Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, gamma-delta: T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated gamma and delta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4-/CD8- T-cells. The receptors appear to be preferentially located in epithelial sites and probably play a role in the recognition of bacterial antigens. The T-cell receptor gamma/delta chains are separate and not related to the gamma and delta chains which are subunits of CD3 (see ANTIGENS, CD3).Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell: Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.T-Lymphocyte Subsets: A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, alpha-beta: T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Thymus Gland: A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Mice, Inbred BALB CAntigens, CD3: Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).Gene Rearrangement, gamma-Chain T-Cell Antigen Receptor: Ordered rearrangement of T-cell variable gene regions coding for the gamma-chain of antigen receptors.Gene Rearrangement, delta-Chain T-Cell Antigen Receptor: Ordered rearrangement of T-cell variable gene regions coding for the delta-chain of antigen receptors.Mice, Inbred C57BLMice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Clone Cells: A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell: IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte: Antigens expressed on the cell membrane of T-lymphocytes during differentiation, activation, and normal and neoplastic transformation. Their phenotypic characterization is important in differential diagnosis and studies of thymic ontogeny and T-cell function.Gene Rearrangement, T-Lymphocyte: Ordered rearrangement of T-cell variable gene regions coding for the antigen receptors.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Antigens, CD4: 55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.Interleukin-2: A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Antigens, CD8: Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.H-2 Antigens: The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Histocompatibility Antigens Class II: Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Pre-B Cell Receptors: Membrane proteins in precursor B-LYMPHOCYTES (pre-B Cells). They are composed of membrane-bound MU IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS in complex with SURROGATE LIGHT CHAINS instead of conventional IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS. Only successful rearrangement of the VDJ segments, at the Ig heavy chain gene locus (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAIN GENES), will generate mu heavy chains that can pair with surrogate light chains. Thus formation of the pre-B cell receptors is an important checkpoint in the development of mature B cells.Immunologic Memory: The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.Cytotoxicity, Immunologic: The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.Antigens, CD45: High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.HLA Antigens: Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.Histocompatibility Antigens: A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.Antigens, Protozoan: Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.HLA-DR Antigens: A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory: CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.Lymphocyte Count: The number of LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD.T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic: Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte: Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.Gene Rearrangement, beta-Chain T-Cell Antigen Receptor: Ordered rearrangement of T-cell variable gene regions coding for the beta-chain of antigen receptors.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Jurkat Cells: A CELL LINE derived from human T-CELL LEUKEMIA and used to determine the mechanism of differential susceptibility to anti-cancer drugs and radiation.Killer Cells, Natural: Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.Receptor-CD3 Complex, Antigen, T-Cell: Molecule composed of the non-covalent association of the T-cell antigen receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL) with the CD3 complex (ANTIGENS, CD3). This association is required for the surface expression and function of both components. The molecule consists of up to seven chains: either the alpha/beta or gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor, and four or five chains in the CD3 complex.Genes, T-Cell Receptor delta: DNA sequences encoding the delta chain of the T-cell receptor. The delta-chain locus is located entirely within the alpha-chain locus.Histocompatibility Antigens Class I: Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.Antigens, CD28: Costimulatory T-LYMPHOCYTE receptors that have specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN. Activation of this receptor results in increased T-cell proliferation, cytokine production and promotion of T-cell survival.Adoptive Transfer: Form of passive immunization where previously sensitized immunologic agents (cells or serum) are transferred to non-immune recipients. When transfer of cells is used as a therapy for the treatment of neoplasms, it is called adoptive immunotherapy (IMMUNOTHERAPY, ADOPTIVE).Hybridomas: Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.Genes, T-Cell Receptor beta: DNA sequences encoding the beta chain of the T-cell receptor. The genomic organization of the TcR beta genes is essentially the same in all species and is similar to the organization of Ig genes.Immune Tolerance: The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.Major Histocompatibility Complex: The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Antigens, Polyomavirus Transforming: Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.Receptors, Interleukin-2: Receptors present on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and B-LYMPHOCYTES that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-2 and play an important role in LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION. They are heterotrimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT, the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT, and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Antigens, Differentiation: Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.HLA-A2 Antigen: A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.Antigens, Fungal: Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.Ovalbumin: An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.Gene Rearrangement, alpha-Chain T-Cell Antigen Receptor: Ordered rearrangement of T-cell variable gene regions coding for the alpha-chain of antigen receptors.Antigens, Helminth: Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.Complementarity Determining Regions: Three regions (CDR1; CDR2 and CDR3) of amino acid sequence in the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION that are highly divergent. Together the CDRs from the light and heavy immunoglobulin chains form a surface that is complementary to the antigen. These regions are also present in other members of the immunoglobulin superfamily, for example, T-cell receptors (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL).Mice, Inbred C3HLigands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Lectins, C-Type: A class of animal lectins that bind to carbohydrate in a calcium-dependent manner. They share a common carbohydrate-binding domain that is structurally distinct from other classes of lectins.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer: Subpopulation of CD4+ lymphocytes that cooperate with other lymphocytes (either T or B) to initiate a variety of immune functions. For example, helper-inducer T-cells cooperate with B-cells to produce antibodies to thymus-dependent antigens and with other subpopulations of T-cells to initiate a variety of cell-mediated immune functions.Antigens, CD2: Glycoprotein members of the immunoglobulin superfamily which participate in T-cell adhesion and activation. They are expressed on most peripheral T-lymphocytes, natural killer cells, and thymocytes, and function as co-receptors or accessory molecules in the T-cell receptor complex.Autoantigens: Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.Lymphocyte Depletion: Immunosuppression by reduction of circulating lymphocytes or by T-cell depletion of bone marrow. The former may be accomplished in vivo by thoracic duct drainage or administration of antilymphocyte serum. The latter is performed ex vivo on bone marrow before its transplantation.Receptors, Natural Killer Cell: Receptors that are specifically found on the surface of NATURAL KILLER CELLS. They play an important role in regulating the cellular component of INNATE IMMUNITY.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Th1 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Cell SeparationImmunophenotyping: Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.Genes, T-Cell Receptor gamma: DNA sequences encoding the gamma chain of the T-cell receptor. The human gamma-chain locus is organized similarly to the TcR beta-chain locus.Models, Immunological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of immune system, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electrical equipment.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Receptors, Immunologic: Cell surface molecules on cells of the immune system that specifically bind surface molecules or messenger molecules and trigger changes in the behavior of cells. Although these receptors were first identified in the immune system, many have important functions elsewhere.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Carcinoembryonic Antigen: A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Interleukin-4: A soluble factor produced by activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that induces the expression of MHC CLASS II GENES and FC RECEPTORS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and causes their proliferation and differentiation. It also acts on T-lymphocytes, MAST CELLS, and several other hematopoietic lineage cells.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Antigens, CD80: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CD28 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD80 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a costimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Genes, T-Cell Receptor alpha: DNA sequences encoding the alpha chain of the T-cell receptor. The genomic organization of the TcR alpha genes is essentially the same in all species and is similar to the organization of Ig genes.Autoimmunity: Process whereby the immune system reacts against the body's own tissues. Autoimmunity may produce or be caused by AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Isoantigens: Antigens that exist in alternative (allelic) forms in a single species. When an isoantigen is encountered by species members who lack it, an immune response is induced. Typical isoantigens are the BLOOD GROUP ANTIGENS.Listeriosis: Infections with bacteria of the genus LISTERIA.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Antigens, Viral, Tumor: Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.Receptors, Antigen: Molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with specific antigens.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Cytotoxicity Tests, Immunologic: The demonstration of the cytotoxic effect on a target cell of a lymphocyte, a mediator released by a sensitized lymphocyte, an antibody, or complement.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Mice, Inbred DBAMice, Inbred CBAHLA-A Antigens: Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.Antigens, CD95: A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype found in a variety of tissues and on activated LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for FAS LIGAND and plays a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. Multiple isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.Th2 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.Antigens, CD1: Glycoproteins expressed on cortical thymocytes and on some dendritic cells and B-cells. Their structure is similar to that of MHC Class I and their function has been postulated as similar also. CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS.CTLA-4 Antigen: An inhibitory T CELL receptor that is closely related to CD28 ANTIGEN. It has specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN and acts as a negative regulator of peripheral T cell function. CTLA-4 antigen is believed to play role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen: Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.Forkhead Transcription Factors: A subclass of winged helix DNA-binding proteins that share homology with their founding member fork head protein, Drosophila.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Antigen-Presenting Cells: A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Mice, Mutant Strains: Mice bearing mutant genes which are phenotypically expressed in the animals.Mice, Inbred AKRTumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Coculture Techniques: A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.Genes, T-Cell Receptor: DNA sequences, in cells of the T-lymphocyte lineage, that code for T-cell receptors. The TcR genes are formed by somatic rearrangement (see GENE REARRANGEMENT, T-LYMPHOCYTE and its children) of germline gene segments, and resemble Ig genes in their mechanisms of diversity generation and expression.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Antigens, CD5: Glycoproteins expressed on all mature T-cells, thymocytes, and a subset of mature B-cells. Antibodies specific for CD5 can enhance T-cell receptor-mediated T-cell activation. The B-cell-specific molecule CD72 is a natural ligand for CD5. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)Intestinal Mucosa: Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.Antigens, Thy-1: A group of differentiation surface antigens, among the first to be discovered on thymocytes and T-lymphocytes. Originally identified in the mouse, they are also found in other species including humans, and are expressed on brain neurons and other cells.Gamma Rays: Penetrating, high-energy electromagnetic radiation emitted from atomic nuclei during NUCLEAR DECAY. The range of wavelengths of emitted radiation is between 0.1 - 100 pm which overlaps the shorter, more energetic hard X-RAYS wavelengths. The distinction between gamma rays and X-rays is based on their radiation source.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Lymphoid Tissue: Specialized tissues that are components of the lymphatic system. They provide fixed locations within the body where a variety of LYMPHOCYTES can form, mature and multiply. The lymphoid tissues are connected by a network of LYMPHATIC VESSELS.Immunoglobulin Variable Region: That region of the immunoglobulin molecule that varies in its amino acid sequence and composition, and comprises the binding site for a specific antigen. It is located at the N-terminus of the Fab fragment of the immunoglobulin. It includes hypervariable regions (COMPLEMENTARITY DETERMINING REGIONS) and framework regions.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Antigens, CD40: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Receptors, Opioid, delta: A class of opioid receptors recognized by its pharmacological profile. Delta opioid receptors bind endorphins and enkephalins with approximately equal affinity and have less affinity for dynorphins.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic: A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.Lymphocyte Specific Protein Tyrosine Kinase p56(lck): This enzyme is a lymphoid-specific src family tyrosine kinase that is critical for T-cell development and activation. Lck is associated with the cytoplasmic domains of CD4, CD8 and the beta-chain of the IL-2 receptor, and is thought to be involved in the earliest steps of TCR-mediated T-cell activation.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Interleukin-7: A cytokine produced by bone marrow stromal cells that promotes the growth of B-LYMPHOCYTE precursors and is co-mitogenic with INTERLEUKIN-2 for mature T-LYMPHOCYTE activation.Immunodominant Epitopes: Subunits of the antigenic determinant that are most easily recognized by the immune system and thus most influence the specificity of the induced antibody.Lymphocyte Cooperation: T-cell enhancement of the B-cell response to thymic-dependent antigens.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).T-Cell Antigen Receptor Specificity: The property of the T-CELL RECEPTOR which enables it to react with some antigens and not others. The specificity is derived from the structure of the receptor's variable region which has the ability to recognize certain antigens in conjunction with the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX molecule.Clonal Anergy: Functional inactivation of T- or B-lymphocytes rendering them incapable of eliciting an immune response to antigen. This occurs through different mechanisms in the two kinds of lymphocytes and can contribute to SELF TOLERANCE.Immunotherapy, Adoptive: Form of adoptive transfer where cells with antitumor activity are transferred to the tumor-bearing host in order to mediate tumor regression. The lymphoid cells commonly used are lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL). This is usually considered a form of passive immunotherapy. (From DeVita, et al., Cancer, 1993, pp.305-7, 314)Perforin: A calcium-dependent pore-forming protein synthesized in cytolytic LYMPHOCYTES and sequestered in secretory granules. Upon immunological reaction between a cytolytic lymphocyte and a target cell, perforin is released at the plasma membrane and polymerizes into transmembrane tubules (forming pores) which lead to death of a target cell.Lymphopenia: Reduction in the number of lymphocytes.Interleukin-2 Receptor alpha Subunit: A low affinity interleukin-2 receptor subunit that combines with the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN to form a high affinity receptor for INTERLEUKIN-2.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Interleukin-15: Cytokine that stimulates the proliferation of T-LYMPHOCYTES and shares biological activities with IL-2. IL-15 also can induce proliferation and differentiation of B-LYMPHOCYTES.Receptors, Interleukin-7: Cell surface receptors that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-7. They are present on T-LYMPHOCYTES and B-LYMPHOCYTE precursors. The receptors are heterodimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-5 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT and the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR COMMON BETA SUBUNIT.Cell Communication: Any of several ways in which living cells of an organism communicate with one another, whether by direct contact between cells or by means of chemical signals carried by neurotransmitter substances, hormones, and cyclic AMP.Antigens, CD86: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CD28 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD86 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a stimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Mice, SCID: Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Adjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.Prostate-Specific Antigen: A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.Interleukin-10: A cytokine produced by a variety of cell types, including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; DENDRITIC CELLS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS that exerts a variety of effects on immunoregulation and INFLAMMATION. Interleukin-10 combines with itself to form a homodimeric molecule that is the biologically active form of the protein.O Antigens: The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.NK Cell Lectin-Like Receptor Subfamily B: A subclass of NK cell lectin-like receptors that includes both inhibitory and stimulatory members.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Immunoglobulins: Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.Immunity, Innate: The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Antigens, CD1d: A major histocompatibily complex class I-like protein that plays a unique role in the presentation of lipid ANTIGENS to NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS.Antigens, CD79: A component of the B-cell antigen receptor that is involved in B-cell antigen receptor heavy chain transport to the PLASMA MEMBRANE. It is expressed almost exclusively in B-LYMPHOCYTES and serves as a useful marker for B-cell NEOPLASMS.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.H-Y Antigen: A sex-specific cell surface antigen produced by the sex-determining gene of the Y chromosome in mammals. It causes syngeneic grafts from males to females to be rejected and interacts with somatic elements of the embryologic undifferentiated gonad to produce testicular organogenesis.Antigens, CD27: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily found on most T-LYMPHOCYTES. Activation of the receptor by CD70 ANTIGEN results in the increased proliferation of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES and CD8-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Antigens, CD19: Differentiation antigens expressed on B-lymphocytes and B-cell precursors. They are involved in regulation of B-cell proliferation.Hepatitis Delta Virus: A defective virus, containing particles of RNA nucleoprotein in virion-like form, present in patients with acute hepatitis B and chronic hepatitis. It requires the presence of a hepadnavirus for full replication. This is the lone species in the genus Deltavirus.
It contributes the gamma (γ) chain to the larger TCR protein (T-cell receptor). T cell receptors recognize foreign antigens ... If both delta and gamma rearrangements produce functional chains, the cell expresses delta and gamma. If not, the cell proceeds ... In a single cell, the T cell receptor loci are rearranged and expressed in the order delta, gamma, beta, and alpha. ... "Entrez Gene: [email protected] T cell receptor gamma locus". Lefranc MP, Rabbitts TH (Aug 1989). "The human T-cell receptor γ (TRG) genes". ...
T cell receptors come in 4 types, labelled alpha, beta, gamma and delta. In an organism, each of the 6 types of protein, in ... The use of rearranged T cell receptor gamma genes as clonal markers". Journal of immunological methods. 308 (1-2): 1-12. doi: ... or antigen binding tests. Every day, we are exposed to a wide range of disease causing organisms. thus, how well our immune ... 2006) estimated repertoire for TCR gamma genes, in CD8+CD45RO+ memory T cells in blood, as 40,000-100,000 sub-types, in 3 ...
Chauhan SK, Tripathy NK, Sinha N, Nityanand S (2006). "T-cell receptor repertoire of circulating gamma delta T-cells in ... alphabeta and gammadelta T cell receptors". Immunological Reviews. 191: 28-37. doi:10.1034/j.1600-065X.2003.00011.x. PMID ... "Identification and sequence of a fourth human T cell antigen receptor chain". Nature. 330 (6148): 569-72. doi:10.1038/330569a0 ... T cell receptor delta locus". Chien YH, Iwashima M, Kaplan KB, Elliott JF, Davis MM (1987). "A new T-cell receptor gene located ...
... express gamma-delta TCRs (γδ T cells), which recognize non-protein antigens. T cells with functionally stable TCRs express both ... Most cytotoxic T cells express T-cell receptors (TCRs) that can recognize a specific antigen. An antigen is a molecule capable ... some of which are presented by MHC Class I to the T cell antigen receptor (TCR) on CD8+ T cells. The activation of cytotoxic T ... cytolytic T cell, CD8+ T-cell or killer T cell) is a T lymphocyte (a type of white blood cell) that kills cancer cells, cells ...
T cells or even switch between T cell lineages such as T regulatory cells and Th17 cells or gamma/delta and alpha/beta T cells ... T cell receptor revision (alternative term: antigen receptor editing) is a process in the peripheral immune system which is ... used by mature T cells to alter their original antigenic specificity based on rearranged T cell receptors (TCR). This process ... The current knowledge on antigen receptor editing both in T cells and B cells is far from complete, but it has an essential ...
Gamma delta T cells (γδ T cells) represent a small subset of T cells that possess a distinct T cell receptor (TCR) on their ... have invariant T-cell receptors with limited diversity, that can effectively present antigens to other T cells and are ... such as B cells and natural killer cells, by the presence of a T-cell receptor on the cell surface. They are called T cells ... A T cell becomes a CD4+ cell by down-regulating expression of its CD8 cell surface receptors. If the cell does not lose its ...
... and adhesion receptors (CD11a, CD18, CD54). Thus activated Vγ9Vδ2 T cells behave like APCs (γδ T-APC) and present antigens to ... Gamma delta T cells (γδ T cells) are T cells that have a distinctive T-cell receptor (TCR) on their surface. Most T cells are ... gamma delta (γδ) T cells have a TCR that is made up of one γ (gamma) chain and one δ (delta) chain. This group of T cells is ... Naive T cells Memory T cells Helper T cells Cytotoxic T cells Natural killer T cells Innate immune system Adaptive immune ...
T cells, though a minority of T cells express an alternate receptor, formed by variable gamma (γ) and delta (δ) chains, ... The generation of TCR diversity is similar to that for antibodies and B cell antigen receptors. It arises mainly from genetic ... The antigen sensitivity is higher in antigen-experienced T cells than in naive T cells. Naive T cells pass through the process ... On helper T cells and regulatory T cells, this co-receptor is CD4 that is specific for MHC class II. On cytotoxic T cells, this ...
Functions mainly as an antigen receptor on B cells that have not been exposed to antigens.[16] It has been shown to activate ... Possible classes of heavy chains in antibodies include alpha, gamma, delta, epsilon, and mu, and they define the antibody's ... the cell surface is bare around the B cell receptors for several hundred nanometers,[12] which further isolates the BCRs from ... It is part of the B cell receptor (BCR), which allows a B cell to detect when a specific antigen is present in the body and ...
T cells, though a minority of T cells express an alternate receptor, formed by variable gamma (γ) and delta (δ) chains, ... The generation of TCR diversity is similar to that for antibodies and B cell antigen receptors. It arises mainly from genetic ... The antigen sensitivity is higher in antigen-experienced T cells than in naive T cells. Naive T cells pass through the process ... Antigen presentation stimulates T cells to become either "cytotoxic" CD8+ cells or "helper" CD4+ cells. ...
... thymus cell antigen 1 theta (Thy1) - CD3 antigen delta, epsilon and gamma polypeptide (Cd3d,e,g) - interleukin-10 receptor ... Cells infiltrating dermis produce cytokines typical for Th2 polarization especially IL-4 and IL-5. Considering receptors, CCR3 ... CCR4 is receptor typically expressed in lesional skin only. CCR4 is a receptor for TARC. These differences in chemokines and ... Infiltration of these cells leads to higher activation of mast cells. Higher production of certain chemokines, cytokines and ...
Manolios N, Kemp O, Li ZG (1994). "The T cell antigen receptor alpha and beta chains interact via distinct regions with CD3 ... CD3 epsilon/delta and CD3 epsilon/gamma dimers associate indistinctly with both TCR alpha and TCR beta chains. Evidence for a ... 1998). "Two human T cell receptors bind in a similar diagonal mode to the HLA-A2/Tax peptide complex using different TCR amino ... Dyer MJ (1989). "T-cell receptor delta/alpha rearrangements in lymphoid neoplasms". Blood. 74 (3): 1073-83. PMID 2546634. ...
... receptors, antigen, b-cell MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.950.500 - antigens, cd79 MeSH D12.776.377.715.647.100 - alpha- ... Retinoid X receptor beta MeSH D12.776.826.701.500.750 - Retinoid X receptor gamma MeSH D12.776.826.750.074.249 - coup ... immunoglobulin delta-chains MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.114.619.312 - immunoglobulin e MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.114.619.312.500 - ... estrogen receptor alpha MeSH D12.776.826.750.350.262 - estrogen receptor beta MeSH D12.776.826.750.350.350 - receptors, ...
Similarly, scientists at Cellectis recently generated custom T-cells expressing chimeric antigen receptors using TALEN ... In 2011, Sangamo BioSciences (SGMO) introduced the Delta 32 mutation (a suppressor of CCR5 gene which is a co-receptor for HIV- ... by ex vivo gene correction with DNA carrying the interleukin-2 receptor common gamma chain (IL-2Rγ) and the correction of ... a recent report indicated that T cells could be modified to inactivate the glucocorticoid receptor; the resulting immune cells ...
Steinle A, Groh V, Spies T (Oct 1998). "Diversification, expression, and gamma delta T cell recognition of evolutionarily ... "Activation of NK cells and T cells by NKG2D, a receptor for stress-inducible MICA". Science. 285 (5428): 727-9. doi:10.1126/ ... class I specific receptors expressed on human natural killer (NK) cells". Molecular Immunology. 38 (9): 637-60. doi:10.1016/ ... Tissue Antigens. 55 (2): 166-70. doi:10.1034/j.1399-0039.2000.550210.x. PMID 10746790. Cerwenka A, Bakker AB, McClanahan T, ...
Kabelitz D, Wesch D., Features and functions of gamma delta T lymphocytes: focus on chemokines and their receptors. ... Traumatic Injury and the Presence of Antigen Differentially Contribute to T-Cell Recruitment in the CNS, The Journal of ... Regulation of Mu Opioid Receptor Expression in Developing T Cells, J Neuroimmune Pharmacol. detsember 2012; 7(4): 835-842., doi ... Glia maturation factor produced by thymic epithelial cells plays a role in T cell differentiation in the thymic ...
Gamma delta T cells as mediators of mucosal tolerance: the autoimmune diabetes model. „Immunol Rev". 173, s. 109-119, luty 2000 ... Human regulatory T cells rapidly suppress T cell receptor-induced Ca(2+), NF-κB, and NFAT signaling in conventional T cells. „ ... A CD4+ T-cell subset inhibits antigen-specific T-cell responses and prevents colitis. „Nature". 389 (6652), s. 737-742, ... Regulatory T cells selectively express toll-like receptors and are activated by lipopolysaccharide. „J Exp Med". 197 (4), s. ...
Gamma delta T cells (γδ T cells) represent a small subset of T cells that possess a distinct T cell receptor (TCR) on their ... have invariant T-cell receptors with limited diversity, that can effectively present antigens to other T cells[3] and are ... Cytotoxic T cells (TC cells, CTLs, T-killer cells, killer T cells) destroy virus-infected cells and tumor cells, and are also ... such as B cells and natural killer cells, by the presence of a T-cell receptor on the cell surface. They are called T cells ...
Gamma delta T cells (γδ T cells) possess an alternative T-cell receptor (TCR) as opposed to CD4+ and CD8+ (αβ) T cells and ... Helper T cells express T cell receptors (TCR) that recognize antigen bound to Class II MHC molecules. The MHC:antigen complex ... As with B cells, each type of T cell recognizes a different antigen. Killer T cells are activated when their T-cell receptor ( ... Rather, NK cells destroy compromised host cells, such as tumor cells or virus-infected cells, recognizing such cells by a ...
Ig-like domains are involved in a variety of functions, including cell-cell recognition, cell-surface receptors, muscle ... delta, epsilon, gamma and mu, all consisting of a variable domain (VH) and three (in alpha, delta and gamma) or four (in ... C2-set domains are found primarily in the mammalian T-cell surface antigens CD2 (Cluster of Differentiation 2), CD4 and CD80, ... CD4 is the primary receptor for HIV-1. CD4 has four immunoglobulin-like domains in its extracellular region that share the same ...
Gamma delta T cellsEdit. Gamma delta T cells (γδ T cells) represent a small subset of T cells which possess a γδ TCR rather ... cells typically express a large number of self derived pMHC on their cell surface and although the T cell antigen receptor can ... cells. A T cell becomes a CD4+ cell by down-regulating expression of its CD8 cell surface receptors. If the cell does not lose ... Cytotoxic T cells (TC cells, CTLs, T-killer cells, killer T cells) destroy virus-infected cells and tumor cells, and are also ...
"How a Single T Cell Receptor Recognizes Both Self and Foreign MHC". Cell. 129: 135-146. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2007.01.048. Adams, ... Garcia's group used directed evolution to strengthen low-affinity interactions between the receptor Notch1 and ligands Delta- ... is an American scientist renowned for his research on the molecular biology of cell surface receptors. Garcia is a Professor in ... At Stanford University, Garcia has continued to study antigen recognition by both antibodies and TCRs. The Garcia Laboratory ...
... increasing receptor activity and the growth of cancer cells. MUC1 also prevents the interaction of immune cells with receptors ... Ren J, Li Y, Kufe D (May 2002). "Protein kinase C delta regulates function of the DF3/MUC1 carcinoma antigen in beta-catenin ... Li Y, Yu WH, Ren J, Chen W, Huang L, Kharbanda S, Loda M, Kufe D (August 2003). "Heregulin targets gamma-catenin to the ... reticulum cell sarcoma Lung: type II pneumocyte lesions (type II cell hyperplasia, dysplastic type II cells, apical alveolar ...
Kabelitz D, Wesch D., Features and functions of gamma delta T lymphocytes: focus on chemokines and their receptors. ... Autoreactive thymic B cells are efficient antigen-presenting cells of cognate self-antigens for T cell negative selection., 110 ... Isolation of T-lymphocyte lines specific for the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor from thymuses of myasthenic patients., 81. ... Cell-Autonomous Defects in Thymic Epithelial Cells Disrupt Endothelial-Perivascular Cell Interactions in the Mouse Thymus, 4. ...
Gamma delta T cells (γδ T cells) possess an alternative T cell receptor (TCR) as opposed to CD4+ and CD8+ αβ T cells and share ... by directing other cells to perform these tasks. Helper T cells express T cell receptors (TCR) that recognize antigen bound to ... A critical difference between B cells and T cells is how each cell "sees" an antigen. T cells recognize their cognate antigen ... T cells are useless without antigen-presenting cells to activate them, and B cells are crippled without T cell help. On the ...
... s (γδ T cells) are T cells that have a distinctive T-cell receptor (TCR) on their surface. Most T cells are αβ (alpha beta) T cells with TCR composed of two glycoprotein chains called α (alpha) and β (beta) TCR chains. In contrast, gamma delta (γδ) T cells have a TCR that is made up of one γ (gamma) chain and one δ (delta) chain. This group of T cells is usually much less common than αβ T cells, but are at their highest abundance in the gut mucosa, within a population of lymphocytes known as intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs). The antigenic molecules that activate gamma delta T ...
Interleukin-17A is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IL17A gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a proinflammatory cytokine produced by activated T cells. This cytokine regulates the activities of NF-kappaB and mitogen-activated protein kinases. This cytokine can stimulate the expression of IL6 and cyclooxygenase-2 (PTGS2/COX-2), as well as enhance the production of nitric oxide (NO). IL-17A, often referred to as IL-17, was originally discovered at transcriptional level by Rouvier et al. in 1993 from a rodent T-cell hybridoma, derived from the fusion of a mouse cytotoxic T cell clone and a rat T cell lymphoma. Human and mouse IL-17A were cloned a few years later by Yao and Kennedy. Lymphocytes including CD4+, CD8+, gamma-delta T (γδ-T), invariant NKT and innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are primary ...
CD3e molecule, epsilon also known as CD3E is a polypeptide which in humans is encoded by the CD3E gene which resides on chromosome 11. The protein encoded by this gene is the CD3-epsilon polypeptide, which together with CD3-gamma, -delta and -zeta, and the T-cell receptor alpha/beta and gamma/delta heterodimers, forms the T cell receptor-CD3 complex. This complex plays an important role in coupling antigen recognition to several intracellular signal-transduction pathways. The genes encoding the epsilon, gamma and delta polypeptides are located in the same cluster on chromosome 11. The epsilon polypeptide plays an essential role in T-cell development. Defects in this gene cause severe immunodeficiency. This gene has also been ...
... s (γδ T cells) are T cells that have a distinctive T-cell receptor (TCR) on their surface. Most T cells are αβ (alpha beta) T cells with TCR composed of two glycoprotein chains called α (alpha) and β (beta) TCR chains. In contrast, gamma delta (γδ) T cells have a TCR that is made up of one γ (gamma) chain and one δ (delta) chain. This group of T cells is usually much less common than αβ T cells, but are at their highest abundance in the gut mucosa, within a population of lymphocytes known as intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs). The antigenic molecules that activate gamma delta T ...
A cytotoxic T cell (also known as TC, cytotoxic T lymphocyte, CTL, T-killer cell, cytolytic T cell, CD8+ T-cell or killer T cell) is a T lymphocyte (a type of white blood cell) that kills cancer cells, cells that are infected (particularly with viruses), or cells that are damaged in other ways. Most cytotoxic T cells express T-cell receptors (TCRs) that can recognize a specific antigen. An antigen is a molecule capable of stimulating an immune response, and is often produced by cancer cells or viruses. Antigens inside a ...
The TCR is a disulfide-linked membrane-anchored heterodimeric protein normally consisting of the highly variable alpha (α) and beta (β) chains expressed as part of a complex with the invariant CD3 chain molecules. T cells expressing this receptor are referred to as α:β (or αβ) T cells, though a minority of T cells express an alternate receptor, formed by variable gamma (γ) and delta (δ) chains, referred as γδ T cells.[7] Each chain is composed of two extracellular domains: Variable (V) region and a Constant (C) region, both of Immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF) domain forming antiparallel β-sheets. The Constant region is proximal to the cell membrane, followed by a transmembrane region and a short cytoplasmic tail, while the Variable region ...
Activation of CD4+ T cells occurs through the simultaneous engagement of the T-cell receptor and a co-stimulatory molecule (like CD28, or ICOS) on the T cell by the major histocompatibility complex (MHCII) peptide and co-stimulatory molecules on the APC. Both are required for production of an effective immune response; in the absence of co-stimulation, T cell receptor signalling alone results in anergy. The signalling pathways downstream from co-stimulatory molecules usually engages the PI3K pathway generating PIP3 at the plasma membrane and recruiting PH domain containing signaling molecules like PDK1 that are essential for the activation of PKCθ, and eventual IL-2 production. Optimal CD8+ T cell response relies on CD4+ signalling.[33] CD4+ cells are useful in the initial ...
Activation of CD4+ T cells occurs through the simultaneous engagement of the T-cell receptor and a co-stimulatory molecule (like CD28, or ICOS) on the T cell by the major histocompatibility complex (MHCII) peptide and co-stimulatory molecules on the APC. Both are required for production of an effective immune response; in the absence of co-stimulation, T cell receptor signalling alone results in anergy. The signalling pathways downstream from co-stimulatory molecules usually engages the PI3K pathway generating PIP3 at the plasma membrane and recruiting PH domain containing signaling molecules like PDK1 that are essential for the activation of PKC-θ, and eventual IL-2 production. Optimal CD8+ T cell response relies on CD4+ signalling.[33] CD4+ cells are useful in the initial ...
The extracellular IgV-like domain of CD8-α interacts with the α3 portion of the Class I MHC molecule.[5] This affinity keeps the T cell receptor of the cytotoxic T cell and the target cell bound closely together during antigen-specific activation. Cytotoxic T cells with CD8 surface protein are called CD8+ T cells. The main recognition site is a flexible loop at the α3 domain of an MHC molecule. This was discovered by doing mutational analyses. The flexible α3 domain is located between residues 223 and 229 in the genome.[4] In addition to aiding with cytotoxic T cell antigen interactions the CD8 co-receptor also plays a role in T cell signaling. The cytoplasmic tails of the ...
Activation of CD4+ T cells occurs through the simultaneous engagement of the T-cell receptor and a co-stimulatory molecule (like CD28, or ICOS) on the T cell by the major histocompatibility complex (MHCII) peptide and co-stimulatory molecules on the APC. Both are required for production of an effective immune response; in the absence of co-stimulation, T cell receptor signalling alone results in anergy. The signalling pathways downstream from co-stimulatory molecules usually engages the PI3K pathway generating PIP3 at the plasma membrane and recruiting PH domain containing signaling molecules like PDK1 that are essential for the activation of PKCθ, and eventual IL-2 production. Optimal CD8+ T cell response relies on CD4+ signalling.[33] CD4+ cells are useful in the initial ...
... molecule, immunoglobulin-associated beta, also known as CD79B (Cluster of Differentiation 79B), is a human gene. It is associated with agammaglobulinemia-6. The B lymphocyte antigen receptor is a multimeric complex that includes the antigen-specific component, surface immunoglobulin (Ig). Surface Ig non-covalently associates with two other proteins, Ig-alpha and Ig-beta, which are necessary for expression and function of the B-cell antigen receptor. This gene encodes the Ig-beta protein of the B-cell antigen component. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described. Cluster of differentiation GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000007312 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000040592 - Ensembl, May 2017 "Human PubMed Reference:". "Mouse PubMed Reference:". ...
An MHC tetramer assay or simply tetramer assay or tetramer stain is a procedure developed at Stanford University School of Medicine that uses tetrameric proteins to detect and quantify T-cells that are specific for a given antigen within a blood sample. T-cells are part of the cell-mediated immune response and possess one receptor, i.e. T-cell receptor (TCR), and one co-receptor, i.e. either CD4 or CD8. In order for a T-cell to be activated, its CD co-receptor must bind to the appropriate major histocompatibility complex (MHC) on the surface of an antigen presenting cell, while the TCR must bind the peptide being presented on the MHC. T-cells possess variable TCRs that ...
CD4+ T cells provide help to B cells that produce antibodies. Several subsets of activated effector CD4+ T cells are observed in disease pathology. Earlier studies summarized by Sanders and Lynch in 1993 suggested critical roles for FcRs in CD4+ T cell mediated immune responses and proposed the formation of a joint signaling complex among FcRs and TCR on the cell surface.[37][38][39][40] Chauhan and coworkers reported the colocalization of the labeled ICs with the CD3 complex on activated CD4+ T cell surface, which thus suggest the coexistence of FcRs together with TCR complex.[41] Both of these receptors are observed forming an apical structure on the membrane of activated CD4+ T cells, suggesting the lateral movement of these ...
Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, gamma-delta/genetics. *Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, gamma-delta/immunology* ... Characteristics of fetal thymus-derived T cell receptor gamma delta intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes.. Lin T1, Matsuzaki ... Functionally, FTG-derived TCR gamma delta IEL were similar to the TCR gamma delta IEL found in euthymic mice as both were ... However, FTG-derived TCR gamma delta IEL differed slightly from extrathymically derived TCR gamma delta IEL, which were ...
... leucocyte antigen previously considered to be restricted to ruminants. In ruminants the WC1 molecule is expressed by a T-cell ... the WC1 molecule is expressed by a T-cell subpopulation that is CD2-CD4-CD8-CD5+ and that is gamma delta T-cell receptor ... Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, gamma-delta / analysis* * Species Specificity * Spleen / immunology * Swine / immunology* ... is expressed by a gamma delta TcR+ T-cell subpopulation that is also CD2-CD4-CD8-. The p180+ cells are a major T-cell ...
Surface expression of two distinct functional antigen receptors on human gamma delta T cells ... LIFR beta and gp130 as heterodimerizing signal transducers of the tripartite CNTF receptor ... Switch of CD8 T cells to noncytolytic CD8-CD4- cells that make TH2 cytokines and help B cells ... Modulation of cocaine self-administration in the rat through D-3 dopamine receptors ...
Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, gamma-delta. 1. 2010. 326. 0.030. Why? Transplantation, Heterologous. 1. 2014. 2160. 0.020. Why? ... NK Cell Lectin-Like Receptor Subfamily B. 1. 2014. 71. 0.160. Why? ... Nuclear Receptor Subfamily 1, Group F, Member 3. 1. 2012. 106. 0.130. Why? ...
alpha, beta, gamma, and delta T cell antigen receptor genes arose early in vertebrate phylogeny. Immunity 6: 1-11. ... T-cell antigen receptors in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua l.): structure, organisation and expression of TCR alpha and beta genes. ... A large proportion of bovine T cells express the gamma delta T cell receptor and show a distinct tissue distribution and ... Bovine T cell receptor gamma variable and constant genes: combinatorial usage by circulating gammadelta T cells. Immunogenetics ...
1994) Stimulation of human gamma delta T cells by nonpeptidic mycobacterial ligands. Science. 264:267-270, pmid:8146660.. ... 2001) Dendritic-cell function in Toll-like receptor- and MyD88-knockout mice. Trends Immunol. 22:78-83, pmid:11286707.. ... Unlike conventional B and T cells, B-1 B cells, γ/δ T cells, and natural killer T cells express restricted and distinct antigen ... they may express receptors that recognize different microbial antigens. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are ancient receptors that ...
Mouse monoclonal T Cell Receptor antibody [JOVI.1] validated for IP, IHC, Flow Cyt and tested in Human. Referenced in 1 ... T cell antigen receptor complex gamma subunit of T3 antibody. *T cell antigen receptor delta polypeptide antibody ... Two distinct types of T-cell antigen receptors have been identified: the alpha/beta heterodimer found on functional helper and ... and the gamma/delta heterodimer. The latter is first detected approximately 2 days before the appearance of cell-surface alpha/ ...
Limited diversity of gamma delta antigen receptor genes of Thy-1+ dendritic epidermal cells. Cell. 1988;55:837-847. [PubMed] ... The immunobiology of T cells with invariant gamma delta antigen receptors. Annu Rev Immunol. 1991;9:679-705. [PubMed] ... Junctional sequences of T cell receptor gamma delta genes: implications for gamma delta T cell lineages and for a novel ... Thymic selection determines gammadelta T cell effector fate: antigen-naive cells make interleukin-17 and antigen-experienced ...
T-Cell Receptor gamma/genetics*. *Histone Deacetylases/metabolism*. *Histones/metabolism*. *Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, gamma- ... Gene Rearrangement, gamma-Chain T-Cell Antigen Receptor*. *Genes, ... Histone acetylation determines the developmentally regulated accessibility for T cell receptor gamma gene recombination. ... Histone acetylation determines the developmentally regulated accessibility for T cell receptor gamma gene recombination. ...
... cells before immunization on the development of eosinophilic pulmonary inflammation. Animals were immunized and repeatedly ... NK Cell Lectin-Like Receptor Subfamily B. *Ovalbumin/immunology. *Proteins. *Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, gamma-delta ... cells, NK1.1(+) T cells (NKT cells), and gamma/delta T cells, may regulate the development of allergic airway disease. We ... cells, NK1.1(+) T cells (NKT cells), and gamma/delta T cells, may regulate the development of allergic airway disease. We ...
Interleukin 2 (IL-2) and interleukin 7 (IL-7) reciprocally induce IL-7 and IL-2 receptors on gamma delta T-cell receptor- ... Extrathymic origin of intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes bearing T- cell antigen receptor gamma delta. Proc Natl Acad Sci U ... Both gamma/delta T cell receptor-positive and alpha/beta T cell receptor-positive T cells in the G1 phase of cell cycle produce ... Tolerance of T cell receptor gamma/delta cells in the intestine. J Exp Med 1993;177:1755-62.Google Scholar ...
Recognition of self antigens by skin-derived T cells with invariant gamma delta antigen receptors. Science. 252:1430-1432. ... The structure, function, and molecular genetics of the gamma/delta T cell receptor. Annu. Rev. Immunol. 7:175-207. ... The role of short homology repeats and TdT in generation of the invariant gamma delta antigen receptor repertoire in the fetal ... Limited diversity of γδ antigen receptor genes of Thy-1+ dendritic epidermal cells. Cell. 55:837-847. ...
Furthermore, nothing is known about the genomics and evolution of dolphin antigen receptor immunity. Here we report a ... evolutionary and expression study of Tursiops truncatus T cell receptor gamma (TRG) and alpha/delta (TRA/TRD) genes. We have ... and T cell receptor (TR) loci. The only studies of antigen receptors immunity revealed that IgG are present in whales [6, 7] ... T cell receptor gamma locus; TR, T cell receptor; TRA/TRD locus, T cell receptor alpha/delta locus; TRG locus, TRGC, T cell ...
Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, alpha-beta/genetics; Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, gamma-delta/genetics; Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell/* ... We report the occurrence of T cell receptor (TCR) beta and/or gamma gene rearrangements in two precursor B-ALL patients who had ... First study of immunoglobulin and T cell receptor gene rearrangements in chronic and acute lymphoblastic leukemias from Tunisia ... First study of immunoglobulin and T cell receptor gene rearrangements in chronic and acute lymphoblastic leukemias from Tunisia ...
... all of either the alpha-beta or gamma-delta type.. *. The basic structure of a typical T-cell antigen receptor. ... T-cell antigen receptors. Structure of the T-cell receptor. T-cell antigen receptors are found only on the cell membrane. For ... A less common type is the gamma-delta receptor, which contains a different set of chains, one gamma and one delta. A typical T ... B-cell antigen receptors and antibodies. The antigen receptors on B lymphocytes are identical to the binding sites of ...
ζ; CD247; TCRζ CD3ζ is a homodimer-forming type 1 transmembrane (TM) protein and is part of the T cell antigen receptor (TCR) ... Identification of the components of the murine T cell antigen receptor complex. Cell. 1985;43(1):223-31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle ... The CD3 gamma epsilon/delta epsilon signaling module provides normal T cell functions in the absence of the TCR zeta ... Chimeric antigen receptors modified T-cells for cancer therapy. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2016;108(7). https://doi.org/10.1093/jnci/ ...
Antigen recognition determinants of gamma delta T cell receptors. Science 308:252-255PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Human T cell receptor gammadelta cells recognize endogenous mevalonate metabolites in tumor cells. J Exp Med 197:163-168PubMed ... Recognition of nonpeptide antigens by human V gamma 9 V delta 2 T cells requires contact with cells of human origin. Clin Exp ... Adams EJ, Chien YH, Garcia KC (2005) Structure of a gamma delta T cell receptor in complex with the nonclassical MHC T22. ...
... exhaustive information resulting from the complex mechanisms of T cell receptor V-J and V-D-J recombinations. T cells comprise ... loci of B lymphocytes and in the T cell receptor (TR) loci of T lymphocytes. These V-J and V-D-J gene rearrangements at the DNA ... by the nature of the recognized antigens, and by the type of antigen presenting receptors [9-11]. While αβ T cells recognize a ... Table 1 Gamma and delta T cell receptor V-D-J genes. Human Homo sapiens and mouse Mus musculus T cell receptor gamma (TRG) and ...
It contributes the gamma (γ) chain to the larger TCR protein (T-cell receptor). T cell receptors recognize foreign antigens ... If both delta and gamma rearrangements produce functional chains, the cell expresses delta and gamma. If not, the cell proceeds ... In a single cell, the T cell receptor loci are rearranged and expressed in the order delta, gamma, beta, and alpha. ... "Entrez Gene: [email protected] T cell receptor gamma locus". Lefranc MP, Rabbitts TH (Aug 1989). "The human T-cell receptor γ (TRG) genes". ...
T CELL WHICH EXPRESSES A GAMMA-DELTA T CELL RECEPTOR (TCR) AND A CHIMERIC ANTIGEN RECEPTOR (CAR). The present invention ... TREATMENT OF CANCER USING CHIMERIC ANTIGEN RECEPTORS. The invention provides compositions and methods for treating diseases ... provides a T cell which expresses a gamma-delta T cell receptor (TCR) and a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR), wherein the CAR ... MODIFIED GAMMA DELTA T CELLS AND USES THEREOF. The present invention provides composition and methods for the treatment of ...
alpha, beta, gamma, and delta T cell antigen receptor genes arose early in vertebrate phylogeny. Immunity 6: 1-11. ... An architectural perspective on signaling by the pre-, alphabeta and gammadelta T cell receptors. Immunol. Rev. 191: 28-37. ... Characterization of arrangement and expression of the T cell receptor gamma locus in the sandbar shark. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. ... The loci encoding B and T cell Ag receptors are generally distinct in commonly studied mammals, with each receptors gene ...
Natural and synthetic non-peptide antigens recognized by human gamma delta T cells ... Reconstituted killer cell inhibitory receptors for major histocompatibility complex class I molecules control mast cell ... antigen, t-cell, signal transduction, t-cell receptor, t-lymphocytes, zap-70 kinase, hematopoietic cell phosphatase ... T cell antigen receptor (TCR)-γ/δ cells, and a subset of TCR-α/β cells. We studied the functional interaction between TCR-γ/δ ...
While 24-h exposure to NODAL did not impact CD69, PD-1, or T cell antigen receptor (TCR) expression on γδ T cells, long term ... While 24-hour exposure to NODAL did not impact CD69, PD-1 or T cell antigen receptor (TCR) expression on γδ T cells, long term ... γδ T cells were found in close proximity to NODAL-expressing tumor cells. Migration of γδ and αβ T cells was similar toward MDA ... γδ T cells were found in close proximity to NODAL-expressing tumour cells. Migration of γδ and αβ T cells was similar toward ...
Qa-1 restricted recognition of foreign antigen by a gamma/delta T cell hybridoma. Nature 340, 646-650 (1989). ... mouse T-cell receptor, in 86). Likewise, we led the research on molecular cloning of human cytokine receptors important for ... The activation of a target CD4 T cell can be facilitated by helper CD4 T cells when the CD4 T cells interact via an antigen- ... Dendritic cells purified from myeloma are primed with tumor-specific antigen (idiotype) and activate CD4+ T cells. Proc Natl ...
RECOGNITION OF SELF ANTIGENS BY SKIN-DERIVED T-CELLS WITH INVARIANT GAMMA-DELTA-ANTIGEN RECEPTORS SCIENCE Havran, W. L., Chien ... a second CD3-associated T-cell receptor heterodimer, gamma delta, has been described. Cells bearing the gamma delta receptor ... beta or gamma:delta T-cell receptor-CD3 complexes. Surprisingly, the T-cell receptor (TCR) delta coding regions are located ... gamma delta T Cells Recognize a Microbial Encoded B Cell Antigen to Initiate a Rapid Antigen-Specific Interleukin-17 Response ...
  • The earliest contact between antigen and the innate immune system is thought to direct the subsequent antigen-specific T cell response. (nih.gov)
  • We hypothesized that cells of the innate immune system, such as natural killer (NK) cells, NK1.1(+) T cells (NKT cells), and gamma/delta T cells, may regulate the development of allergic airway disease. (nih.gov)
  • These advances warrant a fresh look at how γδ T cells may function in the immune system. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Recent studies have shown that components present in tea could activate the immune system, particularly γδ T cells, which is an important component of both innate and adaptive immune system. (springer.com)
  • Disorders of the immune system fall into two broad categories: (1) those that arise when some aspect of the host's immune mechanism fails to prevent infection (immune deficiencies) and (2) those that occur when the immune response is directed at an inappropriate antigen, such as a noninfectious agent. (britannica.com)
  • T-cells are a major force in the immune system, whether that system is fighting off the common cold or cancer. (cancernetwork.com)
  • Before this, T-cell receptors were a very mysterious part of the immune system. (cancernetwork.com)
  • While the precise role of γδ T cells is unclear, they are known to contribute to both the innate and adaptive arms of the immune system. (biolegend.com)
  • When a substance, termed an antigen, enters the body, and is recognized as foreign, the immune system mounts both an antibody- mediated response and a cell-mediated response. (google.com)
  • Epithelial tissues house γδ T cells, which are important for the mucosal immune system and may be involved in controlling malignancies, infections and inflammation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • With advances in the field, the number of haploidentical stem cell transplants being performed (ie, using human leukocyte antigen [HLA] half-matched donor stem cells) has been increasing. (ascopost.com)
  • it is also known as the human leukocyte antigen system. (coursehero.com)
  • The p180+ cells are a major T-cell subpopulation comprising approximately 40% of the peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 6-9-month-old pigs. (nih.gov)
  • Not only is encountering ligand in the thymus not required for γδ T cells to mature and exit to the periphery, but antigen naïve γδ T cells appear to constitute a large fraction of the peripheral repertoire. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • In a phase I clinical trial testing γδ T cell agonist Zoledronate in combination with IL-2 in advanced metastatic breast cancer patients, a significant positive correlation between peripheral γδ T cell numbers and clinical outcome was observed ( 23 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Description: The IP26 monoclonal antibody reacts with the alpha beta chain of human TCR.The alpha beta TCR is expressed by the majority of peripheral T cells. (fishersci.com)
  • Applications Tested: This IP26 antibody has been pre-titrated and tested by flow cytometric analysis of human peripheral blood cells. (fishersci.com)
  • It precipitates a CD3-associated heterodimer of Mr 90-kDa (two bands of Mr 40-kDa and 50-kDa upon reduction) on chicken peripheral blood T cells. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are ancient receptors that are highly conserved from Drosophila to humans and recognize molecular patterns specific to microbial pathogens ( 15 )( 16 )( 17 )( 18 )( 19 ). (rupress.org)
  • Here we investigated the characteristics of these FTG-derived TCR gamma delta IEL and compared them to the extrathymically derived TCR gamma delta IEL found in nude mice. (nih.gov)
  • Natural killer cells determine development of allergen-induced eosinophilic airway inflammation in mice. (nih.gov)
  • Moreover, systemic allergen-specific immunoglobulin (Ig)E and IgG2a levels and the number of IL-4 and interferon gamma-producing splenic cells were diminished in mice depleted of NK1.1(+) cells before the priming regime. (nih.gov)
  • CD1d1 mutant mice, deficient in NKT cells but with normal NK cells, developed lung tissue eosinophilia and allergen-specific IgE levels not different from those observed in wild-type mice. (nih.gov)
  • Mice deficient in gamma/delta T cells showed a mild attenuation of lung tissue eosinophilia in this model. (nih.gov)
  • Corresponding mice depleted of NK1.1+ cells exhibited a few scattered eosinophilic infiltrates only (b), or a complete absence of pulmonary inflammation (not shown). (nih.gov)
  • In contrast, corresponding mice depleted of NK1.1+ cells (groups 8 and 10) showed a clearly inhibited eosinophilia in lung tissue (Fig. 1, a and b). (nih.gov)
  • Impaired spatial memory in mice lacking CD3ζ is associated with altered NMDA and AMPA receptors signaling independent of T-cell deficiency. (springer.com)
  • These results led us to directly assess their role in regulating the development of colitis secondary to transfer of primary splenic TCRαβ + CD4 + CD45RB hi T cells into severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice. (rupress.org)
  • We demonstrate that monoclonal, self specific TCRαβ + CD4 − CD8α + β − cells derived from TCR transgenic mice also prevent the onset of colitis. (rupress.org)
  • Cattle are considered a "γδ T cell high" species indicating they have an increased proportion of γδ T cells in circulation relative to that in "γδ T cell low" species such as humans and mice. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This influence is allele specific and cell autonomous, as evidenced by the different behavior of Vgamma1/Vdelta4 cells bearing either parental allele in F(1) mice. (jove.com)
  • Here we report that adult TCRbeta knockout (KO) mice that lack alphabeta but have gammadelta T cells remain tumor-free after PyV infection, whereas TCRbeta x delta KO mice that lack all T cells develop tumors. (umassmed.edu)
  • In addition, E26 mice, which lack NK and T cells, develop the tumors earlier than TCRbeta x delta KO mice. (umassmed.edu)
  • In mice you can produce knock-out or genetically engineered T cells, but that is an extremely laborous and costly process. (biology-online.org)
  • gammadelta T cell development was either normal in CD3delta-/- mice or partially blocked in CD3gamma-/- mice. (ox.ac.uk)
  • In contrast to mice deficient in either CD3gamma or CD3delta chains, early thymic development mediated by pre-TCR is completely blocked, and TCR-alphabeta+ or TCR-gammadelta+ T cells were absent in the CD3gammadelta-/- mice. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Further studies demonstrated that systemic delivery of tumor-specific T cells to mice bearing metastatic tumors caused recruitment of nonspecific T cells to the tumor site. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Maturation of γδ T cells was not significantly influenced by NODAL stimulation. (frontiersin.org)
  • Dr. June spoke about recent research on future strategies to manipulate CAR T cells, including different targets, multiple targets in one CAR T-cell product, B-cell maturation antigen-specific CAR T cells in multiple myeloma, and other approaches. (ascopost.com)
  • Differentiated CD4+ T cells secrete cytokines that have both autocrine and paracrine functions, including recruitment and activation of phagocytes, and stimulation of B cell isotype class switching and affinity maturation. (asmscience.org)
  • Cytotoxic T-cells. (ebscohost.com)
  • Background Large granular lymphocyte leukemia is a semi-autonomous clonal proliferation of cytotoxic T cells accompanied by immune cytopenias and various autoimmune conditions. (haematologica.org)
  • Invariant γδ T cells such as DETCs are thought to recognize predictable self-ligands, which are up-regulated by cell stress such as that associated with wounding or tumorigenesis ( 9 - 11 ). (rupress.org)
  • Castriconi R, Dondero A, Negri F, Bellora F, Nozza P, Carnemolla B, Raso A, Moretta L, Moretta A, Bottino C (2007) Both CD133(+) and CD133(−) medulloblastoma cell lines express ligands for triggering NK receptors and are susceptible to NK-mediated cytotoxicity. (springer.com)
  • Expression of p180 identifies the majority of the CD2-CD4-CD8- T cells in porcine blood. (nih.gov)
  • Finally, in situ hybridization experiments demonstrate a conservation of both α/β and γ/δ T cell localization in the thymus across 450 million years of vertebrate evolution, with γ/δ TCR expression especially high in the subcapsular region. (jimmunol.org)
  • Expression of T-cell receptors TcRI (gamma/delta) and TcR2 (alpha/beta) in the human intestinal mucosa. (springer.com)
  • Transfection of targeted ES cell clones with a Cre expression plasmid yielded clones in which only the neo cassette was deleted (242KI allele), or the entire segment contained Vγ4-Vγ2-neo (Δ43 allele). (rupress.org)
  • While 24-h exposure to NODAL did not impact CD69, PD-1, or T cell antigen receptor (TCR) expression on γδ T cells, long term exposure resulted in decreased Vδ2 TCR expression. (frontiersin.org)
  • Results demonstrated that PPARa directly inhibited Glut1 (show SLC2A1 ELISA Kits ) mRNA expression resulting in influx of glucose in cancer cells. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Multiple bacterium-directed mechanisms, including altered antigen expression and bioavailability and interference with antigen-presenting cell activation and function, combine to modify Salmonella's "pathogenic signature" in order to minimize its susceptibility to host immune surveillance. (asmscience.org)
  • This ensured that proviral transgene expression would only occur in transduced cells with CEA promoter activity. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In contrast, reconstitution with either TCRγδ + or TCRαβ + CD4 − CD8α + β + intestinal T cells did not prevent colitis. (rupress.org)
  • TCRαβ + CD4 − 8α + β − T cells are unique to the intestinal epithelium of both rodents and humans. (rupress.org)
  • Thus, intestinal TCRαβ + CD4 − CD8α + β − T cells, selected based on their self-reactivity, maintain gut integrity in a IL-10-dependent fashion. (rupress.org)
  • There is general consensus that inflammation of the intestinal mucosa results from a dysregulated response of CD4 + TCRαβ + T cells, resident within the intestinal lamina propria, to environmental antigen(s), in genetically susceptible individuals ( 1 ). (rupress.org)
  • These data demonstrate that histone acetylation functionally determines the chromatin accessibility for V(D)J recombination in vivo and that an epigenetic modification of chromatin plays a direct role in executing a developmental switch in cell fate determination. (nih.gov)
  • For example, at MD Anderson, we are using ex vivo expanded NK cells to try to achieve remission in patients with advanced refractory acute myeloid leukemia [AML] and take them to transplant. (ascopost.com)
  • Also, we are giving ex vivo expanded NK cells early after transplant to prevent relapse in patients with high-risk myeloid malignancies," Dr. Ciurea continued. (ascopost.com)
  • We aim to develop safe polymer-based nanocarriers with narrow size distribution, high drug loading capacity and in vivo stability to transport small molecular anti-cancer drugs to cancer cells and cancer stem cells that are responsible for tumor relapse and metastasis. (a-star.edu.sg)