Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.CTLA-4 Antigen: An inhibitory T CELL receptor that is closely related to CD28 ANTIGEN. It has specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN and acts as a negative regulator of peripheral T cell function. CTLA-4 antigen is believed to play role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Immunoconjugates: Combinations of diagnostic or therapeutic substances linked with specific immune substances such as IMMUNOGLOBULINS; MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES; or ANTIGENS. Often the diagnostic or therapeutic substance is a radionuclide. These conjugates are useful tools for specific targeting of DRUGS and RADIOISOTOPES in the CHEMOTHERAPY and RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY of certain cancers.Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Immune System: The body's defense mechanism against foreign organisms or substances and deviant native cells. It includes the humoral immune response and the cell-mediated response and consists of a complex of interrelated cellular, molecular, and genetic components.Mice, Inbred C57BLCD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Mice, Inbred BALB CImmune Tolerance: The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.Antigens, Protozoan: Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).HLA Antigens: Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte: Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.H-2 Antigens: The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.Antigens, CD80: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CD28 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD80 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a costimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell: Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Antigens, Polyomavirus Transforming: Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.Histocompatibility Antigens Class II: Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Antigens, Helminth: Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.Immunologic Memory: The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Antigens, Fungal: Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Antigens, CD28: Costimulatory T-LYMPHOCYTE receptors that have specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN. Activation of this receptor results in increased T-cell proliferation, cytokine production and promotion of T-cell survival.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).HLA-DR Antigens: A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic: Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Immunity, Innate: The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Antigen-Presenting Cells: A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.T-Lymphocyte Subsets: A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.Antigens, CD86: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CD28 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD86 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a stimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.HLA-A2 Antigen: A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Histocompatibility Antigens: A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Immunodominant Epitopes: Subunits of the antigenic determinant that are most easily recognized by the immune system and thus most influence the specificity of the induced antibody.Adjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.Carcinoembryonic Antigen: A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.Ovalbumin: An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.Histocompatibility Antigens Class I: Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.Antigens, CD8: Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.Antigens, Viral, Tumor: Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.Antigen-Antibody Complex: The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Antigens, CD3: Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell: IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Th1 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.Cytotoxicity, Immunologic: The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.Antigen Presentation: The process by which antigen is presented to lymphocytes in a form they can recognize. This is performed by antigen presenting cells (APCs). Some antigens require processing before they can be recognized. Antigen processing consists of ingestion and partial digestion of the antigen by the APC, followed by presentation of fragments on the cell surface. (From Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)Interleukin-2: A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory: CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Antigens, CD40: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Antigens, CD4: 55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.HLA-A Antigens: Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.Immunity: Nonsusceptibility to the invasive or pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or to the toxic effect of antigenic substances.Vaccines, DNA: Recombinant DNA vectors encoding antigens administered for the prevention or treatment of disease. The host cells take up the DNA, express the antigen, and present it to the immune system in a manner similar to that which would occur during natural infection. This induces humoral and cellular immune responses against the encoded antigens. The vector is called naked DNA because there is no need for complex formulations or delivery agents; the plasmid is injected in saline or other buffers.Autoantigens: Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen: Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Antigens, CD45: High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.Vaccination: Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic: A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.Adoptive Transfer: Form of passive immunization where previously sensitized immunologic agents (cells or serum) are transferred to non-immune recipients. When transfer of cells is used as a therapy for the treatment of neoplasms, it is called adoptive immunotherapy (IMMUNOTHERAPY, ADOPTIVE).Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer: Subpopulation of CD4+ lymphocytes that cooperate with other lymphocytes (either T or B) to initiate a variety of immune functions. For example, helper-inducer T-cells cooperate with B-cells to produce antibodies to thymus-dependent antigens and with other subpopulations of T-cells to initiate a variety of cell-mediated immune functions.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Immune Evasion: Methods used by pathogenic organisms to evade a host's immune system.O Antigens: The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Prostate-Specific Antigen: A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.Antigens, Differentiation: Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.Hepatitis B Surface Antigens: Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.Th2 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.Antigens, CD1: Glycoproteins expressed on cortical thymocytes and on some dendritic cells and B-cells. Their structure is similar to that of MHC Class I and their function has been postulated as similar also. CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Adaptive Immunity: Protection from an infectious disease agent that is mediated by B- and T- LYMPHOCYTES following exposure to specific antigen, and characterized by IMMUNOLOGIC MEMORY. It can result from either previous infection with that agent or vaccination (IMMUNITY, ACTIVE), or transfer of antibody or lymphocytes from an immune donor (IMMUNIZATION, PASSIVE).Antigens, CD15: A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.Cancer Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines designed to prevent or treat cancer. Vaccines are produced using the patient's own whole tumor cells as the source of antigens, or using tumor-specific antigens, often recombinantly produced.Antigens, Tumor-Associated, Carbohydrate: Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.Clone Cells: A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Lymphocyte Count: The number of LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Mice, Inbred C3HImmunization, Secondary: Any immunization following a primary immunization and involving exposure to the same or a closely related antigen.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Cytotoxicity Tests, Immunologic: The demonstration of the cytotoxic effect on a target cell of a lymphocyte, a mediator released by a sensitized lymphocyte, an antibody, or complement.Immunophenotyping: Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.Isoantigens: Antigens that exist in alternative (allelic) forms in a single species. When an isoantigen is encountered by species members who lack it, an immune response is induced. Typical isoantigens are the BLOOD GROUP ANTIGENS.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)CD40 Ligand: A membrane glycoprotein and differentiation antigen expressed on the surface of T-cells that binds to CD40 ANTIGENS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and induces their proliferation. Mutation of the gene for CD40 ligand is a cause of HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 1.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.HLA-B Antigens: Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by more than 30 detectable alleles on locus B of the HLA complex, the most polymorphic of all the HLA specificities. Several of these antigens (e.g., HLA-B27, -B7, -B8) are strongly associated with predisposition to rheumatoid and other autoimmune disorders. Like other class I HLA determinants, they are involved in the cellular immune reactivity of cytolytic T lymphocytes.HLA-D Antigens: Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Antigen-Antibody Reactions: The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, alpha-beta: T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.Interleukin-10: A cytokine produced by a variety of cell types, including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; DENDRITIC CELLS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS that exerts a variety of effects on immunoregulation and INFLAMMATION. Interleukin-10 combines with itself to form a homodimeric molecule that is the biologically active form of the protein.Immunity, Humoral: Antibody-mediated immune response. Humoral immunity is brought about by ANTIBODY FORMATION, resulting from TH2 CELLS activating B-LYMPHOCYTES, followed by COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Immunosuppression: Deliberate prevention or diminution of the host's immune response. It may be nonspecific as in the administration of immunosuppressive agents (drugs or radiation) or by lymphocyte depletion or may be specific as in desensitization or the simultaneous administration of antigen and immunosuppressive drugs.Autoimmunity: Process whereby the immune system reacts against the body's own tissues. Autoimmunity may produce or be caused by AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Models, Immunological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of immune system, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electrical equipment.Hypersensitivity, Delayed: An increased reactivity to specific antigens mediated not by antibodies but by cells.Leukocytes, Mononuclear: Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.Vaccines, Synthetic: Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.Autoantibodies: Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.Killer Cells, Natural: Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.Blood Group Antigens: Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.HIV Antigens: Antigens associated with specific proteins of the human adult T-cell immunodeficiency virus (HIV); also called HTLV-III-associated and lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) antigens.Autoimmune Diseases: Disorders that are characterized by the production of antibodies that react with host tissues or immune effector cells that are autoreactive to endogenous peptides.Major Histocompatibility Complex: The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.Mice, Inbred CBALymphocyte Culture Test, Mixed: Measure of histocompatibility at the HL-A locus. Peripheral blood lymphocytes from two individuals are mixed together in tissue culture for several days. Lymphocytes from incompatible individuals will stimulate each other to proliferate significantly (measured by tritiated thymidine uptake) whereas those from compatible individuals will not. In the one-way MLC test, the lymphocytes from one of the individuals are inactivated (usually by treatment with MITOMYCIN or radiation) thereby allowing only the untreated remaining population of cells to proliferate in response to foreign histocompatibility antigens.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.MART-1 Antigen: A melanosome-specific protein that plays a role in the expression, stability, trafficking, and processing of GP100 MELANOMA ANTIGEN, which is critical to the formation of Stage II MELANOSOMES. The protein is used as an antigen marker for MELANOMA cells.Immunosuppressive Agents: Agents that suppress immune function by one of several mechanisms of action. Classical cytotoxic immunosuppressants act by inhibiting DNA synthesis. Others may act through activation of T-CELLS or by inhibiting the activation of HELPER CELLS. While immunosuppression has been brought about in the past primarily to prevent rejection of transplanted organs, new applications involving mediation of the effects of INTERLEUKINS and other CYTOKINES are emerging.Interleukin-4: A soluble factor produced by activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that induces the expression of MHC CLASS II GENES and FC RECEPTORS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and causes their proliferation and differentiation. It also acts on T-lymphocytes, MAST CELLS, and several other hematopoietic lineage cells.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Antigens, Heterophile: Antigens stimulating the formation of, or combining with heterophile antibodies. They are cross-reacting antigens found in phylogenetically unrelated species.Cross-Priming: Class I-restricted activation of CD8-POSITIVE LYMPHOCYTES resulting from ANTIGEN PRESENTATION of exogenous ANTIGENS (cross-presentation). This is in contrast to normal activation of these lymphocytes (direct-priming) which results from presentation of endogenous antigens.Enzyme-Linked Immunospot Assay: A method of detection of the number of cells in a sample secreting a specific molecule. With this method, a population of cells are plated over top of the immunosorbent substrate that captures the secreted molecules.Immunity, Mucosal: Nonsusceptibility to the pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or antigenic substances as a result of antibody secretions of the mucous membranes. Mucosal epithelia in the gastrointestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts produce a form of IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) that serves to protect these ports of entry into the body.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.T-Cell Antigen Receptor Specificity: The property of the T-CELL RECEPTOR which enables it to react with some antigens and not others. The specificity is derived from the structure of the receptor's variable region which has the ability to recognize certain antigens in conjunction with the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX molecule.Receptors, Antigen: Molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with specific antigens.Immunoglobulins: Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.Inducible T-Cell Co-Stimulator Protein: A costimulatory receptor that is specific for INDUCIBLE T-CELL CO-STIMULATOR LIGAND. The receptor is associated with a diverse array of immunologically-related effects including the increased synthesis of INTERLEUKIN 10 in REGULATORY T-LYMPHOCYTES and the induction of PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Viral Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.Immunoglobulin A: Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.Lipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Hepatitis B Antigens: Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.Graft Rejection: An immune response with both cellular and humoral components, directed against an allogeneic transplant, whose tissue antigens are not compatible with those of the recipient.Antigens, CD27: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily found on most T-LYMPHOCYTES. Activation of the receptor by CD70 ANTIGEN results in the increased proliferation of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES and CD8-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Immune Complex Diseases: Group of diseases mediated by the deposition of large soluble complexes of antigen and antibody with resultant damage to tissue. Besides SERUM SICKNESS and the ARTHUS REACTION, evidence supports a pathogenic role for immune complexes in many other IMMUNE SYSTEM DISEASES including GLOMERULONEPHRITIS, systemic lupus erythematosus (LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS, SYSTEMIC) and POLYARTERITIS NODOSA.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Transplantation, Homologous: Transplantation between individuals of the same species. Usually refers to genetically disparate individuals in contradistinction to isogeneic transplantation for genetically identical individuals.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Skin Transplantation: The grafting of skin in humans or animals from one site to another to replace a lost portion of the body surface skin.Coculture Techniques: A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.Hybridomas: Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.AIDS Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated HIV or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent or treat AIDS. Some vaccines containing antigens are recombinantly produced.H-Y Antigen: A sex-specific cell surface antigen produced by the sex-determining gene of the Y chromosome in mammals. It causes syngeneic grafts from males to females to be rejected and interacts with somatic elements of the embryologic undifferentiated gonad to produce testicular organogenesis.Rats, Inbred LewAdenoviridae: A family of non-enveloped viruses infecting mammals (MASTADENOVIRUS) and birds (AVIADENOVIRUS) or both (ATADENOVIRUS). Infections may be asymptomatic or result in a variety of diseases.HIV-1: The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.Vaccinia virus: The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.Interleukin-12: A heterodimeric cytokine that plays a role in innate and adaptive immune responses. Interleukin-12 is a 70 kDa protein that is composed of covalently linked 40 kDa and 35 kDa subunits. It is produced by DENDRITIC CELLS; MACROPHAGES and a variety of other immune cells and plays a role in the stimulation of INTERFERON-GAMMA production by T-LYMPHOCYTES and NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus: The type species of ARENAVIRUS, part of the Old World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, OLD WORLD), producing a silent infection in house and laboratory mice. In humans, infection with LCMV can be inapparent, or can present with an influenza-like illness, a benign aseptic meningitis, or a severe meningoencephalomyelitis. The virus can also infect monkeys, dogs, field mice, guinea pigs, and hamsters, the latter an epidemiologically important host.Epitope Mapping: Methods used for studying the interactions of antibodies with specific regions of protein antigens. Important applications of epitope mapping are found within the area of immunochemistry.Antigens, CD19: Differentiation antigens expressed on B-lymphocytes and B-cell precursors. They are involved in regulation of B-cell proliferation.HLA-DQ Antigens: A group of the D-related HLA antigens found to differ from the DR antigens in genetic locus and therefore inheritance. These antigens are polymorphic glycoproteins comprising alpha and beta chains and are found on lymphoid and other cells, often associated with certain diseases.Epstein-Barr Virus Nuclear Antigens: Nuclear antigens encoded by VIRAL GENES found in HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 4. At least six nuclear antigens have been identified.Vaccines: Suspensions of killed or attenuated microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa), antigenic proteins, synthetic constructs, or other bio-molecular derivatives, administered for the prevention, amelioration, or treatment of infectious and other diseases.Antibodies, Blocking: Antibodies that inhibit the reaction between ANTIGEN and other antibodies or sensitized T-LYMPHOCYTES (e.g., antibodies of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN G class that compete with IGE antibodies for antigen, thereby blocking an allergic response). Blocking antibodies that bind tumors and prevent destruction of tumor cells by CYTOTOXIC T-LYMPHOCYTES have also been called enhancing antibodies. (Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)Immune System Diseases: Disorders caused by abnormal or absent immunologic mechanisms, whether humoral, cell-mediated, or both.Vaccines, Subunit: Vaccines consisting of one or more antigens that stimulate a strong immune response. They are purified from microorganisms or produced by recombinant DNA techniques, or they can be chemically synthesized peptides.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Antibody-Producing Cells: Cells of the lymphoid series that can react with antigen to produce specific cell products called antibodies. Various cell subpopulations, often B-lymphocytes, can be defined, based on the different classes of immunoglobulins that they synthesize.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Antibodies, Protozoan: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Melanoma: A malignant neoplasm derived from cells that are capable of forming melanin, which may occur in the skin of any part of the body, in the eye, or, rarely, in the mucous membranes of the genitalia, anus, oral cavity, or other sites. It occurs mostly in adults and may originate de novo or from a pigmented nevus or malignant lentigo. Melanomas frequently metastasize widely, and the regional lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and brain are likely to be involved. The incidence of malignant skin melanomas is rising rapidly in all parts of the world. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, p2445)Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Cell SeparationLymphocytic Choriomeningitis: A form of meningitis caused by LYMPHOCYTIC CHORIOMENINGITIS VIRUS. MICE and other rodents serve as the natural hosts, and infection in humans usually occurs through inhalation or ingestion of infectious particles. Clinical manifestations include an influenza-like syndrome followed by stiff neck, alterations of mentation, ATAXIA, and incontinence. Maternal infections may result in fetal malformations and injury, including neonatal HYDROCEPHALUS, aqueductal stenosis, CHORIORETINITIS, and MICROCEPHALY. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp1-3)HLA-B7 Antigen: A specific HLA-B surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-B*07 allele family.Monocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.HemocyaninHIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Hepatitis B Core Antigens: The hepatitis B antigen within the core of the Dane particle, the infectious hepatitis virion.
  • Immune checkpoint inhibitors are effective cancer treatments, but molecular determinants of clinical benefit are unknown. (nih.gov)
  • It's not completely understood why this is the case, but some preclinical studies using ovarian cancer models in mice have suggested that combining PARP inhibitors with immune system modulators like T cell checkpoint inhibitors improves long-term survival. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Future Market Insights has announced the addition of the "Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors Market: Global Industry Analysis and Opportunity Assessment 2017-2027' report to their offering. (sbwire.com)
  • Yervoy was the first drug launched in the immune checkpoint inhibitors domain. (sbwire.com)
  • There is an ongoing competition between the immune checkpoint inhibitors market contributors to emerge as a leader. (sbwire.com)
  • The immune checkpoint inhibitors market is driven by the number of research developments undertaken by industry contributors as well as academic institutes. (sbwire.com)
  • The immune checkpoint inhibitors market is experiencing a lot of collaborations wherein companies are combining their core competencies to fasten their research programs. (sbwire.com)
  • Immune checkpoint inhibitors market is classified on the basis of drug targets, application and region. (sbwire.com)
  • In terms of geography, immune checkpoint inhibitors market has been divided into five regions including North- America, Asia- Pacific and Middle-East & Africa, Latin America and Europe. (sbwire.com)
  • The number of clinical trials and research funding is relatively high in North America, making it the dominant region in terms of revenue in the immune checkpoint inhibitors market. (sbwire.com)
  • Asia Pacific is the fastest growing region in the immune checkpoint inhibitors market as there are number of research collaborations of international players with companies from this region. (sbwire.com)
  • There is intense competition in the immune checkpoint inhibitors market which is driving acquisitions and in-licensing agreements. (sbwire.com)
  • The major immune checkpoint inhibitors market participants are striving to expand and diversify their product pipeline. (sbwire.com)
  • 1,2 A quantum leap was made with the advent of immune checkpoint inhibitors. (urotoday.com)
  • 6,7 During the past year, we have seen a dizzying rate of approvals by the FDA for immune checkpoint inhibitors to treat metastatic UC in patients whose disease progressed despite platinum-based chemotherapy. (urotoday.com)
  • Four additional immune checkpoint inhibitors are now available in that setting: 2 anti-PD-1s, nivolumab and pembrolizumab, and 2 anti-PD-L1s, avelumab and durvalumab. (urotoday.com)
  • The immune checkpoint inhibitors are causing a stir amongst oncologist as they have been shown to be effective in the treatment of a variety of cancers, enhancing the immune response to detect and target cancer cells with a lower incidence of side effects compared to conventional chemotherapy and providing durable responses, lasting for many years. (medgadget.com)
  • This report on checkpoint inhibitors provides a detailed analysis of the market based on approved clinical and preclinical developmental candidates that target PD-1/PD-L1, CTLA-4, IDO-1, LAG-3, TIM-3 and CD47/SIRPα. (medgadget.com)
  • Objectives To evaluate the prevalence and type of rheumatic immune-related adverse events (irAEs) in patients receiving immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs), as well as the correlation with tumour response. (bmj.com)
  • Combination strategies, such as combination with checkpoint inhibitors, are also currently under study to improve T-cell therapies. (fusfoundation.org)
  • A vision for the future of the approach would be to use T-cell therapies in a second phase of treatment after the disease burden has been decreased by chemotherapy, immune checkpoint inhibitors, or surgery to cure the minimal residual disease and achieve remission. (fusfoundation.org)
  • Fascin binds beta-catenin, and colocalizes with it at the leading edges and borders of epithelial and endothelial cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Abatacept consists of a fusion protein of the extracellular domain of CTLA-4 and human IgG1, binds to the B7 protein on the APC and prevents it from delivering the co-stimulatory signal to the T cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Autoimmune diseases can be reduced or even prevented if proinflammatory immune responses are appropriately down-regulated. (jimmunol.org)
  • CTLA-4-deficient mice spontaneously develop a lymphoproliferative autoimmune response, with particularly severe pancreatitis and myocarditis ( 3 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • A corollary of these notions is that autoimmune diseases arise from either the failure to eliminate or inactivate high-affinity immunocompetent cells during their ontogeny and/or the failure of the immune system to control the outgrowth or function of intermediate self-reactive clones that escape into the periphery. (jci.org)
  • Abatacept (marketed as Orencia) is a drug used to treat autoimmune diseases like rheumatoid arthritis, by interfering with the immune activity of T cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Under physiological conditions, these dampen T-cell activity , and are important in reducing inflammatory tissue damage and preventing autoimmune disease. (medindia.net)
  • Work in progress includes improving our understanding of immune-related adverse events to allow for better management, defining more effective management strategies, and understanding the relationship between autoimmune toxicity and tumor response. (fusfoundation.org)
  • Although adverse endocrinopathies, including thyroid dysfunction, have recently been described secondary to treatment with anti-CTLA-4 mAb therapy, the potential for similar effects on thyroid dysfunction following anti-PDâ€'1 mAb immunotherapy have not been well characterized. (onclive.com)
  • It has a very broad range of antitumor activity and is approved for use in testicular, ovarian, and transitional cell carcinomas. (medscape.com)
  • We believe that immune-therapy represents the next era of cancer fighting treatments and we are dedicated to addressing the grave and unmet medical need in melanoma," said Magnus Jaderberg, Chief Medical Officer, Bristol-Myers Squibb Europe. (fiercebiotech.com)
  • Abatacept was developed by Bristol-Myers Squibb and is licensed in the United States for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis in the case of inadequate response to anti-TNFα therapy. (wikipedia.org)
  • The expression of the AND TCR transgene by CD4 + T cells delays but does not prevent the lymphoproliferation in the CTLA-4 −/− mice. (pnas.org)
  • Interestingly, young AND TCR + CTLA-4 −/− mice carrying a null mutation in the rag-1 gene remain healthy and the T cells maintain a naive phenotype until later in life. (pnas.org)
  • CTLA-4-deficient mice die at 3-4 weeks of age as a result of a lymphoproliferative disorder caused by polyclonal T cell expansion ( 12 - 14 ). (pnas.org)
  • Peripheral CD4 + T cells are primarily responsible for the lymphoproliferative disorder in CTLA-4 −/− mice expressing an unmanipulated TCR repertoire ( 15 ). (pnas.org)
  • To test these models and to determine antigenic peptide reactivity of naive T cells in the absence of CTLA-4, we have initiated studies using MHC class I or class II-restricted TCR transgenic CTLA-4 −/− mice. (pnas.org)
  • In mouse studies, we found that the combination of anti-CTLA-4 with intra-tumoral SS1P induced complete regressions in most mice and provided a statistically significant survival benefit compared to monotherapy. (mdpi.com)
  • Coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) infection of susceptible BALB/c mice produces inflammatory heart disease that is similar to the disease observed in humans, with development of acute myocarditis from days 7 to 14 postinfection (p.i.) that progresses to chronic myocarditis and dilated cardiomyopathy ( 4 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Recolonizing GF mice with a full complement of commensal bacteria or even with segmented filamentous bacteria alone restored gut T H 17 cells in mice, along with the ability of the mice to develop EAE 3 . (nature.com)
  • Th1-type cell response were observed in the lungs of MC-infected mice and were associated with modified cytokine production. (cylch.org)
  • The finding that interleukin-10 (IL-10) affected the survival of SM-infected mice but NVP-BKM120 price not MC-infected mice (20) further supported the conclusion that phenotypic switching alters cryptococcal virulence by changing the host-pathogen connection in a way that is definitely manifested through different immune responses. (cylch.org)
  • Anesthetized mice had been contaminated by intratracheal (i.t.) inoculation of 106 (high dosage) or 1 104 to 5 104 (low dosage) cells in 50 l sterile nonpyrogenic phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) utilizing a 26-measure needle as referred to previously (20). (cylch.org)
  • Mice had been killed, as well as the body organ fungal burden was dependant on homogenizing lung cells in 10 ml PBS and plating 100-l servings of different dilutions from the homogenate on SDA (Difco Laboratories, Detroit, MI). (cylch.org)
  • Blockade of CTLA-4 in an infection model resulted in earlier development of the anticryptococcal CMI response than in control mice. (elsevier.com)
  • Concomitant with increases in DTH reactivity in mice treated with anti-CTLA-4 Fab fragments at the time of immunization, there were decreases in cryptococcal CFU in lungs, spleens, and brains compared to controls. (elsevier.com)
  • Blockade of CTLA-4 resulted in long-term protection, as measured by significantly increased survival times, only in mice given the protective immunogen, CneF-CFA. (elsevier.com)
  • The increased susceptibility of Qa-1-/- mice was associated with dysregulated T cells that were more activated and produced higher levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines. (harvard.edu)
  • Transgenic adoptive cell therapy (ACT) targeting the tumor antigen NY-ESO-1 can be effective for the treatment of sarcoma and melanoma. (fluidigm.com)
  • In contrast, inhibition of TGFβ signaling conferred resistance to anti-PD-1 by increasing fibroblast-derived MMP-9 cleavage of PD-L1 from melanoma cells, suppressing PD-1/PD-L1 signaling while conferring resistance to anti-PD-1. (aacrjournals.org)
  • RT-PCR was performed for 169 genes associated with inflammation, immunity, CTLA-4 pathway and melanoma. (bmj.com)
  • Melanoma is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in melanocytes (cells that color the skin). (uncmedicalcenter.org)
  • It has been approved to treat advanced or metastatic cancers including urothelial carcinoma, non-small cell lung carcinoma, triple-negative breast cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma, and melanoma. (2bscientific.com)
  • As an adjuvant, the iPSC vaccine inhibited melanoma recurrence at the resection site and reduced metastatic tumor load, which was associated with fewer Th17 cells and increased CD11b+GR1himyeloid cells. (stanford.edu)
  • Data from the trial demonstrate that SCIB1, when used as monotherapy, has a marked effect on tumour load, produces a melanoma-specific immune response and highly encouraging survival trend without serious side effects. (scancell.co.uk)
  • Na17.A2 Peptide vaccine - A peptide cancer vaccine comprised of human leukocyte antigen HLA-A2-restricted peptide derived from a metastatic melanoma cell line of patient NA17, with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activity. (wikimd.org)
  • Na-17/mage-3.A2/ny-eso-1 peptide vaccine - A peptide cancer vaccine consisting of peptides derived from the melanoma antigen NA-17, the human leukocyte antigen HLA-A2-restricted human melanoma antigen 3 (MAGE-3.A2) and the cancer-testis antigen (NY-ESO-1), with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. (wikimd.org)
  • Na17-a antigen - A specific melanoma antigen protein derived from a patient (NA17) with cutaneous melanoma metastases. (wikimd.org)
  • CTLA-4 and PD-1 based immunotherapies have demonstrated significant clinical efficacy in melanoma patients, but many. (lab-a-porter.com)
  • The FDA approved the cytokine in 1986 for hairy cell leukemia, and later for chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), follicular non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), melanoma, and AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma. (cancerresearch.org)
  • CD272 levels on antigen specific CD8+ T cells have been reported to decrease in viral specific, but not melanoma specific activated lines. (adipogen.com)
  • As a part of the largest study group focusing on Multiple Myeloma in Germany, the German-speaking Myeloma Multicenter Group "GMMG", we utilize the combination of clinical outcomes gathered through our clinical trial with high throughput genomics approaches, as well as T cell functional assay, to investigate the transcriptional pathways that are involved in tumor escape mechanisms. (uni-heidelberg.de)
  • Despite these similarities, the regulatory roles of the CTLA-4 and PD-1 pathways are distinct. (elsevier.com)
  • This article examines the role of CTLA-4 and PD-1 in limiting autoreactivity and establishing peripheral self-tolerance with the hypothesis that CTLA-4 signals are required early in the lymph node during initiation of an immune response and PD-1 pathways act late at the tissue sites to limit T-cell activity. (elsevier.com)
  • Fife, BT & Bluestone, JA 2008, ' Control of peripheral T-cell tolerance and autoimmunity via the CTLA-4 and PD-1 pathways ', Immunological Reviews , vol. 224, no. 1, pp. 166-182. (elsevier.com)
  • Nevertheless, T cells go through activation-induced upregulation of coinhibitory pathways normally, which might limit the antitumor immune system response. (bios-mep.info)
  • Dysfunction of LRBA leads to depletion of intracellular stores of CTLA-4, which causes a functional deficiency of CTLA-4, leading to failure of T cell downregulation and inappropriate T cell activity [7, (scpbrg.org)
  • Relative to rituximab, GA101 has increased direct and immune effector cell-mediated cytotoxicity and exhibits superior activity in cellular assays and whole blood B-cell depletion assays. (speakingofresearch.com)
  • Transient depletion and regeneration of T cells after chemotherapy may also serve to enhance antitumor immunity in patients with malignant mesothelioma or NSCLC. (targetedonc.com)
  • αβ T-cell graft depletion for allogeneic HSCT in adults with hematological malignancies. (pubfacts.com)
  • Effect of alemtuzumab-based T-cell depletion on graft compositional change in vitro and immune reconstitution early after allogeneic stem cell transplantation. (pubfacts.com)
  • To reduce the risk of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) after allogeneic stem cell transplantation (alloSCT), T-cell depletion (TCD) of grafts can be performed by the addition of alemtuzumab (ALT) "to the bag" (in vitro) before transplantation. (pubfacts.com)
  • Graft volumes and absolute leukocyte counts of grafts before the addition of ALT were not predictive for the efficiency of TCR α/β T-cell depletion. (pubfacts.com)
  • This differential depletion of T-cell subsets was in line with their reported differential CD52 expression. (pubfacts.com)
  • In vitro depletion efficiencies and absolute numbers of (naive) TCR α/β T cells in the grafts after ALT incubation were not predictive for T-cell reconstitution or development of GVHD post- alloSCT. (pubfacts.com)
  • Peripheral blood reconstitution with NY-ESO-1-specific T cells peaked within 2 weeks of ACT, indicating rapid in vivo expansion. (fluidigm.com)
  • One of these is CRISPR , a technique that allows scientists to modify the genes of organisms in vivo or cells in vitro with unprecedented precision, and more recently showed potential in mouse studies as a therapy for genetic disorders . (speakingofresearch.com)
  • Thus, we have defined a mechanism of NK cell-mediated control of metastases in vivo that may help develop NK cell-dependent cancer therapies. (bxcell.com)
  • Autologous iPSC-Based Vaccines Elicit Anti-tumor Responses In Vivo. (stanford.edu)
  • In vivo visualization of uterine mast cells by 2-photon microscopy. (mastzelle.de)
  • However, although the amount of CD31+ T cells Metalloexopeptidase are reduced with increasing age [22- the TREC levels within the CD31+ T cell population are also declined , suggesting a certain degree of in vivo turnover of CD31+ T cells with ageing. (micrornaarray.com)
  • The buy soft target a thriller of the vivo overcomes been in the beenresounding Dictionary of avenues in Cinema through a policy, a problem, and an first response. (michael-noeres.de)
  • SEM for 3 independent tests, * but spared just antigen-positive tumor xenografts without PD-L1 in vivo. (azferns.org)
  • Here, we extended our study to the mouse DC system, and investigated the effects of the chemically defined Ep phyto-extracts (BF/S+L/Ep) on immunomodulatory activity and cell migration/trafficking activities of DCs under ex vivo and in vivo conditions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • T-cells, the soldiers of the immune system, recognize cells as self (normal, non-diseasing-causing) or non-self. (fbresearch.org)
  • We therefore investigated if citrullinated peptides could stimulate CD4 + T cell responses that would recognize these modifications produced during autophagy within tumor cells. (scancell.co.uk)
  • Tumor-infiltrating immune cells are also one of the types that play an important role [ 5 , 6 ], for instance, T cells are one step in the elimination of cancer, they can specifically recognize and kill tumor cells and manage the delicate balance between the recognition of nonself and the prevention of autoimmunity [ 7 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Within this research, stream cytometry, confocal microscopy in addition to transmitting electron microscope evaluation YM-155 hydrochloride IC50 had been performed successfully to recognize the intracellular distribution and area of MIL5scFv-Arg9 in NIH3T3 cells. (ly2090314.com)
  • It has been shown that CD8+ T cells can also recognize tumor antigens processed by the stroma41 and studies using longitudinal confocal microscopy imaging have shown that vessel regression occurs immediately following Compact disc8+ T cell admittance from the bloodstream in to the tumor.42 Thus, cytotoxicity against tumor stroma could be a significant system of tumor regression also. (fak-signaling.com)
  • For treatment of patients with renal cell cancer who have had no prior treatment. (chemocare.com)
  • In our previous work, we examined the predictive and prognostic values of immunological markers expression in patients with Multiple Myeloma and identified the role of transcriptional factors expression in T cells. (uni-heidelberg.de)
  • The Immunomodulatory Impact of IKZF3 expression on T cells in patients with Multiple Myeloma. (uni-heidelberg.de)
  • The Identification of transcriptional factors that guide CD8+ cells towards exhaustion state in cancer patients. (uni-heidelberg.de)
  • However, unfortunately, only 10%-30% of cancer patients can benefit from such immune checkpoint blocking therapy, which has led to a strong interest in improving patient response. (drugood.com)
  • CD24 Expression and B Cell Maturation Shows a Novel Link With Energy Metabolism: Potential Implications for Patients With Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome. (stemcell.com)
  • We previously detected higher CD24 expression and frequency within IgD+ na{\{i}}ve and memory B cells in patients with Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS) compared with age-matched healthy controls (HC). (stemcell.com)
  • In vitro findings confirmed dysregulation of CD24-expressing B cells from ME/CFS patients previously suggested by immunophenotype studies of B cells from peripheral blood. (stemcell.com)
  • Through extensive analysis of transitional B cells from untreated or low treated mostly Caucasian SLE patients we demonstrated that transitional (T1 and T2) B cell frequencies were increased in SLE and positively correlated with disease activity. (stemcell.com)
  • Seven of the ten patients that have received 3 vaccines had increased responses to PSA in a lymphocyte blastogenesis assay and five of the nine patients had an increase in their response after 6 vaccines. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In fact, improvement followed by relapse describes the most common pattern of therapeutic response seen in patients treated with targeted agents. (careset.com)
  • Also, there is some evidence that certain patients could have a so-called 'favorable' immune phenotype and may benefit more from immunotherapies, and such patients can be identified through genetic testing. (targetedonc.com)
  • Tumor response was assessed every eight weeks and survival of patients was followed up to one year after the end of therapy. (uni-frankfurt.de)
  • Results: One patient achieved a partial response (PR) and 10 patients showed stable disease/no change (SD). (uni-frankfurt.de)
  • Grade 1 or 2 AEs occurred in 72% of patients and were mostly application-site effects such as pruritus Grade 3-4 treatment-emergent drug-related adverse events occurred in 9% of patients. (uni-frankfurt.de)
  • However, the vast majority of discovered mutated antigens were unique to individual patients, and a viable concept for exploiting "personal" targets for therapy could not be envisaged. (sciencemag.org)
  • Therefore, in the 1990s and 2000s, nonmutated tumor antigens shared by patients were favored for cancer vaccine development, yet outcomes were disappointing. (sciencemag.org)
  • It has been reported that Th17 cells in the gut of patients with Crohn's disease or in the joints of those with arthritis co-express IL-17 and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) ( 7 , 8 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • 4 , 13 Therefore, the development of new therapeutic methods of high curative value as well as low toxicity and side effects, especially for patients with advanced HNC, is needed. (dovepress.com)
  • These two key genes may affect immune cell infiltration, result in the different prognosis of patients. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The checkpoint inhibitor combination had an overall response rate (ORR) of 61% in a subgroup of BRAF V600 wild-type (WT) patients. (onclive.com)
  • We conclude that only 26% of patients developed aGVHD 2-4 after αβ T-cell-depleted allo-HSCT within 100 days and was associated with a low incidence of cGVHD after 2 years. (pubfacts.com)
  • In addition to the increased TREC levels in the colon of UC patients, these patients also demonstrated selleck high frequencies of CD3+CD4+ T cells expressing the adhesion molecule L-selectin (CD62L+) but with low expression of CD45RA. (micrornaarray.com)
  • 6% of patients experienced Grade 3 or 4 CRS. (pharmiweb.com)
  • Results of a phase I study demonstrated a confirmed objective response rate of 40% (21 of 52 patients) in concurrently treated patients, which was higher than that historically seen with either agent alone, and the combination was associated with a manageable safety profile. (targetedonc.com)
  • Patients were classified according to viral phenotype at seroconversion, time to AIDS progression, serum viral load within the first year (less or more than 1.5 x 10(4) copies/ml). (faintpower.ml)
  • In patients with BRAF mutation, the ideal sequence of treatment or the choice of sequence of combination is still an open issue [4, 31, (almarmoomfestivals.ae)
  • SECONDARY OBJECTIVES: I. To estimate the duration of response (DoR) among patients who achieve a complete response (CR) or partial response (PR) (confirmed and unconfirmed) by RECIST 1.1. (mycancergenome.org)
  • OUTLINE: Patients receive tremelimumab intravenously (IV) over 60 minutes on day 1 for courses 1-4 and durvalumab IV over 60 minutes on day 1. (mycancergenome.org)
  • Advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMPs) are defined as medical treatments that are based on genes or cells and are intended as long-term or permanent therapeutic solutions to acute or chronic human diseases at a genetic, cellular or tissue level. (frontiersin.org)
  • Using RNA sequencing, the authors show that both human and mouse iPSCs share expression of several different genes with embryonal stem cells (ESCs) and cancer tissues but not with healthy tissues, revealing important antigenic overlap between pluripotent stem cells and cancer cells of varied origin ( 6 ). (amegroups.com)
  • Upon intravesical administration, nadofaragene firadenovec infects nearby tumor cells and expresses INF alpha-2b intracellularly which activates the transcription and translation of genes whose products mediate antiviral, antiproliferative, antitumor, and immune-modulating effects. (wikimd.org)
  • Then SUPV3L1 and SLC22A17 were identified as hub genes which may affect immune cell infiltration by correlation analysis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Survival analysis further proved that hub genes and prognostic immune cells are associated with the prognosis of gastric cancer. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We found that three immune cells infiltration are associated with the prognosis of gastric cancer and further identify two hub genes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In this case, the kid might be a mutated stem cell and cancers arising from it may replay many events in embryogenesis including the formation of trophoblasts, the associated development of a dedicated (if somewhat chaotic) vasculature and migration (metastasis). (amegroups.com)
  • TCR-T and CAR-T are two other adoptive T cell therapies, both based on peripheral blood T cells. (drugood.com)
  • Ehrentraut S, Sauss K, Neumeister R, Luley L, Oettel A, Fettke F, Costa S-D, Langwisch S, Zenclussen AC, Schumacher A. (2019) Human Miscarriage Is Associated With Dysregulations in Peripheral Blood-Derived Myeloid Dendritic Cell Subsets. (ovgu.de)
  • We conducted a multicenter prospective single-arm phase 1/2 study that assesses the outcome of αβ T-cell depleted allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) of peripheral blood derived stem cells from matched related, or unrelated donors (10/10 and 9/10) in adults, with the incidence of acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) as the primary end point at day 100. (pubfacts.com)
  • The result of on-target off-tumor toxicity, serious liver organ toxicity, was also seen in the treating renal cell carcinoma using CAR-T cells concentrating on carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) because of the appearance of CAIX on regular bile duct epithelial cells . (azferns.org)
  • A Randomized Phase II/III Study of Naptumomab Estafenatox + IFNα versus IFNα in Renal Cell Carcinoma: Final Analysis with Baseline Biomarker Subgroup and Trend Analysis. (activebiotech.com)
  • 1,2,7 As the name suggests, in this approach, the immune system plays a much more passive role, with the therapy working to directly attack the tumour cell without targeting a specific antigen. (manufacturingchemist.com)
  • This NA17 specific antigen, encoded by an intron sequence of N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase V (GnT-V) gene, is expressed in about 50% of melanomas. (wikimd.org)
  • 2020) Innate and adaptive immune responses in HELLP syndrome. (ovgu.de)
  • 2020) Regulatory B Cells Are Decreased and Impaired in Their Function in Peripheral Maternal Blood in Pre-term Birth. (ovgu.de)
  • 2020) Immune Cells in the Uterine Remodeling: Are They the Target of Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals? (ovgu.de)
  • who reported four consanguineous family members with childhood-onset humoral immune features and scarcity of autoimmunity . (scpbrg.org)
  • CVID is defined as increased susceptibility to infection or autoimmunity in addition to decreased IgG and IgA and relatively normal T cell levels . (scpbrg.org)
  • In humans FOXP3 defects play a role in IPEX syndrome (immune dysfunction, polyendocrinopathy, enteropathy, X-linked syndrome), also known as X-linked autoimmunity-allergic dysregulation (XLAAD) syndrome. (thermofisher.com)
  • Confocal immunofluorescent analysis of human CD8 + T cells using TIGIT (E5Y1W) XP ® Rabbit mAb (green) and CD8α (RPA-T8) Mouse mAb (FITC Conjugate) #55397 (red pseudocolor). (cellsignal.jp)
  • First, Drs. Hyung-seung Jin and Yoon Park reviewed a complex immune checkpoint system consisting of T-cell immunoglobulin and ITIM domain (TIGIT), CD226, CD96, and CD112R. (bmbreports.org)
  • Frequencies of CD4+ T cells expressing LAG-3 and PD1 were higher in ART na?ve while TIGIT and TIM3 were similar among Xylazine HCl the patient groups. (orchidshq.com)