. N2a cells lack endogenous expression of trkB isoforms, but express barely detectable amounts of its ligands, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin-4 (NT-4). The morphological change was ligand-independent, since addition of exogenous BDNF or NT-4 or blockade of endogenous trkB ligands did not influence this response. Filopodia and process outgrowth was significantly suppressed when full-length trkB.TK+ was cotransfected together with trkB.T1 and this inhibitory effect was blocked by tyrosine kinase inhibitor K252a. Transfection of trkB.T1 deletion mutants showed that the morphological response is dependent on the extracellular, but not the intracellular domain of the receptor. Our results suggest a novel ligand-independent role for truncated trkB in the regulation of cellular morphology.  (+info)

Gender-related differences in myocyte remodeling in progression to heart failure. (3/5001)

Gender-related differences responsible for the better prognosis of females with heart failure have not been clearly established. To address this issue, we investigated potential gender-related differences in myocyte remodeling in spontaneously hypertensive heart failure rats. Echocardiograms and myocyte growth were compared between males and females at compensated (2, 4, and 6 months) and decompensated (18 months in males and 24 months in females) stages of cardiac hypertrophy. Although left ventricular diastolic dimensions did not differ significantly between failing male and female rats, fractional shortening declined significantly only in failing males. Myocyte cross-sectional area did not change after 4 months of age in both genders, which is likely to be responsible for the absence of a change in left ventricular wall thickness during the progression to heart failure. Myocyte volume and cross-sectional area were significantly larger in males than females at 2, 4, and 6 months of age, although there were no significant differences at the failing stage. Reduced adaptive hypertrophic reserve was observed in males, which is likely to contribute to the higher morbidity and mortality of males with chronic heart failure.  (+info)

Activated macrophages and microglia induce dopaminergic sprouting in the injured striatum and express brain-derived neurotrophic factor and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor. (4/5001)

Nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons undergo sprouting around the margins of a striatal wound. The mechanism of this periwound sprouting has been unclear. In this study, we have examined the role played by the macrophage and microglial response that follows striatal injury. Macrophages and activated microglia quickly accumulate after injury and reach their greatest numbers in the first week. Subsequently, the number of both cell types declines rapidly in the first month and thereafter more slowly. Macrophage numbers eventually cease to decline, and a sizable group of these cells remains at the wound site and forms a long-term, highly activated resident population. This population of macrophages expresses increasing amounts of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor mRNA with time. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor mRNA is also expressed in and around the wound site. Production of this factor is by both activated microglia and, to a lesser extent, macrophages. The production of these potent dopaminergic neurotrophic factors occurs in a similar spatial distribution to sprouting dopaminergic fibers. Moreover, dopamine transporter-positive dopaminergic neurites can be seen growing toward and embracing hemosiderin-filled wound macrophages. The dopaminergic sprouting that accompanies striatal injury thus appears to result from neurotrophic factor secretion by activated macrophages and microglia at the wound site.  (+info)

Interleukin-12 is synthesized by mesangial cells and stimulates platelet-activating factor synthesis, cytoskeletal reorganization, and cell shape change. (5/5001)

Preliminary studies indicate the involvement of interleukin (IL)-12 in experimental renal pathology. In the present study, we evaluated whether cultured glomerular mesangial cells are able to produce IL-12 and whether IL-12 may regulate some of their functions, including the cytoskeletal reorganization, the change in cell shape, and the production of platelet-activating factor (PAF). The results obtained indicate that pro-inflammatory stimuli, such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha and bacterial polysaccharides, induce the expression of IL-12 mRNA and the synthesis of the protein by cultured mesangial cells. Moreover, cultured mesangial cells were shown to bind IL-12 and to express the human low-affinity IL-12 beta1-chain receptor. When challenged with IL-12, mesangial cells produced PAF in a dose- and time-dependent manner and superoxide anions. No production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and IL-8 was observed. Moreover, we demonstrate that IL-12 induced a delayed and sustained shape change of mesangial cells that reached its maximum between 90 and 120 minutes of incubation. The changes in cell shape occurred concomitantly with cytoskeletal rearrangements and may be consistent with cell contraction. As IL-12-dependent shape change of mesangial cells was concomitant with the synthesis of PAF, which is known to promote mesangial cell contraction, we investigated the role of PAF using two chemically different PAF receptor antagonists. Both antagonists inhibited almost completely the cell shape change induced by IL-12, whereas they were ineffective on angiotensin-II-induced cell shape change. In conclusion, our results suggest that mesangial cells can either produce IL-12 or be stimulated by this cytokine to synthesize PAF and to undergo shape changes compatible with cell contraction.  (+info)

Neurite outgrowth-regulating properties of GABA and the effect of serum on mouse spinal cord neurons in culture. (6/5001)

Time-lapse photography was used to examine the effects of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) on the outgrowth and motility of neurites in cultures from mouse spinal cord. GABA at concentrations of 100, 10 and 1 microM caused significant inhibition of neurite outgrowth and the motility of growth cones was significantly reduced by treatment with 100 and 10 microM GABA. This effect was mimicked by the GABA(B) receptor agonist baclofen, whereas the GABA(A) receptor agonist muscimol had no effect. The effect of GABA on outgrowth and motility seems to be dependent on the type of serum employed. The results reported here were obtained only when heat-inactivated serum was used and not when non heat-inactivated serum was added to the culture medium. They suggest that GABA has a role in the regulation of process outgrowth within the embryonic mouse spinal cord.  (+info)

Regulation of p190 Rho-GAP by v-Src is linked to cytoskeletal disruption during transformation. (7/5001)

The v-Src oncoprotein perturbs the dynamic regulation of the cellular cytoskeletal and adhesion network by a mechanism that is poorly understood. Here, we have examined in detail the effects of a temperature-dependent v-Src protein on the regulation of p190 RhoGAP, a GTPase activating protein (GAP) that has been implicated in disruption of the organised actin cytoskeleton, and addressed the dependence of v-Src-induced stress fibre loss on inhibition of Rho activity. We found that activation of v-Src induced association of tyrosine phosphorylated p190 with p120(RasGAP) and stimulation of p120(RasGAP)-associated RhoGAP activity, although p120(RasGAP) itself was not a target for phosphorylation by v-Src in chicken embryo cells. These events required the catalytic activity of v-Src and were linked to loss of actin stress fibres during morphological transformation and not mitogenic signalling. Furthermore, these effects were rapidly reversible since switching off v-Src led to dissociation of the p190/p120(RasGAP) complex, inactivation of p120(RasGAP)-associated RhoGAP activity and re-induction of actin stress fibres. In addition, transient transfection of Val14-RhoA, a constitutively active Rho protein that is insensitive to RhoGAPs, suppressed v-Src-induced stress fibre loss and cell transformation. Thus, we show here for the first time that an activated Src kinase requires the inactivation of Rho-mediated actin stress fibre assembly to induce its effects on actin disorganisation. Moreover, our work supports p190 as a strong candidate effector of v-Src-induced cytoskeletal disruption, most likely mediated by antagonism of the cellular function of Rho.  (+info)

C-PR neuron of Aplysia has differential effects on "Feeding" cerebral interneurons, including myomodulin-positive CBI-12. (8/5001)

Head lifting and other aspects of the appetitive central motive state that precedes consummatory feeding movements in Aplysia is promoted by excitation of the C-PR neuron. Food stimuli activate C-PR as well as a small population of cerebral-buccal interneurons (CBIs). We wished to determine if firing of C-PR produced differential effects on the various CBIs or perhaps affected all the CBIs uniformly as might be expected for a neuron involved in producing a broad undifferentiated arousal state. We found that when C-PR was fired, it produced a wide variety of effects on various CBIs. Firing of C-PR evoked excitatory input to a newly identified CBI (CBI-12) the soma of which is located in the M cluster near the previously identified CBI-2. CBI-12 shares certain properties with CBI-2, including a similar morphology and a capacity to drive rhythmic activity of the buccal-ganglion. Unlike CBI-2, CBI-12 exhibits myomodulin immunoreactivity. Furthermore when C-PR is fired, CBI-12 receives a polysynaptic voltage-dependent slow excitation, whereas, CBI-2 receives relatively little input. C-PR also polysynaptically excites other CBIs including CBI-1 and CBI-8/9 but produces inhibition in CBI-3. In addition, firing of C-PR inhibits plateau potentials in CBI-5/6. The data suggest that activity of C-PR may promote the activity of one subset of cerebral-buccal interneurons, perhaps those involved in ingestive behaviors that occur during the head-up posture. C-PR also inhibits some cerebral-buccal interneurons that may be involved in behaviors in which C-PR activity is not required or may even interfere with other feeding behaviors such as rejection or grazing, that occur with the head down.  (+info)

*BS National Beehive

"Honeycomb Cell Size". Retrieved 27 January 2017. American Beekeeping History - The Bee Hive at John's Beekeeping Notebook ... There are several methods to increase the size of the brood chamber, if this is required: Use of a larger '14 x 12' box (where ... The standard brood box is considered well suited to non-prolific bees, providing around 48,000 cells, and has sufficient space ... thereby doubling the size. 'Brood and a half' chamber of a standard and a shallow box. The weight of a full honey super is ...

*Cellular shades

Cell size can vary. Cell shapes hold trapped air and create a barrier between the window surface and the a room. Since there's ... Cellular shades can be constructed as single cell, double cell, or triple cell shades. Single cell fabric has an R-Value ... Cell shapes in the blinds hold trapped air and create a barrier between the window surface and the a room. Shades, however, ... between 0.28 and 0.44 (1.6 and 2.5 imperial), and double cell fabric has a metric R-value between 0.49 and 0.70 (2.8 and 4.0 ...

*Chaetoceros

Cells colonies can form chains that are coiled, straight, or curved. Cell size can range from ... Cells are more or less rectangular in girdle view. Cells are usually elliptical in valve view. Opposite setae of adjacent cells ... It is a type of centric diatom that contains a frustrule or cell wall composed of silica that contain long, thin spins (setae ... The spines connect the frustules together creating a colony of cells. ...

*Brood comb

Drone bees require the largest cell size. There is some evidence that suggests that a smaller cell enables faster development ... The vertex where three cells meet on one side is in the center of a cell on the other side. Freshly created beeswax comb may ... The hexagonal cells for the brood comb vary in diameter. The size ranges between less than 4.6 millimetres (0.18 in) to greater ... The brood comb is the beeswax structure of cells where the queen bee lays eggs. It is the part of the beehive where a new brood ...

*Cellular adaptation

Atrophy is a decrease in cell size. If enough cells in an organ atrophy the entire organ will decrease in size. Thymus atrophy ... Hypertrophy is an increase in cell size. If enough cells of an organ hypertrophy so will the whole organ. The heart and kidneys ... In cell biology and pathophysiology, cellular adaptation refers to changes made by a cell in response to adverse environmental ... Hyperplasia is an increase in the number of cells. It is the result of increased cell mitosis, or division. The two types of ...

*Autoradiopuhelin

ARP did not support handover, so calls would disconnect when moving to a new cell area. The cell size was approximately 30 km. ... The technology is zero-generation (0G), since although it had cells, moving between them was not seamless. The network was ...

*Phagocyte

"Cell size of alveolar macrophages: an interspecies comparison". Environ. Health Perspect. 105 Suppl 5 (Suppl 5): 1261-63. doi: ... The source of interferon-gamma can be CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, natural killer cells, B cells, natural killer T cells, ... In an animal, cells are constantly dying. A balance between cell division and cell death keeps the number of cells relatively ... Mast cells have Toll-like receptors and interact with dendritic cells, B cells, and T cells to help mediate adaptive immune ...

*Android fat distribution

Insulin responsiveness is dependent on adipose cell size. The larger the adipose cell size the less sensitive the insulin. ... Android type have larger fat (Hypertrophy) cells whereas gynoid type have increased number of fat cells (Hyperplasia). This ... Diabetes is more likely to occur in obese women with android fat distribution and hypertrophic fat cells. It is not just ... It is stored in different depots to gynoid fat.[citation needed] Android fat cells are mostly visceral - they are large, ...

*Motor unit recruitment

Henneman, E., Somjen, G. & Carpenter, D. O. (1965). Functional significance of cell size in spinal motoneurons. J. Neurophysiol ... This is known as Henneman's Size Principle. Henneman proposed that the mechanism underlying the Size Principle was that the ... The distribution of motor unit size is such that there is an inverse relationship between the number of motor units and the ... Henneman, E., Somjen, G. & Carpenter, D. O. (1965). Excitability and inhibitability of motoneurons of different sizes. J. ...

*Gene cluster

The Molarity Model considers the constraints of cell size. Transcribing and translating genes together is beneficial to the ... The size of gene clusters can vary significantly, from a few genes to several hundred genes. Portions of the DNA sequence of ... Although the size of a gene cluster may vary, it rarely comprises more than 50 genes, making clusters stable in number. Gene ... A gene is duplicated during cell division, so that its descendants have two end-to-end copies of the gene where it had one copy ...

*Abdominal exercise

... cell size predicts type 2 diabetes according to a lead author. Moderate exercise reduced cell size by about 18% in 45 obese ... diet alone did not appear to affect cell size. Abdominal muscles have many important functions, including in breathing, ... reduced the size of subcutaneous abdominal fat cells; ... weight loss preferentially reduces abdominal adipocyte size". ...

*Tetraselmis

... species vary greatly in cell size and shape. Cells can be round, ovoid, elliptical, flattened, compressed, or a ... which is a microtubule structure that helps the cell divide the nuclei into each daughter cell. Daughter cells can develop into ... In cells that have lost their flagella the thecal extensions grow to cover the slit, but they do not fuse; non-motile cells of ... Each cell has four flagella of equal length, in which the flagella are shorter than the length of the cell. The flagella emerge ...

*Sphingomonas paucimobilis

The cell size is around 0.7 x 1.4 μm. As with the other members of the genus, its biochemistry is remarkable in possession of ... ubiquinone 10 as its major respiratory quinone, and of glycosphingolipids instead of lipopolysaccharides in its cell envelope. ...

*Genome evolution

Gregory, TR (January 2002). "A bird's-eye view of the C-value enigma: genome size, cell size, and metabolic rate in the class ... Gregory, T. Ryan (February 2001). "Coincidence, coevolution, or causation? DNA content, cell size, and the C-value enigma". ... namely that the number of genes that make up the genome does not correlate with genome size. In other words, the genome size is ... Genome size is usually measured in base pairs (or bases in single-stranded DNA or RNA). The C-value is another measure of ...

*ENOD40

Guzzo F, Portaluppi P, Grisi R, Barone S, Zampieri S, Franssen H, Levi M (2005). "Reduction of cell size induced by enod40 in ... for elicitation of a cell-specific growth response in the alfalfa root cortex". Mol Cell Biol. 21 (1): 354-66. doi:10.1128/MCB. ... Plant Cell. 11 (10): 1953-66. doi:10.1105/tpc.11.10.1953. PMC 144109 . PMID 10521525. Kouchi H, Takane K, So RB, Ladha JK, ... "enod40 induces dedifferentiation and division of root cortical cells in legumes". Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 94 (16): 8901-6. ...

*Gerhard Fankhauser

Fankhauser discovered that cell size was not the determining factor in the size of an organism. In his 1945 paper, Fankhauser ... Fankhauser's research showed the correlation between ploidy and cell size. In his research on Triturus viridescens, a species ... showed that although the nephric duct cells of polyploidy embryos are larger, the size of the duct itself remained constant "Dr ... Kirschner, Marc; Gerhart, J; Mitchison, T (January 7, 2000). "Molecular "Vitalism"" (PDF). Cell. 100 (1): 79-88. doi:10.1016/ ...

*Plant peptide hormone

February 2005). "Reduction of cell size induced by enod40 in Arabidopsis thaliana". J. Exp. Bot. 56 (412): 507-13. doi:10.1093/ ... RALF has been identified to bind to potential membrane bound receptors complex containing proteins 25 kDa and 120 kDa in size. ... SCR/SP11 - are small polymorphic peptides produced by the tapetal cells of anthers and is involved in self-incompatibility of ... These proteins are secreted from cells in the floral abscission zone. Studies suggest that the HAESA membrane-associated LRR- ...

*Peto's paradox

Maciak and Michalak argue that cell size is not uniform across mammalian species, making body size an imperfect proxy for the ... "a largely underappreciated relation of cell size to both metabolism and cell-division rates across species" as key factors ... on a cell-for-cell basis, humans were much less susceptible to cancer than mice: A man has 1000 times as many cells as a mouse ... MacIak, S.; Michalak, P. (2015). "Cell size and cancer: A new solution to Peto's paradox?". Evolutionary Applications. 8: 2-8. ...

*Red blood cell distribution width

Certain disorders, however, cause a significant variation in cell size. Higher RDW values indicate greater variation in size. ... However, a varied size distribution of red blood cells is a hallmark of iron deficiency anemia, and as such shows an increased ... Red blood cell distribution width (RDW or RDW-CV or RCDW and RDW-SD) is a measure of the range of variation of red blood cell ( ... An elevated RDW (red blood cells of unequal sizes) is known as anisocytosis. An elevation in the RDW is not characteristic of ...

*Coastal ocean dynamics applications radar

CODAR's resolution cell size is generally bigger than 5 km2. This does not permit to use this system for most of the inlets and ...

*Motor control

Henneman, Elwood; Somjen, George; Carpenter, David 0. (1965). "Functional Significance of cell size in spinal motor neurons". ... From above, people can considerably increase their strength without increasing the size of their muscle[according to whom?], ... Sypert, GW; Munson, JB (1981). "Basis of segmental motor control: motoneuron size or motor unit type?". Neurosurgery. 8 (5): ... size of the muscle fibers) provided of those motor units. The performance is rarely affected by the type of muscle fiber (slow ...

*Hydrodynamic focusing

Shuler, M. L.; Aris, R; Tsuchiya, H. M. (1972). "Hydrodynamic Focusing and Electronic Cell-Sizing Techniques". Applied ... Measuring particles Cells are counted as they are forced to pass through a small channel (often referred to as a flow cell), ... The standard channel size used in most production flow cytometers is 250 by 250 micrometers. Focusing with a fluid Hydrodynamic ... used to provide more accurate results from flow cytometers or Coulter counters for determining the size of bacteria or cells. ...

*Megakaryocyte

... s Cell size comparison CAMT Specific Infant Bone Marrow Transplant Journal. ... These multipotent stem cells live in the marrow sinusoids and are capable of producing all types of blood cells depending on ... Megakaryocytes are derived from hematopoietic stem cell precursor cells in the bone marrow. They are produced primarily by the ... A megakaryocyte (mega- + karyo- + -cyte, "large-nucleus cell") is a large bone marrow cell with a lobulated nucleus responsible ...

*Wireless ad hoc network

Each node then has a predefined fixed cell size (radio range). A node is said to be connected to another node if this neighbor ...

*Eucampia zodiacus

... zodiacus cell has an average size between 10-61 µm along the apical axis. The cell wall is silicified, as is characteristic of ... Nishikawa, Tetsuya (2017). "Cell size reduction and restoration of the diatom Eucampia zodiacus in culture". Plankton & Benthos ... Nishikawa, Tetsuya (2017). "Cell size reduction and restoration of the diatom Eucampia zodiacus in culture". Plankton & Benthos ... The thickness of this cell wall changes with season. Cells are flattened and interlock by two apical elevations (horns) to form ...

*Camelpox

After the virus attaches to a host cell, it injects its viral core (the shell containing its DNA) into the cell's cytoplasm. ... It is a large, brick-shaped, enveloped virus that ranges in size from 265-295 nm. The viral genetic material is contained in ... The newly formed virus particles can be released during cell lysis, or they can derive a host cell produced membrane and be ...
Both cell proliferation and cell size control are fundamental biological processes that must be carefully orchestrated, and dysregulation of either can lead to diseases such as cancer. In contrast to our understanding of the mechanisms that control cell proliferation, less is known about the mechanisms that control cell size and, particularly, the mechanisms by which cell proliferation and cell size are coordinately regulated. Recently, we identified a novel protein named FIP200, which plays an important role in the regulation of cell cycle progression (Abbi et al., 2002). In this study, we showed that FIP200 can also regulate cell size through interaction with the TSC1-TSC2 complex and activation of S6K. These results identify FIP200 as a regulator that plays roles in both cell proliferation and cell size control.. Most other proteins known to play roles in both cell proliferation and cell size usually regulate these two cellular processes in a similar manner. For example, PTEN can inhibit cell ...
Author Summary Cells delay division into two daughter cells until they reach a particular size. However, the molecular-level mechanisms by which they do this have remained unknown until recently. A cell-size checkpoint mechanism in rod-shaped fission yeast cells has recently been shown to involve two proteins, Pom1 and Cdr2. The concentrations of these proteins in the middle of the cell differ from that at the poles. The changing nature of these spatial gradients as the cell grows is size-sensitive. Pom1 inhibits Cdr2 while Cdr2 stimulates the cell to enter into mitosis. In short cells, the Pom1 concentration in the middle of the cell is so great that Cdr2 is inhibited. As cells grow, the Pom1 concentration in the middle of the cell declines; at some particular size, Cdr2 activates. In this study, we developed a mathematical model that mimics this checkpoint behavior.
博士論文. Volume regulation is one of the most important cell functions to maintain cell homeostasis in a variety of physiological and pathological conditions, where cells are subject to osmotic perturbation. Although colon crypts have been reported to shrink during Cl,SUP,-,/SUP, secretion in response to secretagogue stimulation, it is not yet clear whether or how individual secretory cells located in colon crypts restore their cell volume. To study this, he visualized individual cells in the crypt isolated from the guinea pig distal colon using two-photon laser scanning microscopy, and their volume changes in response to carbachol (CCh), a cholinergic agonist, were compared with those of a human colonic epithelial T84 cell line. Both T84 cells and fundus crypt cells, but not upper crypt cells, showed shrinkage (termed a secretory volume decrease: SVD) after CCh stimulation, and surprisingly, even under continuous stimulation by CCh, they recovered their original cell volume (called a ...
BWV #2: In this experiment, you will Use agar cubes cut into various size blocks to simulate cells. Use a Conductivity Probe to measure the quantity of ions in a solution. Determine the relationship between the surface area and volume of a cell.
The physiological function of epithelia is transport of ions, nutrients and fluid either in secretory or absorptive direction. All of these processes are closely related to cell volume changes, which are thus an integrated part of epithelial function. Transepithelial transport and cell volume regulation both rely on the spatially and temporally coordinated function of ion channels and transporters. In healthy epithelia, specific ion channels/transporters localize to the luminal and basolateral membranes, contributing to functional epithelial polarity. In pathophysiological processes such as cancer, transepithelial and cell volume regulatory ion transport are dys-regulated. Furthermore, epithelial architecture and coordinated ion transport function are lost, cell survival/death balance is altered, and new interactions with the stroma arise, all contributing to drug resistance. Since altered expression of ion transporters and channels is now recognized as one of the hallmarks of cancer, it is timely to
Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells grown in glucose have larger average size than cells grown in ethanol. Besides, yeast must reach a carbon source-modulated critical cell size in order to enter S phase at Start. This control is of outmost physiological relevance, since it allows us to coordinate cell growth with cell cycle progression and it is responsible for cell size homeostasis. The cell sizer mechanism requires the overcoming of two sequential thresholds, involving Cln3 and Far1, and Clb5,6 and Sic1, respectively. When both thresholds are non-functional, carbon source modulation of cell size at Start is completely abolished. Since inactivation of extracellular glucose sensing through deletion of either the GPR1 or the GPA2 gene causes a marked, but partial, reduction in the ability to modulate cell size and protein content at Start, it is proposed that both extracellular and intracellular glucose signalling is required for properly setting the cell sizer in glucose media.. ...
Surface area is proportional to the square of the radius. So surface area grows more rapidly than the diameter of the cell. If the radius doubles, the surface area quadruples. Volume grows even more rapdily than surface area. Volume is proportional to the cube of the radius, so if the radius doubles, the cell volume increases by a factor of 8 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Advanced materials for recognition and capture of whole cells and microorganisms. AU - Bole, Amanda L.. AU - Manesiotis, Panagiotis. PY - 2016/7/20. Y1 - 2016/7/20. N2 - Selective cell recognition and capture has recently attracted significant interest due to its potential importance for clinical, diagnostic, environmental, and security applications. Current methods for cell isolation from complex samples are largely dependent on cell size and density, with limited application scope as many of the target cells do not exhibit appreciable differences in this respect. The most recent and forthcoming developments in the area of selective recognition and capture of whole cells, based on natural receptors, as well as synthetic materials utilising physical and chemical properties of the target cell or microorganism, are highlighted. Particular focus is given to the development of cell complementary surfaces using the cells themselves as templating agents, by means of molecular ...
By applying mathematical models to a large number of experiments in which bacterial growth is inhibited, a team of physicists, biologists and bioengineers from UC San Diego developed a general growth law that explains the relationship between the average cell size of bacteria and how fast they grow.
Macrophages have the potential of being activated, a process that increases cell size, levels of lysosomal enzymes, active metabolism & ability to phagocytose (which makes them a bad ass killing machine). ...
the mechanisms responsible for the maintenance of a constant cell volume under "resting" conditions and for the cells capability of counteracting volume perturbation by volume recovery processes have been described in a wide variety of cells and have been studied in detail for many years (23, 26, 36). Increasing evidence now supports the conclusion that signaling in cell volume control cooperates with signaling in cell proliferation, cell migration, and apoptosis. However, we still know little as to the function of a change in cell volume as a direct signal in the regulation of these cellular parameters. As discussed by Hoffmann and Ussing (27), the term "volume regulation" may lead to the misconception that cells have one preferred volume, which is not the case since the "preferred" volume may highly depend on the differential and functional state of the cell, such as in secreting epithelia (21, 27) and in cells during growth and proliferation per se. Thus, cell proliferation is often ...
Effect of endogenous MURF1 on cardiac cell size and ANF expression. (A) COS 7 cells were transiently transfected with pCMV-Myc-MURF1 and pSIREN-MURF1 siRNA or w
Cell size trajectories for successive mother and daughter cells.Data is collected during the simulations with three different periods of forced CLN2 expression:
Lately, when I transform with DH5-alpha cells, the colony sizes are different. I havent seen this in the past. What causes this variety of cell sizes of the transformed cells? Thanks for any input. Mary ...
Hi, I have a table with 4 cells. I would like to make each cell of equal height and width. I have set the properties for the cells for the specific size. However, when I add content to the cells, they go over the width or the lenght that I want them to stay. How can I properly control this through CSS? Thanks
Im working with a document I was given. There are currently 4 columns with cells of a certain size. When I try to insert a new column, it comes in
... _ _ _ Osta ELAVIL verkossa _ _ _ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . elavil laatu nurmijärvi sairaus, jossa henkilöllä on toistuvia ajatuksia tai ideoita, vai toi
The fact that our muscles tend to feel extra full during periods of increased growth, even in-between workouts, isnt a coincidence.
The fact that our muscles tend to feel extra full during periods of increased growth, even in-between workouts, isnt a coincidence.
TY - CHAP. T1 - TRPV4 and hypotonic stress. AU - Cohen, David. PY - 2007. Y1 - 2007. N2 - TRPV4 was identified as the mammalian homologue of the C. elegans osmosensory channel protein, OSM-9. This nonselective cation channel is activated in vitro by even modest degrees of hypotonic cell swelling. Its expression in the mammalian central nervous system and kidney suggests a role in systemic osmoregulation-a view borne out by detailed balance studies in TRPV4-null mice. Two distinct mechanisms have been described through which TRPV4 may be activated by hypotonicity: one involves the SRC family of nonreceptor protein tyrosine kinases, while the other is mediated via arachidonic acid metabolites.. AB - TRPV4 was identified as the mammalian homologue of the C. elegans osmosensory channel protein, OSM-9. This nonselective cation channel is activated in vitro by even modest degrees of hypotonic cell swelling. Its expression in the mammalian central nervous system and kidney suggests a role in systemic ...
In this thesis, I studied the cell-size control in Chlamydomonas and contributed to the below two projects. First, preliminary results show that cdkg1 mutants reduce cell division and show large-cell phenotype. CDKG1 interacts with cyclinD3, and phosphorylates MAT3/RB. CDKG1 concentration peaks at S/M, and scales with mother cell size. CDKG1 concentration per nucleus decreases as cells divide. My data show that CDKG1 mis-expression has a small-cell phenotype that may be due to the inability of cells to eliminate the protein at the end of S/M phase. By measuring the N/C ratio during cell division I ruled out the dilution model for CDKG1 elimination and was able to show that CDKG1 must be actively degraded with each round of cell division. We were able to conclude that CDKG1 functions as a titratable regulator that couples cell size to cell-cycle progression. Second, with an in vivo nuclei marker ble-GFP, I measured N/C in wild-type, cell-size mutants, and vegetative diploids of Chlamydomonas. I concluded
Latest remote volume control - find 56899 remote volume control direct from China remote volume control Factories for you to choose from.
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Author: Satish Kumar NS , Aswini Dutt R , Maruthy KN , Dinakar Nadig , Neevan D R Dsouza. Category: Physiology. [Download PDF]. Abstract:. The red cell sizes are described in the scale of micrometers. For a novice it is difficult to imagine the cell size. Measuring cell size requires the use of advanced instruments whichmandates use of trained personnel. To measure the red cell size using a custom built microscope camera and computer based image analyzing software. Sixty peripheral blood smearswere photographed using a microscope camera. The images were stored in a computer. The retrieved images were measured offline using the software. Two independent observers recorded the red cell sizes on both randomly selected and tagged red cells of each slide. Themeanredcell widthof thetaggedredcells as measured by the first and second observer was 7.70-7.82 ( }0.61μ) and 7.71-7.76 ( }0.61μ) respectively. The measured red cell width ranges between 7.49-7.67 ( }0.54μ) and 7.34-7.44 ( }0.60μ) in ...
You can use the wbadmin start recovery command or the Recovery Wizard in Windows Server Backup to restore a volume. When you restore a full volume, all contents of the volume are restored-you cannot selectively restore individual files or folders.. In addition, you can use a Windows Setup disc or a separate installation of the Windows Recovery Environment to perform a full server (all volumes) recovery.. ...
Question - Pain in lower back, treated for water infection. Swelling on both the sides. Hurting. Recommendations?. Ask a Doctor about uses, dosages and side-effects of Paracetamol, Ask an Orthopaedic Surgeon
Dueling kinases regulate cell size at division through the SAD kinase Cdr2. Deng L, Baldissard S, Kettenbach AN, Gerber SA, Moseley JB. Current Biology. Feb 17;24(4):428-33. doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2014.01.009. Epub 2014 Feb 6. pubmed ...
Cardiac function depends upon properly shaped heart chambers. Here the authors show that blood flow and contractility independently regulate cell shape changes in the emerging ventricle.
Comment on attachment 8865476 [details] [diff] [review] bug1362977-cell-size Review of attachment 8865476 [details] [diff] [review]: ----------------------------------------------------------------- ::: js/public/HeapAPI.h @@ +37,5 @@ , const size_t ChunkMask = ChunkSize - 1; , , +const size_t CellAlignShift = 3; , +const size_t CellAlignSize = size_t(1) ,, CellAlignShift; , +const size_t CellAlignMask = CellAlignSize - 1; Oh wow. Youre right, that was totally confusing. But I dont see how CellAlignSize is a size at all. Why not call it CellAlignment (or CellAlign)? I guess its a size in that one bit in the mark bitmap represents CellAlignSize bytes. Id kind of rather have a separate const size_t CellBytesPerBitmapBit = CellAlignment; for that. I skimmed through all the uses, and it seems like the uses are about 50/50 between these two meanings, and it would make it more clear in most places. But this may still not be the best name for all uses. For example, inline /* static */ size_t ...
... rougher, more irregular surfaces. Preparation of samples was performed as described in Materials and
Summary. QuimP is software for tracking cellular shape changes and dynamic distributions of fluorescent reporters at the cell membrane. QuimPs unique selling point is the possibility to aggregate data from many cells in form of spatio-temporal maps of dynamic events, independently of cell size and shape. QuimP has been successfully applied to address a wide range of problems related to cell movement in many different cell types. Introduction ...
Contrary to previous findings suggesting a protein measures cell length, a different protein is found to measure the cells surface area.
hello again went to see another dr and yet again he says stress.sent me on my way with ammatripline.some other info which may be usefull the is a swelling on my forhead which i think is a vein when i put pressure on it a part of my head feels tight like its ripping. Reply Follow This Thread Stop Following This Thread Flag this Discussion ...
Yes, they come in all different sizes, some are even visible to the naked eye. To give you an example of the range in sizes, the average cell in a human body is 50 micrometers in diameter while an average bacterial cell is 3 to 5 micrometers.. ...
Specialization or cellular differenciation (please correct me if these are two different concepts) is the process by which a less specialized cell becomes a more specialized cell type, changing dramatically a cells size, shape, membrane potential, metabolic activity, and responsiveness to signals. Now, do you know how this happens? Please be as specific as possible ...
Chapter 6: : Refers to an increase in cell number, not in cell size. Bacteria grow and divide by binary fission, a rapid and relatively simple process. 1. Temperature: Microbes are loosely classified into
TY - JOUR. T1 - Characterization of a native swelling-induced chloride current, ICl.swell, and its regulatory protein, pICln, in Xenopus oocytes.. AU - Ackerman, Michael John. AU - Krapivinsky, G. B.. AU - Gordon, E.. AU - Krapivinsky, L.. AU - Clapham, D. C.. PY - 1994. Y1 - 1994. N2 - The ability to precisely regulate cell volume is a fundamental property of most cells. Although the phenomenon of regulatory volume decrease (RVD), whereby a swollen cell loses salt and water to restore its original volume, has been appreciated for decades, the molecular identities of the proteins responsible for the volume control machinery and their regulation are essentially unknown. It appears that the rate-determining step in gaining volume control involves the activation of potassium and chloride conductance pathways. We have identified a native chloride current (ICl.swell) responsive to cell swelling in Xenopus oocytes [Ackerman et al. (1994) J Gen Physiol 103: 153-179]. Moreover, we have demonstrated that ...
In most mammalian cells, regulatory volume decrease (RVD) is mediated by swelling-activated Cl(-) and K(+) channels. Previous studies in the human neuroblastoma cell line CHP-100 have demonstrated that exposure to hypoosmotic solutions activates Cl(-) channels which are sensitive to Ca(2+). Whether a Ca(2+)-dependent K(+) conductance is activated after cell swelling was investigated in the present studies. Reducing the extracellular osmolarity from 290 to 190 mOsm/kg H(2)O rapidly activated 86Rb effluxes. Hypoosmotic stress also increased cytosolic Ca(2+) in fura-2 loaded cells.
The nature of the signal transducing the change in cell volume to the activation of osmolyte efflux pathways for RVD in osmotically swollen cells is not clear. Two major models have been proposed, one involving Ca2+ as an intracellular second messenger and the other in which RVD is mediated through Ca2+-independent mechanisms. According to the first model, cell swelling causes an increase in cytosolic Ca2+ that activates volume regulatory mechanisms. The increase in [Ca2+]i may result from Ca2+ influx, via plasma membrane channels (Christensen, 1987), or Ca2+ release from intracellular stores (McCarty and ONeil, 1992; Wu et al., 1997). The proposed effectors are mostly Ca2+-activated cation and anion channels and carriers. This model has been widely accepted as a paradigm for the involvement of Ca2+ as a transducing signal for RVD. Nevertheless, the existing evidence backing up this model is often weak and fragmentary, and the comprehensive analysis necessary to establish an active role of ...
Since the frequencies of various erythroblast subpopulations were unchanged in DKO bone marrow (Figure 2A and B), we next investigated the erythroblast cell cycle. During terminal differentiation, erythroblasts undergo approximately 4-5 rapid cell divisions accompanied by a progressive decrease in cell size, followed by exit from the cell cycle.22 The decrease in erythroblast size during terminal maturation divisions has been attributed to the loss or alteration of the cell size control at the G1-S restriction point leading to the shortening of the G1 phase of the cell cycle without changes to the length of S and G2/M phase.23 To investigate changes in cell cycle time and G1 length in erythroblasts, we measured the length of various cell cycle phases in adult DKO mice bone marrow erythroblasts by cumulative BrdU labeling of bone marrow cells in culture (Figure 2H and I). The cell cycle time (Tc) and the length of S-phase (Ts) were calculated using the Nowakowski method.24 The cell cycle time for ...
Cell growth and division are coordinated to keep homeostasis of cell size. The components of the core machinery are conserved in a wide range of cell types. Fission yeast (S. pombe) has been an important model organism to study cell size control ...
TRPV4 was originally identified as a plasma membrane channel activated by hypotonic cell swelling (Liedtke et al., 2000; Strotmann et al., 2000; Watanabe et al., 2002; Vriens et al., 2004; Loukin et al., 2010a). A decrease in extracellular osmolarity induces Ca2+ influx through TRPV4 channels (Güler et al., 2002; Liedtke and Friedman, 2003; Raoux et al., 2007; Phan et al., 2009). To determine whether hypotonicity modulates [Ca2+]RGCs, cells were exposed to saline solutions with osmolarity reduced from 280 to 190 mOsm. As illustrated in Figure 6A for an RGC loaded with the Ca2+-insensitive cell-volume indicator dye calcein AM, a reduction in osmolarity of the superfusing saline from 280 to 192 mOsm saline evoked sustained swelling of the cell. The resulting increase in cell volume was detected as a decrease in the intensity of calcein fluorescence (Fig. 6A, green trace). In contrast to hypotonic stimuli, no change in intracellular volume was observed during exposure to 100 μm glutamate.. Cell ...
Aim: This study was performed to examine the role of Na+,K+-ATPase activity for the adaptive response to cell swelling induced by hypoosmoticity, i.e. the regulatory volume decrease (RVD). Methods: The studies were performed on COS-7 cells transfected with rat Na+,K+-ATPase. To study changes in cell volume, cells were loaded with the fluorescent dye calcein and the intensity of the dye, following exposure to a hypoosmotic medium, was recorded with confocal microscopy. Results: Ouabain-mediated inhibition of Na+,K+-ATPase resulted in a dose dependent decrease in the rate of RVD. Total Rb-86(+) uptake as well as ouabain dependent Rb-86(+) uptake, used as an index of Na+,K+-ATPase dependent K+ uptake, was significantly increased during the first 2 min following exposure to hypoosmoticity. Since protein kinase C (PKC) plays an important role in the modulation of RVD, a study was carried out on COS-7 cells expressing rat Na+,K+-ATPase, where Ser23 in the catalytic alpha1 subunit of rat Na+,K+-ATPase ...
Our goal was not to demonstrate a robust technology; the memory circuit we have reported on is hardly that, said James R. Heath, Professor of Chemistry at the California Institute of Technology. Instead, our goal was to demonstrate that large-scale, working electronic circuits could be constructed at a density that is well-beyond (10-15 years) where many of the most optimistic projections say is possible. ...
Nicholl, A.J., Killey, Jennifer, Leonard, M.N. and Garner, C. (2002) The role of bicarbonate in regulatory volume decrease (RVD) in the epithelial-derived human breast cancer cell line ZR-75-1. Pflügers Archiv : European journal of physiology, 443 (5-6). pp. 875-881. ISSN 0031-6768 ...
Question - What medicine should be used far treatment of swelling on face and hands ?. Ask a Doctor about when and why Serum electrophoresis is advised, Ask a General & Family Physician
Helpful, trusted answers from doctors: Dr. Fowler on swelling on right side of stomach: A few things. Some of which are not good. See oral surgeon for evaluation/diagnosis/treatment recommendations.
I have tooth ache. And because of that there is swelling on my face. The teeth is in effect of cavity. Please guide me what to do?-Dear user, you may need to...
Background: Current methodology of gene expression analysis limits the possibilities of comparison between cells/tissues of organs in which cell size and/or number changes as a consequence of the study (e.g. starvation). A method relating the abundance of specific mRNA copies per cell may allow direct comparison or different organs and/or changing physiological conditions. Methods: With a number of selected genes, we analysed the relationship of the number of bases and the fluorescence recorded at a present level using cDNA standards. A lineal relationship was found between the final number of bases and the length of the transcript. The constants of this equation and those of the relationship between fluorescence and number of bases in cDNA were determined and a general equation linking the length of the transcript and the initial number of copies of mRNA was deduced for a given pre-established fluorescence setting. This allowed the calculation of the concentration of the corresponding mRNAs per ...
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i had traumatic birth expierence the baby had swelling on her brain and convulsions she is currently on Epilum medication to treat the convulsions i notices that she has a lazy eye for the past 2 weeks now can this be due to the swelling on the brain at birth can you also supply a good eye docters details for ...
What I didnt expect was for the volumes to increase. They all gained approximately 17% in volume during soaking. See Figure 7. This means that their diameters and lengths increased. As previously mentioned, Specimen I had been painted with shellac sometime prior to the soaking experiment. As it began to swell, the shellac started to peel off in small clear flakes. The soaking of Specimen III was done after I had already observed the volume increases in Specimens I and II. So, to verify these volume increases I measured the diameters of the three ends on Specimen III with a micrometer each time I weighed it during soaking. These three diameters demonstrated an average increase of 7.6%. These ends were not actually round, but assuming that they were, an increase in a circles diameter by 7.6% will increase its area by 16.8%. Specimen III actually had a total volume increase of 18.6%. Assuming a cylindrical shape, with a cross-sectional area increase of 16.8%, the length would only have to ...
Erythrocytes in mammals are unique among vertebrates in that they are enucleated (i.e., contain no nuclei) and circular rather than elliptical (with the exception of some artiodactyls ...
Deb also reported that, in a separate study, researchers found that 94.5 percent of phones were contaminated with some kind of bacteria, many of which were resistant to multiple antibiotics. By also testing the participants hands, the researchers were able to show that a significant number of germs were transferred from their hands to their phones, and vice versa. In fact, about 30 percent of the bacteria on the phones ended up on the owners hands.. ...
Besides a cell autonomous role in regulating proliferation, YAP regulates the production of several extracellular molecules allowing for population-level coordination of cell growth and death.
a reproduction of an article entitled Cell Size by philip denwood, that appeared in the autumn 2003 edition of the magazine Bee Improvement and Conservation
Alltogether 25200 nuclear volumes of the kidneys of 63 castrated rats after different treatment with estradiol and actinomycin were estimated. 1. An increase of 14% of nuclear volume in the straight...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Transplantation of expanded bone marrow-derived very small embryonic-like stem cells (VSEL-SCs) improves left ventricular function and remodelling after myocardial infarction. AU - Zuba-Surma, Ewa K.. AU - Guo, Yiru. AU - Taher, Hisham. AU - Sanganalmath, Santosh K.. AU - Hunt, Greg. AU - Vincent, Robert J.. AU - Kucia, Magda. AU - Abdel-Latif, Ahmed. AU - Tang, Xian Liang. AU - Ratajczak, Mariusz Z.. AU - Dawn, Buddhadeb. AU - Bolli, Roberto. PY - 2011/6. Y1 - 2011/6. N2 - Adult bone marrow-derived very small embryonic-like stem cells (VSEL-SCs) exhibit a Sca-1+/Lin-/CD45- phenotype and can differentiate into various cell types, including cardiomyocytes and endothelial cells. We have previously reported that transplantation of a small number (1 × 106) of freshly isolated, non-expanded VSEL-SCs into infarcted mouse hearts resulted in improved left ventricular (LV) function and anatomy. Clinical translation, however, will require large numbers of cells. Because the frequency of ...
Stem Cells. 2013 Dec;31(12):2759-66. doi: 10.1002/stem.1413. Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Govt
NEW YORK, May 30, 2013-- NeoStem, Inc., a leader in the emerging cellular therapy market, today announced that Company management will make two presentations at the 2 nd Baltic Stem Cell Meeting, running from Friday, May 31 to Sunday, June 2, 2013, and that the conference will feature a session with multiple researchers from around the world discussing advances using very small embryonic-like stem cells.
A rigorous new study provides strong evidence that very small embryonic-like stem cells hypothesized to be found in mice and humans do not exist.. 1 Comment. ...
Kerrigan, M.J.P., Walker, S., Gamble, M., Lindsay, S., Reader, K., Papaefthimiou, M.C., Newman-Ford, L., Saunders, G. and Clements, M.O. 2011. The Making Assessment Count (MAC) consortium-maximising assessment and feedback design by working together. in: Proceedings of ALT-C: Thriving in a colder and more challenging climate, 6-8 September 2011, University of Leeds Association for Learning Technology. α-MSH and [DTRP]8-γ-MSH inhibit pro-inflammatory cytokine release from stimulated primary bovine chondrocytes ...
Cell size is a structural component of fleshy fruit, contributing to important traits such as fruit size and texture. There are currently a number of methods for measuring cell size; most rely either on tissue sectioning or digestion of the tissue with cell wall degrading enzymes or chemicals to release single cells. Neither of these approaches is ideal for assaying large fruit numbers as both require a considerable time to prepare the tissue, with current methods of cell wall digestions taking 24 to 48 hours. Additionally, sectioning can lead to a measurement of a plane that does not represent the widest point of the cell. To develop a more rapid way of measuring fruit cell size we have developed a protocol that solubilises pectin in the middle lamella of the plant cell wall releasing single cells into a buffered solution. Gently boiling small fruit samples in a 0.05 M Na2CO3 solution, osmotically balanced with 0.3 M mannitol, produced good cell separation with little cellular damage in less than 30
AbstractThe dependence of regulatory volume decrease (RVD) activity on potassium-chloride cotransporter (KCC) isoform expression was characterized in corneal epithelial cells (CEC). During exposure to a 50% hypotonic challenge, the RVD response was larger in SV40-immortalized human CEC (HCEC) than i
Zucker, R M.; Finley, J; and Kambour, M, "The study of chemotherapy schedules using electronic cell volume analysis of l1210 ascites leukemia cells. Abstr." (1977). Subject Strain Bibliography 1977. 2958 ...
Bio-optical properties of phytoplankton population have been used in this study to obtain estimates of the average cell size of the population. The method developed here requires prior knowledge of only a few biological properties that can be obtained easily in the field. We have performed sensitivity analyses to assess possible errors in measuring the cell size from absorption coefficient, and have demonstrated that the uncertainties are not high, especially when estimating the size of large-cell-dominated populations. The method has been tested on a large dataset collected during several cruises, and we have demonstrated that the outcome of the method is consistent with the products of another method, based on pigments, that is often used to assess phytoplankton size classes. Moreover, the method was able to retrieve cell sizes of phytoplankton cultures grown in the laboratory.. Using our algorithm, we have estimated the cell diameters of those samples that were initially identified, based on ...
011 44 by dialing this code and the city code also you can call from U.S.A to U.K.you have to dial city codes of U.K,in which city you want to call.if you want to call in Belfast than 28 is the local area or city code used for it. and if you want to call in London than 20 is the local area or city code used to dial to London. if you want to call in Scotland/Glasgow than 141 is the local area or city code used to dial to Glasgow. sidq2_mustansar ...
An age-old discussion in the evo-devo field is whether changes in animal form during evolution are driven primarily by changes in non-coding regulatory sequences or in protein sequences. Some argue that changes in protein sequences are likely to be more deleterious to the organism because they would impact all tissues, whereas changes in individual regulatory elements might allow changes in expression patterns, particularly of patterning genes that would result in changes in animal form or size. Others argue that evolution occurs by both types of changes and that the vast preponderance of non-coding DNA in complex genomes makes it more likely that mutations driving evolutionary changes in non-coding sequences are identified far more often than mutations that alter protein sequence.. In this symposium, speakers described examples in which genetic alteration of either type could account for some of the morphological differences between organisms. Rebecca Heald (University of California, Berkeley, ...
Alcuni citometri a flusso utilizzano laser a semiconduttori (633 nm) e coloranti fluorescenti per acidi nucleici che separano i leucociti utilizzando i segnali di:. Forward Scatter (FSc) Side Fluorescence (SFl) Side Scatter (SSc);. Leucocytes. Lymphocytes Monocytes/Macrophages Granulocytes:...
Taurine is an organic osmolyte involved in cell volume regulation, and provides a substrate for the formation of bile salts. It plays a role in the modulation of intracellular free calcium concentration, and although it is one of the few amino acids
Having a low sperm count can be frustrating if you and your partner are trying to conceive. Taking certain steps to improve your health and taking specific...
With this manual Youll learn how to set up and use Your AIWA AVD67. The manual describes functions of AVD67, tells how to use it correctly and includes instructions on maintanance.. Owners manual usually has installation instructions, set up guide, adjustment tips, trubleshooting guide and specification sheet.. The manual has 80 pages and is available in French, English, Spanish.. ...
Quantity of 2, light path of 5x5 mm, outside dimensions are 33.5 x 7.5 x 7.5 mm, inside dimensions are 32.25 x 5 x 5 mm, base thickness of 1.25mm, cell volume of 600µL, 5 windows.
Cell size is often overlooked in the drive to define molecular mechanisms, but as a basic physical property it is an integrator of the cells metabolic rate and indicator of cell fate. Development of the Suspended Microchannel ...
Battery Sizing module determines the number of strings, number of cells, and cell size of a battery for a designated duty cycle and compensates for real-life variables.
This dataset is a bathymetric grid of the region 60E to 90E and 48.45S to 70S, created in a geographic coordinate system based on a WGS84 horizontal datum. The grid has a cell size of 0.005 degrees. ... ...
How does Scan-to-BIM help with materials handling efficiency? As demand and volume increase, getting more capacity out of existing spaces is vital.
Hey everyone, I just want to write something here, don`t know why actually. Just want to write out my anger and everything. After my volume increase...
På Göteborgs universitet använder vi kakor (cookies) för att webbplatsen ska fungera på ett bra sätt för dig. Genom att surfa vidare godkänner du att vi använder kakor. Vad är kakor?. ...
På Göteborgs universitet använder vi kakor (cookies) för att webbplatsen ska fungera på ett bra sätt för dig. Genom att surfa vidare godkänner du att vi använder kakor. Vad är kakor?. ...
Vaginal swelling can be very unpleasant and uncomfortable. Read more to know about what vaginal swelling is and what causes vaginal swelling.
Superfusion of BC3H1 cells with the normal hyposmotic solution caused cell swelling accompanied by a large increase in membrane currents in all the tested cells (Fig. 1 A). Membrane currents returned to basal level after switching back to isosmotic solution (Voets et al., 1997). Current-voltage relations reconstructed from voltage ramps applied during the hyposmotic challenge (Fig. 1 B) show that the swelling-activated current reverses close to ECl (−20 mV). We have previously shown that this current is a Cl− current, ICl,swell, with an I− , Br− , Cl− ,, gluconate anion permeability sequence and that it is efficiently blocked by niflumic acid, flufenamic acid, and NPPB (Voets et al., 1997). This current inactivates during voltage steps to positive potentials ,+40 mV (Fig. 1 C). The negative slope of the current-voltage relation seen at very positive potentials (Fig. 1 B) is due to inactivation of the current during the slow voltage ramp.. We observed single-channel Cl− currents in ...
Background Our aim in this study was to investigate whether mean platelet volume (MPV) value could be used as an early marker to predict pelvic inflammatory disease (PID).
In this study, we have used an automated image analysis pipeline to screen through images from a high-content, genome-wide RNAi screen for genes whose activity is rate-limiting for the growth of Drosophila cells in culture. In doing so, we identified a number of known and novel genes regulating cell size. Interestingly, this screen identified a novel role for autocrine signaling through Pvfs and the receptor tyrosine kinase Pvr in the control of the autonomous growth of Drosophila cells in culture. Previous studies have suggested roles for Pvf/Pvr signaling in the control of cell migration [23, 27, 30], morphogenesis [25, 26, 31], cell viability [22] and proliferation [28, 29]. However, to our knowledge this is the first clear example of this pathway controlling cell size. This reduction in the size of Pvr RNAi cells was accompanied by a reduction in cell proliferation, as revealed by reduced cell numbers in the absence of significant apoptosis (data not shown), and by a delay in the passage of ...
1 Here, as elsewhere in this text, this category includesOreochromis and Sarotherodon. iii) Gear size regulation. In order to guard against undue increase in fishing effort, gear size regulations (or quota regulations) must be enforced along with mesh size. The major factors to be considered in gear size regulation, given the stipulated number of boats or fishermen to be allowed to fish a water body and the specified minimum mesh size to be used, are the potential fish yield of the water body, and the observed yield at the time the quota regulation is to be enforced. The potential fish yield can easily be extrapolated from Henderson and Welcommes (1974) model if the Morpho-Edaphic-Index (MEI) of the water body is estimated. The observed yield can be computed from the catch statistics of the commercial fishery of the water body in question.. Using Kainji Lake as an example, the potential fish yield for the lake was estimated to be approximately 10,000 mt a year under adequate management. In a ...
Over the past decades, the increase in maximal cell numbers for the production of mammalian derived biologics has been in a large part due to the development of optimal feeding strategies. Engineering of the cell line is one of probable approaches for increasing cell numbers in bioreactor. We have demonstrated that the over-expression of the c-myc gene in immortalised CHO cells can increase proliferation rate and maximal cell density in batch culture compared to the control. The changes were attributed to a rapid transition into S-phase from a shortened duration of G1 phase and to the uncoupling of cell size from cell proliferation. To achieve the |70% increase in maximal cell density without additional supply of nutrients the cells underwent an overall reduction of 14% in size as well as a significant decrease in glucose and amino acid consumption rate. Consequently, the total biomass accumulation did not show a significant change from the control. The amount of hSEAP-hFc activity of the over
Interestingly, the protein levels of GLUT4, PPARg and Leptin are independent of insulin. It would thus appear that insulin controls the translocation of GLUT4 to the cell surface, not the amount of GLUT4 in an adipocyte. The results of the PPARg and leptin also fly in the face of what I have blogged on before, even small adipocytes contain the same amount of leptin as large adipocytes. And PPARg does not appear to predict adipocyte size in this data set. ( I would of expected larger adipocytes to have higher PPARg, and vice versa for the small adipocytes. *shrug ...
When a heart responds to increased workload it does so by hypertrophy. This is characterized by an increase in cell size in the absence of cell division, and is accompanied by distinct qualitative and quantitative changes in gene expression. The use
RVD refers to the regulatory release of solutes and secondarily water, triggered by acute hyposmotic swelling, tending to restore cell volume to its initial value. RVI refers to the regulatory uptake of solutes and secondarily water, triggered by acute cell shrinkage, again tending to restore the cell volume. The RVI is usually less robustly exhibited since some cells usually do not therefore respond to basic hyperosmotic shrinkage (4), however the RVI could be commonly elicited by first hypotonically stimulating Bedaquiline distributor cells release a water and solutes. The next restoration of the isosmotic extracellular shower typically sets off a post-RVD RVI (14). With this approach Even, an RVI may possibly not be demonstrable without raising heat range to physiological amounts (15). A good deal happens to be known about the transportation systems mediating RVD and RVI (5, 10), and some info is available about their regulation. For example, tonicity-responsive enhancer binding protein ...
The invention relates to forming an image from a random particle flux. Particles of the flux are detected by a discrete-cell detector having a cell size finer than conventionally used. Preferably, the cell size is sufficiently small that almost all cells of the detector count at most one particle during the image acquisition time. The count data are filtered through a band-limiting filter whose bandwidth lies between a bandwidth corresponding to the detector cell size and the flux bandwidth of interest. Outliers may be flattened before filtering. Neighborhoods around each cell are evaluated to differentiate stationary regions (where neighboring data are relatively similar) from edge regions (where neighboring data are relatively dissimilar). In stationary regions, a revised estimate for a cell is computed as an average over a relatively large neighborhood around the cell. In edge regions, a revised estimate is computed as an average over a relatively small neighborhood. For cells lying in an edge region
Spermatozoon surface area was measured by micrometric methods and was also measured from electron micrographs using a stereological method. Micrometric methods gave surface area above. Stereology methods gave surface area of 106.5µm^2. Sperm volumes were estimated by stereology and by radiolabel volume exclusion methods ...
Hydration during running is not as complicated as you may have been led to believe.. When you run, you sweat. The more you sweat, the more your blood volume decreases. The more your blood volume decreases, the harder your heart has to work to deliver oxygen to your working muscles.. Sounds dangerous, but its really not. Runners almost never experience dehydration levels sufficient to cause major health consequences. But normal levels of dehydration will make you feel uncomfortable and cause you to slow down.. Drinking while you run will limit these negative effects of dehydration. But what should you drink, how much, and when?. In the past, athletes were encouraged to drink as much as possible during exercise, or at least to drink enough to completely offset dehydration (that is, to drink enough to prevent any decrease in body weight during exercise). However, it is now understood that this is bad advice, for two reasons.. Firstly, it is possible to drink too much during exercise. Forcing ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Fangwei Si, Dongyang Li, Sarah E Cox, John T Sauls, Omid Azizi, Cindy Sou, Amy B Schwartz, Michael J Erickstad, Yonggun Jun, Xintian Li, Suckjoon Jun].
Latest urology and nephrology news, research and treatment articles for urologists and nephrologists to stay updated. Clinical reviews on renal and urology treatments.
This statistic shows the percentage change in sales (quantity bought) of cosmetic and toilet articles in Great Britain, from 2010 to 2018.
The primary cause of swelling on the head after a fall is the leaking of fluids or blood underneath the scalp from the veins in the scalp, according to KidsHealth. The bump that forms at the sight of...
Hi I developed a swelling on the inside of my forearm (about 1.5 inches up from wrist) a couple of weeks ago, i woke up and it was painful, the pain has subsided unless i press on it and it is a dul...
MalaCards based summary : Mean Platelet Volume/count Quantitative Trait Locus 5, is also known as mean platelet volume qtl5. An important gene associated with Mean Platelet Volume/count Quantitative Trait Locus 5 is MPVQTL5 (Mean Platelet Volume QTL5 ...
Cells in freeze-tolerant tissues must survive substantial shrinkage during exposure to the hyperosmolarity that results as solutes are excluded from extracellular ice. We investigated the possibility that this hyperosmotic shock elicits an acute regulatory volume increase (RVI) by monitoring the response of epithelial cell volume in the Malpighian tubules of the New Zealand alpine weta (Hemideina maori) during exposure to low temperature/hyperosmolarity (mimicking freezing conditions) or during an actual freeze/thaw cycle. The cross-sectional area of cells in isolated Malpighian tubules was measured using differential interference contrast microscopy. At 20 degrees C, cells held in saline containing 400 mmol1-1 glucose exhibit an RVI in response to hyperosmotic shock. Cross-sectional area decreased by 30% immediately after a change from iso-osmotic (0.7 osmol1-1) to hyper-osmotic saline (2.1 osmol1-1, equal to the osmotic shock encountered during freezing to -4 degrees C) and then returned to ...
In the present study, we first characterized the biophysical and pharmacological properties of a volume-regulated inwardly rectifying Cl− current, ICl.ir, in mammalian heart. In both atrial and ventricular myocytes of mouse and guinea pig heart, ICl.ir activated slowly on hyperpolarization with a biexponential time course. The current was very sensitive to changes in cell volume. Whereas hypertonic cell shrinkage diminished the current, hypotonic cell swelling increased the current and accelerated the activation kinetics. ICl.ir exhibited strong inward rectification with a reversal potential close to the estimated ECl in symmetrical Cl− and physiological asymmetrical Cl− conditions. The anion selectivity sequence of ICl.ir was Cl−,I−≫Asp−. Although ICl.ir was strongly blocked by Cd2+ and the carboxylic acid derivative, 9-AC, it was not sensitive to inhibition by effective blockers of ICl.vol such as TMX and the disulfonic stilbene derivative, SITS. All these properties clearly ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Role of calcium in volume-activated chloride currents in a mouse cholangiocyte cell line. AU - Chen, Biyi. AU - Nicol, Grant. AU - Cho, Won Kyoo. PY - 2007/1/1. Y1 - 2007/1/1. N2 - Volume-activated Cl- channels (VACCs) play vital roles in many cells including cholangiocytes. Previously, we characterized the VACCs in mouse cholangiocytes. Since calcium plays an important role in VACC regulation in many cells, we have studied the effect of calcium modulation on the regulatory volume decrease (RVD) and VACC currents in mouse bile duct cells (MBDCs). Cell volume measurements were assessed by a Coulter counter with cell sizer, and conventional whole-cell patch-clamp techniques were used to study the role of calcium on RVD and VACC currents. Cell volume study indicated that MBDCs exhibited RVD, which was inhibited by 5-nitro-2′-(3-phenylpropylamino)- benzoate (NPPB), 4,4′-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2′-disulfonate (DIDS) and 1,2-bis(o-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N′,N′-tetraacetic ...
title:Mean Platelet Volume and Red Cell Distribution Width in Hepatosteatosis. Author:Gulali Aktas, Aytekin Alcelik, Buket Kin Tekce, Haluk Savli, Ummugul Uyeturk, Mevlut Kurt, Vildan Tekelioglu, Yusuf Yuce. Keywords:Red Cell Distribution Width, Mean Platelet Volume, Hepatosteatosis, Inflammation. Type:Original Article. Abstract:Introduction: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) effects about 30% of the population in developed regions of the and is considered hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome. Studies in literature found association between hepatosteatosis and mean platelet volume (MPV), an indicator of platelet function. Furthermore, authors suggest thatred cell distribution width (RDW) should be an inflammatory marker in certain conditions. Objective: We aimed in this study to compare RDW and MPV values of the patients with hepatosteatosis to normal population. Methods: Fifty-three patients with NAFLD admitted to our clinic and 52 healthy controls enrolled to this retrospective ...

Evaluation of phacoemulsification-induced oxidative stress and damage of cultured human corneal endothelial cells in different...Evaluation of phacoemulsification-induced oxidative stress and damage of cultured human corneal endothelial cells in different...

... and cell size were analysed with a software program. Results: Human corneal endothelial cells exposed to increasing ... and cell size were analysed with a software program. Results: Human corneal endothelial cells exposed to increasing ... and cell size were analysed with a software program. Results: Human corneal endothelial cells exposed to increasing ... and cell size were analysed with a software program. Results: Human corneal endothelial cells exposed to increasing ...
more infohttps://einstein.pure.elsevier.com/en/publications/evaluation-of-phacoemulsification-induced-oxidative-stress-and-da-2

DiatomsDiatoms

new wall elements are always produced within the confines of an existing cell wall. As a result, average cell size usually ... Because of the construction of the silica frustule and the way in which cells divide, average cell size declines during the ... Here, all the cells are empty - only the cell walls remain; indeed, in many cases the cell walls have fallen apart into their ... size is restored via the formation and expansion of a special cell, the auxospore, which is usually a zygote. The basic shape ...
more infohttp://tolweb.org/Diatoms/21810

competent cell sizecompetent cell size

What causes this variety of cell sizes of the transformed cells? Thanks for any input. Mary *Previous message: Phenol ... competent cell size. Mary P. Remington mremingt at umaryland.edu Wed Sep 9 05:04:49 EST 1998 *Previous message: Phenol ... Lately, when I transform with DH5-alpha cells, the colony sizes are different. I havent seen this in the past. ...
more infohttp://www.bio.net/bionet/mm/methods/1998-September/070165.html

Yeast cell size questionYeast cell size question

... Maria Costanzo maria at genome.stanford.edu Mon Nov 17 11:48:33 EST 2003 *Previous message: New ... least 5-10 micron size or greater for an experiment I need to carry , out with , individual yeast cells? Suggestions about ... Hi Eleanor, I can offer one general hint: tetraploid yeast cells are larger than diploids, and it may be possible to make cells ... the polyploid cells - you just need a lot of markers to select them. Good luck! Maria Maria C. Costanzo, Ph.D. Senior ...
more infohttp://www.bio.net/bionet/mm/yeast/2003-November/010458.html

onmouseover and cell size...onmouseover and cell size...

The problem is that the background change applies only on the text area, not the whole cell ...Could you help me so that the ... I just want to define a cell and have a background color change. I use onmouseover. ... background change in onmouseover applies to the whole cell and not only half of it ?? here is my script: ,!DOCTYPE html ... onmouseover and cell size... Hi! got a little trouble: I just want to define a cell and have a background color change. I use ...
more infohttp://www.webdeveloper.com/forum/showthread.php?132485.html

Cell Size and ScaleCell Size and Scale

... s less DNA in a sperm cell than there is in a non-reproductive cell such as a skin cell. Second, the DNA in a sperm cell is ... Cell Size and Scale [Internet]. Salt Lake City (UT): Genetic Science Learning Center; 2010 [cited 2019 Apr 18] Available from ... Smaller cells are easily visible under a light microscope. It's even possible to make out structures within the cell, such ... 2010, September 2) Cell Size and Scale. Retrieved April 18, 2019, from https://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/cells/scale/ ...
more infohttps://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/cells/scale/

Cell SizesCell Sizes

I have set the properties for the cells for the specific size. However, when I add content to the cells, they go over the width ... I would like to make each cell of equal height and width. ... Cell Sizes Hi,. I have a table with 4 cells. I would like to ... I have set the properties for the cells for the specific size. However, when I add content to the cells, they go over the width ... cell,Hello,/div,,/td, ,/tr, ,tr, ,td, ,div class=cell,Hello,/div,,/td, ,td, ,div class=cell,Hello,/div,,/td, ,/tr, ,/table ...
more infohttp://www.sitepoint.com/forums/showthread.php?194881-WinXP-IE6-Avant-working-FireFox-0-9-failing-the-1st-time-but-fine-after-a-refresh&goto=nextoldest

What Limits Cell Size? | Reference.comWhat Limits Cell Size? | Reference.com

As the size of a three-dimensional object grows, its volume... ... The primary limitation on the size to which a single cell can ... limits the size of the entire cell.. While the outer membrane of a cell protects the cell well on a microscopic level, large ... Why Are Cells so Small?. A: Brooklyn College explains that cells are small because they must have a large surface area relative ... The primary limitation on the size to which a single cell can grow is a mathematical principle called the surface to volume ...
more infohttps://www.reference.com/science/limits-cell-size-ba9023807e9f60b8

What 3 things limit cell size - AnswersWhat 3 things limit cell size - Answers

Cell Biology (cytology) What is the Cell theory and What does the Cell theory state about Cells. ?. cell theory was invented by ... Cell Biology (cytology) What is the size in micrometers of a bacteria cell. ?. The average size of a bacteria in micrometers ... Cell Biology (cytology) What is the size of a plant cell. ?. The cell is 1/3 of a millimeter. ... What cell size of mycobacterium smegmatis. ?. The cell size of Mycobacterium smegmatis ranges from 3-5 micrometers. ...
more infohttps://www.answers.com/Q/What_3_things_limit_cell_size

ASP.net table vs Excel cell sizeASP.net table vs Excel cell size

15 but the ASP.net table cell is bigger than an Excel cell size.... ... Hi I am trying to make the cells in my ASP.net table the same size as a standard Excel cell using: tCell.Width = 48 tCell. ... ASP.net table vs Excel cell size. Hi. I am trying to make the cells in my ASP.net table the same size as a standard Excel cell ... but the ASP.net table cell is bigger than an Excel cell size.. Does anyone know how to achieve this, in other words what ...
more infohttps://www.experts-exchange.com/questions/28290969/ASP-net-table-vs-Excel-cell-size.html

Cell Cycle and Cell Size … - Göteborgs universitet 
							
							
						
					
				
			Cell Cycle and Cell Size … - Göteborgs universitet

cell cycle, cell size, single-cell gene expression, machine learning, variable selection, random forests, cell subpopulations, ... Cell Cycle and Cell Size Dependent Gene Expression Reveals Distinct Subpopulations at Single-Cell Level. Artikel i vetenskaplig ... we show how a multi-gene signature that classifies individual cells into their correct cell cycle phase and cell size can be ... Individual unsynchronized cells from three different cell lines were collected in different cell cycle phases (GO/G1 - S - G2/M ...
more infohttps://www.gu.se/forskning/publikation/?publicationId=254812

Cell Cycle and Cell Size … - Göteborgs universitet 
							
							
						
					
				
			Cell Cycle and Cell Size … - Göteborgs universitet

cell cycle, cell size, single-cell gene expression, machine learning, variable selection, random forests, cell subpopulations, ... Cell Cycle and Cell Size Dependent Gene Expression Reveals Distinct Subpopulations at Single-Cell Level. Artikel i vetenskaplig ... we show how a multi-gene signature that classifies individual cells into their correct cell cycle phase and cell size can be ... Individual unsynchronized cells from three different cell lines were collected in different cell cycle phases (GO/G1 - S - G2/M ...
more infohttps://gu.se/forskning/publikation/?languageId=100000&disableRedirect=true&returnUrl=http%3A%2F%2Fgu.se%2Fenglish%2Fresearch%2Fpublication%2F%3FpublicationId%3D254812&publicationId=254812

Study reveals the secrets of cell size control - UPI.comStudy reveals the secrets of cell size control - UPI.com

New research has revealed the mechanism cells use to control their growth and maintain their size, a phenomenon known as cell ... "cell size homeostasis.". "Cell size homeostasis is a fundamental biological question and to our knowledge this is the first ... "Its a very robust mechanism because each cell is guaranteed to reach its target cell size whether it is born large or small," ... allowing cells to grow to a consistent size before beginning cell division. Photo by Jun Lab / UC San Diego. ...
more infohttps://www.upi.com/Science_News/2019/05/17/Study-reveals-the-secrets-of-cell-size-control/4581558112291/?mpst=2

Cell Size Influences the Reprodu... preview & related info | MendeleyCell Size Influences the Reprodu... preview & related info | Mendeley

... during which the cell undergoes mitosis cycles to produce successive buds, and the postreproductive phase, which ... ... which allows a cell to undergo its first cell cycle and the rate of the cell size to increase per generation. Here, we showed ... which postulates that excessive size achieved by the cell-the hypertrophy state-is the reason preventing the cell from further ... Cell Size Influences the Reproductive Potential and Total Lifespan of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Yeast as Revealed by the ...
more infohttps://www.mendeley.com/catalogue/cell-size-influences-reproductive-potential-total-lifespan-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-yeast-revealed-a/

ios - UICollectionView: Animate cell size change on selection - Stack Overflowios - UICollectionView: Animate cell size change on selection - Stack Overflow

method to reflect the new size of the modified cell. Forgetting that part, nothing will happen to your cell sizes at all if you ... method of my cell to return the size I want - in my case, I grow and shrink the width of the cell to either display a button or ... cell.frame; frame.size = cell.intrinsicContentSize; cell.frame = frame; }; // Animate [UIView transitionWithView: ... If you want to animate the size of a cell, have a data model that reflects the state of the cell (in my case, I just use a flag ...
more infohttps://stackoverflow.com/questions/13780153/uicollectionview-animate-cell-size-change-on-selection/17138435

Blood cell-size computer memory - The Engineer The EngineerBlood cell-size computer memory - The Engineer The Engineer

Blood cell-size computer memory. By System Administrator 26th January 2007 11:00 am 15th December 2015 3:56 pm ... researchers have created an ultra-dense memory device the size of a white blood cell that has enough capacity to store the ...
more infohttps://www.theengineer.co.uk/issues/january-2007-online/blood-cell-size-computer-memory/

Cell Size, By Philip DenwoodCell Size, By Philip Denwood

Cell Size by philip denwood, that appeared in the autumn 2003 edition of the magazine Bee Improvement and Conservation ... The size of the bee is correlated with the size of the cell. Small cell, small bee; big cell, big bee. Colonies of the bees ... They proposed that each geographical race or subspecies of Apis mellifera had its own optimum cell size or range of cell sizes ... with or without cell walls); shortest distance across one cell; square centimetres per 100 cells; cells per square inch or per ...
more infohttp://dave-cushman.net/bee/denwood.html

1362977 - js::gc::CellSize is confusingly named1362977 - js::gc::CellSize is confusingly named

Heap cells have many different sizes, but I always assumed that CellSize was the minimum size. In fact its half the minimum ... const size_t ChunkMask = ChunkSize - 1; , , +const size_t CellAlignShift = 3; , +const size_t CellAlignSize = size_t(1) ,, ... Rename the Cell in Cell{Shift,Size,Mask} to CellAlign. Add a separate MinCellSize constant.. Attachment #8865476 - Flags: ... cell) { MOZ_ASSERT((uintptr_t(cell) & ~ArenaMask) % CellAlignSize == 0); return (uintptr_t(cell) & ArenaMask) / CellSize; } The ...
more infohttps://bugzilla.mozilla.org/show_bug.cgi?id=1362977

What Is the Relationship Between Cell Size and Diffusion? | Reference.comWhat Is the Relationship Between Cell Size and Diffusion? | Reference.com

... its ability to facilitate diffusion across its cell membrane decreases. This is because the internal volume of a growing cell, ... As the size of a cell increases, its ability to facilitate diffusion across its cell membrane decreases. This is because the ... The cytoplasm and organelles within a cell obtain nutrients and eliminate wastes though the cells plasma membrane. A cell ... If a cell were to grow in size past a certain point, its outer surface, or plasma membrane, would no longer be able to keep up ...
more infohttps://www.reference.com/science/relationship-between-cell-size-diffusion-2d032974adc9b43b

Fat Cell Size in Insulin Resistance - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.govFat Cell Size in Insulin Resistance - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov

New technology now permits a detailed analysis of adipose cell size including the detection of smaller cells which may be in ... Fat Cell Size in Insulin Resistance. The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study ... We propose to examine the relationship between adipose cell size distribution and systemic insulin resistance in obese human ... This is done to determine whether insulin-resistant people have fewer fat cells but more fat per cell than insulin-sensitive ...
more infohttps://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00341406

Study discovers fundamental unit of cell size in bacteria | EurekAlert! Science NewsStudy discovers fundamental unit of cell size in bacteria | EurekAlert! Science News

... that explains the relationship between the average cell size of bacteria and how fast they grow. ... "This unit cell is the fundamental building block of cell size, and cell size is the sum of all invariant unit cells for any ... Cell size either increased or decreased depending on the inhibition method. Sometimes, cell size did not change at all despite ... cell wall synthesis and cell shape. "We realized that this invariant cell size represents a fundamental unit of cellular ...
more infohttps://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2017-04/uoc--sdf040717.php

Drosophila S6 Kinase: A Regulator of Cell Size | ScienceDrosophila S6 Kinase: A Regulator of Cell Size | Science

... so that cells maintain an appropriate size (1). In yeast, a minimum cell size must be achieved before cells initiate S phase ... The reduction in cell size of dS6Kl-1 flies indicates either that cells are proliferating at a smaller size or that flies ... Cell proliferation requires cell growth; that is, cells only divide after they reach a critical size. However, the mechanisms ... specific cell types have a characteristic size (1). In multicellular organisms, the control of cell size has the added ...
more infohttps://science.sciencemag.org/content/285/5436/2126?ijkey=dae276cd48062f33eb4e12283a9b3e56fbcc0927&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Browsing  by Subject Cell SizeBrowsing by Subject "Cell Size"

During bacterial growth, a cell approximately doubles in size before division, after which it splits into two daughter cells. ... A noisy linear map underlies oscillations in cell size and gene expression in bacteria.  Buchler, NE; Huang, S; Pai, Anand; ... Farsad, K; Ringstad, N; Takei, K; Floyd, Scott Richard; Rose, K; De Camilli, P (J Cell Biol, 2001-10-15) ... Perturbation of endophilin function in cell-free systems and in a living synapse has ... ...
more infohttps://dukespace.lib.duke.edu/dspace/browse?type=subject&value=Cell%20Size

Cellsize Differentiation TestCellsize Differentiation Test

... of specially made foundation to enable judgment of the propensity of a particular colony of bees to draw cells of various sizes ... There are six sizes of cell involved (but see revision below). 7.2 mm... Drone foundation (originally Thornes manufacture). 6.3 ... My original motivation in starting to look was to be able to use the size of the worker cell as a method of discriminating ... The pattern of six patches is repeated so that no matter where a cluster forms it has reasonable access to all cell sizes This ...
more infohttp://dave-cushman.net/bee/celltest.html

PLOS Computational Biology: Mathematical Model of a Cell Size CheckpointPLOS Computational Biology: Mathematical Model of a Cell Size Checkpoint

A cell-size checkpoint mechanism in rod-shaped fission yeast cells has recently been shown to involve two proteins, Pom1 and ... As cells grow, the Pom1 concentration in the middle of the cell declines; at some particular size, Cdr2 activates. In this ... The changing nature of these spatial gradients as the cell grows is size-sensitive. Pom1 inhibits Cdr2 while Cdr2 stimulates ... In short cells, the Pom1 concentration in the middle of the cell is so great that Cdr2 is inhibited. ...
more infohttp://journals.plos.org/ploscompbiol/article/related?id=10.1371/journal.pcbi.1001036
  • Additionally, the amount of cytoplasm the nucleus can contain and the structural limitations on the cell prevent them from being larger as well. (reference.com)
  • Chauhan N, Visram M, Cristobal-Sarramian A, Sarkleti F, Kohlwein SD (2015) Morphogenesis checkpoint kinase Swe1 is the executor of lipolysis-dependent cell-cycle progression. (springer.com)
  • Colonies of the bees reared in the larger cells and established as larger themselves by many measurements were alleged to produce significantly more honey than colonies of smaller bees under otherwise identical conditions. (dave-cushman.net)
  • They generated an artificial cell size distribution using the mathematical model by considering the effects of endoreduplication on cell size specification. (eurekalert.org)
  • Jun said the development of high-throughput cell sampling techniques and genetic methods such as "CRISPR interference" made it possible for his team to extract large amounts of physiological data from 10 million bacterial cells in their growth inhibition experiments. (eurekalert.org)
  • During bacterial growth, a cell approximately doubles in size before division, after which it splits into two daughter cells. (duke.edu)
  • Phagocytosis occurs after the foreign body, a bacterial cell, for example, has bound to molecules called "receptors" that are on the surface of the phagocyte. (wikipedia.org)
  • May 17 (UPI) -- New research has revealed the mechanism cells use to control their growth and maintain their size, a phenomenon known as "cell size homeostasis. (upi.com)
  • Cell size homeostasis is a fundamental biological question and to our knowledge this is the first time we finally understand its mechanistic origin," Suckjoon Jun, a biophysicist at the University of California, San Diego, said in a news release . (upi.com)
  • The adder principle proved cells don't control growth through a sense time and space, but it failed to explain the exact mechanisms that allows for size homeostasis. (upi.com)
  • This principle allows cell size homeostasis at the population level ( 15 , 18 ). (pnas.org)
  • Most studies have been performed on large cell populations, but detailed understanding of cell dynamics and heterogeneity requires single-cell analysis. (gu.se)
  • This analysis revealed that cell size was determined by endoreduplication-dependent exponential boosting, and size heterogeneity was induced by Poissonian endoreduplication dynamics. (eurekalert.org)
  • These results link the probabilistic property of endoreduplication dynamics to cell size distribution, providing a theoretical background to explain how size heterogeneity is established within a leaf. (eurekalert.org)
  • In this chapter, you'll take an in-depth look at the organelles inside a cell and examine how to describe the volume, surface area and scale of cells. (study.com)
  • Thus there was a premature narrowing of the cells, and at the end of a few years the bees were miserable specimens. (dave-cushman.net)
  • Even if the accusation is true it need not invalidate the theory that large cells produce large bees in a given generation. (dave-cushman.net)
  • There are many that think the current cellsize is OK for their bees. (dave-cushman.net)
  • Look at these test frames after 6hrs, 12hrs, 24hrs, 48hrs to establish which patch (or patches) of cells is being drawn more favourably by the bees. (dave-cushman.net)
  • The gutters between strips of cells are of 3 mm thick solid wax, and are raised to form a smooth convex rib, so that the bees initial efforts are concentrated on the actual cell patches. (dave-cushman.net)
  • When and if we have convinced ourselves that we realistically need to downsize the cells to give the bees a better chance. (dave-cushman.net)
  • Once the bees have been through about 2 brood cycles on this 5.2 mm 'interstage' cellsize then the bees can be shaken off onto full sheets of 4.9 mm foundation (or a Taranov Swarm can be taken). (dave-cushman.net)
  • The starter gives the beekeeper a chance to see what size the bees will draw brood cells naturally. (dave-cushman.net)
  • Beekeepers need to be encouraged to draw wax when the bees will draw strictly brood cells in early spring. (dave-cushman.net)
  • Once the bees are regressed, full sheets of foundation can be fed in as much as normal brood rearing will allow, until the number of bees peaks and the comb drawing urge is changed, with the bees now disposed to draw larger honey storage or drone cells. (dave-cushman.net)
  • However I do not know of a method of doing this in one stage unless your bees are ensconced on 5.2 mm cells already and they are happy with it. (dave-cushman.net)
  • The standard brood box is considered well suited to non-prolific bees, providing around 48,000 cells, and has sufficient space both for summer brood rearing, and winter storage. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this paper, we proposed a more comprehensive approach to reveal the mechanisms that regulate both reproductive potential and total lifespan in cell size context. (mendeley.com)
  • what three things are needed for a cell to stay alive __________________________________________ To survive cells need to have three things, nutrients, oxygen, and cells need to get rid of wastes. (answers.com)
  • There are several methods to increase the size of the brood chamber, if this is required: Use of a larger '14 x 12' box (where the height of the frame is 12" (305mm), instead of the standard 8½", and the box is thus either 12⅜" or 12½" tall. (wikipedia.org)
  • A second standard brood box, thereby doubling the size. (wikipedia.org)
  • Smaller cells are easily visible under a light microscope. (utah.edu)
  • there is nothing living that is smaller than cell. (answers.com)
  • Smaller cells are better suited to enable diffusion because smaller objects have a higher ratio between surface area and interior volume. (reference.com)
  • The color is scaled according to cell size from smaller (yellow) to larger cells. (eurekalert.org)
  • When a rapidly-growing cell divides into two smaller cells, what triggers the split? (phys.org)
  • The primary limitation on the size to which a single cell can grow is a mathematical principle called the surface to volume ratio. (reference.com)
  • Jun and his colleagues previously showed that cell size is controlled by something called the "adder principle. (upi.com)
  • His guiding principle was, in his own words, 'The size of the bee is correlated with the size of the cell. (dave-cushman.net)
  • Under constant light, wild-type cells follow an apparent sizer-like principle. (pnas.org)
  • Moreover, the maximal cell size value, which limits its reproduction capacity, can be regulated by different factors and differs depending on the strain ploidy. (mendeley.com)
  • It's even possible to make out structures within the cell, such as the nucleus, mitochondria and chloroplasts. (utah.edu)
  • Third, the head of a sperm cell is almost all nucleus. (utah.edu)
  • The nucleus of a cell is essentially a small sphere within a larger sphere. (reference.com)
  • Because the nucleus must become larger to control a larger cell, the nucleus is also susceptible to the problem of surface to volume ratio. (reference.com)
  • This limits the size of the nucleus, which in turn, limits the size of the entire cell. (reference.com)
  • Individual unsynchronized cells from three different cell lines were collected in different cell cycle phases (GO/G1 - S - G2/M) with variable cell sizes. (gu.se)
  • This hypothesis defines the reproductive potential value as the difference between the maximal size that a cell can reach and the threshold value, which allows a cell to undergo its first cell cycle and the rate of the cell size to increase per generation. (mendeley.com)
  • We realized that this invariant cell size represents a fundamental unit of cellular resources required to start growth and the cell cycle, or the 'engine' of a car, so to speak," said Jun. (eurekalert.org)
  • Studies in which cell cycle regulators were manipulated in the imaginal wing disc of Drosophila melanogaster ( 3 ) largely confirmed these observations in metazoans. (sciencemag.org)
  • These arise from continuous coupling of the clock to the cell cycle, which, in light−dark cycles, steers cell divisions away from dawn and dusk. (pnas.org)
  • Cell size and morphology are key adaptive features that influence almost all aspects of cellular physiology such as cell cycle and lipid metabolism. (springer.com)
  • Morphological and biochemical analyses of spt10Δ strain show an abnormal cell size, cell cycle and lipid levels. (springer.com)
  • Chang JS, Winston F (2013) Cell-cycle perturbations suppress the slow-growth defect of spt10Delta mutants in Saccharomyces cerevisiae . (springer.com)
  • Lately, when I transform with DH5-alpha cells, the colony sizes are different. (bio.net)
  • Many beekeepers and scientists before and after the invention of foundation had measured the size of worker cells in natural comb (which, as they often pointed out, tends to vary even within the same colony). (dave-cushman.net)
  • Iterating between modeling and experiments, we show that, in both constant and light−dark conditions, the cyanobacterial clock produces distinctly sized and timed subpopulations. (pnas.org)
  • Closer inspection reveals that the clock generates two subpopulations, with cells born in the subjective day following different division rules from cells born in subjective night. (pnas.org)
  • Ever since its commercial manufacture was perfected in the decades that followed, most beekeepers have bought foundation on the quality, price and service offered by the manufacturer, without giving the size of the resulting worker cells a second thought. (dave-cushman.net)
  • My original motivation in starting to look was to be able to use the size of the worker cell as a method of discriminating against Italian strains of bee in my own breeding program. (dave-cushman.net)
  • Spt10p helps in maintaining the cell size by regulating the amount of carbon flux into the phospholipid constituents of the cell membranes. (springer.com)
  • Because size distribution often shows a characteristically skewed pattern in a tissue, there may be some stochastic option for determining cell size. (eurekalert.org)
  • Probing the stochastic property of endoreduplication in cell size determination of Arabidopsis thaliana leaf epidermal tissue. (eurekalert.org)
  • Stochastic modeling allows us to predict how these effects emerge from the complex interactions between the environment, clock, and cell size control. (pnas.org)
  • A stochastic model explains how this behavior emerges from the interaction of cell size control with the clock. (pnas.org)
  • What Happens During Cell Division? (reference.com)
  • In Drosophila , a family of mutants defective in ribosomal protein production, termed Minutes , display short and slender bristles and a delayed developmental program, which results from a slower rate of cell growth and division ( 7 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Here, we examine how the 24-h circadian clock and environmental cycles modulate cell size control and division timings in the cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus using single-cell time-lapse microscopy. (pnas.org)
  • We demonstrate that the clock continuously modulates the probability of cell division throughout day and night, rather than solely applying an on−off gate to division, as previously proposed. (pnas.org)
  • Iterating between modeling and experiments, we go on to identify an effective coupling of the division rate to time of day through the combined effects of the environment and the clock on cell division. (pnas.org)
  • The principles of cell growth and division in microorganisms have been studied for many years ( 6 ⇓ - 8 ). (pnas.org)
  • Although the rules of cell division under constant conditions are being elucidated, cell division in many organisms is controlled by intracellular cues and time-varying environmental signals. (pnas.org)
  • For example, cell division and growth are tightly linked to light levels in algae ( 22 ⇓ - 24 ), while growth is enhanced in the dark in plant hypocotyls ( 25 ). (pnas.org)
  • A model of acute lymphoblastic disease, the Jurkat T cell line, has been used extensively to study the cannabinoid system in the immune system and cannabinoid-induced apoptosis. (frontiersin.org)
  • How cells maintain their size has been extensively studied under constant conditions. (pnas.org)
  • DNA packaging and organization in mammalian spermatozoa: comparison with somatic cells. (utah.edu)
  • If you forget it, it is likely to happen that cells will grow over the borders of your collection - that's something you most probably don't want to happen. (stackoverflow.com)
  • method of my cell to return the size I want - in my case, I grow and shrink the width of the cell to either display a button or hide it, depending on the selection state of the cell. (stackoverflow.com)
  • Because of the need to maintain the proper ratio between interior volume and external surface area, cells will reproduce rather than grow past a certain point. (reference.com)
  • Under naturally graded light−dark cycles, this coupling narrows the time window of cell divisions and shifts divisions away from when light levels are low and cell growth is reduced. (pnas.org)
  • He went on to extend his observations to the white blood cells of mammals and discovered that the bacterium Bacillus anthracis could be engulfed and killed by phagocytes, a process that he called phagocytosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The few surviving dS6K l-1 homozygous flies emerged after a 5-day delay, lived no longer than 2 weeks, and displayed a severe reduction in body size, with all body parts apparently affected to the same extent ( Fig. 1 D). Thus, loss of dS6K function induces female sterility, a strong developmental delay, a severe reduction in growth, and often death. (sciencemag.org)
  • In conclusion, these results indicate that cannabidiol causes a reduction in cell size, which persists post-treatment. (frontiersin.org)
  • This 'unit cell' is the fundamental building block of cell size, and cell size is the sum of all invariant unit cells for any growth condition, explaining the origin of the growth law. (eurekalert.org)
  • They then investigated whether this model was sufficient to explain cell size variation in epidermal tissue. (eurekalert.org)
  • Recent time-lapse analysis of microbial growth at the single-cell level suggested that many microorganisms follow an "adder" or "incremental" model ( 16 ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ - 21 ), where newborn cells add a constant cell size before dividing again. (pnas.org)
  • The Russian zoologist Ilya Ilyich Mechnikov (1845-1916) first recognized that specialized cells were involved in defense against microbial infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ability of cannabidiol to exert its effect on cell viability was also evaluated in physiological oxygen conditions. (frontiersin.org)
  • Finally, cells grown in 12% oxygen (physiological normoxia) were more resistant to cannabidiol. (frontiersin.org)
  • This proportion of small cells persisted in the recovery period and did not return to basal levels. (frontiersin.org)
  • I guess it's a size in that one bit in the mark bitmap represents CellAlignSize bytes. (mozilla.org)
  • It was then that, to combat so harmful a tendency, I published an article in Progrès Apicole (June 1893) advocating the use of larger cells, as a result of experiments duly described. (dave-cushman.net)
  • 2010, September 2) Cell Size and Scale. (utah.edu)