An autolytic enzyme bound to the surface of bacterial cell walls. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of the link between N-acetylmuramoyl residues and L-amino acid residues in certain cell wall glycopeptides, particularly peptidoglycan. EC
A cell-separation technique where magnetizable microspheres or beads are first coated with monoclonal antibody, allowed to search and bind to target cells, and are then selectively removed when passed through a magnetic field. Among other applications, the technique is commonly used to remove tumor cells from the marrow (BONE MARROW PURGING) of patients who are to undergo autologous bone marrow transplantation.
An endocellulase with specificity for the hydrolysis of 1,3-beta-D-glucosidic linkages in 1,3-beta-D-glucans including laminarin, paramylon, and pachyman.
The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.
The process by which the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided.
A cell wall-degrading enzyme found in microorganisms and higher plants. It catalyzes the random hydrolysis of 1,4-alpha-D-galactosiduronic linkages in pectate and other galacturonans. EC
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
A genus of ascomycetous fungi of the family Schizosaccharomycetaceae, order Schizosaccharomycetales.
Proteins obtained from the species Schizosaccharomyces pombe. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
Rupture of bacterial cells due to mechanical force, chemical action, or the lytic growth of BACTERIOPHAGES.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in fungi.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Microscopic threadlike filaments in FUNGI that are filled with a layer of protoplasm. Collectively, the hyphae make up the MYCELIUM.
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
Methods utilizing the principles of MICROFLUIDICS for sample handling, reagent mixing, and separation and detection of specific components in fluids.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.
A protein complex of actin and MYOSINS occurring in muscle. It is the essential contractile substance of muscle.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
A genus of basidiomycetous smut fungi comprising the loose smuts.
A polyvinyl polymer of variable molecular weight; used as suspending and dispersing agent and vehicle for pharmaceuticals; also used as blood volume expander.
The study of fluid channels and chambers of tiny dimensions of tens to hundreds of micrometers and volumes of nanoliters or picoliters. This is of interest in biological MICROCIRCULATION and used in MICROCHEMISTRY and INVESTIGATIVE TECHNIQUES.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The reproductive organs of plants.
A linear polysaccharide of beta-1->4 linked units of ACETYLGLUCOSAMINE. It is the second most abundant biopolymer on earth, found especially in INSECTS and FUNGI. When deacetylated it is called CHITOSAN.
Derivatives of ethylene, a simple organic gas of biological origin with many industrial and biological use.
Anxiety experienced by an individual upon separation from a person or object of particular significance to the individual.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Electron microscopy in which the ELECTRONS or their reaction products that pass down through the specimen are imaged below the plane of the specimen.
A beta-N-Acetylhexosaminidase that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-beta-glucose residues in chitobiose and higher analogs as well as in glycoproteins. Has been used widely in structural studies on bacterial cell walls and in the study of diseases such as MUCOLIPIDOSIS and various inflammatory disorders of muscle and connective tissue.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
A form of interference microscopy in which variations of the refracting index in the object are converted into variations of intensity in the image. This is achieved by the action of a phase plate.
Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.
Orientation of intracellular structures especially with respect to the apical and basolateral domains of the plasma membrane. Polarized cells must direct proteins from the Golgi apparatus to the appropriate domain since tight junctions prevent proteins from diffusing between the two domains.
A basic enzyme that is present in saliva, tears, egg white, and many animal fluids. It functions as an antibacterial agent. The enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-linkages between N-acetylmuramic acid and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues in peptidoglycan and between N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues in chitodextrin. EC
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.
A species of gram-positive bacteria that is a common soil and water saprophyte.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
A unicellular budding fungus which is the principal pathogenic species causing CANDIDIASIS (moniliasis).
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
A highly-sensitive (in the picomolar range, which is 10,000-fold more sensitive than conventional electrophoresis) and efficient technique that allows separation of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and CARBOHYDRATES. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
Glycoproteins found on immature hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. They are the only molecules to date whose expression within the blood system is restricted to a small number of progenitor cells in the bone marrow.
Prolonged separation of the offspring from the mother.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
A highly miniaturized version of ELECTROPHORESIS performed in a microfluidic device.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.
Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
A method of separation of two or more substances by repeated distribution between two immiscible liquid phases that move past each other in opposite directions. It is a form of liquid-liquid chromatography. (Stedman, 25th ed)
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
Chromatographic techniques in which the mobile phase is a liquid.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A hybrid separation technique combining both chromatographic and electrophoretic separation principles. While the method was invented to separate neutral species, it can also be applied to charged molecules such as small peptides.
An electrochemical process in which macromolecules or colloidal particles with a net electric charge migrate in a solution under the influence of an electric current.
Separation of a mixture in successive stages, each stage removing from the mixture some proportion of one of the substances, for example by differential solubility in water-solvent mixtures. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.
A separation technique which combines LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY and CAPILLARY ELECTROPHORESIS.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Either of the two longitudinally adjacent threads formed when a eukaryotic chromosome replicates prior to mitosis. The chromatids are held together at the centromere. Sister chromatids are derived from the same chromosome. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Techniques used to separate mixtures of substances based on differences in the relative affinities of the substances for mobile and stationary phases. A mobile phase (fluid or gas) passes through a column containing a stationary phase of porous solid or liquid coated on a solid support. Usage is both analytical for small amounts and preparative for bulk amounts.
A chromatography technique in which the stationary phase is composed of a non-polar substance with a polar mobile phase, in contrast to normal-phase chromatography in which the stationary phase is a polar substance with a non-polar mobile phase.
A mass spectrometry technique used for analysis of nonvolatile compounds such as proteins and macromolecules. The technique involves preparing electrically charged droplets from analyte molecules dissolved in solvent. The electrically charged droplets enter a vacuum chamber where the solvent is evaporated. Evaporation of solvent reduces the droplet size, thereby increasing the coulombic repulsion within the droplet. As the charged droplets get smaller, the excess charge within them causes them to disintegrate and release analyte molecules. The volatilized analyte molecules are then analyzed by mass spectrometry.
Transparent, tasteless crystals found in nature as agate, amethyst, chalcedony, cristobalite, flint, sand, QUARTZ, and tridymite. The compound is insoluble in water or acids except hydrofluoric acid.
Concentration or quantity that is derived from the smallest measure that can be detected with reasonable certainty for a given analytical procedure.
A series of steps taken in order to conduct research.
Compounds in which a methyl group is attached to the cyano moiety.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Process of using a rotating machine to generate centrifugal force to separate substances of different densities, remove moisture, or simulate gravitational effects. It employs a large motor-driven apparatus with a long arm, at the end of which human and animal subjects, biological specimens, or equipment can be revolved and rotated at various speeds to study gravitational effects. (From Websters, 10th ed; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A mass spectrometry technique using two (MS/MS) or more mass analyzers. With two in tandem, the precursor ions are mass-selected by a first mass analyzer, and focused into a collision region where they are then fragmented into product ions which are then characterized by a second mass analyzer. A variety of techniques are used to separate the compounds, ionize them, and introduce them to the first mass analyzer. For example, for in GC-MS/MS, GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY is involved in separating relatively small compounds by GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY prior to injecting them into an ionization chamber for the mass selection.
Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
The phenomenon whereby certain chemical compounds have structures that are different although the compounds possess the same elemental composition. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The phase of cell nucleus division following METAPHASE, in which the CHROMATIDS separate and migrate to opposite poles of the spindle.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Legal dissolution of an officially recognized marriage relationship.
A non-crystalline form of silicon oxide that has absorptive properties. It is commonly used as a desiccating agent and as a stationary phase for CHROMATOGRAPHY. The fully hydrated form of silica gel has distinct properties and is referred to as SILICIC ACID.
A chemical system that functions to control the levels of specific ions in solution. When the level of hydrogen ion in solution is controlled the system is called a pH buffer.
Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.
Electrophoresis in which a pH gradient is established in a gel medium and proteins migrate until they reach the site (or focus) at which the pH is equal to their isoelectric point.
Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Separase is a caspase-like cysteine protease, which plays a central role in triggering ANAPHASE by cleaving the SCC1/RAD21 subunit of the cohesin complex. Cohesin holds the sister CHROMATIDS together during METAPHASE and its cleavage results in chromosome segregation.
Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The orderly segregation of CHROMOSOMES during MEIOSIS or MITOSIS.
A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The development and use of techniques and equipment to study or perform chemical reactions, with small quantities of materials, frequently less than a milligram or a milliliter.
A technique used to separate particles according to their densities in a continuous density gradient. The sample is usually mixed with a solution of known gradient materials and subjected to centrifugation. Each particle sediments to the position at which the gradient density is equal to its own. The range of the density gradient is usually greater than that of the sample particles. It is used in purifying biological materials such as proteins, nucleic acids, organelles, and cell types.
A microtubule structure that forms during CELL DIVISION. It consists of two SPINDLE POLES, and sets of MICROTUBULES that may include the astral microtubules, the polar microtubules, and the kinetochore microtubules.
The motion of a liquid through a membrane (or plug or capillary) consequent upon the application of an electric field across the membrane. (Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)
A change of a substance from one form or state to another.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Methodologies used for the isolation, identification, detection, and quantitation of chemical substances.
The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.
The study of chemical changes resulting from electrical action and electrical activity resulting from chemical changes.
Determination, by measurement or comparison with a standard, of the correct value of each scale reading on a meter or other measuring instrument; or determination of the settings of a control device that correspond to particular values of voltage, current, frequency or other output.
Securin is involved in the control of the metaphase-anaphase transition during MITOSIS. It promotes the onset of anaphase by blocking SEPARASE function and preventing proteolysis of cohesin and separation of sister CHROMATIDS. Overexpression of securin is associated with NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION and tumor formation.
The adhesion of gases, liquids, or dissolved solids onto a surface. It includes adsorptive phenomena of bacteria and viruses onto surfaces as well. ABSORPTION into the substance may follow but not necessarily.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Prolonged separation of the offspring from the father.
A basis of value established for the measure of quantity, weight, extent or quality, e.g. weight standards, standard solutions, methods, techniques, and procedures used in diagnosis and therapy.
Techniques to partition various components of the cell into SUBCELLULAR FRACTIONS.
The cell center, consisting of a pair of CENTRIOLES surrounded by a cloud of amorphous material called the pericentriolar region. During interphase, the centrosome nucleates microtubule outgrowth. The centrosome duplicates and, during mitosis, separates to form the two poles of the mitotic spindle (MITOTIC SPINDLE APPARATUS).
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
Mixtures of many components in inexact proportions, usually natural, such as PLANT EXTRACTS; VENOMS; and MANURE. These are distinguished from DRUG COMBINATIONS which have only a few components in definite proportions.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
An extraction method that separates analytes using a solid phase and a liquid phase. It is used for preparative sample cleanup before analysis by CHROMATOGRAPHY and other analytical methods.
The physical phenomena describing the structure and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
Methods of creating machines and devices.
Salts that melt below 100 C. Their low VOLATILIZATION can be an advantage over volatile organic solvents.
The study of CHEMICAL PHENOMENA and processes in terms of the underlying PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and processes.
The protein complement of an organism coded for by its genome.
Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.
An atom or group of atoms that have a positive or negative electric charge due to a gain (negative charge) or loss (positive charge) of one or more electrons. Atoms with a positive charge are known as CATIONS; those with a negative charge are ANIONS.
The chemical and physical integrity of a pharmaceutical product.
Electrophoresis in which a second perpendicular electrophoretic transport is performed on the separate components resulting from the first electrophoresis. This technique is usually performed on polyacrylamide gels.
The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Condition of having pores or open spaces. This often refers to bones, bone implants, or bone cements, but can refer to the porous state of any solid substance.
Silicone polymers which consist of silicon atoms substituted with methyl groups and linked by oxygen atoms. They comprise a series of biocompatible materials used as liquids, gels or solids; as film for artificial membranes, gels for implants, and liquids for drug vehicles; and as antifoaming agents.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.
A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.
Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.
Microdevices that combine microfluidics technology with electrical and/or mechanical functions for analyzing very small fluid volumes. They consist of microchannels etched into substrates made of silicon, glass, or polymer using processes similar to photolithography. The test fluids in the channels can then interact with different elements such as electrodes, photodetectors, chemical sensors, pumps, and valves.
The development and use of techniques to study physical phenomena and construct structures in the nanoscale size range or smaller.
The phase of cell nucleus division following PROMETAPHASE, in which the CHROMOSOMES line up across the equatorial plane of the SPINDLE APPARATUS prior to separation.
The preparation and analysis of samples on miniaturized devices.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Centrifugation using a rotating chamber of large capacity in which to separate cell organelles by density-gradient centrifugation. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Artificially produced membranes, such as semipermeable membranes used in artificial kidney dialysis (RENAL DIALYSIS), monomolecular and bimolecular membranes used as models to simulate biological CELL MEMBRANES. These membranes are also used in the process of GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION.
The removal of a soluble component from a liquid mixture by contact with a second liquid, immiscible with the carrier liquid, in which the component is preferentially soluble. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of large biomolecules. Analyte molecules are embedded in an excess matrix of small organic molecules that show a high resonant absorption at the laser wavelength used. The matrix absorbs the laser energy, thus inducing a soft disintegration of the sample-matrix mixture into free (gas phase) matrix and analyte molecules and molecular ions. In general, only molecular ions of the analyte molecules are produced, and almost no fragmentation occurs. This makes the method well suited for molecular weight determinations and mixture analysis.
The clear constricted portion of the chromosome at which the chromatids are joined and by which the chromosome is attached to the spindle during cell division.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
Inorganic or organic salts and esters of boric acid.
The thermodynamic interaction between a substance and WATER.
Separation of molecules and particles by a simultaneous action of carrier liquid flow and focusing field forces (electrical, sedimentation, or thermal), without a stationary phase.
Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.
The transfer of energy of a given form among different scales of motion. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed). It includes the transfer of kinetic energy and the transfer of chemical energy. The transfer of chemical energy from one molecule to another depends on proximity of molecules so it is often used as in techniques to measure distance such as the use of FORSTER RESONANCE ENERGY TRANSFER.
Chlorophylls from which the magnesium has been removed by treatment with weak acid.
A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.
Methods for controlling genetic SEX of offspring.
A very strong halogenated derivative of acetic acid. It is used in acid catalyzed reactions, especially those where an ester is cleaved in peptide synthesis.
High molecular weight, insoluble polymers which contain functional groups that are capable of undergoing exchange reactions (ION EXCHANGE) with either cations or anions.

Steroids and hematopoiesis. III. The response of granulocytic and erythroid colony-forming cells to steroids of different classes. (1/9553)

Selected androgenic and nonandrogenic steroids enhance in vitro granulocytic and erythroid colony formation by mouse marrow cells, but do so by influencing either different target cells or cells in different states of cell cycle. Etiocholanolone, a naturally occurring nonandrogenic testosterone metabolite, permits cells not in active cycle to respond to colony-stimulating factor or erythropoietin. Fluoxymesterone, a synthetic androgen, appears to enhance colony growth by increasing the responsiveness of target cells to tropic stimuli. The majority of cells responding to this androgen are in active DNA synthesis. Direct comparison, however, of etiocholanolone-dependent erythroid or granulocytic colony-forming cells demonstrates nonidentity of the target cells. Thus colony-forming units responding to different classes of steroids are in different states of cell cycle and are physically separable. The enhancement of the in vitro response of colony-forming cells to regulating hormones by steroids such as etiocholanolane suggests a mechanism by which such agents may be therapeutically effective in certain cases of marrow failure in man.  (+info)

The structlre of pili (fimbriae) of Moraxella bovis. (2/9553)

Cells from rough and smooth colonies of Moraxella bovis were examined by electron microscopy utilizing both shadowing and thin sectioning techniques. Pili were found on the surfaces of cells from rough but not smooth colonies. Pili had a peritrichoud distribution and appeared as delicate (6.5-8.5 nm in diameter), elongated unbranched filaments. When bacteria were sectioned pili did not contain central pores and appeared to originate from opacities on the surface of the cell wall.  (+info)

Inhibition of in vitro enteric neuronal development by endothelin-3: mediation by endothelin B receptors. (3/9553)

The terminal colon is aganglionic in mice lacking endothelin-3 or its receptor, endothelin B. To analyze the effects of endothelin-3/endothelin B on the differentiation of enteric neurons, E11-13 mouse gut was dissociated, and positive and negative immunoselection with antibodies to p75(NTR )were used to isolate neural crest- and non-crest-derived cells. mRNA encoding endothelin B was present in both the crest-and non-crest-derived cells, but that encoding preproendothelin-3 was detected only in the non-crest-derived population. The crest- and non-crest-derived cells were exposed in vitro to endothelin-3, IRL 1620 (an endothelin B agonist), and/or BQ 788 (an endothelin B antagonist). Neurons and glia developed only in cultures of crest-derived cells, and did so even when endothelin-3 was absent and BQ 788 was present. Endothelin-3 inhibited neuronal development, an effect that was mimicked by IRL 1620 and blocked by BQ 788. Endothelin-3 failed to stimulate the incorporation of [3H]thymidine or bromodeoxyuridine. Smooth muscle development in non-crest-derived cell cultures was promoted by endothelin-3 and inhibited by BQ 788. In contrast, transcription of laminin alpha1, a smooth muscle-derived promoter of neuronal development, was inhibited by endothelin-3, but promoted by BQ 788. Neurons did not develop in explants of the terminal bowel of E12 ls/ls (endothelin-3-deficient) mice, but could be induced to do so by endothelin-3 if a source of neural precursors was present. We suggest that endothelin-3/endothelin B normally prevents the premature differentiation of crest-derived precursors migrating to and within the fetal bowel, enabling the precursor population to persist long enough to finish colonizing the bowel.  (+info)

Proliferation and differentiation of rat theca-interstitial cells: comparison of effects induced by platelet-derived growth factor and insulin-like growth factor-I. (4/9553)

This study was designed to evaluate mechanisms regulating proliferation of steroidogenically active and steroidogenically inactive theca-interstitial (T-I) cells, and, specifically, to evaluate the effects of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I). T-I cells obtained from immature Sprague-Dawley rats were cultured in chemically defined media. Proliferation was assayed by thymidine incorporation and cell counting. Steroidogenically active cells were identified by the presence of 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity. Flow cytometry facilitated separation of dividing cells (in S and G2/M phases of the cell cycle) from nondividing cells (in G0 and G1 phases of the cell cycle). PDGF alone (0.1-1 nM) produced a dose-dependent increase in DNA synthesis by up to 136%. IGF-I alone (10 nM) increased DNA synthesis by 56%. In the presence of both IGF-I (10 nM) and PDGF (0.1-1 nM), DNA synthesis increased by 108-214%. PDGF (1 nM) increased the total number of T-I cells by 43%; this effect was due to an increase in the number of steroidogenically inactive cells (47%). In contrast, the stimulatory effect of IGF-I (10 nM) was predominantly due to an increase in the number of steroidogenically active cells (163%). Separation of dividing cells from nondividing cells was accomplished with the aid of flow cytometry. In the absence of growth factors, the proportion of steroidogenically active cells was 35% lower among proliferating than resting cells. PDGF (1 nM) decreased the proportion of steroidogenically active cells among both proliferating and resting cells (by 43% and 16%, respectively). In contrast, IGF-I (10 nM) increased the proportion of steroidogenically active cells among proliferating cells by 56%. These findings indicate that differentiated/steroidogenically active cells divide; furthermore, PDGF and IGF-I may selectively stimulate proliferation of individual subpopulations of T-I cells, thereby providing a mechanism for development of structural and steroidogenically active components of the T-I compartment.  (+info)

Phenotypic and functional characterisation of myofibroblasts, macrophages, and lymphocytes migrating out of the human gastric lamina propria following the loss of epithelial cells. (5/9553)

BACKGROUND: The basement membrane of human colonic mucosa contains numerous discrete pores. We have recently shown that following loss of the surface epithelium, many cells migrate out of the colonic lamina propria via basement membrane pores. AIMS: To characterise cells migrating out via basement membrane pores of the human gastric lamina propria, following loss of the surface epithelium. METHODS: Fresh human gastric mucosal samples were completely denuded of epithelial cells and placed in culture. Tissue samples were studied by electron microscopy (EM) and cells by EM, FACS analysis, immunohistochemistry, and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). RESULTS: EM showed numerous discrete pores (0. 65-8.29 microm in diameter) in the subepithelial basement membrane. During culture of mucosal samples denuded of epithelial cells, lymphocytes, macrophages, and myofibroblasts migrated out of the lamina propria via the basement membrane pores. The lymphocytes were predominantly CD45RO+ and CD69+ T cells. Macrophages were shown to express cyclooxygenase (COX) 1 and 2 enzymes. Myofibroblasts were established in culture and, despite prolonged culture and passage, retained their phenotype. They expressed mRNA and protein for COX 1 and 2 enzymes and their release of prostaglandin E2 was inhibited by selective COX 1 and 2 inhibitors. CONCLUSIONS: Lamina propria cells migrating out of cultured denuded gastric mucosal samples have been characterised phenotypically and functionally. Such cells would be suitable for studies of their interactions with epithelial cells and also with Helicobacter pylori and its products.  (+info)

Contribution of delayed rectifier potassium currents to the electrical activity of murine colonic smooth muscle. (6/9553)

1. We used intracellular microelectrodes to record the membrane potential (Vm) of intact murine colonic smooth muscle. Electrical activity consisted of spike complexes separated by quiescent periods (Vm approximately -60 mV). The spike complexes consisted of about a dozen action potentials of approximately 30 mV amplitude. Tetraethylammonium (TEA, 1-10 mM) had little effect on the quiescent periods but increased the amplitude of the action potential spikes. 4-Aminopyridine (4-AP, >= 5 mM) caused continuous spiking. 2. Voltage clamp of isolated myocytes identified delayed rectifier K+ currents that activated rapidly (time to half-maximum current, 11.5 ms at 0 mV) and inactivated in two phases (tauf = 96 ms, taus = 1.5 s at 0 mV). The half-activation voltage of the permeability was -27 mV, with significant activation at -50 mV. 3. TEA (10 mM) reduced the outward current at potentials positive to 0 mV. 4-AP (5 mM) reduced the early current but increased outward current at later times (100-500 ms) consistent with block of resting channels relieved by depolarization. 4-AP inhibited outward current at potentials negative to -20 mV, potentials where TEA had no effect. 4. Qualitative PCR amplification of mRNA identified transcripts encoding delayed rectifier K+ channel subunits Kv1.6, Kv4.1, Kv4.2, Kv4.3 and the Kvbeta1.1 subunit in murine colon myocytes. mRNA encoding Kv 1.4 was not detected. 5. We find that TEA-sensitive delayed rectifier currents are important determinants of action potential amplitude but not rhythmicity. Delayed rectifier currents sensitive to 4-AP are important determinants of rhythmicity but not action potential amplitude.  (+info)

Isolation and partial characterization of Drosophila myoblasts from primary cultures of embryonic cells. (7/9553)

We describe a method for preparing highly enriched cultures of Drosophila myoblasts from a heterogeneous cell population derived from gastrulating embryos. Enriched cultures are prepared by plating this heterogeneous population of cells in medium from which much of the free calcium is chelated by ethylene glycol-bis(beta-aminoethyl ether)N,N,N',N'-tetraacetate (EGTA). Adhesion of myoblasts to tissue culture plastic is better than that of other cell types when plated in this medium. Data concerning cell identity, timing of S phase, and fusion kinetics document the degree of enrichment for myogenic cells and illustrate their synchronous differentiation in vitro.  (+info)

Patterns of A2A extracellular adenosine receptor expression in different functional subsets of human peripheral T cells. Flow cytometry studies with anti-A2A receptor monoclonal antibodies. (8/9553)

Signaling through A2A adenosine receptors (A2AR) regulates T lymphocyte expansion and modulates T cell receptor (TCR)-mediated effector functions in vitro. To understand the role of A2ARs in the regulation of immune response, we investigated the expression levels of this receptor in different functional lymphocyte subsets. Monoclonal anti-A2AR antibody was used to develop a flow cytometric assay to quantify the expression A2ARs on lymphocytes. We report that detectable levels of expression of A2ARs are much higher among T cells than B cells. More CD4(+) than CD8(+) T cells express A2ARs, but activation of T cells increases A2AR expression, predominantly in CD8(+) T cells. No significant differences were found in the proportion of A2AR+ cells between CD8(low) and CD8(high) T cells or between TCR/CD3(low) and TCR/CD3(high) T cells. Studies of T helper cell subsets (TH1 and TH2) reveal that lymphokine-producing cells are much more likely to express A2ARs than are cells that do not produce lymphokines. These results suggest that A2ARs are variably expressed on T cell subsets and may regulate cytokine production in activated T lymphocytes.  (+info)

A type of anxiety that occurs when an individual is separated from someone they have a strong emotional attachment to, such as a parent, child, or significant other. This can be a common experience for children who are separated from their parents, and it can also affect adults who are experiencing a long-distance relationship or the loss of a loved one.


* Feeling panicked or uneasy when away from the person they are attached to
* Difficulty sleeping or concentrating when separated
* Intrusive thoughts or dreams about the person they are attached to
* Avoidance of situations that might lead to separation
* Physical symptoms such as headaches, stomachaches, or muscle tension


* Psychotherapy, such as cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), to help individuals identify and change negative thought patterns and behaviors associated with separation anxiety
* Medications, such as antidepressants or anti-anxiety drugs, to help manage symptoms
* Relaxation techniques, such as deep breathing or progressive muscle relaxation, to reduce physical symptoms of anxiety
* Support groups for individuals and families affected by separation anxiety

It's important to note that while some level of separation anxiety is normal, excessive or persistent separation anxiety can interfere with daily life and may be a sign of an underlying mental health condition. If you or someone you know is experiencing severe symptoms of separation anxiety, it's important to seek professional help from a mental health provider.

Conjoined twins are relatively rare, occurring in about 1 in every 200,000 births. The most common type of conjoined twinning is thoracopagus, where the twins are connected at the chest area, but other types include abdomino-placental, omphalopagus, and craniopagus.

Conjoined twins face unique health challenges due to their shared physiology. Simple daily activities like eating, breathing, and moving can be difficult or impossible for conjoined twins, and they often require specialized medical care and surgical interventions to improve their quality of life. In some cases, the connection between the twins may be too complex to be separated safely, and the decision to separate them may be a difficult one.

Conjoined twinning is thought to occur due to genetic or environmental factors during early pregnancy, although the exact cause is not fully understood. While conjoined twins are rare, advances in medical technology and surgical techniques have improved their chances of survival and quality of life.

"A Concentration-Dependent Liquid Phase Separation Can Cause Toxicity upon Increased Protein Expression". Cell Reports. 16 (1): ... Dignon, Gregory L; Zheng, Wenwei; Mittal, Jeetain (2019-03-01). "Simulation methods for liquid-liquid phase separation of ... "Liquid-liquid phase separation of the microtubule-binding repeats of the Alzheimer-related protein Tau". Nature Communications ... Cell Reports. 34 (5): 108705. doi:10.1016/j.celrep.2021.108705. ISSN 2211-1247. PMID 33535034. S2CID 231804701. Hardenberg, ...
Magnetic cell separation took a turn when, Zborowski, an Immunomagnetic Cell Separation (IMCS) pioneer, analyzed commercial ... Magnetic cell separation is on the rise. It is currently being used in clinical therapies, more specifically in cancers and ... Low-field magnetic separation is often in environmental contexts such as water purification and the separation of complex ... In the 1900s, high intensity magnetic separation was inaugurated which allowed the separation of pragmatic materials. After the ...
Separation of cells is typically done using centrifugation, however foam separation has also been used as a more energy ... Continuous foam separation is one of two major modes of foam separation with the other being batch foam separation. The ... "Foam separation of microbial cells" (PDF). Biotechnology and Bioengineering. 32 (2): 174-83. doi:10.1002/bit.260320207. PMID ... Foam separation can be used for the extraction of proteins from a solution especially to concentrate the protein from a dilute ...
"Adult stem cells could treat tooth loss". The Royal Society. Retrieved 27 May 2020. "Methods of Cell Separation". Elsevier. ... Sharpe is author of Methods of Cell Separation. Sharpe is an Honorary Fellow of the Royal College of Surgeons in Edinburgh ( ... Sharpe, PT; Watts, DJ (1985). "Use of aqueous two-phase partition to detect cell surface changes during growth of D. discoideum ... Sharpe, PT; Gallagher, JA; Treffry, TE; Russell, RGG (1982). "Studies of the growth of human bone-derived cells in culture ...
1 July 2003). "Transcriptional profiling of lung cell populations in idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension". Pulmonary ... Separation anxiety may be diagnosed as a disorder if the child's anxiety related to separation from the home or attachment ... Helping children with separation anxiety to identify the circumstances that elicit their anxiety (upcoming separation events) ... "Separation Anxiety Disorder in Children". WebMD. Feriante J, Bernstein B (2020). Perlstein D (ed.). "Separation Anxiety". WebMD ...
A newer cell separation technique employing antibodies is buoyancy-activated cell sorting (BACS) is a separation technique in ... MACS Immunomagnetic cell sorting is also known as immunomagnetic cell separation, immunomagnetic cell enrichment, or magnetic- ... Cell Separation Methods and Applications. CRC Press. ISBN 978-0-8247-9864-2. "Cell Separation Terminology, Uses, Methods and ... Shields CW, Reyes CD, López GP (March 2015). "Microfluidic cell sorting: a review of the advances in the separation of cells ...
Molecular biology of the cell (4th ed.). New York: Garland Science. ISBN 0-8153-4072-9. Frei, Mark. "Centrifugation Separations ... Through low-speed centrifugation, cell debris may be removed, leaving a supernatant preserving the contents of the cell. ... Ultracentrifugation is employed for separation of macromolecules/ligand binding kinetic studies, separation of various ... Historically, many separations have been carried out at the speed of 3000 rpm; a rough guide to the 'g' force exerted at this ...
Cellular engineering - Design of new cells using recombinant DNA and development of procedures to allow normal cells to adhere ... Bioseparations - Separation of biologically active molecules. Thermodynamics and Kinetics (chemistry) - Analysis of reactions ... Attention is also given to the rudiments of engineered biomolecules in cell signaling, cell growth kinetics, biochemical ... Gam functions to protect the DNA insert from being destroyed by native nucleases within the cell. Recombinant DNA can be ...
Following the unit's refurbishment in 1997, all cells had in-cell sanitation. The separation unit was closed indefinitely in ... all cells in the main jail have in-cell sanitation following refurbishment in the period 2010 to 2015. These cells contain a ... The Separation Unit had 35 cells. It also had kitchen facilities a shower block and a laundry. In the late 1980s, inmates ... All the cells in this unit have in-cell sanitation facilities. It is equipped with medical facilities, classrooms and kitchen ...
To begin the process, mitochondria must first be separated from cultured cells. This is typically a two step process using ... Although these methods of separation were proven to be fairly efficient at the time, their mechanical nature became outdated as ... Ernster, Lars; Schatz, Gottfried (1981). "Mitochondria: A Historical Review". The Journal of Cell Biology. 91: 241s. Bertholet ... Lévy, Marianne; Toury, Renée; André, Jean (1967). "Separation of the mitochondrial membranes. Purification and enzymatic ...
"Micromolded arrays for separation of adherent cells". Lab on a Chip. 10 (21): 2917-24. doi:10.1039/c0lc00186d. ISSN 1473-0197. ... A Microraft (Isoraft) is an arrays of microwells for cell sorting, isolating cells, analyzing cells over time, and generating ... Cell analysis and isolation can be carried out using a standard inverted microscope. Released cells/microrafts can be collected ... This platform provides biomedical scientists with access to diverse cell culture surfaces with integrated, easy-to-use cell ...
The feed enters the bottom of the liquid-filled centrifuge (ensuring air-free for cell separation) and a hollow spindle ... The solid is sent to the solids separation system whereas the liquid is sent to the liquid separation system. Product Low ... Hermetic cell culture centrifuge is used to harvest cell cultures from mammals. ... Filtration and Separation Technology. Plat, R.; W. Van Den Broek (1991). "New Plate Pack Design Leads to Increased Separation ...
Fulwyler, M. J. (1965). "Electronic separation of biological cells by volume". Science. 150 (698): 910-911. Bibcode:1965Sci... ... Variables that can be measured by cytometric methods include cell size, cell count, cell morphology (shape and structure), cell ... In blood cell counting applications the hemocytometer has now been replaced by electronic cell counters. However, the ... In a similar fashion, cytometry is also used in cell biology research and in medical diagnostics to characterize cells in a ...
Cell separation: fundamentals, analytical and preparative methods. Springer. ISBN 978-3-540-75262-2. Bead separation Ebook ( ... Cell-types often of interest to purify may be specific leukocytes, such as CD4+ T cells, stem cells, or circulating tumor cells ... "The History of Dynal and Biomagnetic Separation". Invitrogen. Archived from the original on May 27, 2010. "Cell Isolation & ... Immunomagnetic cell sorting--pushing the limits. Thiel A, Scheffold A, Radbruch A. Immunotechnology. 1998 Oct;4(2):89-96. ...
Solid oxide fuel cell magnetic tunnel junction J. Ortiz, L. Gracia, F. Cancino, U. Pal; et al. (2020). "Particle dispersion and ... Dagotto E (2003). Nanoscale Phase Separation and Colossal Magnetoresistance. The Physics of Manganites and Related Compounds. ... Depending on the x value in La1−xSrxMnO3, the unit cell of LSMO can be rhombohedral, cubic, or hexagonal. This change in the ... Armstrong TJ, Virkar AV (2002). "Performance of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells with LSGM-LSM Composite Cathodes". Journal of the ...
However, the separation was still not perfect. Number 8 has enhanced strength and reflexes, acidic blood, and an empathic link ... She escapes from her cell and later meets and joins a group of mercenaries; developing a close relationship with their youngest ...
Organisms using RuBisCOs with high values of VC / KC, and low values of Sc/o have localized RuBisCO to areas within the cell ... Chemical kinetics, Photosynthesis, Isotope separation). ... "Effect of Phytoplankton Cell Geometry on Carbon Isotopic ...
Nora EP, Heard E (November 2009). "X chromosome inactivation: when dosage counts". Cell. 139 (5): 865-7. doi:10.1016/j.cell. ... February 2014). "Spatial separation of Xist RNA and polycomb proteins revealed by superresolution microscopy". Proceedings of ... April 2015). "Systematic discovery of Xist RNA binding proteins". Cell. 161 (2): 404-16. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2015.03.025. PMC ... Pintacuda G, Cerase A (October 2015). "X Inactivation Lessons from Differentiating Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells". Stem Cell ...
This can lead to deformability-selective cell separation. This technique is especially useful to identify cancerous cells, ... The way target cells are separated in a solution depends on several types of effects. The first is inertial effects. The ... Hydrodynamic trapping allows isolation of a target cell from an aqueous mixture. Several advantages exist for the use of ... "Hydrodynamic Mechanisms Of Cell And Particle Trapping In Microfluidics." Biomicrofluidics 7.2 (2013): 021501-021501-23. Peter ...
... efficiency may be broken down into reflectance efficiency, thermodynamic efficiency, charge carrier separation ... Other possible solar cell types are organic solar cells, dye sensitized solar cells, perovskite solar cells, quantum dot solar ... Quantum dot solar cells (QDSCs) are based on the Gratzel cell, or dye-sensitized solar cell architecture, but employ low band ... Second generation cells are thin film solar cells, that include amorphous silicon, CdTe and CIGS cells and are commercially ...
In bulk heterojunction polymer solar cells, light generates excitons. Subsequent charge separation in the interface between an ... Dye-sensitized solar cell Hybrid solar cell Nanocrystal solar cell Photoelectrochemical cell Renewable energy portal Energy ... solar cell Energy harvesting Grid parity Hybrid solar cell Inkjet solar cell Nanocrystal solar cell Photoelectrochemical cell ... Polymer solar cells have yet to commercially compete with silicon solar cells and other thin-film cells. The present efficiency ...
Guiochon, Georges; Beaver, Lois Ann (2011-12-09). "Separation science is the key to successful biopharmaceuticals". Journal of ... Since common host cells used to produce biopharmaceutical drugs are E. coli, yeast, mouse myeloma cell line (NS0) and Chinese ... Host cell proteins (HCPs) are process-related protein impurities that are produced by the host organism during biotherapeutic ... "Cell tissue proteome analysis". Proteiq. ProteiQ Biosciences. Retrieved 22 July 2022. (CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list ...
Another application in laboratories is blood separation. Blood separates into cells and proteins (RBC, WBC, platelets, etc.) ... DNA samples are purified and the DNA is prepped for separation by adding buffers and then centrifuging it for a certain amount ... "Plasmid DNA Separation: Fixed-Angle and Vertical Rotors in the Thermo Scientific Sorvall Discovery™ M120 & M150 ... Industrial centrifuges may otherwise be classified according to the type of separation of the high density fraction from the ...
Erythrocytapheresis - red blood cells. Erythrocytapheresis is the separation of erythrocytes from whole blood. It is most ... This process is used for red blood cell diseases such as sickle cell crises or severe malaria. The automated red blood cell ... Leukocytapheresis - removal of malignant white blood cells in people with leukemia and very high white blood cell counts ... Stem cell harvesting - circulating bone marrow cells are harvested to use in bone marrow transplantation.[citation needed] ...
The separation of Scutellospora gen. nov. from Gigaspora Gerd. & Trappe". Mycotaxon. 27: 169-82. v t e (Fungal morphology and ... Auxiliary cells have thin cell walls, echinulate (spiny), papillate, knobby or sometimes smooth surfaces, and are formed from ... The auxiliary cell is a spore-like structure that form within the fungal family Gigasporaceae (order Gigasporales). ... They may not be 'cells' in the biological sense of the word, as they are structures found with coenocytic hyphae belonging to ...
"Visualizing charge separation in bulk heterojunction organic solar cells". Nature Communications. 4 (1): 2334. Bibcode: ... organic and perovskite solar cells. Sundström was an editor of the journal Chemical Physics Letters. Sundström, Villy; Gillbro ...
The DNA found in many cells can be macroscopic in length: a few centimetres long for each human chromosome. Consequently, cells ... 38 (Suppl). Magasanik B, Vischer E, Doniger R, Elson D, Chargaff E (1950). "The separation and estimation of ribonucleotides in ... Novel methods that combine X-ray diffraction of DNA with X-ray microscopy in hydrated living cells are now also being developed ... Highly hydrated B-DNA occurs naturally in living cells in such a paracrystalline state, which is a dynamic one despite the ...
"Stiffness Dependent Separation of Cells in a Microfluidic Device". PLOS ONE. 8 (10): e75901. Bibcode:2013PLoSO...875901W. doi: ... A unique tool for exploring cell and tissue mechanics in vivo", Methods in Cell Biology, Cell Polarity and Morphogenesis, ... Infected red blood cells are generally stiffer, so through his device, stiffer red blood cells would be closer to the vessel ... The relative deformation of the cell and the tip can be used to estimate how much force was applied and how stiff the cell is. ...
Macromolecular phase separation in germ cell fate. Kikuë Tachibana: Chromatin reprogramming in totipotent stem cells. Noelia ... Bon-Kyoung Koo: Homeostatic regulation of adult stem cells. Pioneer in adult stem cell organoids. Sasha Mendjan: Molecular ... IMBA and the IMP co-organize the yearly SY-Stem symposium focusing on the next generation of stem cell researchers. The Vienna ... Generation of blood vessel organoids from human pluripotent stem cells. 2017. Development of SLAM-Seq for the high-resolution ...
Since cell size is correlated with cell cycle stages this method also allows the separation of cells at different stages of the ... lyses of cell membrane) effect on the cells, so the cell will remain unchanged before and after the separation. Because of this ... so the speed of separation is fast. In summary: Minimum effect on the cells High recovery viability Separated cells can be used ... During the separation, the cell only needs to be suspended in a buffer solution and enter a centrifuge, the whole processes ...
Life sciences included experiments on human health, cell separation and biology, developmental biology, animal and human ... Test subjects included the crew, Japanese koi fish (carp), cultured animal and plant cells, chicken embryos, fruit flies, fungi ...
Cell phones are also very common among all three groups today. Text messaging has made cell phones particularly useful for ... Thus, in addition to a set of community rules for Christian living and the principle of worldly separation, the Hutterites, in ... The Hutterite Churches also believe in "a set of community rules for Christian living and the principle of worldly separation ... the complete separation of church and state; pacifism and the refusal to bear arms; and the rejection of oaths of allegiance. ...
Development proceeds and the oogonia become fully surrounded by a layer of connective tissue cells (pre-granulosa cells). In ... After the separation of the rectum from the dorsal part of the cloaca, the ventral part of the cloacal membrane becomes the ... After the separation of the rectum from the dorsal part of the cloaca, the ventral part becomes the primary urogenital sinus. ... At about the fifth or sixth month the lumen of the vagina is produced by the breaking down of the central cells of the ...
The separation is normally similar to the resolution of the microscope. They will experience different optical path lengths ... a cell in water only has a refractive index difference of around 0.05. This small phase difference is important for the correct ... neglecting refraction and absorption due to the sample and the resolution limit of beam separation) as the differential of ...
Chromatographical separation, in addition to the antibiotics pyrromycin and cinerubin A and B, reveals several individual ... Daskal, Y; Woodard, C; Crooke, ST; Busch, H (1978). "Comparative Ultrastructural Studies of Nucleoli of Tumor Cells Treated ...
Centromere proteins are involved in the separation of chromosomes during cell division. This is through forming part of ... Most cilia are primary cilia, which are involved in cell signalling, sending and receiving signals to trigger cell migration, ... They also aid in cell migratory ability. They are made by the centrosome, which contains a pair of cylindrical centrioles at ... Mutations in this gene lead to impaired cell division during early development. Mitosis has been found to take longer when ...
All cells must finish DNA replication before they can proceed for cell division. Media conditions that support fast growth in ... It is hypothesized that DNA stretching by DnaA bound to the origin promotes strand separation which allows more DnaA to bind to ... it is possible that in fast growth conditions the grandmother cells starts replicating its DNA for grand daughter cell. For the ... They bind to DnaA-ADP and DnaA-ATP with equal affinities and are bound by DnaA throughout most of the cell cycle and forms a ...
At the jail, his cell-block neighbor was Michael Slager, the former North Charleston police officer charged with murder after ... Goldberg, Michelle (June 22, 2015). "The 2 Degrees of Separation Between Dylann Roof and the Republican Party". The Nation. ...
J Cell Biol 4:475-478 Hosogi N, Nishioka H, Nakakoshi M (2015) Evaluation of lanthanide salts as alternative stains to uranyl ... Von Welsbach confirmed the separation by spectroscopic analysis, but the products were of relatively low purity. Didymium was ... and fuel cells. Among these technologies, permanent magnets are often used to fabricate high-efficiency motors, with neodymium- ... and fuel cell vehicles (FCVs) (hereinafter referred to as xEVs), wind turbines, home appliances, computers, and many small ...
... a triangular membrane occurring in eyes Cell membranes: Plasma membrane, a membrane that separates the interior of all cells ... a synthetically created membrane which is usually intended for separation purposes in laboratory or in industry The Membranes, ... Biology: Isolating tissues formed by layers of cells Amnion, a membrane in the amniotic sac Basement membrane, a thin sheet of ... a smooth membrane consisting of a thin layer of cells, which secrete serous fluid Tunic membrane, protective membrane covering ...
... amniotic stem cells and umbilical cord blood stem cells. They are being studied as possible treatments of a number of ... Mothers were told that their newborn would be safer in the nursery and that the separation would offer the mother more time to ... Placental expulsion begins as a physiological separation from the wall of the uterus. The average time from delivery of the ... OCLC 748863692.[page needed] Dziadosz M, Basch RS, Young BK (March 2016). "Human amniotic fluid: a source of stem cells for ...
Separation processes take advantage of physical properties of the materials. These physical properties can include density, ... Electrometallurgy involves metallurgical processes that take place in some form of electrolytic cell. The most common types of ... The field is a materials science, covering all aspects of the types of ore, washing, concentration, separation, chemical ... Major physical and chemical methods include magnetic separation, froth flotation, leaching etc., whereby the impurities and ...
Supposedly, this separation from the sites of earliest antigen processing and capture provide a protected environment in which ... and differentiation into high-affinity plasma cells and memory B cells. Adhesion between FDCs and B cells is mediated by ICAM-1 ... Unlike dendritic cells (DC), FDCs are not derived from the bone-marrow hematopoietic stem cell, but are of mesenchymal origin. ... Activated B-cells with low affinity to antigen captured on FDCs surface as well as autoreactive B-cells undergo apoptosis, ...
Responding to questions, O2's CEO indicated that the company's billing allows for separation of handset charges and telephony/ ... who built a chain of cells between London Heathrow and BT Tower in January 1985. Cellnet was established in 1985 as a joint ... the company was also able to reduce energy use by removing air conditioning units from some of its cell sites and reducing ... 1.4 million distribution of smart metering technology across the company's cell sites, offices and retail stores, and upgrades ...
She rose to prominence after she signed with X-Cell Records in 2000 and released her debut album Green Eyed Soul (2001) the ... In November 2008, Connor announced her separation from Terenzi. In April 2010, Connor announced that she is in a relationship ... In 2000, music manager George Glueck eventually signed her as Sarah Connor with the Sony subsidiary X-Cell Records. Connor ...
Brain cells (neurons) in a part of the brain responsible for processing visual information coming from the retinae (primary ... horizontal separation (parallax). The brain uses binocular disparity to extract depth information from the two-dimensional ... precise properties of these neurons with respect to disparity present visual stimuli with different disparities to the cells ...
... cells upon cell division, with the mother cell experiencing aging, while the daughter is rejuvenated. There is negligible ... Senescence is the inevitable fate of almost all multicellular organisms with germ-soma separation, but it can be delayed. The ... Cloning from somatic cells rather than germ cells may begin life with a higher initial load of damage. Dolly the sheep died ... Senescent cells within a multicellular organism can be purged by competition between cells, but this increases the risk of ...
It becomes negligibly small when the ratios of plate width to separation and length to separation are large. For unevenly ... After Volta's discovery of the electrochemical cell in 1800, the term was then applied to a group of electrochemical cells " ... Since the separation between the plates is uniform over the plate area, the electric field between the plates E {\displaystyle ... Since the area A {\displaystyle A} of the plates increases with the square of the linear dimensions and the separation d {\ ...
It was assigned the Harvard designation 1961 Delta 1. Upon separation of the fourth stage, the sphere was inflated by a ... Power was supplied by solar cells and rechargeable batteries. The second of six identical air density research satellites to be ... nitrogen gas bottle, and a separation spring ejected it out into its own orbit. The two hemispheres of aluminium foil were ...
... higher expression level of hnRNP A2/B1 and Hsp90 were observed in human hepatoma HepG2 cells than in wild type cells. This led ... It also avoids the modest separation efficiency and poor mass spectral sensitivity associated with intact protein analysis. The ... Cells containing the protein complement desired are grown. Proteins are then extracted from the mixture and digested with a ... Fournier ML, Gilmore JM, Martin-Brown SA, Washburn MP (August 2007). "Multidimensional separations-based shotgun proteomics". ...
... by complete separation of India from imperialistic Britain by a violent revolution.", in what was called the Cawnpore (now ... stood unsuccessfully as a candidate in a British general election for the Communist Party of Great Britain from his prison cell ...
The new cells typically will have too many or too few chromosomes. The odd number of chromosomes causes the defective cells to ... The first chromosomal abnormality is called premature centromere separation (PCS) and is the most likely pathogenic mechanism ... The mutation causes cell division to occur slowly or unevenly, and the cells with abnormal genetic content die. Roberts ... The ESCO2 gene has a specific effect on cell division in Roberts syndrome patients. In normal cell division, each chromosome is ...
... the separation between S(0) and O(2) is 12B and the separation between adjacent lines in both O- and S- branches is 4B. The ... When measuring the spectra of gases it is relatively easy to obtain very long path-lengths by using a multiple reflection cell ... The separation between adjacent lines in the P- and R- branches is close to 4B rather than 2B as alternate lines are missing. ... as J increases the separation between lines decreases in the R-branch and increases in the P-branch. Analysis of data from the ...
Staff (25 October 1911). "Edna Loftus is freed from cell". San Francisco Call. Vol. 110, no. 147. Retrieved 3 June 2018. Staff ... Mother of Henry Rheinstrom Pleased at News That Edna Loftus Wants Separation". Los Angeles Times. ...
Chinon used a then-modern Silicon (Si) metering cell with fast reaction time compared to the then-standard CdS cells, which ... This gave the user the benefit of comfortable framing and focusing with a bright viewfinder and clear focus separation, and ...
Then she builds wax cells in which to lay her eggs which were fertilised the previous year. The eggs that hatch develop into ... This ignores the effect of dynamic stall (an airflow separation inducing a large vortex above the wing), which briefly produces ... Bumblebees feed nectar to the larvae by chewing a small hole in the brood cell into which they regurgitate nectar. Larvae are ... Once they have collected nectar and pollen, female workers return to the nest and deposit the harvest into brood cells, or into ...
SON depletion causes decreased cell growth, disarrayed microtubule processes and disordered spindle pole separation, causing ... Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are able to undergo lineage-specific differentiation into specific types of cells, known as ... Cooper, Thomas A.; Wan, Lili; Dreyfuss, Gideon (February 2009). "RNA and Disease". Cell. 136 (4): 777-793. doi:10.1016/j.cell. ... SON is expressed preferentially in undifferentiated stem cells. Depletion of SON results in stem cell differentiation. ...
If the product differs greatly in size from the cells producing it, and the substrate feeding the cells, then the reactor can ... A Continuous Separation Process for the Simultaneous Production and Direct Capture of Organic Acids". Separation Science and ... Cells utilize product inhibition to regulate of metabolism as a form of negative feedback controlling metabolic pathways. ... Separative Bioreactor is a type of continuous reactor where the producing cells are mounted on a resin membrane as to not flow ...
... the particular unit cell it is in, m, and the position of the atom with respect to its own unit cell, κ. The term x(l,m) is the ... "Acoustic" branch phonons have a wavelength of vibration that is much bigger than the atomic separation so that the wave travels ... position of the unit cell with respect to some chosen origin. Phonons can be labeled by the manner in which the vibrations ...
"Separation of basal histone synthesis from S-phase histone synthesis in dividing cells". Cell. 27 (2 Pt 1): 321-30. doi:10.1016 ... Controlling the Cell Cycle The cell cycle & Cell death Transcriptional program of the cell cycle: high-resolution timing Cell ... Cell cycle checkpoints are used by the cell to monitor and regulate the progress of the cell cycle. Checkpoints prevent cell ... This cyclin-Cdk driven cell cycle transitional mechanism governs a cell committed to the cell cycle that allows cell ...
This article offers a thorough overview of the method known as antibody cell separation, which is employed in biomedical ... Maximizing Precision and Efficiency in Antibody Cell Separation. ... Antibody Cell Separation:. Antibody cell separation is a ... Magnetic Antibody Cell Separation:. Magnetic antibody cell separation is another method of cell separation that uses magnetic ... Cell Separation by Centrifugation:. Cell separation by centrifugation is a method that separates cells based on their density. ...
... including various methods and techniques to obtain purified cells for your research. ... Learn everything you need to know about cell isolation, ... What is cell separation?. Cell separation, also commonly ... What is cell separation? Why do scientists isolate cells? How do scientists prepare samples for cell isolation? What cell ... Cell Separation Techniques: Everything You Need to Know About Cell Isolation. Cell biology is complex, given the multitude of ...
Cancer Cell Separation, Lab News. Written by James Hataway In order for cancer to spread, individual cells must break off the ... Cancer Cell Separation, Lab News, Research Notes. Written by Brian M. Mullen CLEMSON - While many college football fans are ... Cancer Cell Separation, Lab News, Research Notes. Written by Brian M. Mullen CLEMSON - Clemson University and the University of ...
Cell Separation Technologies Market Country wise Insight Report: In-depth Research with Emerging Growth Trends, Business ... The report is titled Cell Separation Technologies Market: Opportunity Analysis and Future Assessment 2022-2030. An overview ... analytical approaches of the Cell Separation Technologies market is the main objective of ... ...
Aberrant phase separation: linking IDR mutations to disease. Ahmed, Rashik; Forman-Kay, Julie D. Afiliação *Ahmed R; Program in ... Aberrant phase separation: linking IDR mutations to disease. ... Cell Res Ano de publicação: 2023 Tipo de documento: Artigo País ... Cell Res Ano de publicação: 2023 Tipo de documento: Artigo País de afiliação: Canadá ...
Europes leading Cell Culture and Downstream Processing conference for upstream and downstream manufacture ... From January 2013 he started as scientific assistant at the Institute for Separation and Process Technology in the group of ... In 2015, she became the lead of the Cell Culture Manufacturing Science team. Marijke is involved in cell culture media... ... manufacture and supply of cell culture media for a variety of applications. As a part of the Industrial Cell Culture business, ...
Microfluidics-based system reportedly allows long-term culture of hematopoietic stem cells that retain functional potential. ... NewsTranslational MedicineAnatomyCell biologyCell cultureCellsCellular, Molecular and Developmental BiologyClinical laboratory ... and TherapeuticsNanotechnologyRegenerative engineeringStem cellStem cell engineeringStem cellsTechnology and Computational ... A peristaltic pump is used to pass the initial cell culture across the tops of the chambers at a rate that transfers cells over ...
Genetic separation of chronic myeloid leukemia stem cells from normal hematopoietic stem cells at single-cell resolution *Yulin ... Adapter CAR T cells to counteract T-cell exhaustion and enable flexible targeting in AML ... Mast cell deficiency prevents BCR::ABL1 induced splenomegaly and cytokine elevation in a CML mouse model *Melanie Langhammer ... Characterization of leukemia progression in the Cbfb-MYH11 knockin mice by single cell RNA sequencing *Jamie L. Diemer ...
Thus in vivo trials in patients with sickle-cell disease are suggested. Effet du méthoxyverapamil, du diltiazem et de la ... on the formation of irreversibly sickled cells (ISCs) was investigated. Methoxyverapamil at therapeutic concentration and 10 ... Separation of ISCs. A 5 ml density gradient solution which contained 53% (V/V) Percoll (Pharmacia, Sweden), 18% (V/V) meglumine ... The irreversibly sickled cell; a determinant of haemolysis in sickle-cell anaemia. British journal of haematology, 1969, 17:527 ...
Grade-separation; Geotechnical conditions of concern; and the limited right-of-way through a "Pinch Point" between Knoxdale and ... This creates greater separation from the existing neighborhood reducing noise, vibration and air quality impacts and avoids ... The three VIA Rail grade-separations would be included in this phase. The second phase would extend the LRT from Fallowfield ... Rail grade-separations (overpass structures) at Woodroffe Ave, Southwest Transitway and Fallowfield Road where these corridors ...
Cell Isolation/Cell Separation Market by Product (Reagents, Beads, Media, Disposables, Centrifuge, Filtration System), Cell ... This growing stem cell research help to propel the cell-based research, thereby help in adoption of cell isolation/ separation ... Cell Isolation/Cell Separation Market by Product (Reagents, Beads, Media, Disposables, Centrifuge, Filtration System), Cell ... and increasing stem cell research are driving cell isolation/cell separation market. Moreover, Asian countries and growing use ...
An Automated Dielectrophoretic-Based Single Cell Separation Technique to Improve Laboratory Efficiency, Mixture Deconvolution ...
Drs Sumanta Pal and Laura Bukavina discuss the epidemiology of renal cell carcinoma, including risk factors, genetic screening ... We have to make that separation. There are the benign cysts that many patients have on their kidneys, and those are classified ... Characteristics of Gut Microbiota in Patients With Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma ... We went through nuanced topics like managing non-clear cell RCC, but we really didnt go over some of the really simple stuff. ...
Cell Line, Tumor * Cell Separation * Cell Survival / drug effects * Cell Survival / radiation effects ... and identify liver-metastatic 4T1 cells. These cells expressed cancer stem cell (CSC) -related characteristics, including the ... Compared to the parental cells, DNA damage was significantly increased in liver-metastatic 4T1 cells after they were treated ... The cells were irradiated with increased doses of X-rays with or without GC treatment. Colony formation assays were then ...
Cells, an international, peer-reviewed Open Access journal. ... single-cell manipulation, separation, lysis. *single-cell ... The total amount of RNA also varies between cells due to important factors, such as cell type, cell size, and cell cycle state ... Single-cell analysis enables detailed molecular characterization of cells in relation to cell type, genotype, cell state, ... Single-cell analysis enables detailed molecular characterization of cells in relation to cell type, genotype, cell state, ...
Stability after cell separation:. 8 hours at RT (15-25°C). 1 week refrigerated at 2-8°C ... Offsite: Separate serum from cells within 2 hours by centrifuge and aliquot into a labeled polypropylene or similar plastic ...
This project will exploit new single-cell transcriptome data for liver fluke to drive predictions of cell functions that ... 1. GC, HPLC and UPLC separation platforms; 2. ICP, IR, qToF and QqQ mass spectrometers;. 3. Microbiological research facilities ... reported the genes being expressed in every individual cell of an entire metazoan animal, generating a cell-based ... this project will enhance understanding of selected parasite cells, particularly stem cells, and drive new drug target ...
... like sickle cell disease (SCD), can be isolating and overwhelming. ... My parents also had a separation period because of the hardships." Having sickle cell disease also affected Lances ... Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a blood disorder present at birth. People with SCD have "sickle" shaped red blood cells that stick ... "Sickle cell has been a part of our lives, part of our family dynamic and norm for so long. The demands of sickle cell disease ...
Pellet beads using magnetic separation rack. Wash pellets five times with 500 μl of 1X cell lysis buffer. Keep on ice between ... 10X Cell Lysis Buffer: (#9803) To prepare 10 ml of 1X cell lysis buffer, add 1 ml cell lysis buffer to 9 ml dH2O, mix. ... Treat cells by adding fresh media containing regulator for desired time.. *Aspirate media from cultures; wash cells with 1X PBS ... Cell Lysate Pre-Clearing (Optional). A cell lysate pre-clearing step is highly recommended to reduce non-specific protein ...
Prepare cell culture media and filter-sterilize aqueous solutions from a few mL to 20 L using industry-leading Millipore® ... Filtration is a separation technique used to concentrate or purify substances based on their physical or chemical properties. ... Essential Stericup® and sustainable Stericup® E filters are integral devices for filtering media to protect cell cultures. ... Ultrafiltration (macromolecule separation) separates particles and dissolved molecules from fluids based on particle size. ...
Healthy donor T cell responses to common cold coronaviruses and SARS-CoV-2. J Clin Invest. 2020 Dec 1;130(12):6631-6638. doi: ... Aggregation-assisted separation of plasma from whole blood. Patent # USPTO 10788480 , 09/29/2020 ... Durable SARS-CoV-2 B cell immunity after mild or severe disease. J Clin Invest. 2021 Apr 1;131(7). doi: 10.1172/JCI145516. ... The method combines mechanical filtration and blood cell aggregation and is adapted for use in POC clinical testing. ...
Cell Culture. *. Cell Separation. *. Clinical Research Services. *. Education. *. Endocrinology. *. Fermentation. *. Gene ...
Endodermis absent.With cortex/central cylinder separation. Endodermis present. Endodermis cells thick walled all around. Cells ... Culm-center full, containing unlignified cells. Center with net-like aerenchyma (stellate). Epidermis cells inside thin, ... Rhizome diameter 1-1.99 mm, Rhizome center full, containing lignified cells. ...
... pulmonary cell separation; and effect of suboptimal intake of chromium. ...
Cell separation, concentration, washing, and more. Product News. Clinical-Grade Recombinant Proteins for Cell Therapy. Jun 07, ... Stem Cell Vaccine Immunizes Lab Mice Against Multiple Cancers. Feb 15, 2018,2 min read. byCell Press ... Team to Advance Stem Cell Therapies in New Space Station Lab. Apr 10, 2020,4 min read. byUniversity of California - San Diego ... Cell Therapy Could Improve Brain Function for Alzheimers Disease. Mar 15, 2018,3 min read. byGladstone Institutes ...
The cells are small-scale, clearly defined production units, often for a family of similar parts or a product, and they ... The cell may also include a conveyor component. ... a factory within a factory via an automated machining cell. ... "Without the separation, then the entire cell is down," Suica said.. He stressed the customized solutions Fastems offers its ... Adding cells made plant very productive. While other providers offer custom automated machine tool cells, technology company ...
Separation of Sister Chromatids At the transition from prophase to metaphase, there is a reduction in cohesion along the ... Cytokinesis segregates a cells chromosomes and organelles into its daughter cells. Organelles divide and grow prior to cell ... Determining the Plane of Cell Division Positioning the cell division plane is a critical step during development and cell ... In eukaryotes, the cell division cycle is divided into distinct, coordinated cellular processes that include cell growth, DNA ...
Seven Chemical Separations to Change the World. * Next Nano-robots and nano-engines small enough to enter living cells. ...
  • Condensates appear to form through the physical process of liquid-liquid phase separation. (
  • Many condensates behave as dynamic liquids and are believed to form through liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS) driven by interactions between multivalent constituents. (
  • Presentation topics included continuity of interstitial spaces across tissues and organs, the structure and development of large interstitial spaces, liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS) in tissue biology, and the interstitium as an extrarenal sodium storage compartment. (
  • These cells are impaired in their ability to properly form embryoid bodies and neural progenitor cells. (
  • In neural progenitor cells, this is additionally associated with the maintenance of Polycomb binding at neural-specific loci over the course of differentiation. (
  • The successful immortalization of neural progenitor cells via the overexpression of telomerase prompts several questions for those intending to develop somatic stem cell therapies for neurological disease. (
  • According to National Institute of Health (NIH), in the U.S., around $1,273 million were spent in stem cell research in 2013 and further increased to $1,582 million in 2017. (
  • For fast and accurate separation and sorting of circulating tumor cells (CTCs), various methods have been presented so far. (
  • There are five proteins in the mammalian Cbx family that can participate in Polycomb Repressive Complex 1 (PRC1) that differ in their levels of in vitro polynucleosome compaction and phase separation activity. (
  • Studies by the University of British Columbia-led team confirmed that mouse hematopoietic stem cells cultured using the system subsequently retained their functional properties in vitro and in vivo. (
  • Using a range of techniques, including biochemical reconstitution and in vitro and cellular microsopies, we investigate phase separation in both engineered and natural condensates. (
  • EL CAJON, Calif. - March 27, 2023 - PRLog -- Antibody cell separation is a potent biomedical research technique utilized for isolating distinct cell types from intricate mixtures. (
  • Cell Res;33(8): 583-584, 2023 08. (
  • Small interfering RNAs, synthesized using phage polymerases but not by chemical methods, can trigger the interferon response in mammalian cells. (
  • Although integrated microfluidic systems are used for the study of yeast and bacterial cell responses to various stimuli, scientists have struggled to develop equivalent systems suitable for the long-term study of biological responses in mammalian cells, notes Carl L. Hansen, Ph.D., at UCB's Centre for High-Throughput Biology, and colleagues. (
  • PluriMate was created to efficiently separate leukocytes and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from whole blood and bone marrow. (
  • TwinSpin centrifugation tubes are suitable for efficiently separating peripheral blood mononuclear cells from whole blood and bone marrow. (
  • There are a number of cell separation methods available, each with its own pros and cons. (
  • A detailed overview of methods to isolate different cell populations from blood samples. (
  • Methods to isolate cells from tissues such as spleen and lymph nodes. (
  • What cell separation methods and techniques are available? (
  • There are also less commonly used cell separation methods, including buoyancy-activated cell sorting, aptamer-based cell isolation, complement depletion, and more. (
  • In this paper, some procedures for the separation of CTCs are studied which are generally based on passive methods. (
  • We introduce two peeling methods that efficiently and reliably isolate the rod outer segment and other cell compartments for Western blots to examine protein movement across these compartments. (
  • This article offers a thorough overview of the method known as antibody cell separation, which is employed in biomedical research to isolate various cell types. (
  • Magnetic antibody cell separation is another method of cell separation that uses magnetic beads to isolate cells based on their surface markers. (
  • This process can be enhanced by using density gradient centrifugation to isolate specific cell types. (
  • Cell separation, also commonly referred to as cell isolation or cell sorting, is a process to isolate one or more specific cell populations from a heterogeneous mixture of cells. (
  • Why do scientists isolate cells? (
  • There are many different ways to isolate cells from complex biological samples. (
  • Common characteristics used to isolate cells include cell size, cell density, cell shape, and surface protein expression. (
  • Cell separation by centrifugation is a method that separates cells based on their density. (
  • This process involves spinning the cell suspension at a high speed in a centrifuge. (
  • Offsite: Separate serum from cells within 2 hours by centrifuge and aliquot into a labeled polypropylene or similar plastic tube. (
  • Antibody cell separation is a precise and effective approach to isolating cells from complex mixtures. (
  • Successful FACS antibody separation relies on a specific, highly expressed surface marker for the cell type of interest. (
  • Western blot analysis of extracts from anisomycin or UV-treated NIH/3T3 cells, using Phospho-c-Jun (Ser63) II Antibody. (
  • Notably, Cbx7, the main Cbx protein expressed in embryonic stem cells (ESCs), lacks these two activities. (
  • I inserted a region of the Cbx2 protein known to be necessary for compaction and phase separation activity into Cbx7. (
  • This chimeric Cbx7 protein is capable of both compaction and phase separation, even with a smaller fragment of this region than we have previously shown to be required for these activities. (
  • This demonstrates that the chromatin compaction and phase separation activities of Cbx2 are transferrable to a related protein and are held within a single region. (
  • These results demonstrate the effectiveness of the two different peeling protocols for the separation of the layered compartments of the mouse retina and their utility for investigations of protein compositions within these compartments. (
  • These cells expressed cancer stem cell (CSC) -related characteristics, including the ability to form spheroids, the expression of the CD44 marker, and the increase of protein stability. (
  • Reverse osmosis (ionic separation) separates ions or molecules using a semipermeable membrane or barrier. (
  • Ultrafiltration (macromolecule separation) separates particles and dissolved molecules from fluids based on particle size. (
  • Microporous filtration (microfiltration) is used for particle retention/exclusion and sterilization because it separates/removes particles and biological entities, such as bacteria and cells, based on particle size. (
  • The endogenous ISCs were determined by the same method before cell deoxygenation and subtracted from the newly formed ISCs. (
  • Researchers report on the development of a microfluidic platform that allows the long-term culture and study of stem cell proliferation at the single-cell level. (
  • The paper is titled "High-throughput analysis of single hematopoietic stem cell proliferation in microfluidic cell culture arrays. (
  • As a result, mammalian microfluidic culture systems to date have been restricted in the main to experiments with adherent cells, incubated for a maximum of a few hours in relatively large volumes of media, and maintained under high perfusion rates. (
  • Dr. Hansen's team has now developed a microfluidic cell culture platform it claims solves these problems and supports growth rates that replicate standard macrocultures. (
  • To test the system Dr. Hansen's team first compared the growth rates of preleukemic mouse cells cultured in the microfluidic apparatus with those of cells growth in conventional cultures. (
  • Culturing normal primary mouse hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) for five days confirmed that the cell division kinetics of HSCs grown in the microfluidic device were comparable over successive divisions to those of cells cultured using macroscale systems, and resulted in high cell concentrations. (
  • To determine the functional activity of these SMA+ cells, we isolated regenerating alveolar ducts by laser microdissection and analyzed individual cells using microfluidic single-cell quantitative PCR. (
  • reported the genes being expressed in every individual cell of an entire metazoan animal, generating a cell-based transcriptomic atlas for a free-living flatworm. (
  • The study of movement and unique localization of biomolecules within the different compartments of the rod cell would be greatly facilitated by techniques that reliably separate these compartments. (
  • The goal of this Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) is to support research to identify cell-specific mechanisms in biomolecular condensate (BMC) formation and function, providing novel information for the role BMCs play in diverse cell types in the context of aging and neurobiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD) or AD-related dementias (ADRD). (
  • This entails the study of enigmatic compartments within a cell, called biomolecular condensates, which concentrate proteins and nucleic acids without a surrounding membrane. (
  • Biomolecular condensates are two- and three-dimensional compartments in eukaryotic cells that concentrate specific collections of proteins and nucleic acids without an encapsulating membrane. (
  • Areas for future study include unearthing kidney biomolecular condensates, linking kidney-relevant stimuli and intracellular phase separation, and investing in tools for tissue-level probing. (
  • This demonstrates that the addition of phase separation and compaction activity to Cbx7 in stem cells has a biological effect on gene regulation and pluripotency. (
  • The separation of micron-sized particles and their sorting is a critical issue in diagnosing cancer and biological analyses. (
  • PDMS is permeable to some small molecules and water vapor, however, and this can cause a change in medium composition, or dehydration in high surface area-to-volume nanoliter-sized culture chambers, leading to spurious biological responses, reduced growth rates or cell death, the researchers point out. (
  • Rod photoreceptor cells are highly polarized and specialized sensory neurons that convert photon absorption into neural signals [ 1 ]. (
  • Filtration is a separation technique used to concentrate or purify substances based on their physical or chemical properties. (
  • Cell biology is complex, given the multitude of variables that researchers must be aware of and account for in order to obtain meaningful results. (
  • This work provides a blueprint for a new approach to metazoan biology that allows single-cell data to support a better understanding of complex living systems. (
  • Thus in vivo trials in patients with sickle-cell disease are suggested. (
  • Among sickle cells, irreversible sickle cells (ISCs), which maintain abnormally deformed shape even after prolonged oxygenation, have a three to seven times higher calcium level compared to normal red blood cells (RBCs) [1,2] and twice that of reversible sickle cells [3,4]. (
  • There is now increasing evidence that ISCs are involved in the occurrence of vaso-occlusive and haemolytic crises in sickle-cell disease [5-12]. (
  • These drugs were tested in pharmacological concentrations and in higher concentrations on blood obtained from patients with sickle-cell anaemia. (
  • Twenty-two patients with homozygous sickle-cell anaemia were recruited for the study. (
  • Researcher at the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute engaged in the study of sickle cell anemia, a genetic blood disease which, in the United States, affects primarily Afro-Americans and is caused by an abnormal hemoglobin molecule. (
  • A new test, known as chorionic villus biopsy, promises to advance the prenatal diagnosis of genetic blood diseases, including sickle cell anemia, from the second trimester of pregnancy to the first. (
  • Factors such as increasing incidence & prevalence of chronic diseases with aging population, technological advancement in cell isolation, growing demand for biopharmaceuticals and personalized medicine, and increasing stem cell research are driving cell isolation/cell separation market. (
  • This growing stem cell research help to propel the cell-based research, thereby help in adoption of cell isolation/ separation consumables and instruments. (
  • This is mainly due to well-established healthcare system in the region, higher acceptance of advanced technologies, raising non-communicable diseases, rise in pharmaceutical & biotech research, higher stem cell research funding, and presence of key players. (
  • Vice-President and Secretary of the European Membrane Society.Her research activity, started when she was a Ph.D. student, is devoted to membrane separation processes with experimental. (
  • Many of the characteristics of ISCs such as cell shrinkage, membrane stiffness, and reduced osmotic fragility and deformability have all been found to be related to their high calcium level [13,14]. (
  • Besides, the impact of cell deformability, non-Newtonian impacts, and stretchable channels should be assessed in numerical examinations. (
  • Light exposure triggers movement of certain signaling proteins within the cellular compartments of the highly polarized rod photoreceptor cell. (
  • This redistribution of proteins between the inner and outer segment compartments affects the performance and physiology of the rod cell. (
  • b GNAT1 and ARR1 are localized to different rod cell compartments under different lighting conditions. (
  • HSCs) for therapeutic applications has been in development for Haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is a global y over 30 years, and two such treatments were recently granted accepted practice for the treatment of malignant and non-malignant market authorisation by the European Medicines Agency. (
  • Minimal dermal inflammatory cell infiltrate and full-thickness necrosis of the epidermis are typical histopathologic findings in patients with Stevens-Johnson syndrome. (
  • Welcome to season two of Medscape's InDiscussion series on renal cell carcinoma (RCC). (
  • Although the renal interstitium (i.e., interstitial cells and the matter around them) has gained some attention in the context of the pathophysiological process of fibrosis, much less is known about its role under normal physiological conditions, in development, or in directly initiating disease pathology beyond the activation of fibrotic pathways secondary to epithelial cell changes. (
  • Additionally, the single-cell DNA electrophoresis assay (SCDEA) and γ-H2AX foci assay were performed to assess the level of double-stranded DNA breaks (DSBs). (
  • The first separation method employs Whatman ® filter paper to successively remove the rod outer segments from isolated, live mouse retinas. (
  • Microfluidics-based system reportedly allows long-term culture of hematopoietic stem cells that retain functional potential. (
  • Technical hurdles to achieving this goal include overcoming cell dehydration, the immobilization of nonadherent cells during medium exchange, and the recovery of cultured cells for subsequent phenotypic or functional analysis. (
  • A lack of functional ChlR1 impairs cell division and leads to an accumulation of DNA damage. (
  • This research should enhance our understanding of the cell-specific mechanistic role of BMCs in aging and AD/ADRD and serve as the foundation for more comprehensive etiological studies that might lead to the development of future BMC-based therapies for age-related neurodegenerative diseases. (
  • Uberstrainer provides cell separation products and services for biomedical research. (
  • Thus, mastering the basic techniques of cell isolation is a valuable skill for any cell biologist. (
  • This process involves incubating the cell suspension with magnetic beads that are conjugated to specific antibodies. (
  • The method you select depends on your starting sample and may involve removing certain elements from it or simply creating a single-cell suspension. (
  • Polymer membranes are popular in separation and fuel cell applications. (
  • By not committing to a more inaccessible chromatin structure, it may allow "poised" genes in stem cells to become activated efficiently upon differentiation, while also priming them for more complete repression in alternate lineages. (
  • Thus, the addition of chromatin compaction and phase separation activity to Cbx7 results in defects in the redistribution of PcG proteins during differentiation, and a corresponding dysregulation of developmentally regulated target genes. (
  • In this study, triple-negative murine 4T1 breast cancer cells transduced with multi-reporter genes were implanted in immunocompetent Balb/C mice to track, dissect, and identify liver-metastatic 4T1 cells. (
  • Preparation of samples and separation of ISCs were performed according to a method described by Ohnishi [15]. (
  • Helicases are enzymes that attach (bind) to DNA and temporarily unwind the two spiral strands (double helix) of the DNA molecule so it can be copied (replicated) in preparation for cell division. (
  • Ultimately, we seek to understand cell organization on scales spanning nanometers to microns. (
  • The contents and organization of interstitial spaces, as well as the roles of cell contractility and active extracellular matrix (ECM) organization, are poorly understood. (
  • 1399). 'Cancer cell separation using passive mechanisms: a review', نشریه علمی دانشگاه سیستان و بلوچستان , 9(1), pp. 48-62. (
  • We hypothesize that the lack of compaction and phase separation activity in Cbx7 is significant in the maintenance of pluripotency and in early differentiation. (
  • The challenge lies in stabilizing these membranes against phase separation. (
  • Aberrant phase separation: linking IDR mutations to disease. (
  • They claim the nanoliter chamber-based array system essentially mimics conventional culture systems, and allows the precise, automated control of medium exchange without disturbing the cells, so their responses to changing conditions can be evaluated by live-cell imaging. (
  • Constructed from polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), the platform features 1,600 cell culture chambers with just over a 4 nL volume each, with integrated microvalves for the precise control and exchange of medium. (
  • Processes that impede normal trafficking of these abundant proteins lead to cell death. (
  • In addition, ChlR1 is involved in other processes leading up to cell division. (
  • In contrast, in devices that lacked the iso-osmotic bath, cell survival and divi-sion were both severely compromised, despite humidity control and the initiation of medium exchanges 24 hours after starting the experiment, the researchers note. (
  • Colony formation assays were then performed to determine the survival fractions and radiosensitivity of these cells. (
  • Conducting experiments on an isolated population of cells, rather than a heterogeneous mixture of cells, is a common approach to reduce experimental complexity. (
  • Conducting experiments on isolated cells allows scientists to confidently answer specific research questions by minimizing interference from other cell types within the sample. (
  • How do scientists prepare samples for cell separation? (
  • The images start with a representative cell in G2, (upper left panel), and show examples of the localization of the biosensor in cells as they proceed through the mitotic stages, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase, and cytokinesis. (
  • a Retinal layers and associated cell types: rod ( pink ), cone ( purple ), bipolar ( lilac ), Müller ( gray ), ganglion ( blue ) cells. (
  • After replication, the DNA from each chromosome is arranged into two identical structures, called sister chromatids, which the ChlR1 enzyme helps to keep together until they are ready to separate into individual cells. (
  • Overall, a list of challenges for the micro-fluidic-based cancer cell separation technologies needs to be dealt with to make them more applicable, useful, and ultimately more mature, from lab-oriented researches to real-world applications. (
  • Although the retina is organized in distinct layers, the small and highly curved mouse retina makes physical separation of retinal layers a challenge. (
  • Each rod cell has a distinct morphology that is composed of an outer segment (OS), an inner segment (IS), a cell nucleus residing in the outer nuclear layer (ONL), and a synaptic terminal located at the outer plexiform layer (OPL). (
  • In the presence of the iso-osmotic bath the microarray-cultured cells doubled at a rate equivalent to that of cells grown in 24-well plates and in 96-well single cell cultures. (
  • PluriStrainer is a sterile sieve that can be utilized to obtain true single-cell suspensions or eliminate cell aggregates. (
  • This project will exploit new single-cell transcriptome data for liver fluke to drive predictions of cell functions that support growth and virulence. (
  • By interfacing single cell sequence data with the molecular tools at our disposal, this project will enhance understanding of selected parasite cells, particularly stem cells, and drive new drug target discovery and validation pipelines for parasite control. (
  • Such apparatus is frequently bulky and permit the production of only a very limited range of radiotracers from a single hot-cell. (
  • Compared to the parental cells, DNA damage was significantly increased in liver-metastatic 4T1 cells after they were treated with GC plus radiation. (
  • However, whether GC can enhance the radiosensitivity of cancer cells remains to be explored. (
  • We then ex vivo investigated the potential effect of GC on the radiosensitivity of the liver-metastatic 4T1 breast cancer cells and compared the results to those of parental 4T1 cells subjected to the same treatment. (
  • We found that GC preferably increased the radiosensitivity of liver-metastatic 4T1 breast cancer cells rather than that of the parental cells. (
  • Further studies on apoptosis showed that this combination treatment increased the sub-G1 population of cells, but not caspase-3 cleavage, in liver-metastatic breast cancer cells. (
  • This method involves utilizing specific antibodies that recognize and adhere to surface markers present on the cells of interest, allowing their separation from other cells within the sample. (
  • a widely used cell separation method. (
  • PluriBead is an exceptional method for isolating cells, and it does not rely on any magnetic parts. (
  • For the bulk method the array is inverted and flushed through, which allows about 90% cell recovery, the authors claim. (
  • The micropipetting method also allows for more than 90% recovery of cells from a selected chamber. (

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