The quality of surface form or outline of CELLS.
The quantity of volume or surface area of CELLS.
The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.
Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.
The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.
Orientation of intracellular structures especially with respect to the apical and basolateral domains of the plasma membrane. Polarized cells must direct proteins from the Golgi apparatus to the appropriate domain since tight junctions prevent proteins from diffusing between the two domains.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
The subfamily of myosin proteins that are commonly found in muscle fibers. Myosin II is also involved a diverse array of cellular functions including cell division, transport within the GOLGI APPARATUS, and maintaining MICROVILLI structure.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Fibers composed of MICROFILAMENT PROTEINS, which are predominately ACTIN. They are the smallest of the cytoskeletal filaments.
Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.
Monomeric subunits of primarily globular ACTIN and found in the cytoplasmic matrix of almost all cells. They are often associated with microtubules and may play a role in cytoskeletal function and/or mediate movement of the cell or the organelles within the cell.
Major constituent of the cytoskeleton found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They form a flexible framework for the cell, provide attachment points for organelles and formed bodies, and make communication between parts of the cell possible.
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
A protein complex of actin and MYOSINS occurring in muscle. It is the essential contractile substance of muscle.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
A large family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that are involved in regulation of actin organization, gene expression and cell cycle progression. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.
A biocompatible, hydrophilic, inert gel that is permeable to tissue fluids. It is used as an embedding medium for microscopy, as a coating for implants and prostheses, for contact lenses, as microspheres in adsorption research, etc.
A major alkaloid from Colchicum autumnale L. and found also in other Colchicum species. Its primary therapeutic use is in the treatment of gout, but it has been used also in the therapy of familial Mediterranean fever (PERIODIC DISEASE).
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Bundles of actin filaments (ACTIN CYTOSKELETON) and myosin-II that span across the cell attaching to the cell membrane at FOCAL ADHESIONS and to the network of INTERMEDIATE FILAMENTS that surrounds the nucleus.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Specialized structures of the cell that extend the cell membrane and project out from the cell surface.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Very toxic polypeptide isolated mainly from AMANITA phalloides (Agaricaceae) or death cup; causes fatal liver, kidney and CNS damage in mushroom poisoning; used in the study of liver damage.
A fungal metabolite that blocks cytoplasmic cleavage by blocking formation of contractile microfilament structures resulting in multinucleated cell formation, reversible inhibition of cell movement, and the induction of cellular extrusion. Additional reported effects include the inhibition of actin polymerization, DNA synthesis, sperm motility, glucose transport, thyroid secretion, and growth hormone release.
The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.
A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A group of intracellular-signaling serine threonine kinases that bind to RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. They were originally found to mediate the effects of rhoA GTP-BINDING PROTEIN on the formation of STRESS FIBERS and FOCAL ADHESIONS. Rho-associated kinases have specificity for a variety of substrates including MYOSIN-LIGHT-CHAIN PHOSPHATASE and LIM KINASES.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
A dynamic actin-rich extension of the surface of an animal cell used for locomotion or prehension of food.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A meshwork-like substance found within the extracellular space and in association with the basement membrane of the cell surface. It promotes cellular proliferation and provides a supporting structure to which cells or cell lysates in culture dishes adhere.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
The process by which cells convert mechanical stimuli into a chemical response. It can occur in both cells specialized for sensing mechanical cues such as MECHANORECEPTORS, and in parenchymal cells whose primary function is not mechanosensory.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
Single layer of large flattened cells covering the surface of the cornea.
An anchoring junction of the cell to a non-cellular substrate. It is composed of a specialized area of the plasma membrane where bundles of the ACTIN CYTOSKELETON terminate and attach to the transmembrane linkers, INTEGRINS, which in turn attach through their extracellular domains to EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Microscopy in which television cameras are used to brighten magnified images that are otherwise too dark to be seen with the naked eye. It is used frequently in TELEPATHOLOGY.
The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.
A RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEIN involved in regulating signal transduction pathways that control assembly of focal adhesions and actin stress fibers. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
Direct contact of a cell with a neighboring cell. Most such junctions are too small to be resolved by light microscopy, but they can be visualized by conventional or freeze-fracture electron microscopy, both of which show that the interacting CELL MEMBRANE and often the underlying CYTOPLASM and the intervening EXTRACELLULAR SPACE are highly specialized in these regions. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p792)
A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.
The sensory discrimination of a pattern shape or outline.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
The processes occurring in early development that direct morphogenesis. They specify the body plan ensuring that cells will proceed to differentiate, grow, and diversify in size and shape at the correct relative positions. Included are axial patterning, segmentation, compartment specification, limb position, organ boundary patterning, blood vessel patterning, etc.
A sub-family of RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that is involved in regulating the organization of cytoskeletal filaments. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
A diverse superfamily of proteins that function as translocating proteins. They share the common characteristics of being able to bind ACTINS and hydrolyze MgATP. Myosins generally consist of heavy chains which are involved in locomotion, and light chains which are involved in regulation. Within the structure of myosin heavy chain are three domains: the head, the neck and the tail. The head region of the heavy chain contains the actin binding domain and MgATPase domain which provides energy for locomotion. The neck region is involved in binding the light-chains. The tail region provides the anchoring point that maintains the position of the heavy chain. The superfamily of myosins is organized into structural classes based upon the type and arrangement of the subunits they contain.
A thin layer of cells forming the outer integument of seed plants and ferns. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
Cytoplasmic filaments intermediate in diameter (about 10 nanometers) between the microfilaments and the microtubules. They may be composed of any of a number of different proteins and form a ring around the cell nucleus.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The developmental stage that follows BLASTULA or BLASTOCYST. It is characterized by the morphogenetic cell movements including invagination, ingression, and involution. Gastrulation begins with the formation of the PRIMITIVE STREAK, and ends with the formation of three GERM LAYERS, the body plan of the mature organism.
A cytotoxic member of the CYTOCHALASINS.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
The quality of surface form or outline of the CELL NUCLEUS.
A member of the Rho family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. It is associated with a diverse array of cellular functions including cytoskeletal changes, filopodia formation and transport through the GOLGI APPARATUS. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
Erythrocytes with protoplasmic projections giving the cell a thorny appearance.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
Recording serial images of a process at regular intervals spaced out over a longer period of time than the time in which the recordings will be played back.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.
One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.
A class of organic compounds containing four or more ring structures, one of which is made up of more than one kind of atom, usually carbon plus another atom. The heterocycle may be either aromatic or nonaromatic.
Proteins which participate in contractile processes. They include MUSCLE PROTEINS as well as those found in other cells and tissues. In the latter, these proteins participate in localized contractile events in the cytoplasm, in motile activity, and in cell aggregation phenomena.
Anchoring points where the CYTOSKELETON of neighboring cells are connected to each other. They are composed of specialized areas of the plasma membrane where bundles of the ACTIN CYTOSKELETON attach to the membrane through the transmembrane linkers, CADHERINS, which in turn attach through their extracellular domains to cadherins in the neighboring cell membranes. In sheets of cells, they form into adhesion belts (zonula adherens) that go all the way around a cell.
A microtubule subunit protein found in large quantities in mammalian brain. It has also been isolated from SPERM FLAGELLUM; CILIA; and other sources. Structurally, the protein is a dimer with a molecular weight of approximately 120,000 and a sedimentation coefficient of 5.8S. It binds to COLCHICINE; VINCRISTINE; and VINBLASTINE.
A family of crosslinking filament proteins encoded by distinct FLN genes. Filamins are involved in cell adhesion, spreading, and migration, acting as scaffolds for over 90 binding partners including channels, receptors, intracellular signaling molecules and transcription factors. Due to the range of molecular interactions, mutations in FLN genes result in anomalies with moderate to lethal consequences.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A genus of ascomycetous fungi of the family Schizosaccharomycetaceae, order Schizosaccharomycetales.
The functions, behavior, and activities of bacteria.
The science and application of a double-beam transmission interference microscope in which the illuminating light beam is split into two paths. One beam passes through the specimen while the other beam reflects off a reference mirror before joining and interfering with the other. The observed optical path difference between the two beams can be measured and used to discriminate minute differences in thickness and refraction of non-stained transparent specimens, such as living cells in culture.
An amidinopenicillanic acid derivative with broad spectrum antibacterial action.
The use of instrumentation and techniques for visualizing material and details that cannot be seen by the unaided eye. It is usually done by enlarging images, transmitted by light or electron beams, with optical or magnetic lenses that magnify the entire image field. With scanning microscopy, images are generated by collecting output from the specimen in a point-by-point fashion, on a magnified scale, as it is scanned by a narrow beam of light or electrons, a laser, a conductive probe, or a topographical probe.
Growth processes that result in an increase in CELL SIZE.
The external, nonvascular layer of the skin. It is made up, from within outward, of five layers of EPITHELIUM: (1) basal layer (stratum basale epidermidis); (2) spinous layer (stratum spinosum epidermidis); (3) granular layer (stratum granulosum epidermidis); (4) clear layer (stratum lucidum epidermidis); and (5) horny layer (stratum corneum epidermidis).
Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.
ANIMALS whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING, or their offspring.
Bacterial proteins that share the property of binding irreversibly to PENICILLINS and other ANTIBACTERIAL AGENTS derived from LACTAMS. The penicillin-binding proteins are primarily enzymes involved in CELL WALL biosynthesis including MURAMOYLPENTAPEPTIDE CARBOXYPEPTIDASE; PEPTIDE SYNTHASES; TRANSPEPTIDASES; and HEXOSYLTRANSFERASES.
Nocodazole is an antineoplastic agent which exerts its effect by depolymerizing microtubules.
The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.
A process of complicated morphogenetic cell movements that reorganizes a bilayer embryo into one with three GERM LAYERS and specific orientation (dorsal/ventral; anterior/posterior). Gastrulation describes the germ layer development of a non-mammalian BLASTULA or that of a mammalian BLASTOCYST.
A species of fresh-water, flagellated EUKARYOTES in the phylum EUGLENIDA.
The middle germ layer of an embryo derived from three paired mesenchymal aggregates along the neural tube.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Glycoproteins found on the surfaces of cells, particularly in fibrillar structures. The proteins are lost or reduced when these cells undergo viral or chemical transformation. They are highly susceptible to proteolysis and are substrates for activated blood coagulation factor VIII. The forms present in plasma are called cold-insoluble globulins.
Calcium-dependent cell adhesion proteins. They are important in the formation of ADHERENS JUNCTIONS between cells. Cadherins are classified by their distinct immunological and tissue specificities, either by letters (E- for epithelial, N- for neural, and P- for placental cadherins) or by numbers (cadherin-12 or N-cadherin 2 for brain-cadherin). Cadherins promote cell adhesion via a homophilic mechanism as in the construction of tissues and of the whole animal body.
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
A form of interference microscopy in which variations of the refracting index in the object are converted into variations of intensity in the image. This is achieved by the action of a phase plate.
Protein factors that promote the exchange of GTP for GDP bound to GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.
Resistance and recovery from distortion of shape.
A cytoskeletal protein associated with cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. The amino acid sequence of human vinculin has been determined. The protein consists of 1066 amino acid residues and its gene has been assigned to chromosome 10.
Ability of ERYTHROCYTES to change shape as they pass through narrow spaces, such as the microvasculature.
A complex of seven proteins including ARP2 PROTEIN and ARP3 PROTEIN that plays an essential role in maintenance and assembly of the CYTOSKELETON. Arp2-3 complex binds WASP PROTEIN and existing ACTIN FILAMENTS, and it nucleates the formation of new branch point filaments.
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.
A family of proteins that contain several 42-amino acid repeat domains and are homologous to the Drosophila armadillo protein. They bind to other proteins through their armadillo domains and play a variety of roles in the CELL including SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION, regulation of DESMOSOME assembly, and CELL ADHESION.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that consist of slender vibroid cells.
The process by which the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided.
The semi-permeable outer structure of a red blood cell. It is known as a red cell 'ghost' after HEMOLYSIS.
A genus of protozoa, formerly also considered a fungus. Its natural habitat is decaying forest leaves, where it feeds on bacteria. D. discoideum is the best-known species and is widely used in biomedical research.
The resistance that a gaseous or liquid system offers to flow when it is subjected to shear stress. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The functional hereditary units of INSECTS.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Reduced (protonated) form of THIAZOLES. They can be oxidized to THIAZOLIDINEDIONES.
Non-collagenous, calcium-binding glycoprotein of developing bone. It links collagen to mineral in the bone matrix. In the synonym SPARC glycoprotein, the acronym stands for Secreted Protein, Acidic and Rich in Cysteine.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
Any of several ways in which living cells of an organism communicate with one another, whether by direct contact between cells or by means of chemical signals carried by neurotransmitter substances, hormones, and cyclic AMP.
Basic functional unit of plants.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
A rac GTP-binding protein involved in regulating actin filaments at the plasma membrane. It controls the development of filopodia and lamellipodia in cells and thereby influences cellular motility and adhesion. It is also involved in activation of NADPH OXIDASE. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
An intermediate filament protein found in most differentiating cells, in cells grown in tissue culture, and in certain fully differentiated cells. Its insolubility suggests that it serves a structural function in the cytoplasm. MW 52,000.
A component of the Arp2-3 complex that is related in sequence and structure to ACTIN and that binds ATP. It is expressed at higher levels than ARP2 PROTEIN and does not contain a PROFILIN binding domain.
The performance of dissections, injections, surgery, etc., by the use of micromanipulators (attachments to a microscope) that manipulate tiny instruments.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Chemical reaction in which monomeric components are combined to form POLYMERS (e.g., POLYMETHYLMETHACRYLATE).
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).
A PROFILIN binding domain protein that is part of the Arp2-3 complex. It is related in sequence and structure to ACTIN and binds ATP.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A species of gram-positive bacteria that is a common soil and water saprophyte.
An early embryonic developmental process of CHORDATES that is characterized by morphogenic movements of ECTODERM resulting in the formation of the NEURAL PLATE; the NEURAL CREST; and the NEURAL TUBE. Improper closure of the NEURAL GROOVE results in congenital NEURAL TUBE DEFECTS.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
A carbamate that is used as an herbicide and as a plant growth regulator.
A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
RED BLOOD CELL sensitivity to change in OSMOTIC PRESSURE. When exposed to a hypotonic concentration of sodium in a solution, red cells take in more water, swell until the capacity of the cell membrane is exceeded, and burst.
A phenothiazine with actions similar to CHLORPROMAZINE. It is used as an antipsychotic and an antiemetic.
An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.
A basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that was originally identified in DROSOPHILA as essential for proper gastrulation and MESODERM formation. It plays an important role in EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT and CELL DIFFERENTIATION of MUSCLE CELLS, and is found in a wide variety of organisms.
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A nonmuscle isoform of myosin type II found predominantly in platelets, lymphocytes, neutrophils and brush border enterocytes.
Proteins obtained from the species Schizosaccharomyces pombe. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
A species of nematode that is widely used in biological, biochemical, and genetic studies.
A class of saturated compounds consisting of two rings only, having two or more atoms in common, containing at least one hetero atom, and that take the name of an open chain hydrocarbon containing the same total number of atoms. (From Riguady et al., Nomenclature of Organic Chemistry, 1979, p31)
The fundamental, structural, and functional units or subunits of living organisms. They are composed of CYTOPLASM containing various ORGANELLES and a CELL MEMBRANE boundary.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
A family of transmembrane glycoproteins (MEMBRANE GLYCOPROTEINS) consisting of noncovalent heterodimers. They interact with a wide variety of ligands including EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS; COMPLEMENT, and other cells, while their intracellular domains interact with the CYTOSKELETON. The integrins consist of at least three identified families: the cytoadhesin receptors(RECEPTORS, CYTOADHESIN), the leukocyte adhesion receptors (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION), and the VERY LATE ANTIGEN RECEPTORS. Each family contains a common beta-subunit (INTEGRIN BETA CHAINS) combined with one or more distinct alpha-subunits (INTEGRIN ALPHA CHAINS). These receptors participate in cell-matrix and cell-cell adhesion in many physiologically important processes, including embryological development; HEMOSTASIS; THROMBOSIS; WOUND HEALING; immune and nonimmune defense mechanisms; and oncogenic transformation.
A continuous cell line of high contact-inhibition established from NIH Swiss mouse embryo cultures. The cells are useful for DNA transfection and transformation studies. (From ATCC [Internet]. Virginia: American Type Culture Collection; c2002 [cited 2002 Sept 26]. Available from
Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.
Oxygen-carrying RED BLOOD CELLS in mammalian blood that are abnormal in structure or function.
Three-dimensional representation to show anatomic structures. Models may be used in place of intact animals or organisms for teaching, practice, and study.
A protein factor that regulates the length of R-actin. It is chemically similar, but immunochemically distinguishable from actin.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
A layer of cells lining the fluid-filled cavity (blastocele) of a BLASTULA, usually developed from a fertilized insect, reptilian, or avian egg.
A porelike structure surrounding the entire circumference of the anterior chamber through which aqueous humor circulates to the canal of Schlemm.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
The movement of cells or organisms toward or away from a substance in response to its concentration gradient.
A microtubule structure that forms during CELL DIVISION. It consists of two SPINDLE POLES, and sets of MICROTUBULES that may include the astral microtubules, the polar microtubules, and the kinetochore microtubules.
Colloids with a solid continuous phase and liquid as the dispersed phase; gels may be unstable when, due to temperature or other cause, the solid phase liquefies; the resulting colloid is called a sol.
Proteins that activate the GTPase of specific GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.
Proteins from the nematode species CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS. The proteins from this species are the subject of scientific interest in the area of multicellular organism MORPHOGENESIS.
Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.
Surface ligands, usually glycoproteins, that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion. Their functions include the assembly and interconnection of various vertebrate systems, as well as maintenance of tissue integration, wound healing, morphogenic movements, cellular migrations, and metastasis.
Enzymes that hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.
Electron microscopy in which the ELECTRONS or their reaction products that pass down through the specimen are imaged below the plane of the specimen.
The deductive study of shape, quantity, and dependence. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Organic compounds containing the -CO-NH2 radical. Amides are derived from acids by replacement of -OH by -NH2 or from ammonia by the replacement of H by an acyl group. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.
An optical source that emits photons in a coherent beam. Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation (LASER) is brought about using devices that transform light of varying frequencies into a single intense, nearly nondivergent beam of monochromatic radiation. Lasers operate in the infrared, visible, ultraviolet, or X-ray regions of the spectrum.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
The organ of sight constituting a pair of globular organs made up of a three-layered roughly spherical structure specialized for receiving and responding to light.
Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.
A hexosyltransferase involved in the transfer of disaccharide molecules to the peptidoglycan structure of the CELL WALL SKELETON. It plays an important role in the genesis of the bacterial CELL WALL.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
The prototypical phenothiazine antipsychotic drug. Like the other drugs in this class chlorpromazine's antipsychotic actions are thought to be due to long-term adaptation by the brain to blocking DOPAMINE RECEPTORS. Chlorpromazine has several other actions and therapeutic uses, including as an antiemetic and in the treatment of intractable hiccup.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
An alkaloid isolated from Colchicum autumnale L. and used as an antineoplastic.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
A family of non-receptor, PROLINE-rich protein-tyrosine kinases.
Specific particles of membrane-bound organized living substances present in eukaryotic cells, such as the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Tendency of fluids (e.g., water) to move from the less concentrated to the more concentrated side of a semipermeable membrane.
The smaller subunits of MYOSINS that bind near the head groups of MYOSIN HEAVY CHAINS. The myosin light chains have a molecular weight of about 20 KDa and there are usually one essential and one regulatory pair of light chains associated with each heavy chain. Many myosin light chains that bind calcium are considered "calmodulin-like" proteins.

A functional genomic analysis of cell morphology using RNA interference. (1/2848)

BACKGROUND: The diversity of metazoan cell shapes is influenced by the dynamic cytoskeletal network. With the advent of RNA-interference (RNAi) technology, it is now possible to screen systematically for genes controlling specific cell-biological processes, including those required to generate distinct morphologies. RESULTS: We adapted existing RNAi technology in Drosophila cell culture for use in high-throughput screens to enable a comprehensive genetic dissection of cell morphogenesis. To identify genes responsible for the characteristic shape of two morphologically distinct cell lines, we performed RNAi screens in each line with a set of double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs) targeting 994 predicted cell shape regulators. Using automated fluorescence microscopy to visualize actin filaments, microtubules and DNA, we detected morphological phenotypes for 160 genes, one-third of which have not been previously characterized in vivo. Genes with similar phenotypes corresponded to known components of pathways controlling cytoskeletal organization and cell shape, leading us to propose similar functions for previously uncharacterized genes. Furthermore, we were able to uncover genes acting within a specific pathway using a co-RNAi screen to identify dsRNA suppressors of a cell shape change induced by Pten dsRNA. CONCLUSIONS: Using RNAi, we identified genes that influence cytoskeletal organization and morphology in two distinct cell types. Some genes exhibited similar RNAi phenotypes in both cell types, while others appeared to have cell-type-specific functions, in part reflecting the different mechanisms used to generate a round or a flat cell morphology.  (+info)

Protective effect of aqueous extract of Ginseng radix against 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium-induced apoptosis in PC12 cells. (2/2848)

Ginseng radix, the root of Panax ginseng C. A. MEYER (Araliaceae), is one of the best-known Oriental medicinal herbs with numerous therapeutic applications. To investigate whether Ginseng radix possesses a protective effect against 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridine (MPP(+))-induced cytotoxicity in neuronal cells, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, flow cytometry, DNA fragmentation assay, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), Western blotting, and caspase-3 enzyme assay were performed on PC12 neuronal cells. Cells treated with MPP(+) exhibited various apoptotic features, while cell pretreated with Ginseng radix prior to MPP(+) exposure showed a decrease in the occurrence of apoptotic features. These results suggest that Ginseng radix may exert a protective effect against MPP(+)-induced apoptosis in PC12 cells.  (+info)

Galectin-1 induces astrocyte differentiation, which leads to production of brain-derived neurotrophic factor. (3/2848)

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a neuroprotective polypeptide that is thought to be responsible for neuron proliferation, differentiation, and survival. An agent that enhances production of BDNF is expected to be useful for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. Here we report that galectin-1, a member of the family of beta-galactoside binding proteins, induces astrocyte differentiation and strongly inhibits astrocyte proliferation, and then the differentiated astrocytes greatly enhance their production of BDNF. Induction of astrocyte differentiation and BDNF production by an endogenous mammalian lectin may be a new mechanism for preventing neuronal loss after injury.  (+info)

Chemotaxis: signalling modules join hands at front and tail. (4/2848)

Chemotaxis is the result of a refined interplay among various intracellular molecules that process spatial and temporal information. Here we present a modular scheme of the complex interactions between the front and the back of cells that allows them to navigate. First, at the front of the cell, activated Rho-type GTPases induce actin polymerization and pseudopod formation. Second, phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate (PtdIns(3,4,5)P(3)) is produced in a patch at the leading edge, where it binds pleckstrin-homology-domain-containing proteins, which enhance actin polymerization and translocation of the pseudopod. Third, in Dictyostelium amoebae, a cyclic-GMP-signalling cascade has been identified that regulates myosin filament formation in the posterior of the cell, thereby inhibiting the formation of lateral pseudopodia that could misdirect the cell.  (+info)

Rosbin: a novel homeobox-like protein gene expressed exclusively in round spermatids. (5/2848)

Mammalian spermiogenesis is a complex process occurring in a highly coordinated fashion within the seminiferous tubules. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms controlling haploid germ cell differentiation, we have isolated haploid germ cell- specific cDNA clones from a subtracted cDNA library of mouse testis. One of these cDNAs, Rosbin, is 3.2 kilobases (kb) long and has an open reading frame of 2385 nucleotides encoding a putative protein of 795 amino acid residues. A computer-mediated homology search revealed that it contained a domain similar to that of homeobox genes. Northern blot analysis revealed a 3.2-kb mRNA expressed exclusively in male germ cells. Transcription of the Rosbin gene was not observed in prepubertal testis but became detectable after Day 23. By Western blot analysis the protein encoded by this gene had a molecular mass of 89 kDa, expressing specifically in the testis and localized to the nucleus of stages IV-VIII haploid round spermatids, predominantly at stages VII-VIII of spermatogenesis. ROSBIN is associated with and is most likely phosphorylated by protein kinase A. We suggest that it plays an important role in transcriptional regulation in haploid germ cells.  (+info)

DIP (mDia interacting protein) is a key molecule regulating Rho and Rac in a Src-dependent manner. (6/2848)

Cell movement is driven by the coordinated regulation of cytoskeletal reorganization through Rho GTPases downstream of integrin and growth-factor receptor signaling. We have reported that mDia, a target protein of Rho, interacts with Src and DIP. Here we show that DIP binds to p190RhoGAP and Vav2, and that DIP is phosphorylated by Src and mediates the phosphorylation of p190RhoGAP and Vav2 upon EGF stimulation. When endogenous DIP was inhibited by expressing dominant-negative mutants of DIP or siRNA, phosphorylation of p190RhoGAP and Vav2 upon EGF stimulation was diminished, and EGF-induced actin organization, distribution of p190RhoGAP and Vav2, and cell movement were affected. Therefore, DIP seems to transfer the complex of the three proteins from cytosol to beneath the membrane, and the three proteins, in turn, can be phosphorylated by Src. DIP inactivated Rho and activated Rac following EGF stimulation in the membrane fraction. Thus, DIP acts as a regulatory molecule causing Src kinase-dependent feedback modulation of Rho GTPases downstream of Rho-mDia upon EGF stimulation, and plays an important role in cell motility.  (+info)

Over-expression of FK506-binding protein FKBP12.6 alters excitation-contraction coupling in adult rabbit cardiomyocytes. (7/2848)

This study investigated the function of FK506-binding protein (FKBP12.6) using adenoviral-mediated gene transfer to over-express FKBP12.6 (Ad-FKBP12.6) in adult rabbit ventricular cardiomyocytes. Infection with a beta-galactosidase-expressing adenovirus (Ad-LacZ) was used as a control. Peak-systolic intracellular [Ca(2+)] (measured with Fura-2) was higher in the Ad-FKBP12.6 group compared to Ad-LacZ (1 Hz field stimulation at 37 degrees C). The amplitude of caffeine-induced Ca(2+) release was also greater, indicating a higher SR Ca(2+) content in the Ad-FKBP12.6 group. Voltage clamp experiments indicated that FKBP12.6 over-expression did not change L-type Ca(2+) current amplitude or Ca(2+) efflux rates via the Na(+)-Ca(2+) exchanger. Ca(2+) transients comparable to those after Ad-FKBP12.6 transfection could be obtained by enhancing SR Ca(2+) content of Ad-LacZ infected cells with periods of high frequency stimulation. Line-scan confocal microscopy (Fluo-3 fluorescence) of intact cardiomyocytes stimulated at 0.5 Hz (20-21 degrees C) revealed a higher degree of synchronicity of SR Ca(2+) release and fewer non-responsive Ca(2+) release sites in the Ad-FKBP12.6 group compared to control. Ca(2+) spark morphology was measured in beta-escin-permeabilized cardiomyocytes at a free [Ca(2+)](i) of 150 nm. The average values of the spark parameters (amplitude, duration, width and frequency) were reduced in the Ad-FKBP12.6 group. Increasing [Ca(2+)](i) to 400 nm caused coherent propagating Ca(2+) waves in the Ad-FKBP12.6 group but only limited Ca(2+) release events were recorded in the control group. These data indicate that FKBP12.6 over-expression enhances Ca(2+) transient amplitude predominately by increasing SR Ca(2+) content. Moreover, there is also evidence that FKBP12.6 can enhance the coupling between SR Ca(2+) release sites independently of SR content.  (+info)

Full-term development of hamster embryos produced by injection of round spermatids into oocytes. (8/2848)

The golden hamster is a mammal in which microinjection of round spermatids into oocytes (ROSI) was first attempted. However, no live ROSI offspring have ever been obtained in this species. This is the first report of live hamster offspring obtained by round spermatid injection. Over 90% of oocytes, injected with round spermatids, were activated without any additional stimulation. The proportion of the oocytes that were fertilized normally and that developed to morulae and blastocysts was higher when the plasma membranes of the spermatids were broken before injection, as compared with when the membranes were left intact. Five percent of 57 ROSI morulae/blastocysts developed into live offspring after transfer to foster mothers.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Two independent spiral structures control cell shape in Caulobacter. AU - Dye, Natalie A.. AU - Pincus, Zachary. AU - Theriot, Julie A.. AU - Shapiro, Lucy. AU - Gitai, Zemer. PY - 2005/12/20. Y1 - 2005/12/20. N2 - The actin homolog MreB contributes to bacterial cell shape. Here, we explore the role of the coexpressed MreC protein in Caulobacter and show that it forms a periplasmic spiral that is out of phase with the cytoplasmic MreB spiral. Both mreB and mreC are essential, and depletion of either protein results in a similar cell shape defect. MreB forms dynamic spirals in MreC-depleted cells, and MreC localizes helically in the presence of the MreB-inhibitor A22, indicating that each protein can form a spiral independently of the other. We show that the peptidoglycan transpeptidase Pbp2 also forms a helical pattern that partially colocalizes with MreC but not MreB. Perturbing either MreB (with A22) or MreC (with depletion) causes GFP-Pbp2 to mislocalize to the division plane, ...
Actin-containing microfilaments control cell shape adhesion and contraction. proteins NSC-280594 to sites of actin modulation. We recognized palladin inside a candida two-hybrid search as an ezrin-associated protein. An connection between palladin and ezrin was further verified by affinity precipitation and blot overlay assays. The connection was mediated from the α-helical website of ezrin and by Ig-domains 2-3 of palladin. Ezrin is typically a component of the cortical cytoskeleton but in clean muscle mass cells it is localized along microfilaments. These cells communicate palladin abundantly and thus palladin may be involved in the microfilament localization of ezrin. Palladin manifestation was up-regulated in differentiating dendritic cells (DCs) coinciding with major cytoskeletal and morphological alterations. In immature DCs palladin localized in actin-containing podosomes and in mature DCs along actin filaments. The regulated manifestation and localization suggest a role for palladin in ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cation effects on cell shape.. AU - Sheetz, Michael. PY - 1977/12/1. Y1 - 1977/12/1. N2 - We have found that human erythrocyte ghosts in 10 mM HEPES (pH 7.0) at 0 degrees C would crenate when 20-50 mM of Na+ or K+, 0.2-0.5 mM OF Ca++, Ba++, Sr++, or Mg++, or 10 muM of La+++ was added. The shape change after cation addition was faster than fixation by 1% glutaraldehyde at 4 degrees C and was readily reversible upon dilution of the cation. After incubation of ghosts in 10 mM HEPES (pH 7.0) at 37 degrees for 10-20 min there was a significant inhibition of subsequent crenation by cations. In a process that is believed to occur by a similar mechanism, whole red blood cells were observed to cup (invaginate) when 20 mM of a divalent or 0.1 mM of a trivalent cation was added. After neuraminidase treatment to remove the sialic acid charge groups, these same shape changes were observed in ghosts and whole cells. Another type of cation-induced crenation was found to follow upon the addition ...
( -A crucial step toward skin cancer may be changes in the genes that control cell shape, report a team of scientists from The Methodist Hospital Research Institute, the Institute of Cancer Research, London, and ...
Results. Effect of FGF-2 on cell shape and actin cytoskeleton in cultured CECs. In our previous study, we found that FGF-2 caused CECs to lose their characteristic polygonal cell morphology [8]. We also reported that neutralizing antibody to PI 3-kinase and inhibitors of PI 3-kinase (wortmanin and LY294002) caused the modulated morphology induced by FGF-2 to revert to a normal polygonal cell shape. In the present study, we attempted to confirm that this morphogenetic activity of FGF-2 was mediated by PI 3-kinase, and we further determined whether ERK1/2 (a member of the mitogen-activated protein kinase, MAPK), the sustained activation of which is required in many signaling pathways, was also involved. The subconfluent cultures maintained in growth medium (DMEM-10) showed a spread and polygonal morphology. Neither 20 μM LY294002 nor 10 μM PD98059 altered the cell shape (Figure 1A). On the other hand, cells treated with FGF-2 lost the characteristic polygonal morphology and became smaller, ...
Cardiac function depends upon properly shaped heart chambers. Here the authors show that blood flow and contractility independently regulate cell shape changes in the emerging ventricle.
Summary. QuimP is software for tracking cellular shape changes and dynamic distributions of fluorescent reporters at the cell membrane. QuimPs unique selling point is the possibility to aggregate data from many cells in form of spatio-temporal maps of dynamic events, independently of cell size and shape. QuimP has been successfully applied to address a wide range of problems related to cell movement in many different cell types. Introduction. In transmembrane signalling the cell membrane plays a fundamental role in localising intracellular signalling components to specific sites of action, for example to reorganise the actomyosin cortex during cell polarisation and locomotion. The localisation of different components can be directly or indirectly visualised using fluorescence microscopy, for high-throughput screening commonly in 2D. A quantitative understanding demands segmentation and tracking of whole cells and fluorescence signals associated with the moving cell boundary, for example those ...
Summary. QuimP is software for tracking cellular shape changes and dynamic distributions of fluorescent reporters at the cell membrane. QuimPs unique selling point is the possibility to aggregate data from many cells in form of spatio-temporal maps of dynamic events, independently of cell size and shape. QuimP has been successfully applied to address a wide range of problems related to cell movement in many different cell types. Introduction ...
The bacterial domain displays a spectacular diversity of cellular shape. This Essay by David Kysela, Amelia Randich, Paul Caccamo and Yves Brun explores our surprisingly limited understanding as to how and why these shapes have evolved and discusses ways in which this dearth of knowledge can be addressed.. ...
Cutting a solid can change the shape of the solid. But all of the new pieces are solids with there own shape as well. Solids dont change their shape on their own.
Bacterial shape and arrangement vary among different species and exists in many forms. In this content, bacterial shape and arrangement are explained.
57. 58. 59. 60. 61. 62. 63. 64. 65. 66. 67. 68. 69. 70. 71. 72. 73. 74. 75. 76. 77. 78. 79. 80. 81. T shape 4 T shape 5. Again I have labelled these equations 4 and 5. In T shape 4 is has shown me that the T number is 39, then I added up all the numbers in red in t shape 4 to give a T total of 117. This is because 1+2+3+4+5+12+21+30+39=117.. In T shape 5, 61 is the T number and the T total is 315 this is because 23+24+25+26+27+34+43+52+61= 315. I have looked at both of these results very hard and come up with an idea. My idea is that If for example you look at T shape 1 the T number is 20, but if you replaced this number with N you get;. T number = N Then the number in the T square, directly above the T number is then nine places back in the grid so it is N - 9. The number directly above that is then N-9-9 = N-18. The two remaining numbers in the T shape are N-18-1 and N-18+1. This also works with T shape 4 but some alterations have to happen because it is a five by five T ...
I have not had a period for about a year and half and am almost 57 years of age. Last year at about this time I was in terrible shape, my body ached,
The cytoskeleton is a network of protein filaments inside the cell that control cell shape and movements. Formins are proteins that play a critical role in organizing the assembly of cytoskeletal filaments. We are learning how formins work using a combination of biochemical studies of pure proteins, microscopic analysis of cytoskeletal organization in cells, and observation of the effects of formin gene mutations on the simple model animal Caenorhabditis elegans. C. elegans ...
Aliases : Os06g0667200. Description : 27.3.24 RNA.regulation of transcription.MADS box transcription factor family Encodes a MADS box protein. Regulates proanthocyanidin biosynthesis in the inner-most cell layer of the seed coat. Also controls cell shape of the inner-most cell layer of the seed coat. Also shown to be necessary for determining the identity of the endothelial layer within the ovule. Paralogous to GOA. TRANSPARENT TESTA16 (TT16). ...
NETMORPH is a simulation tool for building synaptically connected networks with realistic neuron morphologies. Axonal and dendritic morphologies are created by using stochastic rules for the behavior of individual growth cones, the structures at the tip of outgrowing axons and dendrites that mediate elongation and branching. Axons and dendrites are not guided by any extracellular cues. Synapses are formed when crossing axonal and dendritic segments come sufficiently close to each other. See the README in the archive for more information ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Influence of the nuclear membrane, active transport, and cell shape on the Hes1 and p53-Mdm2 pathways. T2 - Bulletin of Mathematical Biology. AU - Sturrock,Marc. AU - Terry,Alan J.. AU - Xirodimas,Dimitris P.. AU - Thompson,Alastair M.. AU - Chaplain,Mark A. J.. PY - 2012/7. Y1 - 2012/7. N2 - There are many intracellular signalling pathways where the spatial distribution of the molecular species cannot be neglected. These pathways often contain negative feedback loops and can exhibit oscillatory dynamics in space and time. Two such pathways are those involving Hes1 and p53-Mdm2, both of which are implicated in cancer.In this paper we further develop the partial differential equation (PDE) models of Sturrock et al. (J. Theor. Biol., 273:15-31, 2011) which were used to study these dynamics. We extend these PDE models by including a nuclear membrane and active transport, assuming that proteins are convected in the cytoplasm towards the nucleus in order to model transport along ...
TY - GEN. T1 - Segmentation, recognition and tracing analysis for high-content cell-cycle screening. AU - Yu, Donggang. AU - Pham, Tuan D.. AU - Zhou, Xiaobo. AU - Wong, Stephen T.. PY - 2007/12/1. Y1 - 2007/12/1. N2 - We present in this paper some new and efficient algorithms for segmentation, recognition and tracing analysis of cell phases for high-content screening. The conceptual frameworks are based on the morphological structures of cells where a series of morphological structural points are established. Furthermore, we address the issue of touching cells and then propose morphological techniques for cell separation, reconstruction and tracing analysis. The new segmentation method can resolve the question of over-segmentation. The tracing analysis of cell phases is based on cell shape, geometrical features and difference information of corresponding neighbor frames. Experiment results test the efficiency of the new method.. AB - We present in this paper some new and efficient algorithms ...
Video created by Peking University for the course Advanced Neurobiology I. Lets learn more about the basic unit of the nervous system: the neuron. 2000+ courses from schools like Stanford and Yale - no application required. Build career skills ...
Video created by Peking University for the course Advanced Neurobiology I. Lets learn more about the basic unit of the nervous system: the neuron.
Cell polarity is defined as asymmetry in cell shape, protein distributions and cell functions. It is characteristic of single-cell organisms, including yeast and bacteria, and cells in tissues of multi-cell organisms such as epithelia in worms, flies and mammals. This diversity raises several questi …
Thought it would be great to create a site for development taking shape on the north side of the Charlotte metro area in Cabarrus and Rowan counties. With Cabarrus posed to hit the quarter of million mark population within ten years and Rowan possibly on the cusp of post I-85 widening growth, I a...
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The Cytoskeleton Collection includes 250 mAbs recognizing the supportive structural filaments and associated proteins that facilitate cell shape and motility
The Cytoskeleton Collection includes 250 mAbs recognizing the supportive structural filaments and associated proteins that facilitate cell shape and motility
Many proteins are the enzymes that catalyze the chemical reactions in metabolism. Other proteins have structural or mechanical functions, such as the proteins that form the cytoskeleton, a system of scaffolding that maintains the cell shape ...
China Convenient Custom Printed Different Shape Band Aid, Find details about China Convenient Band Aid, Different Shape Band Aid from Convenient Custom Printed Different Shape Band Aid - Wellmien Taixing Health Supplies Co., Ltd.
Is there any way to keep boobs after breastfeeding in shape? Our article provides top 10 advice on keeping the breast firm after breastfeeding.
Laminin, a component of the embryonic sea urchin basal lamina, is recognized by monoclonal antibody BL1 (Mab BL1). Our results demonstrate that laminin is secreted into the blastcoel at the early blastula stage at a time when the blastomeres undergo a cell shape change and are organized into an epithelium. Laminin is present on the basal surfaces of ectodermal cells and is absent or reduced on migrating primary mesenchyme cells. Microinjection of a monoclonal antibody directed against laminin induces a morphological change in cell shape and a deformation of the embryonic epithelium. Investigation of selected stages of live embryos suggests that the distribution of laminin may be heterogeneous within the basal lamina during early development. The results implicate laminin as a mediator of cell shape change during early morphogenesis.. ...
NETMORPH is a modular simulation tool for building synaptically connected networks with realistic neuron morphologies. Axonal and dendritic morphologies are created by using stochastic rules for the behavior of individual growth cones, the structures at the tip of outgrowing axons and dendrites (collectively called neurites) that mediate neurite elongation and branching. In brief, each growth cone has at each time step a probability to elongate the trailing neurite, to branch and produce two daughter growth cones, and to turn and change the direction of neurite outgrowth. The parameter values of the outgrowth model can be optimized so as to obtain an optimal match with the morphology of specific neuron types. Neurons are positioned in 3D space and grow out independently of each other. Axons and dendrites are not guided by any extracellular cues. Synapses between neurons are formed when crossing axonal and dendritic segments come sufficiently close to each other. NETMORPH is written in C++ and ...
To quantify the effects of decreased cellular Tmod3 levels on cell morphology, the mean cell height and cross-sectional area were measured randomly throughout the sample while viewing only the channel showing F-actin; each measurement was later assigned to `transfected or `untransfected while viewing all channels. Expression of the silencing vector resulted in a highly significant decrease in cell height of approximately 30%, and a highly significant increase in cross-sectional area of approximately 40% (Fig. 2J,K; P,0.005). There was also a significant decrease (∼20%) in total F-actin fluorescence intensity in cells expressing the silencing vector, as determined by comparing the average fluorescence intensity in XY projections of image stacks of GFP-expressing transfected cells with untransfected cells in the same fields of view (Fig. 2L; P,0.05). There was no difference in height, cross-sectional area or total F-actin intensity between the untransfected control cells and cells transfected ...
As histology patterns vary depending on different tissue types, it is typically necessary to adapt and optimize segmentation algorithms to these tissue type-specific applications. Here we present an unsupervised method that utilizes cell shape cues to achieve this task-specific optimization by introducing a shape ranking function. The proposed algorithm is part of our Layers™ toolkit for image and data analysis for multiplexed immunohistopathology images. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that this type of methodology is proposed for segmentation and ranking in cell tissue samples. Our new cell ranking scheme takes into account both shape and scale information and provides information about the quality of the segmentation. First, we introduce cell-shape descriptor that can effectively discriminate the cell-types morphology. Secondly, we formulate a hierarchical-segmentation as a dynamic optimization problem, where cells are subdivided if they improve a segmentation quality criteria
The cytoskeleton is a dynamic network of filaments that pervades the cytoplasm of cells. It acts to regulate cellular shape and internal organisation, while providing the mechanical support that enables cells to divide and move. The researchers have discovered that one component of the cytoskeleton, known as intermediate filaments, has a dramatically altered organisation in skin cells from ARSACS patients. This inturn impacts on the internal organisation of these cells, as well as the machinery they use to deal with damaged and unwanted components. This research increases knowledge of what may go wrong at the cellular level in ARSACS ...
When it comes to Arthrobacter, its a special cellular shape. Depending on what point you stain the bacteria, you can get either rods, or cocci. In the younger phase, when plated on to fresh media, Arthrobacter tends to be a rod shaped and upon aging tends to morph into its cocci stage, in which was the stage we were able to observe it under a microscope. It was also gram-positive (but can appear gram-negative in younger stages) and our endospore stain showed that it was a non spore producing bacterium without a capsule ...
Mammals contain two class IX myosins, Myo9a and Myo9b. They are actin-based motorized signalling molecules that negatively regulate RhoA signalling. Myo9a has been implicated in the regulation of epithelial cell morphology and differentiation, whereas Myo9b has been shown to play an important role in the regulation of macrophage shape and motility. ...
Shroom is a recently-described regulator of cell shape changes in the developing nervous system. This protein is a member of a small family of related proteins that are defined by sequence similarity and in most cases by some link to the actin cytoskeleton. At present these proteins are named Shroom, APX, APXL, and KIAA1202. In light of the growing interest in this family of proteins, we propose here a new standard nomenclature. ...
New Delhi, Jan 2 (PTI) Scientists at the Indian Institute of Science (IISc) in Bengaluru are working on a novel method to diagnose a broad range of diseases, which uses the mechanical properties of cells as compared to commonly used chemical-based lab tests.
This study investigated the effect of glass shape on the pouring accuracy of liquid volume. Participants (n = 96) were asked to pour water up to the midpoint of four pint ...
Ryszard Konopiński is the author of this article in the Journal of Visualized Experiments: Quantification of Cell-Substrate Adhesion Area and Cell Shape Distributions in MCF7 Cell Monolayers
Flow Cytometry is the quantitative analysis of cells and cell systems - measuring things like cell size, number of cells, cell shape and structure, types of proteins etc. | Laserglow
How to Keep Your Dog in Shape. Is the family pet looking a little tubby? If you want to make sure your dog gets in shape and stays in shape, you can learn how to properly exercise and feed your dog. Make sure your pet stays healthy. Pick a...
Gabi Nindle Waite; Lee R Waite: Applied Cell and Molecular Biology for Engineers. Cell Morphology, Chapter (McGraw-Hill Professional, 2007), AccessEngineering Export ...
It is true that not everything is training. How many of my training partners are more or less in shape For this, we give you 10 techniques to stay in shape and bloomy.
Attempting to satisfy her desire to exposing herself to millions online, this superb woman has revealed a rather fine figure that will no doubt earn her a few
By activating Rho family GTPases in response to regulatory signals, Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factors (RhoGEFs) often link extracellular signals to intracellular responses. They are, therefore, likely to be important during development. Panizzi and colleagues provide an example of this on p. 921 by revealing essential functions for one vertebrate RhoGEF in ciliated epithelia during development. Human ARHGEF11 activates Rho and promotes the reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton in cultured cells; its Drosophila homologue controls cell shape changes during gastrulation. To study its role in vertebrate development, the researchers used chromosomal deletion and antisense morpholino oligonucleotides to produce zebrafish embryos that lacked functional Arhgef11 (the zebrafish homolog of ARHGEF11). These embryos showed phenotypes often associated with defective ciliated epithelia, including ventrally curved axes, altered left-right patterning, abnormal kidney development and disrupted ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - ADP ribosylation factor 6 regulates neuronal migration in the developing cerebral cortex through FIP3/arfophilin-1-dependent endosomal trafficking of N-cadherin. AU - Hara, Yoshinobu. AU - Fukaya, Masahiro. AU - Hayashi, Kanehiro. AU - Kawauchi, Takeshi. AU - Nakajima, Kazunori. AU - Sakagami, Hiroyuki. PY - 2016. Y1 - 2016. N2 - During neural development, endosomal trafficking controls cell shape and motility through the polarized transport of membrane proteins related to cellcell and cellextracellular matrix interactions. ADP ribosylation factor 6 (Arf6) is a critical small GTPase that regulates membrane trafficking between the plasma membrane and endosomes. We herein demonstrated that the knockdown of endogenous Arf6 in mouse cerebral cortices led to impaired neuronal migration in the intermediate zone and cytoplasmic retention of N-cadherin and syntaxin12 in migrating neurons. Rescue experiments with separation-of-function Arf6 mutants identified Rab11 familyinteracting ...
Image analysis was performed in MATLAB. To quantify actin structure, we defined the actin distribution parameter (ADP) as the standard deviation of pixel intensity within a region of interest (ROI). A higher ADP indicates the presence of high contrast features including stress fibers. The ROI was defined as the inner 50% of the cellular area. Cell area was calculated based on cell shape, determined by a manual trace of the cortical actin band in the apical region. Quantification was performed on all cells in all 5 locations averaged per specimen (avg N = 193 cells/specimen). One-way ANOVA was used for statistical analysis.. Results : At 0 , t , 12 hrs, ECs exhibited a cortical double-banded actin structure as well as stress fibers spanning the entire cell (Fig. 1, Fig. 2A). At increasing DPT, the double band disappeared and actin distribution became increasingly homogeneous and diffuse throughout the cytoplasm. As a result, ADP significantly decreased (p=0.007 for 0 , t , 12 hrs vs. 24 , t , 48 ...
GTPases of the Rho family regulate actinomyosin-based contraction in non-muscle cells. Activation of Rho increases contractility, leading to cell rounding and neurite retraction in neuronal cell lines. Activation of Rac promotes cell spreading and interferes with Rho-mediated cell rounding. Activation of Rac may antagonize Rho by regulating phosphorylation of the myosin-II heavy chain. Stimulation of PC12 cells or N1E-115 neuroblastoma cells with bradykinin induces phosphorylation of threonine residues in the myosin-II heavy chain; this phosphorylation is Ca2+ dependent and regulated by Rac. Both bradykinin-mediated and constitutive activation of Rac promote cell spreading, accompanied by a loss of cortical myosin II. These results identify the myosin-II heavy chain as a new target of Rac-regulated kinase pathways, and implicate Rac as a Rho antagonist during myosin-II-dependent cell-shape changes (van Leeuwen, 1999). The molecular events responsible for Rac-mediated cytoskeletal changes are not ...
MBF Bioscience develops software and microscope systems that help neuroscientists discover new information about the brain and the diseases that affect it.
MBF Bioscience develops software and microscope systems that help neuroscientists discover new information about the brain and the diseases that affect it.
AFC Hanamai Porcine Collagen helps to restore oil production balance, hydrates skin intensely, support skin healing, plumps up skin and body cells, provides structural support to skin and body cells, maintains cell integrity by supporting cellular shape.
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Classical finite volume schemes for the Euler system are not accurate at low Mach number and some fixes have to be used and were developed in a vast literature over the last two decades. The question we are interested in in this article is: What about if the porosity is no longer uniform? We first show that this problem may be understood on the linear wave equation taking into account porosity. We explain the influence of the cell geometry on the accuracy property at low Mach number. In the triangular case, the stationary space of the Godunov scheme approaches well enough the continuous space of constant pressure and divergence-free velocity, while this is not the case in the Cartesian case. On Cartesian meshes, a fix is proposed and accuracy at low Mach number is proved to be recovered. Based on the linear study, a numerical scheme and a low Mach fix for the non-linear system, with a non-conservative source term due to the porosity variations, is proposed and tested.
Have you noticed the white, half moon shape at the base of your fingernails? This is called the lunula, which means small moon, and its very important to
This contemporary easy-to-wear ring is made from 14k rose gold fill with a textured diamond shape on a hammered band.This is a one-of-a-kind ring. Looking for another size? Let us know and well make it happen. Details Size-4.25Metal-14k Rose Gold FillStyle--MinimalCare-Keep your piece looking its best by keeping it aw
Adams Morgans newest eatery could take shape on a plot of land currently used as a parking lot. A developer called Jurassic Properties has filed plans to
Structure of cells and organelles in prokaryotes and eukaryotes, function of cellular components, cell shape and movement, and differentiation and development in cell systems.
Peptidoglycan is the major structural constituent of the bacterial cell wall, forming a meshwork outside the cytoplasmic membrane that maintains cell shape and ...
FUNCTION: [Summary is not available for the mouse gene. This summary is for the human ortholog.] This gene encodes a PDZ-domain-containing protein that belongs to a family of Shroom-related proteins. This protein may be involved in regulating cell shape in certain tissues. A similar protein in mice is required for proper neurulation. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2011 ...
FUNCTION: [Summary is not available for the mouse gene. This summary is for the human ortholog.] This gene encodes a PDZ-domain-containing protein that belongs to a family of Shroom-related proteins. This protein may be involved in regulating cell shape in certain tissues. A similar protein in mice is required for proper neurulation. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2011 ...
Get inspired by these amazing shape images created by professional designers. Get ideas and start planning your perfect shape design today!
A parade of shapes introduces the properties of 2D four sided and three sided shapes. Children are encouraged to identify these in the environment around them. The programme is split into three sections.. First, there is the case of the disappearing shapes. This animated sequence takes a fun look at how the world would be without four sided shapes.. The next section is called Getting into Shape. Implicit shapes can be abstracted from everyday shapes around us. A fun sequence at the shape gym explores the properties of triangles and how some of them fit easily within quadrilaterals.. And finally, there is Shapes within Shapes. After the disappearance of the four sided shapes, triangles are filling the gaps that have been left. We expand on the properties of shapes.. Part of the series: Vocational GCSEs. ...
Are you looking for ideas on how to get in shape so you can loose those few extra pounds? This article will give you some great ideas on how to do just that. So lets go!
コスプレ衣装通販|coskutarコスプレ衣装専門店・コスクター. 「凸部分の制作に役立つ測定ツール」 A shape measuring tool that helps create custom edges. Since Im going down this rabbit hole right now, here
... including peak shape, unit cell dimensions and coordinates of all atoms in the crystal structure. Other parameters can be ... Peak shape as described in Rietveld's paper[edit]. The shape of a powder diffraction reflection is influenced by the ... Peak shape for individual Bragg peaks: Represented by functions of the FWHM (which vary with Bragg angle) called the peak shape ... 2 Powder diffraction profiles: peak positions and shapes *2.1 Peak shape functions ...
Faix J, Grosse R (June 2006). "Staying in shape with formins". Developmental Cell. 10 (6): 693-706. doi:10.1016/j.devcel. ... Baarlink C, Brandt D, Grosse R (July 2010). "SnapShot: Formins". Cell. 142 (1): 172-172.e1. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2010.06.030. ... to the mitotic spindle in HeLa cells". Journal of Cell Science. 114 (Pt 4): 775-84. PMID 11171383. Petersen J, Nielsen O, Egel ... The FH2 domain, has been shown by X-ray crystallography to have an elongated, crescent shape containing three helical ...
Goldberg, A. D., Allis, C. D., & Bernstein, E. (2007). Epigenetics: A landscape takes shape. Cell, 128, 635-638. Allen, Matthew ... In a period of great creativity at the end of the 1930s, he also discovered mutations that affected cell phenotypes and wrote ... These points represent the eventual cell fates, that is, tissue types. Waddington coined the term chreode to represent this ... was to affect how cells differentiated. He also showed how mutation could affect the landscape, and used this metaphor in his ...
Singhvi, R.; Kumar, A.; Lopez, G.; Stephanopoulos, G.; Wang, D.; Whitesides, G.; Ingber, D. (1994). "Engineering cell shape and ... "Engineering cell shape and function", Science, 264(5159), 696-698, (1994). Hal Alper, Curt Fischer, Elke Nevoigt, Gregory ... in order to modify their microbial cells, increasing their efficiency in transformation of raw material in hydrocarbons. Until ...
"Changes in Ect2 Localization Couple Actomyosin-Dependent Cell Shape Changes to Mitotic Progression". Developmental Cell. 23 (2 ... Over the following 15 years Rohn studied apoptosis and the shape of cells. Rohn's current research interests include study of ... Kunda, Patricia; Rohn, Jennifer L.; Baum, Buzz (June 2008). "Cell Shape: Taking the Heat". Current Biology. 18 (11): R470-R472 ... Herndon, Lynne (December 2010). "Science, Meet Poetry". Cell. 143 (7): 1039. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2010.12.006. S2CID 32285199. ...
doi: 10.4161/temp.29651 Goldberg AD, Allis CD, Bernstein E (2007). "Epigenetics: a landscape takes shape." Cell. 128:635 - 8. ... Cell & Environment. 41 (5): 877-884. doi:10.1111/pce.13207. PMID 29663504. "Canadian Wildlife Federation: How will climate ...
... stacking to form fibers that distort the shape of red blood cells carrying the protein. These sickle-shaped cells no longer ... All the cells in a multicellular organism derive from a single cell, differentiating into variant cell types in response to ... To become a cancer cell, a cell has to accumulate mutations in a number of genes (three to seven). A cancer cell can divide ... When cells divide, their full genome is copied and each daughter cell inherits one copy. This process, called mitosis, is the ...
However, these efficiencies are for the cells laid flat. The company did not post any numbers about performance when the cells ... Solyndra rolled its CIGS thin films into a cylindrical shape and placed 40 of them in each 1-meter-by-2-meter panel. Solyndra ... "New Shape of Solar". Solyndra Cylindrical Module. Solyndra, LLC. 2008. Archived from the original on October 17, 2010. ... Solyndra was a manufacturer of cylindrical panels of copper indium gallium selenide (CIGS) thin film solar cells based in ...
"Human Genetics Shape the Gut Microbiome". Cell. 159 (4): 789-799. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2014.09.053. ISSN 0092-8674. PMC 4255478. ... Cell (Review). 124 (4): 837-848. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.02.017. PMID 16497592. S2CID 17203181. Ley RE, Turnbaugh PJ, Klein S, ... They have round cells, called cocci (singular coccus), or rod-like forms (bacillus). Many Firmicutes produce endospores, which ... The Firmicutes (Latin: firmus, strong, and cutis, skin, referring to the cell wall) are a phylum of bacteria, most of which ...
Cell Motility and Shape I: Microfilaments. 18.2. The Dynamics of Actin Assembly". Molecular cell biology. San Francisco: W.H. ... thymosin β4 is regarded as the principal actin-sequestering protein in many cell types. Thymosin β4 has been tested in ... are found almost exclusively in cells of multicellular animals. Known exceptions are monomeric thymosins found in a few single- ... of cytoskeleton-related proteins may contribute to actin-filament dynamics underlying structural remodeling of responsive cells ...
Microscopically cells are ellipsoid in shape. Candida auris is one of the few Candida species that can cause candidiasis in ... "Candida auris". DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures. Retrieved 1 August 2017. Casadevall A, ...
Cells spherical to ovoid in shape. Vegetative cells with a cup-shaped chloroplast containing one pyrenoid; a large anterior ... Reproductive cells at first like the vegetative cells, later with a more massive chloroplast that eventually contains several ... Cells differentiated into those that are purely vegetative in character and those capable of dividing to form daughter colonies ... All but four cells of the colony reproductive or about half reproductive and half vegetative. ...
... which moves cargo inside cells away from the nucleus along microtubules, and dynein, which moves cargo inside cells towards the ... Nanofactory Collaboration Alberts B, Johnson A, Lewis J, Raff M, Roberts K, Walters P (2002). "The Shape and Structure of ... Motor proteins are a class of molecular motors that can move along the cytoplasm of animal cells. They convert chemical energy ... Axonemal dynein, found in cilia and flagella, is crucial to cell motility, for example in spermatozoa, and fluid transport, for ...
The cell forms a conical shape. The number of gonomeres is distinguishes species. The cell body has been seen to grows to a ... Once in contact with a host, the cell body of the organism grows and takes on an oval shape. A rhizoid pierces the host cuticle ... As the cell grows the root is used for absorption, causing damaging to the local host tissue. Once established at a specific ... The cell body constricts in the center and differentiate into trophomere and gonomere, proximal and distal to the host body. ...
The cell long and broad. Veins 4 and 5 absent. Veins 6 and 7 form the upper angle. In female, wings are normal shape. Forewings ... The cell narrow and occupying the center of the wing. Vein 1b reaching inner margin before the angle. Veins 3 and 4 from cell ... Vein 6 below angle of cell and veins 7 to 9 stalked. Vein 11 anastomosing with vein 12. Hindwings with veins 4 and 5 absent and ...
Her research is focussed on the evolution of bacterial cell shape, and the discovery of bacteriophages that can attack ... Her research has two main components: transitions in bacterial evolution, including the evolution of cell shape, and the ... Yulo, Paul Richard Jesena; Hendrickson, Heather Lyn (2019). "The evolution of spherical cell shape; progress and perspective". ... She uses a combination of experimental evolution, cell biology, and bacterial genomics. Analysis of the evolutionary tree of ...
"The Shape and Structure of Proteins". Molecular Biology of the Cell; Fourth Edition. New York and London: Garland Science. ISBN ... α-helices are formed by hydrogen bonding of the backbone to form a spiral shape (refer to figure on the right). The β pleated ... Cells sometimes protect their proteins against the denaturing influence of heat with enzymes known as heat shock proteins (a ... Protein folding must be thermodynamically favorable within a cell in order for it to be a spontaneous reaction. Since it is ...
Asexual cells may vary in shape. The shape of the cell may be informative in terms of detecting mode of reproduction or ... These are asexual spores that are formed within their mother cell (hyphal or single cell). Strains of Candida and Metschnikowia ... The life cycle proceeds as follows: Two cells of different mating type fuse and the nuclei undergo karyogamy. This results in a ... Some species (e.g. Metschnikowia species) tend to form chains of budding cells that are termed pseudohyphae. Yet other species ...
"Human Genetics Shape the Gut Microbiome". Cell. 159 (4): 789-799. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2014.09.053. ISSN 0092-8674. PMC 4255478. ...
... which moves cargo inside cells away from the nucleus along microtubules, and dynein, which moves cargo inside cells towards the ... Alberts, Bruce; Alexander Johnson; Julian Lewis; Martin Raff; Keith Roberts; Peter Walters (2002). "The Shape and Structure of ... Bu Z, Callaway DJ (2011). "Proteins MOVE! Protein dynamics and long-range allostery in cell signaling". Protein Structure and ... Protein dynamics and conformational changes allow proteins to function as nanoscale biological machines within cells, often in ...
"Mechanisms shaping cell membranes" Current Opinion in Cell Biology, Volume 29, August 2014, Pages 53-60. Park, Seong H.; Zhu, ... Mechanisms Determining the Morphology of the Peripherial ER Molecular Biology of the Cell How the ER Stays in Shape ER ... "How the ER Stays in Shape". Cell, Volume 124, 10 February 2006, Pages 464-466. Chen, Shuliang; Novick, Peter; Ferro-Novick, ... used in many cell signaling responses). Both mammalian DP1 (for "deleted in polyposis") and Yop1p in yeast cells are ...
... this gives cells the flexibility to adapt to a variable environment, external signals, damage to the cell, and other stimuli. ... Alberts B, Johnson A, Lewis J, Raff M, Roberts K, Walters P (2002). "The Shape and Structure of Proteins". Molecular Biology of ... Cell. 172 (4): 650-665. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2018.01.029. PMID 29425488. Grossman SR, Engreitz J, Ray JP, Nguyen TH, Hacohen N, ... Cell. 171 (7): 1573-1588.e28. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2017.11.008. PMC 5785279. PMID 29224777. Lambert SA, Jolma A, Campitelli LF, ...
lunate Crescent-shaped. lumen The cavity bounded by a plant cell wall. lyrate Lyre-shaped; deeply lobed, with a large terminal ... sclereid A cell with a thick, lignified, cell wall that is shorter than a fiber cell and dies soon after the thickening of its ... stone cell a sclereid cell, such as the cells that form the tissue of nut shells and the stones of drupes. striate Striped with ... pyriform Pear-shaped; a term for solid shapes that are roughly conical in shape, broadest one end and narrowest at the other. ...
Larva spindle shaped. Head and body are dark purplish to black. There is a jet-black dorsal line. Ventrum olive green. Pupation ... occurs on the soil surface in a cell made by earth particles. Larval host plants are Rourea species. "Species Details: Catada ...
Young adult flies, which harbor fewer bacteria than old flies, proliferate in an environment shaped by the feces of the ... It is possible that the microbiota-induced proliferation of intestinal stem cells and associated metabolic homeostasis is ... Nevertheless, the host's diet and nutritional environment also shape the exact composition of the microbiota. For instance the ... December 2018). "Microbiome interactions shape host fitness". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United ...
"Deconvolving the recognition of DNA shape from sequence". Cell. 161 (2): 307-18. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2015.02.008. PMC 4422406 . ... However, the shape feature of these molecules such as DNA and protein have also been studied and proposed to have an equivalent ...
Sickle-shaped red blood cells. This non-lethal condition in heterozygotes is maintained by balancing selection in humans of ... A well-studied case is that of sickle cell anemia in humans, a hereditary disease that damages red blood cells. Sickle cell ... Sickle cell anemia. 2009. Encyclopædia Britannica. Chicago. *^ David Wool. 2006. The Driving Forces of Evolution: Genetic ... The sickle-cell and Haemoglobin C genes in some African populations. Ann. Human Genet. 21, 67-89. ...
... rod-shaped) and spirochetes (spiral-shaped) cells. In reality, this is a severe over-simplification as bacterial cells can be ... Ball, Philip (2009). Shapes. Oxford University Press. Stewart, Ian (2007). What Shape is a Snowflake? Magical Numbers in Nature ... Bacteria are often referred to as having a 'spherical' shape. Bacteria are categorized based on their shapes into three classes ... Cell. 125 (1): 33-45. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.03.002. PMID 16615888. S2CID 18007532. Nonaka, Shigenori; Shiratori, Hidetaka; ...
The edge-first orthogonal projection of a 24-cell is an elongated hexagonal bipyramid. Used as the shape of Fruit Gushers candy ... Controllable synthesis of elongated hexagonal bipyramid shaped La(OH)3 nanorods and the distribution of electric property by ...
Cell Motility and Shape I: Microfilaments. 18.2. The Dynamics of Actin Assembly". Molecular cell biology. San Francisco: W.H. ... blood-cell precursor) stem cells of bone marrow. Work with cell cultures and experiments with animals have shown that ... Adhesion to endothelial cells of blood vessel walls is pre-requisite for these cells to leave the bloodstream and invade ... This would require its uptake by cells, and moreover, in most cases the cells affected already have substantial intracellular ...
The goal is to assess the shape of the forehead, the skull length, the width of the skull, position of the ears and the ... Certain cells in the brain respond specifically to an increase of CO2 in the blood.[4][24] The response involves vasodilatation ... Cunningham ML, Heike CL (December 2007). "Evaluation of the infant with an abnormal skull shape". Current Opinion in Pediatrics ... Reshaping of the cranial vault most commonly means excision of the bones to allow shape adjustment.[42] Replacement of cranial ...
Virgaviridae: a new Familie of rod-shaped plant viruses. . In: Arch Virol. . 154, Nr. 12, 2009, S. 1967-72. doi:10.1007/s00705- ... Santeuil and Le Blanc viruses primarily infect intestinal cells in Caenorhabditis nematodes, in: Virology, Volume 448, 5. ...
... perforating the middle lamella but damage to either the plasmalemma or cell walls was not observed.[29] The disease is often ... Small lens-shaped lesion on the bark of stem. Large lesion extending along a branch ...
The brain detects insulin in the blood, which indicates that nutrients are being absorbed by cells and a person is getting full ... Eldredge, K. L.; Agras, W. S. (1994). "Weight and Shape Overconcern and Emotional Eating in Binge Eating Disorder". ... When the glucose levels of cells drop (glucoprivation), the body starts to produce the feeling of hunger. The body also ...
Alterations in body shape (lipodystrophy), colloquially known as "Crix belly"[6]. *Increased levels of Bilirubin,[7] causing ... 1156 patients with a mean of 87 CD4 cell counts and mean viral load of 100,000 copies/ml were randomized to one of the two ... Viral resistance to the drug leads to the drug becoming useless since the virus evolves to have cells that are able to resist ... There were higher CD4 cell counts and less viral load in patients assigned to the three-drug group, proving that a three-drug ...
Cells are homogenised in a blender and filtered to remove debris. *The homogenised sample is placed in an ultracentrifuge and ... The particles' settling velocity in centrifugation is a function of their size and shape, centrifugal acceleration, the volume ... General method of fractionation: Cell sample is stored in a suspension which is: *Buffered - neutral pH, preventing damage to ... This method is commonly used to separate organelles and membranes found in cells. Organelles generally differ from each other ...
The] clave pattern has two opposing rhythm cells: the first cell consists of three strokes, or the rhythm cell, which is called ... Clave is a Spanish word meaning 'code,' 'key,' as in key to a mystery or puzzle, or 'keystone,' the wedge-shaped stone in the ... The second cell has two strokes and is called the two-side of the weak part of the clave. . . The different accent types in the ... Clave is the basic period, composed of two rhythmically opposed cells, one antecedent and the other consequent.[d][e] Clave was ...
Invasins, such as pneumolysin, an antiphagocytic capsule, various adhesins, and immunogenic cell wall components are all major ... lancet-shaped diplococci. They have a polysaccharide capsule that acts as a virulence factor for the organism; more than 90 ... and white blood cells to fill the alveoli. This condition is called pneumonia.[20] It is susceptible to clindamycin.[21] ...
The moonlit sky is not perceived as blue, however, because at low light levels human vision comes mainly from rod cells that do ... 1 act as geometric shapes, scattering light according to their projected area. At the intermediate x ≃ 1 of Mie scattering, ...
This tracer is a glucose analog that is taken up by glucose-using cells and phosphorylated by hexokinase (whose mitochondrial ... were the first to propose a ring system that has become the prototype of the current shape of PET. ... This means that FDG is trapped in any cell that takes it up until it decays, since phosphorylated sugars, due to their ionic ... PET in the management of patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research ...
Films in annular ring mounts on gas-tight cells, will readily deform into spherical mirrors. Photomultiplier cosmic-ray ... An interesting toy has been developed using boPET and a stick-shaped Van de Graaff generator. ... The heat setting step prevents the film from shrinking back to its original unstretched shape and locks in the molecular ...
... epidermal hair cells (trichomes), cells in the stomatal complex; guard cells and subsidiary cells. The epidermal cells are the ... Ear-shaped.. Cordate. Heart-shaped with the notch towards the stalk.. Cuneate. Wedge-shaped.. Hastate. Shaped like an halberd ... Kidney-shaped but rounder and broader than long.. Rounded. Curving shape.. Sagittate. Shaped like an arrowhead and with the ... Cells that bring water and minerals from the roots into the leaf.. Phloem. Cells that usually move sap, with dissolved sucrose( ...
Filovirions such as EBOV may be identified by their unique filamentous shapes in cell cultures examined with electron ... dendritic cells and other cells including liver cells, fibroblasts, and adrenal gland cells.[93] Viral replication triggers ... doi:10.1016/j.cell.2014.10.006. PMC 4243531. PMID 25417101.. *^ a b c d e f g h Kühl A, Pöhlmann S (September 2012). "How Ebola ... liver cells, and several types of immune cells such as macrophages, monocytes, and dendritic cells are the main targets of ...
It also contains pacemaker cells and nonpacemaker cells that initiate spontaneous breathing. Research is being conducted on the ... During the depression phase, the inspiratory burst changes from an augmenting bell-shaped burst to a decrementing burst, a ... It is one of the four cell groups of the Ventral Respiratory Group (VRG). It is hypothesized that the pre-Bötzinger complex is ... which helps cell regenerate its bursts. The ratio between inward and outward currents helps determine the activity of pacemaker ...
cell junction. • plasma membrane. • GABA-ergic synapse. • integral component of postsynaptic specialization membrane. • ... "Enhanced macroscopic desensitization shapes the response of alpha4 subtype-containing GABAA receptors to synaptic and ...
Because the cell acquiring a chloroplast already had mitochondria (and peroxisomes, and a cell membrane for secretion), the new ... β-barrel The general shape of a β-barrel is a hollow cylinder lined by multiple β-sheets. Note that the protein depicted is not ... and therefore topologically outside of the cell, because to reach the chloroplast from the cytosol, you have to cross the cell ... "The Plant Cell. 12 (1): 53-64. doi:10.1105/tpc.12.1.53. PMC 140214. PMID 10634907.. ...
Low operating voltages compatible with batteries of only a few cells.. *Circuits with greater energy efficiency are usually ... Fin field-effect transistor (FinFET), source/drain region shapes fins on the silicon surface ... Solaristor (from solar cell transistor), a two-terminal gate-less self-powered phototransistor. ...
... and Th1 cells.[45] IL-1α stimulates increased skin cell activity and reproduction, which, in turn, fuels comedo development.[45 ... and accumulation of skin cells in the hair follicle.[1] In healthy skin, the skin cells that have died come up to the surface ... the increased production of oily sebum causes the dead skin cells to stick together.[10] The accumulation of dead skin cell ... The retinoids appear to influence the cell life cycle in the follicle lining. This helps prevent the accumulation of skin cells ...
The CD20 proteins are sticking out of the cell membrane, and rituximab, the Y-shaped antibody, is binding to the CD20 proteins. ... cells in destroying these B cells. When an NK cell latched onto the cap, it had an 80% success rate at killing the cell. In ... The antibody binds to the cell surface protein CD20. CD20 is widely expressed on B cells, from early pre-B cells to later in ... It induces apoptosis of CD20+ cells.. The combined effect results in the elimination of B cells (including the cancerous ones) ...
a b c Kerr, Analysis: European yards face Soryu-shaped hurdle to replacing Collins class ... The German Type 214 submarine employs advanced polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells that assist in delivering it comparable ... "Analysis: European yards face Soryu-shaped hurdle to replacing Collins class". IHS Jane's Navy International. Retrieved 3 ... ...
Anthony, David A. (2007). The Horse, the Wheel, and Language: How Bronze-Age Riders from the Eurasian Steppes Shaped the Modern ... In medicine, this era brought innovations such as open-heart surgery and later stem cell therapy along with new medications and ... MacKenzie, Donald A.; Wajcman, Judy (1999). "Introductory Essay". The Social Shaping of Technology (2nd ed.). Buckingham: Open ... and managers have often believed that they can use technology to shape the world as they want. They have often supposed that ...
Would a oloid or sphericon planet be able to exist or if magically appeared somewhere be able to continue with its shape?[edit] ... doi:10.1016/j.cell.2021.06.02: Convalescent serum (i.e. antibodies in blood from people previously infected) of people who had ... The Earth itself is slightly pear-shaped: see geoid. 2601:648:8202:350:0:0:0:2B99 (talk) 19:11, 1 August 2021 (UTC). A planet ... 4.3 Would a oloid or sphericon planet be able to exist or if magically appeared somewhere be able to continue with its shape? ...
The skin consists of a thin outer epidermis with mucous cells and sensory cells, and a connective tissue dermis consisting ... The cornea is formed from a translucent epidermal layer and the slit-shaped pupil forms a hole in the iris and lies just behind ... Other colour-changing cells are reflective iridophores and white leucophores.[93] This colour-changing ability is also used to ... As a result, the octopus does not possess stereognosis; that is, it does not form a mental image of the overall shape of the ...
Chromosome replication and cell division only occurs in the stalked cell stage. Its name derives from its crescent shape caused ... Role of the swarmer cell stageEdit. The Caulobacter stalked cell stage provides a fitness advantage by anchoring the cell to ... What is the offsetting fitness advantage of this motile cell stage? The swarmer cell is thought to provide cell dispersal, so ... an intermediate filament-like function in cell shape". Cell. 115 (6): 705-13. doi:10.1016/S0092-8674(03)00935-8. PMID 14675535 ...
When light hits a photoreceptive pigment within the photoreceptor cell, the pigment changes shape. The pigment, called iodopsin ... Further complexity arises from the various interconnections among bipolar cells, horizontal cells, and amacrine cells in the ... ON bipolar cells or inhibit (hyperpolarize) OFF bipolar cells. Thus, it is at the photoreceptor-bipolar cell synapse where ... which releases a neurotransmitter called glutamate to bipolar cells. Farther back is the cell body, which contains the cell's ...
McBride, SH; Falls T; Knothe Tate ML (2008). "Modulation of stem cell shape and fate B: mechanical modulation of cell shape and ... Osteochondroprogenitor cells are progenitor cells that arise from mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) in the bone marrow. They have ... Sox9 blocked osteochondroprogenitor cells were found to express osteoblast marker genes, reprogramming the cells into the ... The positioning of the osteoprogenitor cell condensations determines the cell lineage before the signalling molecules can. This ...
The circular design, with walls coming out from the centre, created wedge shaped 'airing yards' where prisoners would be ... Cells of Pentridge Prison. The prison was split into many divisions, named using letters of the alphabet. ...
... a large one with two small ones on top of it forming a familiar shape. ... cell phone strap charms, and Disney character keychains. ...
Multiple tornadoes produced by the same storm cell are referred to as a "tornado family".[21] Several tornadoes are sometimes ... During this stage the shape of the tornado becomes highly influenced by the winds of the parent storm, and can be blown into ... Evidence of a supercell is based on the storm's shape and structure, and cloud tower features such as a hard and vigorous ... Tornadoes in the dissipating stage can resemble narrow tubes or ropes, and often curl or twist into complex shapes. These ...
regulation of metanephric nephron tubule epithelial cell differentiation. • cell differentiation. • mesonephric tubule ... S-shaped body morphogenesis. • inner ear morphogenesis. • urogenital system development. • sulfur compound metabolic process. • ... positive regulation of metanephric DCT cell differentiation. • negative regulation of mesenchymal cell apoptotic process ... pancreatic islet cells and lymphoid cells.[8] PAX8 and other transcription factors play a role in binding to DNA and regulating ...
Rab35 regulates neurite outgrowth and cell shape.. Chevallier J1, Koop C, Srivastava A, Petrie RJ, Lamarche-Vane N, Presley JF. ... We find activated Rab35 stimulates neurite outgrowth in PC12 and N1E-115 cells via a Cdc42-dependent pathway and that siRNA ... Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.. Abstract. Recent studies have identified ... knockdown of Rab35 activity abolishes neurite outgrowth in these cell lines. We conclude that one function of Rab35 is to ...
... organize the cell and generate forces needed to support cell shape, cell movement, and importantly, cell division. To perform ... and could have implications for understanding the process of acquiring cell shape and function of human cells." ... Animal cells separate their chromosomes during cell division by organizing the microtubules network from centrioles. A big ... By contrast, in the cells we studied these complexes were distributed at the cell membrane and were primarily located along the ...
... cell-background separation and cell-cell separation. The presence of touching or overlapping cells requires more sophisticated ... Cell-shape wizard: a concept for userguidance for active shape segmentation in fluorescence cell micrographs. Biomed Tech. 2014 ... Cell segmentation on fluorescent micrographs requires preprocessing, cell-background separation and cell-cell separation. The ... The Cell-Shape-Wizard. User Guidance for Active Contour-Based Cell Segmentation ...
Despite intensive research, the molecular mechanisms underlying the generation and maintenance of bacterial cell shape remain ... Bacterial species have long been classified on the basis of their characteristic cell shapes. ... Bacterial cell shape Nat Rev Microbiol. 2005 Aug;3(8):601-10. doi: 10.1038/nrmicro1205. ... Bacterial species have long been classified on the basis of their characteristic cell shapes. Despite intensive research, the ...
Various cell surface structures such as pili and flagella have been identified and their roles in cell-to-cell and cell-surface ... as a capsule surrounding the cell and thereby increasing the adhesion to surfaces or strengthening cell-cell contacts in cell ... Shaping the Archaeal Cell Envelope. Albert F. Ellen,1,2 Behnam Zolghadr,2,3 Arnold M. J. Driessen,2 and Sonja-Verena Albers3 ... As the archaeal cell surface is so different from that of bacteria and eukarya, unique mechanisms must exist to form and shape ...
... buttons located within a cell for an annotation to view further details. ...
Cytotoxicity of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles is shape and cell dependent.. Zhao X1, Ng S, Heng BC, Guo J, Ma L, Tan TT, Ng KW, ... Specifically, needle- and plate-shaped nHA induced the most significant cell-specific cytotoxicity and IL-6 expression but ... no significant differences were observed in TNF-α level for RAW264.7 cells upon incubation with nHA of different shapes. In ... particle-cell association and cellular uptake were evaluated on BEAS-2B and RAW264.7 cells. Results show that nHA-ND and nHA-PL ...
Cell shape fluctuations from actomyosin contractility and cell-cell adhesion control the interaction stress, while cell ... or the cell shape parameter P. 0. /. A. 0. that characterizes the competition between cell-cell adhesion and cortical tension. ... Each cell i is endowed with a position vector 𝒓. i. , and cell shape is defined by the Voronoi tessellation of all cell ... we examine the interplay between cell motility and cell shape, tuned by cortex contractility and cell-cell adhesion, in ...
We study the problem of segmenting multiple cell nucle-i from GFP or Hoechst stained microscope images with a shape prior. This ... cell tracking), but also prevent robust statistical analysis (e.g. modeling of fluores-cence distribution). We therefore ... problem is encountered ubiquitously in cell biology and developmental biology. Our work is mo-tivated by the observation that ... segment dense cell nucleus shape prior rand index increase prevent robust statistical analysis corresponding energy term ...
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Home , Printer-friendly , Shaping the future of sickle cell disease. Shaping the future of sickle cell disease [1]. Discovery [ ... understanding of sickle cell disease beyond the signature sickle-shaped red blood cells. P-selectin is one of the cell adhesion ... Majara lives with sickle cell disease -a complex and debilitating, genetic blood disorder that goes beyond sickle-shaped red ... "Sickle cell disease has impacted my life in so many ways," she says. "Nobody wants to experience what sickle cell patients go ...
... cells mount an innate immune response, which varies widely from cell to cell. The response must be potent but carefully ... are conserved between species and display low cell-to-cell variability in expression. We suggest that this expression pattern, ... How these constraints have shaped the evolution of innate immunity remains poorly understood. Here we characterize the innate ... Comparison of transcriptomic data from immune-stimulated cells across different species sheds light on the architecture of the ...
Left) The blue line is the instantaneous cell shape (r(s), z(s)), and the red line is the undeformed cell shape (R(s), Z(s)). ( ... 3 shows computed cell shapes for E. coli with a Z-ring force of f = 8 pN and f = 80 pN. The initial cell shape was a perfect ... The cell shape appears to be relatively independent of the force. The contraction time is 2 min. (C) An E. coli cell shape with ... Cell shapes during division are the combined results of Z-ring force, cell wall growth, and cell wall turnover. The Z-ring ...
Human UdRPCs should be considered as the choice of renal stem cells for facilitating the study of nephrogenesis, nephrotoxicity ... Human UdRPCs should be considered as the choice of renal stem cells for facilitating the study of nephrogenesis, nephrotoxicity ... Kidney stem cells can be isolated from urine. Heinrich-Heine University Duesseldorf ...
The unique architecture of star-shaped brain cells called astrocytes plays a key role in regulating the development and ... Star-shaped brain cells orchestrate neural connections Dysfunction of intricate astrocyte cells may underlie devastating ... Star-shaped brain cells orchestrate neural connections. Duke University. Journal. Nature. Funder. National Institutes of Health ... To find out how neurons influence astrocyte shape, Jeff Stogsdill, a recent PhD graduate in Eroglus lab, grew the two cells ...
Now in a new research, scientists have found that there may be another new shape in the DNA machinery within the cells of ... Now in a new research, scientists have found that there may be another new shape in the DNA machinery within the cells of ... New shape of DNA found in human cells. News-Medical. ... New shape of DNA found in human cells. News-Medical. 23 September 2019. , ...
Biophysicist Jennifer Ross hopes to find the rules that govern how cells restructure and self-repair, with the goal of creating ... In plant cells, for example, microtubules run around the edge of each cell, providing each cell-and the plant-with structural ... Q&A: Examining a Cells Shape-Shifting "Bones". January 25, 2019. • Physics 12, 7 ... Microtubules act like a cells bones in that they work together to help give a cell its structure. But unlike bones, ...
Does Shape Matter? Bioeffects of Gold Nanomaterials in a Human Skin Cell Model. ... are found to be cytotoxic to the HaCaT cells, with a significant decrease in cell viability occurring at 25 µg/mL and higher. ... ... on mediation of biological responses in the human keratinocyte cell line (HaCaT) through evaluation of cell viability, ROS ...
... researchers found the most basic of cells, the glue that holds life together. And you know what? The cells were shaped like a ... Cells Shaped Like a Cross" Jul 2010 Jul. 20, 2010 - Some months ago I was sitting in a diner in Tucumcari, N.M ...
Disassembly of the microtubules with these treatments prevented the characteristic cell shape changes in, and thus ... because they were localized to sites where cells were changing their shape. In 1967, Lewis Tilney and Keith Porter, then at ... The Journal of Cell Biology May 2005, 169 (4) 553; DOI: 10.1083/jcb1694fta2 ... direct experimental evidence that microtubule polymerization was important for the development and maintenance of cell shape.. ...
... 08.08.2006. An innovative cell-shaped building will house a new biomedical research ... In the meantime, Zhang has produced a book on the design process for the cell-shaped building. On viewing the renderings of the ... Kulper (S.B. 2003) and Roy (S.B. 2005) designed the cell-shaped building for the Institute for Nanobiomedical Technology and ... The cell-shaped building attempts to combine the architecture and the biology structures," he said. ...
... can have a profound impact on cell shape and cell shape mutants and, thus, is an important consideration when designing and ... Relative rates of surface and volume synthesis set bacterial cell size. Cell 165:1479-1492. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2016.05.045. ... Single-cell experiments performed on E. coli and Caulobacter crescentus show that cells achieve cell size homeostasis not by ... A constant size extension drives bacterial cell size homeostasis. Cell 159:1433-1446. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2014.11.022. ...
This is more pertinent to animal cells that, unlike plant cells, do not have a rigid cell wall. A misshapen cell cannot ... The shape of a cell dictates the function of that cell. ... The shape of a cell dictates the function of that cell. This is ... Cells are the essential building blocks of all living things. Neurons are a prime example of a cell with a specific shape that ... Size as well as shape plays a crucial role in cell function. A cell must be big enough to contain all the essentials, which ...
... Min-Haw Wang and Wen-Hao Chang ... Additionally, increasing the operating voltage reduces the impedance magnitude of a single HeLa cell in all electrode shapes. ... At the individual cell level, the electrical properties of the cell are helpful for understanding the effects of cellular ... and a cell is used to obtain the impedance of a single HeLa cell. Simulations indicated that the circle and parallel electrodes ...
Recent evidence indicates that mitochondrial morphology is crucial for cell physiology, as changes in mitochondrial shape ha … ... Mitochondrial shape changes: orchestrating cell pathophysiology EMBO Rep. 2010 Sep;11(9):678-84. doi: 10.1038/embor.2010.115. ... Recent evidence indicates that mitochondrial morphology is crucial for cell physiology, as changes in mitochondrial shape have ... Because immune cells contain few mitochondria, these organelles have been considered to have only a marginal role in this ...
Cell size and shape are generally coordinated with cell growth and division. Cytoskeletal regulation of cell shape and cell ... Cell size and shape are generally coordinated with cell growth and division. Cytoskeletal regulation of cell shape and cell ... Although the involvement of cytoskeletal components in the regulation of cell shape is widely accepted, the signaling factors ... Although the involvement of cytoskeletal components in the regulation of cell shape is widely accepted, the signaling factors ...
The measurement of cell shape combined with the cells genetics could offer a more precise prognosis and treatment strategies ... For example, how a cell is prepared for imaging can affect its shape - "What you put these cells on when you look at them may ... first had to quantify cell shape. Rather than trying to categorize cells as "a little oblong" or "somewhat spherical", the ... A cancer cells shape offers clues on how it will act, how dangerous it is and what treatments should be used against it. ...
... we dont know how even these single cells get their shape, and it doesnt seem to be as simple as from their DNA, moron! ... Cell biology Genetics News How much does DNA influence cell shape?. Posted on April 2, 2014. April 2, 2014. Author NewsComments ... dealing with the specification of bacterial cell shape:. Abstract Rod-like bacteria maintain their cylindrical shapes with ... In short, we dont know how even these single cells get their shape, and it doesnt seem to be as simple as "from their DNA, ...
To further untangle the shaping and function of these BCRs, we analyzed immunoglobulin gene rearrangements of monoclonal B ... expressing stereotyped B-cell receptors (BCRs) endowed with rheumatoid factor (RF) activity and putatively recognizing the HCV ... suggest that a stereotyped KCDR3 may predominantly shape anti-HCV specificity of BCRs, possibly providing a signature that may ... cells from 13 patients with HCV-associated LPDs and correlated their features with the clinical outcomes of antiviral therapy. ...
  • The Ehrhardt lab previously found that individual microtubules in plant cell arrays are born at many locations along the inside of the cell membrane, where they are detached from the sites of birth and move along the membrane to interact with other microtubules. (
  • By contrast, in the cells we studied these complexes were distributed at the cell membrane and were primarily located along the sides of other microtubules, an association that was correlated with their activity. (
  • Here we discuss recent developments in our understanding of the archaeal protein secretion mechanisms, the assembly of macromolecular cell surface structures, and the release of S-layer-coated vesicles from the archaeal membrane. (
  • This cytoplasmic membrane is enclosed by an S-layer, a two-dimensional protein crystal that fully covers the cells (see review Jarrell et al. (
  • However, in recent years tremendous progress has been made in our understanding of the assembly and function of cell surface structures and both the structural and functional basis of protein translocation across the archaeal membrane. (
  • Kulper (S.B. 2003) and Roy (S.B. 2005) designed the cell-shaped building for the Institute for Nanobiomedical Technology and Membrane Biology in Chengdu, China, the regional capital of Sichuan province in southwestern China. (
  • Sloan Kulper (S.B. 2003) has designed a building in the shape of a cell for the Institute for Nanobiomedical Technology and Membrane Biology in Chengdu, China. (
  • Conventional anti-cancer drugs accumulate in the liver, lungs and spleen instead of the cancer cell site due to inefficient interactions with the cancer cell membrane," explained Samir Mitragotri , professor of chemical engineering and Director of the Center for BioEngineering at UCSB. (
  • Or is something mechanical in the cell membrane-the outer skin of the cell-actively contracting and relaxing to maintain the shape? (
  • The team used advanced microscopes at Scripps Research to capture 3D images showing myosin IIA under the cell membrane. (
  • Specialized regions at both ends of the myosin IIA filaments can pull on a membrane-associated structural protein called actin to control the stiffness of the cell membrane. (
  • You need active contraction on the cell membrane, similar to how muscles contract," says Fowler. (
  • The myosin pulls on the actin to provide tension in the membrane, and then that tension maintains the biconcave shape. (
  • Understanding the architecture of the membrane is an important step toward finding the causes of diseases where red blood cells are deformed. (
  • The study suggests that cells use a process called phosphorylation to make the myosin IIA filaments on the cell membrane more stable-but how this process is controlled remains a mystery. (
  • The study, " Myosin IIA interacts with the spectrin-actin membrane skeleton to control red blood cell membrane curvature and deformability ," included authors from the Rochester Institute of Technology, The Feinstein Institute for Medical Research, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and the Donald and Barbara Zucker School of Medicine at Hofstra-Northwell. (
  • Another excellent paper, by Dr. Lessin, discusses the complement-antibody damage to the cell membrane. (
  • Now, consider that most of our cells are essentially water balloons: a thin membrane envelope containing a mixture that's mostly water along with some salts, proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, and nucleic acids. (
  • Scientists determined, about 30 years ago, that, when this occurs, channels in the cell membrane open and the cells release chloride and other molecules, such as amino acids: a process that drives out the excess water and returns cells to their normal size [1]. (
  • By employing theoretical models and performing tests on cultured cells, the researchers found that it took less energy for a cell membrane to engulf disc-shaped particles than rod-shaped ones, which they had originally expected to be the most efficient. (
  • The outer sheath of cells - the membrane - has no muscles or comparable structures. (
  • How these forces are generated, how the membrane reacts to these forces and just which cell formations are created and when - these and similar questions were explored by scientists at Forschungszentrum Jülich and ETH Zurich, by combining two well-researched model systems and studying them together, both experimentally and by using computer simulations. (
  • Because the cell membrane does not play an active role in shaping cells, the researchers were able to replace it in their studies with simpler vesicles - tiny blisters whose flexible membrane is very similar to cell membranes in structure and mechanical behaviour. (
  • In order to explain how they are created, the Jülich researchers have developed a new program for extensive calculations on a supercomputer at Forschungszentrum Jülich, which enables a high spatial resolution of the membrane shapes and deformations to be achieved. (
  • The researchers thus succeeded in identifying the three essential factors that determine the shape and dynamics of vesicles: firstly, the membrane tension, secondly, the propulsive force of the active particles and thirdly, their concentration in the vesicle. (
  • These retrovirus surface proteins cause the membrane envelope of the virus to fuse with the membrane of the cell, spilling virus RNA into the cell to wreak damage. (
  • They also saw strong evidence that the protein complex undergoes a radical change in shape and arrangement of its component parts as it attaches to cells and initiates membrane fusion. (
  • Fass was able to see how a smaller protein piece she had previously isolated and analyzed by crystallization fit into the whole, giving her further clues as to how the virus locks onto the cell membrane. (
  • We demonstrate that compression (folding) and subsequent dilation (unfolding) of the coupled plasma membrane-cortex layer generates rapid shape transformations in rounded cells. (
  • Two- and three-dimensional live-cell images showed that the cyclic process of membrane-cortex compression and dilation resulted in a traveling wave of cortical actin density. (
  • We also demonstrate that the membrane-cortex traveling wave led to amoeboid-like cell migration. (
  • The compression-dilation hypothesis offers a mechanism for large-scale cell shape transformations that is complementary to blebbing, where the plasma membrane detaches from the actin cortex and is initially unsupported when the bleb extends as a result of cytosolic pressure. (
  • In this study, we demonstrated that compression (folding) and subsequent dilation (unfolding) of the plasma membrane (PM)-cortex layer underlies the periodic protrusive phenotype (we use this term because oscillating cells exhibit rounded protrusions at a defined frequency) and may provide a general mechanism for rapid transformations in cell shape. (
  • We found that the cyclic process of membrane-cortex compression and dilation generates a traveling wave of cortical actin density, which in turn generates oscillations in cell morphology and which, under proper environmental conditions, can produce amoeboid-like migration. (
  • The physical process of osmosis dictates that if the solute concentrations inside and outside the cell are different, water will tend to move across the cell membrane from the side with low solute concentration ( hypotonic ) to the side with high solute concentration ( hypertonic ). (
  • Ankyrin-B directs membrane tethering of periaxin and is required for maintenance of lens fiber cell hexagonal shape and mechanics. (
  • Periaxin (Prx), a PDZ domain protein expressed preferentially in myelinating Schwann cells and lens fibers, plays a key role in membrane scaffolding and cytoarchitecture. (
  • Here we report that ankyrin-B (AnkB), a well-characterized adaptor protein involved in linking the spectrin-actin cytoskeleton to integral membrane proteins, is required for membrane association of Prx in lens fibers and colocalizes with Prx in hexagonal fiber cells. (
  • Both AnkB- and Prx-deficient mice exhibit disruptions in membrane organization of the spectrin-actin network and the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex in lens fiber cells. (
  • Taken together, these observations reveal that AnkB is required for Prx membrane anchoring and for maintenance of lens fiber cell hexagonal geometry, membrane skeleton organization, and biomechanics. (
  • Once it binds, gp120 undergoes a shape change, which signals a companion protein, gp41, to begin a set of actions that enable HIV's membrane to fuse with the target cell's membrane. (
  • Researchers at the Carnegie Institution for Science, with colleagues at the Nara Institute of Science and Technology, observed for the first time a fundamental process of cellular organization in living plant cells: the birth of microtubules by studying recruitment and activity of individual protein complexes that create the cellular protein network known as the microtubule cytoskeleton""the scaffolding that provides structure and ultimately form and shape to the cell. (
  • All plant and animal cells rely on an elaborate array of molecular rods built from the protein tubulin. (
  • When introduced into plant cells and visualized with highly sensitive spinning disk confocal microscopy, this tagged protein permitted the researchers to observe what happens as the microtubule array is being built. (
  • Until recently most of our knowledge of protein secretion and on the assembly of the cell surface components in archaea was obtained by comparative genomic studies. (
  • The discovery of a protein called P-selectin in the 1980s helped advance scientists' understanding of sickle cell disease beyond the signature sickle-shaped red blood cells. (
  • They are extremely long, thin, stiff protein rods, with a tube shape that makes them look like skinny, unfilled cannoli. (
  • This study investigates the role of shape of the AuNMs, i.e., aspect ratio (AR), on mediation of biological responses in the human keratinocyte cell line (HaCaT) through evaluation of cell viability, ROS generation, alteration in gene and protein expression, and inflammatory response. (
  • According to Zhang, the pioneering design for the cell-shaped building was inspired by "elegantly folded protein structures and their simple and beautiful structural motifs. (
  • More than 5 decades of work support the idea that cell envelope synthesis, including the inward growth of cell division, is tightly coordinated with DNA replication and protein synthesis through central metabolism. (
  • A cell must be big enough to contain all the essentials, which include DNA strands, protein, and survival and reproductive structures. (
  • Hepatitis C virus (HCV) causes B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders (LPDs) expressing stereotyped B-cell receptors (BCRs) endowed with rheumatoid factor (RF) activity and putatively recognizing the HCV E2 protein. (
  • This can bind to specific G protein-coupled receptors in colonocytes and immune cells, leading to antimicrobial immune responses ( 3 ). (
  • They show that certain changes in gene and protein expression are related not only to cell shape but, more precisely, to the shape of the cell nucleus. (
  • The key to exploiting the technology for medical and research purposes is being able to produce the changes in gene and protein expression that lead to the desired cell types. (
  • Engineering gene expression and protein synthesis by modulation of nuclear shape. (
  • In a new study, Velia Fowler , PhD, and her lab at The Scripps Research Institute report that a protein called myosin IIA contracts to give red blood cells their distinctive shape. (
  • They found that red blood cells actively regulate their shape, thanks to myosin IIA-which is related to the protein that drives muscle contraction in other parts of the body. (
  • Another direction of this thesis is represented by the studies on the topology of the cell shape determining RodA protein. (
  • An important feature of the protein appears to be a large periplasmic loop - a highly conserved part of the protein possibly interacting with other members of the shape controlling system. (
  • She and her colleagues found that the glial cell expresses an ion transporter protein, called KCC-3, specifically on its surface near the thermosensory neuron, but away from other neurons. (
  • The protein is also present in glial cells in the central nervous system, and other research has indicated its function may be relevant for conditions associated with defects in the shape of neurons, including Huntington's disease and epilepsy. (
  • In humans and other eukaryote organisms, normal DNA is packed into cell nuclei by tightly wrapping it around closely bunched clusters of protein complexes called histone octamers. (
  • A human cell expressing both the SWELL1 (red) and green fluorescent protein. (
  • For instance, the type of protein on a cell's surface plays a role in the ideal shape of the nanoparticle to enter that cell. (
  • But how exactly protein networks and chromosomes 'feel' the cell boundaries and organise their actions accordingly were largely unknown. (
  • Remarkably, the dynamics of protein patterns and the integrity of the chromosomes are not disrupted in these shaped cells," wrote Wu. (
  • Here, we show that the transmembrane protein, Nogo-A, inhibits neurite outgrowth and cell spreading in neurons and Nogo-A-responsive cell lines via HSPGs. (
  • That each cell type has its unique shape is due to its cytoskeleton, an internal scaffold built of protein filaments. (
  • The researchers found that a protein called Syx is key to determining how tumor cells migrate. (
  • We show that secretion of Fog protein is apically polarized, making this the earliest polarized component of a pathway that ultimately drives myosin to the apical side of the cell. (
  • RNA marks, including m 6 A, help our cells tweak how RNAs are processed and interpreted by our protein-producing factories, thereby influencing how proteins are made. (
  • 3-D structure of the protein complex that allows the retrovirus to penetrate living cells. (
  • The viruses manage to sneak into cells with the help of special protein assemblies scattered all over their surfaces. (
  • Now, a team of scientists at the Weizmann Institute of Science and the Max Planck Institute for Biochemistry has obtained a close-up 3-D portrait of the large protein complex on the virus that enables its entry into the cell. (
  • The scientists were surprised to note that the shape of the complexes on the retroviruses bore little resemblance to other known viral envelope protein structures such as those on flu viruses. (
  • Differently charged coatings demonstrated dissimilar behavior in terms of agglomeration in media, serum protein adsorption, nanoparticle cytotoxicity and cell internalization. (
  • Grillo-Hill, B. K. and Wolff, T. (2009), Dynamic cell shapes and contacts in the developing Drosophila retina are regulated by the Ig cell adhesion protein hibris. (
  • We had shown previously that matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP3) can stimulate EMT of cultured mouse mammary epithelial cells through a process that involves increased expression of Rac1b, a protein that stimulates alterations in cytoskeletal structure. (
  • Intact vinculin protein is required for control of cell shape, cell mechanics, and rac-dependent lamellipodia formation. (
  • Studies were carried out using vinculin-deficient F9 embryonic carcinoma (gamma229) cells to analyze the relationship between structure and function within the focal adhesion protein vinculin, in the context of control of cell shape, cell mechanics, and movement. (
  • Constitutively active rac also only induced extension of lamellipodia when microinjected into cells that expressed intact vinculin protein. (
  • It was found that a protein called NF-kappaB plays a key role in this shape-gene network and is expected to drive the growth and spread of cancer cells. (
  • Kuhlmann investigates whether changes in the LRRK2 protein affect the transmission of chemicals among brain cells, and the structure of dendrites and spines. (
  • If Kuhlmann can figure out how the mutated LRRK2 and its associated protein alter the structure of the other brain cells that regulate dopamine, the brain chemical required for muscle movement, that fundamental knowledge might help researchers design new drugs. (
  • The field has recently taken an important step forward with the discovery that eukaryotic cytoskeletal proteins have homologues in bacteria that affect cell shape. (
  • The ability to transport proteins across membranes is vital for cell viability. (
  • The disease is associated with chronic inflammation, causing higher levels of cell adhesion proteins that make both the blood vessels and certain blood cells stickier and prone to the formation of clusters in the bloodstream. (
  • P-selectin is one of the cell adhesion proteins found in excess on the surface of activated platelets and endothelial cells in blood vessels due to the inflammatory environment in sickle cell disease - which can lead to vaso-occlusion, potentially causing sickle cell pain crises or VOCs. (
  • Together with several other proteins, FtsZ is essential for cell division. (
  • In addition to the Fts family of proteins, other proteins are also essential for cell division. (
  • Motor proteins have not been discovered for prokaryotic cells, and the mechanism of Z-ring contraction is unknown. (
  • Stogsdill searched existing genetic databases for cell surface proteins known to be expressed by astrocytes, and identified three candidates that might help direct their shape. (
  • These results combined with increased levels of several inflammatory and apoptotic proteins demonstrate that the AuNR-PEGs are damaging the cells via apoptosis. (
  • Recent studies demonstrate that proteins involved in carbohydrate and nitrogen metabolism can moonlight as direct regulators of cell division, coordinate cell division and DNA replication, and even suppress defects in DNA replication. (
  • B-cell receptors expressed by lymphomas of hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected patients rarely react with the viral proteins. (
  • The wrong shape can prevent proteins from being produced, promote cell death (apoptosis), or lead to tumors. (
  • Then they went further and identified the proteins in the neuron whose activity is controlled by chloride ions, which manipulate the cell's skeleton and give the nerve ending its shape. (
  • Their spatial organisation inside cells depends on a variety of regulator proteins, some of which only interact with the growing ends of these filament. (
  • Applying the new method they succeeded in dissecting a minimal molecular system consisting of three end tracking proteins from yeast cells. (
  • In research published in the December issue of Molecular and Cellular Biology , investigators reveal how interplay of molecules keeps cancer cells moving forward, and how disturbing the balance of these proteins pushes their shape to change, stopping them in their tracks. (
  • The team showed for the first time that developing red blood cells use a particular molecular process to ensure that red blood cell-specific proteins are made. (
  • This showed that the key targets for the m 6 A-adding machine were RNAs coding for proteins important to red blood cell development, Paddison explained. (
  • We use this to measure the geometric localization of proteins responsible for the characteristic shape of Gram-negative bacteria (straight rod Escherichia coli , curved rod Vibrio cholerae , and helical rod Helicobacter pylori) . (
  • A breakthrough that led to the discovery of bacterial cytoskeletal proteins came from studies of cell division and morphology, and now the gene products of ftsZ and mreB in prokaryotes are known to be structurally and functionally related to eukaryotic tubulin and actin respectively (Wachi et al . (
  • These fundamental results could be important to agricultural research and are published in the October 10, 2010, early on-line edition of Nature Cell Biology. (
  • Understanding these mechanisms of molecular organization is a primary goal of cell biology. (
  • As co-author David Ehrhardt from Carnegie's Department of Plant Biology explained: "In many cells, microtubule arrays are created with aid of a centralized body called a centrosome. (
  • This problem is encountered ubiquitously in cell biology and developmental biology. (
  • We found that astrocytes' shape and their interactions with synapses are fundamentally important for brain function and can be linked to diseases in a way that people have neglected until now," said Cagla Eroglu, an associate professor of cell biology and neurobiology at Duke. (
  • The building is intended to look like a cell from the outside and to include an assortment of forms inspired by molecular biology inside. (
  • The cell-shaped building attempts to combine the architecture and the biology structures," he said. (
  • Perhaps one of the biggest mysteries remaining in bacterial cell biology relates to understanding the regulatory cross talk that must occur to integrate central metabolism with macromolecular biosynthesis. (
  • Dr. William H. Heidcamp, a professor in the Biology Department at Gustavus Adolphus College, explains that cell differentiation occurs when the structure a. (
  • The researchers from Colorado State University whose paper is published in the journal Integrative Biology hope that their measurements of cell shape could be combined with genomic data to offer a more precise prognosis and guide strategies for treating a patient's disease. (
  • We are still far from unravelling the fundamental \engineering"challenges that biology has to overcome in shaping single cells as well as multi-cellular tissues. (
  • But now researchers from the Department of Cellular Biology at the University of Seville and Seville Institute of Biomedicine (IBiS) have discovered these cells adopt a new, previously undescribed geometric shape, the scutoid, so that tissue can curve. (
  • University of Seville Biology faculty teacher Luisma Escudero said: 'The epithelial cells are the 'construction blocks' with which an organism is formed. (
  • In particular, the metabolic switch occurring in transforming tissues dramatically impacts on tumor-infiltrating T cell biology. (
  • This project aims to further understand character evolution of petal cell shape in Nicotiana and its implications in pollination systems, combining tools of molecular biology, morphology and pollinator behaviour experiments. (
  • The shape of cancer ecDNA is different than normal DNA, and that has really important implications, both for our understanding of cancer biology and clinical impact," said Paul S. Mischel, MD, professor in the UC San Diego School of Medicine Department of Pathology and Ludwig member. (
  • The full paper is published in Nature Cell Biology . (
  • MicroRNA-dependent regulation of biomechanical genes establishes tissue stiffness homeostasis, Nature Cell Biology (2019). (
  • Researchers at the European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL) and the Institute for Atomic and Molecular Physics (AMOLF), The Netherlands, have now decoded a molecular mechanism that plays an important role in the development of a cell's shape. (
  • We are starting to understand mechanistically how cancer cells move and migrate, which gives us opportunities to manipulate these cells, alter their shape, and stop their spread," says the study's lead investigator, Panos Z. Anastasiadis, Ph.D., chair of the Department of Cancer Biology at Mayo Clinic in Florida. (
  • Medical Xpress)-Scientists have discovered genes that control shape changes in melanoma skin cancer cells, allowing them to wriggle free and spread around the body, according to new research published in Nature Cell Biology. (
  • Scientists have discovered that cancer cells rely on the biology of regeneration, wound healing, and embryonic development to spread to other organs and escape detection by the immune system. (
  • Trends in Cell Biology. (
  • An astrocyte (blue) grown in a dish with neurons forms an intricate, star-shaped structure. (
  • Grow astrocytes and neurons together in a dish, and the astrocytes will form intricate star-shaped structures. (
  • To find out how neurons influence astrocyte shape, Jeff Stogsdill, a recent PhD graduate in Eroglu's lab, grew the two cells together while tweaking neurons' cellular signaling mechanisms. (
  • Neurons are a prime example of a cell with a specific shape that perform a single but vital function. (
  • Some nerve cells in the brain are multitaskers, responding to both color and shape , a survey of over 4,000 neurons in the visual systems of macaque monkeys finds. (
  • Star-shaped cells in our brains called astrocytes were once considered little more than structures to fill the gaps between all-important neurons. (
  • they are involved in information processing and signal transmission and they help to regulate the shapes of our neurons and their connections to one another. (
  • His group had proposed that neurons and astrocytes might be linked through what they referred to as metabolic coupling, involving the transfer of lactate derived from glycogen from one cell type to the other. (
  • Going forward, the researchers hope to learn more about what regulates myosin IIA's activity in red blood cells and even other cell types, like neurons. (
  • What has been a mystery is whether or not this behavior stems from a specific set of neurons (brain cells) or overlapping sets. (
  • The shape a neuron takes dictates which other neurons it connects to and even the strength of those connections. (
  • In this study, Aakanksha Singhvi, a postdoc in the lab and first author of the report, studied a glial cell that encases the nerve endings of 12 neurons in the roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans , including one that responds to temperature-called a thermosensory neuron-and some that respond to odors. (
  • The investigators wondered how the glial cell appropriately regulates the requisite shapes of these neurons. (
  • They showed that KCC-3 modulates extracellular levels of chloride, which then controls the shape and function of neurons. (
  • It was not previously known that glial cells communicate to neurons through specific ions to regulate their shape, and the researchers speculate that glial cells may in fact be able to use ions to mold the shapes and functions of many types of neurons. (
  • Cortical circuits include diverse types of GABAergic interneurons (INs) that shape activity of excitatory principal neurons (PNs). (
  • Transcriptionally diverging genes, including those that encode cytokines and chemokines, vary across cells and have distinct promoter structures. (
  • Conversely, genes that are involved in the regulation of this response, such as those that encode transcription factors and kinases, are conserved between species and display low cell-to-cell variability in expression. (
  • Barreiro, L. B. & Quintana-Murci, L. From evolutionary genetics to human immunology: how selection shapes host defence genes. (
  • By manipulating the shapes of cell nuclei, the researchers altered the expression of specific genes and accelerated the maturation of young 'undifferentiated' cells into 'mature' bone cells. (
  • Different nuclear shapes were associated with significant changes in the expression of certain genes related to bone development, according to findings published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences . (
  • Differential expression of subgroup 9 R2R3 MYBs in petals of the sister species, rather than sequence differences in these genes, might be explaining the contrasting cell morphologies. (
  • The original aim of this thesis was to utilise Vibrio harveyi luciferase as a reporter of the expression of cell division genes during the cell cycle. (
  • The findings build upon research published in 2017 reporting that short fragments of circular DNA encoding cancer genes were far more common than previously believed - detected in nearly half of human cancers but rarely in normal cells - and likely to play a key role in how tumors evolve and resist threats, such as chemotherapy. (
  • In a developing embryo, these changes are controlled by patterning genes that confer cell identity. (
  • However, little is known about how patterning genes influence cytoarchitecture to drive changes in cell shape. (
  • Kuppers developed a lab dish-based proxy for progenitor cells that enabled him to look for genes important in red blood cell development. (
  • Kuppers systematically screened for genes that are required for cells to signal their commitment to turning into red blood cells. (
  • The targets "included a lot of key genes involved in erythroid [red blood cell] disease: leukemias and myelodysplastic syndromes and anemia," he said. (
  • The genes for the m 6 A-adding machinery are critical for red blood cell development. (
  • Unexpectedly, the team also found that m 6 A played an essential role in turning on a suite of other red blood cell-specific genes, including genes involved in synthesis of hemoglobin, our cells' oxygen-carrying molecule, as well as genes linked to a type of congenital anemia. (
  • p53 target genes (green) are upregulated in undergrowing cell populations (magenta). (
  • Given the importance of p53 as a tumour suppressor, we addressed the mechanism p53 uses for this dialogue between cells, and we identified the genes and molecules that act downstream of p53," explains Juan Sánchez , first author of the study. (
  • Specific deletion of Ikaros in thymocytes led to the persistent expression of Notch target genes that are essential for T cell maturation, as well as the rapid development of T cell leukemias in mice. (
  • Mutations in Cell Elongation Genes mreB, mrdA and mrdB Suppress The Shape Defect of RodZ-Deficient Cells. (
  • Scientists at the Institute of Cancer Research, London, have used large sets of data to create a map to understand the link between the shape of breast cancer cells and genes. (
  • The METABRIC study has been funded by Cancer Research UK and based its research on a data set containing cell shape measurements for 307,643 cells across 18 breast cancer cell lines, and a data set describing the expression of 28,376 genes across the same cell lines. (
  • Image: The researchers used large sets of data to map out this network of links between cell shape and genes. (
  • Here we will discuss these topics with an emphasis on the cell surface structures. (
  • To their surprise, cells were permanently altered after a short dose of Twist1-activation: they proliferated under very stringent conditions usually permissive only for stem cells and were able to generate complex multicellular structures, suggesting a gain of cellular plasticity. (
  • The findings of this research titled, "I-motif DNA structures are formed in the nuclei of human cells," appeared this week in the latest issue of the journal Nature Chemistry . (
  • A hallmark of biological materials is their ability to continually collapse and reorganize their structures into different shapes. (
  • I am interested in how microtubules self-organize into different shapes and structures without a crew foreman-without anybody telling them what to do. (
  • To understand how this happens, my group studies the self-assembly of microtubules under different conditions, trying to recreate the structures found in real cells. (
  • Cytoplasm's main function within a cell is to act as the medium of suspension for its internal structures. (
  • All animals are formed from tissues that bend into complex shapes and the building blocks of these structures are epithelial cells, which pack tightly together to form skin and the lining of blood vessels and organs. (
  • It was previously assumed that these cells adopted prism - or pyramid-like shapes to form these structures, reports New Scientist. (
  • The researchers found that red blood cell myosin IIA molecules assemble into barbell-shaped structures called filaments. (
  • The size and shape of a plant cell strongly influence the distribution of forces on the cell wall, in the same way as in man-made pressurized structures. (
  • Wu studied the internal organisation of E.coli bacteria by forcing them to grow in the shape of circles, triangles, squares or rectangles within nanofabricated structures. (
  • Living cells are anything but rigid structures. (
  • They turned to the electron microscope, a standard tool for observing larger structures such as cell sections. (
  • Cartilaginous structures are at the core of embryo growth and shaping before the bone forms. (
  • In rod-shaped cartilage structures (Meckel, ribs and skeletal elements in developing limbs), the transverse integration of clonal columns determines the well-defined diameter and resulting rod-like morphology. (
  • Very early, it was realized that the structure of the archaeal cell envelope differs substantially from that of bacteria [ 1 ]. (
  • As the archaeal cell surface is so different from that of bacteria and eukarya, unique mechanisms must exist to form and shape it. (
  • In rod-like bacteria, such as Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis , a conserved cell division gene is FtsZ, which forms a filamentous ring structure (Z-ring) at the mid cell before division ( 1 , 2 ). (
  • The mechanical properties of the PG cell wall have been investigated, and the Young's moduli for several bacteria have been estimated ( 22 , 23 ). (
  • Bacteria, by contrast, simultaneously increase in cell size and replicate DNA before (or concurrently with) cell division. (
  • Actively growing bacteria respond rapidly to changing conditions by adjusting their overall shape and size. (
  • When nutrients are unrestricted, bacteria often capitalize on the available resources by increasing in cell size and reproducing more often. (
  • For rod-shaped bacteria, including Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis , cell size is determined by the length and width of the cell envelope. (
  • Cellular dimensions, such as size and shape, are regulated throughout the life cycle of bacteria and can be adapted in response to environmental changes to fine-tune cellular fitness. (
  • Abstract Rod-like bacteria maintain their cylindrical shapes with remarkable precision during growth. (
  • Despite being one of the simplest morphologies, we are still far from a full understanding of how shape is robustly regulated, and how bacteria obtain their near-perfect cylindrical shapes with excellent precision. (
  • However, recent experimental and theoretical findings suggest that cell-wall geometry and mechanical stress play important roles in regulating cell shape in rod-like bacteria. (
  • This might be achieved through cross-talk between gut bacteria, epithelial cells lining the gut (colonocytes), and immune cells ( 2 ). (
  • But cancer cells, the researchers report, share some similarities with bacteria, which contain circular DNA that is generally more accessible. (
  • Rather than passing DNA to subsequent generations by dividing into genetically identical daughter cells-a process called mitosis, involving paired chromosomes that divide and used by all eukaryotes-bacteria and cancer propogate by parceling out ecDNA to daughter cells in a seemingly random way, providing a mechanism by which certain daughter cells could receive multiple cancerous copies within one cell division. (
  • We showed that these bacteria, despite having anomalous morphologies and large volumes, divide with remarkable robustness and accuracy comparable to normal rod-shaped cells. (
  • Fabai Wu, Spatial organization in nano-sculptured bacteria, a tale of shape, scale, patterns, and genomes , PhD thesis supervisor Professor Cees Dekker, 27 October 2015. (
  • These findings support the idea that rigid surfaces similarly act on swarming bacteria to impact cell shape, single-cell motility, and collective population migration. (
  • It functions like a hidden hand that shapes everyday conceptual understanding of abstract target domains in the microcosm and macrocosm. (
  • Disassembly of the microtubules with these treatments prevented the characteristic cell shape changes in, and thus differentiation of, the mesenchyme of the developing embryo. (
  • How does cell differentiation occur? (
  • First, using a candidate gene approach, I explore in parallel the molecular mechanisms involved in petal cell shape differentiation of sister species with contrasting cell shape N. cordifolia and N. solanifolia (Section Paniculatae) and N. bonariensis and N. forgetiana (Section Alatae). (
  • Since turgor is a scalar, for nonspherical cell shapes to develop during differentiation, the cell wall mechanical behavior must differ between subcellular regions. (
  • In the immune system, Notch activity is required for the differentiation of T cell progenitors, but it is reduced in more mature thymocytes, in which Notch is oncogenic. (
  • For example, environmental cues such as hormones or growth factors can lead to cell differentiation, proliferation, or migration. (
  • What is the cytoskeleton of a cell? (
  • This is the tip of the iceberg - the beginning of an investigation taking shape - which comes from a well-known fact that the process of carcinogenesis leads to mis-regulation of the cytoskeleton. (
  • The researchers replaced the complex cytoskeleton, which in living cells exerts forces on the membranes from the inside and thus causes the cells to move and change shape, with active particles. (
  • In animal cells, this requires the actin cytoskeleton. (
  • The force generated by continued myosin contraction is translated into a flattening and constriction of the cell surface through a tethering of the actinomyosin cytoskeleton to the apical adherens junctions. (
  • Two-color fluorescent cells simultaneously expressing actin and nuclear reporters enabled us to profile temporal changes in cell shape following pharmacological inhibition of cytoskeleton-regulatory signaling pathways. (
  • These data indicate that vinculin's ability to physically couple integrins to the cytoskeleton, to mechanically stabilize cell shape, and to support rac-dependent lamellipodia formation all appear to depend on its intact three-dimensional structure. (
  • Formins regulate the actin and microtubule cytoskeleton and are involved in various cellular functions such as cell polarity, cytokinesis, cell migration and SRF transcriptional activity. (
  • Rab35 regulates neurite outgrowth and cell shape. (
  • With their investigations, the team was able to reveal a new aspect of how Twist1 regulates cell shape and function and, thereby, impacts regeneration, but also tumor progression. (
  • The Rho Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor Syx Regulates the Balance of Dia and ROCK Activities To Promote Polarized-Cancer-Cell Migration. (
  • Now, scientists at Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center have discovered a process that regulates the earliest stages of red blood cell development. (
  • Scientists from the Institute of Stem Cell Research and the Institute of Experimental Genetics at the Helmholtz Zentrum München (HMGU) examined the effects of Twist1 activation on breast epithelial cells, paying particular attention to the duration of the Twist1-signal. (
  • Now in a new research, scientists have found that there may be another new shape in the DNA machinery within the cells of humans. (
  • Some scientists had thought that those aspects were then put together by other brain cells in later stages of visual processing to form a more complete picture of the world. (
  • has been found by scientists in skill cells. (
  • Scientists have developed specialized glass surfaces for growing cells that allow them to control and modify the shapes of cells and their nuclei. (
  • Scientists have long wondered how healthy red blood cells maintain their dimpled shape, and whether it is a passive or active process. (
  • Scientists have known that a type of brain cell circuit helps regulate a variety of innate and learned behavior in animals, including their temperature preferences. (
  • Scientists at IFReC may have found this subgroup, as they report in Nature a class of monocyte cells with strange morphology. (
  • However, scientists have struggled to understand how these complex shapes benefit the plant. (
  • But scientists in Rockefeller's Laboratory of Developmental Genetics , headed by Shai Shaham , have accumulated compelling evidence that this cell type plays a much more active and dynamic role in the brain than previously thought. (
  • The Georgia Tech scientists, along with a team from Emory University and the University of Texas at Austin, used imprinting technology to make tiny biological particles into various shapes but with otherwise uniform attributes. (
  • However, as clinicians and scientists, we recognize an urgent need to address the problem of unproven stem cell treatments being marketed directly to patients. (
  • Breakdowns in red blood cell development can be life-threatening, but scientists still have much to learn about the molecular processes that ensure these cells develop properly. (
  • In research published February 10 in Nature Medicine , a team of scientists at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center and Weill Cornell Medicine reports that this developmental shape-shifting is key to cancer's ability to spread (metastasize) and interact with the body's immune defenses. (
  • However, in this study the scientists uncovered an additional function: p53 also mediates communication between cells. (
  • Using the fly wing as a model, the scientists found that p53 orchestrates a complex network involving the cell signalling factor TNFα (Eiger in Drosophila melanogaster ), hormones, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) to ensure correct organ formation. (
  • Scientists at the Max Planck Institute of Neurobiology in Martinsried could now show, together with an international team of researchers, that certain cells in the brain, the astrocytes, actively influence this information exchange. (
  • So far unheard of, and now shown by the scientists, was that the astrocyte and downstream nerve cell communicate with each other and thus regulate the number of glutamate-eliminating transporters. (
  • The scientists found that if a nerve cell is lacking the EphA4-receptor, the neighboring astrocyte increases its transporter numbers. (
  • However, upon examining epithelial curves in laboratory samples, the researchers found evidence that these real cells adopt other more complex shapes. (
  • The epithelial cells adopt this form when the tissue curves, giving it a more stable structure. (
  • The researchers found the shapes in epithelial cells, discovering that their unique shape allows them to be stacked side-by-side while actually twisting from one end of the cell to the other. (
  • Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a developmental process in which epithelial cells acquire migratory characteristics, and in the process convert from a 'cuboidal' epithelial structure into an elongated mesenchymal shape. (
  • Recent evidence indicates that mitochondrial morphology is crucial for cell physiology, as changes in mitochondrial shape have been linked to neurodegeneration, calcium signalling, lifespan and cell death. (
  • Rapid changes in cellular morphology require a cell body that is highly flexible yet retains sufficient strength to maintain structural integrity. (
  • Shovel-shaped dental characteristic are also observed in Homo erectus like the Peking Man and in Neanderthals, although the morphology of these shoveled incisors is distinct from the modern human form of shoveling. (
  • Although the involvement of cytoskeletal components in the regulation of cell shape is widely accepted, the signaling factors that regulate cytoskeletal and other distinct components involved in cell shape control, particularly in response to changes in external light cues, remain to be fully elucidated. (
  • now report, on p. 3137 , that an actin-based mechanism might also regulate differential growth in plants, with their discovery that a mutation in the plant orthologue of ARPC5 causes random cell expansion and aberrant cell shape in Arabidopsis CROOKED mutants. (
  • In embryonic development, programmed cell shape changes are essential for building functional organs, but in many cases the mechanisms that precisely regulate these changes remain unknown. (
  • Cytotoxicity of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles is shape and cell dependent. (
  • Bioengineering researchers at University of California, Santa Barbara have found that changing the shape of chemotherapy drug nanoparticles from spherical to rod-shaped made them up to 10,000 times more effective at specifically targeting and delivering anti-cancer drugs to breast cancer cells. (
  • To engineer these high-specificity drugs, they formed rod-shaped nanoparticles from a chemotherapeutic drug, camptothecin, and coated them with an antibody called trastuzumab that is selective for certain types of cancer cells, including breast cancer. (
  • Changing the shape of chemotherapy drug nanoparticles from spherical to rod-shaped has made them up to 10,000 times more effective at targeting and delivering anti-cancer drugs to breast cancer cells. (
  • Nanoparticles for drug delivery have been designed with all sorts of practical shapes in mind, many of them offering a unique way to hold or release drugs, or to accurately target certain diseases. (
  • But researchers at Georgia Tech and other U.S. universities have found that nanoparticles shaped like discs are optimal for gaining entry into human cells. (
  • What's more, testing the different shapes out on real cells led to another previously unknown discovery: Not all cells are the same, and many have different mechanisms of absorbing nanoparticles of varying sizes. (
  • This research identified some very novel yet fundamental aspects in which cells interact with the shape of nanoparticles,' said lead author Krishnendu Roy. (
  • A recent study from the University of California in Santa Barbara, for instance, found that rod-shaped nanoparticles adhere more effectively to the inside of blood vessels. (
  • Information about the mechanisms underlying the interactions of nanoparticles with living cells is crucial for their medical application and also provides indications of the putative toxicity of such materials. (
  • These in vitro results provide additional insight about low-aspect ratio anisotropic nanoparticle interactions with cancer cells and demonstrate the possibility to manipulate the interactions of nanoparticles and cells by surface coating for the use of nanoparticles in medical applications. (
  • Immune cells populating malignant lesions need to activate alternative pathways to overcome tumor-prolonged nutrient deprivation. (
  • In another recent study published in Cell Reports , Shaham and Sean Wallace, a postdoc in the lab, showed that glial cells control the shapes of many nerve endings in worms, suggesting that additional shape pathways remain to be discovered. (
  • Different shapes tend to trigger different uptake pathways, according to a Georgia Tech report. (
  • Cancer cells co-opt normal developmental and wound-healing pathways to further their own ends. (
  • It is also found that functionalized disc-shaped zeolite L particles enter the cancer cells via different, partly not yet characterized, pathways. (
  • These effects are not caused by general disruptions in cell signaling pathways, as TGF-{beta}-induced EMT is not affected by similar limitations on cell spreading. (
  • RodZ interacts with MreB and both factors are required to maintain the rod shape of Escherichia coli. (
  • When researchers removed Syx from the cancer cells , they lost their polarity-their leading and trailing edges-and morphed into the fried egg shape. (
  • Frizzled3 ( Fzd3 ), a member of the core planar cell polarity (PCP) family in mammals, contributes to visual development by guiding axonal projections of some retinal ganglion cells. (
  • Frizzled3 ( Fzd3 ), a seven-transmembrane receptor with key functions in Wnt/planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling, 1 has critical roles in neural morphogenesis, such as steering various axonal tracts by interacting with other PCP members. (
  • Mechanical interactions among cells provide an important regulatory mechanism to coordinate such collective motion. (
  • The model also considers the kinetics of cell wall growth and turnover and gives a mechanism and quantitative description of cell wall viscoelasticity. (
  • The research team observed the same phenomenon in the cells of mice and zebrafish, showing that the mechanism is common to vertebrates and dates back millions of years. (
  • Like a car with a front and back end, a steering mechanism and an engine to push it forward, cancer cells propel themselves through normal tissues and organs to spread cancer throughout the body. (
  • Through this mechanism, neighbouring cells can reduce the speed at which they grow, thereby maintaining organ functionality. (
  • Our data reveal a previously unanticipated cell shape-dependent mechanism that controls this key phenotypic alteration and provide insight into the distinct mechanisms activated by different EMT-inducing agents. (
  • KCC is the major transport mechanism in human red blood cells. (
  • gp120's shape change is an important "escape mechanism" for HIV, allowing the virus to bind to and enter a cell before the immune system can "see" it, notes Harrison. (
  • This mechanism of growth uncouples the lateral expansion of curved cartilaginous sheets from the control of cartilage thickness, a process which might be the evolutionary mechanism underlying adaptations of facial shape. (
  • Motivated by experiments highlighting the slow glassy dynamics of dense epithelia, work by us and others has suggested that monolayers of motile cells may form glassy or jammed states and that a relatively small change of parameters may trigger a change from an elastic response to a state with fluid-like behavior ( 13 ⇓ - 15 ). (
  • The mechanics and the dynamics of the cell wall must be considered on an equal footing for quantifying bacterial cell division. (
  • Nevertheless, accumulating evidence shows that mitochondrial dynamics have an impact on the migration and activation of immune cells and on the innate immune response. (
  • Here, we discuss the roles of mitochondrial dynamics in cell pathophysiology and consider how studying dynamics in the context of the immune system could increase our knowledge about the role of dynamics in key signalling cascades. (
  • We review our current understanding of the cell wall architecture and the growth dynamics, and discuss possible candidates for regulatory cues of shape regulation in the absence or presence of external constraints. (
  • Our new special issue is packed with articles that use mathematical and physical approaches to gain insights into cell and tissue patterning, morphogenesis and dynamics, and that provide a physical framework to capture these processes operating across scales. (
  • As the use of live-cell imaging continues to increase, new computational procedures are needed to characterize and classify the temporal dynamics of individual cells. (
  • The second in our series of cell dynamics meetings now turns to organelles. (
  • We find that drag forces due to dynamics of cells surrounding the KV could be sufficient to drive KV cell shape changes during KV development. (
  • Oriented clonal cell dynamics enables accurate growth and shaping of vertebrate cartilage. (
  • Bacterial species have long been classified on the basis of their characteristic cell shapes. (
  • Despite intensive research, the molecular mechanisms underlying the generation and maintenance of bacterial cell shape remain largely unresolved. (
  • The life cycle of bacterial cells consists of repeated elongation, septum formation, and division. (
  • Growth and synthesis of the bacterial cell wall is a complex process. (
  • This article develops a mathematical model of bacterial cell division that incorporates realistic cell wall mechanical properties. (
  • These findings raise the intriguing possibility that metabolism itself is the major determinant in shaping the underlying organization of the bacterial cell. (
  • The bacterial kingdom exhibits a wide variety of cell shapes and sizes which are crucial for the lifestyle of each species. (
  • In the bacterial carcinogen H. pylori , we have begun to examine the localization of many cell shape determinants with various curvature preferences. (
  • However, it is still unknown how polymerization of MreB determines the rod shape of bacterial cells. (
  • Although archaea have a similar cellular organization as other prokaryotes, the lipid composition of their membranes and their cell surface is unique. (
  • We show that transient Twist1 activation primes certain cells for stem-cell-like properties and cellular plasticity. (
  • The particle effects with the concentration of 10-300 μg/mL on cytotoxicity, oxygen species generation, production of inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-6), particle-cell association and cellular uptake were evaluated on BEAS-2B and RAW264.7 cells. (
  • The phenomena suggested that higher particle-cell association and increased cellular uptake of nHA need not result in increased cytotoxicity, indicating the importance of particle shape on cytotoxicity. (
  • Using a self-propelled Voronoi (SPV) model that links cell mechanics to cell shape and cell motility, we formulate a generalized mechanical inference method to obtain the spatiotemporal distribution of cellular stresses from measured traction forces in motile tissues and show that such traction-based stresses match those calculated from instantaneous cell shapes. (
  • This liquid-solid transition is tuned by the interplay of cell-cell adhesion and cortex contractility, manifested in cellular shape, and by cell motility. (
  • Single-cell RNA-seq reveals dynamic paracrine control of cellular variation. (
  • Therefore we conclude that shape and agglomeration pattern appears to play a key role in mediating the cellular response to AuNMs. (
  • At the individual cell level, the electrical properties of the cell are helpful for understanding the effects of cellular behavior. (
  • The regulation of cellular dimension is important for the function and survival of cells. (
  • In this review, factors impacting the inter-coordination of growth and division, the relationship between the regulation of cellular dimensions and central carbon metabolism, and consideration of the effects of specific environment signals, primarily light, on cell dimensions in cyanobacteria will be discussed. (
  • Current knowledge about the molecular bases of the light-dependent regulation of cellular dimensions and cell shape in cyanobacteria will be highlighted. (
  • Take cellular division for example, where all doubled chromosome pairs are lined-up perfectly in the middle of the cell before they get drawn to opposite sides of the cell. (
  • It is also poorly understood whether such phenotypic variations are shaped by early specification or regional cellular environment. (
  • These results suggest that local cellular environment plays a critical role in shaping terminal phenotypes of regional IN variants in the hippocampus and the neocortex. (
  • All cellular growth processes and shape changes involve a deformation of this extracellular matrix and are controlled by it. (
  • Mutational or pharmacological modifications of the cell wall biochemistry often result in pleiotropic effects through feedback mechanisms that alter other cellular processes. (
  • Live-cell imaging can be used to capture spatio-temporal aspects of cellular responses that are not accessible to fixed-cell imaging. (
  • For this purpose, here we present the general experimental-computational framework SAPHIRE (Stochastic Annotation of Phenotypic Individual-cell Responses) to characterize phenotypic cellular responses from time series imaging datasets. (
  • Results are compared with existing approaches conventionally applied to fixed-cell imaging datasets, and indicate that time series modeling captures heterogeneous dynamic cellular responses that can improve drug classification and offer additional important insight into mechanisms of drug action. (
  • At the cellular level, this can be envisioned as follows: At a synapse, the two communicating nerve cells do not come in direct contact but are separated by a small gap. (
  • Studies of PC development, however, are limited, because robust methods are lacking that enable automatic segmentation and quantification of PC shape parameters suitable to reflect their cellular complexity. (
  • Using a self-propelled Voronoi model of epithelia known to predict a liquid-solid transition, we examine the interplay between cell motility and cell shape, tuned by cortex contractility and cell-cell adhesion, in controlling the mechanical properties of tissue. (
  • Mesoscale, microscale, and nanoscale patterns of substrate topography have been shown to direct cell alignment, cell adhesion, and cell traction forces 7-14 . (
  • Here, we show that Cadherin-6 (Cdh6), a homophilic cell adhesion molecule, is a reliable marker of ChCs and Cdh6-CreER mice (both sexes) provide genetic access to hippocampal ChCs (h-ChCs). (
  • HSPGs are required for Nogo-A-Δ20-induced inhibition of adhesion, cell spreading, and neurite outgrowth, as well as for RhoA activation. (
  • Human UdRPCs should be considered as the choice of renal stem cells for facilitating the study of nephrogenesis, nephrotoxicity, disease modelling and drug development. (
  • PhytoCellTec™ Goji is a novel active ingredient based on goji plant stem cells which improves cell-to-cell communication via exosomes. (
  • These guidelines define a roadmap for medical researchers and doctors, outlining what needs to be accomplished to move stem cells from promising research to proven treatments for patients. (
  • Three Copenhagen-based researchers discuss their new paper , which exploits naïve human embryonic stem cells to generate in vitro models for the extra-embryonic endoderm. (
  • It's a novel discovery," said Dr. Patrick Paddison, who studies how stem cells develop into cells with specialized functions. (
  • The work grew out of a collaboration between Paddison and Hutch colleague Dr. Beverly Torok-Storb, who studies the blood stem cells that give rise to our red and white blood cells . (
  • Kupper removed them in blood stem cells donated by patients undergoing bone marrow biopsies. (
  • When he did so, the stem cells could no longer turn into red blood cells . (
  • But loss of m 6 A didn't prevent these stem cells from turning into at least two other types of blood cell. (
  • The lab also found that isolated tumor cells are able to go undetected in the body by taking on certain properties of stem cells. (
  • Even though the cell wall structure is complex, it can be viewed as an elastic mechanical structure. (
  • Cells are capable of surveying the mechanical properties of their surrounding environment 6 . (
  • The mechanisms through which mechanical interactions between cells and their physical environment control cell behavior are areas of active research. (
  • These findings have underscored the potential for substrate topography to control and assay the mechanical interactions between cells and their physical environment during cell culture, but the substrates used to date have generally been passive and could not be programmed to change significantly during culture. (
  • We tested our hypothesis with a computer simulation model of the emergence of these intricate forms, based on the feedback between cell shape and mechanical stress. (
  • In this study we performed Finite Element Method (FEM) computer simulations to examine distribution of mechanical stress in the cell wall and assessed how the cells may grow in order to not put too much stress on the wall. (
  • Mechanical modeling has emerged as a useful tool to correlate cell wall structure, composition, and mechanics with cell and organ shape. (
  • This Update critically analyzes studies that have used finite element analysis for the mechanical modeling of plant cells. (
  • The mechanical aspects of shaping or deformation processes can be explored using a variety of mathematical approaches ( Dyson and Jensen, 2010 ). (
  • We proposed that the puzzle cell shape allows the plant to create large cells in the epidermis, preventing them from bulging out excessively under the high stresses caused by turgor pressure. (
  • Plant cells are encased in a rigid cell wall that must be able to withstand the high turgor pressure within the cell, a pressure that can be several times that of a car tire. (
  • Shape formation in plant cells is controlled through modulation of the cell wall polymers and propelled by the turgor pressure. (
  • Most modeling approaches in plant cell mechanics are based on the premise that the cell wall is a deformable material and that the deforming force is the turgor pressure, uniformly applied within the compartment of a single cell. (
  • Collective cell migration is a highly regulated process involved in wound healing, cancer metastasis, and morphogenesis. (
  • ii) The degree of gluconeogenic flux is likely to have a profound impact on the metabolites available for cell envelope synthesis, so growth medium selection is a critical consideration when designing and interpreting experiments related to morphogenesis. (
  • They are probably used to allow cells to maintain proper growth and morphogenesis under changing conditions. (
  • This investigation improves our understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in petal epidermal cell morphogenesis and of the functional implications of petal cell shape in the interaction flower-pollinator in Nicotiana. (
  • Focus is on models involving single cell morphogenesis or motion. (
  • It was found that the cell wall turns over a significant fraction of its mass in one life cycle. (
  • Retrieved on September 23, 2019 from (
  • Microtubules are found inside nearly everything from yeast cells to human cells-that's one of the reasons I love them. (
  • The highly uniform 16.7 nm diameter and 43.8 nm long pegylated gold nanorods (AuNR-PEGs) with low fractal dimension (Df = 1.28 ± 0.08) (i.e., loose packing density) are found to be cytotoxic to the HaCaT cells, with a significant decrease in cell viability occurring at 25 µg/mL and higher. (
  • My new friend leaned forward and said, in a tone that fell somewhere between conspiratorial and accusatory, "Hey, I read the other day that, using imaging, researchers found the most basic of cells, the glue that holds life together. (
  • The researchers also found a way to represent differences in Zernike moments between cell lines as vectors. (
  • What we found is that if we first allowed our neural network to evaluate new cells - to recalibrate its categorization based on the characteristics of these new cells - it does predict the classes pretty well," Alizadeh added. (
  • Most of the cells that had a favorite color, indicated by their activity, also had a favorite orientation of lines, the researchers found. (
  • We have found our strategy greatly enhances the specificity of anti-cancer drugs to cancer cells. (
  • Notwithstanding, the first observations of metabolic alterations in cancer cells date back to the early 90s, when Otto Warburg found that cancer cells, regardless of oxygen tension, prefer to metabolize glucose by glycolysis. (
  • Now, researchers reporting in the March 4th Cell , a Cell Press publication, have found that astrocytes are also essential for making long-term memories. (
  • They found that the treated cells lost their ability to maintain a shape and looked floppy and unhealthy. (
  • Additional study found the progenitor cells responsible for producing SatM. (
  • We found that the most convenient way is to expand only in one direction (in other words, to elongate or grow anisotropically) in order to avoid large open areas where the cells bulge out and the stress becomes very high. (
  • The researchers also found that KCC-3 affects the function of the thermosensory neuron in addition to its shape. (
  • The researchers found that the local concentration of ions can influence the shape of nerve endings. (
  • In Zurich, during experimental studies of the system using different particle concentrations, the researchers found a surprising variety of unexpected vesicle shapes - as they were never observed in thermal equilibrium. (
  • By studying polarized cells in mutant and normal plants, the authors found that localized cell expansion occurs only where fine F-actin is maintained, implicating F-actin density as a likely determinant of cell shape. (
  • The researchers found that blocking the molecular machine that creates the modification prevents progenitor cells (which provide a renewable source of red and white blood cells) from turning into red blood cells, but not related blood cell types. (
  • Researchers at IRB Barcelona and IAL Santa Fe in Argentina have found the cell-signalling factor TNFα to be critical for coordinated organ growth in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster . (
  • We isolated suppressor mutations to partially recover the rod shape in rodZ deletion mutants and found that some of the suppressor mutations occurred in mreB. (
  • Thus, we found that mutations in domain IA of MreB and in the periplasmic domain of PBP2 and RodA can restore growth and rod shape to ΔrodZ cells, possibly by changing the requirements of MreB in the process. (
  • After analysing cell shape in millions of images in the data sets, researchers found that cancer cells change their shape to respond to and protect themselves from their surrounding environment. (
  • It was also found that changes in cell shape can be caused by physical pressures on the tumour and are converted into changes in gene activity. (
  • It was theorized that positive selection for shovel shaped incisors over the spatulate incisors are more commonly found in anthropoids within cultures that used their teeth as tools due to a greater structural strength in increased shovel shaped incisors. (
  • The 1540C allele of EDAR is also strongly correlated with the presence of shovel-shaped incisors and hair thickness, as found in a study conducted on the DNA from Japanese populations. (
  • Similar to MreB and RodZ, PBP2 and RodA are pivotal to the cell wall elongation process. (
  • To address how P. mirabilis populations swarm on rigid surfaces, we asked whether cell elongation and single-cell motility are coupled to population migration. (
  • We find that LPS is not essential for elongation and motility of individual cells, as predicted, and instead functions to broaden the range of agar concentrations on which cell elongation and motility are coupled with population migration. (
  • A cell's lipopolysaccharides function to broaden the range of agar conditions under which cell elongation and single-cell motility remain coupled with population migration. (
  • To further untangle the shaping and function of these BCRs, we analyzed immunoglobulin gene rearrangements of monoclonal B cells from 13 patients with HCV-associated LPDs and correlated their features with the clinical outcomes of antiviral therapy. (
  • Our analysis of fog function therefore illuminates a molecular pathway spanning all the way from patterning gene to physical change in cell shape. (
  • Animal cells separate their chromosomes during cell division by organizing the microtubules network from centrioles. (
  • Today, Ross is a professor of biophysics at the University of Massachusetts, Amherst, where she studies how cells get their stability and shape from structural molecules called microtubules. (
  • Microtubules act like a cell's bones in that they work together to help give a cell its structure. (
  • In plant cells, for example, microtubules run around the edge of each cell, providing each cell-and the plant-with structural stability. (
  • The agent causes the microtubules to form a football-shaped bundle called a mitotic spindle, a structure that develops naturally in cells when they divide in two during replication. (
  • But when we control the growth to have just one length, the microtubules arrange into well-defined shapes. (
  • Soon after microtubules were first described by electron microscopy, several investigators began suggesting that they were structural elements (Byers and Porter, 1964) because they were localized to sites where cells were changing their shape. (
  • Axopodial spikes (left) owe their shape to an array of microtubules (right). (
  • Earlier work by Inoué (1952) had shown that when cells are exposed to cold temperatures the mitotic spindle-later shown to be composed of microtubules-disappears. (
  • after returning the cells to room temperature for a few minutes, the microtubules started to reassemble and the axopodia reformed (Tilney and Porter, 1967). (
  • Importantly, later work by Tilney and Gibbins (1969) established that microtubules also help change cell structure in higher organisms. (
  • The addition of the DAD to mammalian cells induces actin filament formation, stabilizes microtubules, and activates SRF mediated transcription. (
  • This interaction is important in promoting the capture and stabilization of a subset of microtubules oriented towards the leading edge of migrating cells. (
  • These results, published in the journal " Cell Reports ", help to unravel seemingly contradictory observations and illuminate the complexities of transcription factor action in regeneration and tumor progression. (
  • However, when activated during tumor development, Twist1 promotes aggressive behaviour in tumor cells. (
  • Tumor microenvironment is characterized by a consistent reduction in oxygen and blood-borne nutrients that significantly affects the metabolism of distinct cell subsets. (
  • Cancers are not mere collections of relatively homogenous tumor cells, but they rather form a sort of crowded organ composed of different cell populations supporting malignant nourishment and progression. (
  • Metabolic reprograming of cancer and stromal cells fulfils the urgent need for energy supply to support tumor cell proliferation and progression, thus representing one additional hallmark of cancers ( 2 ). (
  • The glycolytic switch of tumor cells, also known as "Warburg effect" offers a valuable tool for diagnosis, staging, and monitoring therapy response in many cancers, and it accounts for the physiological basis for positron emission tomography (PET) in clinical oncology ( 4 ). (
  • In addition to the Warburg effect, both tumor and stromal cells exploit other catabolic routes aimed at amino acid conversion into more affordable energetic products, as well as change in lipid metabolism ( 5 ). (
  • The paucity of appropriate nutrients represents, so far, a limiting step for the effectiveness of antitumor immune responses since T cells infiltrating malignant tissues need to face the tumor hostile environment to exert their functions. (
  • Tumor-infiltrating immune cells include cell subsets belonging to both the innate and the adaptive arms of the immune system. (
  • The intratumoral activation of T cell responses may result in the control of tumor growth and spreading in some cancers, such as in melanoma ( 7 ). (
  • Researchers from the University of Zurich have individually analyzed millions of immune cells in tumor samples from patients with renal cell carcinoma. (
  • This feature enables tumor cells to generate massive amounts of growth-promoting oncogenes - and evolve more quickly and respond more forcefully to their changing environment and potential threats. (
  • It really shines a new light onto the 3D organization of the screwed-up cancer genome and epigenome, which now provides a mechanistic basis for understanding why certain tumor cells are so aggressive. (
  • Extrachromosomal DNA had been thought to be rare, but in a 2014 paper , Mischel and colleagues discovered that ecDNA plays a central role in the drug resistance of certain brain tumors by enabling tumors to rapidly change the amount of oncogenes they contain - and determine whether a cell transforms into a tumor cell. (
  • Investigators say they have already identified a number of agents-some already used in the clinic for different disorders-that may force shape-shifting in tumor cells . (
  • The cell types in cancer that has spread are even more primitive than those in a primary tumor. (
  • In January 2020, the Massagué lab showed that markers of wound healing can be used to follow cancer cells as they detach from a primary tumor and spread to another location. (
  • In this new study, the team used human tissue samples and mouse models to characterize the identities and behavior of tumor cells at each step of the journey - from the primary tumor through the breaking off of individual tumor cells to full-blown metastases. (
  • This suggestion has been verified experimentally in specific cell types ( 16 ), indicating that the paradigm of tissues as active materials may be a useful way of organizing experimental data and classifying large-scale tissue behavior in terms of a few effective parameters. (
  • This change in topography can be used to control cell behavior under standard cell culture conditions. (
  • This technology gives us the opportunity to have better control over the behavior of cells that come into contact with the surface of the implant,' says Healy. (
  • The forward use of a model describes a deformation behavior, reversible or irreversible, inherent to the cell, such as a growth or shaping process. (
  • This is more pertinent to animal cells that, unlike plant cells, do not have a rigid cell wall. (
  • During cooling, the material transitions to a more rigid state (semi-crystalline or glassy), which kinetically traps or "freezes" the material in this low-entropy state leading to macroscopic shape fixing. (
  • These misshapen cells are rigid and sticky, causing them to become stuck in blood vessels, which prevent the blood from carrying oxygen throughout the body, causing anemia. (
  • Answering these questions could also help explain what goes wrong when red blood cells are too rigid to deform easily as they flow through blood vessels. (
  • Swarming on rigid surfaces requires movement of cells as individuals and as a group of cells. (
  • For the bacterium Proteus mirabilis , an individual cell can respond to a rigid surface by elongating and migrating over micrometer-scale distances. (
  • Since swarm colonies cover greater distances when these steps are coupled than when they are not, these findings suggest that collective interactions among P. mirabilis cells might be emerging as a colony expands outwards on rigid surfaces. (
  • To accurately partition chromosomes and other cell contents during reproduction, cells must possess mechanisms to organize repeated cycles of cell growth, chromosome replication, and division. (
  • In this scanning electron micrograph of inside the nucleus of a cancer cell, chromosomes are indicated by blue arrows and circular extra-chromosomal DNA are indicated by orange arrows. (
  • Human DNA typically forms long, twisting double helices of genetic material: roughly 3 billion base pairs organized into 23 pairs of chromosomes miraculously squeezed into every cell nucleus, each averaging just six micrometers in diameter. (
  • In order to establish this understanding, nHA of four different shapes--needle (nHA-ND), plate (nHA-PL), sphere (nHA-SP) and rod (nHA-RD)--were synthesized. (
  • Correspondingly, no significant differences were observed in TNF-α level for RAW264.7 cells upon incubation with nHA of different shapes. (
  • Plant cells come in a striking variety of different shapes. (
  • This is due to the fact that when tissue curves it tends to minimise energy, to be more stable, and for that reason our biophysical data indicates that what these cells do is adopt an scutoid shape', adds the researcher. (
  • If you're trying to speed the natural integration of a total hip replacement into the body, then what you want are cells that are specific to the types of tissue that will line the implant. (
  • In a new study, Yale researchers have described this mysterious process, which is key to healthy cell and tissue function. (
  • The uses of FE modeling for cell or tissue studies can be categorized as forward or inverse approaches. (
  • Focusing on lung cancer, the team discovered that the cell types in primary tumors and metastases fall along a spectrum of cells that regenerate injured tissue. (
  • Together with Andres Dekanty 's group at the Instituto de Agrobiotecnología del Litoral (IAL) in Argentina, they report that the cell-signalling factor TNFα is involved in defective tissue growth signalling to neighbouring cells. (
  • In an earlier study, the researchers observed that cells located next to damaged cells sensed this growth delay and adjusted their growth to ensure tissue functionality. (
  • Here, we develop a mathematical vertex-like model for cell shapes, which incorporates both tissue rheology and cell motility, and constrain the model parameters using previously published rheological data for the zebrafish tailbud [Serwane et al. (
  • However, studies of cell shape transformations within extracellular matrix tissue present substantial challenges owing to the complexity of the environment and the difficulty in obtaining images that are of quality comparable to those obtained for 2D migration. (
  • As 2020 gets well and truly underway, join us as we look back at seven things that shaped preLights in 2019. (
  • In several plant species, including Arabidopsis, the leaf epidermis is composed of three different cell types, which are derived from specialized epidermal progenitor cells: pavement cells (PC), stomatal guard cells, and trichomes, also called leaf hairs ( Glover, 2000 ). (
  • Next, I develop an Agrobacterium tumefaciens mediated transformation protocol for the non-model species N. forgetiana, a methodological advance crucial for further exploration of the molecular mechanisms and functional implications of petal cell shape. (
  • They discovered that it uses different molecular mechanisms to control the shape of each neuronal cell type it encloses. (
  • The four-electron (H 2 O formation) vs. two-electron (H 2 O 2 formation) ORR mechanisms are systematically studied on the (111) facet of the NCs to gain more insight into the shape-dependent ORR activity and product selectivity (H 2 O vs. H 2 O 2 ). (
  • How are cell dimensions maintained or actively rearranged in response to environmental or developmental cues? (
  • Part of the reason is we don't understand the [red blood cell developmental] process well enough," Paddison said. (
  • However, these developmental processes are not perfect and cells sometimes can be damages. (
  • Not only do these findings provide insights into developmental processes but they are also important for our understanding of diseases in which cell growth is deregulated, such as cancer. (
  • Developmental Cell. (
  • We find that limiting cell spreading, either by increasing cell density or by culturing cells on precisely defined micropatterned substrata, blocks expression of characteristic markers of EMT in cells treated with MMP-3. (
  • Ehrhardt continued: "In centrosomal arrays, these nucleating complexes are recruited to the centrosome, where they give rise to a star-shaped array centered near the nucleus. (
  • A video simulation made by the researchers showing the transformation of an initially almost spherical cell into a star-shaped cell. (
  • Certain nerve cells in the brain, the astrocytes for example, are similarly star-shaped. (
  • Figure Some contact points between nerve cells (red) are surrounded by star-shaped cells known as astrocytes (green). (
  • In the brain, parts of nerve cells and single synapses are often enclosed by star-shaped cells, the astrocytes. (
  • These findings, although limited by the small sample size, suggest that a stereotyped KCDR3 may predominantly shape anti-HCV specificity of BCRs, possibly providing a signature that may help identifying bona fide HCV-dependent LPDs. (
  • The findings, published this week in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences , could shed light on sickle cell diseases and other disorders where red blood cells are deformed. (
  • The latest findings dramatically underscore how cancer cells don't play by the same biological rules as eukaryotic cells. (
  • Our results are very much consistent with experimental findings, and thereby such NC-based electrodes may serve as good candidates for fuel cell applications. (
  • Together, these findings reveal a role for the DNA repair factor DDB2 in shaping the Arabidopsis DNA methylation landscape in the absence of applied genotoxic stress. (
  • These findings, which may have implications in areas as diverse as sickle cell anemia and neurologic disorders , were published in the August 7, 2009 issue of Cell . (
  • Because immune cells contain few mitochondria, these organelles have been considered to have only a marginal role in this physiological context-which is conversely well characterized from the point of view of signalling. (
  • The garden inside the cell-shaped building designed by Sloan Kulper (S.B. 2003) would include such biologically inspired features as pools in the shape of endosomes, left, and mitochondria. (
  • i) Nutrient availability, not growth rate, is the primary determinant of cell size. (
  • 1 Department of Cell Physiology and Metabolism, University of Geneva, 1 Rue M. Servet, 1206 Genève, Switzerland. (
  • We've known for a while that cancer cells tend to become more developmentally primitive, or stem cell-like, as they grow," says Ashley Laughney , a cancer biologist and the study's first author, who conducted the work as a postdoctoral fellow at the Sloan Kettering Institute and is now an assistant professor of physiology and biophysics at Weill Cornell Medicine. (
  • The electric field distribution affects the results of single cell impedance measurements whereas the electrode geometry affects the electric field distributions. (
  • 19659933 ). A feedback loop between cell geometry and Mbl localization may maintain elongated cell shape by targeting cell wall growth to regions of negative cell wall curvature (By similarity). (
  • Researchers have long known that the shape, or geometry, of cells influences what goes on inside a cell. (
  • Moreover, AnkB haploinsufficiency induced age-dependent disruptions in fiber cell hexagonal geometry and radial alignment and decreased compressive stiffness in mouse lenses parallel to the changes observed in Prx null mouse lens. (
  • Regarding the next step, the authors of the project state that they want 'to find the molecules that cause the cells to adopt the escutoide shape. (
  • These transmitter molecules cross the gap and bind to special receptors in the downstream nerve cell. (
  • Rather than trying to categorize cells as "a little oblong" or "somewhat spherical", the group used what are called Zernike moments to precisely capture cell dimensions. (
  • Detailed examination of immune cells showed that the C/EBPβ mutant mice, unlike normal mice, produced no SatM, whereas no other observed immune cell population was changed. (
  • Although Dr. Akira, Dr. Satoh and his colleagues describe SatM as a subset of monocytes, SatM showed characteristics that suggested they were hybrids of different immune cells. (
  • Decades of research have shown that immune cells are extremely diverse," said Akira. (
  • A high-fat diet and obesity turn 'hero' virus-fighting liver immune cells 'rogue,' leading to insulin resistance, a condition that often results in type 2 diabetes, according to research published today in Science Immunology. (
  • Immune cells which are reduced in number by obesity could be a new target to treat diseases such as type 2 diabetes and hypertension that affect overweight people, according to a collaborative study between the University of Manchester, Lund University and the University of Salford. (
  • One key process is that of multicellular interactions, where the platelets, lining of blood vessels, and white blood cells all kind of stick to each other. (
  • Rodger McEver, a physician-scientist at the Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation in the US, recalls the discovery of P-selectin, which eventually resulted in the development of a monoclonal antibody - called crizanlizumab - that binds to P-selectin on the surface of the activated endothelium and platelets, blocking interactions between endothelial cells, platelets, red blood cells, and leukocytes. (
  • That told us that there are interactions between the cell surfaces that are regulating the process. (
  • It was now shown that via ephrinA3/EphA4 interactions, astrocytes influence the communication between nerve cells by removing the transmitter molecule glutamate. (
  • Interactions are studied in terms of their fates under diverse in vitro cell culture conditions. (
  • IMPORTANCE How surfaces influence cell size, cell-cell interactions, and population migration for robust swarmers like P. mirabilis is not fully understood. (
  • Our understanding of what drives sickle cell disease has improved considerably over the years," says Andrew Cavey, Global Program Head of Hematology at Novartis Oncology. (
  • Understanding the shaping aspects of plant cells requires knowledge of the molecular players and the biophysical conditions under which they operate. (
  • Cytoskeletal regulation of cell shape and cell wall biosynthesis and/or deposition occurs in a range of organisms. (
  • Regulation of chloride ions is also a key component of the response of nerve cells to GABA, a chemical signal that governs alertness that has been implicated in anxiety and other disorders. (
  • Image shows how the AGO2-miRNA complex interfaces the interaction between a cell and the extracellular matrix. (
  • The cell wall, a polysaccharide-rich extracellular matrix, gives plant cells their shape at the expense of constraining their growth and movement. (
  • To make quantitative predictions for large-scale cell remodeling in tissues, we must understand their material properties, such as stiffness and viscosity, as well as the forces that build up inside them, characterized by local pressures and stresses. (
  • Remarkably, artificially setting other somatic cells to the eye-specific voltage range resulted in formation of eyes in aberrant locations, including tissues that are not in the normal anterior ectoderm lineage: eyes could be formed in the gut, on the tail, or in the lateral plate mesoderm. (
  • To explore the topic, senior author Stefania Nicoli and her colleague Martin Schwarz first focused on human cells , specifically the fibroblast cells that control the rigidity of animal tissues. (
  • During embryo development, the different tissues in our body grow in an ordered fashion to give rise to specific organs of predetermined shapes and sizes in specific places. (
  • While cells with a Th1 phenotype were the predominant subset at baseline, cells with phenotypic and transcriptional characteristics of follicular T helper cells increasingly shaped the circulating HCV-specific CD4 T cell repertoire, suggesting antigen-independent survival of this subset. (
  • Control of Cell Shape, Neurite Outgrowth, and Migration by a Nogo-A/HSPG Interaction. (
  • Here, we have elucidated how cells change length along a spectrum of sizes that positively correlates with increases in agar concentration, regardless of population migration. (
  • Single-cell phenotypes can be decoupled from collective population migration simply by increasing agar concentration. (
  • How these constraints have shaped the evolution of innate immunity remains poorly understood. (
  • Biphasic RLR-IFN-β response controls the balance between antiviral immunity and cell damage. (
  • Therefore, T cell metabolic adaptation acts as crucial checkpoint hijacked by tumors to dampen antitumor immunity. (
  • Dendritic cells are gatekeepers of Immunity. (
  • In this way, during the development of an embryo, it changes from a simple structure formed from only a handful of cells to an animal with very complex organs. (
  • The global cell movements that shape an embryo are driven by intricate changes to the cytoarchitecture of individual cells. (
  • More than half of our brains are made up of glial cells, which wrap around nerve fibers and insulate them-similarly to how the plastic casing of an electric cable insulates the copper wire within-allowing electrical and chemical impulses to travel faster. (
  • Shaham's lab now reports in Cell that glial cells can control the shape of specific nerve endings by interacting with them through a previously unknown molecular pathway. (
  • The KCC-3 ion transporter, shown here in green, is expressed in glial cells but only near a particular neuron, shown in red. (
  • This idea that glial cells may directly mold neural functions is not new," says Shaham. (
  • KCC-3 is expressed in our ears, retinas, and Schwann cells-glial cells present throughout our peripheral nervous system. (
  • Our results offer important insights for further mechanistic studies of regeneration in healthy and tumour cells", explains first author Johanna Schmidt. (
  • Many plant epidermal cells form interlocking shapes that look like jigsaw puzzle pieces. (
  • Conical epidermal cells may increase grip for insect pollinators and enhance flower colouration compared to non-conical cells. (
  • Eukaryotes orchestrate this coordination using the cell cycle and separate growth, DNA synthesis, and cytokinesis into distinct, temporally sequestered phases. (
  • As they race through the body to deliver oxygen, they must maintain a distinct dimpled shape-and bounce back into form even after squishing through narrow capillaries. (
  • Interestingly, sister species in at least two phylogenetically distinct clades of the genus have contrasting petal epidermal cell shapes (conical vs. non-conical). (
  • Therefore, our study suggests that local cortical environment shapes the phenotypes of regional IN variants, which may be required for unique circuit operations in distinct cortical regions. (
  • Here the uptake and intracellular delivery of disc-shaped zeolite L nanocrystals as porous aminosilicates with well-defined crystal structure, uncoated as well as with COOH-, NH 2 -, polyethyleneglycol (PEG)- and polyallylamine hydrochloride (PAH) surface coatings are reported. (
  • CellProfiler: image analysis software for identifying and quantifying cell phenotypes. (
  • We first measured the relationship between agar concentration (a proxy for surface rigidity), single-cell phenotypes, and swarm colony phenotypes. (
  • It couples tight user guidance with the benefits of interactive cell segmentation of fluorescence micrographs. (
  • With the Cell-Shape-Wizard life scientist are able to segment their fluorescence micrographs semiautomatically on their own, without being forced to acquire additional knowledge in image processing. (
  • Review of free software tools for image analysis of fluorescence cell micrographs. (
  • Cell-shape wizard: a concept for userguidance for active shape segmentation in fluorescence cell micrographs. (
  • We have developed an image-processing framework that extracts precise 3D shapes from fluorescence microscopy data allowing us to calculate geometric parameters such as local curvature, surface area, and the relative enrichment of fluorescent signals. (
  • Cells in our body come in various shapes and sizes. (