The quantity of volume or surface area of CELLS.
Growth processes that result in an increase in CELL SIZE.
The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.
General increase in bulk of a part or organ due to CELL ENLARGEMENT and accumulation of FLUIDS AND SECRETIONS, not due to tumor formation, nor to an increase in the number of cells (HYPERPLASIA).
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.
Enlargement of the HEART, usually indicated by a cardiothoracic ratio above 0.50. Heart enlargement may involve the right, the left, or both HEART VENTRICLES or HEART ATRIA. Cardiomegaly is a nonspecific symptom seen in patients with chronic systolic heart failure (HEART FAILURE) or several forms of CARDIOMYOPATHIES.
A serine threonine kinase that controls a wide range of growth-related cellular processes. The protein is referred to as the target of RAPAMYCIN due to the discovery that SIROLIMUS (commonly known as rapamycin) forms an inhibitory complex with TACROLIMUS BINDING PROTEIN 1A that blocks the action of its enzymatic activity.
The study of the structure, behavior, growth, reproduction, and pathology of cells; and the function and chemistry of cellular components.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
A family of ribosomal protein S6 kinases that are considered the major physiological kinases for RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6. Unlike RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 KINASES, 90KDa the proteins in this family are sensitive to the inhibitory effects of RAPAMYCIN and contain a single kinase domain. They are referred to as 70kDa proteins, however ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of mRNAs for proteins in this class also results in 85kDa variants being formed.
The degree of replication of the chromosome set in the karyotype.
The amount of DNA (or RNA) in one copy of a genome.
An order of CHLOROPHYTA commonly found in freshwater habitats. Characteristics include the presence of a cellulose wall and two to four equal, smooth, apical flagella.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A thin layer of cells forming the outer integument of seed plants and ferns. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
LIPOLYSIS of stored LIPIDS in the ADIPOSE TISSUE to release FREE FATTY ACIDS. Mobilization of stored lipids is under the regulation of lipolytic signals (CATECHOLAMINES) or anti-lipolytic signals (INSULIN) via their actions on the hormone-sensitive LIPASE. This concept does not include lipid transport.
The chromosomal constitution of a cell containing multiples of the normal number of CHROMOSOMES; includes triploidy (symbol: 3N), tetraploidy (symbol: 4N), etc.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
The quantity of volume or surface area of a CELL NUCLEUS.
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Free-floating minute organisms that are photosynthetic. The term is non-taxonomic and refers to a lifestyle (energy utilization and motility), rather than a particular type of organism. Most, but not all, are unicellular algae. Important groups include DIATOMS; DINOFLAGELLATES; CYANOBACTERIA; CHLOROPHYTA; HAPTOPHYTA; CRYPTOMONADS; and silicoflagellates.
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The period of the CELL CYCLE preceding DNA REPLICATION in S PHASE. Subphases of G1 include "competence" (to respond to growth factors), G1a (entry into G1), G1b (progression), and G1c (assembly). Progression through the G1 subphases is effected by limiting growth factors, nutrients, or inhibitors.
A family of protein serine/threonine kinases which act as intracellular signalling intermediates. Ribosomal protein S6 kinases are activated through phosphorylation in response to a variety of HORMONES and INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS. Phosphorylation of RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 by enzymes in this class results in increased expression of 5' top MRNAs. Although specific for RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 members of this class of kinases can act on a number of substrates within the cell. The immunosuppressant SIROLIMUS inhibits the activation of ribosomal protein S6 kinases.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
Vestibular nucleus lying immediately superior to the inferior vestibular nucleus and composed of large multipolar nerve cells. Its upper end becomes continuous with the superior vestibular nucleus.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.
Striated muscle cells found in the heart. They are derived from cardiac myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, CARDIAC).
A genus of RNA plant viruses in the family FLEXIVIRIDAE, containing slightly flexuous filaments, often transmitted by aphids in a non-persistent manner. Carnation latent virus is the type species.
Osmium. A very hard, gray, toxic, and nearly infusible metal element, atomic number 76, atomic weight 190.2, symbol Os. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
A genus of ascomycetous fungi of the family Schizosaccharomycetaceae, order Schizosaccharomycetales.
The quality of surface form or outline of CELLS.
A genus of the plant family Liliaceae (sometimes classified as Alliaceae) in the order Liliales. Many produce pungent, often bacteriostatic and physiologically active compounds and are used as VEGETABLES; CONDIMENTS; and medicament, the latter in traditional medicine.
Single layer of large flattened cells covering the surface of the cornea.
A macrolide compound obtained from Streptomyces hygroscopicus that acts by selectively blocking the transcriptional activation of cytokines thereby inhibiting cytokine production. It is bioactive only when bound to IMMUNOPHILINS. Sirolimus is a potent immunosuppressant and possesses both antifungal and antineoplastic properties.
Community of tiny aquatic PLANTS and ANIMALS, and photosynthetic BACTERIA, that are either free-floating or suspended in the water, with little or no power of locomotion. They are divided into PHYTOPLANKTON and ZOOPLANKTON.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Methods used to study CELLS.
The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.
A large family of regulatory proteins that function as accessory subunits to a variety of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES. They generally function as ENZYME ACTIVATORS that drive the CELL CYCLE through transitions between phases. A subset of cyclins may also function as transcriptional regulators.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
Either of two fleshy protuberances at the lower posterior section of the trunk or HIP in humans and primate on which a person or animal sits, consisting of gluteal MUSCLES and fat.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
The use of instrumentation and techniques for visualizing material and details that cannot be seen by the unaided eye. It is usually done by enlarging images, transmitted by light or electron beams, with optical or magnetic lenses that magnify the entire image field. With scanning microscopy, images are generated by collecting output from the specimen in a point-by-point fashion, on a magnified scale, as it is scanned by a narrow beam of light or electrons, a laser, a conductive probe, or a topographical probe.
Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
Cells in the body that store FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. WHITE ADIPOCYTES are the predominant type and found mostly in the abdominal cavity and subcutaneous tissue. BROWN ADIPOCYTES are thermogenic cells that can be found in newborns of some species and hibernating mammals.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
Cellular processes, properties, and characteristics.
A ribosomal protein that may play a role in controlling cell growth and proliferation. It is a major substrate of RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 KINASES and plays a role in regulating the translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) of RNAs that contain an RNA 5' TERMINAL OLIGOPYRIMIDINE SEQUENCE.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Stable potassium atoms that have the same atomic number as the element potassium, but differ in atomic weight. K-41 is a stable potassium isotope.
Proteins obtained from the species Schizosaccharomyces pombe. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
Macromolecular complexes formed from the association of defined protein subunits.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
A species of METHYLOBACTERIUM which can utilize acetate, ethanol, or methylamine as a sole carbon source. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in fungi.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
Part of the DIENCEPHALON inferior to the caudal end of the dorsal THALAMUS. Includes the lateral geniculate body which relays visual impulses from the OPTIC TRACT to the calcarine cortex, and the medial geniculate body which relays auditory impulses from the lateral lemniscus to the AUDITORY CORTEX.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
A group of plant cells that are capable of dividing infinitely and whose main function is the production of new growth at the growing tip of a root or stem. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Increase in the temperature of the atmosphere near the Earth's surface and in the troposphere, which can contribute to changes in global climate patterns.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Photography of objects viewed under a microscope using ordinary photographic methods.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
A key intermediate in carbohydrate metabolism. Serves as a precursor of glycogen, can be metabolized into UDPgalactose and UDPglucuronic acid which can then be incorporated into polysaccharides as galactose and glucuronic acid. Also serves as a precursor of sucrose lipopolysaccharides, and glycosphingolipids.
Large and highly vacuolated cells possessing many chloroplasts occuring in the interior cross-section of leaves, juxtaposed between the epidermal layers.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
An alpha-1 adrenergic agonist used as a mydriatic, nasal decongestant, and cardiotonic agent.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The convoluted cordlike structure attached to the posterior of the TESTIS. Epididymis consists of the head (caput), the body (corpus), and the tail (cauda). A network of ducts leaving the testis joins into a common epididymal tubule proper which provides the transport, storage, and maturation of SPERMATOZOA.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
The common name for the phylum of microscopic unicellular STRAMENOPILES. Most are aquatic, being found in fresh, brackish, and salt water. Diatoms are noted for the symmetry and sculpturing of their siliceous cell walls. They account for 40% of PHYTOPLANKTON, but not all diatoms are planktonic.
Stable sodium atoms that have the same atomic number as the element sodium, but differ in atomic weight. Na-23 is a stable sodium isotope.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
The physical measurements of a body.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
A protein-serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION in response to GROWTH FACTORS or INSULIN. It plays a major role in cell metabolism, growth, and survival as a core component of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Three isoforms have been described in mammalian cells.
Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.
Phase of the CELL CYCLE following G1 and preceding G2 when the entire DNA content of the nucleus is replicated. It is achieved by bidirectional replication at multiple sites along each chromosome.
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.
The fundamental, structural, and functional units or subunits of living organisms. They are composed of CYTOPLASM containing various ORGANELLES and a CELL MEMBRANE boundary.
Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.
A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
A potent natriuretic and vasodilatory peptide or mixture of different-sized low molecular weight PEPTIDES derived from a common precursor and secreted mainly by the HEART ATRIUM. All these peptides share a sequence of about 20 AMINO ACIDS.
A trihydroxy sugar alcohol that is an intermediate in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. It is used as a solvent, emollient, pharmaceutical agent, and sweetening agent.
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
Basic functional unit of plants.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.
One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and ARCHAEA), also called Eukarya. These are organisms whose cells are enclosed in membranes and possess a nucleus. They comprise almost all multicellular and many unicellular organisms, and are traditionally divided into groups (sometimes called kingdoms) including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and various algae and other taxa that were previously part of the old kingdom Protista.
The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.
ERYTHROCYTE size and HEMOGLOBIN content or concentration, usually derived from ERYTHROCYTE COUNT; BLOOD hemoglobin concentration; and HEMATOCRIT. The indices include the mean corpuscular volume (MCV), the mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), and the mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC).
A technique encompassing morphometry, densitometry, neural networks, and expert systems that has numerous clinical and research applications and is particularly useful in anatomic pathology for the study of malignant lesions. The most common current application of image cytometry is for DNA analysis, followed by quantitation of immunohistochemical staining.
Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.
PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.
Hydrophilic contact lenses worn for an extended period or permanently.
Assaying the products of or monitoring various biochemical processes and reactions in an individual cell.
The period of the CELL CYCLE following DNA synthesis (S PHASE) and preceding M PHASE (cell division phase). The CHROMOSOMES are tetraploid in this point.
Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.
The flow of water in enviromental bodies of water such as rivers, oceans, water supplies, aquariums, etc. It includes currents, tides, and waves.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-myc genes. They are normally involved in nucleic acid metabolism and in mediating the cellular response to growth factors. Elevated and deregulated (constitutive) expression of c-myc proteins can cause tumorigenesis.
The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.
Protein kinases that control cell cycle progression in all eukaryotes and require physical association with CYCLINS to achieve full enzymatic activity. Cyclin-dependent kinases are regulated by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation events.

Sex differences in the effects of early neocortical injury on neuronal size distribution of the medial geniculate nucleus in the rat are mediated by perinatal gonadal steroids. (1/5001)

Freezing injury to the cortical plate of rats induces cerebrocortical microgyria and, in males but not females, a shift toward greater numbers of small neurons in the medial geniculate nucleus (MGN). The purpose of the current study was to examine a hormonal basis for this sex difference. Cross-sectional neuronal areas of the MGN were measured in male rats, untreated female rats and female rats treated perinatally with testosterone propionate, all of which had received either neonatal cortical freezing or sham injury. Both male and androgenized female rats with microgyria had significantly smaller MGN neurons when compared to their sham-operated counterparts, whereas untreated females with microgyria did not. These differences were also reflected in MGN neuronal size distribution: both male and androgenized female rats with microgyria had more small and fewer large neurons in their MGN in comparison to shams, while there was no difference in MGN neuronal size distribution between lesioned and sham females. These findings suggest that perinatal gonadal steroids mediate the sex difference in thalamic response to induction of microgyria in the rat cortex.  (+info)

Expression of the naturally occurring truncated trkB neurotrophin receptor induces outgrowth of filopodia and processes in neuroblastoma cells. (2/5001)

We have investigated the effects of the truncated trkB receptor isoform T1 (trkB.T1) by transient transfection into mouse N2a neuroblastoma cells. We observed that expression of trkB.T1 leads to a striking change in cell morphology characterized by outgrowth of filopodia and processes. A similar morphological response was also observed in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells and NIH3T3 fibroblasts transfected with trkB.T1. N2a cells lack endogenous expression of trkB isoforms, but express barely detectable amounts of its ligands, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin-4 (NT-4). The morphological change was ligand-independent, since addition of exogenous BDNF or NT-4 or blockade of endogenous trkB ligands did not influence this response. Filopodia and process outgrowth was significantly suppressed when full-length trkB.TK+ was cotransfected together with trkB.T1 and this inhibitory effect was blocked by tyrosine kinase inhibitor K252a. Transfection of trkB.T1 deletion mutants showed that the morphological response is dependent on the extracellular, but not the intracellular domain of the receptor. Our results suggest a novel ligand-independent role for truncated trkB in the regulation of cellular morphology.  (+info)

Gender-related differences in myocyte remodeling in progression to heart failure. (3/5001)

Gender-related differences responsible for the better prognosis of females with heart failure have not been clearly established. To address this issue, we investigated potential gender-related differences in myocyte remodeling in spontaneously hypertensive heart failure rats. Echocardiograms and myocyte growth were compared between males and females at compensated (2, 4, and 6 months) and decompensated (18 months in males and 24 months in females) stages of cardiac hypertrophy. Although left ventricular diastolic dimensions did not differ significantly between failing male and female rats, fractional shortening declined significantly only in failing males. Myocyte cross-sectional area did not change after 4 months of age in both genders, which is likely to be responsible for the absence of a change in left ventricular wall thickness during the progression to heart failure. Myocyte volume and cross-sectional area were significantly larger in males than females at 2, 4, and 6 months of age, although there were no significant differences at the failing stage. Reduced adaptive hypertrophic reserve was observed in males, which is likely to contribute to the higher morbidity and mortality of males with chronic heart failure.  (+info)

Activated macrophages and microglia induce dopaminergic sprouting in the injured striatum and express brain-derived neurotrophic factor and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor. (4/5001)

Nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons undergo sprouting around the margins of a striatal wound. The mechanism of this periwound sprouting has been unclear. In this study, we have examined the role played by the macrophage and microglial response that follows striatal injury. Macrophages and activated microglia quickly accumulate after injury and reach their greatest numbers in the first week. Subsequently, the number of both cell types declines rapidly in the first month and thereafter more slowly. Macrophage numbers eventually cease to decline, and a sizable group of these cells remains at the wound site and forms a long-term, highly activated resident population. This population of macrophages expresses increasing amounts of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor mRNA with time. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor mRNA is also expressed in and around the wound site. Production of this factor is by both activated microglia and, to a lesser extent, macrophages. The production of these potent dopaminergic neurotrophic factors occurs in a similar spatial distribution to sprouting dopaminergic fibers. Moreover, dopamine transporter-positive dopaminergic neurites can be seen growing toward and embracing hemosiderin-filled wound macrophages. The dopaminergic sprouting that accompanies striatal injury thus appears to result from neurotrophic factor secretion by activated macrophages and microglia at the wound site.  (+info)

Interleukin-12 is synthesized by mesangial cells and stimulates platelet-activating factor synthesis, cytoskeletal reorganization, and cell shape change. (5/5001)

Preliminary studies indicate the involvement of interleukin (IL)-12 in experimental renal pathology. In the present study, we evaluated whether cultured glomerular mesangial cells are able to produce IL-12 and whether IL-12 may regulate some of their functions, including the cytoskeletal reorganization, the change in cell shape, and the production of platelet-activating factor (PAF). The results obtained indicate that pro-inflammatory stimuli, such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha and bacterial polysaccharides, induce the expression of IL-12 mRNA and the synthesis of the protein by cultured mesangial cells. Moreover, cultured mesangial cells were shown to bind IL-12 and to express the human low-affinity IL-12 beta1-chain receptor. When challenged with IL-12, mesangial cells produced PAF in a dose- and time-dependent manner and superoxide anions. No production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and IL-8 was observed. Moreover, we demonstrate that IL-12 induced a delayed and sustained shape change of mesangial cells that reached its maximum between 90 and 120 minutes of incubation. The changes in cell shape occurred concomitantly with cytoskeletal rearrangements and may be consistent with cell contraction. As IL-12-dependent shape change of mesangial cells was concomitant with the synthesis of PAF, which is known to promote mesangial cell contraction, we investigated the role of PAF using two chemically different PAF receptor antagonists. Both antagonists inhibited almost completely the cell shape change induced by IL-12, whereas they were ineffective on angiotensin-II-induced cell shape change. In conclusion, our results suggest that mesangial cells can either produce IL-12 or be stimulated by this cytokine to synthesize PAF and to undergo shape changes compatible with cell contraction.  (+info)

Neurite outgrowth-regulating properties of GABA and the effect of serum on mouse spinal cord neurons in culture. (6/5001)

Time-lapse photography was used to examine the effects of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) on the outgrowth and motility of neurites in cultures from mouse spinal cord. GABA at concentrations of 100, 10 and 1 microM caused significant inhibition of neurite outgrowth and the motility of growth cones was significantly reduced by treatment with 100 and 10 microM GABA. This effect was mimicked by the GABA(B) receptor agonist baclofen, whereas the GABA(A) receptor agonist muscimol had no effect. The effect of GABA on outgrowth and motility seems to be dependent on the type of serum employed. The results reported here were obtained only when heat-inactivated serum was used and not when non heat-inactivated serum was added to the culture medium. They suggest that GABA has a role in the regulation of process outgrowth within the embryonic mouse spinal cord.  (+info)

Regulation of p190 Rho-GAP by v-Src is linked to cytoskeletal disruption during transformation. (7/5001)

The v-Src oncoprotein perturbs the dynamic regulation of the cellular cytoskeletal and adhesion network by a mechanism that is poorly understood. Here, we have examined in detail the effects of a temperature-dependent v-Src protein on the regulation of p190 RhoGAP, a GTPase activating protein (GAP) that has been implicated in disruption of the organised actin cytoskeleton, and addressed the dependence of v-Src-induced stress fibre loss on inhibition of Rho activity. We found that activation of v-Src induced association of tyrosine phosphorylated p190 with p120(RasGAP) and stimulation of p120(RasGAP)-associated RhoGAP activity, although p120(RasGAP) itself was not a target for phosphorylation by v-Src in chicken embryo cells. These events required the catalytic activity of v-Src and were linked to loss of actin stress fibres during morphological transformation and not mitogenic signalling. Furthermore, these effects were rapidly reversible since switching off v-Src led to dissociation of the p190/p120(RasGAP) complex, inactivation of p120(RasGAP)-associated RhoGAP activity and re-induction of actin stress fibres. In addition, transient transfection of Val14-RhoA, a constitutively active Rho protein that is insensitive to RhoGAPs, suppressed v-Src-induced stress fibre loss and cell transformation. Thus, we show here for the first time that an activated Src kinase requires the inactivation of Rho-mediated actin stress fibre assembly to induce its effects on actin disorganisation. Moreover, our work supports p190 as a strong candidate effector of v-Src-induced cytoskeletal disruption, most likely mediated by antagonism of the cellular function of Rho.  (+info)

C-PR neuron of Aplysia has differential effects on "Feeding" cerebral interneurons, including myomodulin-positive CBI-12. (8/5001)

Head lifting and other aspects of the appetitive central motive state that precedes consummatory feeding movements in Aplysia is promoted by excitation of the C-PR neuron. Food stimuli activate C-PR as well as a small population of cerebral-buccal interneurons (CBIs). We wished to determine if firing of C-PR produced differential effects on the various CBIs or perhaps affected all the CBIs uniformly as might be expected for a neuron involved in producing a broad undifferentiated arousal state. We found that when C-PR was fired, it produced a wide variety of effects on various CBIs. Firing of C-PR evoked excitatory input to a newly identified CBI (CBI-12) the soma of which is located in the M cluster near the previously identified CBI-2. CBI-12 shares certain properties with CBI-2, including a similar morphology and a capacity to drive rhythmic activity of the buccal-ganglion. Unlike CBI-2, CBI-12 exhibits myomodulin immunoreactivity. Furthermore when C-PR is fired, CBI-12 receives a polysynaptic voltage-dependent slow excitation, whereas, CBI-2 receives relatively little input. C-PR also polysynaptically excites other CBIs including CBI-1 and CBI-8/9 but produces inhibition in CBI-3. In addition, firing of C-PR inhibits plateau potentials in CBI-5/6. The data suggest that activity of C-PR may promote the activity of one subset of cerebral-buccal interneurons, perhaps those involved in ingestive behaviors that occur during the head-up posture. C-PR also inhibits some cerebral-buccal interneurons that may be involved in behaviors in which C-PR activity is not required or may even interfere with other feeding behaviors such as rejection or grazing, that occur with the head down.  (+info)

There are several types of hypertrophy, including:

1. Muscle hypertrophy: The enlargement of muscle fibers due to increased protein synthesis and cell growth, often seen in individuals who engage in resistance training exercises.
2. Cardiac hypertrophy: The enlargement of the heart due to an increase in cardiac workload, often seen in individuals with high blood pressure or other cardiovascular conditions.
3. Adipose tissue hypertrophy: The excessive growth of fat cells, often seen in individuals who are obese or have insulin resistance.
4. Neurological hypertrophy: The enlargement of neural structures such as brain or spinal cord due to an increase in the number of neurons or glial cells, often seen in individuals with neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's or Parkinson's.
5. Hepatic hypertrophy: The enlargement of the liver due to an increase in the number of liver cells, often seen in individuals with liver disease or cirrhosis.
6. Renal hypertrophy: The enlargement of the kidneys due to an increase in blood flow and filtration, often seen in individuals with kidney disease or hypertension.
7. Ovarian hypertrophy: The enlargement of the ovaries due to an increase in the number of follicles or hormonal imbalances, often seen in individuals with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).

Hypertrophy can be diagnosed through various medical tests such as imaging studies (e.g., CT scans, MRI), biopsies, and blood tests. Treatment options for hypertrophy depend on the underlying cause and may include medications, lifestyle changes, and surgery.

In conclusion, hypertrophy is a growth or enlargement of cells, tissues, or organs in response to an excessive stimulus. It can occur in various parts of the body, including the brain, liver, kidneys, heart, muscles, and ovaries. Understanding the underlying causes and diagnosis of hypertrophy is crucial for effective treatment and management of related health conditions.

Medical Term: Cardiomegaly

Definition: An abnormal enlargement of the heart.

Symptoms: Difficulty breathing, shortness of breath, fatigue, swelling of legs and feet, chest pain, and palpitations.

Causes: Hypertension, cardiac valve disease, myocardial infarction (heart attack), congenital heart defects, and other conditions that affect the heart muscle or cardiovascular system.

Diagnosis: Physical examination, electrocardiogram (ECG), chest x-ray, echocardiography, and other diagnostic tests as necessary.

Treatment: Medications such as diuretics, vasodilators, and beta blockers, lifestyle changes such as exercise and diet modifications, surgery or other interventions in severe cases.

Note: Cardiomegaly is a serious medical condition that requires prompt diagnosis and treatment to prevent complications such as heart failure and death. If you suspect you or someone else may have cardiomegaly, seek medical attention immediately.

Polyploidy is a condition where an organism has more than two sets of chromosomes, which are the thread-like structures that carry genetic information. It can occur in both plants and animals, although it is relatively rare in most species. In humans, polyploidy is extremely rare and usually occurs as a result of errors during cell division or abnormal fertilization.

In medicine, polyploidy is often used to describe certain types of cancer, such as breast cancer or colon cancer, that have extra sets of chromosomes. This can lead to the development of more aggressive and difficult-to-treat tumors.

However, not all cases of polyploidy are cancerous. Some individuals with Down syndrome, for example, have an extra copy of chromosome 21, which is a non-cancerous form of polyploidy. Additionally, some people may be born with extra copies of certain genes or chromosomal regions due to errors during embryonic development, which can lead to various health problems but are not cancerous.

Overall, the term "polyploidy" in medicine is used to describe any condition where an organism has more than two sets of chromosomes, regardless of whether it is cancerous or non-cancerous.

Body weight is an important health indicator, as it can affect an individual's risk for certain medical conditions, such as obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Maintaining a healthy body weight is essential for overall health and well-being, and there are many ways to do so, including a balanced diet, regular exercise, and other lifestyle changes.

There are several ways to measure body weight, including:

1. Scale: This is the most common method of measuring body weight, and it involves standing on a scale that displays the individual's weight in kg or lb.
2. Body fat calipers: These are used to measure body fat percentage by pinching the skin at specific points on the body.
3. Skinfold measurements: This method involves measuring the thickness of the skin folds at specific points on the body to estimate body fat percentage.
4. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA): This is a non-invasive method that uses electrical impulses to measure body fat percentage.
5. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA): This is a more accurate method of measuring body composition, including bone density and body fat percentage.

It's important to note that body weight can fluctuate throughout the day due to factors such as water retention, so it's best to measure body weight at the same time each day for the most accurate results. Additionally, it's important to use a reliable scale or measuring tool to ensure accurate measurements.

There are several different types of obesity, including:

1. Central obesity: This type of obesity is characterized by excess fat around the waistline, which can increase the risk of health problems such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease.
2. Peripheral obesity: This type of obesity is characterized by excess fat in the hips, thighs, and arms.
3. Visceral obesity: This type of obesity is characterized by excess fat around the internal organs in the abdominal cavity.
4. Mixed obesity: This type of obesity is characterized by both central and peripheral obesity.

Obesity can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, lack of physical activity, poor diet, sleep deprivation, and certain medications. Treatment for obesity typically involves a combination of lifestyle changes, such as increased physical activity and a healthy diet, and in some cases, medication or surgery may be necessary to achieve weight loss.

Preventing obesity is important for overall health and well-being, and can be achieved through a variety of strategies, including:

1. Eating a healthy, balanced diet that is low in added sugars, saturated fats, and refined carbohydrates.
2. Engaging in regular physical activity, such as walking, jogging, or swimming.
3. Getting enough sleep each night.
4. Managing stress levels through relaxation techniques, such as meditation or deep breathing.
5. Avoiding excessive alcohol consumption and quitting smoking.
6. Monitoring weight and body mass index (BMI) on a regular basis to identify any changes or potential health risks.
7. Seeking professional help from a healthcare provider or registered dietitian for personalized guidance on weight management and healthy lifestyle choices.

The size of the nucleus depends on the size of the cell it is contained in, with a nucleus typically occupying about 8% of the ... Eukaryotic cells usually have a single nucleus, but a few cell types, such as mammalian red blood cells, have no nuclei, and a ... Other multinucleate cells in the human are osteoclasts a type of bone cell. Multinucleated and binucleated cells can also be ... the cell divides to form two cells. In order for this process to be possible, each of the new daughter cells must have a full ...
Inorganic semiconductor nanoparticles used in hybrid cells include CdSe (size ranges from 6-20 nm), ZnO, TiO, and PbS. Common ... This type of dye-sensitized solar cell is also known as a Grätzel cell. Dye-sensitized solar cell has a disadvantage of a short ... Solar cells are devices that convert sunlight into electricity by the photovoltaic effect. Electrons in a solar cell absorb ... Hybrid solar cells based on dye-sensitized solar cells are formed with inorganic materials (TiO2) and organic materials. Hybrid ...
... requires both cell growth and cell division to occur at the same time, such that the average size of cells ... Cell size depends on both cell growth and cell division, with a disproportionate increase in the rate of cell growth leading to ... Cell proliferation typically involves balanced cell growth and cell division rates that maintain a roughly constant cell size ... Cell proliferation is the process by which a cell grows and divides to produce two daughter cells. Cell proliferation leads to ...
The size of the cell grows. The contents of cells are replicated. Replication of DNA The cell replicates each of the 46 ... The membranes are slightly different from cell to cell and a cell's function determines the size and structure of the ER. ... Direct cell-cell contact is when a receptor on a cell binds a molecule that is attached to the membrane of another cell. ... Cell signaling or cell communication is important for cell regulation and for cells to process information from the environment ...
A cell is unable to grow to an abnormally large size because at a certain cell size or cell mass, the S phase is initiated. The ... Cell size depends on both cell growth and cell division, with a disproportionate increase in the rate of cell growth leading to ... Cell proliferation typically involves balanced cell growth and cell division rates that maintain a roughly constant cell size ... "A constant size extension drives bacterial cell size homeostasis". Cell. 159 (6): 1433-1446. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2014.11.022. ...
Unlike the 24-cell and the tesseract, the 16-cell is not radially equilateral; therefore 16-cells of two different sizes (unit ... Boundary cells describes how the √2 axes of the 24-cell's octahedral cells are the edges of the 16-cell's tetrahedral cells, ... The 600-cell is larger than the 24-cell, and contains the 24-cell as an interior feature. The regular 5-cell is not found in ... They form 48 √2 tetrahedra (the cells of the three 16-cells), centered at the 24 mid-edge-radii of the 24-cell. The 24-cell can ...
Some researchers identify this as a failure in the mechanism that controls the size of the cells. Small-cell lung cancer is ... Leslie M (November 2011). "Mysteries of the cell. How does a cell know its size?". Science. 334 (6059): 1047-1048. doi:10.1126/ ... Small-cell carcinoma is an undifferentiated neoplasm composed of primitive-appearing cells. As the name implies, the cells in ... Treatment is similar to small cell lung cancer, but survival rates are much higher than other small-cell carcinomas. Small-cell ...
The genome of wild radish is estimated to be ~515 Mb in size, whereas that of the edible variety is suggested to be ~539-574 Mb ... The Plant Cell. 26 (5): 1925-1937. doi:10.1105/tpc.114.124297. PMC 4079359. PMID 24876251. Johnston, J. Spencer; et al. (2005 ... Giovanetti, Manuela; Lasso, Eloisa (July-September 2005). "Body size, loading capacity and rate of reproduction in the communal ... "Evolution of Genome Size in Brassicaceae". Annals of Botany. 95 (1): 229-235. doi:10.1093/aob/mci016. PMC 1950721. PMID ...
... while in other cells they may only be induced under certain conditions and are considerably smaller in size. Lipid droplets bud ... Lipid droplets vary greatly in size, ranging from 20 to 40 nm to 100 um. In adipocytes, lipid bodies tend to be larger and they ... Guo Y, Cordes KR, Farese RV, Walther TC (Mar 15, 2009). "Lipid droplets at a glance". Journal of Cell Science. 122 (Pt 6): 749- ... It is possible to observe the formation of lipid droplets, live and label-free, using label-free live cell imaging. Lipid ...
The genomic size". Cytogenet Cell Genet. 19 (5): 241-249. doi:10.1159/000130816. PMID 606503. Mascarello, JT MJ; Mazrimas, J. A ... Each gene maps to the same chromosome in every cell. Linkage is determined by the presence of two or more loci on the same ... The resulting somatic cell hybrids contain individual fragments of the relevant genome. Then, 90-100 (sometimes, more) clones ... Although tetrapoidy was first proposed to be a reason for its high genome size and diploid chromosome number, Svartman et al. ...
"Honeycomb Cell Size". Retrieved 27 January 2017. Look up beehive in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. American Beekeeping ... There are several methods to increase the size of the brood chamber, if this is required: Use of a larger 14x12 box (where the ... The standard brood box is considered well suited to non-prolific bees, providing just over 63,000 cells, and has sufficient ... thereby doubling the size. Brood and a half chamber of a standard and a shallow box. The weight of a full honey super is still ...
The expression product of c1orf110 is often called Coiled-coil domain-containing protein 190 with a size of 302 aa. It may get ... It is found that during cell division, some coiled-coil contain proteins like Ska1, Ska2, and Ska3 form a dimer and the ... In human genome, it locates in c1q23.3 with a size of 44,461 bps from 162838810 to 162792037 on the reverse stand. The closest ... Also, this gene is found to be a biomarker for short photoperiods for cells in pars tuberalis. The detailed relation for ...
The cells underwent irradiation, creating double-strand breaks within the DNA, and garcinol was introduced into the cells to ... Lee KK, Workman JL (April 2007). "Histone acetyltransferase complexes: one size doesn't fit all". Nature Reviews. Molecular ... Chromatin in the cell can be found in two states: condensed and uncondensed. The latter, known as euchromatin, is ... doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.03.033. PMID 16678094. S2CID 5968161. Kimura A, Matsubara K, Horikoshi M (December 2005). "A decade of ...
France Researchers at Alcatel-Lucent have developed a cell site called lightRadio that fits in the palm of hand. It is the size ... Typically a cell tower is located at the edge of one or more cells and covers multiple cells using directional antennas. A ... Cell site placed atop an existing building A standard American cell tower in Gainesville, Virginia. Cell phone tower atop a ... All the cell phones within a cell communicate with the system through that cell's antenna, on separate frequency channels ...
... multi-junction cells can be manufactured by incorporating quantum dot semiconductors of different sizes (and therefore ... Another modern cell design is the dye-sensitized solar cell, or DSSC. DSSCs use a sponge-like layer of TiO 2 as the ... Such cells create the possibility of uncoated "spray-on" cells. However, these air-stable n-type CQD were actually fabricated ... These cells show unprecedented air-stability for quantum dot solar cells that the performance remained unchanged for more than ...
... the cells in the solution are subject to various drag and inertial forces that are dependent on the size of the cell and ... Individual cells are deflected by either a force directly on the cell or a force on the fluid surrounding the cells, so that ... Immunomagnetic cell sorting provides a method for enriching a heterogeneous mixture of cells based on cell-surface protein ... Methods of cell sorting fall into two major categories: fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) and immunomagnetic cell ...
Koniocellular means "cells as small as dust"; their small size made them hard to find. About 8 to 10% of retinal ganglion cells ... Bistratified cells receive their input from bipolar cells and amacrine cells. The bistratified cells project their axons ... Bistratified ganglion cell can refer to either of two kinds of retinal ganglion cells whose cell body is located in the ... Midget cell Parasol cell Photosensitive ganglion cell Daw, Nigel (19 January 2012). How Vision Works: The Physiological ...
Cell isolation by SSEA-3 cell sorting can be done using SSEA-3 antibody. Their size is 13~15 μm in diameter. Muse cells do not ... When mesenchymal cells (sometimes called mesenchymal stem cells) are separated into Muse and non-Muse cells by SSEA-3 cell ... Contribution of Muse Cells, a Novel Pluripotent Stem Cell Type that Resides in Mesenchymal Cells". Cells. 1 (4): 1045-60. doi: ... bone marrow-mesenchymal stem cells and adipose-derived stem cells. Muse cells are able to generate cells representative of all ...
These cells are known as midget retinal ganglion cells, based on the small sizes of their dendritic trees and cell bodies. ... Midget cell (parvocellular, or P pathway; P cells) Parasol cell (magnocellular, or M pathway; M cells) Bistratified cell ( ... These cells are known as parasol retinal ganglion cells, based on the large sizes of their dendritic trees and cell bodies. ... their small size made them hard to find. About 10% of all retinal ganglion cells are bistratified cells, and these cells go ...
... cause a significantly increased variation in cell size. Higher RDW values indicate greater variation in size. Normal reference ... However, a varied size distribution of red blood cells is a hallmark of iron deficiency anemia, and as such shows an increased ... An elevated RDW (red blood cells of unequal sizes) is known as anisocytosis. An elevation in the RDW is not characteristic of ... Red blood cells have an average volume of 80-100 femtoliters, but individual cell volumes vary even in healthy blood. Certain ...
"Ion Sizes of Common Elements". Archived from the original on 2007-11-07., compare with Co U.S. Patent 5,761,115 U.S. Patent ... For one, each application of the current physically degrades the cell, such that the cell will eventually be unwritable. Write ... The programmable metallization cell, or PMC, is a non-volatile computer memory developed at Arizona State University. PMC, a ... An individual PMC can be read by applying a small voltage across the cell. As long as the applied read voltage is less than ...
Gregory, T. R. (2001). "The Bigger the C-Value, the Larger the Cell: Genome Size and Red Blood Cell Size in Vertebrates". Blood ... Gregory TR (2001). "The bigger the C-value, the larger the cell: genome size and red blood cell size in vertebrates". Blood ... The size of red blood cells varies widely among vertebrate species; red blood cell width is on average about 25% larger than ... Red blood cells in mammals anucleate when mature, meaning that they lack a cell nucleus. In comparison, the red blood cells of ...
Determinants of cell size. How do cells determine what size to grow to before dividing? Golgi apparatus. In cell theory, what ... How and why did cells combine to form the eukaryotic cell? Did one or more random events lead to the first eukaryotic cells, or ... How do organs grow to the correct shape and size? How are the final shape and size of organs so reliably formed? These ... How did the mitochondria's mitosis cycle come in sync with its host cell? Did the mitochondria or the nucleus develop first in ...
Rhoads, Dan (5 November 2007). "History of Cell Biology". Bite Size Bio. Retrieved 31 October 2018. Schwann, Theodor (1839). ... cells that are independent and separate, e.g. blood cells cells that are independent but compacted together in layers, e.g. ... which formed his cell theory or cell doctrine. The first two were correct: The cell is the unit of structure, physiology, and ... "All living things are composed of cells and cell products". He drew three further conclusions about cells, ...
The cell wall and cell membrane are what are known to this point as what distinguishes Cyclotella from other diatom genera. The ... The size of Cyclotella varies by species. C. atomus has a diameter of 5-7 μm, whereas C. quillensis can have a diameter up to ... Each of the two offspring that arise as a result of cell division have one of the two valves from the parent cell. During the ... Vegetative cell division occurs over hundreds of generations for C. meneghiniana, with the cell diameters of the offspring ...
Methods in Cell Biology. Vol. 65. Boston: Academic Press. pp. 218-219. ISBN 0-12-544169-X. Stumpf MP, Thorne T, de Silva E, ... Stewart R, An HJ, Lappe M, Wiuf C (May 2008). "Estimating the size of the human interactome". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105 ... However, when fractionating mixtures, especially mixtures containing large numbers of components (for example a cell lysate), ...
"4.1D: Cell Size". Biology LibreTexts. 2018-07-05. Retrieved 2022-05-12. assumed, No machine-readable author provided The Cat~ ... During his studies of cork, he discovered plant cells and coined the term 'cell'. Prior to the use of the micro- prefix, other ... In medicine, diagnoses can be made with the assistance of microscopic observation of patient biopsies, such as cancer cells. ... By increasing the amount of energy products made by mitochondria, the lifespan of its cell, and thus organism, increases. ...
Since it is not possible to reduce enzyme size, it has been argued that these types of cells will be lower in activity. One ... the enzymatic biofuel cell uses enzymes derived from living cells (although not within living cells; fuel cells that use whole ... A fully enzymatic hydrogen fuel cell was constructed by the Armstrong group who used the cell to power a watch. The fuel cell ... An enzymatic biofuel cell is a specific type of fuel cell that uses enzymes as a catalyst to oxidize its fuel, rather than ...
The 90 nm Cell/B.E. that shipped with the first PlayStation 3. It has its lid removed to show the size of the processor die ... Cell is shorthand for Cell Broadband Engine Architecture, commonly abbreviated CBEA in full or Cell BE in part. The first major ... Sony's high-performance media computing server ZEGO uses a 3.2 GHz Cell/B.E processor. The Cell Broadband Engine, or Cell as it ... The 65 nm Cell/B.E. that shipped with updated PlayStation 3s. It has its lid removed to show the size of the processor die ...
... utilizes data cells of a persistent size. Frames are comparable to data packets; however they contrast from cells in ... An example of cell relay is ATM, a prevalent form utilized to transfer a cell with a fixed size of 53 bytes. This article ... Per se, all delicate and significant transmissions may perhaps be transported faster via fixed-sized cells, which are simpler ... Cell relay systems may also carry bitstream-based data such as PDH traffic, by breaking it into streams of cells, with a ...
After the virus attaches to a host cell, it injects its viral core (the shell containing its DNA) into the cell's cytoplasm. ... It is a large, brick-shaped, enveloped virus that ranges in size from 265-295 nm. The viral genetic material is contained in a ... The newly formed virus particles can be released during cell lysis, or they can derive a host cell produced membrane and be ...
Several have practical applications as pigments, in solar cells, and as catalysts. The fungus Aspergillus niger plays a role in ... Chembox image size set, Commons category link is on Wikidata, Articles with BNF identifiers, Articles with J9U identifiers, ...
Contraction of heart muscle cells requires depolarization and repolarization of their cell membranes. Movement of ions across ... ISBN 978-0-86542-864-5. Full Size Picture triangle of-Koch.jpg. Retrieved on 2008-12-22 Harrison's Principles of Internal ... Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) cell signaling plays a key role in diverse aspects of cardiac differentiation and ... cell membranes causes these events. The cardiac conduction system (and AV node part of it) coordinates myocyte mechanical ...
Since then, Technopark has been growing steadily both in size and employee strength. Park Centre, Pamba, and Periyar were the ... Technopark also hosts a Technology Business Incubation Cell under Kerala Startup Mission. Technopark houses domestic firms, ...
For many viruses, viral RNA is infectious when introduced into a cell (during infection or after reverse transcription). These ... RNA viruses have historically been utilized due to the typically small genome size and existing reverse transcription machinery ... as long as the information of their genome sequence is known and permissive cells are available. As of March 2020, the full- ...
Exposure to loud noises damages the hair cells in the inner ear that are essential for sending neural impulses to the brain in ... Individuals will require earmuffs of differing sizes. This is especially important to remember when considering earmuffs for ... Loss of these hair cells leads to hearing loss that may cause speech and sounds to be muffled or distorted. Tinnitus is often ...
Photoelectric cells in a spectrophotometer device worn on the forehead measure the amount of each wavelength of light reflected ... more portable size of sensor and signal generation equipment The main practical limitations of HEG as compared to EEG are: Due ...
"CAR T Cells: Engineering Patients' Immune Cells to Treat Their Cancers". National Cancer Institute. 2013-12-06. Retrieved 9 ... The size restriction seems to have less to do with structural impediment caused by the added section and more to do with the ... To overcome the size problem of pVIII, artificial coat proteins have been designed. An example is Weiss and Sidhu's inverted ... The disadvantage of using T7 is that the size of the protein that can be expressed on the surface is limited to shorter ...
... the cell grows in size and synthesizes mRNA and protein that are required for DNA synthesis. Once the required proteins and ... but it changes the course of the cell. After a vertebrate cell has been in the G1 phase for about three hours, the cell enters ... After R and before S, the cell is known as being in G1-ps, or the pre S phase interval of the G1 phase. In order for the cell ... Within the cell cycle, there is a stringent set of regulations known as the cell cycle control system that controls the timing ...
Cell phones are also very common among all three groups today. Text messaging has made cell phones particularly useful for ... The two groups are made as equal as possible in size, taking into account the practical limits of family unit sizes in each ...
If the size of the particle is equal to several wavelengths in the material, then the scattered fields have some features. ... Mie theory has been used to determine whether scattered light from tissue corresponds to healthy or cancerous cell nuclei using ... The greater the particle size, the more of the light is scattered in the forward direction. The blue colour of the sky results ... But for objects whose size is within a few orders of magnitude of the wavelength, e.g., water droplets in the atmosphere, latex ...
It promotes growth of lateral buds and when sprayed on meristems stimulates cell division to produce bushier plants.[citation ... Chembox image size set, Articles with short description, Short description is different from Wikidata, All articles with ... p. 8. ISBN 0-8493-6252-0. "6-(γ,γ-Dimethylallylamino)purine BioReagent, suitable for plant cell culture, 1 mg/mL". ...
The average household size was 3.32 and the average family size was 3.50. In the town, the population was spread out, with 34.1 ... "Texas Sheriff: Reports Warn of ISIS Terrorist Cells Coming Across the Border". CBS-TV in Houston, Texas. September 15, 2014. ...
In embryonic cells, Nfix has been shown to regulate intermediate progenitor cell (IPC) generation by promoting the ... "Enhanced exercise and regenerative capacity in a mouse model that violates size constraints of oxidative muscle fibres , eLife ... Intermediate progenitor cells can divide to produce neuroblasts. Neurons produced by Nfix null IPC's do not mature, usually die ... Cell. Biol. 20 (22): 8499-8512. doi:10.1128/MCB.20.22.8499-8512.2000. PMC 102156. PMID 11046146. Imagawa M, Sakaue R, Tanabe A ...
Spanning 305 acres (123 hectares), more than twice the size of Magic Kingdom Park, Epcot is dedicated to the celebration of ... The attraction is an electronic scavenger hunt that has guests using special "Kimmunicators" (in actuality, customized cell ...
The sheer sizes of both the Canada-US and Mexico-US borders present the Federal Government's security forces with challenges ... His odyssey ended on March 3 when al-Banna's brother Ahmed received a call on his cell phone from a man identifying himself as ... That information is then run against a list of known terrorists, phone numbers connected to terrorist cells, and other ... has exponentially grown in size. The List existed before 9/11 but only contained the names of 16 people and now lists over one ...
The small size of the site meant that no more than three pairs of divers could work on the ship at any one time. The excavators ... to enhance dimensional stability by replacing the water in the cells. Completed in 1996, the wood was then left to season until ... The ship displays many similarities to other ancient ships such as the Kyrenia ship, but also important differences in size, ...
The southern cell struck Brisbane just after 1:00pm, with intense lightning activity and hailstones the size of marbles falling ... Two separate cells both produced a tornado that were recorded as two of the most powerful in Australian history. The third ... The main cell in the thunderstorm system appeared from Bureau of Meteorology radar analysis to split into two separate and ... The northern cell continued to intensify throughout the afternoon. The Bureau of Meteorology then recognised it as a supercell ...
Lyn and Fgr are highly expressed in malignant prostate cells compared to normal prostate cells. When the primary prostate cells ... The elevated c-Src levels have also been shown to have a correlation with advanced stages of the tumor, size of tumor, and ... HSP90 inhibitor NVP-BEP800 has been described to affect stability of Src tyrosine kinase and growth of T-cell and B-cell acute ... Src, Fyn and Yes are expressed ubiquitously in all cell types while the others are generally found in hematopoietic cells. c- ...
With size of 200~300 um, it is the world's first stem cell based microrobot. It was developed in 2017 and transferred and ... Stem Cell-based Biomedical Microrobot: Mesenchymal stem cell delivery scaffold with magnetic actuating system for articular ... With size of 10mm*25mm, it is the world's smallest endoscope. It was developed in 2003 and transferred and confirmed contract ... Capsule Type endoscopes : The next generation capsule-sized endoscope which is diagnostic imaging device and replacing ...
C. tuberculata have been studied due to their specified cytotoxicity in regards to certain breast cancer cells, which is made ... and then will grow by approximately 3-4 cm per week until reaching their final adult size. Gradually, the medusa develop with ... Since a main objective in cancer research is to create treatments that selectively kill malignant cells while leaving healthy ... from the zooxanthellate jellyfish Cotylorhiza tuberculata modulates gap junction intercellular communication in human cell ...
At the beginning January on receiving an estimate of the size of the two volume book from the printers he wrote to his ... rejected the idea that these particles were thrown off from all the cells of the body. He called the particles "pangens", later ... publisher: "I cannot tell you how sorry I am to hear of the enormous size of my Book." He subsequently arranged for some of the ...
Thompson's Siamese were very large in size, due in large part to an outdoor mode of life and a diet of lean meat, liver, fish ... "Epilepsy not due to injured brain cells is caused by the suppression of hate in childhood". While in D.C., Thompson undertook a ...
When he finally enters his cell and, along with the other candidates, stretches his neck to peer out, he is just like the larva ... and the national university itself was reduced in size. The exception to this was in the 1140s when the court played an active ... The facilities provided for the examinee consisted of an isolated room or cell with a makeshift bed, desk, and bench. Each ... examinee was assigned to a cell according to their number. Paper was provided by the examiners and stamped with an official ...
... and size. In the U.S. the size is designated by their nominal capacity, the volume of the gas they contain when expanded to ... and the large amounts of breathing gas necessary for these dive profiles and ready availability of oxygen sensing cells ... Common sizes include 80, 100, 120 cubic feet, etc., with the most common being the "Aluminum 80". In most of the rest of the ... Still, most semi-closed systems allow at least twice the duration of average sized open-circuit systems (around two hours) and ...
Note, array cell assignment has an expression on both sides of the assignment.) A swap (. "<=>" ) is trivially reversible. For ... All variables are initialized to the value 0. There are no theoretical bounds to the sizes of arrays, but the said interpreter ... demands a size of at least 1. A procedure declaration consists of the keyword procedure, followed by a unique procedure ...
Most cilia are primary cilia, which are involved in cell signalling, sending and receiving signals to trigger cell migration, ... Syndromes affecting head size, Syndromes affecting the heart). ... They also aid in cell migratory ability. They are made by the ... Mutations in this gene lead to impaired cell division during early development. Mitosis has been found to take longer when ... Microtubules are protein structures that are part of the cytoskeleton and are necessary for cells to have diverse, complex ...
... tablet computers and cell phones. Lattelecom Interactive TV, soon to be known as Helio iTV, is a high-definition television ... small and medium size businesses, state and municipal institutions, as well as for corporate clients. 51% of Tet shares are ... Latvia's largest cell phone operator. On May 18, 2006 Lattelecom implemented the so-called rebranding, replacing the existing ...
Chen stated in their article that the genome size is 4.3 MbP, and has similarity to Proteobacteria. Dunfield PF, ... Microbial Cell Factories. 19 (1): 144. doi:10.1186/s12934-020-01395-0. ISSN 1475-2859. PMC 7364539. PMID 32677952. Vos PW, ...
... in size, simple, with 5-20 flowers, ebracteate or nearly all the nodes bracteate; peduncle between 3.5 and 10 centimetres (1.4 ... pubescent with hair-like outgrowths of the tegument cell radial walls, which give the surface a silky appearance. Chromosome ...
... small/medium sized pleomorphic T-cell lymphoproliferative disorder Jiahui Hu 1 , Xinyue Zhang 1 , Lihong Zhao 1 , Qiang Zhao 1 ... Background: Primary cutaneous CD4+ small/medium-sized pleomorphic T-Cell lymphoproliferative disorder (PC-SMTLD) has been ... Decrease of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine in primary cutaneous CD4+ small/medium sized pleomorphic T-cell lymphoproliferative ... Study limitations: The small clinical sample size of the study. Conclusions: The immunorreactivity of 5-hmC in CD4+ lymphocytes ...
The global dendritic cell cancer vaccine market was valued at USD 593.30 million in 2022 and is projected to grow at a compound ... Dendritic Cell Cancer Vaccine Market Size & Share Report 2030 GVR Report cover Dendritic Cell Cancer Vaccine Market Size, Share ... How big is the dendritic cell cancer vaccine market? b. The global dendritic cell cancer vaccine market size was estimated at ... The global dendritic cell cancer vaccine market size was valued at USD 593.30 million in 2022 and is projected to expand at a ...
... mass cytometry has lacked a reliable alternative to the light scatter properties that are commonly used as a cell size metric ... Establishing Wheat Germ Agglutinin Staining Intensity as a Metric for Cell Size. A-C: Imaging of A488-WGA-stained HEK293 cells ... Cell size assays for mass cytometry Alan D Stern 1 , Adeeb H Rahman 2 3 , Marc R Birtwistle 1 ... Cell size assays for mass cytometry Alan D Stern et al. Cytometry A. 2017 Jan. ...
... J.-M. Monier and S. E. Lindow...© 2003 The ... Some decrease in cell size occurred during growth of cells on leaves and continued for up to 13 days after cell multiplication ... Although cultured cells exhibited a normal size distribution, the size of cells recovered from bean plants at various times ... The reduced cell size of P. syringae B728a on plants was readily reversible when recovered cells were grown in culture. Direct ...
High quality SANYO A size 1.2V 2700 mAh Rechargeable NiMH Cell # Standard Discharged Rate (Recommended): 2.7 Amp # Maximum ... Home , Nimh Batteries & Packs , 1.2V NiMH Single Cells , A Size Nimh Rechargeable Batteries , NiMH Rechargeable Cell: 1.2V A ... NiMH Rechargeable Cell: 1.2V 4/5A size 2200 mAh NiMH Battery (1PC) - (MH-4/5A2200). Your Price: $2.90 ... NiMH Rechargeable Cell: 1.2V A size 2700 mAh (MH-A2700, 1 pc) - RoHS Compliant. Your Price: $3.60 ...
The Global Graphene Solar Cell Market is the high efficiency provided by the graphene solar modules as compared to other ... Graphene Solar Cell Market Size, Share & Industry Analysis, By Type(Monocrystalline, Polycrystalline, Thin Film), By ...
0.05mm cell wall from Goodfellow. 40 types of honeycomb panel available in stock, order today. ... Polyaramid Honeycomb Panel 20mm thick 5mm cell size 0.05mm cell wall. ... Do you require any bespoke processing, larger quantities or a non-listed size? Talk to us now to discuss your requirements. ... Do you require any bespoke processing, larger quantities or a non-listed size? Talk to us now to discuss your requirements. ...
Twenty-five years ago, Gary Van Zant and colleagues showed that the size of the blood stem cell population can vary in ... This finding provides insights into how the population of stem cells is regulated, which could have implications for stem cell- ... Mutations in PHF6 Found in T-Cell Leukemia Genetic Risk Variant for Urinary Bladder Cancer Antibody Has Therapeutic Effect on ... Regulating P53 Activity in Cancer Cells Anti-RNA Therapy Counters Breast Cancer Spread Mitochondrial DNA Diversity. The Power ...
... due to government activities and awards for fuel cell device research till 2030 , Global industry analysis based on market size ... Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Market to grow at a CAGR of 13.26% ... Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Market Size was valued at USD 2.1 ... How much is the Direct Methanol Fuel Cell market? The Direct Methanol Fuel Cell market size was valued at USD 2.1 Billion in ... Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Market Segment Insights:. Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Component Insights. The Direct Methanol Fuel Cell ...
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Research by John Innes Centre scientists reveals how cells use geometrical information to control key developmental processes ... "How cell size is determined and maintained in organisms is a question that has so far remained unanswered. Discovering how ... Reprogramming Cdr2-Dependant Geometry-Based Cell Size Control in Fission Yeast appears in the journal Current Biology ... New angle on how cells use geometry to control their size 10th January 2019 ...
Varying container size alters the volume which plant roots can explore, which in turn affect plant growth. This work assesed ... Annual floral plant crops are produced in cells or pots of various sizes. ... cell size, growth regulators, plant quality, BA. Cite This Article. , L., Ilella, F. V. (2009). Effect of cell size and ... were smaller than those coming from trays of 90 cells. Cell size employed in early growth stages conditioned size and final ...
... *  Report ... 1) What is the market size of the stem cell banking market in Argentina?. 2) What are the factors that affect the growth in the ... Global Stem Cell Banking Market Size, Segments, Outlook, and Revenue Forecast 2022-2028 by Source, Service Type, Application, ... Cell Banking Outsourcing Market by Type, Cell Type, Phase, and by Region - Global Forecast to 2022-2033. *  Report ...
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The global circulating tumor cells market size is expected to reach USD 26.45 Billion by 2028 according to a new study by ... Circulating Tumor Cells Market Size Worth $30.78 Billion By 2029 , CAGR: 14.9% The global circulating tumor cells market size ... Circulating Tumor Cells Market Size Worth $30.78 Billion By 2029 , CAGR: 14.9% ... The report "Circulating Tumor Cells Market Share, Size, Trends, Industry Analysis Report, By Technology (CTC Detection & ...
Since genome size and cell size also are tightly coupled, both cell and genome size should also show a strong negative c ... genome size and cell size and the evolutionary drivers for reduced genome size. There are likely several routes to genome size ... we are mainly inte rested in the observation that meiosis and cell division often is negatively correlated with genome size ... A crucial question is thus the evolutionary drivers for reduced genome size in organisms, and how this actually i s solved by ...
Weekly science reads: CRISPR, stem cells, cell size & space, more. By Professor Paul Knoepfler, Ph.D. / Leave a Comment / ... Several papers ended up relating to nucleus, cell and embryo size and space as well as chromatin, which is very interesting. ... Embryo Size Regulates the Timing and Mechanism of Pluripotent Tissue Morphogenesis, Stem Cell Reports. ... I did a post where I took a look at stem cells for knee arthritis and other arthritis and the data so far are not compelling. ...
The cell nucleus is blue, endosomes (which sequester materials taken up by cells) are labeled in pink, and the immunoglobulin ... Little Size Holds Big Impact: Johns Hopkins Scientists Develop Nanocontainer To Ship Titan-Size Gene Therapies And Drugs Into ... nanosize container that can slip inside cells and deliver protein-based medicines and gene therapies of any size - even hefty ... The researchers saw that the gene editing to disable a gene worked in up to 77% of cells grown in the laboratory and to add or ...
... activity through inhibitory phosphorylation seems to play an important role in the eukaryotic cell cycle. We hav ... cell size and virulence of the smut fungus Ustilago maydis. J Cell Sci (2005) 118 (16): 3607-3622. ... Programmed cell cycle arrest is required for infection of corn plants by the fungus Ustilago maydis ... Activation of the Cell Wall Integrity Pathway Promotes Escape from G2 in the Fungus Ustilago maydis ...
Lan R, Tao S. Preparation of nano-sized nickel as anode catalyst for direct urea and urine fuel cells. Journal of Power Sources ... Preparation of nano-sized nickel as anode catalyst for direct urea and urine fuel cells. / Lan, Rong; Tao, Shanwen . ... Lan, R., & Tao, S. (2011). Preparation of nano-sized nickel as anode catalyst for direct urea and urine fuel cells. Journal of ... Lan, R & Tao, S 2011, Preparation of nano-sized nickel as anode catalyst for direct urea and urine fuel cells, Journal of ...
Repair of critical-size defects with autogenous periosteum-derived cells combined with bovine anorganic apatite/collagen: an ... Repair of critical-size defects with autogenous periosteum-derived cells combined with bovine anorganic apatite/collagen: an ... Critical-size defects in rat calvarias were treated with blood clot (G1), autogenous bone (G2), HA-COL (G3) and HA-COL combined ... The aim of this study was to evaluate the bone repair using autogenous periosteum-derived cells (PDC) and bovine anorganic ...
Western blot demonstrated a lower CXCR4 and stromal-cell derived factor-1 (SDF-1) in control group than in treatment group (all ... The therapeutic effect of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADMSCs) on brain infarction area (BIA) and neurological ... several candidates of stem cells, including embryonic stem cell, neuron stem cells, bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell, ... The cells were resuspended in saline. An aliquot of cell suspension was then removed for cell culture in DMEM-low glucose ...
Automated cell culture system market is estimated to garner robust revenue of ~USD 12432.5 million by the end of 2033 by ... Finite Cell and Infinite Cell); by Application (Drug Development, Stem Cell & Cancer Research, and Others); by Mode of Delivery ... 8) Which segment captures the largest market size in end-user in the automated cell culture system market? Ans: The topical ... The cell culture system puts regenerative medicines in use for patients practically. Cells are used by regenerative medicines ...
Ruan, H. A., & Gilkes, R. (1995). Dehydroxylation of aluminous goethite: Unit cell dimensions, crystal size and surface area. ... Dehydroxylation of aluminous goethite: Unit cell dimensions, crystal size and surface area. / Ruan, H.A.; Gilkes, Robert. In: ... Ruan, HA & Gilkes, R 1995, Dehydroxylation of aluminous goethite: Unit cell dimensions, crystal size and surface area, Clays ... Dehydroxylation of aluminous goethite: Unit cell dimensions, crystal size and surface area. In: Clays and Clay Minerals. 1995 ...
Specifically, cell size tends to increase with the input nutrient concentration, as does the diversity of cell sizes. In ... Specifically, cell size tends to increase with the input nutrient concentration, as does the diversity of cell sizes. In ... Specifically, cell size tends to increase with the input nutrient concentration, as does the diversity of cell sizes. In ... Specifically, cell size tends to increase with the input nutrient concentration, as does the diversity of cell sizes. In ...
  • We here aim both at exploring the causal links between growth rate, genome size and cell size and the evolutionary drivers for reduced genome size. (
  • There are likely several routes to genome size variability within and across taxa. (
  • Here, we are mainly inte rested in the observation that meiosis and cell division often is negatively correlated with genome size across plant and animal taxa. (
  • Since genome size and cell size also are tightly coupled, both cell and genome size should also show a strong negative c orrelation with developmental time. (
  • A crucial question is thus the evolutionary drivers for reduced genome size in organisms, and how this actually i s solved by the organisms. (
  • The scientific goal of the Heald Lab is to leverage amphibian systems to elucidate molecular mechanisms of cell division and size control, as well as the contribution of genome size and content to organism physiology. (
  • We are investigating how mitotic chromosome size scales with cell size, and leveraging ploidy manipulation and a variety of amphibian species to explore relationships among genome size, cell size, embryonic development, and metabolism. (
  • Above image: Confocal microscopy image of human embryonic kidney cells. (
  • Compared with embryonic stems cells and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells, ADMSCs have the distinct advantages of being abundant, easy to obtain with minimal invasiveness, and readily cultured to a sufficient number for autologous transplantation without ethical issue. (
  • The histone methyltransferase SETD2 negatively regulates cell size. (
  • The global dendritic cell cancer vaccine market size was valued at USD 593.30 million in 2022 and is projected to expand at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 12.18% from 2023 to 2030. (
  • The growing demand for effective and personalized therapeutics is positively impacting the growth of the dendritic cell cancer vaccine market. (
  • Immunotherapy has great potential for treating minimal residual disease (MRD) by the use of dendritic cells and many studies have yielded promising results with no signs of recurrence of tumor growth. (
  • Some decrease in cell size occurred during growth of cells on leaves and continued for up to 13 days after cell multiplication ceased. (
  • The Direct Methanol Fuel Cell market industry is projected to grow from USD 2.54 Billion in 2022 to USD 6.88 Billion by 2030, exhibiting a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 13.26% during the forecast period (2022 - 2030). (
  • Research by John Innes Centre scientists reveals how cells use geometrical information to control key developmental processes such as the coordination between cell growth and cell division. (
  • Varying container size alters the volume which plant roots can explore, which in turn affect plant growth. (
  • This work assesed the effect of the initial container size on growth of Petunia x híbrida cv Dream Mix, supplemented with cytokinins after potting. (
  • Final weight and growth rate of potted plants, coming from trays of 288 cells, were smaller than those coming from trays of 90 cells. (
  • Cell size employed in early growth stages conditioned size and final quality of petunia plants. (
  • 2) What are the factors that affect the growth in the stem cell banking market over the forecast period? (
  • Cell growth, structure, and function more closely mimic what occurs in vivo. (
  • Increasing prevalence of cancer disease, increasing R&D activities of therapies, and increased demand for personalized medicine are driving the circulating tumor cells market growth. (
  • Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology (2016) 57: 93. (
  • Rebecca Health is a professor of Cell and Developmental Biology. (
  • This research has provided novel insight into cell division and morphogenesis, processes essential for viability and development, and defective in human diseases such as cancer. (
  • Nano-sized nickel with primary particle size of 2-3 nm has been successfully prepared for use as efficient anode catalysts in urea and urine fuel cells. (
  • It is believed that the toxicity and carcinogenesis of TiO2 is associated with particle size. (
  • Primary cutaneous CD4 + small/medium-sized pleomorphic T-Cell lymphoproliferative disorder (PC-SMTLD) has been considered as a controversial dermatological disease that has been included in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma group, presenting most commonly as a solitary nodule and/or plaque with a specific and characteristic head and neck predilection. (
  • Many medium-sized companies are planning to automate and expand their range of products and services. (
  • This finding provides insights into how the population of stem cells is regulated, which could have implications for stem cell-based clinical therapies. (
  • Scientists at Johns Hopkins Medicine report they have created a tiny, nanosize container that can slip inside cells and deliver protein-based medicines and gene therapies of any size - even hefty ones attached to the gene-editing tool called CRISPR. (
  • Some medicines, such as antibodies, latch on to targets on the cell's surface receptors, but we don't have good systems for delivering biological medicines straight to the inside of a cell, which is where therapies would have the best chance at working properly and with fewer side effects. (
  • Some commercially available techniques use stripped down forms of viruses - known for their ability to "infect" cells directly - to deliver therapies, although the noninfectious versions of these delivery systems can unleash an unwanted immune system response. (
  • Other therapies aimed at diseased blood cells, for example, are more cumbersome, requiring patients' blood to be removed, then zapped with an electric current that opens pores in the cell membrane to gain entry. (
  • If you are considering requesting a Pre-Pre-IND meeting, you should contact Mercedes Serabian ( [email protected] ), Chief of the Pharmacology/Toxicology Branch of FDA CBER Office of Cell, Tissue, and Gene Therapies, to ask for the Pre-Pre-IND Process checklist, which has a wealth of information that will help you prepare for a productive discussion with FDA. (
  • The ability of Sipuleucel-T to effectively enhance an individual's immunity against tumor cells is increasing its market demand. (
  • It is an autologous dendritic cell-based cancer vaccine is created from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of the patient and sensitized with tumor lysate and KLH before developing into dendritic cells (Keyhole Limpet Hemocyanin). (
  • The global circulating tumor cells market size is expected to reach USD 30.78 Billion by 2029 according to a new study by Polaris Market Research. (
  • The formation of atherosclerotic lesions involves increased permeability of endothelium to plasma macromolecules (eg, low-density lipoprotein [LDL]), increased turnover of endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells, and increased numbers of intimal macrophages. (
  • For instance, in May 2022, researchers of the AML-VACCiN consortium, clinically developed a dendritic cell vaccine- DCP-001, so as to vaccinate patients with acute myeloid leukemia to eradicate MRD and to effectively reduce the risk of a relapse. (
  • For instance, in March 2022, Maryland-based Northwest Biotherapeutics declares the initiation of the production of the first personalized dendritic cell-based cancer vaccine at its new production facility in Sawston, UK using advanced therapy medicinal products for the treatment of a glioblastoma case on compassion. (
  • J Cell Sci;135(19)2022 10 01. (
  • Swabs from the back and sides of the cell phones were cultured. (
  • The spatial heterogeneity of cell sizes observed on leaves suggest that nutrient availability is quite variable on the leaf surface environment. (
  • Another major component, such as membrane, also determines the cost of the fuel cell stack. (
  • Rising research efforts on membrane components for the fuel cell to improve the membranes, particularly with lower thickness and lower PFSA ratio than the present ones, are anticipated to hold a significant size, share during the forecast period. (
  • The nanosize container's positive charges interact with the membrane of a cell, and the container is engulfed in a cellular package called an endosome. (
  • Cells of P. syringae harboring a green fluorescent protein marker gene were visualized by epifluorescence microscopy after recovery from leaves or culture and their size was estimated by analysis of captured digital images. (
  • A gene called latexin has a significant effect on the blood stem cell population in young mice, according to a study to be published in the February 2007 issue of Nature Genetics . (
  • Using the model, the work then showed how, by mutating the key gene cdr2 , cells can be reprogrammed to trigger division according to cell length. (
  • The length and volume of cells of the plant-pathogenic bacterium Pseudomonas syringae strain B728a were measured in vitro and with time after inoculation on bean leaf surfaces to assess both the effect of nutrient availability on the cell size of P. syringae and, by inference, the variability in nutrient availability in the leaf surface habitat. (
  • The average length of cells originally grown on King's medium B decreased from ≈ 2.5 to ≈ 1.2 μm by 7 days after inoculation on plants. (
  • Although cultured cells exhibited a normal size distribution, the size of cells recovered from bean plants at various times after inoculation was strongly right-hand skewed and was described by a log-normal distribution. (
  • The skewness of the size distribution tended to increase with time after inoculation. (
  • Among all the currently available immunotherapy strategies, dendritic cell vaccines are the most potent antigen-presenting cells for the effective proliferation of T-cells. (
  • Since activator protein-1 (AP-1) is known to play an important role in the induction of neoplastic transformation and regulation of multiple genes involved in cell proliferation and inflammation, we investigate the potency of TiO2 nanoparticle s on reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and AP-1 signaling in a mouse epithermal cell line, JB6 cells. (
  • Dr Giuseppe Facchetti in the group of Professor Martin Howard, working alongside collaborators in the United States and Spain, developed a predictive mathematical model to demonstrate how cell size-measuring mechanisms work in the model organism fission yeast. (
  • Cell size varies between cell types but is tightly regulated by cell intrinsic and extrinsic mechanisms. (
  • To study mechanisms of spindle and organelle size control, a smaller, related frog, Xenopus tropicalis, has been used to investigate interspecies scaling, and extracts prepared from fertilized eggs at different stages of embryogenesis to study developmental scaling. (
  • The scientific goal of my laboratory is to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of cell division and size control. (
  • We are studying how these mechanisms generate the diversity of spindle morphologies observed across cell types, and how their alteration contributes to chromosome segregation defects observed in cancer cells and in inviable hybrid frog embryos. (
  • The second area is to examine size control mechanisms at the subcellular, cellular and organism levels. (
  • The therapeutic effect of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADMSCs) on brain infarction area (BIA) and neurological status in a rat model of acute ischemic stroke (IS) was investigated. (
  • Additionally, the superior energy density of these fuel cells compared to rechargeable batteries translates to more conversation time & support consumer demand which also adds an advantage. (
  • The cell nucleus is blue, endosomes (which sequester materials taken up by cells) are labeled in pink, and the immunoglobulin proteins are labeled with a green fluorescent tag. (
  • That's not the case with many biological medicines, which consist of highly charged, large proteins and nucleic acids that tend to repel off cells. (
  • They transplanted these cells into recipient mice and found that overexpression of latexin had the effect of reducing the number of blood stem cells, suggesting that it acts as an inhibitor of stem cell expansion. (
  • We provide evidence that overexpression of the H3K36 demethylase KDM4A or the oncohistone H3.3K36M also increase cell size . (
  • In addition, ectopic overexpression of a decoy SRI domain increased cell size , suggesting that the relevant substrate is engaged by SETD2 via its SRI domain. (
  • Several papers ended up relating to nucleus, cell and embryo size and space as well as chromatin , which is very interesting. (
  • Discovering how molecules relay geometrical size information is a key step on the road to answering this fundamental question," says Dr Facchetti. (
  • Twenty-five years ago, Gary Van Zant and colleagues showed that the size of the blood stem cell population can vary in different strains of mice, with a strain called D2 typically having at least three times as many blood stem cells as a strain called B6. (
  • What are stem cells? (
  • I did a post where I took a look at stem cells for knee arthritis and other arthritis and the data so far are not compelling. (
  • So do stem cells or PRP work for arthritis? (
  • Applicants are encouraged to submit multi-project research programs that propose to study immune responses to allergens at the level of epitope-specific T cell subsets, including comparative or interventional studies in humans. (
  • Applicants are also encouraged to capitalize on the availability of allergen T cell epitopes, including those available through the NIAID-funded Immune Epitope Database and Analysis Resource (IEDB) . (
  • Cancer cells that have split away from the main lump and appear in the circulatory system as single units or clusters are known as CTCs. (
  • Cell size control is important for cell function, and changes in cell size are frequently observed in cancer . (
  • Basal cell cancer is the most common form of cancer in the United States. (
  • Most skin cancers are basal cell cancer. (
  • With basal cancer, cells in this layer are the ones that become cancerous. (
  • Basal cell cancer is almost always slow-growing. (
  • Basal cell cancer usually grows slowly and is often painless. (
  • A skin biopsy must be done to confirm basal cell cancer or other skin cancers. (
  • Treatment depends on the size, depth, and location of the skin cancer and your overall health. (
  • Basal cell skin cancer almost never spreads beyond the original location. (
  • This collection of monographs on selected viruses provide cancer hazard evaluations for the following human viruses: Epstein-Barr virus, Kaposi sarcoma herpesvirus, human immunodeficiency virus-1, human T-cell lymphotropic virus-1, and Merkel cell polyomavirus for potential listing in the Report on Carcinogens (RoC). (
  • Indistinguishable isolates were recovered from cell- phones and hand cultures (lanes 11 and 12), and 2 hand cultures (lanes 18 and 19). (
  • strain recovered from cell phones (lane 1), personnel hand cultures quinolones, tetracyclines, polymyxin (lane 2), and patients with skin colonization (lanes 3-11). (
  • Critical-size defects in rat calvarias were treated with blood clot (G1), autogenous bone (G2), HA-COL (G3) and HA-COL combined with PDC (G4) (n=40), and then analyzed 1 and 3 months after surgeries. (
  • For an even greater challenge, Rui created a nanopackage containing a CRISPR-based protein and nucleic acid complex that could turn off a green fluorescence signal or cause the cells to glow red when the CRISPR compound cut part of a cell's genome. (
  • Representative fields of view are shown for 20X fluorescence images (intensity adjusted image displayed for illustration purposes only) (A) or processed images (B). Individual cells were identified from the processed images and the integrated fluorescence intensity and area were calculated. (
  • D, E: WGA-stained HEK293 (D) and U87 cells (E) were subjected to flow cytometry (see Methods), and the correlation between FSC and WGA staining intensity is shown. (
  • Our collaborative research aims to provide new insight into principles of mitosis and size scaling, as well as the molecular basis of variation that contributes to genomic instability and evolution. (
  • The four centers conduct laboratory experiments on rodent and cell culture models to characterize molecular and morphologic changes in the mammary gland over the life span and to determine how environmental exposures affect mammary gland development and susceptibility to carcinogenesis. (
  • The authors experimentally tested the role of latexin by infecting cultured bone marrow cells with a virus promoting the expression of high levels of latexin. (
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate the bone repair using autogenous periosteum-derived cells (PDC) and bovine anorganic apatite and collagen (HA-COL). PDC from Wistar rats (n=10) were seeded on HA-COL discs and subjected to osteoinduction during 6 days. (
  • At 3 months, histopathological analysis showed the presence of ossification islets in G1, which was more evident in G2, homogeneous new bone around HA-COL in G3 and heterogeneous new bone around HA-COL in G4 in addition to moderate presence of foreign body cells in G3 and G4. (
  • Expanding mindfulness about clean energy and interest for zero outflow fuel sources drives the interest in the Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Market share. (
  • The bipolar players account for the dominating direct methanol fuel cell market share. (
  • The catalyst is one of the important elements in a fuel cell as it influences the total system cost on large-scale production. (
  • Based on Application, the Direct Methanol Fuel Cell market segmentation includes Portable, Stationary and Transportation. (
  • The country research report on Argentina stem cell banking market is a customer intelligence and competitive study of the Argentina market. (
  • The companies and dealers/distributors profiled in the report include manufacturers & suppliers of the stem cell banking market in Argentina. (
  • The report on Argentina stem cell banking market provides a detailed analysis of segments in the market based on cell type, service type, and application. (
  • The average cell length of bacteria grown on leaves was significantly smaller than that of cultured cells, and approached that of cells starved in phosphate buffer for 24 h. (
  • The assay consisted of 4 treatments: two container sizes by two BA conditions (with and without). (
  • For these short fibers, which can be fully engulfed by lung cells and do not dissolve in airway fluids in less than a few weeks, their clearance will be similar to other mineral and vitreous particles. (
  • Creavax is a therapeutic vaccine for renal cell carcinoma produced by Creagene in 2007. (
  • The reduced cell size of P. syringae B728a on plants was readily reversible when recovered cells were grown in culture. (
  • To test their invention, Rui made a nanocontainer of a small protein and fed it to mouse kidney cells in culture dishes. (
  • The study experimentally analysed cells of different widths to show that cells divide according to a fixed surface area. (
  • Also, factors that are driving and restraining the stem cell banking market are highlighted in the study. (
  • The purpose of this Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) is to support studies to understand the role of allergen epitope-specific T-cell responses in the pathogenesis and treatment of allergic diseases by utilizing allergen epitope-specific reagents. (
  • This FOA is seeking applications from single institutions, or consortia of institutions, proposing research to understand the role of allergen epitope-specific T-cell responses in the pathogenesis and treatment of allergic diseases including allergic rhinitis, asthma and food allergy, by utilizing allergen epitope-specific reagents. (
  • The nanoparticle's cargo has spread widely through most of the cells (green) without it being trapped in endosomes. (
  • Other particles may be engulfed by epithelial cells, primarily in the vicinity of the bronchial-alveolar duct junctions, and retained for much longer periods, with gradual removal to lymph nodes. (
  • Identification, characterization and validation of new T-cell epitopes for allergens that have not been previously extensively examined (e.g. fungal allergens or food antigens such as milk), will also be supported under this FOA. (