Th2 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.Th1 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell: Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.Th17 Cells: Subset of helper-effector T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete IL-17, IL-17F, and IL-22. These cytokines are involved in host defenses and tissue inflammation in autoimmune diseases.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, alpha-beta: T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.Pre-B Cell Receptors: Membrane proteins in precursor B-LYMPHOCYTES (pre-B Cells). They are composed of membrane-bound MU IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS in complex with SURROGATE LIGHT CHAINS instead of conventional IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS. Only successful rearrangement of the VDJ segments, at the Ig heavy chain gene locus (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAIN GENES), will generate mu heavy chains that can pair with surrogate light chains. Thus formation of the pre-B cell receptors is an important checkpoint in the development of mature B cells.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell: IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Antigens, CD3: Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, gamma-delta: T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated gamma and delta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4-/CD8- T-cells. The receptors appear to be preferentially located in epithelial sites and probably play a role in the recognition of bacterial antigens. The T-cell receptor gamma/delta chains are separate and not related to the gamma and delta chains which are subunits of CD3 (see ANTIGENS, CD3).Receptors, Natural Killer Cell: Receptors that are specifically found on the surface of NATURAL KILLER CELLS. They play an important role in regulating the cellular component of INNATE IMMUNITY.Gene Rearrangement, T-Lymphocyte: Ordered rearrangement of T-cell variable gene regions coding for the antigen receptors.Thymus Gland: A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.Genes, T-Cell Receptor beta: DNA sequences encoding the beta chain of the T-cell receptor. The genomic organization of the TcR beta genes is essentially the same in all species and is similar to the organization of Ig genes.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Receptor-CD3 Complex, Antigen, T-Cell: Molecule composed of the non-covalent association of the T-cell antigen receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL) with the CD3 complex (ANTIGENS, CD3). This association is required for the surface expression and function of both components. The molecule consists of up to seven chains: either the alpha/beta or gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor, and four or five chains in the CD3 complex.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Complementarity Determining Regions: Three regions (CDR1; CDR2 and CDR3) of amino acid sequence in the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION that are highly divergent. Together the CDRs from the light and heavy immunoglobulin chains form a surface that is complementary to the antigen. These regions are also present in other members of the immunoglobulin superfamily, for example, T-cell receptors (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL).Antigens, CD8: Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.Mice, Inbred C57BLGene Rearrangement, beta-Chain T-Cell Antigen Receptor: Ordered rearrangement of T-cell variable gene regions coding for the beta-chain of antigen receptors.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Clone Cells: A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)T-Lymphocyte Subsets: A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.Genes, T-Cell Receptor alpha: DNA sequences encoding the alpha chain of the T-cell receptor. The genomic organization of the TcR alpha genes is essentially the same in all species and is similar to the organization of Ig genes.ZAP-70 Protein-Tyrosine Kinase: A protein tyrosine kinase that is required for T-CELL development and T-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTOR function.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Jurkat Cells: A CELL LINE derived from human T-CELL LEUKEMIA and used to determine the mechanism of differential susceptibility to anti-cancer drugs and radiation.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte: Antigens expressed on the cell membrane of T-lymphocytes during differentiation, activation, and normal and neoplastic transformation. Their phenotypic characterization is important in differential diagnosis and studies of thymic ontogeny and T-cell function.Major Histocompatibility Complex: The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.Killer Cells, Natural: Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.Gene Rearrangement, gamma-Chain T-Cell Antigen Receptor: Ordered rearrangement of T-cell variable gene regions coding for the gamma-chain of antigen receptors.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Genes, T-Cell Receptor: DNA sequences, in cells of the T-lymphocyte lineage, that code for T-cell receptors. The TcR genes are formed by somatic rearrangement (see GENE REARRANGEMENT, T-LYMPHOCYTE and its children) of germline gene segments, and resemble Ig genes in their mechanisms of diversity generation and expression.Gene Rearrangement, alpha-Chain T-Cell Antigen Receptor: Ordered rearrangement of T-cell variable gene regions coding for the alpha-chain of antigen receptors.Receptors, Immunologic: Cell surface molecules on cells of the immune system that specifically bind surface molecules or messenger molecules and trigger changes in the behavior of cells. Although these receptors were first identified in the immune system, many have important functions elsewhere.Models, Immunological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of immune system, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electrical equipment.Mice, Inbred BALB CGene Rearrangement, delta-Chain T-Cell Antigen Receptor: Ordered rearrangement of T-cell variable gene regions coding for the delta-chain of antigen receptors.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Lymphocyte Specific Protein Tyrosine Kinase p56(lck): This enzyme is a lymphoid-specific src family tyrosine kinase that is critical for T-cell development and activation. Lck is associated with the cytoplasmic domains of CD4, CD8 and the beta-chain of the IL-2 receptor, and is thought to be involved in the earliest steps of TCR-mediated T-cell activation.Antigens, CD4: 55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Hybridomas: Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.Lectins, C-Type: A class of animal lectins that bind to carbohydrate in a calcium-dependent manner. They share a common carbohydrate-binding domain that is structurally distinct from other classes of lectins.Immunoglobulin Light Chains, Surrogate: An immunolglobulin light chain-like protein composed of an IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION-like peptide (such as light chain like lambda5 peptide) and an IMMUNOGLOBULIN CONSTANT REGION-like peptide (such as Vpreb1 peptide). Surrogate light chains associate with MU IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS in place of a conventional immunoglobulin light chains to form pre-B cell receptors.Interleukin-2: A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Immunological Synapses: The interfaces between T-CELLS and ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS. Supramolecular organization of proteins takes place at these synapses involving various types of immune cells. Immunological synapses can have several functions including LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION; enhancing, balancing, or terminating signaling; or directing cytokine secretion.Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Th1-Th2 Balance: Homeostatic control of the immune system by secretion of different cytokines by the Th1 and Th2 cells. The concentration dependent binding of the various cytokines to specific receptors determines the balance (or imbalance leading to disease).Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.H-2 Antigens: The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.Antigens, CD79: A component of the B-cell antigen receptor that is involved in B-cell antigen receptor heavy chain transport to the PLASMA MEMBRANE. It is expressed almost exclusively in B-LYMPHOCYTES and serves as a useful marker for B-cell NEOPLASMS.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Histocompatibility Antigens Class II: Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.NK Cell Lectin-Like Receptor Subfamily D: A subclass of NK cell lectin-like receptors that associates with a variety of members of NK CELL LECTIN-LIKE RECEPTOR SUBFAMILY C to form heterodimeric receptors for HLA-E antigen.Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Antigen-Presenting Cells: A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Interleukin-4: A soluble factor produced by activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that induces the expression of MHC CLASS II GENES and FC RECEPTORS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and causes their proliferation and differentiation. It also acts on T-lymphocytes, MAST CELLS, and several other hematopoietic lineage cells.Immunoglobulin Variable Region: That region of the immunoglobulin molecule that varies in its amino acid sequence and composition, and comprises the binding site for a specific antigen. It is located at the N-terminus of the Fab fragment of the immunoglobulin. It includes hypervariable regions (COMPLEMENTARITY DETERMINING REGIONS) and framework regions.B-Lymphocyte Subsets: A classification of B-lymphocytes based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.Genes, T-Cell Receptor delta: DNA sequences encoding the delta chain of the T-cell receptor. The delta-chain locus is located entirely within the alpha-chain locus.Genes, RAG-1: Genes involved in activating the enzyme VDJ recombinase. RAG-1 is located on chromosome 11 in humans (chromosome 2 in mice) and is expressed exclusively in maturing lymphocytes.Autoimmunity: Process whereby the immune system reacts against the body's own tissues. Autoimmunity may produce or be caused by AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer: Subpopulation of CD4+ lymphocytes that cooperate with other lymphocytes (either T or B) to initiate a variety of immune functions. For example, helper-inducer T-cells cooperate with B-cells to produce antibodies to thymus-dependent antigens and with other subpopulations of T-cells to initiate a variety of cell-mediated immune functions.Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing: A broad category of carrier proteins that play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They generally contain several modular domains, each of which having its own binding activity, and act by forming complexes with other intracellular-signaling molecules. Signal-transducing adaptor proteins lack enzyme activity, however their activity can be modulated by other signal-transducing enzymesReceptors, NK Cell Lectin-Like: Structurally-related receptors that are typically found on NATURAL KILLER CELLS. They are considered lectin-like proteins in that they share sequence homology with the carbohydrate binding domains of C-TYPE LECTINS. They differ from classical C-type lectins, however, in that they appear to lack CALCIUM-binding domains.Antigens, Ly: A group of lymphocyte surface antigens located on mouse LYMPHOCYTES. Specific Ly antigens are useful markers for distinguishing subpopulations of lymphocytes.Immunophenotyping: Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.Antigens, CD28: Costimulatory T-LYMPHOCYTE receptors that have specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN. Activation of this receptor results in increased T-cell proliferation, cytokine production and promotion of T-cell survival.Histocompatibility Antigens Class I: Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.Antigen Presentation: The process by which antigen is presented to lymphocytes in a form they can recognize. This is performed by antigen presenting cells (APCs). Some antigens require processing before they can be recognized. Antigen processing consists of ingestion and partial digestion of the antigen by the APC, followed by presentation of fragments on the cell surface. (From Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)Cytotoxicity, Immunologic: The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.Superantigens: Microbial antigens that have in common an extremely potent activating effect on T-cells that bear a specific variable region. Superantigens cross-link the variable region with class II MHC proteins regardless of the peptide binding in the T-cell receptor's pocket. The result is a transient expansion and subsequent death and anergy of the T-cells with the appropriate variable regions.Histocompatibility Antigens: A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.Self Tolerance: The normal lack of the ability to produce an immunological response to autologous (self) antigens. A breakdown of self tolerance leads to autoimmune diseases. The ability to recognize the difference between self and non-self is the prime function of the immune system.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic: Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.Minor Lymphocyte Stimulatory Antigens: Endogenous superantigens responsible for inducing strong proliferative responses in T-cells in mixed lymphocyte reactions (see LYMPHOCYTE CULTURE TEST, MIXED). They are encoded by mouse mammary tumor viruses that have integrated into the germ line as DNA proviruses (MINOR LYMPHOCYTE STIMULATORY LOCI).Immunologic Memory: The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.NK Cell Lectin-Like Receptor Subfamily C: A subclass of NK cell lectin-like receptors that associates with members of NK CELL LECTIN-LIKE RECEPTOR SUBFAMILY D to form heterodimeric receptors for HLA-E antigen.Antigens, CD1: Glycoproteins expressed on cortical thymocytes and on some dendritic cells and B-cells. Their structure is similar to that of MHC Class I and their function has been postulated as similar also. CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS.Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.NK Cell Lectin-Like Receptor Subfamily A: An inhibitory subclass of NK cell lectin-like receptors that interacts with CLASS I MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS and prevents the activation of NK CELLS.Antigens, CD45: High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Receptors, Antigen: Molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with specific antigens.Receptors, KIR: A family of receptors found on NK CELLS that have specificity for a variety of HLA ANTIGENS. KIR receptors contain up to three different extracellular immunoglobulin-like domains referred to as D0, D1, and D2 and play an important role in blocking NK cell activation against cells expressing the appropriate HLA antigens thus preventing cell lysis. Although they are often referred to as being inhibitory receptors, a subset of KIR receptors may also play an activating role in NK cells.Genes, T-Cell Receptor gamma: DNA sequences encoding the gamma chain of the T-cell receptor. The human gamma-chain locus is organized similarly to the TcR beta-chain locus.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Autoimmune Diseases: Disorders that are characterized by the production of antibodies that react with host tissues or immune effector cells that are autoreactive to endogenous peptides.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Immunoglobulin mu-Chains: The class of heavy chains found in IMMUNOGLOBULIN M. They have a molecular weight of approximately 72 kDa and they contain about 57 amino acid residues arranged in five domains and have more oligosaccharide branches and a higher carbohydrate content than the heavy chains of IMMUNOGLOBULIN G.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Autoantigens: Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.Adoptive Transfer: Form of passive immunization where previously sensitized immunologic agents (cells or serum) are transferred to non-immune recipients. When transfer of cells is used as a therapy for the treatment of neoplasms, it is called adoptive immunotherapy (IMMUNOTHERAPY, ADOPTIVE).Receptors, Virus: Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Immune Tolerance: The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.Clonal Anergy: Functional inactivation of T- or B-lymphocytes rendering them incapable of eliciting an immune response to antigen. This occurs through different mechanisms in the two kinds of lymphocytes and can contribute to SELF TOLERANCE.Mice, Mutant Strains: Mice bearing mutant genes which are phenotypically expressed in the animals.Ovalbumin: An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Antigens, CD1d: A major histocompatibily complex class I-like protein that plays a unique role in the presentation of lipid ANTIGENS to NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Gene Rearrangement, B-Lymphocyte: Ordered rearrangement of B-lymphocyte variable gene regions coding for the IMMUNOGLOBULIN CHAINS, thereby contributing to antibody diversity. It occurs during the differentiation of the IMMATURE B-LYMPHOCYTES.Tyrosine: A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.NFATC Transcription Factors: A family of transcription factors characterized by the presence of highly conserved calcineurin- and DNA-binding domains. NFAT proteins are activated in the CYTOPLASM by the calcium-dependent phosphatase CALCINEURIN. They transduce calcium signals to the nucleus where they can interact with TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1 or NF-KAPPA B and initiate GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of GENES involved in CELL DIFFERENTIATION and development. NFAT proteins stimulate T-CELL activation through the induction of IMMEDIATE-EARLY GENES such as INTERLEUKIN-2.Immunoglobulins: Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.Phospholipase C gamma: A phosphoinositide phospholipase C subtype that is primarily regulated by PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASES. It is structurally related to PHOSPHOLIPASE C DELTA with the addition of SRC HOMOLOGY DOMAINS and pleckstrin homology domains located between two halves of the CATALYTIC DOMAIN.Interleukin-17: A proinflammatory cytokine produced primarily by T-LYMPHOCYTES or their precursors. Several subtypes of interleukin-17 have been identified, each of which is a product of a unique gene.NK Cell Lectin-Like Receptor Subfamily B: A subclass of NK cell lectin-like receptors that includes both inhibitory and stimulatory members.Precursor Cells, B-Lymphoid: Lymphocyte progenitor cells that are restricted in their differentiation potential to the B lymphocyte lineage. The pro-B cell stage of B lymphocyte development precedes the pre-B cell stage.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fyn: Src-family kinases that associate with T-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTOR and phosphorylate a wide variety of intracellular signaling molecules.Antigens, CD5: Glycoproteins expressed on all mature T-cells, thymocytes, and a subset of mature B-cells. Antibodies specific for CD5 can enhance T-cell receptor-mediated T-cell activation. The B-cell-specific molecule CD72 is a natural ligand for CD5. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Receptors, Interleukin-2: Receptors present on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and B-LYMPHOCYTES that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-2 and play an important role in LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION. They are heterotrimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT, the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT, and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN.Immunoglobulin Heavy Chains: The largest of polypeptide chains comprising immunoglobulins. They contain 450 to 600 amino acid residues per chain, and have molecular weights of 51-72 kDa.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Clonal Deletion: Removal, via CELL DEATH, of immature lymphocytes that interact with antigens during maturation. For T-lymphocytes this occurs in the thymus and ensures that mature T-lymphocytes are self tolerant. B-lymphocytes may also undergo clonal deletion.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory: CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.HLA-A2 Antigen: A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Membrane Microdomains: Detergent-insoluble CELL MEMBRANE components. They are enriched in SPHINGOLIPIDS and CHOLESTEROL and clustered with glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins.Antigens, CD2: Glycoprotein members of the immunoglobulin superfamily which participate in T-cell adhesion and activation. They are expressed on most peripheral T-lymphocytes, natural killer cells, and thymocytes, and function as co-receptors or accessory molecules in the T-cell receptor complex.Myelin Basic Protein: An abundant cytosolic protein that plays a critical role in the structure of multilamellar myelin. Myelin basic protein binds to the cytosolic sides of myelin cell membranes and causes a tight adhesion between opposing cell membranes.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Histocompatibility Antigen H-2D: A component of the murine major histocompatibility complex class I family. It contains one Ig-like C1-type domain and functions in processing and presentation of exogenous peptide antigens to the immune system.Immunoglobulin Light Chains: Polypeptide chains, consisting of 211 to 217 amino acid residues and having a molecular weight of approximately 22 kDa. There are two major types of light chains, kappa and lambda. Two Ig light chains and two Ig heavy chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) make one immunoglobulin molecule.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Genes, Immunoglobulin: Genes encoding the different subunits of the IMMUNOGLOBULINS, for example the IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN GENES and the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAIN GENES. The heavy and light immunoglobulin genes are present as gene segments in the germline cells. The completed genes are created when the segments are shuffled and assembled (B-LYMPHOCYTE GENE REARRANGEMENT) during B-LYMPHOCYTE maturation. The gene segments of the human light and heavy chain germline genes are symbolized V (variable), J (joining) and C (constant). The heavy chain germline genes have an additional segment D (diversity).Mice, Inbred DBAEpitopes, T-Lymphocyte: Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.Lymphocyte Count: The number of LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Gene Rearrangement, B-Lymphocyte, Light Chain: Ordered rearrangement of B-lymphocyte variable gene regions coding for the kappa or lambda IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS, thereby contributing to antibody diversity. It occurs during the second stage of differentiation of the IMMATURE B-LYMPHOCYTES.Receptor Aggregation: Chemically stimulated aggregation of cell surface receptors, which potentiates the action of the effector cell.Mice, Inbred AKREncephalomyelitis, Autoimmune, Experimental: An experimental animal model for central nervous system demyelinating disease. Inoculation with a white matter emulsion combined with FREUND'S ADJUVANT, myelin basic protein, or purified central myelin triggers a T cell-mediated immune response directed towards central myelin. The pathologic features are similar to MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, including perivascular and periventricular foci of inflammation and demyelination. Subpial demyelination underlying meningeal infiltrations also occurs, which is also a feature of ENCEPHALOMYELITIS, ACUTE DISSEMINATED. Passive immunization with T-cells from an afflicted animal to a normal animal also induces this condition. (From Immunol Res 1998;17(1-2):217-27; Raine CS, Textbook of Neuropathology, 2nd ed, p604-5)VDJ Recombinases: Recombinases involved in the rearrangement of immunity-related GENES such as IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES and T-CELL RECEPTOR GENES.Gene Rearrangement: The ordered rearrangement of gene regions by DNA recombination such as that which occurs normally during development.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-vav: Proto-oncogene proteins that are guanine nucleotide exchange factors for RHO GTPASES. They also function as signal transducing adaptor proteins.Enterotoxins: Substances that are toxic to the intestinal tract causing vomiting, diarrhea, etc.; most common enterotoxins are produced by bacteria.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.T-Cell Antigen Receptor Specificity: The property of the T-CELL RECEPTOR which enables it to react with some antigens and not others. The specificity is derived from the structure of the receptor's variable region which has the ability to recognize certain antigens in conjunction with the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX molecule.Mice, Inbred CBANatural Killer T-Cells: A specialized subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES that exhibit features of INNATE IMMUNITY similar to that of NATURAL KILLER CELLS. They are reactive to glycolipids presented in the context of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I-like molecule, CD1D ANTIGEN.src Homology Domains: Regions of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE similarity in the SRC-FAMILY TYROSINE KINASES that fold into specific functional tertiary structures. The SH1 domain is a CATALYTIC DOMAIN. SH2 and SH3 domains are protein interaction domains. SH2 usually binds PHOSPHOTYROSINE-containing proteins and SH3 interacts with CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Immunogenetic Phenomena: GENETIC PHENOMENA characterizing IMMUNITY and the immune response.Antigens, Differentiation: Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.Immunoglobulin Joining Region: A segment of the immunoglobulin heavy chains, encoded by the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAIN GENES in the J segment where, during the maturation of B-LYMPHOCYTES; the gene segment for the variable region upstream is joined to a constant region gene segment downstream. The exact position of joining of the two gene segments is variable and contributes to ANTIBODY DIVERSITY. It is distinguished from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN J CHAINS; a separate polypeptide that serves as a linkage piece in polymeric IGA or IGM.Galactosylceramides: Cerebrosides which contain as their polar head group a galactose moiety bound in glycosidic linkage to the hydroxyl group of ceramide. Their accumulation in tissue, due to a defect in beta-galactosidase, is the cause of galactosylceramide lipidosis or globoid cell leukodystrophy.Cell SeparationAlleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Surface Plasmon Resonance: A biosensing technique in which biomolecules capable of binding to specific analytes or ligands are first immobilized on one side of a metallic film. Light is then focused on the opposite side of the film to excite the surface plasmons, that is, the oscillations of free electrons propagating along the film's surface. The refractive index of light reflecting off this surface is measured. When the immobilized biomolecules are bound by their ligands, an alteration in surface plasmons on the opposite side of the film is created which is directly proportional to the change in bound, or adsorbed, mass. Binding is measured by changes in the refractive index. The technique is used to study biomolecular interactions, such as antigen-antibody binding.PhosphoproteinsHLA-DR1 Antigen: An HLA-DR antigen associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS that are encoded by DRB1*01 alleles.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.GATA3 Transcription Factor: A GATA transcription factor that is found predominately in LYMPHOID CELL precursors and has been implicated in the CELL DIFFERENTIATION of HELPER T-CELLS. Haploinsufficiency of GATA3 is associated with HYPOPARATHYROIDISM; SENSORINEURAL HEARING LOSS; and renal anomalies syndrome.Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Receptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.Receptors, IgG: Specific molecular sites on the surface of various cells, including B-lymphocytes and macrophages, that combine with IMMUNOGLOBULIN Gs. Three subclasses exist: Fc gamma RI (the CD64 antigen, a low affinity receptor), Fc gamma RII (the CD32 antigen, a high affinity receptor), and Fc gamma RIII (the CD16 antigen, a low affinity receptor).Antigens, CD19: Differentiation antigens expressed on B-lymphocytes and B-cell precursors. They are involved in regulation of B-cell proliferation.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Sialic Acid Binding Ig-like Lectin 2: A lectin and cell adhesion molecule found in B-LYMPHOCYTES. It interacts with SIALIC ACIDS and mediates signaling from B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.HLA-DR2 Antigen: A broad specificity HLA-DR antigen that is associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS encoded by DRB1*01:15 and DRB1*01:16 alleles.Receptors, KIR2DL3: A KIR receptor that has specificity for HLA-C ANTIGEN. It is an inhibitory receptor that contains D1 and D2 extracellular immunoglobulin-like domains and a long cytoplasmic tail. It is similar in structure and function to the KIR2DL2 RECEPTORS and the KIR2DL3 RECEPTORS.Receptors, KIR3DL1: A KIR receptor that has specificity for HLA-B ANTIGENS. It is an inhibitory receptor that contains D0, D1, and D2 extracellular immunoglobulin-like domains and a long cytoplasmic tail.HLA-B8 Antigen: A specific HLA-B surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-B*08 allele family.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Cell Lineage: The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.Immunodominant Epitopes: Subunits of the antigenic determinant that are most easily recognized by the immune system and thus most influence the specificity of the induced antibody.src-Family Kinases: A PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE family that was originally identified by homology to the Rous sarcoma virus ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(V-SRC). They interact with a variety of cell-surface receptors and participate in intracellular signal transduction pathways. Oncogenic forms of src-family kinases can occur through altered regulation or expression of the endogenous protein and by virally encoded src (v-src) genes.HLA-C Antigens: Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) antigens encoded by a small cluster of structural genes at the C locus on chromosome 6. They have significantly lower immunogenicity than the HLA-A and -B determinants and are therefore of minor importance in donor/recipient crossmatching. Their primary role is their high-risk association with certain disease manifestations (e.g., spondylarthritis, psoriasis, multiple myeloma).Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
"The aryl hydrocarbon receptor links TH17-cell-mediated autoimmunity to environmental toxins". Nature. 453 (7191): 106-109. doi: ... Stockinger, B.; Veldhoen, M. (2007). "Differentiation and function of Th17 T cells". Current Opinion in Immunology. 19 (3): 281 ... Stockinger, B; Zal, T; Zal, A; Gray, D (1996). "B cells solicit their own help from T cells". The Journal of Experimental ... Stockinger's research has contributed insights into the regulation and maintenance of peripheral T cell immune responses. ...
IL 17 family
IL17B IL17C IL17D IL17E (or IL25) IL17F T cells expressing these are called "Th17". Interleukin-17 receptor T helper 17 cell ... Moseley TA, Haudenschild DR, Rose L, Reddi AH (April 2003). "Interleukin-17 family and IL-17 receptors". Cytokine Growth Factor ... "Characterization of the interleukin-17 isoforms and receptors in lesional psoriatic skin". Br. J. Dermatol. 160 (2): 319-24. ...
... is driven by the Th17 T cell sub-population that bear T-cell receptors specific for proteins found in the eye. These ... Autoreactive T cells must normally be held in check by the suppressive environment produced by microglia and dendritic cells in ... myeloid suppression while inducible Treg cells prevent activation and clonal expansion of the autoreactive Th1 and Th17 cells ... to prevent damage to the eye by reducing inflammation and causing T cells to differentiate to inducible T reg cells. Innate ...
Sergio A. Lira
"C-C chemokine receptor 6-regulated entry of TH-17 cells into the CNS through the choroid plexus is required for the initiation ... 2001). "Aberrant in vivo T helper type 2 cell response and impaired eosinophil recruitment in CC chemokine receptor 8 knockout ... 2006). "The human herpesvirus 8 chemokine receptor vGPCR triggers autonomous proliferation of endothelial cells". J Clin Invest ... 2006). "Interaction of mature CD3+CD4+ T cells with dendritic cells triggers the development of tertiary lymphoid structures in ...
After their B subunit binds to receptors on the cell surface, the toxin is enveloped by the cell and transported inside either ... Cancer cells that express receptors for EGF will then experience SubAB toxicity. Vaccines Another use of AB5 toxins is using ... This allows the toxin to promote immunological responses such as IgG2a, IgA, and Th17 to fight for instance gastric ... The B subunit is responsible for binding to receptors to open up a pathway for the A subunit to enter the cell. The A subunit ...
These cells release IL-23 which induce Th17 cells to produce IL-17. IL-17 interaction with IL-17RA receptors, abundant on the ... IL-17F is derived from several cell types such as Th17 cells, mast cells and basophils, and shows a wide tissue expression ... peripheral T cells, B cell lineages, fibroblast, lung, myelomonocytic cells, and marrow stromal cells. Signal transduction for ... IL-17 function is also essential to a subset of CD4+ T-Cells called T helper 17 (Th17) cells. As a result of these roles, the ...
Altered Schaedler flora
They used ASF to test the maturation of lymphoid follicles into large B cell clusters by the toll-like receptor signaling. In ... examined the role of regulatory T cells in limiting microbe-triggered intestinal inflammation and the T cell compartment. Using ... In germfree mice, Th17 and Th1 response dominate. Bacteria microenvironment is very important in the pathogenesis of clinical ... The retrovirus evolved to rely on the interaction with microbiota and toll-like receptor to evade immune pathways. ASF is not a ...
Dopamine receptor D5
"Stimulation of dopamine receptor D5 expressed on dendritic cells potentiates Th17-mediated immunity". The Journal of Immunology ... Within a cell, D5 receptors are found on the membrane of soma and proximal dendrites. They are also sometimes located in the ... The receptors of this subtype are also expressed on dendritic cells and T helper cells. D5 receptors are expressed in kidneys ... It belongs to the D1-like receptor family along with the D1 receptor subtype. D5 receptor is a subtype of the dopamine receptor ...
Interleukin-1 receptor family
Oct 1991). "A novel IL-1 receptor, cloned from B cells by mammalian expression, is expressed in many cell types". The EMBO ... IL-1RI signalling plays also important role in Th17 development. Studies of human autoimmune diseases such as sclerosis ... bone marrow cells, macrophages and B cells, also on T cells and epithelial cells. There are three Ig-like domains located ... IL-1R cooperates with receptor accessory protein and both are expressed on T cells, fibroblasts and endothelial cells. IL-1RII ...
The mechanism of Treg17 cell action is expression of chemokine receptor CCR6, which facilitates trafficking into areas of Th17 ... Treg17 (Regulatory Th17) cells are generated from CD4+ T cells. Treg17 cells with regulatory phenotype with in vivo immune- ... Similar to Th17 cells the Treg17 development depended on the transcription factor Stat3. These regulatory Th17 cells are ... The protective and non-pathogenic Th17 cells are termed as Treg17 cells. Like conventional regulatory T cells (Treg), induction ...
T cell receptor revision
T cells or even switch between T cell lineages such as T regulatory cells and Th17 cells or gamma/delta and alpha/beta T cells ... It is not correct since dual receptor T cells do exist in the periphery and the single receptor T cells can modify its ... T cell receptor revision (alternative term: antigen receptor editing) is a process in the peripheral immune system which is ... The current knowledge on antigen receptor editing both in T cells and B cells is far from complete, but it has an essential ...
They also used the same type II IL-4 receptor to activate STAT6. Similar functions have IL-1 to Th17 cells and IL-18 to Th1 ... T helper lymphocytes is cytokine dependent and can happen without antigen stimulation by T-cell receptor of these cells. IL-33 ... because naive T helper cells nor Th1 nor Th17 populations do not have ST2 receptors. This up-regulation works as a positive ... is induced by stimulation of innate immune cells by Toll-like receptors (TLRs) or RIG-like receptors (RLRs), but to gain the ...
CC chemokine receptors
CCR6, a receptor for CCL20, is expressed on unactivated memory T-cells and some dendritic cells. CCR6 is also expressed on Th17 ... Gosling et al., Cutting edge: identification of a novel chemokine receptor that binds dendritic cell- and T cell-active ... There is some suggestion that this chemokine receptor is restricted to memory T-cells within the lymphocyte pool. This receptor ... chemokine receptor. CCR10 is receptor for CCL27 and CCL28 that was originally called orphan receptor GPR2. CCR10 has been ...
RAR-related orphan receptor alpha
In addition, although present in normal numbers, the ILC3 and Th17 cells from RORα deficient mice are defective for cytokine ... "Retinoic-acid-receptor-related orphan nuclear receptor alpha is required for natural helper cell development and allergic ... RAR-related orphan receptor alpha (RORα), also known as NR1F1 (nuclear receptor subfamily 1, group F, member 1) is a nuclear ... Miki N, Ikuta M, Matsui T (April 2004). "Hypoxia-induced activation of the retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptor ...
... regulatory T-cells, and innate immune cells (DCs, NK cells, monocytes). HAVCR2 belongs to TIM family cell surface receptor ... Later, the expression was detected in Th17 cells, ... Th1 cells and their associated cytokines are involved in cell- ... T-cell exhaustion is mediated by several inhibitory receptors including programmed cell death protein 1 (PD1), TIM3, and ... HAVCR2 was first described in 2002 as a cell surface molecule expressed on IFNγ producing CD4+ Th1 and CD8+ Tc1 cells. ...
Type 3 innate lymphoid cells
ILC 3 consists of two cell types - LTi cells (lymphoid tissue-inducing cells) that are important to produce secondary lymphoid ... "The aryl hydrocarbon receptor regulates gut immunity through modulation of innate lymphoid cells." Immunity 36.1 (2012): 92-104 ... "Interleukin (IL)-22 and IL-17 are coexpressed by Th17 cells and cooperatively enhance expression of antimicrobial peptides." ... Type 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3) are lymphoid line immune cells and are one of the classified type of Innate lymphoid cells ...
Engagement of the Type I interferon receptor on dendritic cells inhibits promotion of Th17 cells: central role of intracellular ... Cell 36:879-888. Rao A, Faas S and H. Cantor. Analogues which compete for antigen binding to an arsonate-reactive T cell clone ... Cell 1981;23:19. Rao A, Allard WJ, Hogan PG, Rosenson RS, Cantor, H. Alloreactive T cell clones. Ly phenotypes predict both ... Glimcher L, Shen F-W, Cantor H. Identification of a cell-surface antigen selectively expressed on the natural killer cell. J. ...
Innate lymphoid cell
NK cells express a number of cell surface activating NK cell receptors with specificity for stress induced ligands ... They are the innate counterpart to Th17 cells, and share the common transcription factor of RORγt. They comprise ILC3s and ... These cells are defined by absence of antigen specific B or T cell receptor because of the lack of recombination activating ... NK cells express many cell-surface receptors that can be activating, inhibitory, adhesion, cytokine, or chemotactic. The ...
"The T-cell lymphokine interleukin-26 targets epithelial cells through the interleukin-20 receptor 1 and interleukin-10 receptor ... Furthermore, TH17 cell-derived IL-26 formed complexes with bacterial DNA and self-DNA released by dying bacteria and host cells ... 2004). "Cutting edge: IL-26 signals through a novel receptor complex composed of IL-20 receptor 1 and IL-10 receptor 2". J. ... IL-26 signals through a receptor complex comprising two distinct proteins called IL-20 receptor 1 and IL-10 receptor 2. By ...
T helper 17 cell
... and retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptors gamma (RORγ) and alpha (RORα). Th17 cells are differentiated when naive T ... Like other T helper cells, Th17 cells closely interact with B cells in response to pathogens. Th17 cells are involved in B cell ... the loss of Th17 cell populations can contribute to chronic infection. Th17 cells, particularly auto-specific Th17 cells, are ... The protective and non-pathogenic Th17 cells induced by IL-6 and TGF-β are termed as Treg17 cells. The pathogenic Th17 cells ...
Transforming growth factor beta
Th17 cells secretes TNF-α, which induces demyelination of the oligodendroglial via TNF receptor 1. The decreased TGF-β levels ... Li MO, Flavell RA (August 2008). "TGF-beta: a master of all T cell trades". Cell. 134 (3): 392-404. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2008.07. ... Studies show that neutralization of TGF-β1 in vitro inhibits the differentiation of helper T cells into Th17 cells. The role of ... However, the molecular mechanism of Th17 differentiation is not well understood. Because Th17 cells are distinct from Th1 and ...
... a cell surface protein present in Th17 cells and osteoblasts. Osteoclast activity can be directly induced by osteoblasts ... caused in part by the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL ... specifically Th17 cells. Th17 cells are present in higher quantities at the site of bone destruction in joints and produce ... "Recent advances in understanding the molecular mechanisms of the development and function of Th17 cells". Genes Cells. 18 (4): ...
In Ni-ACD other cells are involved including: Th17, Th22, Th1/IFN and the innate immune responses consistent with toll-like ... when skin contact to nickel results in antigen presentation to the T cells, and T cell duplication (cloning) occurs. The metal ... receptor 4. Josef Jadassohn described the first case of metal contact dermatitis in 1895, to a mercurial-based therapeutic ... The antigenic epitope is collected by dermal dendritic cells and Langerhans cells, the antigen-presenting cells (APC) of the ...
Microbial symbiosis and immunity
The stimulus may be a microbe, a carcinogenic cell, a same species cell with different antigens, or cells from a different ... The peptidoglycans bind to the NOD1 receptor on intestinal epithelial cells. As a result, the intestinal epithelial cells ... IgA can also promote the development of TH17 and FOXP3+ regulatory T cells. Given its critical function in the GI tract, the ... The researchers found that compared to the CD4+ cells in the control mice, CD4+ cells in PSA-treated mice produced reduced ...
27 is expressed by antigen presenting cells and interacts with a specific cell-surface receptor complex known as IL-27 receptor ... Th2 cells, which express IL-4, are inhibited by IL-27 through the transcription factor GATA-3. Th17 cells, which express IL-17 ... There are many different subsets of T cells, such as Th1, Th2, Th17, Tr1, and Treg cells; IL-27 is greatly involved in ... dendritic cells, T cells, and B cells. The response that is activated is very much dependent on the external surrounding of IL- ...
... both rapid maturation of human CD34+ cell precursors towards NK cells and acquisition of surface killer Ig-like receptors". Eur ... In addition, IL-21 expression is up-regulated in Th2 and Th17 subsets of T helper cells, as well as T follicular cells. ... cells and cytotoxic T cells that can destroy virally infected or cancerous cells. This cytokine induces cell division/ ... The IL-21 receptor (IL-21R) is expressed on the surface of T, B and NK cells. IL-21r is similar in structure to the receptors ...
Interleukin 23 subunit alpha
Th17 cells represent the most prominent T cell subset that responds to IL-23, although IL-23 has been implicated in inhibiting ... A functional receptor for IL-23 (the IL-23 receptor) has been identified and is composed of IL-12R β1 and IL-23R. IL-23 is an ... Th17 cells produce IL-17, a proinflammatory cytokine that enhances T cell priming and stimulates the production of other ... Korn T, Bettelli E, Oukka M, Kuchroo VK (2009). "IL-17 and Th17 Cells". Annual Review of Immunology. 27: 485-517. doi:10.1146/ ...
IL-17F is derived from several cell types such as Th17 cells, mast cells and basophils, and shows a wide tissue expression ... ReceptorsEdit. See also: Interleukin-17 receptor. The IL-17 receptor family consists of five, broadly distributed receptors (IL ... natural killer cells and monocytes to the epidermis. These cells release IL-23 which induce Th17 cells to produce IL-17.[21 ... peripheral T cells, B cell lineages, fibroblast, lung, myelomonocytic cells, and marrow stromal cells. Signal ...
Major histocompatibility complex
On surfaces of helper T cells are CD4 receptors, as well as T cell receptors (TCRs). When a naive helper T cell's CD4 molecule ... polarizes into either a memory Th cell or an effector Th cell of phenotype either type 1 (Th1), type 2 (Th2), type 17 (Th17), ... and include B cells, T cells, and natural killer cells (NK cells). B cells, which act specifically, secrete antibody molecules ... NK cells lose the inhibitory KIR signal and trigger programmed cell death of the abnormal cell. NK cells thus help prevent ...
"Induction of intestinal Th17 cells by segmented filamentous bacteria". Cell. 139 (3): 485-98. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2009.09.033. ... "The orphan nuclear receptor RORgammat directs the differentiation program of proinflammatory IL-17+ T helper cells". Cell. 126 ... produced by cytotoxic T cells. Indeed, data from ovarian cancer suggest that Th17 cells are positively correlated with NK cell- ... Th17 cells) are a distinct lineage from the Th1 and Th2 CD4+ lineages and the differentiation of Th17 cells requires STAT3 and ...
T细胞 - 维基百科，自由的百科全书
T-cell Group - Cardiff University. *(Successful!) Treatment of Metastatic Melanoma with Autologous CD4+ T Cells against NY-ESO- ... Modulation of autoimmune diseases by interleukin (IL)-17 producing regulatory T helper (Th17) cells. The Indian Journal of ... Neonatal and adult recent thymic emigrants produce IL-8 and express complement receptors CR1 and CR2. JCI insight. 2017-08-17, ... T Cells to protect tumour cells. Nature Communications. March 2018, 9 (1): 948. PMC 5838096. PMID 29507342. doi:10.1038/s41467- ...
The orphan nuclear receptor ROR-γ directs the differentiation program of proinflammatory IL-17+ T helper cells. Cell 126:1121- ... Nedavno je ustanovljeno da timus specifični nuklearni receptor, ROR-γ, usmerava diferencijaciju Th17 ćelija. ... "Reciprocal developmental pathways for the generation of pathogenic effector TH17 and regulatory T cells". Nature 441 (7090): ... 17,0 17,1 17,2 17,3 Moseley TA, Haudenschild DR, Rose L, Reddi AH (2003). "Interleukin-17 family and IL-17 receptors". Cytokine ...
Limfocyty T regulatorowe, wolna encyklopedia
... regulatory T cells promote Th17 cells in vitro and enhance host resistance in mouse Candida albicans Th17 cell infection model ... Human regulatory T cells rapidly suppress T cell receptor-induced Ca(2+), NF-κB, and NFAT signaling in conventional T cells. „ ... Cell contact-dependent immunosuppression by CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T cells is mediated by cell surface-bound transforming ... IL-2-dependent tuning of NK cell sensitivity for target cells is controlled by regulatory T cells. „J Exp Med". 210 (6), s. ...
... the T cell receptors (TCRs) of the killer T cells recognize their matching epitope, and trigger the target cell's programmed ... Current research tends to focus on Th1 and Th17 which mediate allograft rejection via the CD4 and CD8 T cells ... Lymphocytes of specific immunity T cells-including the subclasses helper T cells and killer T cells-and B cells. ... As a cell is indicated by the prefix cyto, a cytotoxic influence destroys the cell. Alloreactive killer T cells, also called ...
T helper cell
Like all T cells, they express the T cell receptor-CD3 complex. The T cell receptor (TCR) consists of both constant and ... TH2 and TH-17 effector cells selectively regulates susceptibility to cell death". Nat Immunol. 8 (8): 825-34. doi:10.1038/ ... Their main effector cells are NK cells as well as CD8 T cells, IgG B cells, and IL-10 CD4 T cells. The key THαβ transcription ... The T helper cells (Th cells), also known as CD4 cells, are a type of T cell that play an important role in the immune system, ...
... cells. A T cell becomes a CD4+ cell by down-regulating expression of its CD8 cell surface receptors. If the cell does not lose ... "Modulation of autoimmune diseases by interleukin (IL)-17 producing regulatory T helper (Th17) cells". Indian J. Med. Res. 138 ... Cytotoxic T cells (TC cells, CTLs, T-killer cells, killer T cells) destroy virus-infected cells and tumor cells, and are also ... Helper CD4+ T cellsEdit. T helper cells (TH cells) assist other lymphocytes, including maturation of B cells into plasma cells ...
IFN-γ je obeležavajući citokin Th1 ćelija (dok Th2 ćelije proizvode IL-4 i Th17 ćelije proizvode IL-17). NK ćelije i CD8+ ... "Observation of an unexpected third receptor molecule in the crystal structure of human interferon-gamma receptor complex". ... Cell 108 (2): 221-232. PMID 11832212. doi:10.1016/S0092-8674(02)00616-5. Cite uses deprecated parameter ,coauthors=. (help) ... "Micro-RNA-155 inhibits IFN-gamma signaling in CD4+ T cells.". Eur J Immunol 40 (1): 225-31. PMC 2807623. PMID 19877012. doi: ...
Tüümus - Vikipeedia
Autoreactive thymic B cells are efficient antigen-presenting cells of cognate self-antigens for T cell negative selection., 110 ... Zúñiga LA, Jain R, Haines C, Cua DJ., Th17 cell development: from the cradle to the grave. Immunol Rev. märts 2013;252(1):78-88 ... Jean M. Bidlack, Detection and Function of Opioid Receptors on Cells from the Immune System, Clin Vaccine Immunol, september ... Cell-Autonomous Defects in Thymic Epithelial Cells Disrupt Endothelial-Perivascular Cell Interactions in the Mouse Thymus, 4. ...
Equivalent defining cytokines for other cells include IL-4 for Th2 cells and IL-17 for Th17 cells.) ... T cell receptor signaling pathway. • negative regulation of epithelial cell differentiation. • negative regulation of ... Th1 cells), cytotoxic T cells (TC cells), macrophages, mucosal epithelial cells and NK cells. IFNγ is the only Type II ... Th1 cells secrete IFNγ, which in turn causes more undifferentiated CD4+ cells (Th0 cells) to differentiate into Th1 cells[ ...
Heat shock protein
They can promote Th17, Th1, Th2 or Treg responses depending on antigen-presenting cells. ... The most important receptors in this case are scavenger receptors, mainly SRECI and LOX-1. CD91 scavenger receptor has been ... "Cell. 130 (6): 1005-18. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2007.07.020. PMC 2586609 . PMID 17889646.. ... When HSPs are extracellular, they can bind to specific receptors on dendritic cells (DC) and promote cross-presentation of ...
Interleukiin-10 - Vikipeedia
Inimkatse (in vivo) käigus avaldas transdermaalne nikotiiniplaaster IL-10 sünteesile non-adherent mononuclear cells (NAC) poolt ... Laure Dumoutier, Emiel Van Roost, Didier Colau, ja Jean-Christophe Renauld, Human interleukin-10-related T cell-derived ... Interferon-dependent IL-10 production by Tregs limits tumor Th17 inflammation, J Clin Invest. 1.nov 2013; 123(11): 4859-4874, ... "Interleukin-10 and related cytokines and receptors.". Annu Rev Immunol., 2004. Vaadatud 05.09.2014. Inglise. ...
"N-acetylglucosamine inhibits T-helper 1 (Th1)/T-helper 17 (Th17) cell responses and treats experimental autoimmune ... The T cells recognize myelin as foreign and attack it, explaining why these cells are also called "autoreactive lymphocytes".[5 ... "Identification of Vulnerable Cell Types in Major Brain Disorders Using Single Cell Transcriptomes and Expression Weighted Cell ... Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating disease in which the insulating covers of nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord ...
... fewer endothelial progenitor cells), likely related to the presence of antiendothelinal cell antibodies (AECA). Despite this ... At this stage it is predominantly a Th1 and Th17-mediated disease. After this the vasculature is further compromised by ... These include Raynaud's phenomenon with vasodilators such as calcium channel blockers, alpha blockers, serotonin receptor ... B cells mature into plasma cells, which furthers the autoimmune component of the condition. T cells differentiate into subsets ...
TIM-3 is expressed on activated human CD4+ T cells and regulates Th1 and Th17 cytokines. . In: Eur J Immunol.. . 39, Nr. 9, 1. ... Cell. Band 161, Nummer 2, April 2015, S. 205-214, doi:10.1016/j.cell.2015.03.030, PMID 25860605. ... GITR, a member of the TNF receptor superfamily, is costimulatory to mouse T lymphocyte subpopulations.. . In: Eur J Immunol. ... CD40 and dendritic cell function. . In: Crit Rev Immunol.. . 23, Nr. 1, 1. Januar 2003, S. 83-107. PMID 12906261. ...
... as the T regulatory cell transferred to the patient may change into T helper 17 (Th17) cells, which are pro-inflammatory rather ... T cell receptor signaling pathway. • positive regulation of T cell anergy. • transcription, DNA-templated. • T cell mediated ... Th17 cells are proinflammatory and are produced under similar environments as a/iTregs. Th17 cells are produced under the ... Foxp3 is a specific marker of natural T regulatory cells (nTregs, a lineage of T cells) and adaptive/induced T regulatory cells ...
T-ćelija - Википедија, слободна енциклопедија
T-cell Group - Cardiff University. *(Successful!) Treatment of Metastatic Melanoma with Autologous CD4+ T Cells against NY-ESO- ... Th17) cells". Indian J. Med. Res. 138 (5): 591-4. PMC 3928692 . PMID 24434314.. ... Gama Delta T ćelije (γδ T-limfociti) predstavljaju mali podskup T ćelija koje na površini imaju poseban receptor T ćelije (TCR ... "T cells and B cells derive their names from the organs in which they develop. T cells develop in the thymus, and B cells, in ...
... such as B cells and natural killer cells, by the presence of a T-cell receptor on the cell surface. They are called T cells ... "Modulation of autoimmune diseases by interleukin (IL)-17 producing regulatory T helper (Th17) cells". Indian J. Med. Res. 138 ... Cytotoxic T cells (TC cells, CTLs, T-killer cells, killer T cells) destroy virus-infected cells and tumor cells, and are also ... cells. A T cell becomes a CD4+ cell by down-regulating expression of its CD8 cell surface receptors. If the cell does not lose ...
T helper cell
Like all T cells, they express the T cell receptor-CD3 complex. The T cell receptor (TCR) consists of both constant and ... TH2 and TH-17 effector cells selectively regulates susceptibility to cell death". Nat Immunol. 8 (8): 825-34. doi:10.1038/ ... Their main effector cells are NK cells as well as CD8 T cells, IgG B cells, and IL-10 CD4 T cells. The key THαβ transcription ... The main effector cells are eosinophils, basophils, and mast cells as well as B cells, and IL-4/IL-5 CD4 T cells. The key Th2 ...
Expression has also been studied on other immune cells including eosinophils and B cells. The C-type lectin receptors are class ... "Regulated recruitment of DC-SIGN to cell-cell contact regions during zymosan-induced human dendritic cell aggregation". J. ... and the development of Th17. Dectin-1 can also operate as a co-stimulatory molecule via recognition of an endogenous ligand on ... As a member of this receptor family, dectin-1 recognizes β-glucans and carbohydrates found in fungal cell walls, some bacteria ...
... as the T regulatory cell transferred to the patient may change into T helper 17 (Th17) cells, which are pro-inflammatory rather ... and may repress transcription of key genes following stimulation of T cell receptors. The human FOXP3 genes contain 11 coding ... Th17 cells are proinflammatory and are produced under similar environments as a/iTregs. Th17 cells are produced under the ... cytokine production and cell survival. This would inhibit a cell's ability to perform apoptosis and stop its own cell cycle, ...
In the dermis, it is expressed by the smooth muscle cells of the panniculus carnosus. Breast: mS100a7a15 is weakly expressed in ... cell migration, and the antimicrobial host defense as antimicrobial peptides. mS100a7a15 was first cloned as mS100a15 from ... and through an unknown receptor (like koebnerisin). A bi-transgenic mouse model (K5-tTA/TetOmS100a7a15) that expresses abundant ... infiltration of CD3+ and CD4+ T lymphocytes into the skin that was associated with an increased production of Th1 and Th17 ...
... s cause B cells to express smaller amounts of IL-2 and of IL-2 receptors. This diminishes both B cell clone ... "BCL-2 protects human and mouse Th17 cells from glucocorticoid-induced apoptosis". Allergy. 71: 640-50. doi:10.1111/all.12840. ... GCs affect cells by binding to the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). The activated GR complex, in turn, up-regulates the expression ... glucocorticoid-induced TNF receptor) Glucocorticoid receptor Immunosuppressive drug Membrane glucocorticoid receptor Metyrapone ...
Serum amyloid A1
SAA1 may also be produced by macrophages and epithelial cells in various tissues. It has been shown to promote local Th17 ... mostly cell surface proteins such as receptors. SAA1 binding to the αvβ3 integrin produces an inhibitory effect on the growth ... These receptors include the G protein-coupled chemoattractant receptor FPR2 (formyl peptide receptor 2), believed to mediate ... The P2X7 purinergic receptor is another receptor used by SAA1 for a number of cellular functions including the activation of ...
Specialized pro-resolving mediators
T cells, mast cells, and dendritic cells as well as in vascular tissue; GPR32 (also termed the RvD1 receptor or DRV1) is ... promotes the apoptosis of Th-17 pro-inflammatory lymphocytes; promotes B cell lymphocytes to differentiate into antibody ... Mast cells: inhibit their infiltration into inflamed tissues and, in lung mast cells, the release of histamine. Dendritic cells ... the NMDA receptor is a glutamate receptor and ion channel protein involved in controlling synaptic plasticity and memory. Cells ...
CD4+ T cells and antitumor immunity
The mechanisms of Th17 cell activity in the tumor microenvironment are not well understood. Th17 cells can orchestrate chronic ... CD4+ T cell-mediated tumor rejection involves inhibition of angiogenesis that is dependent on IFNγ receptor expression on ... Th17 differentiation is induced by TGF-β and IL-6, and signature cytokines of Th17 cells include IL-17A and IL17-F. ... Th17 cells have also been found to have the capacity to differentiate into IFN-γ secreting cells, thus suppressing tumor growth ...
Control of Treg and TH17 cell differentiation by the aryl hydrocarbon receptor | Nature
It is shown here to induce regulatory T cells when bound to the ligand TCCD and promote TH17 differentiation when bound to FICZ ... is the cellular receptor for a number of environment contaminants. ... The orphan nuclear receptor RORγt directs the differentiation program of proinflammatory IL-17+ T helper cells. . Cell 126, ... Single-cell analysis of normal and FOXP3-mutant human T cells: FOXP3 expression without regulatory T cell development. . Proc. ...
Leptin Receptor Signaling in T Cells Is Required for Th17 Differentiation | The Journal of Immunology
Foxp1 Negatively Regulates T Follicular Helper Cell Differentiation and Germinal Center Responses by Controlling Cell Migration ... Leptin Receptor Signaling in T Cells Is Required for Th17 Differentiation. Bernardo S. Reis, Kihyun Lee, Melania H. Fanok, ... Leptin Receptor Signaling in T Cells Is Required for Th17 Differentiation. Bernardo S. Reis, Kihyun Lee, Melania H. Fanok, ... Leptin Receptor Signaling in T Cells Is Required for Th17 Differentiation. Bernardo S. Reis, Kihyun Lee, Melania H. Fanok, ...
Small intestinal eosinophils regulate Th17 cells by producing IL-1 receptor antagonist | JEM
Th17 cell induction by adhesion of microbes to intestinal epithelial cells. Cell. 163:367-380. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2015.08.058. ... Induction of intestinal Th17 cells by segmented filamentous bacteria. Cell. 139:485-498. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2009.09.033. ... 6 B). In contrast to the small intestinal Th17 cells, no significant changes were found in the frequency of Th17 cells in the ... In this study, we found that small intestinal eosinophils down-regulate Th17 cells. Th17 cells in the small intestine were ...
Prostaglandin E2 regulates Th17 cell differentiation and function through cyclic AMP and EP2/EP4 receptor signaling. | Sigma...
Th17) cells. In human purified naive T cells, PGE2 acts via prostaglandin receptor EP2- and EP4-mediated signaling and cyclic ... Prostaglandin E2 regulates Th17 cell differentiation and function through cyclic AMP and EP2/EP4 receptor signaling.. [Katia ... Furthermore, PGE2 synergizes with IL-1beta and IL-23 to drive retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptor (ROR)-gammat, IL- ... gamma production and inhibits production of the antiinflammatory cytokine IL-10 in Th17 cells predominantly through EP4. ...
JCI Insight - Retinoic-acid-orphan-receptor-C inhibition suppresses Th17 cells and induces thymic aberrations
For Th17 cell differentiation assays, CD4+ cells were seeded at 5 x 104 cells/well in 96-well flat-bottom plates and stimulated ... Th17 cells, lymphoid tissue inducer cells [LTi cells], and invariant NK T cells [iNKT cells] ; refs. 1, 10), whose development ... Isolation of rat CD4+ T cells and Th17 cell polarization assay. CD4+ T cells from male Lewis rats were obtained from ... Biased T cell receptor V beta expression predominates in spinal cord infiltrating T cells. J Immunol. 1992;148(6):1712-1717. ...
Th17 Cell-associated Chemokine Receptor and Ligand Expression in Dry Eye Disease | IOVS | ARVO Journals
Purpose: : Th17 cells have been reported to be the predominate effector T cell in dry eye disease (DED). The purpose of this ... increase in the frequency of CCR2-hi expressing Th17 cells and a 30% increase in CCR6 expression by all Th17 cells compared to ... Thomas H. Dohlman, Shilpa Kodati, Jing Hua, Yihe Chen, Sunil K. Chauhan, Reza Dana; Th17 Cell-associated Chemokine Receptor and ... Th17 Cell-associated Chemokine Receptor and Ligand Expression in Dry Eye Disease ...
JCI Insight - M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor-reactive Th17 cells in primary Sjögren's syndrome
The most common T cell epitope, which was analyzed and confirmed by coculture of isolated CD4+ T cells with antigen presenting ... including clonally expanded Th17 cells. We undertook this study to identify circulating M3R-specific Th17 cells and to ... TCRβ overlap analysis between M3R reactive Th17 cells and LSG T cells. ... M3R-reactive Th17 cells positivity correlated with higher titers of anti-M3R antibodies, whose systemic disease activity score ...
Prostaglandin E2 Regulates Th17 Cell Differentiation and Function Through Cyclic AMP and EP2/EP4 Receptor Signaling - PubMed
Th17) cells. In human purified naive T cells, PGE2 acts via prostaglandin receptor EP2- and EP4-mediated signaling and cyclic ... Prostaglandin E2 Regulates Th17 Cell Differentiation and Function Through Cyclic AMP and EP2/EP4 Receptor Signaling Katia ... Prostaglandin E2 Regulates Th17 Cell Differentiation and Function Through Cyclic AMP and EP2/EP4 Receptor Signaling Katia ... PGE2 enhances maturation of Th17 cells. Human naive CD4+ T cells were activated with anti-CD3/CD28/CD2 beads and cultured for ...
Ambient particulate matter activates the aryl hydrocarbon receptor in dendritic cells and enhances Th17 polarization<...
PM enhances DC activation that primes naive T cell differentiation towards a Th17-like phenotype in an AhR-dependent manner. ... Ambient particulate matter activates the aryl hydrocarbon receptor in dendritic cells and enhances Th17 polarization. ... Ambient particulate matter activates the aryl hydrocarbon receptor in dendritic cells and enhances Th17 polarization. / ... title = "Ambient particulate matter activates the aryl hydrocarbon receptor in dendritic cells and enhances Th17 polarization", ...
The transcriptional coactivator TAZ regulates reciprocal differentiation of TH17 cells and Treg cells | Nature Immunology
show that Hippo signaling is required for TH17 cell differentiation but inhibits Treg cell differentiation. ... Hippo signaling controls cell and tissue growth. Geng et al. ... T cell receptor "inside-out" pathway via signaling module SKAP1 ... Cutting edge: regulatory T cells induce CD4+CD25−Foxp3− T cells or are self-induced to become Th17 cells in the absence of ... Th17 and regulatory T cells in mediating and restraining inflammation. . Cell 140, 845-858 (2010). ...
JCI - Cellular effectors mediating Th17-dependent clearance of pneumococcal colonization in mice
... since mice lacking its receptor show normal clearance of colonization (data not shown). Th17 cells, a subset of CD4+ T cells, ... Macrophage complement receptors and pathogen clearance. Cell. Microbiol. 9:2095-2102. View this article via: CrossRef PubMed ... Th17 cells and mucosal host defense. Semin. Immunol. 19:377-382. View this article via: CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar ... Reciprocal developmental pathways for the generation of pathogenic effector TH17 and regulatory T cells. Nature. 441:235-238. ...
Circulating Th17, Th22, and Th1 cells are increased in psoriasis
... and Th1 cells are detected in psoriatic skin lesions and implicated in psoriasis pathogenesis, but inflammatory T cell numbers ... Using 7-color flow cytometry, circulating Th17, Th22, and Th1 cells were quantified i … ... in blood, as well as the relative importance of each cell type, is unclear. ... Receptors, Interleukin / metabolism * STAT3 Transcription Factor / metabolism * Severity of Illness Index * Th1 Cells* / ...
Frontiers | TH9, TH17, and TH22 Cell Subsets and Their Main Cytokine Products in the Pathogenesis of Colorectal Cancer |...
... cell subsets, such as TH9, TH17, and TH22 cells, and their respective cytokine products, IL-9, IL-17, and IL-22, have been ... TH17 and TH22, and their respective cytokine products, IL-9, IL-17 and IL-22, have been reported to play critical roles in the ... TH17/IL-17, and TH22/IL-22 in the pathogenesis of CRC have recently become an increasingly popular area of scientific ... TH17/IL-17 and TH22/IL-22 in the pathogenesis of CRC have recently become an increasingly popular scientific area of ...
In vivo IL-12/IL-23p40 neutralization blocks Th1/Th17 response after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation |...
Distinct IL-2 receptor signaling pattern in CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells. J Immunol. 2004;172(9):5287-5296. ... SIR inhibits differentiation of Th1 and Th17 cells, and promotes generation of Tregs from naïve T cells. Tregs proliferate and ... Donor alloreactive T-cell polarization. When stimulated with third-party alloantigen, donor T cells collected on day 30 from ... Essentials of Th17 cell commitment and plasticity. Blood. 2013;121(13):2402-2414. ...
Increased Th17 Cells in the Tumor Microenvironment Is Mediated by IL-23 via Tumor-Secreted Prostaglandin E2 | The Journal of...
Prostaglandin E2 regulates Th17 cell differentiation and function through cyclic AMP and EP2/EP4 receptor signaling. J. Exp. ... the percentage of Th1 cells tended to decrease and Th17 cells increased (data not shown). The increased Th17 cells and ... Cells. The murine macrophage cell line RAW264.7 (RAW cells hereafter) and 4T1 mammary gland tumor cells were obtained from the ... Mammary gland tumor-bearing mice show increased Th17 cells. To confirm whether Th17 cells were increased during breast tumor ...
IL-1 Receptor Blockade Alleviates Graft-versus-Host Disease through Downregulation of an Interleukin-1-Dependent Glycolytic...
... biological response modifiers and the family of cell adhesion-promoting molecules. ... Dependent Glycolytic Pathway in Th17 Cells. Min-Jung Park,1 Seung Hoon Lee,1 Sung-Hee Lee,1 Eun-Jung Lee,1 Eun-Kyung Kim,1 Jong ... A. Cooke, "Th17 cells in inflammatory conditions," The Review of Diabetic Studies, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 72-75, 2006. View at ... M. S. Maddur, P. Miossec, S. V. Kaveri, and J. Bayry, "Th17 cells: biology, pathogenesis of autoimmune and inflammatory ...
Yersinia pseudotuberculosis supports Th17 differentiation and limits de novo regulatory T cell induction by directly...
... pseudotuberculosis can directly modulate T cell receptor (TCR) downstream signaling within naïve CD4(+) T cells and Tregs via ... supports Th17 differentiation and limits de novo regulatory T cell induction by directly interfering with T cell receptor ... supports Th17 differentiation and limits de novo regulatory T cell induction by directly interfering with T cell receptor ... Th17 cells), whereas induction of Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs) was severely disrupted in gut-draining mesenteric lymph ...
Smoking-induced aggravation of experimental arthritis is dependent of aryl hydrocarbon receptor activation in Th17 cells. - The...
... and environmental pollutants with AHR agonist activity can induce arthritis aggravation by directly enhancing Th17 cell ... The transcription factor aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) regulates the generation of Th17 cells, CD4 T cells linked the ... RESULTS: We found that smoking induces arthritis aggravation and increase in the frequencies of Th17 cells. The absence of IL- ... Moreover, in vitro experiments showed that cigarette smoke can directly increase Th17 differentiation of T cells by inducing ...
Th17 Cells: Can Epigenetic Manipulation and Artificial T cell Receptors Make Th17 cells Efficient Immunotherapeutic Anti-Tumor...
Keywords: Th17 cells; Immunotherapeutic effector T cell; T cell receptors; Adaptive immune system; Anti-Tumor Effector T Cells ... Th17 Cells: Can Epigenetic Manipulation and Artificial T cell Receptors Make Th17 cells Efficient Immunotherapeutic Anti-Tumor ... Citation: Alexander M (2016) Th17 Cells: Can Epigenetic Manipulation and Artificial T cell Receptors Make Th17 cells Efficient ... There is a phase where Treg cells start to turn into Th17 cells. This is the key to using Th17 cells as anti-cancer T cells. ...
Brigitta Stockinger - Wikipedia
"The aryl hydrocarbon receptor links TH17-cell-mediated autoimmunity to environmental toxins". Nature. 453 (7191): 106-109. doi: ... Stockinger, B.; Veldhoen, M. (2007). "Differentiation and function of Th17 T cells". Current Opinion in Immunology. 19 (3): 281 ... Stockinger, B; Zal, T; Zal, A; Gray, D (1996). "B cells solicit their own help from T cells". The Journal of Experimental ... Stockingers research has contributed insights into the regulation and maintenance of peripheral T cell immune responses. ...
Th17 Cell Plasticity and Functions in Cancer Immunity
S. Guedan, X. Chen, A. Madar et al., "ICOS-based chimeric antigen receptors program bipolar TH17/TH1 cells," Blood, vol. 124, ... M. A. Munegowda, Y. Deng, S. J. Mulligan, and J. Xiang, "Th17 and Th17-stimulated CD8+ T cells play a distinct role in Th17- ... P. Muranski, Z. A. Borman, S. P. Kerkar et al., "Th17 cells are long lived and retain a stem cell-like molecular signature," ... receptor interactions contribute to the accumulation of Th17 cells in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma," Human ...
Preferential recruitment of CCR6-expressing Th17 cells to inflamed joints via CCL20 in rheumatoid arthritis and its animal...
The orphan nuclear receptor RORgammat directs the differentiation program of proinflammatory IL-17+ T helper cells. Cell. 126: ... indicating that Th17 cells form a T cell lineage distinct from Th1 or Th2 cells (7). To further analyze the roles of Th17 cells ... Th17 cells themselves secrete CCL20 and further recruit other CCR6-expressing Th17 cells to the site of Th17 cell-mediated ... Induction of CCR6 in Th17 cells in vitro. RORγt crucially controls Th17 cell differentiation from naive CD4+ T cells (7). To ...
T cell receptor revision - Wikipedia
T cells or even switch between T cell lineages such as T regulatory cells and Th17 cells or gamma/delta and alpha/beta T cells ... It is not correct since dual receptor T cells do exist in the periphery and the single receptor T cells can modify its ... T cell receptor revision (alternative term: antigen receptor editing) is a process in the peripheral immune system which is ... The current knowledge on antigen receptor editing both in T cells and B cells is far from complete, but it has an essential ...
Frontiers | Critical Role of AdipoR1 in Regulating Th17 Cell Differentiation Through Modulation of HIF-1α-Dependent Glycolysis ...
T cell differentiation into Th17 cells. We describe a novel function of AdipoR1 in regulating Th17 cell differentiation through ... we use a T cell lineage adiponectin receptor 1 (AdipoR1) conditional knockout model to investigate the role of AdipoR1 in Th17 ... T cell differentiation into Th17 cells. We describe a novel AdipoR1 function in regulating Th17 cell differentiation through ... AdipoR1 deficiency inhibited Th17 cell differentiation in vitro and ameliorated joint inflammation in antigen-induced arthritis ...
Optimal induction of T helper 17 cells in humans requires T cell receptor ligation in the context of Toll-like receptor...
Optimal Th17 induction in human CD4+ T cells requires cell contact with activated monocytes. Naïve or memory T cells were ... Optimal induction of T helper 17 cells in humans requires T cell receptor ligation in the context of Toll-like receptor- ... Optimal induction of T helper 17 cells in humans requires T cell receptor ligation in the context of Toll-like receptor- ... Optimal induction of T helper 17 cells in humans requires T cell receptor ligation in the context of Toll-like receptor- ...
JCI - Blocking immunoinhibitory receptor LILRB2 reprograms tumor-associated myeloid cells and promotes antitumor immunity
Gating on CD33+CD14+ cells, we reproduced the finding that A549 non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) cells were sufficient to ... IRF5 promotes inflammatory macrophage polarization and TH1-TH17 responses. Nat Immunol. 2011;12(3):231-238.. View this article ... Tolerization of dendritic cells by T(S) cells: the crucial role of inhibitory receptors ILT3 and ILT4. Nat Immunol. 2002;3(3): ... In B cells, Pirb deficiency results in increased B cell receptor signaling and hyperactivity (6). Pirb-deficient macrophages ...
Article abstract | Medical Science Monitor
CD4+ T cells from the spleen were purified using magnetic cell sorting and activated with anti-CD3 anti-CD28 antibodies. Th17 ... Norepinephrine Inhibits Th17 Cells via β2-Adrenergic Receptor (β2-AR) Signaling in a Mouse Model of Rheumatoid Arthritis. Yan ... Terb also reduced CIA-induced Th17 enhancement, and H-89 impaired the Terb effect.. CONCLUSIONS: NE inhibits Th17 cell ... Keywords: Arthritis, Experimental, CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes, Norepinephrine, Receptors, Adrenergic, Th17 Cells ...
Brunel University Research Archive: Th1/Th17 Cell Induction and Corresponding Reduction in ATP Consumption following...
Regulatory T-Cells;Immune suppression;P2X(7) Receptor;BCG Vaccination;BCG;CD39;Interleukin (IL)-17. ... Th1/Th17 Cell Induction and Corresponding Reduction in ATP Consumption following Vaccination with the Novel Mycobacterium ... and an inverse relationship between IL-17-producing cells and regulatory T cells expressing the ectonucleosidease CD39, which ... Also at this time point, we report a peak in co-production of IL-17 and IFN-c by CD4+ T cells. These results suggest a ...
Effectors of Th1 and Th17 cells act on astrocytes and augment their neuroinflammatory properties | Journal of Neuroinflammation...
Our results demonstrate the delicate interaction between T cell subsets and glial cells and how they communicate to mediate ... However, it is not clear which cells are targets of Th17 effectors in the CNS. To understand the effects driven by Th17 cells ... suggesting that Th17 cells target astrocytes and not microglia. In vitro, in response to supernatants from Th1 and Th17 ... and Th17-treated astrocytes enhanced recruitment of microglia and transendothelial migration of Th17 cells in vitro. ...
Effect of Vitamin A Supplementation on Immune Responses in Human Neonates - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov
... increases the frequency of circulating regulatory T cells (Tregs) expressing gut homing receptors; g). enhances B cell immune ... diminishes Th1 and Th17 reactivity to mycobacterial and recall antigens; d). diminishes the tuberculin skin test (TST) response ... Difference in B cell immune responses after routine vaccination in infant participants [ Time Frame: 6 and 17 weeks ]. Assessed ... Frequency of circulating Tregs expressing gut homing receptors in infant participants. [ Time Frame: 17 week post- ...
InflammationRegulatesTregsMacrophagesInhibited Th17 cell differentiationPresence of Th17 cellsAutoimmunityToll-Like ReceChemokine ReceptorsSignalingInduction of pathogenic TH17 cellsThymocytesSuppressesNeutrophilsMoleculesPathogenic Th1 and Th17 cellsMultiple sclerosisEnhancesAutoimmune diseasesHelper cellsCytokine productionEpithelialInterleukin-17PathogenesisImmune ResponsePredominantlyEffector functionsAgonistsMicroenvironmentDifferentiateInhibits
- M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (M3R) is one of the autoantigens associated with Sjögren's syndrome (SS) and is localized in exocrine glands where disease-specific inflammation occurs. (jci.org)
- In summary, elevated numbers of circulating inflammatory T cells may contribute to cutaneous inflammation and systemic inflammatory disease that occurs in individuals with psoriasis. (nih.gov)
- In recent years, several newly identified T helper (T H ) cell subsets, such as T H 9, T H 17, and T H 22 cells, and their respective cytokine products, IL-9, IL-17, and IL-22, have been reported to play critical roles in the development of chronic inflammation in the colorectum. (frontiersin.org)
- Tumor cell-derived molecules such as cytokines and lipid mediators play a critical role in inducing chronic inflammation in the tumor microenvironment. (jimmunol.org)
- Chronic inflammation has been associated with increased tumor incidence and linked to tumorigenesis of breast cancer, as well as other cancers, probably through recruitment of leukocytes secreting a variety of cytokines, chemokines, and angiogenic factors that promote tumor growth and metastasis involving a complex interaction amid tumor, stroma, and inflammatory cells ( 1 - 3 ). (jimmunol.org)
- Th17 cells secrete a number of cytokines, including IL-17A/F, IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-22, important for inflammation, and have been associated with the pathogenesis of several autoimmune diseases ( 4 ). (jimmunol.org)
- As a signature cytokine secreted by Th17 cells, IL-17 promotes tumor growth and metastasis through angiogenic effects and induction of chronic inflammation ( 6 ). (jimmunol.org)
- A distinct lineage of CD4 T cells regulates tissue inflammation by producing interleukin 17," Nature Immunology , vol. 6, no. 11, pp. 1133-1141, 2005. (hindawi.com)
- IL-23 drives a pathogenic T cell population that induces autoimmune inflammation," The Journal of Experimental Medicine , vol. 201, no. 2, pp. 233-240, 2005. (hindawi.com)
- Aggravation of articular inflammation was assessed by measuring neutrophil migration to the joints, increase in articular hyperalgesia and changes in the frequencies of Th17 cells. (ox.ac.uk)
- Thus, CCR6 is an important functional marker for Th17 cells and contributes to their preferential migration to a particular inflammation site. (rupress.org)
- We previously reported that adiponectin (AD) promotes naïve T cell differentiation into Th17 cells and participates in synovial inflammation and the bone erosion process in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. (frontiersin.org)
- AdipoR1 deficiency inhibited Th17 cell differentiation in vitro and ameliorated joint inflammation in antigen-induced arthritis mice. (frontiersin.org)
- These data demonstrate that SGK1 has a critical role in the induction of pathogenic TH17 cells and provide a molecular insight into a mechanism by which an environmental factor such as a high salt diet triggers TH17 development and promotes tissue inflammation. (broadinstitute.org)
- One of the actions set off by ETBF in the colon is called TH17 inflammation. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
- Podoplanin is a negative regulator of Th17 inflammation. (yale.edu)
- Thus, without IL-17A, this autocrine loop does not happen, causing the Th17 cells to overproduce the other inflammatory cytokines and thereby increase inflammation. (nih.gov)
- Lungs of exposed offspring had greater bronchopulmonary inflammation compared with controls, and activated, virus-specific CD4 + T cells contributed to the infiltrating leukocytes. (physiology.org)
- The adjuvant TLR8 activity in T cells can contribute to viral dissemination in the lymph node and low-grade inflammation in HIV patients. (uio.no)
- Th1 and Th17 cells are known to be cellular mediators of inflammation in autoimmune diseases. (ingentaconnect.com)
- The specific cytokine milieu within the site of inflammation or within secondary lymphatic tissues is important during the priming and effector phases of T cell response. (ingentaconnect.com)
- Inflammation & Allergy - Drug Targets aims to cover all the latest and outstanding developments on the medicinal chemistry, pharmacology, molecular biology, genomics and biochemistry of contemporary molecular targets involved in inflammation and allergy e.g. disease specific proteins, receptors, enzymes, genes. (ingentaconnect.com)
- Thus, AHR regulates both T reg and T H 17 cell differentiation in a ligand-specific fashion, constituting a unique target for therapeutic immunomodulation. (nature.com)
- Prostaglandin E2 regulates Th17 cell differentiation and function through cyclic AMP and EP2/EP4 receptor signaling. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- While enhancing Th17 cytokine expression mainly through EP2, PGE2 differentially regulates interferon (IFN)-gamma production and inhibits production of the antiinflammatory cytokine IL-10 in Th17 cells predominantly through EP4. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- PGE2 up-regulates IL-23R and IL-1R1 expression on cultured human naive CD4 + T cells. (nih.gov)
- The transcription factor aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) regulates the generation of Th17 cells, CD4 T cells linked the development of autoimmune diseases. (ox.ac.uk)
- In the thymus, this receptor regulates positive thymocyte selection (Hare et al. (springer.com)
- This discovery provides a possible mechanism for answering the long-standing question of how the intertwining of the host and gut microbial biology regulates immune cell responses in the gut. (bmj.com)
- Canonical wingless signaling regulates cone cell specification in the Drosophila retina. (biomedsearch.com)
- The CD226/CD155 interaction regulates the proinflammatory (Th1/Th17)/anti-inflammatory (Th2) balance in humans. (yale.edu)
- TLR4 down regulates disease severity in EAE and Th17 cell responses, but promotes Th1 cell responses, which may inhibit the differentiation of Th17 cells. (diva-portal.org)
- Th17, which can be created from naïve T cells and more importantly from Tregs are able to not only survive for extended period in the body, but are also efficient effector T cells. (medcraveonline.com)
- Continued research demonstrated that Th17 cells can be created from Tregs, but are also created in the thymus in a different thymic location from Tregs and conventional ab T cell receptor (TCR) T cell phenotypes . (medcraveonline.com)
- The second and most important reason why Th17 cells are perfect for immunotherapeutic use has to do with the conversion process, which can turn protective Tregs into autoimmune anti-cancer effectors. (medcraveonline.com)
- However, in humans Foxp3 expression is not entirely restricted to Tregs, because it is also expressed in activated CD4 + T cells ( 17 ). (pnas.org)
- The balance between regulatory T cells (Tregs) and effector T help cells (Th cells) is critical for the control of adaptive immune response during nerve transplantation. (medsci.org)
- However, whether the homeostasis of immune regulation between Tregs and Th cells requires toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling is unclear. (medsci.org)
- Knock-out of TLR2 and NF-κB prevented Tregs elimination and inhibited Th1- and Th17-driven immune response after nerve xenografting. (medsci.org)
- CD4 + regulatory T cells (Tregs) expressing FOXP3 play a critical role in the maintenance of immune tolerance during tissue transplantation [ 6 ]. (medsci.org)
- Tregs can regulate and suppress Th cells function mainly by cell-to-cell contact-dependent and antigen-independent mechanisms [ 13 , 14 ]. (medsci.org)
- Therefore, prolonged allograft acceptance requires Tregs, and the balance between Tregs and Th cells is critical for the inhibition of autoimmunity and the magnitude of the adaptive immune response [ 10 , 15 ]. (medsci.org)
- Although some studies reported that patients with SSc have fewer Tregs and more Th17 cells in comparison with those in healthy individuals ( 11-13 ), the role of Tregs in scleroderma remains unclear ( 14 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
- Depletion of either IL-17A or CD4 + T cells was sufficient to block the recruitment of monocyte/macrophages that allowed for effective late pneumococcal clearance. (jci.org)
- Although the role for inflammatory cells including macrophages, lymphocytes, and mast cells in tumor progression is well documented, the details of the cellular and molecular interplay between host and tumor progression remain to be elucidated. (jimmunol.org)
- Expressed on Th1 cells interacts with LGALS9 expressed on Mycobacterium tuberculosis-infected macrophages to stimulate antibactericidal activity including IL-1 beta secretion and to restrict intracellular bacterial growth (By similarity). (uniprot.org)
- Resting circulating leukocytes do not express CD69, but CD69 is induced very early after activation of T and B lymphocytes, NK cells, neutrophiles, macrophages, and eosinophiles. (springer.com)
- Intestinal TNFR2+IL23R+ T cells were activated by IL-23 derived from CD14+ macrophages, which were significantly more present in non-responders prior to anti-TNF treatment. (bmj.com)
- In this study, we show that IL-1β, but not IL-6, is induced by the presence of the microbiota in intestinal macrophages and is required for the induction of sT H 17 cells. (rupress.org)
- It appears that infections increase sodium levels inside the cell, leading the local activation of pro-inflammatory macrophages to combat the intruding pathogen, while limiting it in the rest of the body. (thepaleodiet.com)
Inhibited Th17 cell differentiation1
Presence of Th17 cells3
- As a matter of fact, the presence of Th17 cells has diagnostic value in certain types of cancer . (medcraveonline.com)
- This discovery has led to a revision of the hypothesis that many autoimmune diseases are predominantly a Th1 phenomenon and may instead be critically dependent on the presence of Th17 cells. (pnas.org)
- 4 In human RA, the presence of Th17 cells in the joints and their enrichment in peripheral blood has only recently been confirmed. (bmj.com)
- The aryl hydrocarbon receptor links T H 17-cell-mediated autoimmunity to environmental toxins," Nature , vol. 453, no. 7191, pp. 106-109, 2008. (hindawi.com)
- Th17 cells, despite the fact they can induce autoimmunity, and destroy homeostasis , seem to be the perfect candidates for use as immunotherapeutic tools. (medcraveonline.com)
- miR-146a has emerged as a critical modulator of immune reactions, but its role in regulating autoreactive Th17 cells and organ-specific autoimmunity remains largely unknown. (jci.org)
- The plasticity of human Treg and Th17 cells and its role in autoimmunity. (yale.edu)
- What is the role of toll-like receptors in the pathophysiology of hidradenitis suppurativa (HS)? (medscape.com)
- Toll-like receptors play an integral role in the innate immune response to bacteria. (medscape.com)
- Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is a Th17-mediated autoimmune disease and an animal model for multiple sclerosis (MS). Complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) contains pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) that bind toll-like receptors (TLRs), and is necessary to induce EAE. (diva-portal.org)
- During HIV infection, cell-to-cell transmission results in endosomal uptake of the virus by target CD4+ T cells and potential exposure of the viral ssRNA genome to endosomal Toll-like receptors (TLRs). (uio.no)
- Microbial products such as adjuvants that function as TLR ligands may stimulate the immune system by interacting with Toll-like receptors (TLR) on antigen-presenting cells. (ingentaconnect.com)
- Expression of the Th17 associated chemokine receptors CCR2 and CCR6 was determined by flow cytometric analysis of Th17 (CD4+IL-17+) cells collected from the draining lymph nodes (LN). Conjunctival samples were analyzed via real time PCR to determine expression of the chemokines CCL2 and CCL20. (arvojournals.org)
- To avoid indirect effects and to address the cell-intrinsic role of leptin signaling in the immune system, we conditionally targeted LepR in T cells. (jimmunol.org)
- This study establishes cell-intrinsic roles for LepR signaling in the immune system and suggests that leptin signaling during T cell differentiation plays a crucial role in T cell peripheral effector function. (jimmunol.org)
- In human purified naive T cells, PGE2 acts via prostaglandin receptor EP2- and EP4-mediated signaling and cyclic AMP pathways to up-regulate IL-23 and IL-1 receptor expression. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- Efficient clearance of colonization required TLR2 signaling to generate a population of pneumococcal-specific IL-17-expressing CD4 + T cells. (jci.org)
- Requirement of interleukin 17 receptor signaling for lung CXC chemokine and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor expression, neutrophil recruitment, and host defense," The Journal of Experimental Medicine , vol. 194, no. 4, pp. 519-527, 2001. (hindawi.com)
- These findings shed light to the adjustment of the Th17-Treg axis in response to acute Y. pseudotuberculosis infection and highlight the direct modulation of CD4(+) T cell subsets by altering their TCR downstream signaling. (openrepository.com)
- The strain harbors a recessive mutation of the gene encoding an Src homology 2 domain of ζ-associated protein 70, a key signaling molecule in T cells. (rupress.org)
- NE inhibits Th17 cell differentiation and function in CIA condition by activation of β2-AR/PKA signaling. (medscimonit.com)
- 14556005 ). In CD8+ cells attenuates TCR-induced signaling, specifically by blocking NF-kappaB and NFAT promoter activities resulting in the loss of IL-2 secretion. (uniprot.org)
- 26492563 ). In contrast, shown to activate TCR-induced signaling in T-cells probably implicating ZAP70, LCP2, LCK and FYN (By similarity). (uniprot.org)
- CD69 engages different signaling pathways in different cell types. (springer.com)
- These results suggested that direct signaling by IL-17 to resident CNS cells was neurotoxic in the context of EAE. (jneurosci.org)
- Patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC) were treated in two phase 1 trials with first-generation retroviral transduced CAR-T cells targeting tumor-associated glycoprotein (TAG)-72 and including a CD3-zeta intracellular signaling domain (CART72 cells). (springer.com)
- Dpp signaling directs cell motility and invasiveness during epithelial morphogenesis. (biomedsearch.com)
- Notch- and vitamin D signaling in 1,25(OH)2D3-resistant glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) cell lines. (biomedsearch.com)
- During dorsal closure in Drosophila, signaling events in the dorsalmost row of epidermal cells (DME cells) direct the migration of lateral epidermal sheets towards the dorsal midline where they fuse to enclose the embryo. (biomedsearch.com)
- Initially, the pathogenic mechanism was thought to be based on the upregulation of interferon (IFN)-γ and interleukin (IL)-12, signaling, with both cluster of differentiation (CD)4+ and CD8+ IFN-γ-producing T cells (named Th1 and Tc1 cells, respectively) as key players [ 6 , 7 ]. (mdpi.com)
- B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling in the lymph node microenvironment plays a central role in its pathogenesis and in disease progression. (haematologica.org)
- In the absence of IL-1β-IL-1R or MyD88 signaling, there is a selective reduction in the frequency of intestinal sT H 17 cells and impaired production of IL-17 and IL-22. (rupress.org)
- The process of cells binding a signal they have themselves produced - called autocrine signaling - has been known to happen in other cell types on occasion. (nih.gov)
- Remarkably, up-regulation of both IL-17 expression in the skin and T helper 17 (Th17) cell number in draining lymph nodes after DMBA/TPA treatment was dependent on IFNγ signaling. (aacrjournals.org)
- Immune regulation and cancer immunology, cancer precision medicine, cancer biology, cell signaling in health and disease, drug development, translational medicine and innovation. (uio.no)
- Here we show that synthetic ligands of TLR8 boosted T cell receptor signaling, resulting in increased cytokine production and upregulation of surface activation markers. (uio.no)
- TLR signaling is involved in T cell population regulation during tissue transplantation. (medsci.org)
- This study highlighted the potential of inhibiting TLR signaling to modulate T cell-mediated immune regulation to facilitate tolerance to nerve transplantation. (medsci.org)
Induction of pathogenic TH17 cells2
- The density of CR1 receptors on cell surfaces varies with the cell type and with the activation of the cell for neutrophils and monocytes. (medscape.com)
- A hallmark of Th17 cells is the ability to produce IL-17A, which attracts immune cells called neutrophils that can damage tissue. (nih.gov)
- Usually, the IL-17A signal is picked up by other cells - including retinal tissue cells and neutrophils - that carry the IL-17 receptor. (nih.gov)
- epidermal changes from keratinocyte hyperproliferation and altered differentiation, increased IL-23, immune cell infiltration (T cells, DCs and neutrophils), and altered vascularisation. (criver.com)
- To further analyze the roles of Th17 cells in autoimmune disease, we have searched for cell-surface molecules that are specifically expressed in Th17 cells and are crucial for their functions, such as their migration to inflamed joints in RA. (rupress.org)
- The identification of peptide- and lipid-based regulators of immune cell entry and exit and the structure-function relationship of leukocyte adhesion molecules at atomic resolution have resulted in a refined understanding of how leukocyte subset differentiation modifies migratory ability. (keystonesymposia.org)
Pathogenic Th1 and Th17 cells2
- Due to the complexity of the neuroinflammatory process, there is only little knowledge available on the individual contribution of pathogenic Th1 and Th17 cells in regulating glial cell function in the CNS. (biomedcentral.com)
- However, we made the unexpected discovery that in collagen-induced arthritis (CIA), treatment with anti-TNFα leads to an increase in pathogenic Th1 and Th17 cells. (bmj.com)
- Preferential recruitment of interferon- γ -expressing TH17 cells in multiple sclerosis," Annals of Neurology , vol. 66, no. 3, pp. 390-402, 2009. (hindawi.com)
- Recent studies with animal models have suggested that CD4 + T cells secreting IL-17 (IL-17A), called Th17 cells, may play a key role in the progression of RA as well as multiple sclerosis ( 2 - 6 ). (rupress.org)
- Autoreactive Th1 and Th17 cells are believed to mediate the pathology of multiple sclerosis in the central nervous system (CNS). (biomedcentral.com)
- Autoreactive CD4 T cells that differentiate into pathogenic Th17 cells can trigger autoimmune diseases. (jci.org)
- Defects in the expression of complement or complement receptors may result in loss of tolerance to self-proteins and the development of immune complex-mediated autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). (medscape.com)
- TH17 cells (interleukin-17 (IL-17)-producing helper T cells) are highly proinflammatory cells that are critical for clearing extracellular pathogens and for inducing multiple autoimmune diseases. (broadinstitute.org)
- Interleukin-17-producing T helper cells (Th17) are key players in several autoimmune diseases, particularly in rheumatoid arthritis. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- Animal models of arthritis and other autoimmune diseases originally thought of as Th1-mediated diseases were instrumental in identifying Th17 cells as a pathogenic population after the discovery of IL-23, which shares the p40 subunit with IL-12. (bmj.com)
- E. V. Acosta-Rodriguez, G. Napolitani, A. Lanzavecchia, and F. Sallusto, "Interleukins 1 β and 6 but not transforming growth factor- β are essential for the differentiation of interleukin 17-producing human T helper cells," Nature Immunology , vol. 8, no. 9, pp. 942-949, 2007. (hindawi.com)
- The orphan nuclear receptor ROR γ t directs the differentiation program of proinflammatory IL-17 + T helper cells," Cell , vol. 126, no. 6, pp. 1121-1133, 2006. (hindawi.com)
- Colon cancer seems to stem from an interaction among the microbiome, the immune system and epithelial cells that line the colon. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
- The protein sets off a huge array of actions in the epithelial cells that line the colon. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
- Sears' group is now trying to figure out what the receptor is that enables the protein to interact with epithelial cells. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
- Finding that, she says, "may open our eyes to how cancer begins in the colonic epithelial cells. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
- Cell guidance, cell matching, transitions from passive to migratory epithelia, cell growth and death, and extracellular matrix remodeling all impinge on epithelial spreading. (biomedsearch.com)
- Using adoptive transfers and manipulating the pathogen properties, we determined that developmental exposure influenced factors intrinsic and extrinsic to CD4 + T cells and may involve developmentally induced changes in signals from infected lung epithelial cells. (physiology.org)
- However, inappropriate production of hepcidin has been shown to play a role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus and its complications, based on the regulation and expression in iron-abundant cells. (medworm.com)
- Underexpression of hepcidin results in body iron overload, which triggers the production of reactive oxygen species simultaneously thought to play a major role in diabetes pathogenesis mediated both by β-cell failure and insulin resistance. (medworm.com)
- Importantly, specific deletion of Act1 in astrocytes reduced the severity of tissue injury in this model, indicating the critical role of CNS resident cells in the pathogenesis of cuprizone-induced demyelination. (jneurosci.org)
- 1. A method of enhancing an immune response in a host, comprising administering to the host an A.sub.2a receptor antagonist in combination or alternation with a checkpoint inhibitor. (patents.com)
- Because chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) may have a role in pulmonary immune response, we explored whether patients with severe pandemic (H1N1) 2009 were more likely to carry the CCR5Δ32 allele than were members of the general population. (cdc.gov)
- Until recently, understanding the role of CCR5 in supporting the antiviral immune response was limited to appreciation of the role of receptor deficiency in protecting from HIV infection and disease progression. (cdc.gov)
- This report shows that interleukin (IL) 17-producing T helper type 17 (Th17) cells predominantly express CC chemokine receptor (CCR) 6 in an animal model of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). (rupress.org)
- We show in this report that Th17 cells predominantly express CC chemokine receptor (CCR) 6 and produce its ligand, CCL20. (rupress.org)
- However, now other T cells or T cell phenotypes are sought after because of their advanced effector functions and their ability to survive during the immunotherapy process. (medcraveonline.com)
- Based upon the previous work, our T Cell Metabolism group will use mouse melanoma models to identify the metabolic checkpoints regulating anti-tumor T cell bioenergetics, survival and effector functions. (dkfz.de)
- C-G) Naive CD4 + T cells were activated with anti-CD3/CD28/CD2 beads and cultured for 11 d in the presence or absence of PGE2, dibutyryl-cAMP, or specific EP receptor agonists. (nih.gov)
- This application relates to uses of A.sub.2a adenosine receptor agonists and antagonists to modulate T-cell mediated tolerance to antigenic stimuli. (patents.com)
- 2016) , and has been extended with immune system, receptor agonists, steroidal alkaloid and biomarker information from the same paper. (wikipathways.org)
- Naïve T cells can differentiate into various T helper (Th) cells. (frontiersin.org)
- Murine Th17 cells differentiate from naïve T cell precursors in the presence of TGF-β and IL-6 or IL-21. (pnas.org)
- miR-146a-deficient 2D2 T cells induced more severe EAE and were more prone to differentiate into Th17 cells. (jci.org)