All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
A nucleoside that substitutes for thymidine in DNA and thus acts as an antimetabolite. It causes breaks in chromosomes and has been proposed as an antiviral and antineoplastic agent. It has been given orphan drug status for use in the treatment of primary brain tumors.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
A CELL CYCLE and tumor growth marker which can be readily detected using IMMUNOCYTOCHEMISTRY methods. Ki-67 is a nuclear antigen present only in the nuclei of cycling cells.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Protein encoded by the bcl-1 gene which plays a critical role in regulating the cell cycle. Overexpression of cyclin D1 is the result of bcl-1 rearrangement, a t(11;14) translocation, and is implicated in various neoplasms.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
A protein-serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION in response to GROWTH FACTORS or INSULIN. It plays a major role in cell metabolism, growth, and survival as a core component of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Three isoforms have been described in mammalian cells.
The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.
The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.
A cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor that coordinates the activation of CYCLIN and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES during the CELL CYCLE. It interacts with active CYCLIN D complexed to CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 4 in proliferating cells, while in arrested cells it binds and inhibits CYCLIN E complexed to CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 2.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
An increase in the number of cells in a tissue or organ without tumor formation. It differs from HYPERTROPHY, which is an increase in bulk without an increase in the number of cells.
Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Endogenous or exogenous substances which inhibit the normal growth of human and animal cells or micro-organisms, as distinguished from those affecting plant growth (= PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS).
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that is widely expressed and plays a role in regulation of MEIOSIS; MITOSIS; and post mitotic functions in differentiated cells. The extracellular signal regulated MAP kinases are regulated by a broad variety of CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS and can be activated by certain CARCINOGENS.
Non-striated, elongated, spindle-shaped cells found lining the digestive tract, uterus, and blood vessels. They are derived from specialized myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SMOOTH MUSCLE).
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Substances that stimulate mitosis and lymphocyte transformation. They include not only substances associated with LECTINS, but also substances from streptococci (associated with streptolysin S) and from strains of alpha-toxin-producing staphylococci. (Stedman, 25th ed)
The artificial induction of GENE SILENCING by the use of RNA INTERFERENCE to reduce the expression of a specific gene. It includes the use of DOUBLE-STRANDED RNA, such as SMALL INTERFERING RNA and RNA containing HAIRPIN LOOP SEQUENCE, and ANTI-SENSE OLIGONUCLEOTIDES.
Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.
Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-myc genes. They are normally involved in nucleic acid metabolism and in mediating the cellular response to growth factors. Elevated and deregulated (constitutive) expression of c-myc proteins can cause tumorigenesis.
A cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor that mediates TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P53-dependent CELL CYCLE arrest. p21 interacts with a range of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES and associates with PROLIFERATING CELL NUCLEAR ANTIGEN and CASPASE 3.
Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
An intracellular signaling system involving the MAP kinase cascades (three-membered protein kinase cascades). Various upstream activators, which act in response to extracellular stimuli, trigger the cascades by activating the first member of a cascade, MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKKs). Activated MAPKKKs phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES which in turn phosphorylate the MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs). The MAPKs then act on various downstream targets to affect gene expression. In mammals, there are several distinct MAP kinase pathways including the ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) pathway, the SAPK/JNK (stress-activated protein kinase/c-jun kinase) pathway, and the p38 kinase pathway. There is some sharing of components among the pathways depending on which stimulus originates activation of the cascade.
A 44-kDa extracellular signal-regulated MAP kinase that may play a role the initiation and regulation of MEIOSIS; MITOSIS; and postmitotic functions in differentiated cells. It phosphorylates a number of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS; and MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS.
The period of the CELL CYCLE preceding DNA REPLICATION in S PHASE. Subphases of G1 include "competence" (to respond to growth factors), G1a (entry into G1), G1b (progression), and G1c (assembly). Progression through the G1 subphases is effected by limiting growth factors, nutrients, or inhibitors.
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A proline-directed serine/threonine protein kinase which mediates signal transduction from the cell surface to the nucleus. Activation of the enzyme by phosphorylation leads to its translocation into the nucleus where it acts upon specific transcription factors. p40 MAPK and p41 MAPK are isoforms.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Mitogenic peptide growth hormone carried in the alpha-granules of platelets. It is released when platelets adhere to traumatized tissues. Connective tissue cells near the traumatized region respond by initiating the process of replication.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
A single-chain polypeptide growth factor that plays a significant role in the process of WOUND HEALING and is a potent inducer of PHYSIOLOGIC ANGIOGENESIS. Several different forms of the human protein exist ranging from 18-24 kDa in size due to the use of alternative start sites within the fgf-2 gene. It has a 55 percent amino acid residue identity to FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 1 and has potent heparin-binding activity. The growth factor is an extremely potent inducer of DNA synthesis in a variety of cell types from mesoderm and neuroectoderm lineages. It was originally named basic fibroblast growth factor based upon its chemical properties and to distinguish it from acidic fibroblast growth factor (FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 1).
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
Signal molecules that are involved in the control of cell growth and differentiation.
Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.
A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.
A pathologic process consisting of the proliferation of blood vessels in abnormal tissues or in abnormal positions.
A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.
Phase of the CELL CYCLE following G1 and preceding G2 when the entire DNA content of the nucleus is replicated. It is achieved by bidirectional replication at multiple sites along each chromosome.
Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.
Proteins that are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. Deficiencies or abnormalities in these proteins may lead to unregulated cell growth and tumor development.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A superfamily of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that are activated by diverse stimuli via protein kinase cascades. They are the final components of the cascades, activated by phosphorylation by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES, which in turn are activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES).
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.
An expression of the number of mitoses found in a stated number of cells.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
A 6-kDa polypeptide growth factor initially discovered in mouse submaxillary glands. Human epidermal growth factor was originally isolated from urine based on its ability to inhibit gastric secretion and called urogastrone. Epidermal growth factor exerts a wide variety of biological effects including the promotion of proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal and EPITHELIAL CELLS. It is synthesized as a transmembrane protein which can be cleaved to release a soluble active form.
A large family of regulatory proteins that function as accessory subunits to a variety of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES. They generally function as ENZYME ACTIVATORS that drive the CELL CYCLE through transitions between phases. A subset of cyclins may also function as transcriptional regulators.
Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.
An in situ method for detecting areas of DNA which are nicked during APOPTOSIS. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase is used to add labeled dUTP, in a template-independent manner, to the 3 prime OH ends of either single- or double-stranded DNA. The terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase nick end labeling, or TUNEL, assay labels apoptosis on a single-cell level, making it more sensitive than agarose gel electrophoresis for analysis of DNA FRAGMENTATION.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs, 21-25 nucleotides in length generated from single-stranded microRNA gene transcripts by the same RIBONUCLEASE III, Dicer, that produces small interfering RNAs (RNA, SMALL INTERFERING). They become part of the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX and repress the translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) of target RNA by binding to homologous 3'UTR region as an imperfect match. The small temporal RNAs (stRNAs), let-7 and lin-4, from C. elegans, are the first 2 miRNAs discovered, and are from a class of miRNAs involved in developmental timing.
Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
A multi-functional catenin that participates in CELL ADHESION and nuclear signaling. Beta catenin binds CADHERINS and helps link their cytoplasmic tails to the ACTIN in the CYTOSKELETON via ALPHA CATENIN. It also serves as a transcriptional co-activator and downstream component of WNT PROTEIN-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS.
Product of the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor gene. It is a nuclear phosphoprotein hypothesized to normally act as an inhibitor of cell proliferation. Rb protein is absent in retinoblastoma cell lines. It also has been shown to form complexes with the adenovirus E1A protein, the SV40 T antigen, and the human papilloma virus E7 protein.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Ability of neoplasms to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue.
Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
In vivo methods of screening investigative anticancer drugs, biologic response modifiers or radiotherapies. Human tumor tissue or cells are transplanted into mice or rats followed by tumor treatment regimens. A variety of outcomes are monitored to assess antitumor effectiveness.
Restoration of integrity to traumatized tissue.
The original member of the family of endothelial cell growth factors referred to as VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTORS. Vascular endothelial growth factor-A was originally isolated from tumor cells and referred to as "tumor angiogenesis factor" and "vascular permeability factor". Although expressed at high levels in certain tumor-derived cells it is produced by a wide variety of cell types. In addition to stimulating vascular growth and vascular permeability it may play a role in stimulating VASODILATION via NITRIC OXIDE-dependent pathways. Alternative splicing of the mRNA for vascular endothelial growth factor A results in several isoforms of the protein being produced.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
A cell surface receptor involved in regulation of cell growth and differentiation. It is specific for EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR and EGF-related peptides including TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR ALPHA; AMPHIREGULIN; and HEPARIN-BINDING EGF-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR. The binding of ligand to the receptor causes activation of its intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity and rapid internalization of the receptor-ligand complex into the cell.
Methods used for detecting the amplified DNA products from the polymerase chain reaction as they accumulate instead of at the end of the reaction.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Regulatory signaling systems that control the progression through the CELL CYCLE. They ensure that the cell has completed, in the correct order and without mistakes, all the processes required to replicate the GENOME and CYTOPLASM, and divide them equally between two daughter cells. If cells sense they have not completed these processes or that the environment does not have the nutrients and growth hormones in place to proceed, then the cells are restrained (or "arrested") until the processes are completed and growth conditions are suitable.
A continuous cell line of high contact-inhibition established from NIH Swiss mouse embryo cultures. The cells are useful for DNA transfection and transformation studies. (From ATCC [Internet]. Virginia: American Type Culture Collection; c2002 [cited 2002 Sept 26]. Available from
Formation of NEURONS which involves the differentiation and division of STEM CELLS in which one or both of the daughter cells become neurons.
The physiological renewal, repair, or replacement of tissue.
Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.
One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.
Methods for maintaining or growing CELLS in vitro.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Short fragments of DNA or RNA that are used to alter the function of target RNAs or DNAs to which they hybridize.
Tumors or cancer of the COLON.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Transplantation between animals of different species.
Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.
A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to INTERLEUKIN-6 family members. STAT3 is constitutively activated in a variety of TUMORS and is a major downstream transducer for the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR GP130.
A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.
Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE.
Substances that increase the risk of NEOPLASMS in humans or animals. Both genotoxic chemicals, which affect DNA directly, and nongenotoxic chemicals, which induce neoplasms by other mechanism, are included.
A well-characterized basic peptide believed to be secreted by the liver and to circulate in the blood. It has growth-regulating, insulin-like, and mitogenic activities. This growth factor has a major, but not absolute, dependence on GROWTH HORMONE. It is believed to be mainly active in adults in contrast to INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR II, which is a major fetal growth factor.
Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.
Regulatory signaling systems that control the progression of the CELL CYCLE through the G1 PHASE and allow transition to S PHASE when the cells are ready to undergo DNA REPLICATION. DNA DAMAGE, or the deficiencies in specific cellular components or nutrients may cause the cells to halt before progressing through G1 phase.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Eukaryotic cell line obtained in a quiescent or stationary phase which undergoes conversion to a state of unregulated growth in culture, resembling an in vitro tumor. It occurs spontaneously or through interaction with viruses, oncogenes, radiation, or drugs/chemicals.
A serine threonine kinase that controls a wide range of growth-related cellular processes. The protein is referred to as the target of RAPAMYCIN due to the discovery that SIROLIMUS (commonly known as rapamycin) forms an inhibitory complex with TACROLIMUS BINDING PROTEIN 1A that blocks the action of its enzymatic activity.
Protein kinases that control cell cycle progression in all eukaryotes and require physical association with CYCLINS to achieve full enzymatic activity. Cyclin-dependent kinases are regulated by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation events.
A quiescent state of cells during G1 PHASE.
A 50-kDa protein that complexes with CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 2 in the late G1 phase of the cell cycle.
The development of new BLOOD VESSELS during the restoration of BLOOD CIRCULATION during the healing process.
Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).
The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
The termination of the cell's ability to carry out vital functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, responsiveness, and adaptability.
Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.
The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.
Epidermal cells which synthesize keratin and undergo characteristic changes as they move upward from the basal layers of the epidermis to the cornified (horny) layer of the skin. Successive stages of differentiation of the keratinocytes forming the epidermal layers are basal cell, spinous or prickle cell, and the granular cell.
Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
Self-renewing cells that generate the main phenotypes of the nervous system in both the embryo and adult. Neural stem cells are precursors to both NEURONS and NEUROGLIA.
CULTURE MEDIA free of serum proteins but including the minimal essential substances required for cell growth. This type of medium avoids the presence of extraneous substances that may affect cell proliferation or unwanted activation of cells.
Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.
Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
Agents that inhibit PROTEIN KINASES.
A cyclin subtype that is specific for CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 4 and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 6. Unlike most cyclins, cyclin D expression is not cyclical, but rather it is expressed in response to proliferative signals. Cyclin D may therefore play a role in cellular responses to mitogenic signals.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
Culture media containing biologically active components obtained from previously cultured cells or tissues that have released into the media substances affecting certain cell functions (e.g., growth, lysis).
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the sis gene (GENES, SIS). c-sis proteins make up the B chain of PLATELET-DERIVED GROWTH FACTOR. Overexpression of c-sis causes tumorigenesis.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
A cyclin D subtype which is regulated by GATA4 TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR. Experiments using KNOCKOUT MICE suggest a role for cyclin D2 in granulosa cell proliferation and gonadal development.
The thin membranous structure supporting the adjoining glomerular capillaries. It is composed of GLOMERULAR MESANGIAL CELLS and their EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.
Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.
Drugs that are chemically similar to naturally occurring metabolites, but differ enough to interfere with normal metabolic pathways. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p2033)
The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.
The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.
Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.
Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.
Repair or renewal of hepatic tissue.
A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Membrane proteins encoded by the BCL-2 GENES and serving as potent inhibitors of cell death by APOPTOSIS. The proteins are found on mitochondrial, microsomal, and NUCLEAR MEMBRANE sites within many cell types. Overexpression of bcl-2 proteins, due to a translocation of the gene, is associated with follicular lymphoma.
A meshwork-like substance found within the extracellular space and in association with the basement membrane of the cell surface. It promotes cellular proliferation and provides a supporting structure to which cells or cell lysates in culture dishes adhere.
Any of several ways in which living cells of an organism communicate with one another, whether by direct contact between cells or by means of chemical signals carried by neurotransmitter substances, hormones, and cyclic AMP.
Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Mode of communication wherein a bound hormone affects the function of the cell type that produced the hormone.
A cyclin subtype that has specificity for CDC2 PROTEIN KINASE and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 2. It plays a role in progression of the CELL CYCLE through G1/S and G2/M phase transitions.
The decrease in the cell's ability to proliferate with the passing of time. Each cell is programmed for a certain number of cell divisions and at the end of that time proliferation halts. The cell enters a quiescent state after which it experiences CELL DEATH via the process of APOPTOSIS.
The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.
A key regulator of CELL CYCLE progression. It partners with CYCLIN E to regulate entry into S PHASE and also interacts with CYCLIN A to phosphorylate RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN. Its activity is inhibited by CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P27 and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P21.
A short pro-domain caspase that plays an effector role in APOPTOSIS. It is activated by INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 9. Isoforms of this protein exist due to multiple alternative splicing of its MESSENGER RNA.
Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.

Emerging targets: molecular mechanisms of cell contact-mediated growth control. (1/45748)

Contact inhibition of cell proliferation evokes a unique cellular program of growth arrest compared with stress, age, or other physical constraints. The last decade of research on genes activated by cell-cell contact has uncovered features of transmembrane signaling, cytoskeletal reorganization, and transcriptional control that initiate and maintain a quiescent phenotype. This review will focus on mechanisms controlling contact inhibition of cell proliferation, highlighting specific gene expression responses that are activated by cell-cell contact. Although a temporal framework for imposition of these mechanisms has not yet been well described, contact inhibition of cell proliferation clearly requires their coordinated function. Novel targets for intervention in proliferative disorders are emerging from these studies.  (+info)

Cell cycle dysregulation in oral cancer. (2/45748)

The dysregulation of the molecular events governing cell cycle control is emerging as a central theme of oral carcinogenesis. Regulatory pathways responding to extracellular signaling or intracellular stress and DNA damage converge on the cell cycle apparatus. Abrogation of mitogenic and anti-mitogenic response regulatory proteins, such as the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein (pRB), cyclin D1, cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 6, and CDK inhibitors (p21(WAF1/CIP1), p27(KIP1), and p16(INK4a)), occur frequently in human oral cancers. Cellular responses to metabolic stress or genomic damage through p53 and related pathways that block cell cycle progression are also altered during oral carcinogenesis. In addition, new pathways and cell cycle regulatory proteins, such as p12(DOC-1), are being discovered. The multistep process of oral carcinogenesis likely involves functional alteration of cell cycle regulatory members combined with escape from cellular senescence and apoptotic signaling pathways. Detailing the molecular alterations and understanding the functional consequences of the dysregulation of the cell cycle apparatus in the malignant oral keratinocyte will uncover novel diagnostic and therapeutic approaches.  (+info)

Small-molecule modulators of Hedgehog signaling: identification and characterization of Smoothened agonists and antagonists. (3/45748)

BACKGROUND: The Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway is vital to animal development as it mediates the differentiation of multiple cell types during embryogenesis. In adults, Hh signaling can be activated to facilitate tissue maintenance and repair. Moreover, stimulation of the Hh pathway has shown therapeutic efficacy in models of neuropathy. The underlying mechanisms of Hh signal transduction remain obscure, however: little is known about the communication between the pathway suppressor Patched (Ptc), a multipass transmembrane protein that directly binds Hh, and the pathway activator Smoothened (Smo), a protein that is related to G-protein-coupled receptors and is capable of constitutive activation in the absence of Ptc. RESULTS: We have identified and characterized a synthetic non-peptidyl small molecule, Hh-Ag, that acts as an agonist of the Hh pathway. This Hh agonist promotes cell-type-specific proliferation and concentration-dependent differentiation in vitro, while in utero it rescues aspects of the Hh-signaling defect in Sonic hedgehog-null, but not Smo-null, mouse embryos. Biochemical studies with Hh-Ag, the Hh-signaling antagonist cyclopamine, and a novel Hh-signaling inhibitor Cur61414, reveal that the action of all these compounds is independent of Hh-protein ligand and of the Hh receptor Ptc, as each binds directly to Smo. CONCLUSIONS: Smo can have its activity modulated directly by synthetic small molecules. These studies raise the possibility that Hh signaling may be regulated by endogenous small molecules in vivo and provide potent compounds with which to test the therapeutic value of activating the Hh-signaling pathway in the treatment of traumatic and chronic degenerative conditions.  (+info)

Gleevec (STI-571) inhibits lung cancer cell growth (A549) and potentiates the cisplatin effect in vitro. (4/45748)

BACKGROUND: Gleevec (aka STI571, Imatinib) is a recently FDA approved anti-tumor drug for chronic myelogenous leukemia. Gleevec binds specifically to BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase and inhibit the tyrosine kinase activity. It cross-reacts with another two important membrane tyrosine kinase receptors, c-kit and PDGF receptors. We sought to investigate if Gleevec has a potential role in treatment of non-small cell lung cancer. RESULTS: We have shown that Gleevec alone can inhibit the A549 lung cancer cell growth in dose-dependent manner, and the optimal concentration of Gleevec inhibition of A549 cell growth is at the range of 2-3 microM (IC50). We have also shown that A549 cells are resistant to cisplatin treatment (IC50 64 microM). Addition of Gleevec to the A549 cells treated with cisplatin resulted in a synergistic cell killing effect, suggesting that Gleevec can potentiate the effect of cisplatin on A549 cells. We also showed that the A549 lung cancer cells expresses the platelet derived growth factor receptor alpha, and the inhibitory effects of Gleevec on A549 cells is likely mediated through inhibition of PDGFR alpha phosphorylation. We further tested 33 lung cancer patients' tumor specimens to see the frequency of PDGFR-alpha expression by tissue micro-arrays and immunohistochemistry. We found that 16 of the 18 squamous carcinomas (89%), 11 of the 11 adenocarcinomas (100%), and 4 of the 4 small cell lung cancers (100%) expressed PDGFR-alpha. CONCLUSION: These results suggest a potential role of Gleevec as adjuvant therapeutic agent for treatment of non-small cell lung cancer.  (+info)

Hepatocarcinogenic potential of the glucocorticoid antagonist RU486 in B6C3F1 mice: effect on apoptosis, expression of oncogenes and the tumor suppressor gene p53. (5/45748)

BACKGROUND: Glucocorticoids inhibit hepatocellular proliferation and modulate the expression of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes via mechanisms involving the glucocorticoid receptor. Glucocorticoids also produce a receptor-mediated inhibitory effect on both basal and hormone-stimulated expression of a newly discovered family of molecules important for shutting off cytokine action. We therefore hypothesized that inhibiting glucocorticoid receptors may disturb hepatocellular growth and apoptosis. Consequently, we investigated the effect of RU486, a potent antagonist of the glucocorticoid receptor, on basal levels of hepatocellular proliferation and apoptosis in male B6C3F1 mice. Furthermore, we evaluated the effect of this compound on cellular genes involved in the regulation of these important processes. RESULTS: Data show that treatment of male B6F3C1 mice with RU486 (2 mg/kg/d, ip) for 7 days dramatically inhibited liver cell proliferation by about 45% and programmed hepatocellular death by approximately 66%. RU 486 also significantly increased hepatic expression of the oncogenes mdm2 and JunB, while reducing that of the tumor suppressor gene p53. CONCLUSION: Exposure to RU486 may ultimately enhance the susceptibility of the liver to cancer risk by diminishing its ability to purge itself of pre-cancerous cells via apoptosis. This effect may be mediated through increases in the hepatic expression of the oncogene mdm2, coupled with decreases in that of the tumor suppressor gene p53. The decrease in hepatocellular proliferation caused by RU 486 may be related to effects other than its anti-glucocorticoid activity.  (+info)

Recombinant human interleukin-10 inhibits proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells stimulated by advanced glycation end products and neointima hyperplasia after carotid injury in the rat. (6/45748)

The purposes of this study was to determine the effects of recombinant human interleukin-10 (rhIL-10) on proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) stimulated by advanced glycation end products (AGE) and neointima hyperplasia after rat carotid arterial injury. Rat aortic VSMCs were cultured and treated with rhIL-10 or AGE respectively, and then co-treated with rhIL-10 and AGE. Proliferation of VSMCs was quantified by colormetric assay. Cell cycle analysis was performed by flow cytomertry. Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with recombinant human IL-10 (rhIL-10) for 3 d after carotid arteries injury. The ratio of neointima to media area at the site of arterial injury was measured 28 d after balloon injury. The p44/42 MAPK activity was evaluated by the immunoblotting technique using anti-p44/42 phospho-MAPK antibody. Compared to control, AGE stimulated VSMCs proliferation. rhIL-10 alone had no effect on VSMCs growth. With AGE stimulation, rhIL-10, at dose as low as 10 ng/ml, inhibited VSMCs growth (P<0.05). The cell number in G(0)/G(1) phase of AGE and rhIL-10 co-treatment group was higher than that of AGE treatment alone (P<0.01) by flow cytometry analysis. Compared with the control group of neointima hyperplasia in rats, the ratio of neointima to media area of recombinant human IL-10 group was reduced by 45% (P<0.01). The p44/42 MAPK activity was significantly enhanced by AGE. The AGE effects were opposed by rhIL-10. The anti-inflammatory cytokine rhIL-10 inhibits AGE-induced VSMCs proliferation. Recombinant human IL-10 also inhibited neointima hyperplasia after carotid artery injury in rats. The results suggest the possibility that recombinant human IL-10, as a potential therapeutic approach, prevents neointimal hyperplasia.  (+info)

The effects of inhibiting P18(INK4C) expression on the invasion of gastric adenocarcinoma cell line. (7/45748)

Using cDNA microarray with double dots of 4096 human genes, P18(INK4C), a member of CKI, was found down-regulated in a gastric adenocarcinoma metastatic cell line (RF-48), compared with the corresponding primary cancer cell line (RF-1), which implied that P18(INK4C) might be involved in cell invasion and metastatic progression of human gastric adenocarcinoma. Antisense RNA expression plasmid was applied to inhibit P18(INK4C) expression to study the effect of decreased P18(INK4C) expression on cell migration, invasion and proliferation ability and cell cycle of RF-1. Results showed that inhibition of P18(INK4C) expression could obviously enhance cell invasion ability of RF-1, but had little effect on its cell cycle and cell migration and proliferation ability. These results implied that P18(INK4C) might play a pivotal role in regulating cell invasion, rather than regulating cell cycle and proliferation in the progression of human gastric adenocarcinoma as expected before.  (+info)

Comparative proteomic analysis of proliferating and functionally differentiated mammary epithelial cells. (8/45748)

Proliferation and differentiation of mammary epithelial cells are governed by hormonal stimuli, cell-cell, and cell-matrix interactions. Terminal differentiation of mammary epithelial cells depends upon the action of the lactogenic hormones, insulin, glucocorticoids, and prolactin that enable them to synthesize and secrete milk proteins. These differentiated cells are polarized and carry out vectorial transport of milk constituents across the apical plasma membrane. To gain additional insights into the mechanisms governing differentiation of mammary epithelial cells, we identified proteins whose expression distinguishes proliferating from differentiated mammary epithelial cells. For this purpose we made use of the HC11 mammary epithelial line, which is capable of differentiation in response to lactogenic hormones. Using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry, we found about 60 proteins whose expression levels changed in between these two differentiation states. Bioinformatic analysis revealed differential expression of cytoskeletal components, molecular chaperones and regulators of protein folding and stability, calcium-binding proteins, and components of RNA-processing pathways. The actin cytoskeleton is asymmetrically distributed in differentiated epithelial cells, and the identification of proteins involved in mRNA binding and localization suggests that asymmetry might in part be achieved by controlling cellular localization of mRNAs. The proteins identified provide insights into the differentiation of mammary epithelial cells and the regulation of this process.  (+info)

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The BrdU Chemiluminescent Cell Proliferation Assay Kit is a non-isotopic enzyme immunoassay for the quantification of DNA synthesis and cell proliferation. Evaluation of cell cycle progression is essential for investigations in many scientific fields. Measurement of [3H] thymidine incorporation as cells enter S phase has long been the traditional method for the detection of cell proliferation. Subsequent quantification of [3H] thymidine is performed by scintillation counting or autoradiography. This technology is slow, labor intensive and has several limitations including the handling and disposal of radioisotopes and the necessity of expensive equipment. A well-established alternative to [3H] thymidine uptake has been demonstrated by numerous investigators. In these methods bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU), a thymidine analog, replaces [3H] thymidine. BrdU is incorporated into newly synthesized DNA strands of actively proliferating cells. Following partial denaturation of double stranded DNA, BrdU is ...
Creative Bioarray provides cell proliferation assay service for our customer. We are capable of performing different cell proliferation assays based on several concepts, which are measuring rate of DNA replication, analysis of metabolic activity, cell surface antigen recognitions, detecting proliferation markers, ATP measurement, measures of membrane integrity and so on.
... Abstract ...The cell proliferation assay is an important tool in the assessment of... Introduction ...Cell proliferation assays are employed frequently in immunological ca...,Cell,Proliferation,Assays,biological,advanced biology technology,biology laboratory technology,biology device technology,latest biology technology
BioAssay record AID 1077586 submitted by ChEMBL: Antiproliferative activity against human PLC/PRF/5 cells assessed as inhibition of cell proliferation at 10 to 100 uM by MTT dye uptake assay.
Little knockdown but big effect on proliferation - posted in siRNA, microRNA and RNAi: Hi folks,Hope you are well all !! I did knockdown lately on cell line expressed in GOI and it was tested by qPCR. The results showed that i got moderate suppression in mRNA level in my GOI, following the knockdown i did cell proliferation ( cell viability ) and the results showed that there is an effect on proliferation rate.]My question is how was an effect on proliferation when there was little...
We have shown that 4-1BB in myeloid cells, particularly in APCs, negatively regulates peripheral T cell responses in vivo. Thus, adoptively transferred CD4+ and CD8+ T cells showed the enhanced T cell proliferation in tumor-bearing RAG2−/−4-1BB−/− mice, and DCs and IL-15 were primarily responsible for this enhanced T cell proliferation. However, isolated 4-1BB+/+ and 4-1BB−/− DCs made comparable levels of IL-15, and individual 4-1BB−/− DCs induced T cell responses in vivo less efficiently than 4-1BB+/+ DCs. Therefore, we concluded that 4-1BB deficiency in myeloid cells in vivo induces the enhanced proliferation of peripheral T cells by promoting the accumulation of DCs in secondary lymphoid organs.. Although enhanced T cell responses were first reported when 4-1BB−/− mice were generated more than a decade ago (29), the underlying mechanism was not understood. Other studies have also pointed to a negative regulatory function of 4-1BB in modulating T cell responses. Thus, ...
Creative Proteomics offers sensitive, reliable, and accurate Cell Proliferation Assay via DNA Synthesis to study cell proliferation.
A serum-free or serum-depleted medium for the short- and long-term proliferation and development of cells, particularly hematopoietic cells and bone marrow stromal cells, the medium comprising cell proliferation and development effective amounts of: a standard culture medium such as Iscoves modified Dulbeccos medium; serum albumin; transferrin; a source of lipids and fatty acids; cholesterol; a reducing agent; pyruvate; a glucocorticoid (when the cells to be cultured are hematopoietic cells); nucleosides for synthesis of DNA and RNA; growth factors that stimulate the proliferation and development of stromal cells and cells from a variety of tissues or organs, such as epidermal growth factor, fibroblast growth factor, platelet derived growth factor, and insulin; and extracellular matrix materials, such as collagen, fibronectin, and laminin.
NSCLC is the most prevalent cancer types and has highest mortality rate in China [1]; however, the progression mechanisms of NSCLC have largely remained elusive. Ample evidence indicates a crucial role for miRNAs in human cancer [21], especially the miRNAs participate in the initiation, promotion, and progression of NSCLC. For instance, miR-21 promotes growth and invasion of NSCLC [22]. In addition, miR-494, miR-101, miR-1254, miR-574-5p, miR-143 and miR-181a were demonstrated to be involved in NSCLC [23-25]. In the present study, we certified that miR-361-3p was frequently down-regulated in NSCLC, and first found that the reduced miR-361-3p expression was closely related to advanced stage and lymph node metastasis of NSCLC. Furthermore, we demonstrated that overexpression of miR-361-3p could suppress NSCLC cell proliferation, migration and invasion in vitro and in vivo. The versatile functions of miR-361-3p in tumor cell proliferation, migration and invasion suggest its potential application as ...
Breast cancer is one of the most lethal types of cancer in women worldwide due to the late stage detection and resistance to traditional chemotherapy. The human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) is considered as a validated target in breast cancer therapy. Even though a substantial effort has been made to develop HER2 inhibitors, only lapatinib has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Side effects were observed in a majority of the patients within one year of treatment initiation. Here, we took advantage of bioinformatics tools to identify novel effective HER2 inhibitors. The structure-based virtual screening combined with ADMET (absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicity) prediction was explored. In total, 11,247 natural compounds were screened. The top hits were evaluated by an in vitro HER2 kinase inhibition assay. The cell proliferation inhibition effect of identified inhibitors was evaluated in HER2-overexpressing SKBR3 and BT474 cell lines. We
CD44 is a causal factor for tumor invasion, metastasis and acquisition of resistance to apoptosis. CD44 knockdown using inducible short hairpin RNA (shRNA) significantly reduces cell growth and invasion. Short hairpin RNA against CD44 and pGFP-V-RS-vector was used for knockdown of CD44 expression in SW620 colon cancer cells. Cell growth, invasion and migration assay, immunofluorescence for β-catenin expression and western blotting for Wnt signaling molecules were analyzed. Cell cycle analysis and western blot analysis for apoptotic molecules were evaluated. Short hairpin RNA against CD44 reduced the expression of CD44. Cell proliferation, migration and invasion were markedly inhibited and apoptosis was increased in shRNA CD44-transfected cells. Knockdown of CD44 decreased the phosphorylation of PDK1, Akt and GSK3β, and β-catenin levels. Decreased phosphorylated Akt led to an increase in phosphorylated FoxO1 and induced cell cycle arrest in the G0-G1 phase and a decrease in the S phase. The ...
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Perifosine and CCI 779 co-operate to induce cell death and decrease proliferation in PTEN-intact and PTEN-deficient PDGF-driven murine glioblastoma.
Plants and animals evolved significantly different strategies of regulation of the cell proliferation and differentiation. Identification and comparison of molecular mechanisms driving those different strategies in plants, animals and microorganisms might contribute to the identification of their common principles. The project is based on collaboration of laboratories involved in the study of the processes of the cell proliferation and differentiation in those different model organisms including human beings. Collaboration of the laboratories with expertise in (i) molecular plant physiology, (ii) molecular mechanisms maintaining the genome stability, (iii) proliferation, differentiation and programmed cell death of cancer cells and (iv) bioinformatics will result into a multidisciplinary, while still functional team that will guarantee successful solution of scheduled tasks. Participation of multiple, recently collaborating laboratories including Core lab will allow effective employment of ...
: Migration and invasion enhancer 1 (MIEN1) is a membrane-anchored protein and exists in various cancerous tissues. However, the roles of MIEN1 in prostate cancer have not yet been clearly addressed. We determined the expression, biological functions, and regulatory mechanisms of MIEN1 in the prostate. The results of immunohistochemical analysis indicated that MIEN1 was expressed specifically in epithelial cells and significantly higher in adenocarcinoma as compared to in normal tissues. MIEN1 enhanced in vitro cell proliferation, invasion, and in vivo tumorigenesis. Meanwhile, MIEN1 attenuated cisplatin-induced apoptosis in PC-3 cells. Overexpression of NF-ĸB-inducing kinase (NIK) enhanced MIEN1 expression, while overexpression of NF-ĸB inhibitor α (IĸBα) blocked MIEN1 expression in PC-3 cells. In prostate carcinoma cells, MIEN1 provoked Akt phosphorylation; moreover, MIEN1 downregulated N-myc downstream regulated 1 (NDRG1) but upregulated interleukin-6 (IL-6) gene expression. MK2206, an
ATCC Cell Proliferation Assay kits are convenient and valuable tools for the quantitative evaluation of a cell populations response to external factors that affect cell viability and growth.
Probable proto-oncogene that regulates cell proliferation, growth, migration and epithelial to mesenchymal transition. Through the degradation of FBXW7, may act indirectly on the expression and downstream signaling of MTOR, JUN and MYC (PubMed:24344117). May play also a role in cell proliferation through activation of the ERK1/ERK2 signaling cascade (PubMed:25646692). May also be important for proper chromosome congression and alignment during mitosis through its interaction with KIF22 ...
Gentaur molecular products has all kinds of products like :search , Trevigen \ MTT Cell Proliferation Assay Kit \ 4890-25-K for more molecular products just contact us
Effect of GPC3 on cell proliferation and clonogenic capacity of liver CD90+GPC3+CSCs.(A) Cell proliferation was assessed after GPC3 knockdown in PLC CD90+GPC3+
A colorimetric cell proliferation assay using soluble tetrazolium sodium [(CellTiter 96? Aqueous One Remedy) cell proliferation reagent, comprising the (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium, inner salt) and an electron coupling reagent phenazine ethosulfate], was optimized and certified for quantitative dedication of IL-15 dependent CTLL-2 cell proliferation activity. of scripts written in the R Statistical Language and Environment utilizing a […]. ...
Fig. 2. Effect of low-dose PTX (A), BMS-275183 (B), EpoB (C), and 4-HC (D) on in vitro cell proliferation. The antiproliferative effects of the drugs were studied using both short-term (24 h, left) and prolonged continuous exposures (144 h, right) on the HUVEC, HMVEC-d, MDA-MB-435, T0.1, and NHDF cell lines. Columns and bars, mean values ± SE, respectively. aP , 0.05 versus HUVEC controls; bP , 0.05 versus HMVEC-d controls; cP , 0.05 versus MDA-MB-435 controls; dP , 0.05 versus T0.1 controls; eP , 0.05 versus NHDF controls; ∗P , 0.05 versus 144 h HUVEC controls; °P , 0.05 versus 144 h MDA-MB-435 controls; +P , 0.05 versus 24 h HUVEC controls; °P , 0.05 versus 24 h MDA-MB-435 controls.. ...
We report a novel mechanism of cellular growth control. Increasing the density of endothelial or smooth muscle cells in culture increased cell-cell contact and decreased cell spreading, leading to growth arrest. Using a new method to independently control cell-cell contact and cell spreading, we fou …
Introduction The difficulty in re-growing and mineralizing new bone after severe fracture can result in loss of ambulation or limb. Here we describe the sequential roles of FGF-2 in inducing gene expression, cell growth and BMP-2 in gene expression and mineralization of bone. Materials and methods The regulation of gene expression was determined using real-time RTPCR (qRTPCR) and cell proliferation was measured by thymidine incorporation or fluorescent analysis of DNA content in MC3T3E1 osteoblast-like cells. Photomicroscopy was used to identify newly mineralized tissue and fluorescence was used to quantify mineralization. Results Fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) had the greatest ability to induce proliferation after 24 hours of treatment when compared to transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), bone morphogenic protein (BMP-2), platelet derived growth factor (PDGF) or prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). We found that FGF-2 caused the most significant induction of ...
Researchers at Joslin have found that increasing the proliferation and turnover of beta cells before signs of type 1 diabetes could halt the development of the disease.
Cell proliferation assays are performed by four decades in cancer research to test the anti-proliferative activity of natural products and synthetic compounds in in vitro tumor models such as cell lines. However, current parameters used to quantify growth inhibition lead to a misinterpretation of results based on the exponential, and not linear, proliferation of cells in culture. We recently published in Journal of Cellular Physiology the development and experimental validation of a new parameter for the analysis of growth inhibition in proliferation assays, termed relative doubling capacity, that can be used to properly quantify the anti-proliferative activity of tested compounds in cell cultures and compare drug efficacy between distinct cell models. ...
[109 Pages Report] Check for Discount on Global Cell Proliferation Kit Sales Market Report 2017 report by QYResearch Group. In this report, the global Cell Proliferation Kit market is...
Definition of Cell proliferation with photos and pictures, translations, sample usage, and additional links for more information.
Figure 1: Effects of PKR on the proliferation and translation. (a) Effects of PKR on the proliferation of HeLa cells. After being transfected with plasmids PKR, PKR siRNA, or GFP, HeLa cells were plated in multiple wells of a 96-well plate and grown for 24 hr for cell proliferation assays. Cells from the sample preparations were collected for immunoblotting. Proliferation rate of the control sample was normalized to 100%. PKR, WT PKR; si-PKR, PKR siRNA; Ctrl, GFP. Upper panel, averaged data (N=4 ...
The master regulator p53 is a prominent tumor suppressor gene, functioning in the cell as a tetrameric (dimer of dimers) sequence-specific transcription factor, able to bind to two copies of a decameric sequence with the RRRCWWGYYY consensus (where R stands for a purine, W for A/T and Y for a pyrimidine) representing the so called p53-response element (p53-RE) [1]. p53 is known to be inducible in response to a large number of cellular stress signals that, besides genotoxic stress, include carbon and oxygen deficiencies, perturbations of the translation apparatus, excessive proliferation signals, alteration in microtubule dynamics [2, 3]. There are ,100 established p53 targets genes that link p53 to cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, DNA repair and inhibition of angiogenesis [3-6]. More recently, p53 was demonstrated to modulate the expression of genes able to modify glucose as well as lipid metabolism, induction of autophagy, immune responses and cell motility [7-11].. A direct role of p53 on the ...
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Cell proliferation analyses are crucial for cell growth and differentiation studies, and are often used to evaluate both compound toxicity and inhibition of tumor cell growth during drug development. Proliferation measurements are typically based on average DNA content or cellular metabolism, or they quantify DNA synthesis.
Molecular mechanism of microRNA-93 in suppressing the cell proliferation of cervical cancer by adjusting the EGFR/AKT signal pathway, Xue Dong, Yan Wang
MicroRNA-331-3p promotes cell proliferation and invasion in breast cancer by targeting SRCIN1, Yonghua Hu, Wenjun Liu, Che Chen, Aihua Hou
Find and order buffers and products like this Ready-to-use Cell Proliferation Colorimetric Reagent, WST-1 on www.antibodies-onli... | Order product ABIN1304384.
Abstract: miRNA-221 was a carcinogenic factor in many cancers, however, it is limited that the correlation between miRNA-221 and progression of cervical cancer. So we here aimed to determine the function of miRNA-221 in cervical cancer proliferation and a
Concurrent in vivo proliferation and CTL activity by gB-specific CD8+ T cells in the PLNs after cutaneous infection with HSV-1. (A) CFSE-labeled lymph node cell
To determine the effect of protein treatments in cell proliferation, MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells were first injected into the mammary fat pad of nude mice, and when tumors grew to 10 mm in diameter, mice were treated once only with purified Endo (20 mg/kg), CD (40 mg/kg), or EndoCD (60 mg/kg) proteins plus 500 mg/kg 5-FC, a clinically sufficient dose of 5-FU (15 mg/kg; 1× 5-FU), or 10 times the clinically sufficient dose (150 mg/kg; 10× 5-FU). The choice of 20 mg/kg Endo was based on a previous preclinical study (15) and is also within the dose tested in the phase I clinical trial (ref. 18; 15-600 mg/m2 in human is equivalent to 4.8-194.4 mg/kg in mouse; ref. 30). Tumors were harvested from mice 48 hours after treatment and labeled with bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) antibody for in vivo BrdU incorporation analysis. The results show that EndoCD/5-FC most significantly reduced cancer cell proliferation (Fig. 2B) compared with all other treatment groups.. The potent inhibitory activity of ...
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This inhibition concerns cell proliferation and the expression of IL-8, u-PA, and MMP - 9, which can AZD0530 proposes inhibit invasion of cancer cells in the
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Gen5 allows measuring cell proliferation as both an end point and kinetic imaging assay and can be run with temperature and gas control.
A method for treating a disorder characterized by excessive cell proliferation in a patient by administering to the patient a therapeutically effective amount of sclareolide.
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Cells are structural and functional unit of our body that control and maintain the function of all unicellular and multicellular organisms
Full Text - Inducing cardiomyocyte proliferation is a hopeful approach for cardiac regeneration following myocardial infarction. Previous studies have shown that p21 inhibits the cardiomyocyte proliferation and cardiac regeneration. Deacetylation of p21 by Sirt1 deacetylase may reduce p21 abundance and remove p21-induced cell cycle arrest. However, whether p21 deacetylation and Sirt1 deacetylate control cardiomyocyte proliferation is unclear. Here, we show that acetylation of p21 induces cardiomyocyte proliferation arrest, whereas blocking the acetylation of p21 increases cardiomyocyte proliferation. P21 can be acetylated by Sirt1, and Sirt1 activate p21 ubiquitination through deacetylation. Additionally, overexpression of Sirt1 induces EdU-, pH3-, and Aurora B-positive cardiomyocytes in neonatal and adult mice. In contrast, depletion of Sirt1 reduces cardiomyocyte proliferation in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, Sirt1 protects cardiac function, reduces cardiac remodeling, inhibits
The functional integrity of the intestinal epithelial barrier relies on tight coordination of cell proliferation and migration, with failure to regulate these processes resulting in disease. It is not known whether cell proliferation is sufficient to drive epithelial cell migration during homoeostatic turnover of the epithelium. Nor is it known precisely how villus cell migration is affected when proliferation is perturbed. Some reports suggest that proliferation and migration may not be related while other studies support a direct relationship. We used established cell-tracking methods based on thymine analog cell labeling and developed tailored mathematical models to quantify cell proliferation and migration under normal conditions and when proliferation is reduced and when it is temporarily halted. We found that epithelial cell migration velocities along the villi are coupled to cell proliferation rates within the crypts in all conditions. Furthermore, halting and resuming proliferation ...
We have previously demonstrated, that 15 days after female rats pace the sexual interaction, there is an increase in the number of new cells that reach the granular cell layer (GrL) of the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB). The aim of the present study was to evaluate, if the first sexual experience in the female rat increases cell proliferation in the subventricular zone (SVZ) and the rostral migratory stream (RMS). We also tested if this behavior promotes the survival of the new cells that integrate into the main olfactory bulb (MOB) and AOB 45 days after the behavioral test. Sexually, naive female rats were injected with the DNA synthesis marker 5′-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine (BrdU) on the day of the behavioral test. They were randomly divided into the following groups: Female rats placed alone in the mating cage (1); Females exposed to amyl acetate odor [banana scent, (2)]; Females that could see, hear, and smell the male but physical contact was not possible [exposed to male, (3)]; Female rats that
Markers of crypt cell proliferation are frequently employed in studies of the impact of genetic and exogenous factors on human colonic physiology. Human studies often rely on the assessment of tissue acquired at endoscopy. Modulation of cell proliferation by bowel preparation with oral laxatives may confound the findings of such studies, but there is little data on the impact of commonly used bowel preparations on markers of cell proliferation. Crypt length, crypt cellularity and crypt cell proliferation were assessed in biopsies acquired after preparation with either Klean-Prep or Picolax. Crypt cell proliferation was assessed by whole-mount mitotic figure count, and by two different immunohistochemical (IHC) labelling methods (Ki-67 and pHH3). Subsequent biopsies were obtained from the same patients without bowel preparation and similarly assessed. Parameters were compared between groups using analysis of variance and paired t-tests. There were significant differences in labelling indices (LI) between
Mesothelin (MSLN) overexpression in pancreatic cancer (PC) leads to enhanced cell survival/proliferation and tumor progression. After screening for a number of growth factors/cytokines, we found that the MSLN expression correlated closely with interleukin (IL)-6 in human PC specimens and cell lines. Stably overexpressing MSLN in different PC cell lines (MIA-MSLN and Panc1-MSLN) led to higher IL-6 production. Silencing MSLN by small interfering RNA (siRNA) significantly reduced IL-6 levels. Blocking the observed constitutive activation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) with IKK inhibitor wedelolactone in MIA-MSLN cells also reduced IL-6. Silencing IL-6 by siRNA reduced cell proliferation, cell cycle progression and induced apoptosis with significant decrease of c-myc/bcl-2. Interestingly, recombinant IL-6-induced proliferation of MIA-MSLN cells but not MIA-V cells. Although messenger RNA/protein levels of IL-6R did not vary, soluble IL-6R (sIL-6R) was significantly elevated in MIA-MSLN and was ...
Tumor cell metastasis and proliferation are crucial for tumor development and result in loss of life of tumor individuals. TLR4 signaling pathway. It offers fresh insights for the systems of tumor advancement and metastasis, and suggests targeting TLR4 and OPN as an intervention in the ovarian cancer treatment. proliferation activity of tumor cells. Without LPS stimulation, the proliferation activity of tumor cells increased during 12 h. The cell proliferation significantly changed by LPS stimulation, and the maximum absorbance value at 429 nm was present after 6 h, with a proliferation rate of approximately 137.1% compared to cells without stimulation (Figure 2AC2B). To investigate the effect of TLR4 signal block on cell proliferation, the TLR4 inhibitor TAK-242 was used. The LPS-stimulated increase in the proliferation of tumor cells was significantly reduced with TAK-242 pretreatment, whereas no significant change was observed in cells treated with TAK-242 alone (Figure ?(Figure2C).2C). These ...
PC cell-derived growth factor (PCDGF), also called epithelin/granulin precursor (GEP), is an 88-kDa secreted glycoprotein with the ability to stimulate cell proliferation in an autocrine fashion. In addition, some studies indicated that PCDGF participated in invasion, metastasis and survival of cancer cells by regulating cell migration, adhesion and proliferation. Yet the effects of PCDGF on proliferation and invasion of ovarian cancer cells in vitro and the mechanisms by which PCDGF mediates biological behaviors of ovarian cancer have rarely been reported. In the present study we investigated whether and how PCDGF/GEP mediated cell proliferation and invasion in ovarian cancer. PCDGF/GEP expression level in three human ovarian cancer cell lines of different invasion potential were detected by RT-PCR and western blot. Effects of inhibition of PCDGF expression on cell proliferation and invasion capability were determined by MTT assay and Boyden chamber assay. Expression levels of cyclin D1 and CDK4 and
Regulation of mRNAs is one way to control protein levels and thereby important cellular processes such as growth, invasion and apoptosis. G3BPs constitute a family of mRNA-binding proteins, shown to be overexpressed in several cancer types, including breast, colon and pancreas cancer. G3BP has been reported to both stabilize and induce degradation of specific mRNAs. Here, we show that G3BP1, but not G3BP2, supports proliferation of several breast cancer cell lines. Global gene expression analyses of G3BP1- and G3BP2-depleted cells indicate that primarily G3BP1, and much less G3BP2, influences mRNA expression levels. Peripheral myelin protein 22 (PMP22) was one gene that was significantly influenced by G3BP1 depletion which led to a 2-3 fold increased expression. Depletion of PMP22 resulted in increased proliferation and the G3BP1-mediated effect on proliferation was not seen upon PMP22-depletion. This indicates a novel role for G3BP1 in the regulation of cell proliferation in breast cancer cells,
KDM5c is a histone demethylase that specifically demethylates trimethylated and dimethylated H3 Lys-4 to play a central role in transcriptional repression. C-Jun is a proto-oncogene and promotes cell proliferation when ectopically accumulated, but can be ubiquitinated by SCF (FBXW7), leading to its degradation. FBXW7 is an E3 ubiquitin ligase of c-Jun, and exhibits carcinostasis in colon cancer. Here, we report that overexpression of KDM5c in human colon cancer cells results in attenuated FBXW7 transcription and accumulated c-Jun protein, leading to increased proliferation of colon cancer cells. We show that overexpression of KDM5c can result in increased c-Jun protein levels and decreased ubiquitin levels, with no significant change in mRNA levels of c-Jun. KDM5c overexpression blocks the ubiquitin-proteasome proteolytic pathway of c-Jun by down-regulating the expression of FBXW7. KDM5c down-regulation of FBXW7 occurs by demethylation of H3K4me3 at TSS and downstream of the FBXW7 gene. And interaction
Various assays, using different strategies, are available for assessing cultured cell proliferation. These include measurement of metabolic activity (tetrazolium salts and alamarBlue), DNA quantification using fluorophores (Hoechst 33258 and PicoGreen), uptake of radioactively-labeled DNA precursors such as [3H]thymidine, and physical counting (hemocytometer). These assays are well established in characterizing cell proliferation in two-dimensional (2D), monolayer cultures of low cell densities. However, increasing interest in 3D cultures has prompted the need to evaluate the effectiveness of using these assays in high cell density or 3D cultures. We show here that typical cell proliferation assays do not necessarily correlate linearly with increasing cell densities or between 2D and 3D cultures, and are either not suitable or only rough approximations in quantifying actual cell numbers in a culture. Prudent choice of techniques and careful interpretation of data are therefore recommended when ...
p,Here, we ask how neural stem cells (NSCs) transition in the developing neocortex from a rapidly to a slowly proliferating state, a process required to maintain lifelong stem cell pools. We identify LRIG1, known to regulate receptor tyrosine kinase signaling in other cell types, as a negative regulator of cortical NSC proliferation. LRIG1 is expressed in murine cortical NSCs as they start to proliferate more slowly during embryogenesis and then peaks postnatally when they transition to give rise to a portion of adult NSCs. Constitutive or acute loss of Lrig1 in NSCs over this developmental time frame causes stem cell expansion due to increased proliferation. LRIG1 controls NSC proliferation by associating with and negatively regulating the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). These data support a model in which LRIG1 dampens the stem cell response to EGFR ligands within the cortical environment to slow their proliferation as they transition to postnatal adult NSCs.,/p,. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - α-1 Adrenergic receptors stimulation induces the proliferation of neural progenitor cells in vitro. AU - Hiramoto, Takeshi. AU - Ihara, Yoshiaki. AU - Watanabe, Yasuhiro. PY - 2006/11/6. Y1 - 2006/11/6. N2 - The proliferation of neural progenitor cells (NPCs) is regulated by classical neurotransmitters such as dopamine, serotonin and acetylcholine, via its own receptors. Previous studies have reported that the depletion of l-norepinephrine decreases the proliferation of NPCs in the adult rat hippocampus and it has been suggested that l-norepinephrine regulates the proliferation of NPCs. However, it remains unknown whether or not adrenergic receptors are involved in the increased proliferation of NPCs. In the present study, an MTT cell proliferation assay was carried out in order to investigate the roles played by adrenergic receptors in the proliferation of NPCs. We demonstrated that l-epinephrine enhanced the proliferation of embryonic NPCs in vitro. In addition, the α-1 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Conflicting evidence for the role of JNK as a target in breast cancer cell proliferation. T2 - comparisons between pharmacological inhibition and selective shRNA knockdown approaches. AU - Wood, Rachel A.. AU - Barbour, Mark J.. AU - Gould, Gwyn W.. AU - Cunningham, Margaret R.. AU - Plevin, Robin J.. N1 - © 2017 The Authors. Pharmacology Research & Perspectives published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd, British Pharmacological Society and American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.. PY - 2018/2/28. Y1 - 2018/2/28. N2 - As a target, the JNK pathway has been implicated in roles including cell death, proliferation, and inflammation in variety of contexts which span cardiovascular disease, neurodegenerative pathologies, and cancer. JNK1 and JNK2 have recently been demonstrated to function independently, highlighting a new parameter in the study of the JNK pathway. In order for JNK1 and JNK2-specific roles to be defined, better tools need to be employed. Previous ...
OBJECTIVE: This study explored the effect of miR-26a-5p on cell proliferation, migration, and invasion in gastric cancer by targeting COL10A1. MATERIALS
ADSCs are a promising candidate for clinical applications. They are easily derived from adipose tissue, with strong proliferation potential. Compared with other sources of MSCs such as bone marrow, umbilical cord and umbilical cord blood, ADSCs have a shorter doubling time. Therefore, numerous studies on ADSCs, especially on ADSC in vitro proliferation, have been performed to date. To date, hypoxia has been applied on stem cell cultures including ADSC culture. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of hypoxia on ADSC proliferation.. First, ADSCs were successfully isolated and confirmed by usual methods and assays. Similarly to previous studies, the obtained ADSCs fully exhibited several MSCs characteristics, including adherence to the surface of plastic flasks with a fibroblast-like shape; they also successfully differentiated into three kinds of mesoderm cells including adipocytes, osteoblasts and chondroblasts. Flow cytometry analysis with surface markers revealed that they expressed ...
F the soft agar colony formation in comparison with vector control cells exposed to arsenite for eight weeks. A single explanation of these information is the
Measurement of cell proliferation is necessary for testing the effects of pharmacological agents or growth factors, assessing cytotoxicity or investigating circumstances of cell activation. In a cell proliferation assay, the increase in number of cells or change in the proportion of cells that is dividing is assessed. Trevigen® offers a Calcein-AM based kit to determine cell viability as well as the tetrazolium salts MTT and XTT metabolic cell proliferation assay kits.. ...
Cell proliferation is a process of increasing cell number, including cell development and cell division [46]. This intern responsible to increase in cell mass and ultimately the organism development. In certain cells, proliferation is restricted while it remains continue in some of the cells throughout lifetime. In certain situation cell proliferation becomes abnormal which further augment the tumor cell formation [40]. In the body, cell proliferation process is highly regulated by cell division and apoptosis [2]. Apoptosis is programmed cell death mechanism that destroys unwanted cells and also involved in defense mechanism of the body. It also plays a role in morphological and cellular mechanisms of cell, caspases functioning, translocation of phosphatidyl serine and DNA fragmentation [43, 47]. This complex process comprises intrinsic pathway and extrinsic pathway which are also called as mitochondrial pathway and cytoplasmic pathway or death receptor pathway, respectively (Fig. 4) [5]. In ...
This paper represents a study on the effect of electrical pulses on adult stem cells, especially on proliferation control and also as a method of deliverin
TY - JOUR. T1 - Tumor growth dynamics with nutrient limitation and cell proliferation time delay. AU - Alsheri, Ahuod. AU - Alzahrani, Ebraheem O.. AU - Asiri, Asim. AU - El-Dessoky, Mohamed M.. AU - Kuang, Yang. PY - 2017/12/1. Y1 - 2017/12/1. N2 - It is known that avascular spherical solid tumors grow monotonically, often tends to a limiting final size. This is repeatedly confirmed by various mathematical models consisting of mostly ordinary differential equations. However, cell growth is limited by nutrient and its proliferation incurs a time delay. In this paper, we formulate a nutrient limited compartmental model of avascular spherical solid tumor growth with cell proliferation time delay and study its limiting dynamics. The nutrient is assumed to enter the tumor proportional to its surface area. This model is a modification of a recent model which is built on a two-compartment model of cancer cell growth with transitions between proliferating and quiescent cells. Due to the limitation of ...
The Wnt signal pathway is composed of β-catenin and transcriptional factor TCF-4 (2 , 3 , 19, 20, 21) . These factors activate the target genes that preserve the consensus motif (A/TA/TCAAAG) for TCF-4 binding in the promoter region (6) . Recent studies have shown that cyclin D1, c-myc, MMP7, and c-jun could be target genes for the Wnt signal pathway (7, 8, 9, 10) . Therefore, Wnt signal may induce cell proliferation through activation of these target genes (22, 23, 24, 25) . To our knowledge, there is no report on RCCs regarding the significance of the Wnt signal factors in cell proliferation and/or apoptosis through regulation of downstream target genes. In this study, we evaluated the significance of the Wnt signal pathway in RCC through the analysis of cyclin D1, c-myc, MMP7, and c-jun in relation to β-catenin and TCF-4 alterations.. TCF-4 expression has been intensively investigated in the epithelium of the gastrointestinal tract (26 , 27) , and the presence of splicing isoforms in TCF-4 ...
Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) plays an important role in regulating hematopoiesis, inhibiting proliferation while stimulating differentiation when appropriate. We previously demonstrated that the type III TGF-β receptor (TβRIII, or betaglycan) serves as a novel suppressor of cancer progression in epithelial tumors; however, its role in hematologic malignancies is unknown. Here we demonstrate that TβRIII protein expression is decreased or lost in the majority of human multiple myeloma specimens. Functionally, restoring TβRIII expression in myeloma cells significantly inhibited cell growth, proliferation, and motility, largely independent of its ligand presentation role. In a reciprocal fashion, shRNA-mediated silencing of endogenous TβRIII expression enhanced cell growth, proliferation, and motility. Although apoptosis was not affected, TβRIII inhibited proliferation through induction of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p21 and p27. TβRIII further regulated myeloma cell ...
Genome-wide mutant strain collections have increased demand for high throughput cellular phenotyping (HTCP). For example, investigators use HTCP to investigate interactions between gene deletion mutations and additional chemical or genetic perturbations by assessing differences in cell proliferation among the collection of 5000 S. cerevisiae gene deletion strains. Such studies have thus far been predominantly qualitative, using agar cell arrays to subjectively score growth differences. Quantitative systems level analysis of gene interactions would be enabled by more precise HTCP methods, such as kinetic analysis of cell proliferation in liquid culture by optical density. However, requirements for processing liquid cultures make them relatively cumbersome and low throughput compared to agar. To improve HTCP performance and advance capabilities for quantifying interactions, YeastXtract software was developed for automated analysis of cell array images. YeastXtract software was developed for kinetic growth
Genome-wide mutant strain collections have increased demand for high throughput cellular phenotyping (HTCP). For example, investigators use HTCP to investigate interactions between gene deletion mutations and additional chemical or genetic perturbations by assessing differences in cell proliferation among the collection of 5000 S. cerevisiae gene deletion strains. Such studies have thus far been predominantly qualitative, using agar cell arrays to subjectively score growth differences. Quantitative systems level analysis of gene interactions would be enabled by more precise HTCP methods, such as kinetic analysis of cell proliferation in liquid culture by optical density. However, requirements for processing liquid cultures make them relatively cumbersome and low throughput compared to agar. To improve HTCP performance and advance capabilities for quantifying interactions, YeastXtract software was developed for automated analysis of cell array images. YeastXtract software was developed for kinetic growth
Lack of IGF2 in mice results in diminished embryonic growth due to diminished cell proliferation. Here we show that mouse embryonic fibroblasts lacking the RNA-binding protein IMP1 (IGF2 mRNA-binding protein 1) have defective splicing and translation of IGF2 mRNAs, markedly reduced IGF2 polypeptide production, and diminished proliferation. The proliferation of the IMP1-null fibroblasts can be restored to wild-type levels by IGF2 in vitro or by re-expression of IMP1, which corrects the defects in IGF2 RNA splicing and translation. The ability of IMP1 to correct these defects is dependent on IMP1 phosphorylation at Ser181, which is catalyzed cotranslationally by mTOR complex 2 (mTORC2). Phosphorylation strongly enhances IMP1 binding to the IGF2-leader 3 5 untranslated region, which is absolutely required to enable IGF2-leader 3 mRNA translational initiation by internal ribosomal entry. These findings uncover a new mechanism by which mTOR regulates organismal growth by promoting IGF2 production in ...
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Fibulins not only function as molecular bridges within the cellular microenvironment but also influence cell behavior. Thus, fibulins may contribute to create a permissive microenvironment for tumor growth but can also stimulate different mechanisms that may impede tumor progression. This is the case with Fibulin-5, which has been shown to display both tumor-promoting and tumor-protective functions by mechanisms that are not totally defined. We show new evidence on the tumor-protective functions displayed by Fibulin-5 in MCF-7, T47D and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells including the inhibition of invasion and proliferation capacity and hampering the ability to form mammospheres. Reduction in the level of phosphorylation of Ser residues involved in the nuclear translocation of β-catenin may underlie these antitumor effects. We also found that Fibulin-5 reduces the level of expression of Ki-67, a nuclear protein associated with cell proliferation. Moreover, reduction in Fibulin-5 expression ...
Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is a type of malignant tumor which threatens human health and life. Recently, some researches on long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in NSCLC has elucidated critical regulatory roles in cell proliferation, migration, and invasion, the relative clinical significance and mechanisms of action are still unclear. This study focuses on the important role of a novel lncRNA LINC00665 in the development of NSCLC. Long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 665 gene (LINC00665) was found through microarray analysis and was measured by real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). The interactions between LINC00665 and miR-138-5p as well as the interactions between miR-138-5p and E2F3 (E2F transcription factor 3) were explored by bioinformatics analysis and dual-luciferase assays. CCK-8, transwell and mouse xenograft assays were performed to investigate the effects of LINC00665 and miR-138-5p on NSCLC proliferation and invasion. As a result, LINC00665 expression was upregulated in NSCLC ...
The present study, to the best of the authors knowledge, demonstrated for the first time, that miR-614 was upregulated in OC clinical tissues and cells. Increased expression of miR-614 led to the promotion of cell proliferation and colony-forming abilities, and conversely, decreased the apoptotic rate of OC cells. Additionally, PPP2R2A may act as a novel target of miR-614. The present study indicated that miR-614 may act as a novel tumor promoter in OC by targeting PPP2R2A.. Accumulating evidence suggests that miRNAs exhibit an essential role in human cancer pathological proceedings via controlling different target genes, including those involved in cell proliferation, migration, invasion, cycle and apoptosis (15-18). Dysregulation of miRNA frequently occurs in novel types of cancers, including ovarian cancer. miR-21-3p inhibits cell proliferation and invasion of ovarian cancer by targeting RNA binding protein with multiple splicing, RCC1 and BTB domain containing protein 1 and Zinc finger ...
miRNAs are emerging as critical regulators in carcinogenesis and tumor progression. Recently, microRNA-122 (miR-122) has been proved to play an important role in hepatocellular carcinoma, but its functions in the context of breast cancer (BC) remain unknown. In this study, we report that miR-122 is commonly downregulated in BC specimens and BC cell lines with important functional consequences. Overexpression of miR-122 not only dramatically suppressed cell proliferation, colony formation by inducing G1-phase cell-cycle arrest in vitro, but also reduced tumorigenicity in vivo. We then screened and identified a novel miR-122 target, insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R), and it was further confirmed by luciferase assay. Overexpression of miR-122 would specifically and markedly reduce its expression. Similar to the restoring miR-122 expression, IGF1R downregulation suppressed cell growth and cell-cycle progression, whereas IGF1R overexpression rescued the suppressive effect of miR-122. To identify
Both cell proliferation and cell size control are fundamental biological processes that must be carefully orchestrated, and dysregulation of either can lead to diseases such as cancer. In contrast to our understanding of the mechanisms that control cell proliferation, less is known about the mechanisms that control cell size and, particularly, the mechanisms by which cell proliferation and cell size are coordinately regulated. Recently, we identified a novel protein named FIP200, which plays an important role in the regulation of cell cycle progression (Abbi et al., 2002). In this study, we showed that FIP200 can also regulate cell size through interaction with the TSC1-TSC2 complex and activation of S6K. These results identify FIP200 as a regulator that plays roles in both cell proliferation and cell size control.. Most other proteins known to play roles in both cell proliferation and cell size usually regulate these two cellular processes in a similar manner. For example, PTEN can inhibit cell ...
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Ng F, Ye J, et al. PERK promotes cancer cell proliferation and tumor development by limiting oxidative DNA harm. Oncogene 29: 38813895. 42. Min L, Ji Y, Bakiri
Antibodies for proteins involved in positive regulation of B cell proliferation pathways, according to their Panther/Gene Ontology Classification
Supervisor: Golnar Kolahgar. The intestinal epithelium constantly regenerates from stem cells, which adjust their behaviour to the changing physiological conditions the gut is exposed to. For example, stem cell proliferation rates can transiently increase to speed up regeneration after tissue loss or in response to the diet, before reverting to steady-state levels once correct tissue size is reached. This plasticity is essential for intestinal function, as lack of regeneration causes tissue atrophy whereas unrestricted stem cell proliferation promotes cancer. We use the genetically tractable Drosophila gut to identify the secreted and physical factors regulating gut plasticity. In particular, we use targeted genetic screens and functional analyses, to identify novel extracellular signalling molecules regulating cell proliferation in contexts that trigger reversible changes in gut size. As the regulation of intestinal proliferation is largely conserved between Drosophila and mammals this work has ...
The Hippo-Yap signaling pathway regulates a number of developmental and adult cellular processes, including cell fate determination, tissue growth, and tumorigenesis. Members of the scaffold protein angiomotin (Amot) family interact with several Hippo pathway components, including Yap (Yes-associated protein), and either stimulate or inhibit Yap activity. We used a combination of genetic, biochemical, and transcriptional approaches to assess the functional consequences of the Amot-Yap interaction in mice and in human cells. Mice with a liver-specific Amot knockout exhibited reduced hepatic oval cell proliferation and tumorigenesis in response to toxin-induced injury or when crossed with mice lacking the tumor suppressor Nf2. Biochemical examination of the Amot-Yap interaction revealed that the p130 splicing isoform of Amot (Amot-p130) and Yap interacted in both the cytoplasm and nucleus, which involved binding of PPxY and LPxY motifs in Amot-p130 to WW domains of Yap. In the cytoplasm, ...
ECM components are the key players of 3D culture methods: ECM are tissue specific and are composed of a wide array of molecules including collagens, elastin, glycosaminoglycans, growth factors, proteoglycans; each of which plays a crucial role. For example, collagen and fibronectin are known to influence cell migration whereas integrin dependent signaling cascade influences cell proliferation and polarity.. In an experiment, 2D culture of human breast epithelial cells resulted in tumor cell like growth whereas the same cell when cultured 3 dimensionally, the cell growth was back to normal. This undoubtedly highlights the importance of ECM in regulating complex cellular responses. Over the past decade different methods for culturing cells three dimensionally have been developed. They can be broadly classified as -. 1.Scaffold based techniques Here cells are cultured in presence of cell specific ECM like matrices. Today a plethora of ECM like scaffolds have been designed and incorporated in cell ...
Reduction of Prep1 Levels Affects Differentiation of Normal and Malignant B Cells and Accelerates Myc Driven Lymphomagenesis. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Background: Cisplatin, a DNA damaging agent, induces apoptosis through increasing DNA fragmentation.However, identification of intrinsic resistance molecules against Cisplatin is vital to estimate the success of therapy.Bag-1 (Bcl-2-associated anthanogene) is one anti-apoptotic protein involved in drug resistance impacting ontherapeutic efficiency. Elevated levels of this protein are related with increase cell proliferation rates, motilityand also cancer development. For this reason, we aimed to understand the role of Bag-1 expression in Cisplatininducedapoptosis in HeLa cervix cancer cells. Cisplatin decreased cell viability in time- and dose-dependentmanner in wt and Bag-1L+HeLa cells. Although, 10μM Cisplatin treatment induced cell death within 24h byactivating caspases in wt cells, Bag-1L stable transfection protected cells against Cisplatin treatment. To assess thepotential protective role of Bag-1, we first checked the expression profile of interacting anti-apoptotic partners ofBag-1. We found
RESULTS: 775 genes were differentially expressed and clustered in terms of their growth factor responsiveness. As well as identifying uncharacterized genes as novel targets of ErbB2-dependent signalling, ErbB2 overexpression augmented the induction of multiple genes involved in proliferation (e.g. MYC, MAP2K1, MAP2K3), autocrine growth factor signalling (VEGF, PDGF) and adhesion/cytoskeletal regulation (ZYX, THBS1, VCL, CNN3, ITGA2, ITGA3, NEDD9, TAGLN), linking them to the hyper-poliferative and altered adhesive phenotype of the ErbB2-overexpressing cells. We also report ErbB2-dependent down-regulation of multiple interferon-stimulated genes that may permit ErbB2-overexpressing cells to resist the anti-proliferative action of interferons. Finally, IGFBP3 was unique in its pattern of regulation and we further investigated a possible role for IGFBP3 down-regulation in ErbB2-dependent transformation through suppressed IGF1 signalling. We show that IGF1-dependent signalling and proliferation were ...
The application discloses novel 2-alkoxyestradiol analogs which exhibit anti-proliferative properties, and methods of making and using such compounds to inhibit undesired cell proliferation and tumor growth. Additionally, methods are disclosed of treating diseases associated with undesired angiogenesis and undesired proliferation, and methods of treating infectious disease wherein the infectious agent is particularly susceptible to inhibition by agents that disrupt microtubule organization and function.
Proliferation of pancreatic beta cells[edit]. There is evidence that pancreatic beta cells express both the TrkA and p75NTR ... negative regulation of cell population proliferation. • regulation of signaling receptor activity. • nerve development. • nerve ... cell-cell signaling. • negative regulation of apoptotic process. • regulation of cysteine-type endopeptidase activity involved ... In acquired immunity, NGF is produced by the Thymus as well as CD4+ T cell clones, inducing a cascade of maturation of T cells ...
Cell Proliferation. 39 (2): 147-155. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2184.2006.00377.x. PMID 16542349.. ... renal cell carcinoma), and certain types of thyroid cancer.[66] ... therapeutics-to-build-leading-position-in-cell-therapy/?s=79 ...
2019-07-20: Cell Proliferation (journal). *2019-07-20: European Review of Aging and Physical Activity ...
Zone of cell proliferation. A little closer to the marrow cavity, chondrocytes multiply and arrange themselves into ... These cells give rise to other cells, including white blood cells, red blood cells, and platelets.[13] ... Blood cells that are created in bone marrow include red blood cells, platelets and white blood cells.[34] Progenitor cells such ... Cell. 130 (3): 456-469. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2007.05.047. PMC 2013746. PMID 17693256. Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 ...
Oncology (cancer and cell-proliferation). *Infectious Diseases (viral and parasitic). *Gastreoenterology (alimentary tract and ...
... cell migration,[21] cell proliferation,[22] differentiation[23] and cell death (apoptosis).[24] Inhibition of nonmuscle myosin ... Cell adhesion[edit]. Many cells bind to components of the extracellular matrix. Cell adhesion can occur in two ways; by focal ... Plant cells are tessellated to form tissues. The cell wall is the relatively rigid structure surrounding the plant cell. The ... Fibronectins bind collagen and cell-surface integrins, causing a reorganization of the cell's cytoskeleton to facilitate cell ...
regulation of cancer cell proliferation. (I). Name based on order of discovery ... Embedded in the cell membrane is also the G protein-coupled inwardly-rectifying potassium channel. When a Gβγ or Gα(GTP) ... "Introduction to Essentials of Cell Biology , Learn Science at Scitable". Retrieved 2017-11-08.. ... as it moves from the plasma membrane into the cell and relays the signal.[42] ...
Cell proliferation. April 2006, 39 (2): 147-55. PMID 16542349. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2184.2006.00377.x.. ... Cell biochemistry and function. October 2008, 26 (7): 741-6. PMID 18711704. doi:10.1002/cbf.1465.. ... Aspirin inhibits camptothecin-induced p21CIP1 levels and potentiates apoptosis in human breast cancer cells. International ...
Haddon, Robert C.; Laura P. Zanello; Bin Zhao; Hui Hu (2006). "Bone Cell Proliferation on Carbon Nanotubes". Nano Letters. 6 (3 ... CNTs can be internalized by cells, first by binding their tips to cell membrane receptors. This enables transfection of ... Nanotubes can potentially replace indium tin oxide in solar cells as a transparent conductive film in solar cells to allow ... A highly effective method of delivering carbon nanotubes into cells is Cell squeezing, a high-throughput vector-free ...
Both are essential to viral proliferation. Both proteins are associated with cell membranes.[4] ... The p22 protein is a movement protein that is required for the virus to spread from cell to cell. P22 is an RNA-binding protein ... "Tomato Bushy Stunt Virus Spread Is Regulated by Two Nested Genes That Function in Cell-to-Cell Movement and Host-Dependent ... Defective interfering RNA (DI) molecules are RNAs that are produced from the viral genome but are not competent to infect cells ...
Hypoplasia (congenital below-average number of cells, especially when inadequate). *Hyperplasia (proliferation of cells) ... Programmed cell death Apoptosis. Pyknosis. Karyorrhexis. Karyolysis. Accumulations. pigment Hemosiderin. Lipochrome/Lipofuscin ... Cell death. Necrosis Coagulative necrosis. Liquefactive necrosis. Gangrenous necrosis. Caseous necrosis. Fat necrosis. ... Atrophy is reduction in size of cell, organ or tissue, after attaining its normal mature growth. In contrast, hypoplasia is the ...
Hyperplasia (proliferation of cells). *Hypoplasia (congenital below-average number of cells, especially when inadequate) ... They include direct transdifferentiation of squamous cells to columnar cells, the stem cell changing from esophageal type to ... "is the transformation of one differentiated cell type to another differentiated cell type. The change from one type of cell to ... Programmed cell death Apoptosis. Pyknosis. Karyorrhexis. Karyolysis. Accumulations. pigment Hemosiderin. Lipochrome/Lipofuscin ...
"T cell homeostatic proliferation elicits effective antitumor autoimmunity". J. Clin. Invest. 110 (2): 185-92. doi:10.1172/ ... Immune effector cells such as lymphocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells, natural killer cells (NK Cell), cytotoxic T ... CD4+ helper T cells, cytotoxic CD8+ T cells and B cells). This initiates a cytotoxic response against tumor cells expressing ... T-cell adoptive transfer[edit]. Adoptive cell transfer in vitro cultivates autologous, extracted T cells for later transfusion. ...
... insights from mammary cell proliferation studies". Journal of Animal Science. 81 (15_suppl_3): 18-31. doi:10.2527/2003.81suppl_ ... There is also evidence that increased rates of mammary cell proliferation occur during the dry period that is essential to ... This first milk, called colostrum, is rich in fats, protein, and also maternal immune cells.[20] This colostrum is not usually ...
... with the dye being used to monitor the proliferation of many other cell types such as smooth muscle cells,[14] fibroblasts,[15] ... "High-resolution tracking of cell division suggests similar cell cycle kinetics of hematopoietic stem cells stimulated in vitro ... Parish CR (December 1999). "Fluorescent dyes for lymphocyte migration and proliferation studies". Immunology and Cell Biology. ... December 1997). "Insulin has a limited effect on the cell cycle progression in 3T3 L1 fibroblasts". Molecules and Cells. 7 (6 ...
Both adenosine and ATP induce astrocyte cell proliferation. In microglia, P2X and P2Y receptors are expressed. The P2Y6 ... In white blood cells such as macrophages, dendritic cells, lymphocytes, eosinophils, and mast cells, purinergic signalling ... These receptors enable the regulation of multiple processes such as cell proliferation, differentiation, function, and death. ... Generally speaking, all cells have the ability to release nucleotides. In neuronal and neuroendocrinal cells, this mostly ...
Detection of apoptosis and cell proliferation". Cell Proliferation. 28 (11): 571-579. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2184.1995.tb00045.x. ... Analogy to apoptosis of somatic cells". Exp Cell Res. 207 (1): 202-205. doi:10.1006/excr.1993.1182. PMID 8391465. Lozano GM, ... "In situ apoptotic cell labeling by the TUNEL method: improvement and evaluation on cell preparations". J Histochem Cytochem. 44 ... It may also label cells having DNA damaged by other means than in the course of apoptosis. The fluorochrome-based TUNEL assay ...
It is strictly associated with cell proliferation. During interphase, the Ki-67 antigen can be exclusively detected within the ... Dividing cells show strong Ki-67 staining in cell nuclei while all cells contain large amounts of tubulin, the major component ... cells (G0). Cellular content of Ki-67 protein markedly increases during cell progression through S phase of the cell cycle. In ... "Cell cycle dependent expression and stability of the nuclear protein detected by Ki-67 antibody in HL-60 cells". Cell ...
"Mathematical model for the cancer stem cell hypothesis". Cell Proliferation. 39 (1): 3-14. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2184.2006.00369.x ... It is the first work to show mathematically how repeated insult to mature cells increases the risk of cancer. Single magnetic ... "McMaster engineers bringing to market at-home test to detect COVID-19 antibodies and 3D cell printing technology , Faculty of ... Mathematical model for the cancer stem cell hypothesis discusses how cancers can occur because of mutations in normal stem ...
Cell Proliferation. 39 (2): 147-155. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2184.2006.00377.x. PMC 6496865. PMID 16542349. S2CID 16515437. Tulett, ... "Bayer acquires BlueRock Therapeutics to build leading position in cell therapy". BioSpace. 8 August 2019. Retrieved 27 November ... renal cell carcinoma), and certain types of thyroid cancer. Trasylol (Aprotinin) Trasylol is a trypsin inhibitor used to ...
As a consequence, unregulated cell proliferation occurs. This cell proliferation caused by nicotine could be blocked by using ... "Role of alpha7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor in human non-small cell lung cancer proliferation". Cell Proliferation. 41 (6 ...
... is a selective inhibitor of breast cancer stem cells". Cell Proliferation. 44 (5): 401-9. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2184.2011.00766.x ...
Cell Proliferation. 37 (3): 221-229. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2184.2004.00307.x. PMC 6496511. PMID 15144499. Umezu, T.; Nagano, K.; ... Prashar, A.; Locke, I. C.; Evans, C. S. (2004). "Cytotoxicity of lavender oil and its major components to human skin cells". ...
"Suppressive role of regucalcin in liver cell proliferation: involvement in carcinogenesis". Cell Proliferation. 46 (3): 243-53 ... Regucalcin can control enhancement of cell proliferation due to hormonal stimulation. Moreover, regucalcin has been shown to ... Regucalcin plays a pivotal role as a suppressor protein for cell signaling systems in many cell types. Overexpressing of ... Overexpression of regucalcin suppresses cell death and apoptosis in the cloned rat hepatoma cells and normal rat kidney ...
Doerflinger RM (February 2008). "The problem of deception in embryonic stem cell research". Cell Proliferation. 41 (Suppl 1): ... Stem-cell therapy is used to replace damaged neurons by transplantation of stem cells into affected regions of the brain. ... Inclusion bodies have been found in both the cell nucleus and cytoplasm. Inclusion bodies in cells of the brain are one of the ... This technique, where one or two cells are extracted from a typically 4- to 8-cell embryo and then tested for the genetic ...
"Optimal control problems arising in cell-cycle-specific cancer chemotherapy". Cell Proliferation. 29 (3): 117-139. doi:10.1046/ ... "How fast is repopulation of tumor cells during the treatment gap?". International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, ...
A flow cytometric assay". Cell Proliferation. 28 (6): 329-36. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2184.1995.tb00074.x. PMID 7626687. S2CID ... Méhes G, Pajor L (Jun 1995). "Nucleolin and fibrillarin expression in stimulated lymphocytes and differentiating HL-60 cells. ... European Journal of Cell Biology. 75 (2): 174-83. doi:10.1016/s0171-9335(98)80059-9. PMID 9548374. Ai LS, Lin CH, Hsieh M, Li C ... The Journal of Cell Biology. 113 (4): 715-29. doi:10.1083/jcb.113.4.715. PMC 2288999. PMID 2026646. "Entrez Gene: FBL ...
Cell Proliferation. 39 (2): 147-55. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2184.2006.00377.x. PMC 6496865. PMID 16542349. S2CID 16515437. ... "Inhibition of the adherence of P-fimbriated Escherichia coli to uroepithelial-cell surfaces by proanthocyanidin extracts from ... displays specific cytotoxic activity against colon cancer cells". Journal of Natural Products. 75 (1): 26-33. doi:10.1021/ ...
"MicroRNA-494 suppresses cell proliferation and induces senescence in A549 lung cancer cells". Cell Proliferation. 45 (1): 32-8 ... "MicroRNA-494 downregulates KIT and inhibits gastrointestinal stromal tumor cell proliferation". Clinical Cancer Research. 17 ( ... Cell Cycle. 11 (14): 2729-38. doi:10.4161/cc.21105. PMC 3409013. PMID 22785131. Altmäe S, Martinez-Conejero JA, Esteban FJ, ... "MiR-494 is regulated by ERK1/2 and modulates TRAIL-induced apoptosis in non-small-cell lung cancer through BIM down-regulation ...
It may be involved in cell proliferation and transformation. This gene is mapped to 9p13-p12.[7] ... It is over-expressed in VHL mutated clear-cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) and hypoxic solid tumors, but is low-expressed in ... cell projection. • nucleus. • membrane. • basolateral plasma membrane. • microvillus membrane. • integral component of membrane ... "Down-regulation of transmembrane carbonic anhydrases in renal cell carcinoma cell lines by wild-type von Hippel-Lindau ...
Flores ER, Halder G (2011). "Stem cell proliferation in the skin: alpha-catenin takes over the hippo pathway". Sci Signal. 4 ( ... F9 embryonal carcinoma cells are similar to the P19 cells shown in Figure 1 and normally have cell-to-cell adhesion mediated by ... A tumor cell line with defective δ-catenin, low levels of E-cadherin and poor cell-to-cell adhesion could be restored to normal ... providing the cell with a means of stable cell adhesion. However, decreases in this adhesion ability of the cell has been ...
positive regulation of cell proliferation. • ovarian follicle development. • Sertoli cell proliferation. • توصيل الإشارة. • ... cell-cell signaling. • hormone-mediated signaling pathway. • follicle-stimulating hormone signaling pathway. • regulation of ... positive regulation of cell migration. • positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter. • حمل أنثوي. • ... 1989). "Expression of biologically active human follitropin in Chinese hamster ovary cells". J. Biol. Chem. 264 (9): 4769-75. ...
... transcription factor MN1 stimulates vitamin D receptor-mediated transcription and inhibits osteoblastic cell proliferation". ... "Blood Cells Mol. Dis. 39 (3): 336-9. doi:10.1016/j.bcmd.2007.06.009. PMC 2387274. PMID 17698380.. ... Cell. Proteomics. 7 (3): 499-508. doi:10.1074/mcp.M700325-MCP200. PMID 18029348.. ... 2009). "Meningioma 1 gene is differentially expressed in CD34 positive cells from bone marrow of patients with myelodysplastic ...
cell proliferation. •organ morphogenesis. •extracellular matrix organization. •regulation of actin filament polymerization. • ... Bax DV, Rodgers UR, Bilek MM, Weiss AS (2009). «Cell adhesion to tropoelastin is mediated via the C-terminal GRKRK motif and ... Bertram C, Hass R (2009). «Cellular senescence of human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) is associated with an altered MMP-7/HB- ...
Basu et al (2014) Intestinal cell proliferation and senescence is regulated by receptor guanylyl cyclase C and p21 J. Biol. ... the Alliance for Cell Signalling[20] (1997-present), the TB Structural Genomics Consortium, the American Society for ... Indian Society of Cell Biology[19] (1995-present) and the Society of Research in Reproduction, India (1994-present). ...
positive regulation of T cell proliferation. • binding of sperm to zona pellucida. • negative regulation of binding of sperm to ... Cell. 143 (3): 404-15. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2010.09.041. PMID 20970175. S2CID 18583237.. PDB: 3NK3​ PDB: 3NK4​ ... Cell. 143 (3): 404-15. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2010.09.041. PMID 20970175. S2CID 18583237.. PDB: 3NK3, 3NK4​ ... Cell. Biol. 22 (9): 3111-20. doi:10.1128/MCB.22.9.3111-3120.2002. PMC 133755. PMID 11940668.. ...
Cell growth, proliferation, angiogenesis, and migrationEdit. The above processes are part and parcel to tissue integrity and ... Substance P has been known to stimulate cell growth in normal and cancer cell line cultures,[37] and it was shown that ... "Substance P is a promoter of adult neural progenitor cell proliferation under normal and ischemic conditions". Journal of ... on cells (including cancer cells) bestowing upon them mobility.[40] and metastasis.[41] It has been suggested that cancer ...
... proliferation of multi-potent retinal progenitor cells (RPCs); restriction of competence of RPCs; cell fate specification; ... Further complexity arises from the various interconnections among bipolar cells, horizontal cells, and amacrine cells in the ... ON bipolar cells or inhibit (hyperpolarize) OFF bipolar cells. Thus, it is at the photoreceptor-bipolar cell synapse where ... which releases a neurotransmitter called glutamate to bipolar cells. Farther back is the cell body, which contains the cell's ...
TGF-β is important for cell proliferation and differentiation during skeletogenesis. During this process, TGF-β can stimulate ... Osteochondroprogenitor cells are progenitor cells that arise from mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) in the bone marrow. They have ... Sox9 blocked osteochondroprogenitor cells were found to express osteoblast marker genes, reprogramming the cells into the ... McBride, SH; Falls T; Knothe Tate ML (2008). "Modulation of stem cell shape and fate B: mechanical modulation of cell shape and ...
... cell-cycle processes). PAX8 is shown to be involved in tumor cell proliferation and differentiation, signal transduction, ... regulation of metanephric nephron tubule epithelial cell differentiation. • cell differentiation. • mesonephric tubule ... positive regulation of metanephric DCT cell differentiation. • negative regulation of mesenchymal cell apoptotic process ... pancreatic islet cells and lymphoid cells.[8] PAX8 and other transcription factors play a role in binding to DNA and regulating ...
At the same time, Michael confronts Leila over the call made using the stolen cell phone. He then kills Leila's handler as he ... Some more cautious commentators said the show had promise but could not go on tantalizing the audience with a proliferation of ... At the end, Leila manages to contact Sean using a stolen cell phone and informs him of Sophia's plan. ...
The spirochetes may also induce host cells to secrete quinolinic acid, which stimulates the NMDA receptor on nerve cells, which ... In the brain, B. burgdorferi may induce astrocytes to undergo astrogliosis (proliferation followed by apoptosis), which may ... However, PCR tests are susceptible to false positive results, e.g. by detection of debris of dead Borrelia cells or specimen ... 2010). "Chapter 6, Structure, Function and Biogenesis of the Borrelia Cell Envelope". Borrelia: Molecular Biology, Host ...
Pitx2 pathway mediating cell-type-specific proliferation during development.". Cell. 111 (5): 673-85. PMID 12464179. doi: ... cell-cell adhesion. • positive regulation of nucleic acid-templated transcription. • heart development. • actin cytoskeleton ... cadherin binding involved in cell-cell adhesion. • actin binding. • muscle alpha-actinin binding. ... Vallenius T، Mäkelä TP (2003). "Clik1: a novel kinase targeted to actin stress fibers by the CLP-36 PDZ-LIM protein.". J. Cell ...
van der Woude H, Ter Veld MG, Jacobs N, van der Saag PT, Murk AJ, Rietjens IM (2005). "The stimulation of cell proliferation by ... "The Plant Cell. 9 (10): 1767-1780. doi:10.1105/tpc.9.10.1767. PMC 157020. PMID 12237347.. ... A colorful model for genetics, biochemistry, cell biology, and biotechnology". Plant Physiology. 126 (2): 485-93. doi:10.1104/ ... "Sustained proliferation in cancer: Mechanisms and novel therapeutic targets". (review). Seminars in Cancer Biology. 35 Suppl: ...
regulation of epithelial cell proliferation. • progesterone receptor signaling pathway. • tertiary branching involved in ... cell nucleus. • cytosol. Biological process. • regulation of transcription, DNA-templated. • cell-cell signaling. • negative ... epithelial cell proliferation both in response to estrogen alone and in the presence of progesterone and estrogen. These ... the PR-A isoform is necessary to oppose estrogen-induced proliferation as well as PR-B-dependent proliferation. ...
Electrolysis cells can be either open cell or closed cell. In open cell systems, the electrolysis products, which are gaseous, ... thus allowing the proliferation of crackpots and hampering the conduct of serious science.[165] Critics and skeptics stopped ... the power input to the cell was equal to the calculated power leaving the cell within measurement accuracy, and the cell ... Groups that did report successes found that some of their cells were producing the effect, while other cells that were built ...
"Methods for High-Content, High-Throughput Image-Based Cell Screening" (PDF). Proceedings of the Workshop on Microscopic Image ... "Identification of interferon-modulated proliferation-related cDNA sequences" (PDF). Proceedings of the National Academy of ...
... diversity cytotoxic activity of Natural Killer T-cells (NKTs) decreases impaired proliferation in response to antigenic ... The cytotoxicity of Natural Killer (NK) cells and the antigen-presenting function of dendritic cells is known to diminish with ... Mocchegiani, E; M. Malavolta (2004). "NK and NKT cell functions in immunosenescence". Aging Cell. 3 (4): 177-184. doi:10.1111/j ... "B cell diversity decreases in old age and is correlated with poor health status". Ageing Cell. 8: 18-25. doi:10.1111/j.1474- ...
epithelial cell proliferation. • neuron migration. • negative regulation of apoptotic process. • negative regulation of ... cell nucleus. • kinetochore. • centrosome. • rough endoplasmic reticulum. • dendritic shaft. • aggresome. • cell surface. • ... cell cortex. • integral component of membrane. • azurophil granule membrane. • Z disc. • neuronal cell body. • perinuclear ... cell-cell adhesion. • cellular response to amyloid-beta. • negative regulation of core promoter binding. • negative regulation ...
... only one cell released into the environment could exponentially grow into many thousands of cells over a short amount of time. ... Dispersal and subsequent proliferation of species is not solely an anthropogenic phenomenon. There are many mechanisms by which ... For organisms between 10 and 50 microns, such as certain types of phytoplankton, current regulations allow less than 10 cells ...
"Cell proliferation at 122°C and isotopically heavy CH4 production by a hyperthermophilic methanogen under high-pressure ... Further information: Cell wall § Archaeal cell walls. Most archaea (but not Thermoplasma and Ferroplasma) possess a cell wall.[ ... Cell division is controlled in a cell cycle; after the cell's chromosome is replicated and the two daughter chromosomes ... In euryarchaea the cell division protein FtsZ, which forms a contracting ring around the cell, and the components of the septum ...
Konradt C, Ueno N, Christian DA, Delong JH, et al «Endothelial cells are a replicative niche for entry of Toxoplasma gondii to ... High-content imaging assay to evaluate Toxoplasma gondii infection and proliferation: A multiparametric assay to screen new ...
DNA from a rhabdomyosarcoma cell line and a fibrosarcoma cell line transformed a NIH/3T3 mouse fibroblast cell line. After ... in particular the role of Rho and Ras small GTPases in regulating a variety of cellular functions such as proliferation, ... cells. Downregulation of RhoA in the HBE cell lines using siRNAs showed a lack of apical junction formation in contrast with ... "At Work: Cell Biology Program Chair Alan Hall". Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center. Archived from the original on 2 April ...
negative regulation of cell proliferation. • signal transduction. • Wnt signaling pathway, calcium modulating pathway. • Wnt ... cell maturation. • Wnt signaling pathway. • embryonic camera-type eye development. • multicellular organism development. • cell ... regulation of chorionic trophoblast cell proliferation. • regulation of bicellular tight junction assembly. • regulation of ... T cell differentiation in thymus. • chorionic trophoblast cell differentiation. • positive regulation of protein targeting to ...
... which is the cell growth phase - makes up approximately 95% of the cycle.[14] The proliferation of cells is instigated by ... Cell movement - Chemotaxis, contraction, cilia and flagella.. *Cell signaling - Regulation of cell behavior by signals from ... Prokaryotic cells are much smaller than eukaryotic cells, making prokaryotic cells the smallest form of life.[11] Cytologists ... The growth process of the cell does not refer to the size of the cell, but instead the density of the number of cells present ...
Follicular dendritic cell sarcoma. Extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type. MCPyV Merkel-cell carcinoma. RNA virus. HCV ... also plays a key role in viral proliferation,[11] directing the initiation of DNA replication for the virus as well as ... For example, JCV has been found to infect the granule cell layer of the cerebellum, while sparing purkinje fibers, ultimately ... Immunohistochemical detection of JC virus protein (stained brown) in a brain biopsy (glial cells demonstrating progressive ...
T lymphocyte proliferation assay - T lymphocytes - T suppressor cells - T4 cell - T4 cells (T-helper cells) - T8 cells - Tanner ... B-cell lymphoma - B cells - B lymphocytes (B cells) - bactericidal - bacteriostatic - bacterium - baculovirus - baseline - ... cells - CDC National Prevention Information Network (CDC-NPIN) - cell lines - cell-mediated immunity (CMI) - cellular immunity ... human T cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) - human T cell lymphotropic virus type II (HTLV-II) - humoral immunity - HVTN ...
... when excess H2O2 accumulates in the cell, catalase converts it to H2O through this reaction: 2. H. 2. O. 2. →. 2. H. 2. O. +. O ... Proliferation of the organelle is regulated by Pex11p. Genes that encode peroxin proteins include: PEX1, PEX2 (PXMP3), PEX3, ... "The Journal of Cell Biology. 119 (5): 1129-36. doi:10.1083/jcb.119.5.1129. PMC 2289717. PMID 1447292.. ... doi:10.1016/j.cell.2005.04.025. PMID 16009135.. *^ Saleem RA, Smith JJ, Aitchison JD (Dec 2006). "Proteomics of the peroxisome" ...
positive regulation of mesenchymal cell proliferation. · transcription, DNA-dependent. · pattern specification process. · ... 第四亚族NUR(英语:Nur (biology))(NGFIB、NOR1、NURR1) · 第五亚族LRH-1、SF1 · 第六亚族GCNF(英语:Germ cell nuclear factor) · 第零亚族DAX1、SHP
cell volume homeostasis. • nucleocytoplasmic transport. • protein localization. • positive regulation of cell proliferation. • ... negative regulation of cell proliferation. • nucleosome assembly. • viral process. • DNA damage response, signal transduction ... J Cell Biol. 183 (4): 589-95. PMC 2582899. . PMID 19015314. doi:10.1083/jcb.200807185. !CS1 manut: Uso explícito de et al. ( ... Cell. Biol. 11 (5): 2567-75. PMC 360026. . PMID 2017166. !CS1 manut: Uso explícito de et al. (link) !CS1 manut: Nomes múltiplos ...
They have high rates of cell division and growth. ... Cancer cells are very prolific. They have high rates of cell ...
Purchase Recombinant DNA And Cell Proliferation - 1st Edition. Print Book & E-Book. ISBN 9780126650808, 9780323153362 ... Murine Erythroleukemia Cells (Friend Cells). III. Role of the Cell Cycle in Friend Cell Differentiation. IV. Friend Cell ... SV40 and Cell Proliferation. IV. A Growing Cell Receives Signals for Growth in Size. V. A Growing Cell Receives Signals to ... Mathematical Models and Kinetics of Cell Proliferation. III. Biochemistry of Cell Proliferation. IV. The Role of RNA Polymerase ...
In addition, we found that ONA directly suppressed cancer cell proliferation. Thus, ONA is considered useful for the additional ... "Onion compound suppresses ovarian cancer cell proliferation." Medical News Today. MediLexicon, Intl., 22 Oct. 2016. Web.. 20 ... Ellis, M. (2016, October 22). "Onion compound suppresses ovarian cancer cell proliferation." Medical News Today. Retrieved from ... "We found that ONA reduced the extent of ovarian cancer cell proliferation induced by co-culture with human macrophages. ...
Cell Proliferation, and Cancer - 1st Edition. Print Book & E-Book. ISBN 9780121230500, 9781483277486 ... Ions, Cell Proliferation, and Cancer present the credibility of ions as specific regulators of cell proliferation. This book ... Section III: Divalent Ions, Cell Proliferation, and Cancer. The Roles of Calcium and Magnesium in Cell Proliferation: An ... Section II: Monovalent Ions, Cell Proliferation, and Cancer. Monovalent Cations, Cell Proliferation, and Cancer: An Overview. ...
Do new β cells derive from a ductal cell, β-cell, or α-cell origin? The conversion of α cells to insulin-producing β-like cells ... how this α-cell proliferation could occur mechanistically, and why this α-cell proliferation would be selective to stimulate α- ... of newly formed β cells may derive from α-cell precursors (24). If α-cell-to-β-cell transdifferentiation can be enhanced by ... 2017) Retraction notice to: Betatrophin: A hormone that controls pancreatic β cell proliferation. Cell 168(1-2):326. ...
2007) The influence of cell mechanics, cell-cell interactions, and proliferation on epithelial packing. Curr Biol 17(24):2095- ... Inset) Total cell cycle duration as a function of cell area. (J) Mean cell area for each time point during cell cycle ... 2003) Differences in the way a mammalian cell and yeast cells coordinate cell growth and cell-cycle progression. J Biol 2(1):7. ... This proliferation behavior suggests that the probability of cell cycle progression for individual cells increases with cell ...
... the essential control of cell proliferation is therefore the signal that commits a cell to... ... In most cells initiation of DNA synthesis is inexorably followed by a premitotic phase and then by mitosis, ... the essential control of cell proliferation is therefore the signal that commits a cell to DNA synthesis. Since cells may be ... Phosphoinositide metabolism and control of cell proliferation. In: Miller A.O.A. (eds) Advanced Research on Animal Cell ...
... and inhibitory effect on proliferation of A549 human lung epithelial cancer cells. Differences among the strawberry genotypes ... between the scavenging capacities for the reactive oxygen species and the inhibition of cancer cell proliferation were 0.8074, ... There was also a relationship between scavenging capacity and the inhibition of cancer cell proliferation. The correlations (R2 ... and inhibitory effect on proliferation of A549 human lung epithelial cancer cells. Differences among the strawberry genotypes ...
... and valuable tools for the quantitative evaluation of a cell populations response to external factors that affect cell ... Cell Proliferation Assay Kits ATCC Cell Proliferation Assay kits are convenient and valuable tools for the quantitative ... Is a resazurin-based cell proliferation assay that is sensitive and non-toxic. This single-component reagent can determine cell ... XTT Cell Proliferation Assay Kit Utilizes the second generation tetrazolium dye, XTT (sodium 2,3,-bis(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5- ...
... and valuable tools for the quantitative evaluation of a cell populations response to external factors that affect cell ... Cell Proliferation Assay Kits ATCC Cell Proliferation Assay kits are convenient and valuable tools for the quantitative ... XTT Cell Proliferation Assay Kit Utilizes the second generation tetrazolium dye, XTT (sodium 2,3,-bis(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5- ... MTT Cell Proliferation Assay Kit Utilizes the most widely accepted detection reagents, tetrazolium salts, for the safe, ...
Compounds in this class (exemplified by GNF-2) show exclusive antiproliferative activity toward Bcr-abl-transformed cells, with ... Figure 2: GNF-2 blocks proliferation and induces apoptosis of Ba/F3 cells expressing wild-type Bcr-abl and the E255V mutant.. ... Adrián, F., Ding, Q., Sim, T. et al. Allosteric inhibitors of Bcr-abl-dependent cell proliferation. Nat Chem Biol 2, 95-102 ( ... Allosteric inhibitors of Bcr-abl-dependent cell proliferation. *Francisco J Adrián1. , ...
Cells are structural and functional unit of our body that control and maintain the function of all unicellular and ... Therefore, cell proliferation assays become crucial to scrutinise the rate of cell proliferation in both in vitro and in vivo ... in laboratories to determine cell proliferation. Key Concepts:. * Cell proliferation plays a vital role in regular tissue and ... by recycling the old cells with new cells. In addition, abnormal cell proliferation is also associated with various human ...
Gene Ontology (GO) annotations for cell population proliferation All GO annotations for Meis2 (19) ...
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Perturbance of Ca(2+) signaling may induce deregulation of cell proliferation and suppression of cell death providing the basis ... homeostasis within cells controls a diversity of cellular processes including gene transcription, proliferation and apoptosis. ... signals and cell proliferation while BTP2, a potent inhibitor of Ca(2+) signals and cell proliferation in T-cells, neither ... We have analyzed the influence of TRPV6 on cell proliferation within HEK-293 cells. We show that TRPV6 increases cell ...
Gene Ontology (GO) annotations for cell population proliferation All GO annotations for Col8a1 (15) ...
... whereas β cell-specific overexpression of Smad7 enhanced proliferation of β cells and expression of CyclinD1 and CyclinD2. M2 ... β cell-specific deficiency of Smad7 did not affect macrophage infiltration but reduced β cell proliferation and expression of ... reduced pancreatic infiltration of macrophages and proliferation of β cells induced by PDL. Isolated β cells of control but not ... Some preclinical therapeutic strategies have focused on β cell replacement through differentiation of progenitor cells; however ...
... gans in which many proliferating cells can be found. In general the proliferating cells have been identified either in ... Studies on cell kinetics in untreated animals have for the most part been done on or- ... histologic sections as mitoses or by autoradiography as labeled interphase cells following the ... Proliferation of Different Cell Types in the Brain. Authors. * Hubert Korr Series Title. Advances in Anatomy, Embryology and ...
Nicotine Cell Proliferation And Invasion. 1807 Words , 8 Pages. induces cell proliferation and invasion as well as epithelial ... Animal Cells And Their Functions. 1044 Words , 5 Pages. Animal cells and their functions Cell Membrane The cell "surface" ... Eukaryotic Cells And Its Functions. 978 Words , 4 Pages. *. The Effect Of Calf Serum On Cell Proliferation. 1154 Words , 5 ... More about Cell Proliferation And The Control Of Cellular Function. *. Cell Cycle And Dna Rn Mirnas Regulating Cellular ...
... Chun San Tai,1,2 Yi Yun Chen,2 and Wen Liang Chen1 ... Chun San Tai, Yi Yun Chen, and Wen Liang Chen, "β-Lactoglobulin Influences Human Immunity and Promotes Cell Proliferation," ...
Surh, CD, Sprent, J. Homeostatic T cell proliferation. How far can T cells be activated to self-ligands? J Exp Med 2000. 192:F9 ... In vivo proliferation and FACS analyses. To establish homeostatic T cell proliferation of different populations in various ... Lymph node T cells depleted of regulatory CD25+ cells were prepared using an AutoMACS magnetic cell sorter (Miltenyi Biotec, ... All animals rejected the melanoma cells, but not the colon carcinoma cells, verifying that rejection of melanoma cells during ...
Proliferation profiles of gated Thy1.1+CD4+ and Thy1.1+CD4- (CD8+) cells in secondary lymphoid organs shown as CFSE histograms ... Total number of proliferating (one or more cell divisions) donor CD4+ and CD8+ cells in C57BL/6 recipients of 5 × 106 or 5 × 10 ... Inhibition of melanoma growth by homeostatic T cell proliferation. (. a. ) Nonirradiated (circles) or sublethally irradiated ( ... 106 B6.PL LN cells; lower panel: C57BL/6 mice irradiated and transfused with 5 × 107 B6.PL LN cells. FACS dot plots of host ...
... is an open-access journal devoted to studies into all aspects of cell proliferation and differentiation in ... Home , Journals , Cell Proliferation View PDF. Cell Proliferation. Editor(s): Dr. C. Sarraf. Publisher: Wiley. Impact Factor*: ... Cell Proliferation is an open-access journal devoted to studies into all aspects of cell proliferation and differentiation in ... In addition to original research papers Cell Proliferation publishes invited review articles, book reviews and letters ...
Control of cell proliferation is important for cancer prevention since cell proliferation has essential roles in carcinogenesis ... Control of cell proliferation is important for cancer prevention since cell proliferation has essential roles in carcinogenesis ... Control of cell proliferation in cancer prevention Mutat Res. 1999 Jul 16;428(1-2):291-8. doi: 10.1016/s1383-5742(99)00055-1. ... Availability of new biomarkers for cell proliferation, apoptosis or telomerase activity could be promising. By combining the ...
... has been shown to inhibit cell growth in cancer cells. Tehranolide was purified from Artemisia diffusa. To detect cell ... Tehranolide significantly reduces cell proliferation in a time and dose-dependent manner in K562 cells which probably involves ... To detect the role of PKA activity on cell proliferation, cells were pretreated with RpcAMP(10 μM) for 20 min and then treated ... Our results show that tehranolide significantly reduces cell proliferation in a time and dose-dependent manner in K562 cells ...
A. Proliferation of 143Bwt and 143Bcytb cells cultured in medium containing the indicated doses of metformin. Cell numbers were ... A. Proliferation of H1299 NSCLC cells treated with the indicated concentrations of metformin for 72 h. Cell numbers are ... Cell number is expressed relative to control cell number (no metformin) at 72 h. Shown are cell numbers for control (WT) and ... Proliferation of 143Bwt and 143Bcytb cells treated with control siRNA (CTL) or ACL-specific siRNA. Cell counts were determined ...
... constantly regenerating cells throughout the body: skin and the lining of the intestine, for example. And to University of ... including turning off the proliferation of cancer stem cells or inducing proliferation of somatic stem cells where we want to ... Tags: Autonomic Nervous System, Blood, Brain, Breathing, Cancer, Cell, Cell Proliferation, Central Nervous System, Depression, ... Proliferation, Research, Skin, Somatic Stem Cells, Stem Cells, Stress, Stress Related ...
The recruitment and progression of CMM cells in the cell cycle of proliferation depend on mitogen-activated protein kinase ( ... The involvement of cancer stem cells and transient amplifier cells in CMM genesis is beyond doubt. The proliferation activity ... Cell Proliferation in Cutaneous Malignant Melanoma: Relationship with Neoplastic Progression. G. E. Piérard ... Key molecular components involved in the deregulation of the growth fraction, the cell cycle phases of proliferation, and ...
Increased cellular proliferation in KO testes as shown by increased proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) staining and ... FSTL3: A Crucial Regulator of Sertoli Cell Proliferation. Notwithstanding current world population, infertility in humans is on ... Sertoli cells (SC) in the testis allow for the duplications and development of the cells that give rise to sperm and generally ... Also, within the testis there is an increase in SC numbers and related increase in cells that give rise to sperm. We, therefore ...
8916 increases cell proliferation as detected by the BrdU Cell Proliferation Chemiluminescent Assay Kit #5492. MCF 10A cells ... 8916 increases cell proliferation as detected by the BrdU Cell Proliferation Chemiluminescent Assay Kit #5492. MCF 10A cells ... BrdU Cell Proliferation Chemiluminescent Assay Kit detects BrdU incorporation into cellular DNA during cell proliferation. The ... The BrdU Cell Proliferation Assay Kit detects 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporated into cellular DNA during cell ...
  • Utilizes the second generation tetrazolium dye, XTT (sodium 2,3,-bis(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-5-[(phenylamino)-carbonyl]-2H-tetrazolium inner salt), to measure cell growth, cytotoxicity, and apoptosis. (
  • Figure 2: GNF-2 blocks proliferation and induces apoptosis of Ba/F3 cells expressing wild-type Bcr-abl and the E255V mutant. (
  • The Ca(2+) homeostasis within cells controls a diversity of cellular processes including gene transcription, proliferation and apoptosis. (
  • Availability of new biomarkers for cell proliferation, apoptosis or telomerase activity could be promising. (
  • In addition, inhibition of linc-UFC1 induced cell apoptosis through the intrinsic apoptosis signaling pathway, as evidenced by the activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3. (
  • An investigation of the signaling pathway revealed that the effects on proliferation and apoptosis following linc-UFC1 knockdown were mediated by suppression of β -catenin and activation of phosphorylated P38. (
  • Taken together, linc-UFC1 might have a critical role in pro-proliferation and anti-apoptosis in CRC by regulating the cell cycle, intrinsic apoptosis, and β -catenin and P38 signaling. (
  • 13 Moreover, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signal transduction pathways are evolutionarily conserved among eukaryotes and have been implicated as having key roles in a number of biological processes, including cell growth, differentiation, apoptosis, inflammation and responses to environmental stresses. (
  • Here, we took advantage of GSCs as the cell model to perform high-throughput drug screening, and the old antibiotic clofoctol was identified as the most effective compound, showing reduction of colony formation and induction of apoptosis of GSCs. (
  • Betulin induces mitochondrial cytochrome c release associated apoptosis in human cancer cells. (
  • The conclusion of the abstract is that WP1066, a STAT3 inhibitor recently shown to have novel ability to specifically degrade key cellular proteins involved in cancer proliferation (given the new drug class designation: Degrasyn), is a novel small molecule inhibitor of the head and neck cell proliferation able to induce suppression of cell proliferation , induction of apoptosis, inhibition of STAT3 phosphorylation and nuclear translocation. (
  • Formononetin suppresses the proliferation of human non-small cell lung cancer through induction of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. (
  • Flow cytometric analysis demonstrated that formononetin induced G1-phase cell cycle arrest and promoted cell apoptosis in NSCLC cells. (
  • Collectively, these results demonstrated that formononetin might be a potential chemopreventive drug for lung cancer therapy through induction of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in NSCLC cells. (
  • While some assays utilize antibodies to study cell health, proliferation, cell cycle or apoptosis, other types of experiments can rely on non-antibody based methods of assessment, often called non-antibody chemical probes. (
  • Cellular division for any cell type is dependent on the inherent function, location and the response of cells to repair, apoptosis, or death. (
  • Assessing cell health is an important workflow step in many cell culture systems and can be monitored using assays for the quantification of cell proliferation, cell viability, apoptosis, and DNA damage. (
  • Using cell viability, colony formation, cell cycle, apoptosis, migration, and invasion assay, the biological functions of PARK2 were evaluated and the potential molecular mechanism of PARK2 was investigated in vitro . (
  • Overexpression of PARK2 suppressed cell proliferation, colony formation, migration, and invasion, arrested cell cycle progression in the G1 phase, and induced apoptosis in human non-small cell lines H1299 and H460 in vitro . (
  • In fact, all tumor cell lines experienced significant decreases in proliferation in response to the monoclonal antibody and there was a 4- to 18-fold increase in programmed cell death, or apoptosis, among the cancer cell lines compared to normal control cells. (
  • The proliferation and apoptosis of MCF10A cells and MCF10AT cells were assessed by 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine labeling and TUNEL assay, respectively. (
  • The rate of epithelial cell apoptosis was not affected by NAF or CAF. (
  • Here you can see the latest Cannabinoid Induces Cell Cycle Arrest Apoptosis Inhibits Proliferation articles that have been published worldwide. (
  • We have published hundreds of Cannabinoid Induces Cell Cycle Arrest Apoptosis Inhibits Proliferation news stories on BioPortfolio along with dozens of Cannabinoid Induces Cell Cycle Arrest Apoptosis Inhibits Proliferation Clinical Trials and PubMed Articles about Cannabinoid Induces Cell Cycle Arrest Apoptosis Inhibits Proliferation for you to read. (
  • In addition to the medical data, news and clinical trials, BioPortfolio also has a large collection of Cannabinoid Induces Cell Cycle Arrest Apoptosis Inhibits Proliferation Companies in our database. (
  • You can also find out about relevant Cannabinoid Induces Cell Cycle Arrest Apoptosis Inhibits Proliferation Drugs and Medications on this site too. (
  • Cannabinoid WIN 55,212-2 induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, and inhibits proliferation, migration, invasion, and tumor growth in prostate cancer in a cannabinoid-receptor 2 dependent manner. (
  • Sophocarpine inhibits the growth of gastric cancer cells via autophagy and apoptosis. (
  • The present study aims to explore the effects of the sophocarpine on the proliferation and apoptosis of GC cells and elucidates the relevant molecular mechanisms. (
  • After treatment with sophocarpine, GC cells were evaluated on their proliferation, autophagy, cell cycle progress and apoptosis. (
  • Extracellular adenosine diphosphate (ADP) mediates a wide range of physiological effects as an extracellular signaling molecule, including platelet aggregation, vascular tone, cell proliferation, and apoptosis by interacting with plasma membrane P2 receptors. (
  • Mechanical feedback between cells has been proposed as a regulatory mechanism for growth control both in vivo and in cultured cells undergoing contact inhibition of proliferation. (
  • There was also a relationship between scavenging capacity and the inhibition of cancer cell proliferation. (
  • The correlations (R2) between the scavenging capacities for the reactive oxygen species and the inhibition of cancer cell proliferation were 0.8074, 0.8279, 0.7862 and 0.7761 for ROO, -OH, (1)0(2) and O(2), respectively. (
  • Compounds in this class (exemplified by GNF-2) show exclusive antiproliferative activity toward Bcr-abl-transformed cells, with potencies similar to imatinib, while showing no inhibition of the kinase activity of full-length or catalytic domain of c-abl. (
  • M2 macrophages isolated from the pancreas of mice subjected to PDL showed greater expression of TGFβ1 , which encodes a ligand for TGFβ receptors, and chemical inhibition of type I TGFβ receptors inhibited proliferation of β cells cocultured with M2 macrophages. (
  • Herein, we demonstrate that sublethally irradiated lymphopenic mice transfused with autologous or syngeneic T cells showed tumor growth inhibition when challenged with melanoma or colon carcinoma cells. (
  • Inhibition of melanoma growth by homeostatic T cell proliferation. (
  • Additionally, PDE inhibition and consequent cAMP accumulation and PKA activity were required for inhibiting cancer cell growth by tehranolide. (
  • Our results show that tehranolide significantly reduces cell proliferation in a time and dose-dependent manner in K562 cells via CaM inhibition, following PDE inhibition, cAMP accumulation, and consequent PKA activity. (
  • In the present study, the effects of tehranolide on CaM, PDE1, and the cAMP/PKA signaling pathway to define the mechanism of cell growth inhibition were investigated. (
  • Inhibition of linc-UFC1 resulted in cell proliferation inhibition and G1 cell cycle arrest, which was mediated by cyclin D1, CDK4, Rb and phosphorylated Rb. (
  • These results point to inhibition of DYRK1A as a therapeutic strategy to increase human β-cell proliferation. (
  • The consequence of either would be permanent cell proliferation inhibition and cancer. (
  • 1997 ) Selective inhibition of T cell proliferation but not expression of effector function by human alveolar macrophages. (
  • Furthermore, ALDH inhibition with disulfiram blocked VSMC proliferation/migration in vitro and decreased TNC1 and ESM1 and IH in angioplasty-injured rat carotid arteries. (
  • We show here that targeted inhibition of ARX causes cortical progenitor cells to exit the cell cycle prematurely and impairs their migration toward the cortical plate. (
  • Therefore, cell proliferation assays become crucial to scrutinise the rate of cell proliferation in both in vitro and in vivo conditions. (
  • Henriksson E, Kjellén E, Wahlberg P, Wennerberg J and Kjellström JH (2006) Differences in estimates of cisplatin‐induced cell kill in vitro between colorimetric and cell count/colony assays. (
  • Here, we show that 5-iodotubercidin (5-IT), an annotated adenosine kinase inhibitor previously reported to increase proliferation in rodent and porcine islets ( 5 ), strongly and selectively increases human β-cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo. (
  • Haploid ES cells elegantly combine the advantages of haploidy and pluripotency and offer a unique in vitro system for genetic analyses of molecular, cellular and developmental events in various cell lineages. (
  • The effects of the age of cell donor animal on in vitro development of ovine nuclear transfer (NT) embryos were investigated. (
  • PHGDH can utilize NADP+ as a cofactor in vitro, and tritiated glucose tracing shows that PHGDH produces exclusively NADPH, not NADH, in cells. (
  • The research team of Hong Kong Baptist University (HKBU) invented a medical device with a specific nanotechnology layer for the proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells (NSCs) in vitro. (
  • Additionally, over-expression of SLC2A1 in GC cells promotes cellular proliferation and metastasis in vitro and enhances tumor growth in vivo as well as enhancement of glucose utilization. (
  • Our further investigation revealed that in vitro coculture of macrophages and endometrial stromal cells (ESCs) increase the expression of IL-6 mRNA in ESC, which might further enhance the proliferation of ESC and subsequently result in the formation of ectopic endometrial implants in adenomyosis. (
  • Experiments to investigate these steroid effects on ESC proliferation in vitro in the eutopic endometrium of adenomyosis are of clinical relevance. (
  • These results indicate that H-CAFs are an important factor for promoting the growth of HCC in vitro and in vivo, and that HGF plays a key role in HCC proliferation induced by H-CAFs. (
  • Dong M, Pang X, Xu Y, Wen F, Zhang Y. Ubiquitin-Conjugating Enzyme 9 Promotes Epithelial Ovarian Cancer Cell Proliferation in Vitro . (
  • Thus, ONA is considered useful for the additional treatment of patients with ovarian cancer owing to its suppression of the pro-tumor activation of [tumor-associated macrophages] and direct cytotoxicity against cancer cells. (
  • Among the applications are drug sensitivity, cytotoxicity, response to growth factors, and cell activation. (
  • This response was effective even for established tumors, was characterized by CD8 + T cell-mediated tumor-specific cytotoxicity and IFN-γ production, and was associated with long-term memory. (
  • Complete solutions for easy, sensitive determination of cell viability and compound cytotoxicity. (
  • Cell cytotoxicity and proliferation assays are generally used for drug screening to detect whether the test molecules have effects on cell proliferation or display direct cytotoxic effects. (
  • This particular review aims to provide an overview of common cell proliferation and cytotoxicity assays together with their own advantages and disadvantages, their methodologies, comparisons and intended purposes. (
  • Aysun Adan, Yağmur Kiraz and Yusuf Baran, "Cell Proliferation and Cytotoxicity Assays", Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology (2016) 17: 1213. (
  • Review our cell health assays guide to learn more about our other cell viability , cytotoxicity and cell proliferation assay kits. (
  • Measurement of cell proliferation is necessary for testing the effects of pharmacological agents or growth factors, assessing cytotoxicity or investigating circumstances of cell activation. (
  • R&D Systems offers a variety of reagents for studying cell proliferation, viability, and cytotoxicity including fluorescent and non-fluorescent reporter dyes and MTT assays. (
  • The Premixed WST-1 Cell Proliferation Reagent is also applicable to cytotoxicity and inhibitory assays, where dye production decreases rather than increases. (
  • Cytotoxicity and cell proliferation assays are commonly used in the drug discovery process to assess a compound's ability to cause or block a biologic activity without having toxic effects on cells. (
  • Adenosine TriPhosphate (ATP) - monitoring assays allow for the quantitative evaluation of proliferation and cytotoxicity. (
  • ATP-monitoring luminescence assay for quantitative evaluation of proliferation and cytotoxicity of cultured mammalian cells. (
  • Strawberries inhibit cancer cell proliferation. (
  • Low doses of econazole inhibit both, TRPV6 dependent Ca(2+) signals and cell proliferation while BTP2, a potent inhibitor of Ca(2+) signals and cell proliferation in T-cells, neither influences TRPV6 dependent Ca(2+) signals nor cell proliferation of HEK-293 cells. (
  • Therefore, effective agents usually suppress cell proliferation and inhibit the occurrence of malignant lesions. (
  • Tehranolide, natural sesquiterpene lactone with an endoperoxide group, has been shown to inhibit cell growth in cancer cells. (
  • Thus, agents that inhibit cell proliferation and restrain hepatic tumorigenesis through cell cycle regulation have a beneficial effect in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinogenesis. (
  • These sex hormones also inhibit cell proliferation once the target organs achieve full development (proliferative shutoff effect). (
  • The demonstration by Upham et al 1 that human alveolar macrophages selectively inhibit proliferation of T cells by secretion of unidentified effector molecules raises the question as to whether pathological processes in the lung characterised by extensive macrophage recruitment or activation can have a systemic effect on T cell development. (
  • CONCLUSION: Both NAF and CAF have the ability to inhibit the growth of pre-cancerous breast epithelial cells. (
  • NAF have greater inhibitory capacity than CAF, suggesting that the ability of fibroblasts to inhibit epithelial cell proliferation is lost during breast carcinogenesis. (
  • ATCC Cell Proliferation Assay kits are convenient and valuable tools for the quantitative evaluation of a cell population's response to external factors that affect cell viability and growth. (
  • Trevigen ® offers a Calcein-AM based kit to determine cell viability as well as the tetrazolium salts MTT and XTT metabolic cell proliferation assay kits. (
  • Indeed it is very likely that there are many pathways from cell-surface receptors to the nucleus and these pathways overlap and interact so that no single intracellular messenger is likely to be both necessary and sufficient to commit a cell to DNA synthesis. (
  • Cell proliferation is regulated by a complex array of signaling pathways. (
  • In multicellular organisms, the process of cell proliferation is tightly controlled by gene regulatory networks encoded in the genome and executed mainly by transcription factors including those regulated by signal transduction pathways elicited by growth factors during cell-cell communication in development. (
  • The accumulation of genetic and epigenetic alterations mediates CRC formation and progression by deregulating key signaling pathways in cancer cells. (
  • The replication of preexisting β-cells in rodents has been extensively studied at the molecular level, and several signaling pathways that promote β-cell regeneration have been proposed ( 2 , 12 , 13 ). (
  • Development of mitochondrially-targeted drugs is receiving increasing attention because of the central roles these organelles play in energy production, reactive oxygen generation, and regulation of cell death pathways. (
  • Cell viability is defined as the number of healthy cells in a sample and proliferation of cells is a vital indicator for understanding the mechanisms in action of certain genes, proteins and pathways involved cell survival or death after exposing to toxic agents. (
  • 3D assays (soft agar) can be useful when studying pathways, mutations and drugs that produce a particular phenotype in 3D environment that maybe not be detected when cells are grown on tissue culture plastic. (
  • They can also be useful when assessing the effect of drugs that target pathways not directly involved in proliferation, such as adhesion and polarity. (
  • Cells respond to DNA damage by activating networks of signaling pathways, termed cell cycle checkpoints. (
  • 1 Although the pathways leading to plaque rupture are incompletely understood, the participation of immune cells and inflammation in the process is now recognized. (
  • IPA analysis showed that the predicated miRNAs target gene involved in cell Bio-functions including cell cycle, growth and proliferation, and in signaling pathways including MAPK and RAS-RAF-MEK-ERK pathways. (
  • Based on known signaling pathways in neural stem cells that promote either proliferation or differentiation and similarities with signaling pathways for each receptor, we hypothesize that agonism of the AT1 receptor will promote proliferation and decrease cell death, while agonism of the AT2 receptor will promote differentiation of neural stem cells. (
  • Our group has been analyzing the canonical and non canonical intracellular signaling pathways of TGF- β 1 that are involved in the expression of proliferative and apoptotic markers in Leydig cells. (
  • Thymoquinone inhibits cell proliferation through regulation of G1/S phase cell cycle transition in N-nitrosodiethylamine-induced experimental rat hepatocellular carcinoma. (
  • MicroRNA-145 inhibits cell proliferation by directly targeting ADAM17 in hepatocellular carcinoma. (
  • Notably, we found that miR-145 inhibits cell proliferation and growth activity in SMMC-7721 cells. (
  • Perturbance of Ca(2+) signaling may induce deregulation of cell proliferation and suppression of cell death providing the basis for cancer development. (
  • But changes in cells can also occur whenneurotransmitters induce a general state of inflammation or alter blood flow, an indirect route of action for the ANS. (
  • In addition, intake of nutrients in animals can induce circulating hormones of the Insulin/IGF-1 family, which are also considered growth factors, and that function to promote cell proliferation in cells throughout the body that are capable of doing so. (
  • While isolated bouts of inflammation did not induce HR, overlap between inflammation-induced DNA damage and inflammation-induced cell proliferation induced HR significantly. (
  • We found that exposure to alkylation damage induces HR, and importantly, that inflammation-induced cell proliferation and alkylation induce HR in a synergistic fashion. (
  • hence, sex hormones would induce cell proliferation by neutralizing the effect of the plasma-borne inhibitors. (
  • The other is to search for small molecules that can induce the same conformational change of Chk1, so that they can be delivered into cancer cells to activate Chk1 molecules. (
  • In conclusion, a synopsis of available data suggest that the ability of particles to induce persistent lung inflammation is key in the initiation of cell proliferation and tissue remodelling as necessary prerequisites for non-neoplastic lung lesions (e.g. fibrosis) as well as the fixation of secondary caused mutations in affected target cells and, in the rat, the progression of these cells also to neoplastic lesions. (
  • The results shed light on the molecular and cellular mechanisms for the mediation of ZEA to induce proliferation. (
  • Estradiol (E2) was demonstrated to induce endometrial cell proliferation, whereas medroxyprogesterone (MPA) inhibited endometrial cell proliferation via antagonizing estrogenic effects. (
  • This book also introduces the reader to the role of the cell division cycle in induced differentiation, gene regulation in muscle cells, regulation of nonmuscle actin gene expression during early development, and sequences at ends of cellular DNA molecules in relation to telomere replication and function. (
  • This text then examines the relationship between ionic events and cellular production, specifically in mammalian cell systems. (
  • Cell proliferation plays a vital role in regular tissue and cellular homoeostasis for proper growth, development and maintenance of organism. (
  • Berridge MV, Herst PM and Tan AS (2005) Tetrazolium dyes as tools in cell biology: new insights into their cellular reduction. (
  • HSPs play important roles in cell proliferation and the control of cellular functions (Lindquist, 1986). (
  • Peak moments of rest and digest may not be the best for making new cells, either, because when food is coming in, cellular processes related to digestion can create free radicals that can damage new cells. (
  • Genetic mutations found in cancer cells cause uncontrolled cellular proliferation. (
  • Alternatively, cell proliferation can also be analyzed with cell viability assays that measure the rate of cellular metabolism, such as MTT, MTS, resazurin and similar assays, mitochondrial membrane potential dependent dyes, cellular esterase cleaved dyes, ATP and ADP assays, and assays that measure glycolytic flux and oxygen consumption. (
  • Test for cell membrane damage, either by measuring the leakage of cellular enzymes or staining with membrane-impermeable dyes. (
  • It is believed that it regulates the many downstream genes which produce the pathology of restenosis, namely cell migration and adhesion, collagen formation, secretion of extra-cellular matrix, and cell proliferation , among others. (
  • Multiple cellular backgrounds are available in our 2D and 3D cell proliferation assays. (
  • Traditional methods for proliferation and differentiation of NSCs require a large number of additional growth factors in a culture medium, which are kinds of polypeptides and can regulate many aspects of cellular function that may stimulate the growth of cancer cells and increase the risk of developing tumors in vivo after transplantation. (
  • Cellular damage resulting from repeated exposure to toxicants, induces patho-physiological repair processes during which damaged tissue may proliferate (hyperplasia) and/or undergo metaplasia to a different, more resistant cell type (e.g. fibrosis) if return to normal cell morphology is not complete. (
  • However the detailed molecular and cellular mechanisms of ZEA-mediated induction of cell proliferation have not yet been completely explained. (
  • Interest in the cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible for the migration of the neuronal cell types of the cortex has never been greater. (
  • Rapidly proliferating cells reshape their metabolism to satisfy their ever-lasting need for cellular building blocks. (
  • This book provides an understanding of the control of cell proliferation and the deregulated proliferation of cancer cells. (
  • Control of cell proliferation is a fundamental aspect of tissue formation in development and regeneration. (
  • In most cells initiation of DNA synthesis is inexorably followed by a premitotic phase and then by mitosis, the essential control of cell proliferation is therefore the signal that commits a cell to DNA synthesis. (
  • Control of cell proliferation is important for cancer prevention since cell proliferation has essential roles in carcinogenesis including the process of initiation and promotion. (
  • Cancer cells are very prolific. (
  • Furthermore, they found that ONA enhanced anti-cancer drugs' effects by boosting their anti-proliferation ability. (
  • The researchers say their study demonstrates that ONA slows progression of ovarian cancer tumors by interrupting myeloid cells' pro-tumor activity. (
  • We found that ONA reduced the extent of ovarian cancer cell proliferation induced by co-culture with human macrophages. (
  • In addition, we found that ONA directly suppressed cancer cell proliferation. (
  • Ions, Cell Proliferation, and Cancer present the credibility of ions as specific regulators of cell proliferation. (
  • Representatives of three species of strawberries (Fragaria virginiana, F chiloensis and F x ananassa) were evaluated for antioxidant capacity, scavenging capacity for reactive oxygen species (ROO, -OH , (1)0(2) and O(2)), and inhibitory effect on proliferation of A549 human lung epithelial cancer cells. (
  • Cancer Cell 7 , 129-141 (2005). (
  • In addition, abnormal cell proliferation is also associated with various human diseases like cancer. (
  • Metformin Antagonizes Cancer Cell Proliferation by Suppressing Mitochondrial-Dependent Biosynthesis. (
  • Recent work suggests that metformin directly antagonizes cancer cell growth through its actions on complex I of the mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC). However, the mechanisms by which metformin arrests cancer cell proliferation remain poorly defined. (
  • Rather, metformin inhibits cancer cell proliferation by suppressing mitochondrial-dependent biosynthetic activity. (
  • Our data indicate that metformin inhibits cancer cell proliferation by suppressing the production of mitochondrial-dependent metabolic intermediates required for cell growth, and that metabolic adaptations that bypass mitochondrial-dependent biosynthesis may provide a mechanism of tumor cell resistance to biguanide activity. (
  • Metformin exerts AMPK-independent effects on cancer cell metabolism. (
  • Stem cells undergo cell proliferation to produce proliferating "transit amplifying" daughter cells that later differentiate to construct tissues during normal development and tissue growth, during tissue regeneration after damage, or in cancer. (
  • Uncontrolled cell proliferation, leading to an increased proliferation rate, or a failure of cells to arrest their proliferation at the normal time, is a cause of cancer. (
  • Cancer is a disease of the cells, which are the body's basic building blocks. (
  • In this study, we investigated linc-UFC1 expression in CRC tissues and cancer cell lines. (
  • We examined whether betulin, a naturally abundant compound, has anticancer functions in human cancer cells. (
  • The results showed that betulin significantly inhibited cell viability in cervix carcinoma HeLa cells, hepatoma HepG2 cells, lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells, and breast cancer MCF-7 cells with IC(50) values ranging from 10 to 15 microg/mL. (
  • Cancer is a disease of inappropriate cell proliferation, and tumor cells require a unique metabolic program to support proliferation. (
  • We conclude that PHGDH metabolic activity is important for cancer cell proliferation and that PHGDH amplification or overexpression can promote tumorigenesis at multiple stages. (
  • Comparing the cells of cancer patients who did and did not respond to the immunotherapy could reveal biomarkers to predict who should receive it in the first place. (
  • Responders also had higher levels of two types of T cells, one that carries the IL-6 receptor and controls cancer growth and another that helps sustain remission. (
  • Both cell types had characteristics that would aid T cell proliferation in patients who responded to the treatment, while T cells from nonresponders were in the late stages of T cell memory, meaning they had already differentiated into effector cells to target cancer and had initiated their own cell death. (
  • The results "confirm that T cells collected from patients with CLL tend to be of poor quality," and provide valuable clues about why the therapy works only in certain patients, says Michel Sadelain , an immunologist at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center who also didn't work on the study. (
  • In unprotected cells, they saw inflammation and the hallmarks of cancer: DNA damage, uncontrolled cell proliferation , and eventually precancerous growths called papillomas. (
  • Progress toward resolution of the role of PKC in cancer cell proliferation will be a key factor in the formulation of potential strategies and therapies for cancer intervention. (
  • In the present study, we investigated the anti-proliferative effects of formononetin on human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), and further elucidated the molecular mechanism underlying the anti-tumor property. (
  • Researchers at Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine have discovered a mutant form of the gene, Chk1, that when expressed in cancer cells, permanently stopped their proliferation and caused cell death without the addition of any chemotherapeutic drugs. (
  • This study illustrates an unprecedented finding, that artificially activating Chk1 alone is sufficient to kill cancer cells. (
  • With this discovery, scientists could stop the proliferation of cancer cells, allowing physicians time to fix cells and genetic errors. (
  • Remarkably, the research team discovered that when expressed in cancer cells, this active mutant form of Chk1 permanently stopped cancer cell proliferation and caused cell death in petri dishes even without the addition of any chemotherapeutic drugs. (
  • Chk1 facilitates cell survival, including cancer cells, under stressful conditions, such as those induced by chemotherapeutic agents, by placing a temporary stop on the cell cycle progression and coordinating repair programs to fix the DNA errors. (
  • Future research by Dr. Zhang and his team will consider two possible approaches to artificially activating Chk1 in cancer cells. (
  • One possibility is to use the gene therapy concept to deliver the active mutant form of Chk1 that the team discovered, into cancer cells. (
  • Capan 1, a human pancreatic cancer cell line, is routinely grown in 10% fetal calf serum (FCS). (
  • Other human (MIA PaCa 2, AsPC1, Panc 1) or rat (AR4-2J) pancreatic cancer cell lines tested proliferated in the reconstituted medium containing insulin (100 ng/ml), transferrin (100 µg/ml), fatty acid-free albumin (1 mg/ml), and bovine serum lipids (0.7%), as in 10% FCS. (
  • These data suggest that lipids, insulin, and transferrin are the essential factors for the proliferation of pancreatic cancer cell lines, reproducing the growth effect of 10% FCS. (
  • Yan S, Wang Y, Chen M, Li G, Fan J. Deregulated SLC2A1 Promotes Tumor Cell Proliferation and Metastasis in Gastric Cancer. (
  • The objectives of this study were to examine the expression levels of Homeobox A10 (HoxA10) in prostate cancer cells and to study the molecular mechanism of HoxA10-mediated regulation of prostate cancer cell growth and development. (
  • We investigated the effect of HoxA10 on cell proliferation by stably overexpressing or silencing HoxA10 in prostate cancer PC-3 cell line using lentiviral vectors. (
  • Quantitative real-time PCR and western blotting analysis were used to compare the expressions of HoxA10 in prostate cancer cell lines and normal prostate epithelium. (
  • Cancer cell proliferation was examined by MTT assay and colony formation assay. (
  • The levels of HoxA10 expression were significantly increased in prostate cancer cell lines and tissues compared to those in normal prostate epithelium. (
  • Overexpression of HoxA10 in PC-3 cells induced significant cancer cell proliferation, whereas silencing of HoxA10 expression by RNAi resulted in decreased proliferation rates. (
  • HoxA10 was highly expressed in prostate cancer cells and tissues, suggesting its functional involvement in cancer cell proliferation. (
  • We successfully overexpressed or silenced HoxA10 in prostate cancer PC-3 cell line and discovered that the levels of HoxA10 directly correlate with cancer cell proliferation. (
  • However, the biological functions and potential molecular mechanisms of PARK2 in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are still unclear. (
  • We show here that DKK3 stimulates esophageal cancer cell proliferation via cytoskeleton-associated protein 4 (CKAP4), which acts as a receptor for DKK3. (
  • Cancer-associated fibroblasts from hepatocellular carcinoma promote malignant cell proliferation by HGF secretion. (
  • Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are reported to support tumorigenesis by stimulating angiogenesis, cancer cell proliferation, and invasion in most solid tumors. (
  • Using a newly available monoclonal antibody, they demonstrated significant reductions in tumor cell proliferation and survival in human and mouse hepatocellular cancer (HCC) cell lines. (
  • They also found significantly higher levels of PDGFRa in rat and human liver cancer cell lines as compared to normal cells in culture. (
  • Dr. Monga s group then treated human and mouse liver cancer cell lines with a monoclonal antibody targeted against PDGFRa. (
  • More importantly, targeting the PDGFRa pathway in liver cancer cells does not appear to affect normal liver cells, making the treatment relatively non-toxic. (
  • The authors show that the cancer cells they examined consume more oxygen during proliferation to sustain their mitochondria. (
  • Td-EC were derived from human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) by treating HUVEC with the conditioned medium of human liver cancer cell line HepG2. (
  • This phenomenon is exemplified in certain malignant conditions such as cancer but also during embryonic development when cells rely heavily on glycolytic metabolism to exploit its metabolic intermediates for biosynthetic processes. (
  • In conclusion, we propose that Cts L regulates this metabolic circuit to keep cell division under control, suggesting the therapeutic potential of targeting this protein and its networks in cancer. (
  • This pattern of metabolic behavior is frequently observed in aberrantly proliferating cancer cells, but also occurs naturally during embryonic development or inflammatory lymphocyte expansion ( 2 ). (
  • The kinetics of colorectal epithelial cell proliferation (CECP) have been found to be altered in patients at increased risk for colon cancer. (
  • In the present study, we showed that miR-145 is able to significantly reduce mRNA and protein expression levels of A disintegrin and metalloproteinasexa017 (ADAM17) in liver cancer cells (SMMC-7721, BEL-7402 and Huh-7). (
  • These results demonstrated that it may be exert the function of tumor suppression in a particular link of cancer cell growth. (
  • In conclusion, miR-145 inhibits liver cancer cell proliferation by directly targeting ADAM17. (
  • A better understanding of the changes that occur in fibroblasts during carcinogenesis and their influence on epithelial cell growth and behavior could lead to novel strategies for the prevention and treatment of breast cancer. (
  • Antifibrotic Agent Pirfenidone Suppresses Proliferation of Human Pancreatic Cancer Cells by Inducing G0/G1 Cell Cycle Arrest. (
  • We hypothesized that PFD-induced G0/G1 cell cycle arrest might be achieved in other types of cells, including cancer cells. (
  • Treatment with TQ significantly reduced the detrimental alterations by abrogating cell proliferation, which strongly induced G1/S arrest in cell cycle transition. (
  • MTT assay showed that formononetin treatment significantly inhibited the proliferation of two NSCLC cell lines including A549 and NCI-H23 in a time- and dose-dependent manner. (
  • Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was found to promote proliferation of ESCs via induction of TNF-a and IL-8 expression, whereas IFN-g significantly inhibited ESCs proliferation. (
  • In our present study, we found that the proliferation of MHCC97L and Hep3B cells was significantly promoted by treatment with conditioned medium from H-CAFs. (
  • Anti-HGF significantly reduced the proliferation-promoting capability of H-CAFs. (
  • Our results showed that proliferation of EOC cells increased significantly in Ubc9 overexpressing cells, but decreased in Ubc9 knockdown cells. (
  • Indirubin significantly inhibited Td-EC proliferation in a dose- and time-dependent manner. (
  • However, only NAF and not CAF significantly inhibited proliferation of the more transformed MCF10AT cells. (
  • Mean insulin-like growth factor II levels were not significantly different in NAF versus CAF and did not correlate with the fibroblast effect on epithelial cell proliferation. (
  • In this study, we found that ADP significantly inhibited cell proliferation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells at high concentrations (50 to 100 µM). (
  • To detect cell viability and proliferation, MTT assay was performed. (
  • Our ATP luminescence assays provide a more sensitive alternative to colorimetric, fluorometric, and radioisotopic based assays for monitoring cell viability and proliferation. (
  • These assays follow different parameters to determine the rate of cell proliferation like rate of deoxyribonucleic acid synthesis, metabolic activity of cells, different antigens associated with cell proliferation and adenosine triphosphate concentration. (
  • The goal of this study was to determine if the model sulfated ECM heparin modified DNA synthesis and gene expression by type II cells in a concentration dependent-manner. (
  • These methods could be basically classified into different categories: (I) dye exclusion methods such as trypan blue dye exclusion assay, (II) methods based on metabolic activity, (III) ATP assay, (IV) sulforhodamine B assay, (V) protease viability marker assay, (VI) clonogenic cell survival assay, (VII) DNA synthesis cell proliferation assays and (V) raman micro-spectroscopy. (
  • Many cell proliferation assays are based on measurements of radioactively-labeled nucleoside uptake during DNA synthesis. (
  • To demonstrate that stem cell behavior was changing as a result of ANS stimulation, the researchers grew intestinal epithelial cells in the lab and exposed them to high levels of two neurotransmitters, norepinephrine and acetylcholine. (
  • Epithelial cells are usually stationary and reside in two-dimensional sheets. (
  • 1994-=-), it is not surprising that the two factors have distinct functions and are regulated differently in mammary epithelial cells. (
  • To this end, the effect of CAF and normal breast-associated fibroblasts (NAF) on the growth of epithelial cells representative of pre-neoplastic breast disease was assessed. (
  • METHODS: NAF and CAF were grown with the nontumorigenic MCF10A epithelial cells and their more transformed, tumorigenic derivative, MCF10AT cells, in direct three-dimensional co-cultures on basement membrane material. (
  • Furthermore, as the degree of transformation of the epithelial cells increased they became resistant to the growth-inhibitory effects of CAF. (
  • This text also deals with topics such as the use of cloned SV40 DNA fragments to examine signals for cell proliferation, expression of dihydrofolate reductase and thymidylate synthase genes in mammalian cells, and gene expression during the cell cycle of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. (
  • Here, we study the impact of mechanical manipulations on the cell cycle of individual cells within a mammalian model epithelium. (
  • The situation is even less clear in mammalian cells. (
  • 9 LincRNAs are transcribed abundantly in mammalian cells and generally show developmental stage-, tissue- or disease-specific expression patterns. (
  • Other approaches to enhance mammalian β-cell mass include the identification of small molecules or secreted factors that have the ability to replicate existing β-cells ( 1 , 4 , 7 - 11 ). (
  • Although the mechanisms and proteins of mitochondrial fusion are well known in yeast and mammalian cells, they remain poorly understood in plant cells. (
  • Up to the eight-cell embryo stage, the blastomeres are morphologically identical and distributed symmetrically in the mammalian embryo. (
  • Vector injection into the perivitelline space has emerged as the standard delivery method to transduce lentivirus to mammalian oocytes or one-cell embryos, but its application is limited by the need for high titers of lentivirus. (
  • WST-1 Cell Proliferation Assay Kit II provides by far the easiest and most sensitive means for quantifying cell proliferation and viability in mammalian cells. (
  • 13. The medium according to claim 1, wherein said cells are from mammalian organs or tissues. (
  • Spatiotemporal coordination of cell growth underlies tissue development and disease. (
  • In this study, we probe the impact of mechanical tissue perturbations on cell cycle progression by monitoring cell cycle dynamics of cells in tissues subject to acute changes in boundary conditions, as well as tissue stretching and compression. (
  • Taken together, we conclude that the ability of tissues to support cell cycle progression adapts to the available space through a memory-free control mechanism, which may coordinate proliferation patterns to maintain tissue homeostasis. (
  • Stretching the tissue results in fast cell cycle reactivation, whereas compression rapidly leads to cell cycle arrest. (
  • Our kinetic analysis of this response shows that cells have no memory of past constraints and allows us to formulate a biophysical model that predicts tissue growth in response to changes in spatial constraints in the environment. (
  • This characteristic biomechanical cell cycle response likely serves as a fundamental control mechanism to maintain tissue integrity and to ensure control of tissue growth during development and regeneration. (
  • Control of cell division during tissue formation is a major regulatory principle of tissue and organ formation, size determination, tissue regeneration, and tumorigenesis ( 1 , 2 ). (
  • The process of cell proliferation and differentiation plays a vital role from the time of embryogenesis to development of whole organism from single‐ or double‐cell embryo and continues its crucial role in maintenance of adult tissue homoeostasis by recycling the old cells with new cells. (
  • In order to study the influence of the fulleride presence on cell proliferation, we chose the cell line rin-mf5 (cell derivatives of the human insular tissue). (
  • Cell proliferation leads to an exponential increase in cell number and is therefore a rapid mechanism of tissue growth. (
  • With a grant from BBSRC we will first determine whether SC multiplication can be increased by reducing FSTL3 in mice and in tissue culture cells. (
  • It was established in 1968 as Cell and Tissue Kinetics, obtaining its current title in 1991. (
  • Cell proliferation is necessary for normal tissue development and maintenance over the lifespan. (
  • For the analysis of cell proliferation within tissue samples, or sometimes within cell culture, it is common to use antibodies to stain for the presence of Ki67, PCNA, or MCM-2. (
  • Sample suitability indicates whether this reagent can be used to label already fixed tissue sections or single cells in suspension or cell culture. (
  • There can be symmetrical or asymmetrical division depending on the cell and tissue type. (
  • Tissue-infiltrating T cells were examined in extracts from coronary arteries containing stable or unstable plaque. (
  • 2 3 Activation of tissue-infiltrating inflammatory cells, such as macrophages, T cells, and mast cells, 4 5 6 7 has been implicated to cause plaque vulnerability through the local production of tissue-digesting enzymes and procoagulant substances. (
  • As inferred by Dr Grange, these T cells are subjected to the powerful downregulatory influence of lung macrophages during their transit through lung tissue, resulting in a variety of functional changes including loss of proliferation capacity. (
  • 1993 ) Regulation of T-cell function in lung tissue by pulmonary alveolar macrophages. (
  • This book is a valuable resource for animal cell biologists, molecular biologists, and research workers. (
  • Molecular basis of the first cell fate determination in mouse embryogenesis. (
  • In so doing, the three scientists discovered molecular machinery that orchestrates cell proliferation , says molecular biologist Stephen J. (
  • On the molecular level, we observed that exposure to formononetin altered the expression levels of cell cycle arrest-associated proteins p21, cyclin A and cyclin D1. (
  • This protocol is designed to examine those growth potentiating and inhibiting factors which regulate mast cell number and survival in patients with mastocytosis, and to explore the molecular basis of the disease process in hopes of improving therapy. (
  • When combined, antagonism of both receptors synergistically promotes the formation of more β-cell mass. (
  • When neurotransmitters bind to receptors in the membranes of certain cells, they elicit a direct response within the cell. (
  • They found not only that the stem cells did have receptors for ANS neurotransmitters, but also the neurotransmitters changed the behavior of the cells - just what they would expect to see for a direct relationship. (
  • When we isolated the stem cells and found there were actually ANS neurotransmitter receptors, we found that missing piece,' Davis says. (
  • T-cell clonotypes from different UA patients used antigen receptors with similar sequences. (
  • Our previous results revealed that the expression of killer inhibitory receptors on natural killer cells was decreased in eutopic endometrium in women with adenomyosis. (
  • Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is a powerful vasoconstricting peptide produced predominantly by vascular endothelial cells, that exerts its effect through the interaction with specific receptors, ETA. (
  • Recently, the angiotensin II receptors AT1 and AT2 were found to be expressed on rat neuronal stem cells. (
  • We analyze the effect of TGF- β 1 inLeydig cells depending on the type of receptors involved in the signaling pathway of TGF- β 1. (
  • On the basis of our studies and from those of other authors we conclude that the balance between the expression of TGF- β 1 receptors and co receptors is of relevance in Leydig cell physiology and pathophisiology. (
  • The results indicate that concomitant induction of the physiologic processes of homeostatic T cell proliferation and tumor antigen presentation in lymph nodes triggers a beneficial antitumor autoimmune response. (
  • Al‐Nasiry S, Geusens N, Hanssens M, Luyten C and Pijnefnborg R (2006) The use of Alamar Blue assay for quantitative analysis of viability, migration and invasion of choriocarcinoma cells. (
  • Restraint stress modifies Langerhans cell migration and lymph node cell proliferation. (
  • LC morphology and migration were examined in epidermal sheets by counting the number of FITC conjugated lIa stained cells/mm2 at 0, 2 & 18 hours after chemical application. (
  • These data suggest that restraint-induced decrease in T cell proliferation may be due, in part, to decreased LC migration to the local lymph nodes. (
  • In contrast, ARX overexpression appears to promote the development of tangentially oriented processes of cells in the subventricular and intermediate zones and affects radial migration of pyramidal neurons. (
  • Tabata and Nakajima, 2001 ) and RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated loss-of-function or overexpression experimental approaches, which revealed that ARX directly affects the proliferation of cortical progenitor cells as well as their radial migration. (
  • The present study aimed to analyze the effects of indirubin on cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and angiogenesis of tumor-derived endothelial cells (Td-EC). (
  • 1999). Moreover, HSP-70 might play important roles in survival and proliferation of pathogens, such as Schistosoma, Plasmodium, Trypanosoma, and Leishmania within the host (Lindquist, 1986). (
  • The expression, response, signaling, and survival of normal human cells allows for the progression of mankind. (
  • DNA methylation regulates development and many epigenetic processes in mammals, and it is required for somatic cell growth and survival. (
  • Assays to monitor the progression of autophagy as cells digest damaged or defective molecules or devour existing proteins and organelles to generate key nutrients for survival. (
  • Together, these characteristics support the early stages of T cell memory, involving cell proliferation and enhanced survival. (
  • We now have identified a pathway that appears to be overly active in more than 70 percent of the cancers we examined and, when targeted, leads to significant reduction in tumor cell proliferation and survival, said Dr. Monga. (
  • We propose to examine how selective activation of the angiotensin system through either the AT1 or AT2 receptor affects human neural stem cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival. (
  • Inflammation-induced cell proliferation potentiates DNA damage-induced mutations in vivo. (
  • We show that inflammation induces DSBs (γH2AX foci) and that several days later there is an increase in cell proliferation. (
  • Taken together, these results show that, during an acute bout of inflammation, there is a kinetic barrier separating DNA damage from cell proliferation that protects against mutations, and that inflammation-induced cell proliferation greatly potentiates exposure-induced mutations. (
  • Compared with traditional methods, the team's novel matrix can reduce the risk of carcinogenesis or inflammation in stem cell therapy - a treatment that offers hope of a cure for incurable diseases such as neurodegenerative diseases, chronic systemic diseases and degenerative joint diseases. (
  • Professor Ken Yung said, 'The novel matrix enables scientists to cultivate NSCs by adopting the usual method, however with the added advantage of organic compounds (like Polylysine and Polyornithine) being excluded from the process, thereby reducing the potential risk of carcinogenesis or inflammation in stem cell therapy. (
  • The initial trapping of T cells in transit is due, at least in part, to local endothelial expression of inflammation associated molecules such as ICAM-1. (
  • In mice subjected to PDL, β cell-specific deficiency of Smad7 did not affect macrophage infiltration but reduced β cell proliferation and expression of CyclinD1 and CyclinD2 , whereas β cell-specific overexpression of Smad7 enhanced proliferation of β cells and expression of CyclinD1 and CyclinD2 . (
  • We found that overexpression of tail interacting protein of 47 kDa (TIP47), but not its truncated form (t-TIP47) protected NIH3T3 cells from hydrogen-peroxide-induced cell death, prevented the hydrogen-peroxide-induced mitochondrial depolarization determined by 5,50,6,60-tetrachloro-1,10,3,30-tetraethyl-benzimidazolylcarbocyanine iodide (JC1), while suppression of TIP47 in HeLa cells facilitated oxidative-stress-induced cell death. (
  • The most common marker of senescent cells is the overexpression and accumulation of the endogenous lysosomal beta-galactosidase (SA-beta-gal). (
  • H1299 and H460 cell lines were used to PARK2 overexpression models, and H460 cell line was also used to PARK2 knockdown model. (
  • In contrast, ARX overexpression increases the length of the cell cycle. (
  • Moreover, proteomic analysis of Cts L-knockout cells identified LDHA overexpression that was demonstrated to be a key metabolic junction in these cells. (
  • Contrary to the common assumption that proliferating cells increase glycolysis at the expense of mitochondrial metabolism, their results show that glycolysis and mitochondrial respiration increase by equal amounts during proliferation. (
  • How cells reshape their metabolism is not fully understood. (
  • Here we report that loss of cathepsin L (Cts L) is associated with a fast proliferation rate and enhanced glycolytic metabolism that depend on lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA) activity. (
  • Using mass spectrometry analysis of cells treated with a pan cathepsin inhibitor, we observed an increased abundance of proteins involved in central carbon metabolism. (
  • Cells have the fundamental ability for metabolism remodeling in response to changing environments. (
  • The latter has recently sparked continued interest since the rejuvenation of the lysosomes as a central hub for cell metabolism ( 4 ). (
  • The lysosomes receive nutritional cues from various sources such as the extracellular environment or intracellular pools and dynamically regulate cell metabolism ( 5 ). (
  • DNA-staining dyes are commonly used in flow cytometry to measure the DNA content in cell populations and assay for cell cycle state. (
  • As monitored by flow cytometry, activated CD4+ and CD8+ T cells from WT, Cre+, and Cre− mice all underwent blastogenesis, whereas far fewer cells from conventional IL-2(−/−) mice did so. (
  • Results from flow cytometry and Western Blot analysis validated the predictions that ZEA can affect cell cycle, and the MAPK signaling pathway. (
  • wherein said medium for the long-term proliferation and development of cells is serum-free or serum-depleted and is capable of culturing cells comprising adipocytes, macrophages, endothelial cells, fibroblasts, and hematopoictic progenitor cells. (
  • The total number of cells in a population is determined by the rate of cell proliferation minus the rate of cell death. (
  • Cells experience various spatial and mechanical constraints depending on their environmental context in the body, but we do not fully understand if and how such constraints influence cell cycle progression and thereby proliferation patterns in tissues. (
  • By monitoring the response to experimentally applied forces, we find a checkpoint at the G1-S boundary that, in response to spatial constraints, controls cell cycle progression. (
  • Our data demonstrate that TRPV6 increases the rate of Ca(2+) dependent cell proliferation which is a prerequisite for its potential role in tumor progression. (
  • Thus, during pancreatic injury, macrophages release TGFβ1 to stimulate Smad7 expression in β cells, which in turn inhibits an inhibitor of cell cycle progression and promotes β cell expansion. (
  • In our previous study, we successfully isolated CAFs from hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) (H-CAFs) and proved that H-CAFs suppressed the activation of NK cells and thereby created favorable conditions for HCC progression. (
  • An overview of the biochemical aspects of cell proliferation and the genes and gene products that are necessary and specific for cell proliferation concludes the book. (
  • A biologically based, computerized description of carcinogenesis was used to show that the increase in cell proliferation can account for the carcinogenicity of nongenotoxic compounds. (
  • β Cells secrete insulin, a peptide hormone that promotes the uptake and storage of carbohydrates and other nutrients in skeletal muscle and fat, while simultaneously repressing gcg secretion from pancreatic α cells and glucose efflux from the liver. (
  • Gcgr antagonism promotes α-cell hyperplasia possibly via amino acid-dependent mechanisms. (
  • Furthermore, 5-IT promotes β-cell proliferation in human islets grafted under the kidney capsule of NOD- scid IL2Rg null mice. (
  • We found that ZEA promotes TM3 cell proliferation at low concentrations. (
  • Vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation promotes intimal hyperplasia (IH) in occluding vascular diseases. (
  • Quantitation of NIH 3T3 fibroblasts using the CyQUANT Cell Proliferation Assay Kit. (
  • Pirfenidone (PFD), which is an antifibrotic agent used for treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, induces G0/G1 cell cycle arrest in fibroblasts. (
  • MicroRNA-140-5p suppresses retinoblastoma cell growth via inhibiting c-Met/AKT/mTOR pathway. (
  • All five uncontrolled trials indicated substantial and significant decreases in proliferation. (
  • It resulted in a significant decrease in tumor cell proliferation and a marked increase in tumor cell death. (
  • Topics include gene transfer for assessing the role of defined DNA sequences in triggering DNA replication, nucleic acid hybridization probes for analyzing the regulation of specific genes during the cell cycle, and cloned DNAs for studying genes expressed with proliferation and differentiation. (
  • Gene expression profiling in whole islets treated with 5-IT revealed induction of proliferation- and cell cycle-related genes, suggesting that true proliferation is induced by 5-IT. (
  • The effects of heparin were examined by [ 3H]thymidine incorporation into DNA, total cell protein, cell number, and selected gene expression. (
  • To explore the role of interleukin-2 (IL-2) in T cell proliferation, and to circumvent the IL-2 deficiency autoimmune syndrome of conventional il2 gene deletion, mice were created to allow conditional il2 gene deletion when treated with the estrogen analog, tamoxifen (TAM) as adults. (
  • The investigators also analyzed the cells for their level of activation of the PDGFRa gene. (
  • Therefore, Ubc9 gene plays an important role in cell proliferation in EOC through PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. (
  • The underlying metabolic shift is regulated at various levels including cell-signaling cascades or altered gene expression and protein degradation ( 1 , 3 ). (
  • Utilizes the most widely accepted detection reagents, tetrazolium salts, for the safe, accurate, and straightforward quantification of changes in cell proliferation. (
  • For additional reagents (including antibodies) on cell cycle analysis or DNA replication, check here . (
  • Partial ligation of the pancreatic duct (PDL) in mice is an injury model that stimulates proliferation without directly ablating β cells. (
  • Accumulating evidence has indicated that ZEA strongly stimulates cell proliferation. (
  • We demonstrate here that (a) TGF-c ~ production and secretion by mammary cells is downregulated by the basement membrane-dependent alveolar structure, and (b) compared with/3-casein, WAP expression is preferentially inhibited both in culture and in transgenic mice when TGF-ot is added or overexpressed. (
  • Cell proliferation assays are mainly designed based on three concepts, that is, (1) measuring rate of DNA replication, (2) analysis of metabolic activity and (3) cell surface antigen recognitions. (
  • Cell proliferation antigen‐based assay targets antigens present in proliferating cells such as markers like Ki‐67, topoisomerase IIB, phosphohistone H3 and PCNA. (
  • Scheme of antigen‐based cell proliferation assay. (
  • We hypothesize that these dichotomous effects of restraint would be reflected in changes in LC trafficking from the epidermis or alteration of their antigen presenting capabilities to T cells in the draining lymph nodes. (
  • Multiple interactions also occur between activated immune cells that are critical for regulation of the immune response (for instance, T cell interactions among themselves and also with antigen-presenting cells). (
  • Determinants of response and resistance to CD19 chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapy of chronic lymphocytic leukemia," Nat Med , 24:563-71, 2018. (
  • Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapy also works for more than half of patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma. (
  • Moreover, the uncontrolled cell proliferation was assessed by specific cell proliferative markers [proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and Ki67] by immunofluorescence, immunoblot and analysis of mRNA expression. (
  • Shared T-cell receptor sequences in clonotypes of different patients implicate chronic stimulation by a common antigen, for example, persistent infection. (
  • Preclinical and clinical data to date suggests superior safety and tolerability, as well as increased potency versus Methotrexate (MTX), currently the leading antifolate treatment and standard of care for a broad range of abnormal cell proliferation diseases. (
  • Abnormal cell proliferation has been generally found in the tumorigenesis, including the formation of endometriosis. (
  • Adenomyosis is considered to have a similar pathophysiology with endometriosis, and it must be interesting to examine whether there is abnormal cell proliferation in the eutopic endometrium of adenomyosis. (
  • Therefore, whether abnormal cell proliferation occurs under the effects of LPS and IFN-g in the eutopic endometrium of adenomyosis needs further clarification. (
  • We show that TRPV6 increases cell proliferation of HEK-293 cells in a Ca(2+) dependent manner. (
  • Treatment of MCF 10A cells with Human Epidermal Growth Factor (hEGF) #8916 increases cell proliferation as detected by the BrdU Cell Proliferation Chemiluminescent Assay Kit #5492. (
  • In addition, they express higher levels of CXCL13 and CCL19 chemokines, as well as MAdCAM-1 and VCAM-1 cell-adhesion molecules. (
  • Scheme of labelled nucleotide analogue incorporation during DNA replication to measure cell proliferation rate. (
  • Hence it follows, that the induction of cell proliferation and all subsequent events resulting hereof are threshold related. (
  • The aim of this study was to detect the role of miRNAs in ZEA-mediated induction of cell proliferation. (
  • Adenosine diphosphate-sensitive P2Y11 receptor inhibits endothelial cell proliferation by induction of cell cycle arrest in the S phase and induces the expression of inflammatory mediators. (
  • TIP47 protects mitochondrial membrane integrity and inhibits oxidative-stress-induced cell death. (
  • Here, we quantified the copy numbers of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in the gametic cells of angiosperm species. (
  • To divide, cells must duplicate a copy of their DNA, increase mitochondrial density, and assemble/synthesize microtubules during interphase. (
  • The colorimetric assay is based on the cleavage of the tetrazolium salt WST-1 to a formazan-class dye by mitochondrial succinate-tetrazolium reductase in viable cells. (
  • Induction of beta-cell proliferation by either 5-IT or harmine, another natural-product DYRK1A inhibitor, was suppressed by co-incubation with the calcineurin inhibitor FK506, suggesting involvement of DYRK1A and NFAT signaling. (
  • In the present article, authors have tried to summarise different cell proliferation assays commonly used in laboratories to determine cell proliferation. (
  • Isolated β cells of control but not clodronate-treated mice subjected to PDL had greater expression of Smad7 , which is both a transcriptional target of transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) signaling and encodes an inhibitor of this pathway, as well as greater expression of CyclinD1 and CyclinD2 , which encode cell cycle activating proteins. (
  • Cell proliferation is a tightly regulated process, with many different proteins controlling cell cycle checkpoints. (
  • Another common method for measuring cell proliferation is by examining the expression levels of cell cycle proteins and other proteins required for proliferation. (
  • Cell movement that occurs during processes like angiogenesis, metastasis or lymphocyte extravasation can be studied using fluorescent cell stains, and antibodies to target proteins critical to these processes. (
  • Both unaltered and engineered T cells in responders had higher expression of genes whose transcription is induced by the proteins signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). (
  • Simultaneously, we assessed the activity of TQ on G1/S phase cell cycle regulation with specific cell cycle proteins (p21(WAF1/CIP1), CDK4, Cyclin D1 and Cyclin E) by immunoprecipitation in experimental rats. (
  • ALDH1A3 Regulations of Matricellular Proteins Promote Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Proliferation. (
  • Recombinant DNA and Cell Proliferation focuses on the use of recombinant DNA technology in investigating the regulation of cell proliferation. (
  • The main focus of the lab is to study the role of non-coding RNAs in regulation of Cell Cycle and DNA replication and also to provide mechanical insights in understanding the checkpoint response to aberrations in replication complexes. (
  • A key to developing effective immunotherapeutics is an understanding of the mechanisms of immune cell activation, proliferation, and regulation. (
  • Regulation of T cell proliferation by IL-7. (
  • The regulation of murine T cell proliferation by IL-7 was investigated. (
  • Finally, differences were observed between IL-7 and IL-6 with regard to the regulation of T cell growth and activation. (
  • Avallet, O., Vigier, M., Leduque, P., Dubois, P.M. and Saez, J.M. (1994) Expression and regulation of transforming growth factor-beta 1 messenger ribonucleic acid and protein in cultured porcine Leydig and Sertoli cells. (
  • Prior to Davis's study, which is published in Physiological Reports , scientists had suspected the ANS was involved in stem cell proliferation, but they didn't know if the relationship was direct or indirect. (
  • When we simulated activation of either of those systems, we saw a decrease in stem cell proliferation,' Dailey says. (
  • Although the research focused on the intestinal epithelium, Davis and Dailey suspect the ANS is directly controlling stem cell proliferation in other parts of the body, as well. (
  • Derivation and characterization of haploid embryonic stem cell cultures in medaka fish. (
  • Megan Dailey (left) and Elizabeth Davis (right), both from the University of Illinois' animal sciences department, have discovered that the autonomic nervous system exerts direct control over stem cell proliferation. (
  • Recently, scientists have turned their focus on cell replacement therapies, including stem cell therapy, which have shown huge promise in treating neurodegenerative diseases. (
  • Stem cell therapy is a treatment using stem cells to cultivate new and normal cells, tissues or organs and then transplanted to people to restore physiological function by replacing damaged or dead cells. (
  • After growth and cell differentiation, it is hoped that the mature cell can turn into a therapeutic agent for stem cell therapy. (
  • It could provide a safe platform for research into stem cell therapies using the latest, novel nanotechnology, and also help boost the development of regenerative medicine. (
  • Alterations in neural stem cell niches have been associated with spatial learning and memory and cognition. (
  • These findings may demonstrate a role for theangiotensin system as a novel target to regulate neural stem cell function with implications for enhancing age-related detriments in learning and memory, regeneration following injury, and therapeutic intervention across a broad spectrum of neurodegenerative diseases. (
  • Cell proliferation and viability can be quantified using fluorescent and non-fluorescent cell-permeable dyes, as well as using assays that measure metabolic activity. (
  • However, in contrast to IL-7, IL-6 failed to stimulate the proliferation of Con A blasts or T cell clones and did not augment the Con A-induced expression of IL-2R on resting T cells. (
  • induces cell proliferation and invasion as well as epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), even though nicotine is not carcinogenic on its own. (
  • This single-component reagent can determine cell viability and proliferative capacity of live adherent and suspension cell cultures. (
  • Below is a table to aid in reagent choice for cell health and proliferation labeling applications. (
  • Cell type suitability indicates whether this reagent labels live cells exclusively or whether it can also label the dead cells in a live cell culture or cells that have been previously fixed with buffers like paraformaldehyde or methanol. (
  • Fixation simply indicates whether the reagent, once used to label a cell sample, will be retained with a paraformaldehyde fixation. (
  • The Premixed WST-1 Cell Proliferation Reagent allows fast and easy colorimetric measurement of cell proliferation and viability in a 96-well format, without radioactive isotopes or organic solvents. (
  • Simply add the Premixed WST-1 Cell Proliferation Reagent to the plate, culture your cells for at least 30 min in a humidified atmosphere (up to 4 hr, depending on cell type and density) and measure the absorbance. (
  • The Premixed WST-1 Cell Proliferation Reagent assay is nonradioactive, which enhances convenience and laboratory safety. (
  • Furthermore, the Premixed WST-1 Cell Proliferation Reagent is highly water-soluble compared to other tetrazolium salts used in similar assays, which may require surfactants or organic solvents to dissolve them. (
  • The Premixed WST-1 Cell Proliferation Reagent will simplify and streamline your cell proliferation assays. (
  • No. MK400 when you place your next order for the WST-1 Proliferation Reagent Kit. (
  • Hypoxia profoundly affects the proliferation, differentiation, and self-renewal of cultured myoblasts. (
  • Quantification of cell proliferation was done with Cell Proliferation Assay Kit and immunocytochemical detection of Ki-67, in an attempt to examine the cell proliferation of ESCs in women with adenomyosis. (
  • Quantification of cell proliferation was done with Cell Proliferation Assay Kit and immunocytochemical detection of Ki-67. (
  • In this report, we identified a novel lincRNA, termed linc-UFC1, and we showed that altered linc-UFC1 expression could interact with the mRNA-stabilizing protein HuR to increase levels of β -catenin in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells. (
  • Dysregulated cell proliferation and tumorigenesis is frequently encountered in several cancers including hepatocellular carcinogenesis (HCC). (
  • They also discovered that ONA inhibited pro-tumor activities of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC), which the researchers say are linked with the suppression of the anti-tumor immune response of host lymphocytes. (
  • In the absence of such structures, cells were shown to secrete diffusible factors leading to suppression of WAP expression. (
  • In rodent models for carcinogenesis, especially those for the carcinogenesis in digestive organs such as colon, liver or oral cavity, chemopreventive agents suppress carcinogen-induced hyperproliferation of cells in the target organs during the initiation as well as the postinitiation phases. (
  • Brief scheme of metabolic activity measurement using MTT and other tetrazolium salts to access cell proliferation. (
  • We have a diverse array of platforms and products for studying cell function and metabolic processes. (
  • Metabolic activity measurement is also used as a metric for cell viability or proliferation. (
  • Rapid and easy to use, CyQUANT Cell Proliferation Assays Kits require no washes, extractions, growth medium changes, or long incubations, and don't rely metabolic status of the cell. (
  • The metabolic needs of proliferating cells are distinct from those of quiescent, terminally differentiated cells. (
  • In an effort to better understand the Warburg effect (or aerobic glycolysis) in relation to the metabolic requirements of cell proliferation, Yao et al. (
  • Using stable isotopes and metabolomic techniques, they then quantified the metabolic changes in various cell types as a function of cell division. (
  • This feature endows cells to repurpose their nutrients for different metabolic tasks such as the generation of precursors for nucleotide and lipid biosynthesis ( 1 ). (