KB Cells: This line KB is now known to be a subline of the ubiquitous KERATIN-forming tumor cell line HeLa. It was originally thought to be derived from an epidermal carcinoma of the mouth, but was subsequently found, based on isoenzyme analysis, HeLa marker chromosomes, and DNA fingerprinting, to have been established via contamination by HELA CELLS. The cells are positive for keratin by immunoperoxidase staining. KB cells have been reported to contain human papillomavirus18 (HPV-18) sequences.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Folate Receptors, GPI-Anchored: Cell surface receptors that bind to and transport FOLIC ACID, 5-methyltetrahydrofolate, and a variety of folic acid derivatives. The receptors are essential for normal NEURAL TUBE development and transport folic acid via receptor-mediated endocytosis.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Mouth Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the MOUTH.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Bromodeoxyuridine: A nucleoside that substitutes for thymidine in DNA and thus acts as an antimetabolite. It causes breaks in chromosomes and has been proposed as an antiviral and antineoplastic agent. It has been given orphan drug status for use in the treatment of primary brain tumors.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.ThymidinePhosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen: Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Mice, Inbred C57BLTransfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Ki-67 Antigen: A CELL CYCLE and tumor growth marker which can be readily detected using IMMUNOCYTOCHEMISTRY methods. Ki-67 is a nuclear antigen present only in the nuclei of cycling cells.Adenoviruses, Human: Species of the genus MASTADENOVIRUS, causing a wide range of diseases in humans. Infections are mostly asymptomatic, but can be associated with diseases of the respiratory, ocular, and gastrointestinal systems. Serotypes (named with Arabic numbers) have been grouped into species designated Human adenovirus A-F.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Carcinoma: A malignant neoplasm made up of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate the surrounding tissues and give rise to metastases. It is a histological type of neoplasm but is often wrongly used as a synonym for "cancer." (From Dorland, 27th ed)Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Cell Growth Processes: Processes required for CELL ENLARGEMENT and CELL PROLIFERATION.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Mice, Nude: Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Cyclin D1: Protein encoded by the bcl-1 gene which plays a critical role in regulating the cell cycle. Overexpression of cyclin D1 is the result of bcl-1 rearrangement, a t(11;14) translocation, and is implicated in various neoplasms.Stem Cells: Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Cell Transformation, Neoplastic: Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt: A protein-serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION in response to GROWTH FACTORS or INSULIN. It plays a major role in cell metabolism, growth, and survival as a core component of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Three isoforms have been described in mammalian cells.Muscle, Smooth, Vascular: The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.Cell Count: The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27: A cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor that coordinates the activation of CYCLIN and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES during the CELL CYCLE. It interacts with active CYCLIN D complexed to CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 4 in proliferating cells, while in arrested cells it binds and inhibits CYCLIN E complexed to CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 2.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Mice, Inbred BALB CEpidermal Growth Factor: A 6-kDa polypeptide growth factor initially discovered in mouse submaxillary glands. Human epidermal growth factor was originally isolated from urine based on its ability to inhibit gastric secretion and called urogastrone. Epidermal growth factor exerts a wide variety of biological effects including the promotion of proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal and EPITHELIAL CELLS. It is synthesized as a transmembrane protein which can be cleaved to release a soluble active form.Receptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Cell Cycle Proteins: Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Hyperplasia: An increase in the number of cells in a tissue or organ without tumor formation. It differs from HYPERTROPHY, which is an increase in bulk without an increase in the number of cells.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Adenoviridae: A family of non-enveloped viruses infecting mammals (MASTADENOVIRUS) and birds (AVIADENOVIRUS) or both (ATADENOVIRUS). Infections may be asymptomatic or result in a variety of diseases.Growth Inhibitors: Endogenous or exogenous substances which inhibit the normal growth of human and animal cells or micro-organisms, as distinguished from those affecting plant growth (= PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS).Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases: A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that is widely expressed and plays a role in regulation of MEIOSIS; MITOSIS; and post mitotic functions in differentiated cells. The extracellular signal regulated MAP kinases are regulated by a broad variety of CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS and can be activated by certain CARCINOGENS.Proto-Oncogene Proteins: Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.Myocytes, Smooth Muscle: Non-striated, elongated, spindle-shaped cells found lining the digestive tract, uterus, and blood vessels. They are derived from specialized myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SMOOTH MUSCLE).Gene Knockdown Techniques: The artificial induction of GENE SILENCING by the use of RNA INTERFERENCE to reduce the expression of a specific gene. It includes the use of DOUBLE-STRANDED RNA, such as SMALL INTERFERING RNA and RNA containing HAIRPIN LOOP SEQUENCE, and ANTI-SENSE OLIGONUCLEOTIDES.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-myc: Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-myc genes. They are normally involved in nucleic acid metabolism and in mediating the cellular response to growth factors. Elevated and deregulated (constitutive) expression of c-myc proteins can cause tumorigenesis.Mitogens: Substances that stimulate mitosis and lymphocyte transformation. They include not only substances associated with LECTINS, but also substances from streptococci (associated with streptolysin S) and from strains of alpha-toxin-producing staphylococci. (Stedman, 25th ed)Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21: A cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor that mediates TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P53-dependent CELL CYCLE arrest. p21 interacts with a range of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES and associates with PROLIFERATING CELL NUCLEAR ANTIGEN and CASPASE 3.Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Neoplasm Proteins: Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.MAP Kinase Signaling System: An intracellular signaling system involving the MAP kinase cascades (three-membered protein kinase cascades). Various upstream activators, which act in response to extracellular stimuli, trigger the cascades by activating the first member of a cascade, MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKKs). Activated MAPKKKs phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES which in turn phosphorylate the MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs). The MAPKs then act on various downstream targets to affect gene expression. In mammals, there are several distinct MAP kinase pathways including the ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) pathway, the SAPK/JNK (stress-activated protein kinase/c-jun kinase) pathway, and the p38 kinase pathway. There is some sharing of components among the pathways depending on which stimulus originates activation of the cascade.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 3: A 44-kDa extracellular signal-regulated MAP kinase that may play a role the initiation and regulation of MEIOSIS; MITOSIS; and postmitotic functions in differentiated cells. It phosphorylates a number of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS; and MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS.G1 Phase: The period of the CELL CYCLE preceding DNA REPLICATION in S PHASE. Subphases of G1 include "competence" (to respond to growth factors), G1a (entry into G1), G1b (progression), and G1c (assembly). Progression through the G1 subphases is effected by limiting growth factors, nutrients, or inhibitors.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Culture Techniques: Methods of maintaining or growing biological materials in controlled laboratory conditions. These include the cultures of CELLS; TISSUES; organs; or embryo in vitro. Both animal and plant tissues may be cultured by a variety of methods. Cultures may derive from normal or abnormal tissues, and consist of a single cell type or mixed cell types.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 1: A proline-directed serine/threonine protein kinase which mediates signal transduction from the cell surface to the nucleus. Activation of the enzyme by phosphorylation leads to its translocation into the nucleus where it acts upon specific transcription factors. p40 MAPK and p41 MAPK are isoforms.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Platelet-Derived Growth Factor: Mitogenic peptide growth hormone carried in the alpha-granules of platelets. It is released when platelets adhere to traumatized tissues. Connective tissue cells near the traumatized region respond by initiating the process of replication.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Fibroblast Growth Factor 2: A single-chain polypeptide growth factor that plays a significant role in the process of WOUND HEALING and is a potent inducer of PHYSIOLOGIC ANGIOGENESIS. Several different forms of the human protein exist ranging from 18-24 kDa in size due to the use of alternative start sites within the fgf-2 gene. It has a 55 percent amino acid residue identity to FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 1 and has potent heparin-binding activity. The growth factor is an extremely potent inducer of DNA synthesis in a variety of cell types from mesoderm and neuroectoderm lineages. It was originally named basic fibroblast growth factor based upon its chemical properties and to distinguish it from acidic fibroblast growth factor (FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 1).Growth Substances: Signal molecules that are involved in the control of cell growth and differentiation.Transforming Growth Factor beta: A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.DNA Replication: The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor: A cell surface receptor involved in regulation of cell growth and differentiation. It is specific for EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR and EGF-related peptides including TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR ALPHA; AMPHIREGULIN; and HEPARIN-BINDING EGF-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR. The binding of ligand to the receptor causes activation of its intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity and rapid internalization of the receptor-ligand complex into the cell.Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases: Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.Arecoline: An alkaloid obtained from the betel nut (Areca catechu), fruit of a palm tree. It is an agonist at both muscarinic and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. It is used in the form of various salts as a ganglionic stimulant, a parasympathomimetic, and a vermifuge, especially in veterinary practice. It has been used as a euphoriant in the Pacific Islands.Interleukin-2: A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.Neovascularization, Pathologic: A pathologic process consisting of the proliferation of blood vessels in abnormal tissues or in abnormal positions.S Phase: Phase of the CELL CYCLE following G1 and preceding G2 when the entire DNA content of the nucleus is replicated. It is achieved by bidirectional replication at multiple sites along each chromosome.Folic Acid: A member of the vitamin B family that stimulates the hematopoietic system. It is present in the liver and kidney and is found in mushrooms, spinach, yeast, green leaves, and grasses (POACEAE). Folic acid is used in the treatment and prevention of folate deficiencies and megaloblastic anemia.Drug Resistance: Diminished or failed response of an organism, disease or tissue to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should be differentiated from DRUG TOLERANCE which is the progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, as a result of continued administration.Tumor Suppressor Proteins: Proteins that are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. Deficiencies or abnormalities in these proteins may lead to unregulated cell growth and tumor development.Tumor Suppressor Protein p53: Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.Mitosis: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A superfamily of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that are activated by diverse stimuli via protein kinase cascades. They are the final components of the cascades, activated by phosphorylation by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES, which in turn are activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES).Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Mitotic Index: An expression of the number of mitoses found in a stated number of cells.Cyclins: A large family of regulatory proteins that function as accessory subunits to a variety of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES. They generally function as ENZYME ACTIVATORS that drive the CELL CYCLE through transitions between phases. A subset of cyclins may also function as transcriptional regulators.Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.Endothelial Cells: Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.In Situ Nick-End Labeling: An in situ method for detecting areas of DNA which are nicked during APOPTOSIS. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase is used to add labeled dUTP, in a template-independent manner, to the 3 prime OH ends of either single- or double-stranded DNA. The terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase nick end labeling, or TUNEL, assay labels apoptosis on a single-cell level, making it more sensitive than agarose gel electrophoresis for analysis of DNA FRAGMENTATION.MicroRNAs: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs, 21-25 nucleotides in length generated from single-stranded microRNA gene transcripts by the same RIBONUCLEASE III, Dicer, that produces small interfering RNAs (RNA, SMALL INTERFERING). They become part of the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX and repress the translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) of target RNA by binding to homologous 3'UTR region as an imperfect match. The small temporal RNAs (stRNAs), let-7 and lin-4, from C. elegans, are the first 2 miRNAs discovered, and are from a class of miRNAs involved in developmental timing.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.beta Catenin: A multi-functional catenin that participates in CELL ADHESION and nuclear signaling. Beta catenin binds CADHERINS and helps link their cytoplasmic tails to the ACTIN in the CYTOSKELETON via ALPHA CATENIN. It also serves as a transcriptional co-activator and downstream component of WNT PROTEIN-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS.Retinoblastoma Protein: Product of the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor gene. It is a nuclear phosphoprotein hypothesized to normally act as an inhibitor of cell proliferation. Rb protein is absent in retinoblastoma cell lines. It also has been shown to form complexes with the adenovirus E1A protein, the SV40 T antigen, and the human papilloma virus E7 protein.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Carcinoma, Squamous Cell: A carcinoma derived from stratified SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. It may also occur in sites where glandular or columnar epithelium is normally present. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Neoplasm Invasiveness: Ability of neoplasms to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Endothelium, Vascular: Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays: In vivo methods of screening investigative anticancer drugs, biologic response modifiers or radiotherapies. Human tumor tissue or cells are transplanted into mice or rats followed by tumor treatment regimens. A variety of outcomes are monitored to assess antitumor effectiveness.Wound Healing: Restoration of integrity to traumatized tissue.Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A: The original member of the family of endothelial cell growth factors referred to as VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTORS. Vascular endothelial growth factor-A was originally isolated from tumor cells and referred to as "tumor angiogenesis factor" and "vascular permeability factor". Although expressed at high levels in certain tumor-derived cells it is produced by a wide variety of cell types. In addition to stimulating vascular growth and vascular permeability it may play a role in stimulating VASODILATION via NITRIC OXIDE-dependent pathways. Alternative splicing of the mRNA for vascular endothelial growth factor A results in several isoforms of the protein being produced.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction: Methods used for detecting the amplified DNA products from the polymerase chain reaction as they accumulate instead of at the end of the reaction.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.NIH 3T3 Cells: A continuous cell line of high contact-inhibition established from NIH Swiss mouse embryo cultures. The cells are useful for DNA transfection and transformation studies. (From ATCC [Internet]. Virginia: American Type Culture Collection; c2002 [cited 2002 Sept 26]. Available from http://www.atcc.org/)Epithelium: One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.Cell Cycle Checkpoints: Regulatory signaling systems that control the progression through the CELL CYCLE. They ensure that the cell has completed, in the correct order and without mistakes, all the processes required to replicate the GENOME and CYTOPLASM, and divide them equally between two daughter cells. If cells sense they have not completed these processes or that the environment does not have the nutrients and growth hormones in place to proceed, then the cells are restrained (or "arrested") until the processes are completed and growth conditions are suitable.Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Regeneration: The physiological renewal, repair, or replacement of tissue.Neurogenesis: Formation of NEURONS which involves the differentiation and division of STEM CELLS in which one or both of the daughter cells become neurons.Cell Culture Techniques: Methods for maintaining or growing CELLS in vitro.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Oligonucleotides, Antisense: Short fragments of DNA or RNA that are used to alter the function of target RNAs or DNAs to which they hybridize.Gene Silencing: Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.Colonic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON.Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor: Methods of investigating the effectiveness of anticancer cytotoxic drugs and biologic inhibitors. These include in vitro cell-kill models and cytostatic dye exclusion tests as well as in vivo measurement of tumor growth parameters in laboratory animals.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Cell Line, Transformed: Eukaryotic cell line obtained in a quiescent or stationary phase which undergoes conversion to a state of unregulated growth in culture, resembling an in vitro tumor. It occurs spontaneously or through interaction with viruses, oncogenes, radiation, or drugs/chemicals.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.TritiumRats, Inbred F344Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Transplantation, Heterologous: Transplantation between animals of different species.Prostatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE.Homeodomain Proteins: Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).Coculture Techniques: A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.STAT3 Transcription Factor: A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to INTERLEUKIN-6 family members. STAT3 is constitutively activated in a variety of TUMORS and is a major downstream transducer for the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR GP130.Insulin-Like Growth Factor I: A well-characterized basic peptide believed to be secreted by the liver and to circulate in the blood. It has growth-regulating, insulin-like, and mitogenic activities. This growth factor has a major, but not absolute, dependence on GROWTH HORMONE. It is believed to be mainly active in adults in contrast to INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR II, which is a major fetal growth factor.Neoplasm Transplantation: Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.Carcinogens: Substances that increase the risk of NEOPLASMS in humans or animals. Both genotoxic chemicals, which affect DNA directly, and nongenotoxic chemicals, which induce neoplasms by other mechanism, are included.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.G1 Phase Cell Cycle Checkpoints: Regulatory signaling systems that control the progression of the CELL CYCLE through the G1 PHASE and allow transition to S PHASE when the cells are ready to undergo DNA REPLICATION. DNA DAMAGE, or the deficiencies in specific cellular components or nutrients may cause the cells to halt before progressing through G1 phase.TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases: A serine threonine kinase that controls a wide range of growth-related cellular processes. The protein is referred to as the target of RAPAMYCIN due to the discovery that SIROLIMUS (commonly known as rapamycin) forms an inhibitory complex with TACROLIMUS BINDING PROTEIN 1A that blocks the action of its enzymatic activity.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Cyclin-Dependent Kinases: Protein kinases that control cell cycle progression in all eukaryotes and require physical association with CYCLINS to achieve full enzymatic activity. Cyclin-dependent kinases are regulated by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation events.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.G0 Phase: A quiescent state of cells during G1 PHASE.Repressor Proteins: Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.Cyclin E: A 50-kDa protein that complexes with CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 2 in the late G1 phase of the cell cycle.Neovascularization, Physiologic: The development of new BLOOD VESSELS during the restoration of BLOOD CIRCULATION during the healing process.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Keratinocytes: Epidermal cells which synthesize keratin and undergo characteristic changes as they move upward from the basal layers of the epidermis to the cornified (horny) layer of the skin. Successive stages of differentiation of the keratinocytes forming the epidermal layers are basal cell, spinous or prickle cell, and the granular cell.Hypoxanthines: Purine bases related to hypoxanthine, an intermediate product of uric acid synthesis and a breakdown product of adenine catabolism.Drug Synergism: The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.Estradiol: The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.Cell Death: The termination of the cell's ability to carry out vital functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, responsiveness, and adaptability.Intestinal Mucosa: Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.Drug Resistance, Neoplasm: Resistance or diminished response of a neoplasm to an antineoplastic agent in humans, animals, or cell or tissue cultures.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic: Agents obtained from higher plants that have demonstrable cytostatic or antineoplastic activity.Zingiberaceae: A plant family of the order Zingiberales, subclass Zingiberidae, class Liliopsida. It includes plants which have both flavoring and medicinal properties such as GINGER; turmeric (CURCUMA), and cardamom (ELETTARIA).RNA, Neoplasm: RNA present in neoplastic tissue.Culture Media, Serum-Free: CULTURE MEDIA free of serum proteins but including the minimal essential substances required for cell growth. This type of medium avoids the presence of extraneous substances that may affect cell proliferation or unwanted activation of cells.Bone Marrow Cells: Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Neural Stem Cells: Self-renewing cells that generate the main phenotypes of the nervous system in both the embryo and adult. Neural stem cells are precursors to both NEURONS and NEUROGLIA.Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Protein Kinase Inhibitors: Agents that inhibit PROTEIN KINASES.
Butyrate plays an important role within cells as it affects cellular proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. Because of ... The crystallized form has a radius of 7.5 nm which corresponded to a molecular weight of 380kDa. Because a monomer of buk2 is ... One study specifically identified the transcription factor NF-kB as a target of butyrate to decrease the number of pro- ... cancer by switching its role concerning cellular proliferation and apoptosis depending on the state and conditions of the cell ...
The pathway regulates the proliferation, differentiation, and death of cells. Signals are transduced by the cell-surface ... The gene is approximately 16 kb long. It includes 15 exons which make up a transcript with a length of 11.5 kb. DmX has a ... Rabconnectin-3A forms a stable complex with rabconnectin-3B. The rabconnectin-3 complex is involved in regulating Notch ... Notch signalling is an important pathway involved in cell-cell communication. ...
Caspase-8 is involved in the initiation of the cell death signal cascade. Cell death counters proliferation of lymphocytes, ... and their B cells, T cells, and NK cells do not activate well to stimuli. Given the rarity of this condition, the prognosis and ... Moreover, the biochemical form of caspase-8 differed in the two pathways. For the death pathway, the caspase-8 zymogen is ... CEDS is caused by homozygous mutations in caspase-8. Caspase-8 is a 51 kb gene with 13 exons encoding for a 496 amino acid ...
When phorbol esters bind to PKC, cell proliferation pathways are activated. This effect greatly promotes tumors when the cells ... Phorbol, in the form of croton oil, is also in folk medicine as a purgative, counter irritant, or anthelmintic. Merck Index, ... Protein kinase C is also involved in activation of inflammation pathways such as the NF-KB pathway. Thus, exposure to phorbol ... TPA, together with ionomycin, can also be used to stimulate T-cell activation, proliferation, and cytokine production, and is ...
During their proliferation phase, Schwann cells begin to form a line of cells called Bands of Bungner within the basal laminar ... Axons have been observed to regenerate in close association to these cells. Schwann cells upregulate the production of cell ... The Wlds mutation is an autosomal-dominant mutation occurring in the mouse chromosome 4. The gene mutation is an 85-kb tandem ... that non-myelinated or myelinated Schwann cells in contact with an injured axon enter cell cycle thus leading to proliferation ...
The capsid is formed of the L1 and L2 structural proteins, with the L1 C-terminus exposed. All BPVs have a circular double- ... Human papillomavirus DNA has been detected in around 18% of squamous cell carcinomas of the oesophagus, and there is an ... Like all members of the papillomavirus class, these viruses infect only keratinocytes (epithelial cells); however, unlike other ... stranded DNA genome of 7.3-8.0 kb. The genetic organisation of those BPVs which have been sequenced is broadly similar to other ...
Mir-19 microRNA precursor family
CYLD and NF-kB form a regulatory feedforward loop, which provides new clues for sustained activation of NF-kB in T-cell acute ... results in severe developmental defects with enhanced proliferation and inhibition of differentiation of epithelial cells. ... B-cell lymphomas * Cell lines * Cerebellum * Purkinje cells * HeLa cells Finally they have tissues-specific miRNA expression. ... This indicates that miRNA control of NF-kB signaling repressors thanks to its relief. Some important regulators of NF-kB ...
... in prostatic stromal and epithelial cells: CYR61 is required for prostatic cell proliferation". Prostate. 61 (4): 305-317. doi: ... D'Antonio KB, Toubaji A, Albadine R, Mondul AM, Platz EA, Netto GJ, Getzenberg RH (2010). "Extracellular matrix associated ... and many different forms of cancers. CYR61 was first identified as a protein encoded by a serum-inducible gene in mouse ... CYR61 is able to support cell adhesion, stimulate cell migration, promote growth factor-induced cell proliferation and ...
... including cell proliferation and cell death. After LT-β receptor activation, IKK-α, β, and γ are produced, which increases ... a novel member of the TNF family that forms a heteromeric complex with lymphotoxin on the cell surface". Cell. 72 (6): 847-56. ... Activation of LT-β receptors is capable of inducing cell death of cancerous cells and suppressing tumor growth. The process of ... degradation of I-κB, an inhibitor or NF-kB, and produce NF-kB1 (p50) and ReIA (p60). The production of NF-kB1 and ReIA ...
Jun dimerization protein
and cell proliferation, and commit to cell cycle arrest because of AP-1 repression. TransgenicJDP2 mice display atrial dilation ... This iPSC-like cells expressed stem cell-like characteristics including alkaline phosphatase activity and some stem cell ... The JDP2 gene is located on human chromosome 14q24.3 (46.4 kb, 75,427,715 bp to 75,474,111 bp) and mouse chromosome 12 (39 kb, ... JDP2 forms a homodimer or heterodimer with c-Jun, JUNB, JUND, Fra2, ATF2. and acts as a general repressor. On the other hand, ...
LTC4 exits its cells of origin through the MRP1 transporter (ABCC1) and is rapidly converted to LTD4 and then to LTE4) by cell ... promote the proliferation of these ALOX5 aberrantly expressing tumor cell lines suggesting that ALOX5 acts as a pro-malignancy ... They form later than the ALOX5-derived chemotactic factors in the inflammatory response and are thought to limit or resolve ... In one study, however, human brain tumors were shown to express three mRNA splice variants (2.7, 3.1, and 6.4 kb) in addition ...
Several previous studies showed Klf9-related regulation of animal development, including cell differentiation of B cells, ... Klf9 is also a key transcriptional regulator for uterine endometrial cell proliferation, adhesion, and differentiation, all ... Regions around 10 kb upstream and 1 kb downstream of Klf9 transcription start site contain conserved antioxidant response ... When Klf9 was knocked out in these mice, not as much fibrotic lung tissue was formed. Because of this finding, the researchers ...
Long non-coding RNA
"Divergent lncRNAs Regulate Gene Expression and Lineage Differentiation in Pluripotent Cells". Cell Stem Cell. 18 (5): 637-652. ... analyses that compare tumor cells and normal cells have revealed changes in the expression of ncRNAs in several forms of cancer ... is correlated with increased proliferation and colony formation suggesting an involvement in regulating cell growth. MALAT1 ( ... Additionally, it was proposed to classify intergenic RNA domains of at least 50 kb in length as "very long intergenic non- ...
PPAR alpha fails to induce peroxisome proliferation-associated genes in human cells independently of the level of receptor ... Cell Genet. 52 (3-4): 147-50. doi:10.1159/000132865. PMID 2630187. Bout A, Franse MM, Collins J, Blonden L, Tager JM, Benne R ( ... 1999). "Characterization of a 1200-kb genomic segment of chromosome 3p22-p21.3". DNA Res. 6 (1): 37-44. doi:10.1093/dnares/6.1. ... Implication in the milder forms of peroxisome biogenesis disorder". J. Biol. Chem. 275 (47): 37271-7. doi:10.1074/jbc. ...
This knowledge would ultimately help in the understanding of the machinery behind gene regulation, cell proliferation, and ... Then, the cells are lysed and the DNA is sheared by sonication or using micrococcal nuclease. This results in double-stranded ... chunks of DNA fragments, normally 1 kb or less in length. Those that were cross-linked to the POI form a POI-DNA complex. In ... V.R. Iyer, C.E. Horak, C.S. Scafe, D. Botstein, M. Snyder, P.O. Brown, Genomic binding sites of the yeast cell-cycle ...
... inducing T-cell proliferation and production of monokines (e.g. tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin 1, interleukin 6), and ... The physical map of the T12 genome was found to be circular with a total length of 36.0kb. The phage genome is reported to ... UV light stresses lysogenic bacteria, leading the phages to propagate and burst the host bacterial cells. In the case of T12, ... Titers of plaques can be found by diluting the samples and counting plaque-forming units (PFUs). Biochemical tests such as ...
... epithelial cell proliferation both in response to estrogen alone and in the presence of progesterone and estrogen. These ... In humans, PR is encoded by a single PGR gene residing on chromosome 11q22, it has two main forms, PR-A and PR-B, that differ ... Richer JK, Lange CA, Wierman AM, Brooks KM, Tung L, Takimoto GS, Horwitz KB (April 1998). "Progesterone receptor variants found ... is a protein found inside cells. It is activated by the steroid hormone progesterone. ...
... plays an important role in cell cycle regulation by decelerating cells progression from G1 phase to S phase, and therefore ... Increased expression of the p16 gene as organisms age reduces the proliferation of stem cells. This reduction in the division ... It has been suggested that this process is responsible for the development of various forms of cancer serving as an alternative ... The remaining transcript includes an alternate exon 1 located 20 kb upstream of the remainder of the gene; this transcript ...
The natural form that occurs in plants is (R)-(−)-cicutoxin, but when cicutoxin is synthesized it is racemic mixture. There are ... The toxin inhibits the proliferation of the lymphocytes . This has made it a substance of interest in research for a medicine ... This study showed that a methanolic extract of C. maculate gave a significant cytotoxicity in the 9 KB (human nasopharyngeal ... This causes hyperactivity in cells, which leads to seizures. There also have been some studies that suggest that cicutoxin ...
... is widely used by eukaryotic cells as a regulator of genes that control cell proliferation and cell survival. As such, ... In fact IFRD1 forms trimolecular complexes with p65 and HDAC3. The NAD+-dependent protein deacetylase and longevity factor ... SIRT1 inhibits NF-κB gene expression by deacetylating the RelA/p65 subunit of NF-kB at lysine 310. A select set of cell- ... Moreover, suppression of NF-κB limits the proliferation of cancer cells. In addition, NF-κB is a key player in the inflammatory ...
... product of the c-cbl protooncogene is the 120-kDa tyrosine-phosphorylated protein in Jurkat cells activated via the T cell ... "Multiple forms of an inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase form signaling complexes with Shc and Grb2". Current Biology. 6 (4): ... Morrison KB, Tognon CE, Garnett MJ, Deal C, Sorensen PH (Aug 2002). "ETV6-NTRK3 transformation requires insulin-like growth ... Grb2 function impairs developmental processes in various organisms and blocks transformation and proliferation of various cell ...
TRIM 14 is localized in both the cytoplasm and the cell nucleus. TRIM14 acts in cell proliferation, differentiation, ... Hence, TRIM14 (Pub) is likely associated with the regulation of development of the immune cells. TRIM14 transfected HEK293 cell ... They are ifna, il6 (ifnb2), isg15, raf-1, NF-kB (nf-kb1, rela, nf-kb2, relb), grb2, grb3-3, traf3ip2, junB, c-myb, pu.1, akt1, ... and TRIM33 associate to form regulatory complexes that suppress murine hepatocellular carcinoma". Proceedings of the National ...
... a diverse calcium-binding family that regulate fundamental cellular and extracellular processes including cell proliferation ... In the dermis, koebnerisin (S100A15) is produced by dendritic cells, smooth muscle cells, endothelial cells, as well as ... 0.5 kb vs. hS100A15-long (L): 4.4 kb). Both splice variants are differently regulated in inflammatory skin diseases suggesting ... during primate evolution forming a novel S100 subfamily together with Psoriasin (S100A7). Therefore, koebnerisin is almost ...
Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor
T cells, mast cells, natural killer cells, endothelial cells and fibroblasts that functions as a cytokine. The pharmaceutical ... Hansen PJ, Dobbs KB, Denicol AC (Sep 2014). "Programming of the preimplantation embryo by the embryokine colony stimulating ... GM-CSF is a monomeric glycoprotein that functions as a cytokine - it is a white blood cell growth factor. GM-CSF stimulates ... Human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor is glycosylated in its mature form. GM-CSF is manufactured using ...
"Nuclear FAK promotes cell proliferation and survival through FERM-enhanced p53 degradation". Molecular Cell. 29 (1): 9-22. doi: ... This gene encodes a cytosolic protein tyrosine kinase that is found concentrated in the focal adhesions that form among cells ... Dunn KB, Heffler M, Golubovskaya VM (December 2010). "Evolving therapies and FAK inhibitors for the treatment of cancer". Anti- ... Haier J, Nicolson GL (February 2002). "PTEN regulates tumor cell adhesion of colon carcinoma cells under dynamic conditions of ...
... the extension of blood cell-forming cells to sites outside of the bone marrow. ... These effects appear to result directly from the over-proliferation of abnormal platelet precursor cells. ... Cheng Y, Wu W, Kumar SA, Yu D, Deng W, Tripic T, King DC, Chen KB, Zhang Y, Drautz D, Giardine B, Schuster SC, Miller W, ... cell-cell signaling. • embryonic hemopoiesis. • cell development. • positive regulation of erythrocyte differentiation. • ...
Hyaluronan is thought to be involved in cell proliferation, migration and differentiation. Varying functions have been ... 1999). "Expression profile of hyaluronidase mRNA transcripts in the kidney and in renal cells". Kidney Blood Press. Res. 21 (6 ... Lerman MI, Minna JD (2000). "The 630-kb lung cancer homozygous deletion region on human chromosome 3p21.3: identification and ... Fiszer-Szafarz B, Litynska A, Zou L (2000). "Human hyaluronidases: electrophoretic multiple forms in somatic tissues and body ...
It is responsible for moving cells toward the inner cell mass in developing blastocysts. CARM1 plays an important role in ... thereby suppressing cell proliferation and colony formation. histone-arginine N-methyltransferase coactivator-associated ... Wang L, Zhao Z, Meyer MB, Saha S, Yu M, Guo A, Wisinski KB, Huang W, Cai W, Pike JW, Yuan M, Ahlquist P, Xu W (Jul 2016). " ... of a methyl group from S-adenosyl-L-methionine to the side chain nitrogens of arginine residues within proteins to form ...
... cell death, and cell proliferation. IKK-α has been shown to function in epidermal differentiation independently of the NF-κB ... IKK-α is a member of the serine/threonine protein kinase family and forms a complex in the cell with IKK-β and NEMO. NF-κB ... Instead, the outermost cells in these embryos are hyperproliferative and fail to turn on critical epidermal genes. Different ... Marcu KB (May 1995). "CHUK, a conserved helix-loop-helix ubiquitous kinase, maps to human chromosome 10 and mouse chromosome 19 ...
regulation of epithelial cell proliferation. • progesterone receptor signaling pathway. • tertiary branching involved in ... Richer JK, Lange CA, Wierman AM, Brooks KM, Tung L, Takimoto GS, Horwitz KB (April 1998). "Progesterone receptor variants found ... Gadkar-Sable S, Shah C, Rosario G, Sachdeva G, Puri C (2005). "Progesterone receptors: various forms and functions in ... is a protein found inside cells. It is activated by the steroid hormone progesterone. ...
... forms cytoplasmic bridges between cells that appear to be used for transfer of DNA from one cell to another in either direction ... "Cell proliferation at 122°C and isotopically heavy CH4 production by a hyperthermophilic methanogen under high-pressure ... Teske A; Sørensen KB (January 2008). "Uncultured archaea in deep marine subsurface sediments: have we caught them all?". ISME J ... In euryarchaea the cell division protein FtsZ, which forms a contracting ring around the cell, and the components of the septum ...
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor
"Trk signaling regulates neural precursor cell proliferation and differentiation during cortical development". Development. 134 ... BDNF itself is important for long-term memory. Although the vast majority of neurons in the mammalian brain are formed ... BDNF binds at least two receptors on the surface of cells that are capable of responding to this growth factor, TrkB ( ... at the PDBe-KB. ... cell-cell signaling. • positive regulation of brain-derived ...
Targeting double-stranded breaks increases the probability that cells will undergo cell death. Cancer cells are generally less ... "Targeted intraoperative radiotherapy impairs the stimulation of breast cancer cell proliferation and invasion caused by ... More recently other forms of imaging are used including MRI, PET, SPECT and Ultrasound. ... Baldock C, De Deene Y, Doran S, Ibbott G, Jirasek A, Lepage M, McAuley KB, Oldham M, Schreiner LJ (2010). "Polymer gel ...
سرطان پروستات - ویکیپدیا، دانشنامهٔ آزاد
The proliferation of LNCaP cells is androgen-dependent but the proliferation of PC-3 and DU-145 cells is androgen-insensitive. ... lo Prostate Cancer Cell Population Harbors Self-Renewing Long-Term Tumor-Propagating Cells that Resist Castration". Cell Stem ... Over time, these cancer cells begin to multiply and spread to the surrounding prostate tissue (the stroma) forming a tumor. ... Thomas G, Jacobs KB, Yeager M, Kraft P, Wacholder S, Orr N, Yu K, Chatterjee N, Welch R, Hutchinson A, Crenshaw A, Cancel- ...
... and some other cells) following infection by virus(es). This cytokine induces cell proliferation of natural killer cells; cells ... Later it was shown that IL-15 also exists as a membrane-bound form which represents the major form of IL-15 protein. In ... IL-15 is 14-15 kDa glycoprotein encoded by the 34 kb region of chromosome 4q31 in humans, and at the central region of ... natural killer cell differentiation. • positive regulation of natural killer cell proliferation. • cell-cell signaling. • ...
ALOX5 exists primarily in the cytoplasm and nucleoplasm of cells. Upon cell stimulation, ALOX5: a) may be phosphorylated on ... "5-Oxo-ETE analogs and the proliferation of cancer cells". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. 1736 (3): 228-36. doi:10.1016/j.bbalip ... to form 5(S)-hydroperoxy-6E,8Z,11Z,14Z-eicosatetraenoic acid (i.e. 5S-HpETE). The 5S-HpETE intermediate may then be released ... The ALOX5 gene, which occupies 71.9 kilobase pairs (kb) on chromosome 10 (all other human lipoxygenases are clustered together ...
... proliferation, and differentiation via activation of intracellular signaling cascades that control cell function, such as Erk, ... "GPER mediates estrogen-induced signaling and proliferation in human breast epithelial cells and normal and malignant breast". ... Lundin KB, Henningson M, Hietala M, Ingvar C, Rose C, Jernström H (2011). "Androgen receptor genotypes predict response to ... Calcitriol, the hormonally active form of vitamin D, acting through the vitamin D receptor (VDR), has, like the androgens, been ...
"Cell. 138 (3): 514-24. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2009.05.028. PMC 4764080. PMID 19665973.. ... Mol CD, Lim KB, Sridhar V, Zou H, Chien EY, Sang BC, Nowakowski J, Kassel DB, Cronin CN, McRee DE (Aug 2003). "Structure of a c ... C O P E , Cytokines & Cells Online Pathfinder Encyclopedia, April 2012 *^ Bakkenist CJ, Kastan MB (Jan 2003). "DNA damage ... 1. The src kinase is kept in an inactive form through the binding of SH2 to a phosphotyrosine ...
Factor de necrose tumoral alfa, a enciclopedia libre
Kriegler M, Perez C, DeFay K, Albert I, Lu SD (1988). "A novel form of TNF/cachectin is a cell surface cytotoxic transmembrane ... O xene humano que codifica o TNFα, denominado TNFA foi clonado en 1985. Foi mapado no 6p21.3, e abrangue uns 3 kb e contén ... Gaur U, Aggarwal BB (2003). "Regulation of proliferation, survival and apoptosis by members of the TNF superfamily". Biochem. ... "A metalloproteinase disintegrin that releases tumour-necrosis factor-alpha from cells". Nature 385 (6618): 729-33. Bibcode: ...
... cell death) of lymphocytes further worsens the immunosuppression. Neutrophils, monocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells, CD4+ T ... Niven DJ, Laupland KB, et al. (December 2013). "Diagnosis and management of temperature abnormality in ICUs: A EUROBACT ... Inhalational anesthetics can reduce the level of proinflammatory cytokines, altering leukocyte adhesion and proliferation, ... or long-term care following the initial hospitalization were more likely to be readmitted than those discharged to another form ...
The progression from normal cells to cells that can form a detectable mass to outright cancer involves multiple steps known as ... Some hormones play a role in the development of cancer by promoting cell proliferation. Insulin-like growth factors and ... Anand P, Kunnumakkara AB, Sundaram C, Harikumar KB, Tharakan ST, Lai OS, Sung B, Aggarwal BB (September 2008). "Cancer is a ... In order for a normal cell to transform into a cancer cell, the genes that regulate cell growth and differentiation must be ...
Epidermal growth factor
positive regulation of cell proliferation. • positive regulation of peptidyl-tyrosine phosphorylation. • positive regulation of ... Stimulate growth of mesenchymal cells, promotes wound healing 3 Transforming growth factor (Alpha) Epithelial cell Similar to ... Fallon JH, Seroogy KB, Loughlin SE, Morrison RS, Bradshaw RA, Knaver DJ, Cunningham DD (June 1984). "Epidermal growth factor ... This sequence contains six cysteine residues that form three intramolecular disulfide bonds. Disulfide bond formation generates ...
cell surface. • mitochondrial matrix. • nucleolus. • cytoplasm. • membrane. • mitochondrion. • cell nucleus. • extracellular ... Ghebrehiwet B, Lim BL, Peerschke EI, Willis AC, Reid KB (June 1994). "Isolation, cDNA cloning, and overexpression of a 33-kD ... The individual subunits are held together by noncovalent interactions and forms a doughnut shaped quaternary structure with a ... has been shown to selectively bind to C1QBP in tumour expressing cells. ...
cell proliferation. • extracellular matrix disassembly. • extracellular matrix organization. • blood circulation. • respiratory ... The human ELN gene is a 45 kb segment on chromosome 7, and has 34 exons interrupted by almost 700 introns, with the first exon ... The encoded protein is rich in hydrophobic amino acids such as glycine and proline, which form mobile hydrophobic regions ... Bertram C, Hass R (Oct 2009). "Cellular senescence of human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) is associated with an altered MMP-7 ...
negative regulation of cell proliferation. • SMAD protein signal transduction. • regulation of receptor activity. • negative ... GDF11 induces tumor suppressive properties in human hepatocellular carcinoma-derived cells, Huh7 and Hep3B cell lines, ... "GDF11 forms a bone morphogenetic protein 1-activated latent complex that can modulate nerve growth factor-induced ... at the PDBe-KB. ... Effects on cell growth and differentiation. GDF11 belongs ...
Sato H, Hagiwara H, Ohde Y, Senba H, Virgona N, Yano T (March 2007). "Regulation of renal cell carcinoma cell proliferation, ... proteins that assemble to form gap junction channels that facilitate the transfer of ions and small molecules between cells. ... cell-cell signaling. • cell communication. • protein oligomerization. • transmembrane transport. • nervous system development. ... In normal circumstances this protein is located in the cell membrane of Schwann cells and oligodendrocytes, specialised cells ...
... maculata demonstrated significant cytotoxicity in the 9 KB (human nasopharyngeal carcinoma) cell structure assay. Cicutoxin ... Cicutoxin has been shown to have anti-leukemia properties as it inhibits the proliferation of the lymphocytes. It has ... When THP is removed and a hydrogen is bound to the oxygen, then (R)-(-)-cicutoxin is formed. These four steps are the full ... This causes hyperactivity in cells, which leads to seizures.. There also have been some studies that suggest that cicutoxin ...
... chromosomally distinct episomes in cancer cells, where the viruses express oncogenes that promote cancer cell proliferation. In ... Some forms of gene therapy require the insertion of therapeutic genes at pre-selected chromosomal target sites within the human ... Large linear fragments (over 20 kb or so) migrate at a certain fixed rate regardless of length. This is because the molecules ' ... Daughter cells that retain a copy of the plasmid survive, while a daughter cell that fails to inherit the plasmid dies or ...
Aktivin - Wikipédia
1986) „Pituitary FSH is released by a heterodimer of the beta-subunits from the two forms of inhibin". Nature 321 (6072), 779- ... 2010) „Activin a plays a critical role in proliferation and differentiation of human adipose progenitors". Diabetes 59 (10), ... október 1.) „Stimulation of Sertoli cell inhibin secretion by the testicular paracrine factor PModS". Molecular and Cellular ... szeptember 1.) „Activin controls skin morphogenesis and wound repair predominantly via stromal cells and in a concentration- ...
Faktor nekroze tumora-alfa - Википедија, слободна енциклопедија
Kriegler M, Perez C, DeFay K, Albert I, Lu SD (1988). „A novel form of TNF/cachectin is a cell surface cytotoxic transmembrane ... Ljudski TNF gen (TNFA) je bio kloniran 1985. On se nalazi na hromozomu 6p21.3, sadrži oko 3 kb i ima 4 eksona. Zadnji ekson ... Gaur U, Aggarwal BB (2003). „Regulation of proliferation, survival and apoptosis by members of the TNF superfamily". Biochem. ... A metalloproteinase disintegrin that releases tumour-necrosis factor-alpha from cells". Nature. 385 (6618): 729-33. PMID ...
... inadequate oxygenation results in tubular epithelial cell injury (of the cells lining the kidney tubules), and thus causes ... Niven DJ, Laupland KB, Tabah A, Vesin A, Rello J, Koulenti D, Dimopoulos G, de Waele J, Timsit JF (December 2013). "Diagnosis ... Inhalational anesthetics can reduce the level of proinflammatory cytokines, altering leukocyte adhesion and proliferation, ... or long term care following the initial hospitalization were more likely to be readmitted than those discharged to another form ...
... is overexpressed in cells of the H460 cell line. XIAPs bind to the processed form of caspase-9, and suppress the activity of ... Brüne B, von Knethen A, Sandau KB (October 1999). "Nitric oxide (NO): an effector of apoptosis". Cell Death and Differentiation ... It was originally believed that the associated accumulation of cells was due to an increase in cellular proliferation, but it ... HeLa cells are an immortalized cancer cell line used frequently in research. The cell line was established by removing cells ...
positive regulation of cell proliferation in bone marrow. • positive regulation of osteoclast proliferation. • response to drug ... Parathyroid cells express calcium-sensing receptors on the cell surface. PTH is secreted when [Ca2+] is decreased (calcitonin ... converting vitamin D to its active form (1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D). This activated form of vitamin D increases the absorption ... Overview of all the structural information available in the PDB for UniProt: P01270 (Parathyroid hormone) at the PDBe-KB. ...
K. Kobayashi u. a.: Expression of a murine homologue of the inhibitor of apoptosis protein is related to cell proliferation. In ... H. Yamamoto u. a.: Cancer cells survive with survivin. In: Cancer Sci 99, 2008, S. 1709-1714, PMID 18537980 (Review). ... Das für die Expression von Survivin verantwortliche Gen ist 14,7 kb groß und liegt auf dem Chromosom 17q25. Es besteht aus ... Größtenteils wird die Form der Domäne durch einen Zink-Finger (mit vier Zink-Liganden) stabilisiert. Die Dimer-Formation wird ...
negative regulation of cell proliferation. • protein destabilization. • protein homooligomerization. • amyloid fibril formation ... although not completely as seen by its propensity to form amyloid fibrils in vitro. Rat IAPP is nontoxic to beta-cells ... Cooper GJ, Willis AC, Clark A, Turner RC, Sim RB, Reid KB (1987). "Purification and characterization of a peptide from amyloid- ... negative regulation of cell differentiation. • cell-cell signaling. • nociception. • eating behavior. • signal transduction. • ...
CHO cells. DHFR lacking CHO cells are the most commonly used cell line for the production of recombinant proteins. These ... which are important for cell proliferation and cell growth. DHFR plays a central role in the synthesis of nucleic acid ... Dihydrofolate reductase deficiency has been linked to megaloblastic anemia. Treatment is with reduced forms of folic acid. ... inhibits dihydrofolate reductase precursor mRNA processing and/or nuclear mRNA stability in methotrexate-resistant KB cells". ...
natural killer cell proliferation. • T-helper 1 cell cytokine production. • negative regulation of interferon-gamma secretion. ... is required for the expression of SLAMF1 gene in B cells. STAT6, IRF4, and NF-kB factors involved in the transfer of the ... "Soluble and membrane-bound forms of signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM) induce proliferation and Ig synthesis by ... positive regulation of cell proliferation. • positive regulation of ERK1 and ERK2 cascade. • phagocytosis. • lymphocyte ...
Abstract 2142: Plumbagin, a medicinal plant-derived naphthoquinone, inhibits the growth of docetaxel resistant prostate cancer...
Transcription factor NF-KB, which is linked to cell proliferation and survival, is also activated in 22Rv1R. PL inhibited the ... colony forming efficiency of 22Rv1R cells which accompanied inhibition of MDR1 expression and NF-KB activation. In summary, the ... To determine the effects of PL on DTX resistant PCa cells, we established DTX-resistant 22Rv1 cell line (22Rv1R). 22Rv1R ... Abstract 3775: Mutated cancer cell-specific cell death activity of alkylating Pyrrole-Imidazole polyamide conjugates targeting ...
American Institute of Mathematical Sciences
We present here a simplied model of the proliferation of specic immune cells in the form of a single delay equation. We show ... We consider interior symmetric coupled cell networks where a group of permutations of a subset of cells partially preserves the ... 2011, 2011(Special): 1-12 doi: 10.3934/proc.2011.2011.1 +[Abstract](1989) +[PDF](140.6KB) ... We develop a structured population model for the maturation process of stem cells in the form of a state-dependent delay di ...
p57KIP2 Expression and Loss of Heterozygosity during Immortal Conversion of Cultured Human Mammary Epithelial Cells | Cancer...
Cell populations whose mean terminal restriction fragment (TRF) length declined to ≤3 kb exhibited slow heterogeneous growth ... p57/sf9, recombinant p57 protein control synthesized in sf9 cells. D, colony-forming efficiency and LI in colonies for 184A1 at ... Stampfer M., Yaswen P. Culture systems for study of human mammary epithelial cell proliferation, differentiation and ... Analysis of synchronized cell populations after release from G0 arrest (Fig. 2B) ⇓ shows that good-growing 184A1 13p cells down ...
Immunogenetics of Hashimoto's thyroiditis | Springer for Research & Development
... is an organ-specific T-cell mediated disease. It is a complex disease, with a strong genetic component. To date, significant ... The short form of CTLA-4 can bind CD80/86 and inhibit T-cell proliferation . The soluble CTLA-4 (sCTLA-4) is expressed ... Inhibition of human T cell proliferation by CTLA-4 utilizes CD80 and requires CD25+ regulatory T cells. Eur J Immunol. 2002, 32 ... within a 6.1-kb segment of the 3-UTR, but not for the (AT)n repeat polymorphism . However, no T-cell function data were ...
Differentiating neural crest stem cells induce proliferation of cultured rodent islet beta cells | SpringerLink
Neural crest stem cells (NCSCs) play a role in... ... beta cells would allow the design of new strategies for cell ... Cell-cell contact with NCSCs is thus, however, not sufficient to drive beta cell proliferation. Pronounced proliferation of ... cells and contained no GFAP+ and no β-tubulin class III+ insulin− mature neuronal cells (Fig. 1a). The neurospheres formed by ... 125_2012_2542_MOESM2_ESM.pdf (560 kb). Fig. 2 Proliferating beta cells can be sorted after a large scale co-culture using FACS ...
Tumorigenic hybrids between mesenchymal stem cells and gastric cancer cells enhanced cancer proliferation, migration and...
... the hybrid cells were sorted by flow cytometer. The growth and migration of hybrids were assessed by cell counting、cell colony ... Taken together, our results suggest that cell fusion between hucMSCs and gastric cancer cells could contribute to tumorigenic ... Similarly, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can also fuse with other cells spontaneously and capable of adopting the phenotype of ... The expression of CD44 and CD133 on hybrid cells was stronger than parental gastric cancer cells. Moreover, the migration and ...
LINC01287/miR-298/STAT3 feedback loop regulates growth and the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition phenotype in hepatocellular...
Inhibition of LINC01287 decreased HCC cell proliferation and invasion. Since Huh7 and Bel7402 cells exhibited the highest ... g The colony formation assay showed that sh-LINC01287 cells formed smaller and fewer colonies than the sh-ctrl cells, which was ... L) The expression levels of miR-298, miR-4308 and miR-23c were increased in sh-LINC01287 cells. (TIF 18965 kb) ... For the cell cycle assay, cells were harvested from the culture dishes and washed three times in cold PBS. The cells were then ...
American Institute of Mathematical Sciences
We introduce time delay in a cell proliferation process. In the case studied in this paper, the model reduces to one ordinary ... We investigate mathematical models for the dynamics between tumor cells, immune-effector cells, and cytokine interleukin-2 (IL- ... 2005, 2(3): i-ii doi: 10.3934/mbe.2005.2.3i +[Abstract](172) +[PDF](35.6KB) ... While the first one, of a finite dimension, can have any form, the second one is infinite-dimensional and tridiagonal. Then the ...
Research Brief 115: Low Levels of Arsenite May Serve as a Treatment for Melanoma
One cytokine, TNF-alpha, mediates a variety of biological functions such as cell proliferation, differentiation and cell death ... It responds poorly to chemotherapy and gamma irradiation which often kill cells by induction of programmed cell death ( ... Melanoma is the most aggressive and most serious form of skin cancer. Despite dramatic increases in the incidence of malignant ... This results in the suppression of NF-kB transcription factor, allowing for activation of TNF-alpha-induced death pathways. * ...
7 Superfoods Worthy of the Name (and 5 to Forget About, Stat) - Organic Authority
This active form has a wide spectrum of anticancer properties from reducing cell growth and proliferation to preventing the ... that the beta-glucans in mushrooms stimulate white blood cells dedicated to seeking out and destroying cancer cells and cells ... Calcitriol is also a powerful anti-inflammatory, shutting down Nf‑KB, the genetic switch that controls inflammation-the driving ...
Presenting a New Standard Drug Model for Turmeric and Its Prized Extract, Curcumin
... cell biology and pharmacology of inflammation, including acute/chronic inflammation, mediators of inflammation, as well as ... This central pathway plays a critical role in cell survival, apoptosis, and proliferation [115, 116]. NF-kB p65 (RelA) protein ... J. Holy, "Curcumin inhibits cell motility and alters microfilament organization and function in prostate cancer cells," Cell ... The NF-kB family of proteins, RelA (p65), RelB, and c-Rel, and p100 and p105 which subsequently degrade to form p52 and p50, ...
Anti-NFkB p50 Antibodies | Invitrogen ...
NFkB is involved in regulation of various cellular events including cell growth, differentiation, proliferation, apoptosis and ... forming the functional NFkB factor. Further, NFKB1 (p50) directs the nuclear translocation of NF-kB and is instrumental in its ... Nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells 1 ... NFKB1 (p50) is a 50KDa functional sub-unit of NF-kB and a member of Rel protein family which is synthesized as a p105 precursor ...
Publications - Ubio
Cell viability was analysed by apoptosis, proliferation and Colony Forming Unit assays. ... these in vivo generated iPS cells are closer to embryonic stem cells (ES cells) than standard in vitro generated iPS cells. ... repressor during normal B-cell differentiation that has been shown to repress NF-kB in some DLBCLs.2 In some B-cell lymphomas, ... Reprogramming of adult cells to generate induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS cells) has opened new therapeutic opportunities; ...
Protocols and Video Articles Authored by Andreas Houben
HMG-box proteins is linked to cell proliferation. In synchronized cells, expression is cell cycle dependent and peaks in cells ... one generative cell, which subsequently forms the sperm cells, and the vegetative cell. We analysed the chromatin properties of ... The size of plant eccDNA ranges from > 2 kb to < 20 kb, which is similar to the sizes found in other organisms. These DNA ... Aposporous initial cells undergo nuclear proliferation close to sexual megaspores, forming unreduced aposporous embryo sacs, ...
Moringa isothiocyanate complexed with α-cyclodextrin: a new perspective in neuroblastoma treatment | BMC Complementary and...
SH-SY5Y cells were cultured and exposed to increasing concentrations of MAC (1.0, 2.5 and 5.0 μg). Cell proliferation was ... Treatment of SH-SY5Y cells with the MAC complex reduced cell growth in concentration dependent manner. Specifically, MAC ... examined by MTT and cell count assays. The cytotoxic activity of the MAC complex was assessed by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) ... on SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells. This new formulation arises in the attempt to overcome the poor solubility and stability ...
Pan-Genome Analysis of Human Gastric Pathogen H. pylori: Comparative Genomics and Pathogenomics Approaches to Identify Regions...
... and blockade of T-cell proliferation. The presence of the toxigenic allelic s1 form of VacA in strains of H. pylori is commonly ... after injected in host cells, can influence cellular tight junction, cellular polarity, cell proliferation and differentiation ... 40 kb in size, encodes for a type IV secretion system (T4SS), and was identified by PIPS, in this work, as PiHp9 (C694_02670- ... which consists of highly conserved molecular machines responsible for a number of cellular processes like cell division, cell ...
Euphorbia tirucalli modulates gene expression in larynx squamous cell carcinoma | BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine |...
After statistically analyzing the proliferation of the tested cells, the cells were cultivated again for RNA extraction and the ... cell proliferation and gene expression. The Hep-2 cells were cultivated in complete medium (MEM 10 %) and treated with E. ... Though treatment with E. tirucalli latex did not change the cell morphology in comparison to control samples, but the cell ... We evaluate the influence of the antitumoral fraction of the E. tirucalli latex in the larynx squamous cell carcinoma (Hep-2), ...
Perivascular leukocyte clusters are essential for efficient activation of effector T cells in the skin | Nature Immunology
... formed clusters with effector T cells in dermal perivascular areas to promote in situ proliferation and activation of skin T ... form macrophage-dependent clusters in dermal perivascular areas for efficient in situ proliferation and activation of T cells. ... It remains largely unclear how antigen-presenting cells (APCs) encounter effector or memory T cells efficiently in the ... Here we used a mouse contact hypersensitivity (CHS) model to show that upon epicutaneous antigen challenge, dendritic cells ( ...
Molecular Targets of Curcumin and Future Therapeutic Role in Leukemia
... reducing the tumor load via apoptosis and cell cycle arrested in various cancer cell lines and controlled tumor proliferation ... At molecular level, curcumin plays a key therapeutic role in protection of normal cells by up regulation of NRF-2 that induces ... It regulates various signaling pathways including NF-KB, JAK/STAT, PI3K/AKT and JNK pathways, thereby affecting cancer ... An alternative source for the treatment of leukemia existed in the form of curcumin, a natural phenolic compound extracted from ...
"Adhesion and Proliferation of Red Fluorescent U87 Cells in a Mirco-Inc" by Rebecca L. Jensen
... expressing mouse opens up the possibility of carrying out live cell imaging of the cells as they adhere, migrate and ... Cells inoculated at a density of 200 cells/mm2 proliferated 131% over a one week period. ... Availability of bone forming osteoblast cells from genetically modified green fluorescing protein (GFP) ... Abstract or Poster Image (124 KB). Description. Availability of bone forming osteoblast cells from genetically modified green ...
Jane Parnes | Stanford Medicine Profiles
... and substantially inhibited proliferation of M1 cells, a murine myeloid leukemia cell line. The inhibitory effect of woodchuck ... The predominant form of L3T4 mRNA expressed in brain is foreshortened as compared to that in T lineage cells, and it is most ... 40-kb segment of the CD8 locus, approximately 12 kb upstream of the CD8 alpha gene. Studies to characterize and sublocalize ... Lyb-2/CD72 is a 45-kDa mouse B cell surface protein that binds CD5 and has been shown to play a role in B cell proliferation ...
Proceedings | Free Full-Text | Effects of Fulvic Acid on Different Cancer Cell Lines
Hep3B, HT29 and PC3 cells were treated different concentrations fulvic-acid for 48 and 72 h and cell proliferation was ... Recently, there has been development of a pure form of fulvic-acid, carbohydrate derived fulvic-acid (CHD-FA) that has been ... Changes in the mRNA levels of apoptotic genes were also analyzed in PC3 cells. Fulvic-acid inhibited the proliferation of all ... the cell lines used in this study determined by MTT analysis. Specifically, Hep3B cells were found to be most sensitive for 48- ...
JCI - Mutations in 5-methylcytosine oxidase TET2 and RhoA cooperatively disrupt T cell homeostasis
... that TET2 loss and RhoAG17V expression in mature murine T cells cooperatively cause abnormal CD4+ T cell proliferation and ... Angioimmunoblastic T cell lymphoma (AITL) represents a distinct, aggressive form of peripheral T cell lymphoma with a dismal ... Supplemental Table 1 - Download (882.00 KB) No preview available for this file type. ... Our findings suggest a mutational cooperativity between epigenetic factors and GTPases in adult CD4+ T cells that may account ...
FDA Drugstore: Viagra hard on free samples!
... cell proliferation ceases skaer hoch resulting in a precise three dimensional arrangement in numb mutants two sibling cells ... should be taken each day can change their itinerary at a particular form of vitamin d and campbell laminins are large over kb ... Most of the migration of previously provided signals to promote cell survival apoptosis proliferation differentiation and ... this represents a binding site for definitive care for a dis cussion of cell turnover although both proliferation and apoptosis ...
Oncotarget | The long non-coding RNA ANRIL promotes proliferation and cell cycle progression and inhibits apoptosis and...
The long non-coding RNA ANRIL promotes proliferation and cell cycle progression and inhibits apoptosis and senescence in ... The long non-coding RNA ANRIL promotes proliferation and cell cycle progression and inhibits apoptosis and senescence in ... The tumors formed by A2780-KD1 and A2780-KD2 cells were smaller in both size and weight compared to A2780-NC tumors (Figure 6A ... ANRIL is transcribed as a 3.8-kb lncRNA in the antisense orientation of the INK4b/ARF/INK4a gene cluster . ANRIL was ...
Development - PDGF signaling via STATs and NF-kB Pathway Map - PrimePCR | Life Science | Bio-Rad
PDGF-induced anti-apoptosis and proliferation of cells via STAT and NF-KB pathways ... c-Myc is a central regulator of cell growth, death and differentiation. c-Myc is required for cell proliferation but, in the ... The PDGF family: four gene products form five dimeric isoforms. Cytokine & growth factor reviews 2004 Aug;15(4):197-204 ... IKK phosphorylates and markes for degradation of NF-KB inhibitor (I-KB), thereby inducing NF-kB DNA-binding activity. ...
Protocols and Video Articles Authored by Shuming Nie
... in inhibiting proliferation of P-gp-overexpressing cancer cells (KB-8-5), partially due to its enhanced uptake and prolonged ... In vitro experiments found that HFT-T selectively recognizes FR-positive human head and neck cancer cell line KB-3-1, ... the drug is better retained within the P-gp-overexpressing cells than the free form of paclitaxel. These results indicated that ... Like hemopoietic cell homing, levels of stromal cell-derived factor-1 are high at sites of breast cancer metastasis including ...
Carnosol controls the human glioblastoma stemness features through the epithelial-mesenchymal transition modulation and the...
... cancer stem-like cells, CSCs) and with the ability of tumor cells to acquire a mesenchymal phenotype (epithelial-mesenchymal ... CAR decreased the rate of CSC formation and promoted the CSC apoptotic cell death through p53 functional reactivation. Moreover ... GBM aggressiveness has been widely associated both with a minor population of cells presenting stem-like properties ( ... A high cell proliferation rate, invasiveness and resistance to chemotherapy are the main features of glioblastoma (GBM). ...
JCI - Microenvironmental VEGF concentration, not total dose, determines a threshold between normal and aberrant angiogenesis
Endothelial cells modulate the proliferation of mural cell precursors via platelet-derived growth factor-BB and heterotypic ... Antonelli-Orlidge, A, Saunders, KB, Smith, SR, DAmore, PA. An activated form of transforming growth factor beta is produced by ... Results were normalized for the number of cells and time of exposure to medium. Three dishes of cells were assayed per cell ... mural cells). Pericytes were identified as perivascular cells that were closely associated with endothelial cells, had a ...
Bruton's Tyrosine Kinase Links the B Cell Receptor to Nuclear Factor κb Activation | JEM
NF-kB/Rel function is essential for B cell activation. Our studies with murine B cells suggested that BTK function was required ... and IgM-mediated B cell activation and proliferation (34)(35)(36)(39). In particular, expression of a transdominant form of I ... Wild-type B cells enter cell cycle upon antigen cross-linking of the BCR, whereas xid, or btk−/−, cells undergo apoptosis. ... Whole cell extracts were prepared by lysis of 107 cells in 1× Laemmli buffer. Samples from equivalent micrograms or cell ...
VitroCellularMetastasisInhibition of cell proliferationRegulatesAdhesionProgenitorInducesPathwayRegulateHematopoieticLymphocytesTumor cell proliferationIncreases the proliferationNeuralStimulatesMotilityDifferentiation and cellNeuronsGene expressionImmune responseInduceNeuroblastoma cellsHepatocytesEndothelial cellsBiologicalIntestinalDecreaseLeukemic cellsSuppressionCytokineStimulationInductionCancersStemProcessesMammalianTumorsReceptorsCancerousStimulateResponsesChemotherapyMurineMutationsPeripheral blood
- Normal human somatic cells show virtually no spontaneous immortal transformation in vitro , whereas tumor tissues can give rise to cell lines of indefinite life span. (aacrjournals.org)
- Additionally, normal human somatic cells in vitro and in vivo show telomere loss with successive divisions (2) , whereas most human tumor tissues and cells display telomerase activity, and most cultured human tumor cells display stabilized telomere length. (aacrjournals.org)
- We developed a new in vitro co-culture system that enables the dissection of the elements that control the cellular interactions that lead to NCSC-dependent increase in islet beta cells. (springer.com)
- Mouse NCSCs were cultured in vitro, first in medium that stimulated their proliferation, then under conditions that supported their differentiation. (springer.com)
- We fused human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hucMSCs) with gastric cancer cells in vitro by polyethylene glycol (PEG), the hybrid cells were sorted by flow cytometer. (biomedcentral.com)
- Knockdown of LINC01287 decreased HCC cell growth and invasion both in vitro and in vivo. (springer.com)
- Gain- and loss-of-function experiments demonstrated that ANRIL promotes EOC cell proliferation both in vitro and in vivo . (oncotarget.com)
- The results of in vitro cell culture cytotoxicity assay showed that the doxorubicin-loaded biotin grafted retinoic acid-pullulan micelles were more cytotoxic in comparison to the non-targeted pullulan and free doxorubicin. (ijpsonline.com)
- In vitro and in vivo animal studies have shown that homopentameric nAChR inhibitors, such as methyllycaconitine and α-Bgtx, can attenuate nicotine-induced proliferative, angiogenic, and metastatic effects in lung, colon, and bladder cancer cells. (aacrjournals.org)
- A-type procyanidins exhibit, in vitro, a capacity of inhibition of P-fimbriated Escherichia coli adhesion to uroepithelial cells greater than B-type procyanidins (adhesion represents the initial step of urogenital infections). (syromonoed.com)
- Circular dichroism spectroscopy and electrophoretic mobility shift assays with G-quadruplex-specific ligands revealed that the G-rich motif, located immediately downstream of the transcription start site (TSS), forms a G-quadruplex structure in vitro . (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Hence, we investigated the mechanism of tight junction alteration and paracellular leak of macromolecules in the well-established in vitro intestinal (colon) epithelial Caco-2 cell model. (osu.edu)
- We also identified efficacy of the thiol-redox stabilization drugs to protect against the mercury-induced damage in the Caco-2 cells in vitro. (osu.edu)
- v) loss of cell proliferation, (vi) actin cytoskeletal rearrangement (actin stress fiber formation), (vii) tight-junction (ZO-1 protein and occludins) alterations, and (viii) increase in paracellular leak of macromolecules in Caco-2 cells in vitro. (osu.edu)
- BG participated in the design of the study, generated rab31 overexpressing cell lines, isolated cell clones, carried out cell-based in vitro assays, participated in the characterization of antibodies and in the in vivo experiment, and has been substantially involved in drafting the manuscript. (springermedizin.de)
- SSö generated rab31(-mutant) overexpressing cell lines and carried out cell-based in vitro assays. (springermedizin.de)
- Metformin was administered in vitro either to quiescent cells or during CLL cell activation stimuli, provided by classical co-culturing with CD40L-expressing fibroblasts. (oncotarget.com)
- After their isolation, these nestin-positive cells have an unusually extended proliferative capacity when cultured in vitro (∼8 months), can be cloned repeatedly, and appear to be multipotential. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Cellular growth control is regulated by a group of conserved CDKs, 3 which govern entry into and progression through the cell cycle. (aacrjournals.org)
- NFkB is involved in regulation of various cellular events including cell growth, differentiation, proliferation, apoptosis and inflammation. (thermofisher.com)
- Methods: Human cellular models expressing NUP98-HOXA9, HOXA9 wt or NUP98 wt were established by retroviral transduction of HEK293FT human cell line and human hematopoietic progenitors (CD34+, hHP) isolated from donor cord blood. (cnio.es)
- At molecular level, curcumin plays a key therapeutic role in protection of normal cells by up regulation of NRF-2 that induces production of cellular antioxidants. (scirp.org)
- Mechanistically, integrated transcriptomic, promoter and functional analyses of FoxO deficient NSC cultures identified direct gene targets with known links to the regulation of human brain size and the control of cellular proliferation, differentiation, and oxidative defense. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- The aim of this study was to determine the redox state of cellular GSH/glutathione disulfide (GSH/GSSG) and Trx as a consequence of progression from proliferation to contact inhibition and spontaneous differentiation in colon carcinoma (Caco-2) cells. (physiology.org)
- Therefore, the measured 40-mV oxidation of the cellular GSH/GSSG couple or the 28-mV oxidation of the extracellular cysteine/cystine couple should be sufficient to function in signaling or regulation of differentiation in Caco-2 cells. (physiology.org)
- Glutathione (GSH) is the major low molecular weight thiol in cells and plays a central role in controlling cellular thiol/disulfide redox state, which is essential for normal redox signaling ( 19 ). (physiology.org)
- A relationship between cellular GSH concentration and proliferation has been demonstrated in several studies, wherein GSH precursors or increasing cellular GSH has been found to enhance cell proliferation ( 2 , 16 , 39 ). (physiology.org)
- These and other studies have clearly demonstrated a relationship between cellular GSH levels and proliferation, although the mechanisms involved are still unclear. (physiology.org)
- Apart from the involvement of cellular GSH in proliferation, changes in the cellular GSH/glutathione disulfide (GSSG) redox state (E h ) have been implicated in cell cycle responses such as proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. (physiology.org)
- Butyrate plays an important role within cells as it affects cellular proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
- Butyrate plays a key role in colon cancer by switching its role concerning cellular proliferation and apoptosis depending on the state and conditions of the cell. (wikipedia.org)
- Autophagy is an essential cellular process that enables cells to engulf and digest portions of their cytoplasm in a regulated manner, thereby accomplishing quality and quantity control of organelles, proteins and pathogens. (europa.eu)
- The cell cycle is organized as a series of biochemical reactions designed to replicate cellular DNA and distribute it equally to two daughter cells with high fidelity. (asm.org)
- Software is intended for use in molecular biology, cell biology, pharmacology, and oncology for the purpose of predicting cell behavior and gene expression in vivo at the cellular level and designing or interpreting results of bench-top experiments. (scienceandresearchdevelopmentinstitute.com)
- Apoptosis, or programmed cell death, is a biochemical process that is mediated by a multitude of cellular proteins to have the proper balance of cell growth and cell death. (umsystem.edu)
- The funded project involves genetic experiments that explore the role of NF-kB signaling in the progression of healthy pancreatic epithelium (the cellular covering of the pancreas) to pre-cancerous lesions. (pancan.org)
- The proteasomal system plays a vital role in cellular protein turnover, which is essential for the homeostasis of cells. (statpearls.com)
- In recent years, the introduction of advanced cancer analytical technology such as circulating tumor cell testing and chemosensitivity assays has improved outlook considerably by paving the way towards individually tailored treatments based upon the unique cellular characteristics of each patient's cancer. (lifeextension.com)
- Mapping Variation in Cellular and Transcriptional Response to 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells. (tcd.ie)
- The active hormonal form of vitamin D, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25D) is an important modulator of the immune system, inhibiting cellular proliferation and regulating transcription of immune response genes. (tcd.ie)
- Mutation of the TSC gene (TSC2) may disrupt differentiation and maturation of neuronal precursors, since the TSC2 gene product tuberin is believed to regulate cellular proliferation. (sdbonline.org)
- A model of "wolf in sheep's clothing" is proposed to explain the link between cell fusion and metastasis. (biomedcentral.com)
- The pathological role of NFkB has been suggested in AIDS, hematogenic cancer cell metastasis and rheumatoid arthritis. (thermofisher.com)
- Furthermore, miR-661 promoted proliferation, migration and metastasis of NSCLC. (biomedcentral.com)
- A multitude of miRNAs contribute to metastasis of malignancies including non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). (biomedcentral.com)
- In addition, H19 enhances tumor cell proliferation, colony formation and tumor metastasis 21 , 22 , 23 , 24 , 25 , indicating a proto-oncogenic function of H19 and/or miR-675. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
Inhibition of cell proliferation1
- Together these transcription factors form a key activator complex that regulates the expression of genes involved in leukemogenesis and its overexpression is significant related to adverse prognosis in AML. (cnio.es)
- Our current studies are examining how CD72 regulates the balance between B cell tolerance and autoimmunity in several model systems. (stanford.edu)
- Finally, the lab is examining the biochemistry of signaling through CD72 to determine the molecular mechanisms by which CD72 regulates B cell responsiveness. (stanford.edu)
- However, the mechanism by which VPA regulates differentiation and proliferation is not understood. (biomedcentral.com)
- The H19 gene, one of the best known imprinted genes, encodes a long non-coding RNA that regulates cell proliferation and differentiation. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- By using a series of mutant forms of H19 harboring deletion or G-to-A substitutions, we found that the H19 -G-quadruplex regulates H19 gene expression. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- HEMGN regulates the proliferation and differentiation of hematopoietic cells. (thermofisher.com)
- catalytic subunits, plus a regulatory subunit , regulates NF-kB action. (liverxreceptor-signal.com)
- 1997). When activated, it acts as a transcription factor that up-regulates target genes, such as IGFII, leading to uncontrolled cell proliferation. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
- One link between inflammation and cancer is known to involve the NF-kB pathway, which regulates gene expression. (ucsd.edu)
- In general, regucalcin regulates the factors and proteins involved in ion transport, cell proliferation and apoptosis. (wikipathways.org)
- It also promotes the infiltration of inflammatory and immunocompetent cells from the circulation into the extravascular space and affected tissues, by stimulating the expression of adhesion molecules on endothelial cells. (stemcell.com)
- Tight junctions are crucial for cell-to-cell adhesion and regulation of paracellular transport of molecules across the intestinal epithelium. (osu.edu)
- Batch-transfected cells as well as selected cell clones, expressing different levels of rab31 protein, were analyzed with regard to proliferation, cell adhesion, the invasive capacity of tumor cells, and in vivo in a xenograft tumor model. (springermedizin.de)
- By contrast, increased expression of rab31 in breast cancer cells led to reduced adhesion towards several extracellular matrix proteins and decreased invasive capacity through Matrigel TM . (springermedizin.de)
- Again, the rab31-mediated effects on cell adhesion and invasion were dose-dependent. (springermedizin.de)
- NF-kappaB inhibition prevented the expression of proinflammatory cytokines, chemokines and the adhesion molecule VCAM-1 from CNS-resident cells. (embl-em.de)
- The virus encodes homologs to complement-binding proteins, three cytokines (two macrophage inflammatory proteins and interleukin 6), dihydrofolate reductase, bcl-2 , interferon regulatory factors, interleukin 8 receptor, neural cell adhesion molecule-like adhesin, and a D-type cyclin, as well as viral structural and metabolic proteins. (pnas.org)
- Upon confluence, they are able to differentiate into cells that express liver and exocrine pancreas markers, such as α-fetoprotein and pancreatic amylase, and display a ductal/endocrine phenotype with expression of CK19, neural-specific cell adhesion molecule, insulin, glucagon, and the pancreas/duodenum specific homeodomain transcription factor, IDX-1. (diabetesjournals.org)
- We report here that 1 mM VPA simultaneously induces differentiation and reduces proliferation of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF)-treated embryonic day 14 (E14) rat cerebral cortex neural progenitor cells (NPCs). (biomedcentral.com)
- Hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells in the adult mammalian bone marrow ensure blood cell renewal. (elifesciences.org)
- Here, we report the impact of combined FoxO1, 3 and 4 deficiencies on mammalian brain physiology with a particular emphasis on the study of the neural stem/progenitor cell (NSC) pool. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- FoxO deficient mice show initial increased brain size and proliferation of neural progenitor cells during early postnatal life, followed by precocious significant decline in the NSC pool and accompanying neurogenesis in adult brains. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- The endocrine cells of the rat pancreatic islets of Langerhans, including insulin-producing β-cells, turn over every 40-50 days by processes of apoptosis and the proliferation and differentiation of new islet cells (neogenesis) from progenitor epithelial cells located in the pancreatic ducts. (diabetesjournals.org)
- However, the administration to rats of islet trophic factors such as glucose or glucagon-like peptide 1 for 48 h results in a doubling of islet cell mass, suggesting that islet progenitor cells may reside within the islets themselves. (diabetesjournals.org)
- We propose that these nestin-positive islet-derived progenitor (NIP) cells are a distinct population of cells that reside within pancreatic islets and may participate in the neogenesis of islet endocrine cells. (diabetesjournals.org)
- The NIP cells that also reside in the pancreatic ducts may be contributors to the established location of islet progenitor cells. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Ductal cells of the adult pancreas include latent progenitor cells of the islet endocrine cells that can be induced to differentiate into islet endocrine cells given the appropriate morphogen stimuli-a process referred to as neogenesis ( 2 - 6 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
- In addition, primary cells of the central and peripheral nervous system such as neonatal and adult Schwann cells, neural progenitor cells, dorsal root ganglionic neurons and embryonic spinal motoneurons which are all possible candidates for reconstructive therapies were cultured on polySia substrates. (tiho-hannover.de)
- Culture of islet cells in contact with NCSCs induces highly efficient beta cell proliferation. (springer.com)
- Genetically predisposed individuals could be influenced by an environmental trigger (i.e., dietary iodine, infection, pregnancy, cytokine therapy) that induces an autoimmune response against thyroid-specific antigens by infiltrating immune cells. (springer.com)
- Arsenite induces production of reactive oxygen species at high levels with subsequent development of oxidative stress, which affects multiple targets in the cell. (nih.gov)
- We report here that 1 mM VPA induces differentiation and inhibits proliferation of NPCs by overcoming the effect of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), a factor which inhibits the differentiation of NPCs [ 19 , 20 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
- Here, we establish that Toll/NF-kB pathway activation in the PSC in response to wasp parasitism non-cell autonomously induces the lymph gland immune response. (elifesciences.org)
- IL-1β is released by monocytes, tissue macrophages, and dendritic cells in response to infection or injury and induces expression of acute-phase proteins. (stemcell.com)
- Through interaction with the ErbB family of receptors, NRG2 induces the growth and differentiation of epithelial, neuronal, glial, and other types of cells. (acris-antibodies.com)
- Although the polypharmacology of this extract has been considered, in mainstream medicine, to be a drawback, a perspective change reveals a comprehensive and even synergistic shaping of the NF-kB pathway, including transactivation. (hindawi.com)
- Depiction of classical and nonclassical pathway to NF-kB (p65-p50 or RelBp52) translocation activation. (hindawi.com)
- Retinoic acid (RA) is an active metabolite of retinol (vitamin A) in the biological metabolic pathway and used in chemotherapy due to its role in the control of cell differentiation. (ijpsonline.com)
- The effects of VPA on the regulation of differentiation and inhibition of proliferation occur via the ERK-p21 Cip/WAF1 pathway. (biomedcentral.com)
- Stimulation of differentiation and inhibition of proliferation in NPCs by VPA occur independently and the β-catenin-Ras-ERK-p21 Cip/WAF1 pathway is involved in both processes. (biomedcentral.com)
- We also found that the common Ras-ERK-p21 Cip//WAF1 pathway is involved in generating the mutually exclusive phenotypes of differentiation and proliferation in NPCs and in brain tissue of the cerebral cortex of developing embryos. (biomedcentral.com)
- For cancer therapy, natural compounds such as garcinol and EGCG have been found to block nicotine- and estrogen-induced breast cancer cell proliferation through inhibition of the α9-nAChR signaling pathway. (aacrjournals.org)
- The PI3K-AKT-FoxO pathway is integral to lifespan regulation in lower organisms and essential for the stability of long-lived cells in mammals. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- IL-1β binds to IL-1 receptor and activates intracellular signaling via the MAPK or NF-kB pathway. (stemcell.com)
- Depending on the cell type and nature of the received stimulus the non-canonical pathway 6 can be engaged. (antibodies-online.com)
- The core regulator for this pathway is NF-kB inducing kinase (NIK) which activates IKK-alpha, thus leading to phosphorylation of p100. (antibodies-online.com)
- Mechanistically, NIK and IKKα suppressed the mitogenic JAK2/STAT3 pathway, thereby inhibiting cell cycle progression. (elifesciences.org)
- Displays graphs of transcription (mRNA) and gene expression (enzyme or pathway) in an ongoing cell cycle or in a contact-inhibited (quiescent) biological cell based on the theory presented in the article "Gene Kinetics of the Cell Proliferation in Vivo" available at the link above. (scienceandresearchdevelopmentinstitute.com)
- Furthermore, after 2-3 cell cycles, user may choose to display cell cycle phase lengths, cell cycle duration, and peak values of mRNA and pathway as modulated by variable settings. (scienceandresearchdevelopmentinstitute.com)
- Genetic and functional studies implicate B-cell receptor signaling as a pivotal pathway in its pathogenesis. (haematologica.org)
- This pathway includes the proximal tubule epithelial kidney cells (NRK52E cell) with a basolateral and apical side and other schematic illustrated organelles involved in the process of kidney function. (wikipathways.org)
- Also, here regucalcin function as an inhibitor for Apaf1 that results in an inhibition of the apoptosis pathway and activate the Bcl-2 (suppressor of apoptotic cell death). (wikipathways.org)
- MAP3K pathway might be involved in the stimulation of RAF1 to induce the cell proliferation and the increase in apoptosis by inhibition of Bcl-2 through JNK which is also activated by ROS. (wikipathways.org)
- In the canonical NF-kB pathway, which is induced by inflammatory cytokines, pathogen-associated molecules, and antigen receptors, IKK beta is both necessary and sufficient to phosphorylate IkB alpha or IkB beta in an IKK gamma-dependent manner (3). (novusbio.com)
- This study aims to better understand the mechanisms by which this pathway guides the progression from normal pancreatic cells to PanINs. (pancan.org)
- Results are expected to provide the field with important indications of the therapeutic and diagnostic possibilities involving the NF-kB pathway. (pancan.org)
- Infection of cells with the si-LINC01287 lentiviral vector was performed to down-regulate LINC01287 expression in HCC cells. (springer.com)
- PDGF s regulate biological functions in cells through binding to specific structurally related high-affinity receptors ( PDGFR ) on cell surface, denoted PDGFR alpha and beta. (bio-rad.com)
- We examined the ability of BTK to regulate the nuclear factor (NF)-κB/Rel family of transcription factors, as the activation of these factors is required for a B cell response to mIgM. (rupress.org)
- Activated Akt phosphorylates several downstream targets that regulate apoptosis, including Terrible, caspase-9, as well as the transcription things FKHR and NF-kB. (liverxreceptor-signal.com)
- Besides that, the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger is important to be present on the basolateral membrane of the proximal tubule epithelial kidney cell to regulate the ion transport. (wikipathways.org)
- On the apical membrane is the TRPV5 receptor present that regulate the import of Ca2+ from the lumen back into the kidney cell, but Ca2+ can also travel via paracellular transport. (wikipathways.org)
- ERα is a nuclear steroid hormone receptor which acts as a transcription factor to regulate cell proliferation. (ostatic.com)
- In the case of dose-dense treatment along with recombinant hematopoietic growth factors, the models predict a situation in which normal and abnormal cells in the marrow and peripheral blood are obliterated by drug action, while the normal cells regain their growth capabilities through growth-factor stimulation. (aimsciences.org)
- Recent studies from our group have underscored that the mammalian FoxOs function redundantly to promote the stability of long-lived cells such as thymocytes and endothelial cells and to maintain hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) reserves which produce countless blood cells over a life-time. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Recent studies have revealed the physiological functions of H19 and miR-675, such as adult hematopoietic stem cell quiescence 11 , skeletal muscle cell differentiation 12 , 13 , and limitation of placental growth 14 . (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- The field of adult mammalian stem cell biology has been heavily elucidated by lessons learned from several model tissues-hematopoietic stem cells, epithelial stem cells, intestinal stem cells and spermatogonia stem cells [ 6 - 8 ]. (omicsonline.org)
- Histological and cytological features of HT include a dense thyroidal accumulation of lymphocytes, plasma cells and occasional multinuclear giant cells. (springer.com)
- Cell death counters proliferation of lymphocytes, allowing the immune system to achieve dynamic homeostasis whereby it can defend against pathogens and avoid autoimmunity. (wikipedia.org)
- B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) was believed to result from clonal accumulation of resting apoptosis-resistant malignant B lymphocytes. (oncotarget.com)
- At doses that were totally ineffective on normal lymphocytes, metformin induced apoptosis of quiescent CLL cells and inhibition of cell cycle entry when CLL were stimulated by CD40-CD40L ligation. (oncotarget.com)
Tumor cell proliferation1
Increases the proliferation1
- Neural crest stem cells (NCSCs) play a role in beta cell development and maturation and increase the beta cell number in co-transplants. (springer.com)
- This regenerative capacity derives from resident neural stem cells (NSC) which contribute directly to neurogenesis throughout development and adulthood. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Here we show that rat and human pancreatic islets contain a heretofore unrecognized distinct population of cells that express the neural stem cell-specific marker nestin. (diabetesjournals.org)
- During early embryonic development, neural and islet cells share many phenotypic properties. (diabetesjournals.org)
- for example, it co-stimulates T cell functions together with antigen or mitogen. (stemcell.com)
- It also stimulates Th17 differentiation and B cell proliferation in an IL-6-dependent manner. (stemcell.com)
- Previous studies of our group showed that the oleic acid (OA) stimulates cell proliferation in low concentrations (12.5 and 25 μM) and decreases the proliferation in higher concentrations (above 75 μM) [ 9 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
- if activated briefly, it stimulates proliferation of pre-malignant and cancerous tumor cells,' said Karin. (ucsd.edu)
- Ca2+ released by the ER can also bind to calmodulin to form the Ca2+/calmodulin complex that stimulates IP3, JNK, NOS, RGPR-p117 and NF1. (wikipathways.org)
Differentiation and cell2
- One cytokine, TNF-alpha, mediates a variety of biological functions such as cell proliferation, differentiation and cell death. (nih.gov)
- Activated ERKs are pleiotropic effectors of cell physiology and play an important role in the control of gene expression involved in the cell division cycle, apoptosis, cell differentiation and cell migration. (genecards.org)
- Newly generated neuroblasts in the SVZ migrate to become granule and periglomerular neurons in the olfactory bulb and neurons born in the SGZ migrate into the granule cell layer of the DG and. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- New neurons are formed in the dentate gyrus of the mammalian hippocampus throughout adulthood. (uncg.edu)
- Nestin-positive cells within pancreatic islets express neither the hormones insulin, glucagon, somatostatin, or pancreatic polypeptide nor the markers of vascular endothelium or neurons, such as collagen IV and galanin. (diabetesjournals.org)
- One hallmark of TSC is the presence of tubers: highly epileptogenic dysplastic cerebral cortex composed of abnormally shaped neurons and giant cells. (sdbonline.org)
- In normal non-stress conditions, TNF-alpha-induced death is actively suppressed by NF-kB-dependent gene expression. (nih.gov)
- The NFkB complex is expressed in most cell types, and is primarily found in the cytoplasm in an inactive state in association with I-kappa-B. Phosphorylation of I-kappa-B releases the complex, allowing translocation to the nucleus and modification of gene expression. (thermofisher.com)
- By gene expression microarrays, we observed that restitution of B2M in LC cells up-regulated targets of IFNalpha/IFNgamma. (cnio.es)
- We evaluate the influence of the antitumoral fraction of the E. tirucalli latex in the larynx squamous cell carcinoma (Hep-2), on the morphology, cell proliferation and gene expression. (biomedcentral.com)
- Here, we have demonstrated that TET2 loss and RhoAG17V expression in mature murine T cells cooperatively cause abnormal CD4+ T cell proliferation and differentiation by perturbing FoxO1 gene expression, phosphorylation, and subcellular localization, an abnormality that is also detected in human primary AITL tumor samples. (jci.org)
- Therefore, the regulation of H19 gene expression appears to be critical for cell fate decisions and tissue homeostasis. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- The data together indicate that the establishment of pluripotency and cell proliferation occurring with callus induction is associated with enhanced ribosomal RNA gene expression and overall rDNA hypomethylation, but is not associated with material-enhanced relaxation of chromatin structure (decondensation) at rDNA loci. (plantphysiol.org)
- The successful completion of the cell division cycle relies in large part on the appropriate temporal control of gene expression. (asm.org)
- To compare gene expression proﬁles in response to estrogen or 17b-estradiol (E2) and a mycotoxin, zearalenone (ZEA), and its analogues (collectively termed ZEA compounds), breast cancer MCF-7 cells were treated with 10 nM of E2 or ZEA compounds including ZEA, a-zearalenol, b-zearalenol, zearalanone, a-zearalanol and b-zearalanol. (scribd.com)
- Indeed, the majority of peripheral blood CLL cells are arrested in G0/G1 cell cycle phase and show a gene expression profile of resting cells [ 1 ]. (oncotarget.com)
- His research has focused on understanding how islets of Langerhans, the endocrine component of the pancreas, are formed during organogenesis, how their function is regulated in the mature organism, and how changes in gene expression might allow islet regeneration. (pancan.org)
- The autoimmune process results in preferential T helper type 1 (T H1 )-mediated immune response and induction of apoptosis of thyroid cells that leads to hypothyroidism. (springer.com)
- As main orchestrators of the humoral immune response, the role of B-cells in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has been largely investigated. (frontiersin.org)
- In view of these findings, the current report describes the potential of NCSCs to induce beta cell proliferation in order to increase the glucose responsive beta cell mass. (springer.com)
- Here we show that NCSCs induce proliferation of beta cells from young adult and 1-year-old mice by direct contact, but fail do so in human beta cells. (springer.com)
- The same order of potency was observed for their capacity to induce apoptosis in leukemic B cells. (vineatrol.com)
- A) The biological activity of Human Recombinant IL-1 beta, ACF was tested by its ability to promote the proliferation of D10S cells. (stemcell.com)
- Find out how the proliferation of biological cells may be simulated based on only five equations relating to 1000 pages of bench-top results! (scienceandresearchdevelopmentinstitute.com)
- This review discusses the biological basis for targeted therapy of chronic lymphocytic leukemia with B-cell receptor inhibitors, and summarizes the clinical experience with these agents. (haematologica.org)
- Small lymphocytic lymphoma (SLL) shares the biological characteristics of CLL, albeit with less than 5000 tumor cells/uL of blood in the presence of pathological lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly, or bone marrow disease. (haematologica.org)
- The protocol will also present resources and guidance for thoroughly analyzing the unique biological characteristics of your cancer cells, which is a critical step towards establishing an effective, personalized cancer treatment regimen. (lifeextension.com)
- Intestinal epithelium is maintained by continual cell proliferation, with a turnover of the entire epithelial layer every 4-6 days in humans. (physiology.org)
- Therefore, here, we hypothesized that mercury would cause intestinal epithelial cell tight junction alterations and paracellular hyperpermeability (leak) through oxidative stress and thiol-redox dysregulation which could lead to the leaky-gut condition. (osu.edu)
- For the first time, the results of the current study demonstrated that mercury (methylmercury and thimerosal) caused intestinal epithelial cell damage and macromolecule leak through thiol-redox dysregulation and oxidative stress which was effectively protected by the novel lipophilic thiol-redox stabilizer and heavy metal chelator, NBMI. (osu.edu)
- Intracellular GSH levels are higher in actively proliferating cells ( 7 , 34 ) and decrease gradually during serum starvation as cells become quiescent ( 34 ). (physiology.org)
- One study specifically identified the transcription factor NF-kB as a target of butyrate to decrease the number of pro-inflammatory cytokines. (wikipedia.org)
- PA promoted a decrease of lymphocyte proliferation stimulated by ConA in both concentrations. (biomedcentral.com)
- In conclusion, PA promoted a suppressive effect on lymphocyte proliferation characterized by a decrease of Th1 and Th17 response, and co-stimulatory molecule (CD28). (biomedcentral.com)
- Ki67-staining revealed a decrease in cell proliferation associated with the enriched environment. (uncg.edu)
- Therefore, it is important to develop alternative approaches in the treatment of this often fatal disease including effective induction/acceleration of programmed cell death despite suppression of Fas-mediating death signaling. (nih.gov)
- We postulated that in chronic liver disease, the negative branch might be predominant and overcome the positive branch, leading to pathological suppression of hepatocyte proliferation and liver regeneration. (elifesciences.org)
- Of note, B-cell depletion therapy revealed a differential effect on distinct subsets and autoantibody levels, thus supporting that the role for B-cells goes beyond autoantibody production to include antigen presentation, T-cell activation and cytokine production ( 2 , 3 ). (frontiersin.org)
- The EC50 is defined as the effective concentration of the cytokine at which cell proliferation is at 50% of maximum. (stemcell.com)
- Efficient stimulation of cycling activity in cultured beta cells would allow the design of new strategies for cell therapy in diabetes. (springer.com)
- The B cells in these mice are hyper-responsive to stimulation through the B cell receptor. (stanford.edu)
- Further work revealed that caspase-8 was essential for the induction of the transcription factor "nuclear factor κB" (NF-κB) after stimulation through antigen receptors, Fc receptors, or Toll-like receptor 4 in T, B, and natural killer cells. (wikipedia.org)
- Also blocks CD28 co-stimulation of T-cells. (brainscape.com)
- It responds poorly to chemotherapy and gamma irradiation which often kill cells by induction of programmed cell death (apoptosis). (nih.gov)
- Conversely, in the cancer bulk, the induction of the EMT has been linked to the acquisition of a more stem-like phenotype 14 , which confers resistance to therapy, aggressive traits and an invasive phenotype to cells. (nature.com)
- Hence, in this study, RA was selected due to its anticancer activities against various cancers and its ability to control proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis of the cells along with its hydrophobic ability to form micelles with low CMC [ 6 ]. (ijpsonline.com)
- The antiproliferative activity of the T. ferdinandiana kino extracts against G. duodenalis and the HeLa and Caco2 cancer cell lines indicates their potential in the treatment and prevention of giardiasis and some cancers. (phcogcommn.org)
- In another study, researchers found that pre-treatment with luteolin greatly sensitised TNF alpha-induced apoptosis in a number of human cell lines, including cancers of the colon and cervix. (supersmart.com)
- Similarly, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can also fuse with other cells spontaneously and capable of adopting the phenotype of other cells. (biomedcentral.com)
- Taken together, our results suggest that cell fusion between hucMSCs and gastric cancer cells could contribute to tumorigenic hybrids with EMT and stem cell-like properties, which may provide a flexible tool for investigating the roles of MSCs in gastric cancer. (biomedcentral.com)
- A stem cell fusion model has emerged as a classical mechanism for tumor development. (biomedcentral.com)
- We develop a structured population model for the maturation process of stem cells in the form of a state-dependent delay di erential equation. (aimsciences.org)
- GBM aggressiveness has been widely associated both with a minor population of cells presenting stem-like properties (cancer stem-like cells, CSCs) and with the ability of tumor cells to acquire a mesenchymal phenotype (epithelial-mesenchymal transition, EMT). (nature.com)
- The tumor bulk contributing to the stemness of GBM includes cancer stem cells (CSCs) and cells with a mesenchymal phenotype, which are derived from the de-differentiation of cells with an epithelial phenotype. (nature.com)
- In this light, great interest in the discovery of novel therapeutic approaches that are able to target cancer cells with a stem phenotype has arisen. (nature.com)
- Cell Stem Cell. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- A novel bioactive sponge was created with a composite of type I collagen sponges or porous poly(e-caprolactone) (PCL) scaffolds, platelet-rich plasma (PRP), BMP2-loaded nanoporous silicon enclosure (NSE) microparticles, mineralizing peptide amphiphiles (PA), and mesenchymal stem cells (MSC). (mdpi.com)
- This study indicates that CB MSC should be considered as an alternative to marrow as a source of stem cells, while the PRP-PA cell and microparticle delivery system may be utilized for diverse tissue engineering applications. (mdpi.com)
- Moreover, H19 expression during differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells appears to be regulated by a genomic H19 G-quadruplex. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- In this article, we briefly summarize what is known about the different stem cell compartments in lingual epithelium and papillae, and discuss the evidence for existence of stem cell in lingual epithelium and taste bud. (omicsonline.org)
- We then consider a new model of homeostasis in lingual epithelium and papillae, in which tissue maintenance depends on multiple-stem cell population. (omicsonline.org)
- In unwounded epidermis, it has always been thought that the own discrete stem cell population contribute to the maintenance of HF, IFE and SG [ 9 , 10 ]. (omicsonline.org)
- For multiplexed optical encoding, we have prepared large microbeads with sizes similar to that of mammalian cells, and small nanobeads with sizes similar to that of viruses. (jove.com)
- For example, the α4β2-containing nAChRs have the highest nicotine-binding affinity in mammalian cells ( 3 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- Arsenic compounds have been successfully used as inducers of stress and apoptosis for treatment of several forms of leukemia and some solid tumors. (nih.gov)
- This active form has a wide spectrum of anticancer properties from reducing cell growth and proliferation to preventing the growth of blood vessels to tumors,' explains Dr. Robert Zembroski, Specialist in Functional Medicine, Clinical Nutritionist & Author of REBUILD . (organicauthority.com)
- The head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) represents malignant tumors arising primarily in the oral cavity, tongue, floor of the mouth, tonsils, pharynx and larynx. (biomedcentral.com)
- Several breast cancer cell lines and primary breast tumors overexpress Bcl-xL. (umsystem.edu)
- Female transgenic MMTV-neu mouse form mammary gland tumors by 4 months of age. (umsystem.edu)
- Melanoma cells express many different growth factors, cytokines and their receptors to support their autonomous growth and to suppress the immune system. (nih.gov)
- The targeting effect of biotin has been studied on different cancer cell lines [ 7 ], the overexpression of its receptors on the surface of the MCF-7 cell line has been proved [ 8 ]. (ijpsonline.com)
- On the basis of their ligand-binding properties, nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChRs) are divided into two classes: (1) α-bungarotoxin (α-Bgtx)-binding nAChRs containing α7 or α9 subunits, which form homopentamers, and (2) α-Bgtx nonbinding nAChRs containing α2-α6 and β2-β4 subunits, which form heteromeric receptors with high affinities for receptor agonists such as acetylcholine and nicotine ( 1, 2 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- The main aim of this study was to characterize the profiles of B-cell factors and their decoy receptors in RA and evaluate their clinical relevance. (frontiersin.org)
- The main problem with current drug use is the general cytotoxicity due to the distribution of these drugs in non-cancerous organs and cells. (ijpsonline.com)
- One of the problems with chemotherapy is that it is active against all dividing cells whether cancerous or not. (doctormurray.com)
- IKK beta antibodies can be used as markers to study NF-kB signaling system in both normal and cancerous cells. (novusbio.com)
- In this protocol, you will learn about several unappreciated risk factors for colorectal cancer and gain insight into genetic and molecular mechanisms that drive the evolution from healthy cells to cancerous cells in the colon. (lifeextension.com)
- To stimulate beta cell proliferation, NCSCs need to be in intimate contact with the beta cells. (springer.com)
- The almighty mushroom has an impressive resume as a functional food to stave off disease," explains Zembroski, who cites an Experimental Biology and Medicine report noting that the beta-glucans in mushrooms stimulate white blood cells dedicated to seeking out and destroying cancer cells and cells infected by viruses. (organicauthority.com)
- Langerin expressing cells promote skin immune responses under defined conditions. (nature.com)
- Role of mast cells and basophils in IgE responses and in allergic airway hyperresponsiveness. (nature.com)
- Reexpression of FoxO1 attenuated aberrant immune responses induced in mouse models adoptively transferred with T cells and bearing genetic lesions in both TET2 and RhoA. (jci.org)
- Patients with CEDS have hypogammaglobulinemia, make poor antibody responses to pneumococcal polysaccharide antigens, and their B cells, T cells, and NK cells do not activate well to stimuli. (wikipedia.org)
- A high cell proliferation rate, invasiveness and resistance to chemotherapy are the main features of glioblastoma (GBM). (nature.com)
- These cells contribute to the aggressiveness, frequent relapse and higher resistance to chemotherapy and radiotherapy of GBM 8 . (nature.com)
- This means that cells lining the intestines, in the bone marrow and in the hair follicles, all of which are also continuously dividing, will also be damaged by chemotherapy. (doctormurray.com)
- Along with some basic dietary guidelines, there are five key supplements that can be used to support any form of chemotherapy or radiation. (doctormurray.com)
- Together, these data showed that the xid mutation renders mice deficient in essential BTK functions and that the B cell requirement for BTK differs between the murine and human species. (rupress.org)
- Structure of Murine lingual epithelia and papillae, cell genesis model for filiform and fungiform papillae and Predictions of the cell genesis hypothesis compared with experimental results. (omicsonline.org)