Glioma: Benign and malignant central nervous system neoplasms derived from glial cells (i.e., astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and ependymocytes). Astrocytes may give rise to astrocytomas (ASTROCYTOMA) or glioblastoma multiforme (see GLIOBLASTOMA). Oligodendrocytes give rise to oligodendrogliomas (OLIGODENDROGLIOMA) and ependymocytes may undergo transformation to become EPENDYMOMA; CHOROID PLEXUS NEOPLASMS; or colloid cysts of the third ventricle. (From Escourolle et al., Manual of Basic Neuropathology, 2nd ed, p21)Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Gene Expression Regulation, Plant: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.MicroRNAs: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs, 21-25 nucleotides in length generated from single-stranded microRNA gene transcripts by the same RIBONUCLEASE III, Dicer, that produces small interfering RNAs (RNA, SMALL INTERFERING). They become part of the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX and repress the translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) of target RNA by binding to homologous 3'UTR region as an imperfect match. The small temporal RNAs (stRNAs), let-7 and lin-4, from C. elegans, are the first 2 miRNAs discovered, and are from a class of miRNAs involved in developmental timing.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Cumulus Cells: The granulosa cells of the cumulus oophorus which surround the OVUM in the GRAAFIAN FOLLICLE. At OVULATION they are extruded with OVUM.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Brain Neoplasms: Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.RNA, Untranslated: RNA which does not code for protein but has some enzymatic, structural or regulatory function. Although ribosomal RNA (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) and transfer RNA (RNA, TRANSFER) are also untranslated RNAs they are not included in this scope.Theileria annulata: A protozoan parasite causing tropical theileriasis in cattle. It is transmitted by ticks of the Hyalomma genus.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Stem Cells: Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Microarray Analysis: The simultaneous analysis, on a microchip, of multiple samples or targets arranged in an array format.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Mice, Inbred C57BLDown-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Computational Biology: A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.Chromatin: The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Genome: The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Glioblastoma: A malignant form of astrocytoma histologically characterized by pleomorphism of cells, nuclear atypia, microhemorrhage, and necrosis. They may arise in any region of the central nervous system, with a predilection for the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, and commissural pathways. Clinical presentation most frequently occurs in the fifth or sixth decade of life with focal neurologic signs or seizures.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Gene Expression Regulation, Archaeal: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in archaea.Gene Expression Regulation, Fungal: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in fungi.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Endothelial Cells: Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Nucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Transcriptome: The pattern of GENE EXPRESSION at the level of genetic transcription in a specific organism or under specific circumstances in specific cells.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Mice, Nude: Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.Cell Lineage: The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.Bromodeoxyuridine: A nucleoside that substitutes for thymidine in DNA and thus acts as an antimetabolite. It causes breaks in chromosomes and has been proposed as an antiviral and antineoplastic agent. It has been given orphan drug status for use in the treatment of primary brain tumors.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Homeodomain Proteins: Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.Gene Regulatory Networks: Interacting DNA-encoded regulatory subsystems in the GENOME that coordinate input from activator and repressor TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS during development, cell differentiation, or in response to environmental cues. The networks function to ultimately specify expression of particular sets of GENES for specific conditions, times, or locations.Astrocytoma: Neoplasms of the brain and spinal cord derived from glial cells which vary from histologically benign forms to highly anaplastic and malignant tumors. Fibrillary astrocytomas are the most common type and may be classified in order of increasing malignancy (grades I through IV). In the first two decades of life, astrocytomas tend to originate in the cerebellar hemispheres; in adults, they most frequently arise in the cerebrum and frequently undergo malignant transformation. (From Devita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp2013-7; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1082)DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Leukocytes, Mononuclear: Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.Epigenesis, Genetic: A genetic process by which the adult organism is realized via mechanisms that lead to the restriction in the possible fates of cells, eventually leading to their differentiated state. Mechanisms involved cause heritable changes to cells without changes to DNA sequence such as DNA METHYLATION; HISTONE modification; DNA REPLICATION TIMING; NUCLEOSOME positioning; and heterochromatization which result in selective gene expression or repression.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Embryonic Stem Cells: Cells derived from the BLASTOCYST INNER CELL MASS which forms before implantation in the uterine wall. They retain the ability to divide, proliferate and provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.DNA Methylation: Addition of methyl groups to DNA. DNA methyltransferases (DNA methylases) perform this reaction using S-ADENOSYLMETHIONINE as the methyl group donor.Repressor Proteins: Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).3' Untranslated Regions: The sequence at the 3' end of messenger RNA that does not code for product. This region contains transcription and translation regulating sequences.Neoplasm Invasiveness: Ability of neoplasms to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue.Genetic Therapy: Techniques and strategies which include the use of coding sequences and other conventional or radical means to transform or modify cells for the purpose of treating or reversing disease conditions.Hematopoietic Stem Cells: Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.Neoplasm Proteins: Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Histones: Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.Proto-Oncogene Proteins: Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.RNA Stability: The extent to which an RNA molecule retains its structural integrity and resists degradation by RNASE, and base-catalyzed HYDROLYSIS, under changing in vivo or in vitro conditions.Gene Knockdown Techniques: The artificial induction of GENE SILENCING by the use of RNA INTERFERENCE to reduce the expression of a specific gene. It includes the use of DOUBLE-STRANDED RNA, such as SMALL INTERFERING RNA and RNA containing HAIRPIN LOOP SEQUENCE, and ANTI-SENSE OLIGONUCLEOTIDES.Mice, Inbred BALB CBlotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Cell Growth Processes: Processes required for CELL ENLARGEMENT and CELL PROLIFERATION.Gene Expression Regulation, Viral: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction: Methods used for detecting the amplified DNA products from the polymerase chain reaction as they accumulate instead of at the end of the reaction.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Genes, Reporter: Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Cell Transformation, Neoplastic: Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.Alternative Splicing: A process whereby multiple RNA transcripts are generated from a single gene. Alternative splicing involves the splicing together of other possible sets of EXONS during the processing of some, but not all, transcripts of the gene. Thus a particular exon may be connected to any one of several alternative exons to form a mature RNA. The alternative forms of mature MESSENGER RNA produce PROTEIN ISOFORMS in which one part of the isoforms is common while the other parts are different.Gene Silencing: Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.Cell Culture Techniques: Methods for maintaining or growing CELLS in vitro.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Transcriptional Activation: Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Transforming Growth Factor beta: A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Nerve Tissue ProteinsTretinoin: An important regulator of GENE EXPRESSION during growth and development, and in NEOPLASMS. Tretinoin, also known as retinoic acid and derived from maternal VITAMIN A, is essential for normal GROWTH; and EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT. An excess of tretinoin can be teratogenic. It is used in the treatment of PSORIASIS; ACNE VULGARIS; and several other SKIN DISEASES. It has also been approved for use in promyelocytic leukemia (LEUKEMIA, PROMYELOCYTIC, ACUTE).Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt: A protein-serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION in response to GROWTH FACTORS or INSULIN. It plays a major role in cell metabolism, growth, and survival as a core component of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Three isoforms have been described in mammalian cells.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Gene Expression Regulation, Leukemic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in leukemia.Oocytes: Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).Neoplasm Transplantation: Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.Embryo, Mammalian: The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen: Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.Bone Marrow Cells: Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.Sequence Analysis, RNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, sequencing, and information analysis of an RNA SEQUENCE.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Ki-67 Antigen: A CELL CYCLE and tumor growth marker which can be readily detected using IMMUNOCYTOCHEMISTRY methods. Ki-67 is a nuclear antigen present only in the nuclei of cycling cells.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.Cell Count: The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.5' Untranslated Regions: The sequence at the 5' end of the messenger RNA that does not code for product. This sequence contains the ribosome binding site and other transcription and translation regulating sequences.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Cell Cycle Proteins: Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.Gene Transfer Techniques: The introduction of functional (usually cloned) GENES into cells. A variety of techniques and naturally occurring processes are used for the gene transfer such as cell hybridization, LIPOSOMES or microcell-mediated gene transfer, ELECTROPORATION, chromosome-mediated gene transfer, TRANSFECTION, and GENETIC TRANSDUCTION. Gene transfer may result in genetically transformed cells and individual organisms.Sex Differentiation: The process in developing sex- or gender-specific tissue, organ, or function after SEX DETERMINATION PROCESSES have set the sex of the GONADS. Major areas of sex differentiation occur in the reproductive tract (GENITALIA) and the brain.RNA: A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Astrocytes: A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system - the largest and most numerous neuroglial cells in the brain and spinal cord. Astrocytes (from "star" cells) are irregularly shaped with many long processes, including those with "end feet" which form the glial (limiting) membrane and directly and indirectly contribute to the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER. They regulate the extracellular ionic and chemical environment, and "reactive astrocytes" (along with MICROGLIA) respond to injury.Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors: A family of DNA-binding transcription factors that contain a basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF.Osteoblasts: Bone-forming cells which secrete an EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. HYDROXYAPATITE crystals are then deposited into the matrix to form bone.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Tumor Suppressor Proteins: Proteins that are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. Deficiencies or abnormalities in these proteins may lead to unregulated cell growth and tumor development.Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases: A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that is widely expressed and plays a role in regulation of MEIOSIS; MITOSIS; and post mitotic functions in differentiated cells. The extracellular signal regulated MAP kinases are regulated by a broad variety of CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS and can be activated by certain CARCINOGENS.Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.Cyclin D1: Protein encoded by the bcl-1 gene which plays a critical role in regulating the cell cycle. Overexpression of cyclin D1 is the result of bcl-1 rearrangement, a t(11;14) translocation, and is implicated in various neoplasms.Tumor Suppressor Protein p53: Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays: In vivo methods of screening investigative anticancer drugs, biologic response modifiers or radiotherapies. Human tumor tissue or cells are transplanted into mice or rats followed by tumor treatment regimens. A variety of outcomes are monitored to assess antitumor effectiveness.MAP Kinase Signaling System: An intracellular signaling system involving the MAP kinase cascades (three-membered protein kinase cascades). Various upstream activators, which act in response to extracellular stimuli, trigger the cascades by activating the first member of a cascade, MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKKs). Activated MAPKKKs phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES which in turn phosphorylate the MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs). The MAPKs then act on various downstream targets to affect gene expression. In mammals, there are several distinct MAP kinase pathways including the ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) pathway, the SAPK/JNK (stress-activated protein kinase/c-jun kinase) pathway, and the p38 kinase pathway. There is some sharing of components among the pathways depending on which stimulus originates activation of the cascade.Neoplastic Stem Cells: Highly proliferative, self-renewing, and colony-forming stem cells which give rise to NEOPLASMS.Mesenchymal Stromal Cells: Bone-marrow-derived, non-hematopoietic cells that support HEMATOPOETIC STEM CELLS. They have also been isolated from other organs and tissues such as UMBILICAL CORD BLOOD, umbilical vein subendothelium, and WHARTON JELLY. These cells are considered to be a source of multipotent stem cells because they include subpopulations of mesenchymal stem cells.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Mice, SCID: Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.Keratinocytes: Epidermal cells which synthesize keratin and undergo characteristic changes as they move upward from the basal layers of the epidermis to the cornified (horny) layer of the skin. Successive stages of differentiation of the keratinocytes forming the epidermal layers are basal cell, spinous or prickle cell, and the granular cell.Transplantation, Heterologous: Transplantation between animals of different species.Conserved Sequence: A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.Transduction, Genetic: The transfer of bacterial DNA by phages from an infected bacterium to another bacterium. This also refers to the transfer of genes into eukaryotic cells by viruses. This naturally occurring process is routinely employed as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.Coculture Techniques: A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.Retroviridae: Family of RNA viruses that infects birds and mammals and encodes the enzyme reverse transcriptase. The family contains seven genera: DELTARETROVIRUS; LENTIVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE B, MAMMALIAN; ALPHARETROVIRUS; GAMMARETROVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE D; and SPUMAVIRUS. A key feature of retrovirus biology is the synthesis of a DNA copy of the genome which is integrated into cellular DNA. After integration it is sometimes not expressed but maintained in a latent state (PROVIRUSES).Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-myc: Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-myc genes. They are normally involved in nucleic acid metabolism and in mediating the cellular response to growth factors. Elevated and deregulated (constitutive) expression of c-myc proteins can cause tumorigenesis.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A superfamily of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that are activated by diverse stimuli via protein kinase cascades. They are the final components of the cascades, activated by phosphorylation by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES, which in turn are activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES).Organ Specificity: Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Cell Line, Transformed: Eukaryotic cell line obtained in a quiescent or stationary phase which undergoes conversion to a state of unregulated growth in culture, resembling an in vitro tumor. It occurs spontaneously or through interaction with viruses, oncogenes, radiation, or drugs/chemicals.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Neovascularization, Pathologic: A pathologic process consisting of the proliferation of blood vessels in abnormal tissues or in abnormal positions.Growth Inhibitors: Endogenous or exogenous substances which inhibit the normal growth of human and animal cells or micro-organisms, as distinguished from those affecting plant growth (= PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS).Lentivirus: A genus of the family RETROVIRIDAE consisting of non-oncogenic retroviruses that produce multi-organ diseases characterized by long incubation periods and persistent infection. Lentiviruses are unique in that they contain open reading frames (ORFs) between the pol and env genes and in the 3' env region. Five serogroups are recognized, reflecting the mammalian hosts with which they are associated. HIV-1 is the type species.Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21: A cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor that mediates TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P53-dependent CELL CYCLE arrest. p21 interacts with a range of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES and associates with PROLIFERATING CELL NUCLEAR ANTIGEN and CASPASE 3.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Neural Stem Cells: Self-renewing cells that generate the main phenotypes of the nervous system in both the embryo and adult. Neural stem cells are precursors to both NEURONS and NEUROGLIA.Osteogenesis: The process of bone formation. Histogenesis of bone including ossification.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27: A cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor that coordinates the activation of CYCLIN and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES during the CELL CYCLE. It interacts with active CYCLIN D complexed to CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 4 in proliferating cells, while in arrested cells it binds and inhibits CYCLIN E complexed to CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 2.beta Catenin: A multi-functional catenin that participates in CELL ADHESION and nuclear signaling. Beta catenin binds CADHERINS and helps link their cytoplasmic tails to the ACTIN in the CYTOSKELETON via ALPHA CATENIN. It also serves as a transcriptional co-activator and downstream component of WNT PROTEIN-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS.ThymidineAntigens, Differentiation: Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.NF-kappa B: Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases: Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.Fibroblast Growth Factor 2: A single-chain polypeptide growth factor that plays a significant role in the process of WOUND HEALING and is a potent inducer of PHYSIOLOGIC ANGIOGENESIS. Several different forms of the human protein exist ranging from 18-24 kDa in size due to the use of alternative start sites within the fgf-2 gene. It has a 55 percent amino acid residue identity to FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 1 and has potent heparin-binding activity. The growth factor is an extremely potent inducer of DNA synthesis in a variety of cell types from mesoderm and neuroectoderm lineages. It was originally named basic fibroblast growth factor based upon its chemical properties and to distinguish it from acidic fibroblast growth factor (FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 1).Growth Substances: Signal molecules that are involved in the control of cell growth and differentiation.Rats, Inbred F344Cell SeparationBrain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Transgenes: Genes that are introduced into an organism using GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Morphogenesis: The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.
The endogenous pool of tenascin-C isoforms in gliomas supports both tumor cell proliferation and migration. Because tenascin-C ... Jones PL, Jones FS (2000). "Tenascin-C in development and disease: gene regulation and cell function". Matrix Biol. 19 (7): 581 ... during which time it is thought to drive the differentiation of astrocytes. In the adult brain, TN-C expression is ... or neoplastic. TGF-β1, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1, nerve growth factor, and keratinocyte growth factor are factors ...
These dysregulated target genes contribute to tumorigenesis by altering signaling pathways that affect proliferation, cell ... PAX3-expressing cells detach from the dermomyotome and then Pax3 expression is turned off as Myf5 and MyoD1 expression is ... In these wild-type PAX3-expressing cancers, PAX3 function impacts on the control of proliferation, apoptosis, differentiation ... "Role of Pax3 acetylation in the regulation of Hes1 and Neurog2". primary. Molecular Biology of the Cell. 22 (4): 503-12. doi: ...
"Expression of cell proliferating genes in patients with non-small cell lung cancer by immunohistochemistry and cDNA profiling ... Bello LJ (1974). "Regulation of thymidine kinase synthesis in human cells". Exp. Cell Res. 89 (2): 263-74. doi:10.1016/0014- ... Salskov A, Tammisetti VS, Grierson J, Vesselle H (2007). "FLT: measuring tumor cell proliferation in vivo with positron ... "Tomato thymidine kinase-based suicide gene therapy for malignant glioma--an alternative for Herpes Simplex virus-1 thymidine ...
... and involved in the regulation of a number of cellular processes such as cell cycle progression and differentiation. S100 genes ... Chromosomal rearrangements and altered expression of this gene have been implicated in several neurological, neoplastic, and ... "beta-Amyloid regulates gene expression of glial trophic substance S100 beta in C6 glioma and primary astrocyte cultures". Brain ... This protein may function in neurite extension, proliferation of melanoma cells, stimulation of Ca2+ fluxes, inhibition of PKC- ...
A normal stem cell may be transformed into a CSC through disregulation of the proliferation and differentiation pathways ... "Expression of mutant p53 proteins implicates a lineage relationship between neural stem cells and malignant astrocytic glioma ... "Insights on neoplastic stem cells from gel-based proteomics of childhood germ cell tumors". Pediatr Blood Cancer. 58 (5): 722-8 ... "ALDH1A1 Maintains Ovarian Cancer Stem Cell-Like Properties by Altered Regulation of Cell Cycle Checkpoint and DNA Repair ...
"Hyaluronate receptors mediating glioma cell migration and proliferation". Journal of Neuro-Oncology. 53 (2): 115-27. doi: ... "Alternative splicing of RHAMM gene in chinese gastric cancers and its in vitro regulation". Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi ... immunohistochemical expression and androgen deprivation in normal peritumoral, hyperplasic and neoplastic prostate tissue". BJU ... RHAMM recently has been also designated CD168 (cluster of differentiation 168). RHAMM was originally discovered as a soluble ...
... is a rare WHO grade III type of astrocytoma, which is a type of cancer of the brain. In the United States, the annual incidence rate for Anaplastic astrocytoma is 0.44 per 100,000 persons Anaplastic astrocytomas fall under the category of high grade gliomas (WHO grade III-IV), which are pathologically undifferentiated gliomas that carry a poor clinical prognosis. Unlike glioblastomas (WHO grade IV), anaplastic astrocytomas lack vascular proliferation and necrosis on pathologic evaluation. Compared to grade II tumors, anaplastic astrocytomas are more cellular, demonstrate more atypia, and mitoses are seen. Initial presenting symptoms most commonly are headache, depressed mental status, focal neurological deficits, and/or seizures. The growth rate and mean interval between onset of symptoms and diagnosis is approximately 1.5-2 years but is highly variable, being intermediate between that of low-grade astrocytomas and ...
Neuro-oncology is the study of brain and spinal cord neoplasms, many of which are (at least eventually) very dangerous and life-threatening (astrocytoma, glioma, glioblastoma multiforme, ependymoma, pontine glioma, and brain stem tumors are among the many examples of these). Among the malignant brain cancers, gliomas of the brainstem and pons, glioblastoma multiforme, and high-grade (highly anaplastic) astrocytoma are among the worst. In these cases, untreated survival usually amounts to only a few months, and survival with current radiation and chemotherapy treatments may extend that time from around a year to a year and a half, possibly two or more, depending on the patient's condition, immune function, treatments used, and the specific type of malignant brain neoplasm. Surgery may in some cases be curative, but, as a general rule, malignant brain cancers tend to regenerate and emerge from remission easily, especially ...
... s are a type of glioma that are believed to originate from the oligodendrocytes of the brain or from a glial precursor cell. They occur primarily in adults (9.4% of all primary brain and central nervous system tumors) but are also found in children (4% of all primary brain tumors). The average age at diagnosis is 35 years. In anywhere from fifty to eighty percent of cases, the first symptom of an oligodendroglioma is the onset of seizure activity. They occur mainly in the frontal lobe. Headaches combined with increased intracranial pressure are also a common symptom of oligodendroglioma. Depending on the location of the tumor, any neurological deficit can be induced, from visual loss, motor weakness and cognitive decline. A computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan is necessary to characterize the anatomy of this tumor (size, location, heter/homogeneity). However, final diagnosis ...
Leucine-rich, glioma inactivated 1, also known as LGI1, is a protein which in humans is encoded by the LGI1 gene. It may be a metastasis suppressor. The leucine-rich glioma inactivated -1 gene is rearranged as a result of translocations in glioblastoma cell lines. The protein contains a hydrophobic segment representing a putative transmembrane domain with the amino terminus located outside the cell. It also contains leucine-rich repeats with conserved cysteine-rich flanking sequences. This gene is predominantly expressed in neural tissues and its expression is reduced in low grade brain tumors and significantly reduced or absent in malignant gliomas. Since its earliest discovery, the LGI1 gene has been implicated in the control of cancer metastasis and in a predisposition to epilepsy. Following ...
The treatment varies based on the type of tumor. For meningiomas, surgical removal of the tumor alone is often sufficient. Malignant tumors like anaplastic astrocytoma and glioblastoma multiforme require more aggressive therapy. For glioblastoma multiforme, surgical removal of the tumor followed by radiation therapy, also called radiotherapy, is used. Temozolomide (also known as Temodar) is also used for gliomas (including Glioblastoma multiforme).[1] ...
... s are a type of cancer of the brain. They originate in a particular kind of glial cells, star-shaped brain cells in the cerebrum called astrocytes. This type of tumor does not usually spread outside the brain and spinal cord and it does not usually affect other organs. Astrocytomas are the most common glioma and can occur in most parts of the brain and occasionally in the spinal cord. Within the astrocytomas, there are two broad classes recognized in literature, those with: Narrow zones of infiltration (mostly noninvasive tumors; e.g., pilocytic astrocytoma, subependymal giant cell astrocytoma, pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma), that often are clearly outlined on diagnostic images Diffuse zones of infiltration (e.g., high-grade astrocytoma, anaplastic astrocytoma, glioblastoma), that share various features, including the ability to arise at any location in the CNS (Central Nervous System), ...
This is a timeline of brain cancer, describing especially major discoveries, advances in treatment and major organizations. Timeline of colorectal cancer Timeline of pancreatic cancer Timeline of kidney cancer Timeline of lung cancer Timeline of liver cancer Timeline of bladder cancer Timeline of cervical cancer "History of brain tumor surgery". Retrieved 29 August 2016. "EEG in Brain Tumors". Retrieved 12 September 2016. "Cancer Progress". Retrieved 30 August 2016. Bloch, O (2015). "Immunotherapy for malignant gliomas". Cancer Treatment and Research. 163: 143-58. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-12048-5_9. PMID 25468230. World Cancer Report 2014. World Health Organization. 2014. pp. Chapter 5.16. ISBN 9283204298. Bondy ML, Scheurer ME, Malmer B, et al. (2008). "Brain Tumor Epidemiology: Consensus from the Brain Tumor Epidemiology Consortium (BTEC)". Cancer. 113 (7 Suppl): 1953-1968. doi:10.1002/cncr.23741. PMC 2861559 . PMID 18798534. "Intraocular Medulloepithelioma". Archives of Pathology & ...
Oligodendrocyte transcription factor 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the OLIG1 gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000184221 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000046160 - Ensembl, May 2017 "Human PubMed Reference:". "Mouse PubMed Reference:". Lu QR, Park JK, Noll E, Chan JA, Alberta J, Yuk D, Alzamora MG, Louis DN, Stiles CD, Rowitch DH, Black PM (Sep 2001). "Oligodendrocyte lineage genes (OLIG) as molecular markers for human glial brain tumors". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 98 (19): 10851-6. doi:10.1073/pnas.181340798. PMC 58563 . PMID 11526205. "Entrez Gene: OLIG1 oligodendrocyte transcription factor 1". Zhou Q, Wang S, Anderson DJ (Feb 2000). "Identification of a novel family of oligodendrocyte lineage-specific basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors". Neuron. 25 (2): 331-43. doi:10.1016/S0896-6273(00)80898-3. PMID 10719889. Takebayashi H, Yoshida S, Sugimori ...
In the human body, cryptoxanthin is converted to vitamin A (retinol) and is, therefore, considered a provitamin A. As with other carotenoids, cryptoxanthin is an antioxidant and may help prevent free radical damage to cells and DNA, as well as stimulate the repair of oxidative damage to DNA.[2] Recent findings of an inverse association between β-cryptoxanthin and lung cancer risk in several observational epidemiological studies suggest that β-cryptoxanthin could potentially act as a chemopreventive agent against lung cancer.[3] On the other hand, in the Grade IV histology group of adult patients diagnosed with malignant glioma, moderate to high intake of cryptoxanthin (for second tertile and for highest tertile compared to lowest tertile, in all cases) was associated with poorer survival.[4] ...
Although there is no specific or singular symptom or sign, the presence of a combination of symptoms and the lack of corresponding indications of other causes can be an indicator for investigation towards the possibility of an brain tumor. Brain tumors have similar characteristics and obstacles when it comes to diagnosis and therapy with tumors located elsewhere in the body. However, they create specific issues that follow closely to the properties of the organ they are in.[29]. The diagnosis will often start by taking a medical history noting medical antecedents, and current symptoms. Clinical and laboratory investigations will serve to exclude infections as the cause of the symptoms. Examinations in this stage may include the eyes, otolaryngological (or ENT) and electrophysiological exams. The use of electroencephalography (EEG) often plays a role in the diagnosis of brain tumors. Brain tumors, when compared to tumors in other areas of the body, pose a challenge for diagnosis. Commonly, ...
Data analysis of microarrays has become an area of intense research.[11] Simply stating that a group of genes were regulated by at least twofold, once a common practice, lacks a solid statistical footing. With five or fewer replicates in each group, typical for microarrays, a single outlier observation can create an apparent difference greater than two-fold. In addition, arbitrarily setting the bar at two-fold is not biologically sound, as it eliminates from consideration many genes with obvious biological significance. Rather than identify differentially expressed genes using a fold change cutoff, one can use a variety of statistical tests or omnibus tests such as ANOVA, all of which consider both fold change and variability to create a p-value, an estimate of how often we would observe the data by chance alone. Applying p-values to microarrays is complicated by the large number of multiple comparisons (genes) involved. For example, a ...
மரபணு வெளிப்பாடு (Gene expression) என்பது மரபணுவில் இருக்கும் தகவல்கள், தொழிற்படக்கூடிய மரபணு உற்பத்திப்பொருளாக (gene product) மாற்றப்படும் செயல்முறையாகும். மரபணுவிலிருக்கும் மரபணுக் குறியீட்டுப்பகுதியில் (coding region) இருந்து இவ்வகையான மரபணு உற்பத்திப்பொருட்கள் உருவாகின்றன. மரபணு உற்பத்திப்பொருட்கள் உயிர்வேதியியல் பொருட்களாகும். பொதுவாக இந்த மரபணு உற்பத்திப் பொருட்கள் தொழிற்படும் ...
বংশাণু সাধারণতঃ প্রোটিন তৈরির মাধ্যমে তাদের প্রকাশ ঘটায়, যেটি কিনা কোষের সবচেয়ে জটিল কাজগূলো সম্পাদনকারী অণু। প্রোটিন হল এমিনো এসিডের চেইন, আর বংশাণুর ডিএনএ ক্রম (আরএনএ অন্তবর্তীর মাধ্যমে) সুনির্দিষ্ট প্রোটিন ক্রম তৈরির জন্যে ব্যবহৃত হয়। এই প্রক্রিয়াটি বংশাণুর ডিএনএ ক্রমের সাথে মিল থাকা আরএনএ অণু তৈরির মাধ্যমে আরম্ভ হয়, যে প্রক্রিয়াটি প্রতিলিপিকরণ (transcription) নামে পরিচিত। ...
Cell Proliferation, Gene Expression Regulation, Glioblastoma, Glioma, Humans, Immunohistochemistry, Mice, Neoplastic Stem Cells ... IDH1 and IDH2 mutations in gliomas. Hai Yan et al. * Differentiation of effector CD4 T cell populations (*). Jinfang Zhu et al. ... An embryonic stem cell-like gene expression signature in poorly differentiated aggressive human tumors. Ittai Ben-Porath et al. ... p53 and Pten control neural and glioma stem/progenitor cell renewal and differentiation.. Author. Hongwu Zheng, Haoqiang Ying, ...
... cell proliferation, cell differentiation, regulation of gene expression and cell survival. At the... ... proliferation of clonal neoplastic cells and accumulation in the bone marrow of blasts with an impaired differentiation... ... Glioma, conserved biosystem (from KEGG) Glioma, conserved biosystemGliomas are the most common of the primary brain tumors and ... cell proliferation, cell differentiation, regulation of gene expression and cell survival. At the... ...
The endogenous pool of tenascin-C isoforms in gliomas supports both tumor cell proliferation and migration. Because tenascin-C ... Jones PL, Jones FS (2000). "Tenascin-C in development and disease: gene regulation and cell function". Matrix Biol. 19 (7): 581 ... during which time it is thought to drive the differentiation of astrocytes. In the adult brain, TN-C expression is ... or neoplastic. TGF-β1, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1, nerve growth factor, and keratinocyte growth factor are factors ...
... such as histone acetylation and DNA methylation play an important role in the regulation of gene expression for cell cycles and ... in rat C6 glioma cells. P2X7R mRNA and protein were present in unstimulated C6 cells and were up-regulated by cell exposure to ... melanoma differentiation-associated gene-7 (Ad-mda7) to examine the effect of the ectopic production of MDA-7/IL-24 on cell ... is a metallomembrane endopeptidase expressed on a variety of normal and neoplastic cells. We sought to determine if the ... ...
A similar gene-expression profile of BWS-related genes was observed in Sptbn1+/- Smad3+/- MEFs, and these altered gene ... Altered cell differentiation and proliferation in mice lacking p57KIP2 indicates a role in Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome. Nature ... Reciprocal regulation by TLR4 and TGF-β in tumor-initiating stem-like cells. J Clin Invest. 2013;123(7):2832-2849.. View this ... of neoplastic transformation and imply dysfunctional processes as stem cells differentiate into mature adult cell types (6). ...
Gene expression downregulation in CD90+ prostate tumor-associated stromal cells involves potential organ-specific genes. BMC ... The proliferation and differentiation of CSCs are dysregulated, and they share characteristics necessary for inducing both ... CD90 is identified as a candidate marker for cancer stem cells in primary high-grade gliomas using tissue microarrays. Mol Cell ... disruption of their distribution or their degradation in neoplastic cells.. Various limitations of the present study should be ...
... cell proliferation, cell differentiation, regulation of gene expression and cell survival. At the... ... proliferation of clonal neoplastic cells and accumulation in the bone marrow of blasts with an impaired differentiation... ... Glioma, conserved biosystem (from KEGG) Glioma, conserved biosystemGliomas are the most common of the primary brain tumors and ... cell proliferation, cell differentiation, regulation of gene expression and cell survival. At the... ...
One hundred and fifty-two pairs of human gliomas and non-neoplastic brain tissues were evaluated using real-time PCR. The ... MiR-21 was more greatly expressed in glioma tissues compared to the corresponding non-neoplastic brain tissues (P < 0.001). ... we sought to clarify the clinical value of miR-21 expression in glioma tissues with WHO grade I to IV. ... Our data show that miR-21 may be a candidate independent marker for gliomas, especially those with high pathological grades, ...
Animals, Brain Neoplasms, immunology, pathology, therapy, Cell Communication, Cell Differentiation, Cell Proliferation, Glioma ... Neoplastic, Disease Progression, Gene Expression Regulation, Humans, Membrane Proteins, Neoplasm... ... Animals, Cell Proliferation, Cell Transformation, Neoplastic, Disease Progression, Homeostasis, Humans, NFATC Transcription ... Mechanisms of intimate and long-distance cross-talk between glioma and myeloid cells: how to break a vicious cycle.. 2014 ...
The clinical condition may be cancer, where in particular the inhibition of proliferation of neoplastic cells or solid tumour ... Activation of PPAR gamma can contribute to adipocyte differentiation byactivating the adipocyte-specific gene expression ( ... small cell lung carcinoma, bladder carcinoma, epithelial carcinoma, glioma, astrocytoma,medulloblastoma, craniopharyngioma, ... Jaconi, M. E. E. et al., The Regulation of Store-Dependent Ca.sup.2+ Influx in HL-60 Granulocytes Involves GTP-Sensitive ...
Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic (MeSH) * Humans (MeSH) * Lipoxins (MeSH) * Mitogens (MeSH) * Morpholines (MeSH) ... CANCER CELLS * CYCLE PROGRESSION * Cell Biology * DIFFERENTIATION * EXPRESSION * GLIOMA-CELLS * GROWTH ARREST ... The role of the calcium- and phospholipid-binding protein annexin I (ANXA1) in cell cycle regulation has been investigated in ... Annexin-1 signals mitogen-stimulated breast tumor cell proliferation by activation of the formyl peptide receptors (FPRs) 1 and ...
Early attention on GSK-3 signaling in neural development centered on the regulation of neuronal polarity using in vitro ... Early attention on GSK-3 signaling in neural development centered on the regulation of neuronal polarity using in vitro ... regulation of Hox gene expression and cell position. Development 122, 3117-3131. ... The capacity of GSK-3 in inducing glioma cell differentiation could be considered for the differentiation therapy that has ...
An upregulation of miR-125b expression reduced the proliferation of the CD133-positive glioma cells and arrested the cell cycle ... correct regulation of thyroid cell growth and differentiation and the reduced expression of let-7f in RET-mutated thyroid cells ... an epigenetic gene silencer involved in neoplastic development. Recently, Sander et al. [54] suggested miR-26a acting as a ... These mutations are responsible for the deregulation of thyroid cell proliferation and differentiation and for cell tumoral ...
Mis-regulation of stem cell proliferation and differentiation often leads to diseases including cancer, however, how wildtype ... dE2F1 expression during G1 arrest prior to the differentiation process of the developing eye is important for maintaining cell ... Neoplastic transformation and metastasis depend on the ability of these cells to induce apoptosis and engulf nearby cells. miR- ... To uncover mechanisms relevant to deregulated cell division in human glioma stem cells, this study developed a novel adult ...
Frequent co-alterations of TP53, p16/CDKN2A, p14/ARF, PTEN tumor suppressor genes in human glioma cell lines. Brain Pathol 1999 ... increased expression of this miRNA might block the expression of gene products that promote normal glial differentiation or ... Bantam encodes a developmentally regulated microRNA that controls cell proliferation and regulates the proapoptotic gene hid in ... we focused on two fundamental characteristics of neoplastic cells: the propensity of tumor cells to proliferate and their ...
negative regulation of epithelial cell proliferation - negative regulation of neuron differentiation - negative regulation of ... Expression and regulation of prostate apoptosis response-4 (Par-4) in human glioma stem cells in drug-induced apoptosis.. PLoS ... 3D cell cultures prolonged the survival and in vitro proliferation of neoplastic IDH1(R132H)-positive cells, however, did not ... regulation of cysteine-type endopeptidase activity involved in apoptotic process - regulation of gene expression - regulation ...
... either as cytostatic molecules-reducing the proliferation of cancerous cells-or as tumor angiogenesis inhibitors. In this ... significant progresses in our understanding of the role of chromatin remodeling and epigenetic mechanisms in the regulation of ... counteracting epigenetic gene regulation of HMTs [57]. In cell culture of mouse and human tumor cells, the expression of JHDM1D ... Targeting glioma stem cells through combined BMI1 and EZH2 inhibition. Nat. Med. 2017, 23, 1352-1361. [Google Scholar] [ ...
negative regulation of epithelial cell proliferation - negative regulation of smooth muscle cell differentiation - negative ... Search the gene expression profiles from curated DataSets in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) repository. ... METHODS: The expression level of lncRNA PTCSC3 in human microglia and glioma cell lines was examined using quantitative real- ... of 18 high nuclear grade DCIS cases with no evidence of invasive breast carcinoma were selected along with 6 non-neoplastic ...
... to glioma cells lacking EGFRvIII [65]. The transfer results in an increased expression of the pro‐survival gene and a reduction ... miRNAs are evolutionarily conserved regulating several cellular processes such as cell differentiation, proliferation and ... Stem Cells, 2009. 27(9): p. 2059-68.. 31 - Imai, T., et al., Hypoxia attenuates the expression of E‐cadherin via up‐regulation ... neoplastic peritoneal effusions [59]. The use of exosomal miR‐21 as a biomarker for cancer diagnosis has been suggested in ...
The modern DCT image is focusing more on processes and mechanisms related to cell development and response to environmental and ... the cells which reside in the basal layer of the epidermis. The most efficient therapy is the surgical removal if the lesion is ... therapeutic stressors in normal and transformed cell phenotypes. This chapter provides an extended, updated biological status ... CMM is the result of the uncontrolled proliferation of melanocytes, ...
These dysregulated target genes contribute to tumorigenesis by altering signaling pathways that affect proliferation, cell ... PAX3-expressing cells detach from the dermomyotome and then Pax3 expression is turned off as Myf5 and MyoD1 expression is ... In these wild-type PAX3-expressing cancers, PAX3 function impacts on the control of proliferation, apoptosis, differentiation ... "Role of Pax3 acetylation in the regulation of Hes1 and Neurog2". primary. Molecular Biology of the Cell. 22 (4): 503-12. doi: ...
We have found that these cells can also be present in adult brain tumors and form highly infiltrating gliomas in the brain of ... Differentiation of the neurospheres from one adult glioblastoma decreased nestin expression and increased that of glial and ... Neurospheres were grown from three adult brain tumors and two pediatric gliomas. ... suggesting that PTEN and CDKN2A alterations are key genetic events in tumor initiating cells with neural precursor properties. ...
The miR-221/miR-222 microRNA family has been shown to be related to the neoplastic process in a number of different types of ... investigated to explore its in vitro and in vivo impact on the oncogenic phenotype and the expression of various target genes. ... The expression of Cip/Kip cell cycle regulator p27 in tumors was analyzed with immunohistochemistry. RESULTS The expression ... The ectopic expression of miR-221 or of miR-222 increased growth and anchorage-independent colony formation of OSCC cell lines ...
O-GlcNAcylation alters its protein-protein interactions and genomic occupancy to modulate gene expression in pluripotent cells. ... Mannino M et al. Differential sensitivity of Glioma stem cells to Aurora kinase A inhibitors: implications for stem cell ... Genomic Instability Is Induced by Persistent Proliferation of Cells Undergoing Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition. Cell Rep ... Christodoulidou A et al. The roles of telomerase in the generation of polyploidy during neoplastic cell growth. Neoplasia 15: ...
Gene Therapy and Targeted Toxins for Glioma. Current Gene Therapy. * Topoisomerase I Inhibitors in the Treatment of Primary CNS ... Riluzole Inhibits Proliferation, Migration and Cell Cycle Progression and Induces Apoptosis in Tumor Cells of Various Origins. ... Differentiation of High-grade Gliomas from Brain Metastases Using Tissue Similarity Maps (TSMs) Based Relative Cerebral Blood ... Glycobiology in Malignant Gliomas: Expression and Functions of Galectins and Possible Therapeutic Options. Current ...
  • Despite intensive clinical investigation and significant technical advances in surgical and radiation treatment, the impact on clinical outcome for patients with malignant gliomas is disappointing. (
  • Control mice (n = 3) were injected with 1 × 10e5 neural stem/progenitor cells obtained from C57BL6J mice with previously described methods . (
  • To address the role of Myc in this process, we expressed different forms of the proto-oncogene Myc in multipotent neural progenitor cells (NPCs) using retroviral transduction. (
  • and proliferation, producing downstream progenitor cells that drive tumor growth. (
  • An alternative model supports an aberrant epigenetic modification of gene sets as the first occurring hit, which either leads to retaining stem-cell features in hematopoietic stem or progenitor cells, or reprograms stemness into more committed lymphocytes, followed by secondary chromosomal translocations that eventually drive lymphoma development. (
  • Accumulating lines of experimental evidence have indicated that specific age-related pathophysiological changes in tissue-resident adult stem/progenitor cells, and their differentiated progenies can contribute of a major fashion to the chronological aging (1, 2, 5, 6). (
  • Importantly, the occurrence of these age-related molecular events in adult stem/progenitor cells with stem cell-like properties, including a high self-renewal capacity and their differentiated progenies combined with the changes in their local microenvironment may lead to their loss of functional properties (fig. 1) (1, 5, 7, 8). (
  • In particular, the telomere shortening and enhanced expression and activation of different tumor suppressor genes typically occur during the aging process of adult stem/progenitor cells and their progenies (Fig. 1) (1, 5, 7, 8). (
  • Hence, the occurrence of these cellular dysfunctions results in a decrease of tissue regenerative capacity and decline or loss of the number of adult stem/progenitor cells and their differentiated progenies, irreversible tissue degeneration and disease development with advancing age (1, 5, 8). (
  • In studying molecular mechanisms controlling development of neural stem and related cells we have established a novel universal signal transduction mechanism -Feed-Forward-And Gate network module that effects the differentiation of stem cells and neural progenitor cells. (
  • In addition, a comparison with squamous cell carcinoma has not been reported previously. (
  • CD-10 immunostaining differentiates superficial basal cell carcinoma from cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma. (
  • Basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma are common entities in clinical practice. (
  • In this study, the role of HPV in 72 patients with anal squamous cell carcinoma was investigated. (
  • nevertheless, its function in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) remained uncertain. (
  • Downregulation of miR-221 enhances the sensitivity of human oral squamous cell carcinoma cells to Adriamycin through upregulation of TIMP3 expression. (
  • CTLA-4 gene and susceptibility to human papillomavirus-16-associated cervical squamous cell carcinoma in Taiwanese women. (
  • MicroRNA expression ratio is predictive of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. (
  • Mature miR-184 as Potential Oncogenic microRNA of Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Tongue. (
  • Alteration of microRNA profiles in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck cell lines by human papillomavirus. (
  • By analysis of the development of LMP transgenic mice we identified the squamous cell carcinoma in intestine and stomach organs. (
  • In a hospital-based study of non-Hispanic whites, we genotyped CASP8 -652 6N del and 302H variants in 1,023 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) and 1,052 cancer-free controls. (
  • In this study, we tested the hypothesis that common polymorphisms in the coding and promoter regions of PIN1 are associated with risk of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN). (
  • Tumor associated macrophages induce epithelial to mesenchymal transition via the EGFR/ERK1/2 pathway in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. (
  • Authors: Gao L, Zhang W, Zhong WQ, Liu ZJ, Li HM, Yu ZL, Zhao YF Abstract The development of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is closely associated with inflammation. (
  • Identification of a subpopulation of cells with cancer stem cell properties in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. (
  • The endothelial cell plays a crucial role in PDGF biology in the activation and pericyte response of supplying vasculature in a manner that is reflected in such phenomena as chemotaxis and increased tumor blood supply. (
  • Growth factors that are known to induce PSC activation such as transforming growth factor-h1 (TGF-h1), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) are secreted by pancreatic cancer cells [ 5 , 6 ]. (
  • Mature vasculature contains an endothelial cell lining with a surrounding sheath of pericytes/vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). (
  • Proliferation of vessel-forming endothelial cells is a limiting factor for tumor growth [ 4 - 7 ]. (
  • In contrast to healthy vessels, tumor vessels are immature, often mal-shaped, irregular, and have a tortuous structure with a leaky endothelial cell lining [ 13 , 14 ]. (
  • Pericytes contact endothelial cells and play an active role in endothelial cell function and blood flow regulation [ 15 - 17 ]. (
  • Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) signaling drives angiogenesis and recruitment of perivascular cells to surround the newly formed blood vessels [ 24 ]. (
  • Cytokine array and western blotting using tumor-conditioned media displayed modulated secretory levels of various cytokines including granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-8, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor-α, angiogenin, vascular endothelial growth factor and PDGF-BB in MMP-2 knockdown cells. (
  • To study blood-retina barrier (BRB) regulation, we sought to establish neuronal microvascular endothelial cells (ECs) with expanded life span by ectopic expression of the human telomerase gene (hTERT). (
  • Primary cultures of human brain and bovine retinal microvascular endothelial cells (HBECs and BRECs, respectively) were transfected with the catalytic component of human telomerase human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT), and colonies were selected with puromycin. (
  • The endothelial origin of these cells was confirmed by immunocytochemistry. (
  • Recently, studies in gene targeted mice have begun to yield decisive information regarding the roles of GSK-3 isoforms in neural development. (
  • To test their neoplastic potential we injected BT1 and BT2 (a central neurocytoma) neurospheres into nude mice. (
  • Adherent cells from the same two patients were also injected i.c. and s.c. into nude mice. (
  • Two of three mice injected i.c. with BT1 adherent cells, but none of those injected with BT2 cells, developed a brain tumor that were lethal 4 and 5 months after injection, respectively. (
  • Nude mice were also injected with 1 × 10e5 BT1 adherent cells into the brain (n = 3) or subcutaneously (n = 3). (
  • Cells from BT2 were injected with similar procedures into nude mice. (
  • 2005). Intestinal stem cells are the primary source of new epithelial cells in intestinal crypts of humans and mice, and these crypts undergo complete turnover in 4-5 days (van der Flier and Clevers, 2009). (
  • For example, muscle stem cells (satellite cells) are required for the regeneration of myofibers following injury or transplantation in humans and mice (Schultz et al. (
  • In this model, cells are directly implanted into the ventral lobe of the prostate in Balb/c athymic mice, and allowed to progress for 4-6 weeks. (
  • An ILK pseudogene has been found in mice, predicted gene 6263 (Gm6263). (
  • Shapiro, Marks, Whitaker-Azmitia: Increased clusterin expression in old but not young adult S100B transgenic mice: evidence of neuropathological aging in a model of Down Syndrome. (
  • 1 - 3 Although this hypothesis was postulated in early reports, 4 - 6 definite proof of their existence came from recent studies in leukemia, where among the complete tumor cell population only a small subset of cells could initiate, regenerate and maintain the leukemia after transplantation into immunocompromised mice. (
  • A human colon cancer cell capable of initiating tumour growth in immunodeficient mice. (
  • A cell initiating human acute myeloid leukaemia after transplantation into SCID mice. (
  • Deconstructing breast cancer cell biology and the mechanisms of multidrug resistance. (
  • In addition to changes in the biology of postmitotic cells, aspects of mammalian tissue aging may be attributable to a loss of regenerative capacity of adult stem cells. (
  • 1 The Key Laboratory of Stem Cell Biology, CAS Center for Excellence in Molecular Cell Science, Institute of Health Sciences, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences/Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, China. (
  • 3 State Key Laboratory of Molecular Biology, CAS Center for Excellence in Molecular Cell Science, Shanghai Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, China. (
  • Address correspondence to: Jun Qin, The Key Laboratory of Stem Cell Biology, CAS Center for Excellence in Molecular Cell Science, Institute of Health Science, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 320 Yue Yang Road, Shanghai 200031, China. (
  • It is our goal to describe these methods in a highly accessible manner so that the procedures can be successfully performed in research laboratories even just with basic cell biology setup. (
  • miRNA biology has added an intricate complicacy in the arena of gene regulation, owing to its versatile modes of regulation. (
  • The vinegar fly, Drosophila melanogaster, has been a cornerstone of genetic analysis and cell and developmental biology research for over 100 years. (
  • Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology 28: 70-77. (
  • 9 - 11 The concept of cancer stem cells is not only changing our current understanding of cancer biology, but may also have profound consequences on cancer diagnostics and therapeutics. (
  • of Science (USA), Integrative Biology, Molecular Biology of the Cell, Journal of Cell Biology, Journal of Biological Chemistry, Journal of Physical Chemistry (etc. (
  • Role of cancer stem cells in cancer biology and therapy. (
  • Molecular biology of breast cancer stem cells: potential clinical applications. (
  • Tenascin C (TN-C) is a glycoprotein that in humans is encoded by the TNC gene. (
  • For example, stem cells present in the bone marrow are the source for continuously replenished erythrocytes, platelets and leukocytes in the blood of humans and rodents (Spangrude et al. (
  • for example, the expression of 14-3-3ε has been identified to be downregulated in gastric cancer ( 10 ) and pediatric astrocytoma ( 11 ), whereas it is upregulated in hepatocellular carcinoma ( 12 , 13 ), renal cancer ( 14 ) and breast cancer ( 15 ). (
  • DR reduced microvessel density and VEGF expression in the astrocytoma, while increasing recruitment of pericytes, positive for alpha-smooth muscle actin ( α -SMA). (
  • Functional network analysis reveals extended gliomagenesis pathway maps and three novel MYC-interacting genes in human gliomas. (
  • Olig2-regulated lineage-restricted pathway controls replication competence in neural stem cells and malignant glioma. (
  • TN-C also interacts with one or more TN-C receptors on cells which activate and repress the same signal transduction pathway. (
  • Genetic variants in PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway genes contribute to gastric cancer risk. (
  • Taken together, it is proposed that dFMRP cooperates with Piwi in maintaining genome integrity by regulating heterochromatic silencing in somatic cells and suppressing transposon activity via the piRNA pathway in germlines. (
  • Cancer cells more readily use glycolysis, an inefficient metabolic pathway for energy metabolism, even when sufficient oxygen is available. (
  • Depending on the supply of oxygen for the cells, pyruvate is either reduced to lactate in the absence of oxygen via an anaerobic glycolysis pathway, or oxidized to yield acetyl-coenzyme A in the presence of oxygen and then oxidized completely to CO 2 and H 2 O via citric acid cycle. (
  • Three possible explanations for tumor cell use of the glycolysis pathway, an inefficient metabolic pathway, have been proposed [ 8 , 9 ]. (
  • Finally, NADPH, derived from the enhanced pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) due to the accumulation of glycolytic intermediates, enables cancer cells to maintain adequate levels of reduced forms of glutathione for resistance to chemotherapeutic agents. (
  • Arrestin, Beta 1 (ARRB1), the host gene of miR-326, was also downregulated in GBM and interestingly, the expression of ARRB1 was also alleviated upon inhibition of the PI3 kinase pathway, indicating similar regulation pattern. (
  • Jain and colleagues ( 7 ) measured the consumption and release profiles of 219 small-molecule metabolites from cell culture media in the NCI-60 cancer cell line panel, integrated these data with gene expression, and found that glycine consumption and the mitochondrial glycine biosynthetic pathway correlated with cellular proliferation rate ( 7, 8 ). (
  • Homologous pairing of the PDGF ligand polypeptides contrasts with the heterologous pairing of the A-B polypeptides of the PDGF ligand in an extensive cross-talk of pathway effects and of receptor-receptor interactivity within the tumor cell membrane. (
  • The Sonic Hedgehog pathway stimulates prostate tumor growth by paracrine signaling and recapitulates embryonic gene expression in tumor myofibroblasts. (
  • Previously, 14-3-3ε has been reported to bind with heat shock factor 1 (HSF1) through the extracellular signal regulated kinase/glycogen synthase kinase 3/14-3-3ε pathway, thus suppressing HSF1 activity during cellular proliferation ( 9 ). (
  • It also has been reported that there is cross-talk between Notch-1 and another major cell growth and apoptotic regulatory pathway, the nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) pathway, which is down-regulated by both curcumin and reduction of Notch-1 levels. (
  • Further, cDNA PCR array indicated potential negative regulation of Janus kinase/Stat3 pathway in pM-treated cells. (
  • Essential oil activated the caspase-dependent apoptotic pathway, induced a rapid and transient activation of Akt and Erk1/2, and suppressed levels of cyclin D1 cdk4 expression in cultured pancreatic cancer cells. (
  • Our study found that SOX4 acts as a tumor suppressor in GBM cells by induce cell cycle arrest and inhibiting cell growth. (
  • Efforts to determine how MG-63 cells could overcome the decorin-induced cytostatic effect established that decorin in MG-63 cells does not induce p21 expression nor does it cause protracted retraction and inactivation of the epidermal growth factor receptor. (
  • DNC potentially can induce DNA hypomethylation and reexpression of silenced tumor suppressor genes in HCC. (
  • More specifically, the bioactive natural product, resveratrol (3, 5, 4'-trihydroxy-trans-stilbene), a stilbenoid, polyphenol phytochemical present in red wine, berries, grape and peanuts has been observed to induce the pleiotropic effects to depend on the cell-type and drug concentration. (
  • In contrast, when these same cells use either α9β1 or αvβ6 integrins to adhere to the same third FN type III repeat, cell spreading is attenuated and activation of these signaling mediators and cell growth is suppressed or fails to occur. (
  • Further, GSK-3β2 is upregulated in PC12 cells when induced by nerve growth factor to differentiate into a neuronal phenotype ( Goold and Gordon-Weeks, 2001 ). (
  • From a functional standpoint, PAX3c, PAX3d, and PAX3h stimulate activities such as cell growth whereas PAX3e and PAX3g inhibit these activities, and PAX3a and PAX3b show no activity or inhibit these endpoints. (
  • miR-221 and miR-222 expression increased the growth and tumorigenesis of oral carcinoma cells. (
  • MiR-200b, a member of the microRNA-200 family, has been identified to be capable of suppressing glioma cell growth through targeting CREB1 or CD133. (
  • Dabrafenib may stop the growth of tumor cells by blocking some of the enzymes needed for cell growth. (
  • SOX4 inhibited the growth of GBM cell line LN229, A172G and U87MG, partly via the activation of p53-p21 signaling and down-regulation of phosphorylated AKT1. (
  • We showed that SOX4 inhibited the growth of GBM cells. (
  • Several cytokines and growth factors are involved in the tight regulation of either antitumor immunity or immunosuppressive tumor-promoting inflammation within the tumor microenvironment (TME), of which transforming growth factor beta (TGF- β ) is of particular importance. (
  • We show that ectopic expression of GATA6 , together with FGFR2 isoform IIIb, increases anchorage-independent growth in immortalized Barrett's esophageal cells. (
  • Conversely, siRNA-mediated silencing of GATA6 significantly reduces both cell proliferation and anchorage-independent growth in EAC cells. (
  • Initially, nonmalignant human mammary epithelial cells (MCF-10A) were cultured within a reconstituted basement membrane (BM) where they formed three-dimensional (3-D) polarized, growth-attenuated, multicellular acini, enveloped by a continuous endogenous BM. (
  • RATIONALE: Drugs used in chemotherapy, such as trabectedin, work in different ways to stop the growth of tumor cells, either by killing the cells or by stopping them from dividing. (
  • MG-63 osteosarcoma cells were found to constitutively produce decorin, and furthermore, to be resistant to decorin-induced growth arrest. (
  • The paracrine and autocrine functionalities and dysfunctionalities of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) receptor-alpha and receptor-beta constitute a predominantly mesenchymal axis with stromal cells such as fibroblasts, pericytes and smooth muscle cells. (
  • It is indeed in such milieu that PDGF ligands and receptors operate in an overall system mechanism that enhances in particular both the growth/proliferation activities of tumor cells. (
  • High Resolution Live Cell Imaging system to record cell growth and proliferation. (
  • We confirmed that these signals were significantly up-regulatedin NF1-deficient neural cells via the activation of MAPK/PI3K-AKT signaling in responseto growth factors. (
  • Abnormal cell growth (neoplasia) is the biological endpoint of the disease. (
  • These cells show similarity with the property of stem cells like infinite cell growth, multipotency, asymmetric cell division (25). (
  • Experiments were performed to examine the responsiveness of decorin-overexpressing rat ASMCs to platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), 2 growth factors that affect cell proliferation and extracellular matrix production in atherosclerosis. (
  • However, these effects of decorin were not apparent at 48 or 72 hours after plating and did not result in reduced growth of decorin-overexpressing cells in response to serum and PDGF-BB. (
  • In contrast, the growth response of decorin-overexpressing ASMCs to TGF-β1, as well as the expression of TGF-β1-responsive genes, such as plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and versican (an extracellular matrix proteoglycan), was diminished. (
  • 15 16 The growth-inhibitory effect of decorin in malignant cell lines involves an increase in the cyclin kinase inhibitor p21. (
  • 15 17 Moreover, the upregulation of decorin expression in nongrowing confluent arterial smooth muscle cells (ASMCs) 18 suggests a relationship between the expression of decorin and growth quiescence in ASMCs. (
  • Accordingly, targeting tumor vessel proliferation decreases blood flow and nutrient availability, thus slowing tumor growth [ 8 ]. (
  • Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) coordinates pericyte coverage of vascular sprouts through PDGF-R β on vascular smooth muscle cells [ 27 ]. (
  • We hypothesized that inhibition of CCN6 might result in the loss of a growth regulatory function that protects mammary epithelial cells from the tumorigenic effects of growth factors, particularly IGF-1. (
  • Inhibition of CCN6 expression promoted anchorage-independent growth of HME cells and rendered them more responsive to the growth effects of IGF-1, which was coupled with the increased phosphorylation of IGF-1 receptor and insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1). (
  • In terms of overall functionality a link is created between autocrine malignant epithelial cells and glial cells in a manner that is further compounded by fusion receptor genes and the mutational and amplification dysfunctionalities of the receptor-ligand genes. (
  • Glial cells secrete alanine and lactate to fuel neuronal mitochondria , and lack of glial glycolysis specifically in the adult brain causes neurodegeneration. (
  • The human tenascin C gene, TN-C, is located on chromosome 9 with location of the cytogenic band at the 9q33. (
  • The ILK gene is located on chromosome 11 at position 15. (
  • The first human Eag (hEag), located on chromosome 1q 32-41, was cloned from cultured myoblasts at the onset of fusion, but was absent in adult skeletal muscle, [ 19 , 20 ] indicating that expression of hEag is linked to the early stages of syncytial myotube formation. (
  • COX gene can be divided into four groups: A, B, C and D according to the sequence similarity and the position on chromosome. (
  • Located in 7 (HOXA), 17 (HOXB), 12 (HOXC), 2 (HOXD) on chromosome, according to the similarity on the chromosome and gene position between ethnic sequences can be divided into 13 groups, the HOX gene of mammalian animal has been identified a total of 39. (
  • HOXA13 gene is a member of the HOXA family, 5' is located at the end of chromosome 7, under normal circumstances, plays an important role in the formation and organization of blood vessels on the embryonic limb development and reproductive system. (
  • Other errors can occur in mitosis or in meiosis that lead to faulty DNA material in daughter cells, such as non-disjunction of chromosomes or part of a chromosome attaching to another chromosome during separation. (
  • Felsberg J, Wolter M, Seul H, Friedensdorf B, Goppert M, Sabel MC, Reifenberger G (2010) Rapid and sensitive assessment of the IDH1 and IDH2 mutation status in cerebral gliomas based on DNA pyrosequencing. (
  • These independent cohorts from Canada and Australia show mutation frequencies of 9-18% averaging to about 12% within the ATM gene. (
  • While leukemia-originating stem cells are critical in the initiation and maintenance of leukemias, the existence of similar cell populations that may generate B-cell lymphoma upon mutation remains uncertain. (
  • Conversely, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and sporadic Burkitt's lymphoma derive from B lymphocytes that acquire translocations through IG -hyper-mutation or class-switching errors within the germinal center. (
  • miRNA expression profiles were obtained using the Agilent Microarray platform with miRBase, which consists of 1,368 Homo sapiens (hsa)-miRNA candidates. (