All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
A nucleoside that substitutes for thymidine in DNA and thus acts as an antimetabolite. It causes breaks in chromosomes and has been proposed as an antiviral and antineoplastic agent. It has been given orphan drug status for use in the treatment of primary brain tumors.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
A CELL CYCLE and tumor growth marker which can be readily detected using IMMUNOCYTOCHEMISTRY methods. Ki-67 is a nuclear antigen present only in the nuclei of cycling cells.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
Processes required for CELL ENLARGEMENT and CELL PROLIFERATION.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Protein encoded by the bcl-1 gene which plays a critical role in regulating the cell cycle. Overexpression of cyclin D1 is the result of bcl-1 rearrangement, a t(11;14) translocation, and is implicated in various neoplasms.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
A protein-serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION in response to GROWTH FACTORS or INSULIN. It plays a major role in cell metabolism, growth, and survival as a core component of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Three isoforms have been described in mammalian cells.
The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.
The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.
A cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor that coordinates the activation of CYCLIN and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES during the CELL CYCLE. It interacts with active CYCLIN D complexed to CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 4 in proliferating cells, while in arrested cells it binds and inhibits CYCLIN E complexed to CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 2.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
An increase in the number of cells in a tissue or organ without tumor formation. It differs from HYPERTROPHY, which is an increase in bulk without an increase in the number of cells.
Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Endogenous or exogenous substances which inhibit the normal growth of human and animal cells or micro-organisms, as distinguished from those affecting plant growth (= PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS).
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that is widely expressed and plays a role in regulation of MEIOSIS; MITOSIS; and post mitotic functions in differentiated cells. The extracellular signal regulated MAP kinases are regulated by a broad variety of CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS and can be activated by certain CARCINOGENS.
Non-striated, elongated, spindle-shaped cells found lining the digestive tract, uterus, and blood vessels. They are derived from specialized myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SMOOTH MUSCLE).
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Substances that stimulate mitosis and lymphocyte transformation. They include not only substances associated with LECTINS, but also substances from streptococci (associated with streptolysin S) and from strains of alpha-toxin-producing staphylococci. (Stedman, 25th ed)
The artificial induction of GENE SILENCING by the use of RNA INTERFERENCE to reduce the expression of a specific gene. It includes the use of DOUBLE-STRANDED RNA, such as SMALL INTERFERING RNA and RNA containing HAIRPIN LOOP SEQUENCE, and ANTI-SENSE OLIGONUCLEOTIDES.
Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.
Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-myc genes. They are normally involved in nucleic acid metabolism and in mediating the cellular response to growth factors. Elevated and deregulated (constitutive) expression of c-myc proteins can cause tumorigenesis.
A cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor that mediates TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P53-dependent CELL CYCLE arrest. p21 interacts with a range of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES and associates with PROLIFERATING CELL NUCLEAR ANTIGEN and CASPASE 3.
Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
An intracellular signaling system involving the MAP kinase cascades (three-membered protein kinase cascades). Various upstream activators, which act in response to extracellular stimuli, trigger the cascades by activating the first member of a cascade, MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKKs). Activated MAPKKKs phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES which in turn phosphorylate the MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs). The MAPKs then act on various downstream targets to affect gene expression. In mammals, there are several distinct MAP kinase pathways including the ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) pathway, the SAPK/JNK (stress-activated protein kinase/c-jun kinase) pathway, and the p38 kinase pathway. There is some sharing of components among the pathways depending on which stimulus originates activation of the cascade.
A 44-kDa extracellular signal-regulated MAP kinase that may play a role the initiation and regulation of MEIOSIS; MITOSIS; and postmitotic functions in differentiated cells. It phosphorylates a number of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS; and MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS.
The period of the CELL CYCLE preceding DNA REPLICATION in S PHASE. Subphases of G1 include "competence" (to respond to growth factors), G1a (entry into G1), G1b (progression), and G1c (assembly). Progression through the G1 subphases is effected by limiting growth factors, nutrients, or inhibitors.
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A proline-directed serine/threonine protein kinase which mediates signal transduction from the cell surface to the nucleus. Activation of the enzyme by phosphorylation leads to its translocation into the nucleus where it acts upon specific transcription factors. p40 MAPK and p41 MAPK are isoforms.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Mitogenic peptide growth hormone carried in the alpha-granules of platelets. It is released when platelets adhere to traumatized tissues. Connective tissue cells near the traumatized region respond by initiating the process of replication.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
A single-chain polypeptide growth factor that plays a significant role in the process of WOUND HEALING and is a potent inducer of PHYSIOLOGIC ANGIOGENESIS. Several different forms of the human protein exist ranging from 18-24 kDa in size due to the use of alternative start sites within the fgf-2 gene. It has a 55 percent amino acid residue identity to FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 1 and has potent heparin-binding activity. The growth factor is an extremely potent inducer of DNA synthesis in a variety of cell types from mesoderm and neuroectoderm lineages. It was originally named basic fibroblast growth factor based upon its chemical properties and to distinguish it from acidic fibroblast growth factor (FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 1).
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
Signal molecules that are involved in the control of cell growth and differentiation.
Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.
A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.
A pathologic process consisting of the proliferation of blood vessels in abnormal tissues or in abnormal positions.
A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.
Phase of the CELL CYCLE following G1 and preceding G2 when the entire DNA content of the nucleus is replicated. It is achieved by bidirectional replication at multiple sites along each chromosome.
Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.
Proteins that are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. Deficiencies or abnormalities in these proteins may lead to unregulated cell growth and tumor development.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A superfamily of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that are activated by diverse stimuli via protein kinase cascades. They are the final components of the cascades, activated by phosphorylation by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES, which in turn are activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES).
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.
An expression of the number of mitoses found in a stated number of cells.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
A 6-kDa polypeptide growth factor initially discovered in mouse submaxillary glands. Human epidermal growth factor was originally isolated from urine based on its ability to inhibit gastric secretion and called urogastrone. Epidermal growth factor exerts a wide variety of biological effects including the promotion of proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal and EPITHELIAL CELLS. It is synthesized as a transmembrane protein which can be cleaved to release a soluble active form.
A large family of regulatory proteins that function as accessory subunits to a variety of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES. They generally function as ENZYME ACTIVATORS that drive the CELL CYCLE through transitions between phases. A subset of cyclins may also function as transcriptional regulators.
Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.
An in situ method for detecting areas of DNA which are nicked during APOPTOSIS. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase is used to add labeled dUTP, in a template-independent manner, to the 3 prime OH ends of either single- or double-stranded DNA. The terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase nick end labeling, or TUNEL, assay labels apoptosis on a single-cell level, making it more sensitive than agarose gel electrophoresis for analysis of DNA FRAGMENTATION.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs, 21-25 nucleotides in length generated from single-stranded microRNA gene transcripts by the same RIBONUCLEASE III, Dicer, that produces small interfering RNAs (RNA, SMALL INTERFERING). They become part of the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX and repress the translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) of target RNA by binding to homologous 3'UTR region as an imperfect match. The small temporal RNAs (stRNAs), let-7 and lin-4, from C. elegans, are the first 2 miRNAs discovered, and are from a class of miRNAs involved in developmental timing.
Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
A multi-functional catenin that participates in CELL ADHESION and nuclear signaling. Beta catenin binds CADHERINS and helps link their cytoplasmic tails to the ACTIN in the CYTOSKELETON via ALPHA CATENIN. It also serves as a transcriptional co-activator and downstream component of WNT PROTEIN-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS.
Product of the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor gene. It is a nuclear phosphoprotein hypothesized to normally act as an inhibitor of cell proliferation. Rb protein is absent in retinoblastoma cell lines. It also has been shown to form complexes with the adenovirus E1A protein, the SV40 T antigen, and the human papilloma virus E7 protein.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Ability of neoplasms to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue.
Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
In vivo methods of screening investigative anticancer drugs, biologic response modifiers or radiotherapies. Human tumor tissue or cells are transplanted into mice or rats followed by tumor treatment regimens. A variety of outcomes are monitored to assess antitumor effectiveness.
Restoration of integrity to traumatized tissue.
The original member of the family of endothelial cell growth factors referred to as VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTORS. Vascular endothelial growth factor-A was originally isolated from tumor cells and referred to as "tumor angiogenesis factor" and "vascular permeability factor". Although expressed at high levels in certain tumor-derived cells it is produced by a wide variety of cell types. In addition to stimulating vascular growth and vascular permeability it may play a role in stimulating VASODILATION via NITRIC OXIDE-dependent pathways. Alternative splicing of the mRNA for vascular endothelial growth factor A results in several isoforms of the protein being produced.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
A cell surface receptor involved in regulation of cell growth and differentiation. It is specific for EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR and EGF-related peptides including TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR ALPHA; AMPHIREGULIN; and HEPARIN-BINDING EGF-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR. The binding of ligand to the receptor causes activation of its intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity and rapid internalization of the receptor-ligand complex into the cell.
Methods used for detecting the amplified DNA products from the polymerase chain reaction as they accumulate instead of at the end of the reaction.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Regulatory signaling systems that control the progression through the CELL CYCLE. They ensure that the cell has completed, in the correct order and without mistakes, all the processes required to replicate the GENOME and CYTOPLASM, and divide them equally between two daughter cells. If cells sense they have not completed these processes or that the environment does not have the nutrients and growth hormones in place to proceed, then the cells are restrained (or "arrested") until the processes are completed and growth conditions are suitable.
A continuous cell line of high contact-inhibition established from NIH Swiss mouse embryo cultures. The cells are useful for DNA transfection and transformation studies. (From ATCC [Internet]. Virginia: American Type Culture Collection; c2002 [cited 2002 Sept 26]. Available from http://www.atcc.org/)
Formation of NEURONS which involves the differentiation and division of STEM CELLS in which one or both of the daughter cells become neurons.
The physiological renewal, repair, or replacement of tissue.
Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.
One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.
Methods for maintaining or growing CELLS in vitro.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Short fragments of DNA or RNA that are used to alter the function of target RNAs or DNAs to which they hybridize.
Tumors or cancer of the COLON.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Transplantation between animals of different species.
Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.
A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to INTERLEUKIN-6 family members. STAT3 is constitutively activated in a variety of TUMORS and is a major downstream transducer for the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR GP130.
A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.
Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE.
Substances that increase the risk of NEOPLASMS in humans or animals. Both genotoxic chemicals, which affect DNA directly, and nongenotoxic chemicals, which induce neoplasms by other mechanism, are included.
A well-characterized basic peptide believed to be secreted by the liver and to circulate in the blood. It has growth-regulating, insulin-like, and mitogenic activities. This growth factor has a major, but not absolute, dependence on GROWTH HORMONE. It is believed to be mainly active in adults in contrast to INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR II, which is a major fetal growth factor.
Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.
Regulatory signaling systems that control the progression of the CELL CYCLE through the G1 PHASE and allow transition to S PHASE when the cells are ready to undergo DNA REPLICATION. DNA DAMAGE, or the deficiencies in specific cellular components or nutrients may cause the cells to halt before progressing through G1 phase.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Eukaryotic cell line obtained in a quiescent or stationary phase which undergoes conversion to a state of unregulated growth in culture, resembling an in vitro tumor. It occurs spontaneously or through interaction with viruses, oncogenes, radiation, or drugs/chemicals.
A serine threonine kinase that controls a wide range of growth-related cellular processes. The protein is referred to as the target of RAPAMYCIN due to the discovery that SIROLIMUS (commonly known as rapamycin) forms an inhibitory complex with TACROLIMUS BINDING PROTEIN 1A that blocks the action of its enzymatic activity.
Protein kinases that control cell cycle progression in all eukaryotes and require physical association with CYCLINS to achieve full enzymatic activity. Cyclin-dependent kinases are regulated by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation events.
A quiescent state of cells during G1 PHASE.
A 50-kDa protein that complexes with CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 2 in the late G1 phase of the cell cycle.
The development of new BLOOD VESSELS during the restoration of BLOOD CIRCULATION during the healing process.
Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).
The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
The termination of the cell's ability to carry out vital functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, responsiveness, and adaptability.
Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.
The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.
Epidermal cells which synthesize keratin and undergo characteristic changes as they move upward from the basal layers of the epidermis to the cornified (horny) layer of the skin. Successive stages of differentiation of the keratinocytes forming the epidermal layers are basal cell, spinous or prickle cell, and the granular cell.
Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
Self-renewing cells that generate the main phenotypes of the nervous system in both the embryo and adult. Neural stem cells are precursors to both NEURONS and NEUROGLIA.
CULTURE MEDIA free of serum proteins but including the minimal essential substances required for cell growth. This type of medium avoids the presence of extraneous substances that may affect cell proliferation or unwanted activation of cells.
Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.
Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
Agents that inhibit PROTEIN KINASES.
A cyclin subtype that is specific for CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 4 and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 6. Unlike most cyclins, cyclin D expression is not cyclical, but rather it is expressed in response to proliferative signals. Cyclin D may therefore play a role in cellular responses to mitogenic signals.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
Culture media containing biologically active components obtained from previously cultured cells or tissues that have released into the media substances affecting certain cell functions (e.g., growth, lysis).
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the sis gene (GENES, SIS). c-sis proteins make up the B chain of PLATELET-DERIVED GROWTH FACTOR. Overexpression of c-sis causes tumorigenesis.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
A cyclin D subtype which is regulated by GATA4 TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR. Experiments using KNOCKOUT MICE suggest a role for cyclin D2 in granulosa cell proliferation and gonadal development.
The thin membranous structure supporting the adjoining glomerular capillaries. It is composed of GLOMERULAR MESANGIAL CELLS and their EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.
Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.
Drugs that are chemically similar to naturally occurring metabolites, but differ enough to interfere with normal metabolic pathways. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p2033)
The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.
The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.
Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.
Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.
Repair or renewal of hepatic tissue.
A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Membrane proteins encoded by the BCL-2 GENES and serving as potent inhibitors of cell death by APOPTOSIS. The proteins are found on mitochondrial, microsomal, and NUCLEAR MEMBRANE sites within many cell types. Overexpression of bcl-2 proteins, due to a translocation of the gene, is associated with follicular lymphoma.
A meshwork-like substance found within the extracellular space and in association with the basement membrane of the cell surface. It promotes cellular proliferation and provides a supporting structure to which cells or cell lysates in culture dishes adhere.
Any of several ways in which living cells of an organism communicate with one another, whether by direct contact between cells or by means of chemical signals carried by neurotransmitter substances, hormones, and cyclic AMP.
Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Mode of communication wherein a bound hormone affects the function of the cell type that produced the hormone.
A cyclin subtype that has specificity for CDC2 PROTEIN KINASE and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 2. It plays a role in progression of the CELL CYCLE through G1/S and G2/M phase transitions.
The decrease in the cell's ability to proliferate with the passing of time. Each cell is programmed for a certain number of cell divisions and at the end of that time proliferation halts. The cell enters a quiescent state after which it experiences CELL DEATH via the process of APOPTOSIS.
The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.
A key regulator of CELL CYCLE progression. It partners with CYCLIN E to regulate entry into S PHASE and also interacts with CYCLIN A to phosphorylate RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN. Its activity is inhibited by CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P27 and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P21.
A short pro-domain caspase that plays an effector role in APOPTOSIS. It is activated by INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 9. Isoforms of this protein exist due to multiple alternative splicing of its MESSENGER RNA.
Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.

Emerging targets: molecular mechanisms of cell contact-mediated growth control. (1/45748)

Contact inhibition of cell proliferation evokes a unique cellular program of growth arrest compared with stress, age, or other physical constraints. The last decade of research on genes activated by cell-cell contact has uncovered features of transmembrane signaling, cytoskeletal reorganization, and transcriptional control that initiate and maintain a quiescent phenotype. This review will focus on mechanisms controlling contact inhibition of cell proliferation, highlighting specific gene expression responses that are activated by cell-cell contact. Although a temporal framework for imposition of these mechanisms has not yet been well described, contact inhibition of cell proliferation clearly requires their coordinated function. Novel targets for intervention in proliferative disorders are emerging from these studies.  (+info)

Cell cycle dysregulation in oral cancer. (2/45748)

The dysregulation of the molecular events governing cell cycle control is emerging as a central theme of oral carcinogenesis. Regulatory pathways responding to extracellular signaling or intracellular stress and DNA damage converge on the cell cycle apparatus. Abrogation of mitogenic and anti-mitogenic response regulatory proteins, such as the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein (pRB), cyclin D1, cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 6, and CDK inhibitors (p21(WAF1/CIP1), p27(KIP1), and p16(INK4a)), occur frequently in human oral cancers. Cellular responses to metabolic stress or genomic damage through p53 and related pathways that block cell cycle progression are also altered during oral carcinogenesis. In addition, new pathways and cell cycle regulatory proteins, such as p12(DOC-1), are being discovered. The multistep process of oral carcinogenesis likely involves functional alteration of cell cycle regulatory members combined with escape from cellular senescence and apoptotic signaling pathways. Detailing the molecular alterations and understanding the functional consequences of the dysregulation of the cell cycle apparatus in the malignant oral keratinocyte will uncover novel diagnostic and therapeutic approaches.  (+info)

Small-molecule modulators of Hedgehog signaling: identification and characterization of Smoothened agonists and antagonists. (3/45748)

BACKGROUND: The Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway is vital to animal development as it mediates the differentiation of multiple cell types during embryogenesis. In adults, Hh signaling can be activated to facilitate tissue maintenance and repair. Moreover, stimulation of the Hh pathway has shown therapeutic efficacy in models of neuropathy. The underlying mechanisms of Hh signal transduction remain obscure, however: little is known about the communication between the pathway suppressor Patched (Ptc), a multipass transmembrane protein that directly binds Hh, and the pathway activator Smoothened (Smo), a protein that is related to G-protein-coupled receptors and is capable of constitutive activation in the absence of Ptc. RESULTS: We have identified and characterized a synthetic non-peptidyl small molecule, Hh-Ag, that acts as an agonist of the Hh pathway. This Hh agonist promotes cell-type-specific proliferation and concentration-dependent differentiation in vitro, while in utero it rescues aspects of the Hh-signaling defect in Sonic hedgehog-null, but not Smo-null, mouse embryos. Biochemical studies with Hh-Ag, the Hh-signaling antagonist cyclopamine, and a novel Hh-signaling inhibitor Cur61414, reveal that the action of all these compounds is independent of Hh-protein ligand and of the Hh receptor Ptc, as each binds directly to Smo. CONCLUSIONS: Smo can have its activity modulated directly by synthetic small molecules. These studies raise the possibility that Hh signaling may be regulated by endogenous small molecules in vivo and provide potent compounds with which to test the therapeutic value of activating the Hh-signaling pathway in the treatment of traumatic and chronic degenerative conditions.  (+info)

Gleevec (STI-571) inhibits lung cancer cell growth (A549) and potentiates the cisplatin effect in vitro. (4/45748)

BACKGROUND: Gleevec (aka STI571, Imatinib) is a recently FDA approved anti-tumor drug for chronic myelogenous leukemia. Gleevec binds specifically to BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase and inhibit the tyrosine kinase activity. It cross-reacts with another two important membrane tyrosine kinase receptors, c-kit and PDGF receptors. We sought to investigate if Gleevec has a potential role in treatment of non-small cell lung cancer. RESULTS: We have shown that Gleevec alone can inhibit the A549 lung cancer cell growth in dose-dependent manner, and the optimal concentration of Gleevec inhibition of A549 cell growth is at the range of 2-3 microM (IC50). We have also shown that A549 cells are resistant to cisplatin treatment (IC50 64 microM). Addition of Gleevec to the A549 cells treated with cisplatin resulted in a synergistic cell killing effect, suggesting that Gleevec can potentiate the effect of cisplatin on A549 cells. We also showed that the A549 lung cancer cells expresses the platelet derived growth factor receptor alpha, and the inhibitory effects of Gleevec on A549 cells is likely mediated through inhibition of PDGFR alpha phosphorylation. We further tested 33 lung cancer patients' tumor specimens to see the frequency of PDGFR-alpha expression by tissue micro-arrays and immunohistochemistry. We found that 16 of the 18 squamous carcinomas (89%), 11 of the 11 adenocarcinomas (100%), and 4 of the 4 small cell lung cancers (100%) expressed PDGFR-alpha. CONCLUSION: These results suggest a potential role of Gleevec as adjuvant therapeutic agent for treatment of non-small cell lung cancer.  (+info)

Hepatocarcinogenic potential of the glucocorticoid antagonist RU486 in B6C3F1 mice: effect on apoptosis, expression of oncogenes and the tumor suppressor gene p53. (5/45748)

BACKGROUND: Glucocorticoids inhibit hepatocellular proliferation and modulate the expression of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes via mechanisms involving the glucocorticoid receptor. Glucocorticoids also produce a receptor-mediated inhibitory effect on both basal and hormone-stimulated expression of a newly discovered family of molecules important for shutting off cytokine action. We therefore hypothesized that inhibiting glucocorticoid receptors may disturb hepatocellular growth and apoptosis. Consequently, we investigated the effect of RU486, a potent antagonist of the glucocorticoid receptor, on basal levels of hepatocellular proliferation and apoptosis in male B6C3F1 mice. Furthermore, we evaluated the effect of this compound on cellular genes involved in the regulation of these important processes. RESULTS: Data show that treatment of male B6F3C1 mice with RU486 (2 mg/kg/d, ip) for 7 days dramatically inhibited liver cell proliferation by about 45% and programmed hepatocellular death by approximately 66%. RU 486 also significantly increased hepatic expression of the oncogenes mdm2 and JunB, while reducing that of the tumor suppressor gene p53. CONCLUSION: Exposure to RU486 may ultimately enhance the susceptibility of the liver to cancer risk by diminishing its ability to purge itself of pre-cancerous cells via apoptosis. This effect may be mediated through increases in the hepatic expression of the oncogene mdm2, coupled with decreases in that of the tumor suppressor gene p53. The decrease in hepatocellular proliferation caused by RU 486 may be related to effects other than its anti-glucocorticoid activity.  (+info)

Recombinant human interleukin-10 inhibits proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells stimulated by advanced glycation end products and neointima hyperplasia after carotid injury in the rat. (6/45748)

The purposes of this study was to determine the effects of recombinant human interleukin-10 (rhIL-10) on proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) stimulated by advanced glycation end products (AGE) and neointima hyperplasia after rat carotid arterial injury. Rat aortic VSMCs were cultured and treated with rhIL-10 or AGE respectively, and then co-treated with rhIL-10 and AGE. Proliferation of VSMCs was quantified by colormetric assay. Cell cycle analysis was performed by flow cytomertry. Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with recombinant human IL-10 (rhIL-10) for 3 d after carotid arteries injury. The ratio of neointima to media area at the site of arterial injury was measured 28 d after balloon injury. The p44/42 MAPK activity was evaluated by the immunoblotting technique using anti-p44/42 phospho-MAPK antibody. Compared to control, AGE stimulated VSMCs proliferation. rhIL-10 alone had no effect on VSMCs growth. With AGE stimulation, rhIL-10, at dose as low as 10 ng/ml, inhibited VSMCs growth (P<0.05). The cell number in G(0)/G(1) phase of AGE and rhIL-10 co-treatment group was higher than that of AGE treatment alone (P<0.01) by flow cytometry analysis. Compared with the control group of neointima hyperplasia in rats, the ratio of neointima to media area of recombinant human IL-10 group was reduced by 45% (P<0.01). The p44/42 MAPK activity was significantly enhanced by AGE. The AGE effects were opposed by rhIL-10. The anti-inflammatory cytokine rhIL-10 inhibits AGE-induced VSMCs proliferation. Recombinant human IL-10 also inhibited neointima hyperplasia after carotid artery injury in rats. The results suggest the possibility that recombinant human IL-10, as a potential therapeutic approach, prevents neointimal hyperplasia.  (+info)

The effects of inhibiting P18(INK4C) expression on the invasion of gastric adenocarcinoma cell line. (7/45748)

Using cDNA microarray with double dots of 4096 human genes, P18(INK4C), a member of CKI, was found down-regulated in a gastric adenocarcinoma metastatic cell line (RF-48), compared with the corresponding primary cancer cell line (RF-1), which implied that P18(INK4C) might be involved in cell invasion and metastatic progression of human gastric adenocarcinoma. Antisense RNA expression plasmid was applied to inhibit P18(INK4C) expression to study the effect of decreased P18(INK4C) expression on cell migration, invasion and proliferation ability and cell cycle of RF-1. Results showed that inhibition of P18(INK4C) expression could obviously enhance cell invasion ability of RF-1, but had little effect on its cell cycle and cell migration and proliferation ability. These results implied that P18(INK4C) might play a pivotal role in regulating cell invasion, rather than regulating cell cycle and proliferation in the progression of human gastric adenocarcinoma as expected before.  (+info)

Comparative proteomic analysis of proliferating and functionally differentiated mammary epithelial cells. (8/45748)

Proliferation and differentiation of mammary epithelial cells are governed by hormonal stimuli, cell-cell, and cell-matrix interactions. Terminal differentiation of mammary epithelial cells depends upon the action of the lactogenic hormones, insulin, glucocorticoids, and prolactin that enable them to synthesize and secrete milk proteins. These differentiated cells are polarized and carry out vectorial transport of milk constituents across the apical plasma membrane. To gain additional insights into the mechanisms governing differentiation of mammary epithelial cells, we identified proteins whose expression distinguishes proliferating from differentiated mammary epithelial cells. For this purpose we made use of the HC11 mammary epithelial line, which is capable of differentiation in response to lactogenic hormones. Using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry, we found about 60 proteins whose expression levels changed in between these two differentiation states. Bioinformatic analysis revealed differential expression of cytoskeletal components, molecular chaperones and regulators of protein folding and stability, calcium-binding proteins, and components of RNA-processing pathways. The actin cytoskeleton is asymmetrically distributed in differentiated epithelial cells, and the identification of proteins involved in mRNA binding and localization suggests that asymmetry might in part be achieved by controlling cellular localization of mRNAs. The proteins identified provide insights into the differentiation of mammary epithelial cells and the regulation of this process.  (+info)

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Creative Bioarray provides cell proliferation assay service for our customer. We are capable of performing different cell proliferation assays based on several concepts, which are measuring rate of DNA replication, analysis of metabolic activity, cell surface antigen recognitions, detecting proliferation markers, ATP measurement, measures of membrane integrity and so on.
... Abstract ...The cell proliferation assay is an important tool in the assessment of... Introduction ...Cell proliferation assays are employed frequently in immunological ca...,Cell,Proliferation,Assays,biological,advanced biology technology,biology laboratory technology,biology device technology,latest biology technology
BioAssay record AID 1077586 submitted by ChEMBL: Antiproliferative activity against human PLC/PRF/5 cells assessed as inhibition of cell proliferation at 10 to 100 uM by MTT dye uptake assay.
Little knockdown but big effect on proliferation - posted in siRNA, microRNA and RNAi: Hi folks,Hope you are well all !! I did knockdown lately on cell line expressed in GOI and it was tested by qPCR. The results showed that i got moderate suppression in mRNA level in my GOI, following the knockdown i did cell proliferation ( cell viability ) and the results showed that there is an effect on proliferation rate.]My question is how was an effect on proliferation when there was little...
We have shown that 4-1BB in myeloid cells, particularly in APCs, negatively regulates peripheral T cell responses in vivo. Thus, adoptively transferred CD4+ and CD8+ T cells showed the enhanced T cell proliferation in tumor-bearing RAG2−/−4-1BB−/− mice, and DCs and IL-15 were primarily responsible for this enhanced T cell proliferation. However, isolated 4-1BB+/+ and 4-1BB−/− DCs made comparable levels of IL-15, and individual 4-1BB−/− DCs induced T cell responses in vivo less efficiently than 4-1BB+/+ DCs. Therefore, we concluded that 4-1BB deficiency in myeloid cells in vivo induces the enhanced proliferation of peripheral T cells by promoting the accumulation of DCs in secondary lymphoid organs.. Although enhanced T cell responses were first reported when 4-1BB−/− mice were generated more than a decade ago (29), the underlying mechanism was not understood. Other studies have also pointed to a negative regulatory function of 4-1BB in modulating T cell responses. Thus, ...
Creative Proteomics offers sensitive, reliable, and accurate Cell Proliferation Assay via DNA Synthesis to study cell proliferation.
A serum-free or serum-depleted medium for the short- and long-term proliferation and development of cells, particularly hematopoietic cells and bone marrow stromal cells, the medium comprising cell proliferation and development effective amounts of: a standard culture medium such as Iscoves modified Dulbeccos medium; serum albumin; transferrin; a source of lipids and fatty acids; cholesterol; a reducing agent; pyruvate; a glucocorticoid (when the cells to be cultured are hematopoietic cells); nucleosides for synthesis of DNA and RNA; growth factors that stimulate the proliferation and development of stromal cells and cells from a variety of tissues or organs, such as epidermal growth factor, fibroblast growth factor, platelet derived growth factor, and insulin; and extracellular matrix materials, such as collagen, fibronectin, and laminin.
NSCLC is the most prevalent cancer types and has highest mortality rate in China [1]; however, the progression mechanisms of NSCLC have largely remained elusive. Ample evidence indicates a crucial role for miRNAs in human cancer [21], especially the miRNAs participate in the initiation, promotion, and progression of NSCLC. For instance, miR-21 promotes growth and invasion of NSCLC [22]. In addition, miR-494, miR-101, miR-1254, miR-574-5p, miR-143 and miR-181a were demonstrated to be involved in NSCLC [23-25]. In the present study, we certified that miR-361-3p was frequently down-regulated in NSCLC, and first found that the reduced miR-361-3p expression was closely related to advanced stage and lymph node metastasis of NSCLC. Furthermore, we demonstrated that overexpression of miR-361-3p could suppress NSCLC cell proliferation, migration and invasion in vitro and in vivo. The versatile functions of miR-361-3p in tumor cell proliferation, migration and invasion suggest its potential application as ...
Breast cancer is one of the most lethal types of cancer in women worldwide due to the late stage detection and resistance to traditional chemotherapy. The human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) is considered as a validated target in breast cancer therapy. Even though a substantial effort has been made to develop HER2 inhibitors, only lapatinib has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Side effects were observed in a majority of the patients within one year of treatment initiation. Here, we took advantage of bioinformatics tools to identify novel effective HER2 inhibitors. The structure-based virtual screening combined with ADMET (absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicity) prediction was explored. In total, 11,247 natural compounds were screened. The top hits were evaluated by an in vitro HER2 kinase inhibition assay. The cell proliferation inhibition effect of identified inhibitors was evaluated in HER2-overexpressing SKBR3 and BT474 cell lines. We
CD44 is a causal factor for tumor invasion, metastasis and acquisition of resistance to apoptosis. CD44 knockdown using inducible short hairpin RNA (shRNA) significantly reduces cell growth and invasion. Short hairpin RNA against CD44 and pGFP-V-RS-vector was used for knockdown of CD44 expression in SW620 colon cancer cells. Cell growth, invasion and migration assay, immunofluorescence for β-catenin expression and western blotting for Wnt signaling molecules were analyzed. Cell cycle analysis and western blot analysis for apoptotic molecules were evaluated. Short hairpin RNA against CD44 reduced the expression of CD44. Cell proliferation, migration and invasion were markedly inhibited and apoptosis was increased in shRNA CD44-transfected cells. Knockdown of CD44 decreased the phosphorylation of PDK1, Akt and GSK3β, and β-catenin levels. Decreased phosphorylated Akt led to an increase in phosphorylated FoxO1 and induced cell cycle arrest in the G0-G1 phase and a decrease in the S phase. The ...
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Perifosine and CCI 779 co-operate to induce cell death and decrease proliferation in PTEN-intact and PTEN-deficient PDGF-driven murine glioblastoma.
Plants and animals evolved significantly different strategies of regulation of the cell proliferation and differentiation. Identification and comparison of molecular mechanisms driving those different strategies in plants, animals and microorganisms might contribute to the identification of their common principles. The project is based on collaboration of laboratories involved in the study of the processes of the cell proliferation and differentiation in those different model organisms including human beings. Collaboration of the laboratories with expertise in (i) molecular plant physiology, (ii) molecular mechanisms maintaining the genome stability, (iii) proliferation, differentiation and programmed cell death of cancer cells and (iv) bioinformatics will result into a multidisciplinary, while still functional team that will guarantee successful solution of scheduled tasks. Participation of multiple, recently collaborating laboratories including Core lab will allow effective employment of ...
: Migration and invasion enhancer 1 (MIEN1) is a membrane-anchored protein and exists in various cancerous tissues. However, the roles of MIEN1 in prostate cancer have not yet been clearly addressed. We determined the expression, biological functions, and regulatory mechanisms of MIEN1 in the prostate. The results of immunohistochemical analysis indicated that MIEN1 was expressed specifically in epithelial cells and significantly higher in adenocarcinoma as compared to in normal tissues. MIEN1 enhanced in vitro cell proliferation, invasion, and in vivo tumorigenesis. Meanwhile, MIEN1 attenuated cisplatin-induced apoptosis in PC-3 cells. Overexpression of NF-ĸB-inducing kinase (NIK) enhanced MIEN1 expression, while overexpression of NF-ĸB inhibitor α (IĸBα) blocked MIEN1 expression in PC-3 cells. In prostate carcinoma cells, MIEN1 provoked Akt phosphorylation; moreover, MIEN1 downregulated N-myc downstream regulated 1 (NDRG1) but upregulated interleukin-6 (IL-6) gene expression. MK2206, an
ATCC Cell Proliferation Assay kits are convenient and valuable tools for the quantitative evaluation of a cell populations response to external factors that affect cell viability and growth.
Probable proto-oncogene that regulates cell proliferation, growth, migration and epithelial to mesenchymal transition. Through the degradation of FBXW7, may act indirectly on the expression and downstream signaling of MTOR, JUN and MYC (PubMed:24344117). May play also a role in cell proliferation through activation of the ERK1/ERK2 signaling cascade (PubMed:25646692). May also be important for proper chromosome congression and alignment during mitosis through its interaction with KIF22 ...
Gentaur molecular products has all kinds of products like :search , Trevigen \ MTT Cell Proliferation Assay Kit \ 4890-25-K for more molecular products just contact us
Effect of GPC3 on cell proliferation and clonogenic capacity of liver CD90+GPC3+CSCs.(A) Cell proliferation was assessed after GPC3 knockdown in PLC CD90+GPC3+
A colorimetric cell proliferation assay using soluble tetrazolium sodium [(CellTiter 96? Aqueous One Remedy) cell proliferation reagent, comprising the (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium, inner salt) and an electron coupling reagent phenazine ethosulfate], was optimized and certified for quantitative dedication of IL-15 dependent CTLL-2 cell proliferation activity. of scripts written in the R Statistical Language and Environment utilizing a […]. ...
Fig. 2. Effect of low-dose PTX (A), BMS-275183 (B), EpoB (C), and 4-HC (D) on in vitro cell proliferation. The antiproliferative effects of the drugs were studied using both short-term (24 h, left) and prolonged continuous exposures (144 h, right) on the HUVEC, HMVEC-d, MDA-MB-435, T0.1, and NHDF cell lines. Columns and bars, mean values ± SE, respectively. aP , 0.05 versus HUVEC controls; bP , 0.05 versus HMVEC-d controls; cP , 0.05 versus MDA-MB-435 controls; dP , 0.05 versus T0.1 controls; eP , 0.05 versus NHDF controls; ∗P , 0.05 versus 144 h HUVEC controls; °P , 0.05 versus 144 h MDA-MB-435 controls; +P , 0.05 versus 24 h HUVEC controls; °P , 0.05 versus 24 h MDA-MB-435 controls.. ...
We report a novel mechanism of cellular growth control. Increasing the density of endothelial or smooth muscle cells in culture increased cell-cell contact and decreased cell spreading, leading to growth arrest. Using a new method to independently control cell-cell contact and cell spreading, we fou …
Introduction The difficulty in re-growing and mineralizing new bone after severe fracture can result in loss of ambulation or limb. Here we describe the sequential roles of FGF-2 in inducing gene expression, cell growth and BMP-2 in gene expression and mineralization of bone. Materials and methods The regulation of gene expression was determined using real-time RTPCR (qRTPCR) and cell proliferation was measured by thymidine incorporation or fluorescent analysis of DNA content in MC3T3E1 osteoblast-like cells. Photomicroscopy was used to identify newly mineralized tissue and fluorescence was used to quantify mineralization. Results Fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) had the greatest ability to induce proliferation after 24 hours of treatment when compared to transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), bone morphogenic protein (BMP-2), platelet derived growth factor (PDGF) or prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). We found that FGF-2 caused the most significant induction of ...
Cell proliferation assays are performed by four decades in cancer research to test the anti-proliferative activity of natural products and synthetic compounds in in vitro tumor models such as cell lines. However, current parameters used to quantify growth inhibition lead to a misinterpretation of results based on the exponential, and not linear, proliferation of cells in culture. We recently published in Journal of Cellular Physiology the development and experimental validation of a new parameter for the analysis of growth inhibition in proliferation assays, termed relative doubling capacity, that can be used to properly quantify the anti-proliferative activity of tested compounds in cell cultures and compare drug efficacy between distinct cell models. ...
[109 Pages Report] Check for Discount on Global Cell Proliferation Kit Sales Market Report 2017 report by QYResearch Group. In this report, the global Cell Proliferation Kit market is...
Definition of Cell proliferation with photos and pictures, translations, sample usage, and additional links for more information.
Figure 1: Effects of PKR on the proliferation and translation. (a) Effects of PKR on the proliferation of HeLa cells. After being transfected with plasmids PKR, PKR siRNA, or GFP, HeLa cells were plated in multiple wells of a 96-well plate and grown for 24 hr for cell proliferation assays. Cells from the sample preparations were collected for immunoblotting. Proliferation rate of the control sample was normalized to 100%. PKR, WT PKR; si-PKR, PKR siRNA; Ctrl, GFP. Upper panel, averaged data (N=4 ...
The master regulator p53 is a prominent tumor suppressor gene, functioning in the cell as a tetrameric (dimer of dimers) sequence-specific transcription factor, able to bind to two copies of a decameric sequence with the RRRCWWGYYY consensus (where R stands for a purine, W for A/T and Y for a pyrimidine) representing the so called p53-response element (p53-RE) [1]. p53 is known to be inducible in response to a large number of cellular stress signals that, besides genotoxic stress, include carbon and oxygen deficiencies, perturbations of the translation apparatus, excessive proliferation signals, alteration in microtubule dynamics [2, 3]. There are ,100 established p53 targets genes that link p53 to cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, DNA repair and inhibition of angiogenesis [3-6]. More recently, p53 was demonstrated to modulate the expression of genes able to modify glucose as well as lipid metabolism, induction of autophagy, immune responses and cell motility [7-11].. A direct role of p53 on the ...
Cell proliferation analyses are crucial for cell growth and differentiation studies, and are often used to evaluate both compound toxicity and inhibition of tumor cell growth during drug development. Proliferation measurements are typically based on average DNA content or cellular metabolism, or they quantify DNA synthesis.
Molecular mechanism of microRNA-93 in suppressing the cell proliferation of cervical cancer by adjusting the EGFR/AKT signal pathway, Xue Dong, Yan Wang
MicroRNA-331-3p promotes cell proliferation and invasion in breast cancer by targeting SRCIN1, Yonghua Hu, Wenjun Liu, Che Chen, Aihua Hou
Find and order buffers and products like this Ready-to-use Cell Proliferation Colorimetric Reagent, WST-1 on www.antibodies-onli... | Order product ABIN1304384.
Abstract: miRNA-221 was a carcinogenic factor in many cancers, however, it is limited that the correlation between miRNA-221 and progression of cervical cancer. So we here aimed to determine the function of miRNA-221 in cervical cancer proliferation and a
Concurrent in vivo proliferation and CTL activity by gB-specific CD8+ T cells in the PLNs after cutaneous infection with HSV-1. (A) CFSE-labeled lymph node cell
To determine the effect of protein treatments in cell proliferation, MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells were first injected into the mammary fat pad of nude mice, and when tumors grew to 10 mm in diameter, mice were treated once only with purified Endo (20 mg/kg), CD (40 mg/kg), or EndoCD (60 mg/kg) proteins plus 500 mg/kg 5-FC, a clinically sufficient dose of 5-FU (15 mg/kg; 1× 5-FU), or 10 times the clinically sufficient dose (150 mg/kg; 10× 5-FU). The choice of 20 mg/kg Endo was based on a previous preclinical study (15) and is also within the dose tested in the phase I clinical trial (ref. 18; 15-600 mg/m2 in human is equivalent to 4.8-194.4 mg/kg in mouse; ref. 30). Tumors were harvested from mice 48 hours after treatment and labeled with bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) antibody for in vivo BrdU incorporation analysis. The results show that EndoCD/5-FC most significantly reduced cancer cell proliferation (Fig. 2B) compared with all other treatment groups.. The potent inhibitory activity of ...
Trouvez tous les livres de Lam, Eric W-F - Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase Signalling Pathway: The Key to Cell Proliferation and Death. Sur eurolivre.fr,vous pouvez commander des livres anciens et neufs.COMPARER ET acheter IMMÉDIATEMENT au meilleur prix. 9781860946264
This inhibition concerns cell proliferation and the expression of IL-8, u-PA, and MMP - 9, which can AZD0530 proposes inhibit invasion of cancer cells in the
Gen5 allows measuring cell proliferation as both an end point and kinetic imaging assay and can be run with temperature and gas control.
A method for treating a disorder characterized by excessive cell proliferation in a patient by administering to the patient a therapeutically effective amount of sclareolide.
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Cells are structural and functional unit of our body that control and maintain the function of all unicellular and multicellular organisms
Liu, X., Go, M.-L. (2006-01-01). Antiproliferative properties of piperidinylchalcones. Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry 14 (1) : 153-163. [email protected] Repository. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bmc.2005.08. ...
I do a proliferation assay after pulsing PBMCS with CFSE (5micromol for 2-10million cells) and then staining with CD3. I sort the cells and then stimulate them for proliferation with PHA(2microlitre). I also stain the cells with CD4 and CD8 on the day of analysis. I add PI jus before running the cells on the flow cytometer to discriminate for live vs dead cells.I am worried because I only get a single peak for each day (1-5 days expt). am i using too much CFSE? is that making it difficult to discern the peaks? Can somebody help with the trouble shooting. I also apply single compensation controls for the first day and find no spill for the rest of the days by using the same settings ...
I do a proliferation assay after pulsing PBMCS with CFSE (5micromol for 2-10million cells) and then staining with CD3. I sort the cells and then stimulate them for proliferation with PHA(2microlitre). I also stain the cells with CD4 and CD8 on the day of analysis. I add PI jus before running the cells on the flow cytometer to discriminate for live vs dead cells.I am worried because I only get a single peak for each day (1-5 days expt). am i using too much CFSE? is that making it difficult to discern the peaks? Can somebody help with the trouble shooting. I also apply single compensation controls for the first day and find no spill for the rest of the days by using the same settings ...
Cell labeling probes (both antibodies and non- antibodies) can be used in a number of applications, including cell cycle, apoptosis, viability, cell proliferation, cell movement. Check out our upgraded Cell Health and Proliferation webpage to learn more about how these reagents work and how they can aid you.
Full Text - Inducing cardiomyocyte proliferation is a hopeful approach for cardiac regeneration following myocardial infarction. Previous studies have shown that p21 inhibits the cardiomyocyte proliferation and cardiac regeneration. Deacetylation of p21 by Sirt1 deacetylase may reduce p21 abundance and remove p21-induced cell cycle arrest. However, whether p21 deacetylation and Sirt1 deacetylate control cardiomyocyte proliferation is unclear. Here, we show that acetylation of p21 induces cardiomyocyte proliferation arrest, whereas blocking the acetylation of p21 increases cardiomyocyte proliferation. P21 can be acetylated by Sirt1, and Sirt1 activate p21 ubiquitination through deacetylation. Additionally, overexpression of Sirt1 induces EdU-, pH3-, and Aurora B-positive cardiomyocytes in neonatal and adult mice. In contrast, depletion of Sirt1 reduces cardiomyocyte proliferation in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, Sirt1 protects cardiac function, reduces cardiac remodeling, inhibits
The functional integrity of the intestinal epithelial barrier relies on tight coordination of cell proliferation and migration, with failure to regulate these processes resulting in disease. It is not known whether cell proliferation is sufficient to drive epithelial cell migration during homoeostatic turnover of the epithelium. Nor is it known precisely how villus cell migration is affected when proliferation is perturbed. Some reports suggest that proliferation and migration may not be related while other studies support a direct relationship. We used established cell-tracking methods based on thymine analog cell labeling and developed tailored mathematical models to quantify cell proliferation and migration under normal conditions and when proliferation is reduced and when it is temporarily halted. We found that epithelial cell migration velocities along the villi are coupled to cell proliferation rates within the crypts in all conditions. Furthermore, halting and resuming proliferation ...
We have previously demonstrated, that 15 days after female rats pace the sexual interaction, there is an increase in the number of new cells that reach the granular cell layer (GrL) of the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB). The aim of the present study was to evaluate, if the first sexual experience in the female rat increases cell proliferation in the subventricular zone (SVZ) and the rostral migratory stream (RMS). We also tested if this behavior promotes the survival of the new cells that integrate into the main olfactory bulb (MOB) and AOB 45 days after the behavioral test. Sexually, naive female rats were injected with the DNA synthesis marker 5′-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine (BrdU) on the day of the behavioral test. They were randomly divided into the following groups: Female rats placed alone in the mating cage (1); Females exposed to amyl acetate odor [banana scent, (2)]; Females that could see, hear, and smell the male but physical contact was not possible [exposed to male, (3)]; Female rats that
Markers of crypt cell proliferation are frequently employed in studies of the impact of genetic and exogenous factors on human colonic physiology. Human studies often rely on the assessment of tissue acquired at endoscopy. Modulation of cell proliferation by bowel preparation with oral laxatives may confound the findings of such studies, but there is little data on the impact of commonly used bowel preparations on markers of cell proliferation. Crypt length, crypt cellularity and crypt cell proliferation were assessed in biopsies acquired after preparation with either Klean-Prep or Picolax. Crypt cell proliferation was assessed by whole-mount mitotic figure count, and by two different immunohistochemical (IHC) labelling methods (Ki-67 and pHH3). Subsequent biopsies were obtained from the same patients without bowel preparation and similarly assessed. Parameters were compared between groups using analysis of variance and paired t-tests. There were significant differences in labelling indices (LI) between
PC cell-derived growth factor (PCDGF), also called epithelin/granulin precursor (GEP), is an 88-kDa secreted glycoprotein with the ability to stimulate cell proliferation in an autocrine fashion. In addition, some studies indicated that PCDGF participated in invasion, metastasis and survival of cancer cells by regulating cell migration, adhesion and proliferation. Yet the effects of PCDGF on proliferation and invasion of ovarian cancer cells in vitro and the mechanisms by which PCDGF mediates biological behaviors of ovarian cancer have rarely been reported. In the present study we investigated whether and how PCDGF/GEP mediated cell proliferation and invasion in ovarian cancer. PCDGF/GEP expression level in three human ovarian cancer cell lines of different invasion potential were detected by RT-PCR and western blot. Effects of inhibition of PCDGF expression on cell proliferation and invasion capability were determined by MTT assay and Boyden chamber assay. Expression levels of cyclin D1 and CDK4 and
Regulation of mRNAs is one way to control protein levels and thereby important cellular processes such as growth, invasion and apoptosis. G3BPs constitute a family of mRNA-binding proteins, shown to be overexpressed in several cancer types, including breast, colon and pancreas cancer. G3BP has been reported to both stabilize and induce degradation of specific mRNAs. Here, we show that G3BP1, but not G3BP2, supports proliferation of several breast cancer cell lines. Global gene expression analyses of G3BP1- and G3BP2-depleted cells indicate that primarily G3BP1, and much less G3BP2, influences mRNA expression levels. Peripheral myelin protein 22 (PMP22) was one gene that was significantly influenced by G3BP1 depletion which led to a 2-3 fold increased expression. Depletion of PMP22 resulted in increased proliferation and the G3BP1-mediated effect on proliferation was not seen upon PMP22-depletion. This indicates a novel role for G3BP1 in the regulation of cell proliferation in breast cancer cells,
KDM5c is a histone demethylase that specifically demethylates trimethylated and dimethylated H3 Lys-4 to play a central role in transcriptional repression. C-Jun is a proto-oncogene and promotes cell proliferation when ectopically accumulated, but can be ubiquitinated by SCF (FBXW7), leading to its degradation. FBXW7 is an E3 ubiquitin ligase of c-Jun, and exhibits carcinostasis in colon cancer. Here, we report that overexpression of KDM5c in human colon cancer cells results in attenuated FBXW7 transcription and accumulated c-Jun protein, leading to increased proliferation of colon cancer cells. We show that overexpression of KDM5c can result in increased c-Jun protein levels and decreased ubiquitin levels, with no significant change in mRNA levels of c-Jun. KDM5c overexpression blocks the ubiquitin-proteasome proteolytic pathway of c-Jun by down-regulating the expression of FBXW7. KDM5c down-regulation of FBXW7 occurs by demethylation of H3K4me3 at TSS and downstream of the FBXW7 gene. And interaction
Various assays, using different strategies, are available for assessing cultured cell proliferation. These include measurement of metabolic activity (tetrazolium salts and alamarBlue), DNA quantification using fluorophores (Hoechst 33258 and PicoGreen), uptake of radioactively-labeled DNA precursors such as [3H]thymidine, and physical counting (hemocytometer). These assays are well established in characterizing cell proliferation in two-dimensional (2D), monolayer cultures of low cell densities. However, increasing interest in 3D cultures has prompted the need to evaluate the effectiveness of using these assays in high cell density or 3D cultures. We show here that typical cell proliferation assays do not necessarily correlate linearly with increasing cell densities or between 2D and 3D cultures, and are either not suitable or only rough approximations in quantifying actual cell numbers in a culture. Prudent choice of techniques and careful interpretation of data are therefore recommended when ...
p,Here, we ask how neural stem cells (NSCs) transition in the developing neocortex from a rapidly to a slowly proliferating state, a process required to maintain lifelong stem cell pools. We identify LRIG1, known to regulate receptor tyrosine kinase signaling in other cell types, as a negative regulator of cortical NSC proliferation. LRIG1 is expressed in murine cortical NSCs as they start to proliferate more slowly during embryogenesis and then peaks postnatally when they transition to give rise to a portion of adult NSCs. Constitutive or acute loss of Lrig1 in NSCs over this developmental time frame causes stem cell expansion due to increased proliferation. LRIG1 controls NSC proliferation by associating with and negatively regulating the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). These data support a model in which LRIG1 dampens the stem cell response to EGFR ligands within the cortical environment to slow their proliferation as they transition to postnatal adult NSCs.,/p,. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - α-1 Adrenergic receptors stimulation induces the proliferation of neural progenitor cells in vitro. AU - Hiramoto, Takeshi. AU - Ihara, Yoshiaki. AU - Watanabe, Yasuhiro. PY - 2006/11/6. Y1 - 2006/11/6. N2 - The proliferation of neural progenitor cells (NPCs) is regulated by classical neurotransmitters such as dopamine, serotonin and acetylcholine, via its own receptors. Previous studies have reported that the depletion of l-norepinephrine decreases the proliferation of NPCs in the adult rat hippocampus and it has been suggested that l-norepinephrine regulates the proliferation of NPCs. However, it remains unknown whether or not adrenergic receptors are involved in the increased proliferation of NPCs. In the present study, an MTT cell proliferation assay was carried out in order to investigate the roles played by adrenergic receptors in the proliferation of NPCs. We demonstrated that l-epinephrine enhanced the proliferation of embryonic NPCs in vitro. In addition, the α-1 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Conflicting evidence for the role of JNK as a target in breast cancer cell proliferation. T2 - comparisons between pharmacological inhibition and selective shRNA knockdown approaches. AU - Wood, Rachel A.. AU - Barbour, Mark J.. AU - Gould, Gwyn W.. AU - Cunningham, Margaret R.. AU - Plevin, Robin J.. N1 - © 2017 The Authors. Pharmacology Research & Perspectives published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd, British Pharmacological Society and American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.. PY - 2018/2/28. Y1 - 2018/2/28. N2 - As a target, the JNK pathway has been implicated in roles including cell death, proliferation, and inflammation in variety of contexts which span cardiovascular disease, neurodegenerative pathologies, and cancer. JNK1 and JNK2 have recently been demonstrated to function independently, highlighting a new parameter in the study of the JNK pathway. In order for JNK1 and JNK2-specific roles to be defined, better tools need to be employed. Previous ...
ADSCs are a promising candidate for clinical applications. They are easily derived from adipose tissue, with strong proliferation potential. Compared with other sources of MSCs such as bone marrow, umbilical cord and umbilical cord blood, ADSCs have a shorter doubling time. Therefore, numerous studies on ADSCs, especially on ADSC in vitro proliferation, have been performed to date. To date, hypoxia has been applied on stem cell cultures including ADSC culture. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of hypoxia on ADSC proliferation.. First, ADSCs were successfully isolated and confirmed by usual methods and assays. Similarly to previous studies, the obtained ADSCs fully exhibited several MSCs characteristics, including adherence to the surface of plastic flasks with a fibroblast-like shape; they also successfully differentiated into three kinds of mesoderm cells including adipocytes, osteoblasts and chondroblasts. Flow cytometry analysis with surface markers revealed that they expressed ...
F the soft agar colony formation in comparison with vector control cells exposed to arsenite for eight weeks. A single explanation of these information is the
Measurement of cell proliferation is necessary for testing the effects of pharmacological agents or growth factors, assessing cytotoxicity or investigating circumstances of cell activation. In a cell proliferation assay, the increase in number of cells or change in the proportion of cells that is dividing is assessed. Trevigen® offers a Calcein-AM based kit to determine cell viability as well as the tetrazolium salts MTT and XTT metabolic cell proliferation assay kits.. ...
Cell proliferation is a process of increasing cell number, including cell development and cell division [46]. This intern responsible to increase in cell mass and ultimately the organism development. In certain cells, proliferation is restricted while it remains continue in some of the cells throughout lifetime. In certain situation cell proliferation becomes abnormal which further augment the tumor cell formation [40]. In the body, cell proliferation process is highly regulated by cell division and apoptosis [2]. Apoptosis is programmed cell death mechanism that destroys unwanted cells and also involved in defense mechanism of the body. It also plays a role in morphological and cellular mechanisms of cell, caspases functioning, translocation of phosphatidyl serine and DNA fragmentation [43, 47]. This complex process comprises intrinsic pathway and extrinsic pathway which are also called as mitochondrial pathway and cytoplasmic pathway or death receptor pathway, respectively (Fig. 4) [5]. In ...
This paper represents a study on the effect of electrical pulses on adult stem cells, especially on proliferation control and also as a method of deliverin
TY - JOUR. T1 - Tumor growth dynamics with nutrient limitation and cell proliferation time delay. AU - Alsheri, Ahuod. AU - Alzahrani, Ebraheem O.. AU - Asiri, Asim. AU - El-Dessoky, Mohamed M.. AU - Kuang, Yang. PY - 2017/12/1. Y1 - 2017/12/1. N2 - It is known that avascular spherical solid tumors grow monotonically, often tends to a limiting final size. This is repeatedly confirmed by various mathematical models consisting of mostly ordinary differential equations. However, cell growth is limited by nutrient and its proliferation incurs a time delay. In this paper, we formulate a nutrient limited compartmental model of avascular spherical solid tumor growth with cell proliferation time delay and study its limiting dynamics. The nutrient is assumed to enter the tumor proportional to its surface area. This model is a modification of a recent model which is built on a two-compartment model of cancer cell growth with transitions between proliferating and quiescent cells. Due to the limitation of ...
The Wnt signal pathway is composed of β-catenin and transcriptional factor TCF-4 (2 , 3 , 19, 20, 21) . These factors activate the target genes that preserve the consensus motif (A/TA/TCAAAG) for TCF-4 binding in the promoter region (6) . Recent studies have shown that cyclin D1, c-myc, MMP7, and c-jun could be target genes for the Wnt signal pathway (7, 8, 9, 10) . Therefore, Wnt signal may induce cell proliferation through activation of these target genes (22, 23, 24, 25) . To our knowledge, there is no report on RCCs regarding the significance of the Wnt signal factors in cell proliferation and/or apoptosis through regulation of downstream target genes. In this study, we evaluated the significance of the Wnt signal pathway in RCC through the analysis of cyclin D1, c-myc, MMP7, and c-jun in relation to β-catenin and TCF-4 alterations.. TCF-4 expression has been intensively investigated in the epithelium of the gastrointestinal tract (26 , 27) , and the presence of splicing isoforms in TCF-4 ...
Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) plays an important role in regulating hematopoiesis, inhibiting proliferation while stimulating differentiation when appropriate. We previously demonstrated that the type III TGF-β receptor (TβRIII, or betaglycan) serves as a novel suppressor of cancer progression in epithelial tumors; however, its role in hematologic malignancies is unknown. Here we demonstrate that TβRIII protein expression is decreased or lost in the majority of human multiple myeloma specimens. Functionally, restoring TβRIII expression in myeloma cells significantly inhibited cell growth, proliferation, and motility, largely independent of its ligand presentation role. In a reciprocal fashion, shRNA-mediated silencing of endogenous TβRIII expression enhanced cell growth, proliferation, and motility. Although apoptosis was not affected, TβRIII inhibited proliferation through induction of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p21 and p27. TβRIII further regulated myeloma cell ...
Lack of IGF2 in mice results in diminished embryonic growth due to diminished cell proliferation. Here we show that mouse embryonic fibroblasts lacking the RNA-binding protein IMP1 (IGF2 mRNA-binding protein 1) have defective splicing and translation of IGF2 mRNAs, markedly reduced IGF2 polypeptide production, and diminished proliferation. The proliferation of the IMP1-null fibroblasts can be restored to wild-type levels by IGF2 in vitro or by re-expression of IMP1, which corrects the defects in IGF2 RNA splicing and translation. The ability of IMP1 to correct these defects is dependent on IMP1 phosphorylation at Ser181, which is catalyzed cotranslationally by mTOR complex 2 (mTORC2). Phosphorylation strongly enhances IMP1 binding to the IGF2-leader 3 5 untranslated region, which is absolutely required to enable IGF2-leader 3 mRNA translational initiation by internal ribosomal entry. These findings uncover a new mechanism by which mTOR regulates organismal growth by promoting IGF2 production in ...
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Fibulins not only function as molecular bridges within the cellular microenvironment but also influence cell behavior. Thus, fibulins may contribute to create a permissive microenvironment for tumor growth but can also stimulate different mechanisms that may impede tumor progression. This is the case with Fibulin-5, which has been shown to display both tumor-promoting and tumor-protective functions by mechanisms that are not totally defined. We show new evidence on the tumor-protective functions displayed by Fibulin-5 in MCF-7, T47D and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells including the inhibition of invasion and proliferation capacity and hampering the ability to form mammospheres. Reduction in the level of phosphorylation of Ser residues involved in the nuclear translocation of β-catenin may underlie these antitumor effects. We also found that Fibulin-5 reduces the level of expression of Ki-67, a nuclear protein associated with cell proliferation. Moreover, reduction in Fibulin-5 expression ...
The present study, to the best of the authors knowledge, demonstrated for the first time, that miR-614 was upregulated in OC clinical tissues and cells. Increased expression of miR-614 led to the promotion of cell proliferation and colony-forming abilities, and conversely, decreased the apoptotic rate of OC cells. Additionally, PPP2R2A may act as a novel target of miR-614. The present study indicated that miR-614 may act as a novel tumor promoter in OC by targeting PPP2R2A.. Accumulating evidence suggests that miRNAs exhibit an essential role in human cancer pathological proceedings via controlling different target genes, including those involved in cell proliferation, migration, invasion, cycle and apoptosis (15-18). Dysregulation of miRNA frequently occurs in novel types of cancers, including ovarian cancer. miR-21-3p inhibits cell proliferation and invasion of ovarian cancer by targeting RNA binding protein with multiple splicing, RCC1 and BTB domain containing protein 1 and Zinc finger ...
miRNAs are emerging as critical regulators in carcinogenesis and tumor progression. Recently, microRNA-122 (miR-122) has been proved to play an important role in hepatocellular carcinoma, but its functions in the context of breast cancer (BC) remain unknown. In this study, we report that miR-122 is commonly downregulated in BC specimens and BC cell lines with important functional consequences. Overexpression of miR-122 not only dramatically suppressed cell proliferation, colony formation by inducing G1-phase cell-cycle arrest in vitro, but also reduced tumorigenicity in vivo. We then screened and identified a novel miR-122 target, insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R), and it was further confirmed by luciferase assay. Overexpression of miR-122 would specifically and markedly reduce its expression. Similar to the restoring miR-122 expression, IGF1R downregulation suppressed cell growth and cell-cycle progression, whereas IGF1R overexpression rescued the suppressive effect of miR-122. To identify
Both cell proliferation and cell size control are fundamental biological processes that must be carefully orchestrated, and dysregulation of either can lead to diseases such as cancer. In contrast to our understanding of the mechanisms that control cell proliferation, less is known about the mechanisms that control cell size and, particularly, the mechanisms by which cell proliferation and cell size are coordinately regulated. Recently, we identified a novel protein named FIP200, which plays an important role in the regulation of cell cycle progression (Abbi et al., 2002). In this study, we showed that FIP200 can also regulate cell size through interaction with the TSC1-TSC2 complex and activation of S6K. These results identify FIP200 as a regulator that plays roles in both cell proliferation and cell size control.. Most other proteins known to play roles in both cell proliferation and cell size usually regulate these two cellular processes in a similar manner. For example, PTEN can inhibit cell ...
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Ng F, Ye J, et al. PERK promotes cancer cell proliferation and tumor development by limiting oxidative DNA harm. Oncogene 29: 38813895. 42. Min L, Ji Y, Bakiri
Antibodies for proteins involved in positive regulation of B cell proliferation pathways, according to their Panther/Gene Ontology Classification
Supervisor: Golnar Kolahgar. The intestinal epithelium constantly regenerates from stem cells, which adjust their behaviour to the changing physiological conditions the gut is exposed to. For example, stem cell proliferation rates can transiently increase to speed up regeneration after tissue loss or in response to the diet, before reverting to steady-state levels once correct tissue size is reached. This plasticity is essential for intestinal function, as lack of regeneration causes tissue atrophy whereas unrestricted stem cell proliferation promotes cancer. We use the genetically tractable Drosophila gut to identify the secreted and physical factors regulating gut plasticity. In particular, we use targeted genetic screens and functional analyses, to identify novel extracellular signalling molecules regulating cell proliferation in contexts that trigger reversible changes in gut size. As the regulation of intestinal proliferation is largely conserved between Drosophila and mammals this work has ...
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Background: Cisplatin, a DNA damaging agent, induces apoptosis through increasing DNA fragmentation.However, identification of intrinsic resistance molecules against Cisplatin is vital to estimate the success of therapy.Bag-1 (Bcl-2-associated anthanogene) is one anti-apoptotic protein involved in drug resistance impacting ontherapeutic efficiency. Elevated levels of this protein are related with increase cell proliferation rates, motilityand also cancer development. For this reason, we aimed to understand the role of Bag-1 expression in Cisplatininducedapoptosis in HeLa cervix cancer cells. Cisplatin decreased cell viability in time- and dose-dependentmanner in wt and Bag-1L+HeLa cells. Although, 10μM Cisplatin treatment induced cell death within 24h byactivating caspases in wt cells, Bag-1L stable transfection protected cells against Cisplatin treatment. To assess thepotential protective role of Bag-1, we first checked the expression profile of interacting anti-apoptotic partners ofBag-1. We found
RESULTS: 775 genes were differentially expressed and clustered in terms of their growth factor responsiveness. As well as identifying uncharacterized genes as novel targets of ErbB2-dependent signalling, ErbB2 overexpression augmented the induction of multiple genes involved in proliferation (e.g. MYC, MAP2K1, MAP2K3), autocrine growth factor signalling (VEGF, PDGF) and adhesion/cytoskeletal regulation (ZYX, THBS1, VCL, CNN3, ITGA2, ITGA3, NEDD9, TAGLN), linking them to the hyper-poliferative and altered adhesive phenotype of the ErbB2-overexpressing cells. We also report ErbB2-dependent down-regulation of multiple interferon-stimulated genes that may permit ErbB2-overexpressing cells to resist the anti-proliferative action of interferons. Finally, IGFBP3 was unique in its pattern of regulation and we further investigated a possible role for IGFBP3 down-regulation in ErbB2-dependent transformation through suppressed IGF1 signalling. We show that IGF1-dependent signalling and proliferation were ...
The application discloses novel 2-alkoxyestradiol analogs which exhibit anti-proliferative properties, and methods of making and using such compounds to inhibit undesired cell proliferation and tumor growth. Additionally, methods are disclosed of treating diseases associated with undesired angiogenesis and undesired proliferation, and methods of treating infectious disease wherein the infectious agent is particularly susceptible to inhibition by agents that disrupt microtubule organization and function.
目的:探讨反义脱氧寡核苷酸封闭HSP70基因对体外宫颈癌 HeLa 细胞增殖、凋亡及化疗敏感性的影响。方法:1)将体外培养的宫颈癌 HeLa 细胞分为正常对照组(Ctrl组)、反义寡核苷酸处理组(AS组)、正义寡核苷酸处理组(S组)、随机寡核苷酸处理组(R组),每组各5例,分别转染体外培养的宫颈癌 HeLa 细胞,采用Western免疫印迹检测各组细胞HSP70蛋白表达。2)将顺铂处理体外培养的宫颈癌 HeLa 细胞分为正常对照组(Ctrl组)、单纯顺铂处理组(Cis组)、反义寡核苷酸+顺铂处理组(AS +Cis组)、正义寡核苷酸+顺铂处理组(S +Cis组)、随机寡核苷酸+顺铂处理组 (R +Cis组),每组各8例。采用四甲基偶氮唑蓝光吸收法(methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium,MTT) 法检测 HeLa 细胞的生长抑制率; 流式细胞术检测 HeLa 细胞的凋亡率。结果:1)Ctrl组、AS组、S组、R组HSP70灰度比值分别为1.365±0.187,0.379±0.134,1.403±0.163和1.410±0
One potential model of type 2 diabetes etiology is that those with the disease were born with less β-cell mass making them susceptible to stressors such as obesity. Thus, it would be of therapeutic potential to find mechanisms that increase functional β-cell mass. One candidate that has been studied in our lab is Connective tissue growth factor (Ctgf). Ctgf is a secreted protein known to be involved in cell adhesion, migration and, in some cell types, proliferation. Previous studies in our lab have shown that Ctgf is crucial for β-cell development, with loss of Ctgf resulting in fewer β-cells and decreased β-cell proliferation, thus decreased β-cell mass at birth. Ctgf is also important in situations of metabolic stress, such as pregnancy or β-cell loss. Haploinsufficiency during pregnancy results in decreased maternal β-cell proliferation while in contrast, over-expression of Ctgf results in increased β-cell proliferation and regeneration in a model of partial β-cell ablation. ...
MTT Cell Proliferation and Cytotoxicity Assay Kit, For quantitation of viable cell number in proliferation and cytotoxicity assays
Oncotarget | https://doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.26824 Francisca Guardiola-Serrano, Roberto Beteta-Göbel, Raquel Rodríguez-Lorca, Maitane Ibarguren, David J. López, Silvia Terés, María Alonso-Sande, Mónica...
Cancer cells demand large nutrient supplies and thus reprogram their metabolic pathways to ensure metabolic flexibility, cellular homeostasis, energy production, cell proliferation, and survival. In addition to direct modulation of signal transduction pathways causing oncogenic addiction, alterations in oncogenes also contribute to metabolic rewiring in cancer cells, resulting in the promotion of cancer cell proliferation, survival, and metastatic dissemination. Accordingly, metabolic reprogramming is now considered an important characteristic of several types of cancer, including NSCLC. Despite several ongoing approaches to target cancer metabolism, metabolic reprogramming should be therapeutically explored in additional studies. In addition, the influence of metabolic rewiring on the interaction between cancer cells and the tumor microenvironment needs to be extensively investigated to comprehensively understand the course of cancer development and progression, providing mechanistic insights ...
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1. Metabolic process is defined as a collection of processes. Therefore, is_a children of metabolic process can be specific metabolic processes. 2. Cell division terms should be children of the related cell proliferation terms. Example: Endothelial cell division is part of endothelial cell proliferation. COMMENT: Double-check this in light of the long discussions about cell division vs. cell proliferation that weve had in the past. X cell division part_of X cell proliferation is probably fine where X cell is some kind of cell in a multicellular organism tissue, but there has been resistance to making the relationship between the generic parents. See SF 1219649 and this thread in the email archive for many gory details. (MAH) 3. A term should not be an is_a child of two top level granularity terms but it can be an is_a of one and a part_of the other. Example: A term can be an is_a cellular and part of organismal but not an is_a of both cellular and organismal. 4. Define each specific process as ...
The Ki-67 protein (also known as MKI67) is a cellular marker for proliferation. It is strictly associated with cell ... Dividing cells show strong Ki-67 staining in cell nuclei while all cells contain large amounts of tubulin, the major component ... cells (G0). Cellular content of Ki-67 protein markedly increases during cell progression through S phase of the cell cycle.. In ... "Cell cycle dependent expression and stability of the nuclear protein detected by Ki-67 antibody in HL-60 cells". Cell ...
Cell Proliferation. 39: 3-14. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2184.2006.00369.x. Sinha Ashok, Ganguly Ranjan, De Anindya K., Puri Ishwar K ... It is the first work to show mathematically how repeated insult to mature cells increases the risk of cancer. Single magnetic ... Mathematical model for the cancer stem cell hypothesis discusses how cancers can occur because of mutations in normal stem ... CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) Ganguly R (2006). "Mathematical model for the cancer stem cell hypothesis". ...
As a consequence, unregulated cell proliferation occurs. This cell proliferation caused by nicotine could be blocked by using ... "Role of alpha7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor in human non-small cell lung cancer proliferation". Cell Proliferation. 41 (6 ...
... is a selective inhibitor of breast cancer stem cells". Cell proliferation. 44 (5): 401-9. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2184.2011.00766.x ...
Cell Proliferation. 37 (3): 221-229. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2184.2004.00307.x. PMID 15144499. Umezu, Toyoshi; Nagano, Kimiyo; Ito, ... Prashar, A.; Locke, I. C.; Evans, C. S. (2004). "Cytotoxicity of lavender oil and its major components to human skin cells". ...
A flow cytometric assay". Cell Proliferation. 28 (6): 329-36. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2184.1995.tb00074.x. PMID 7626687. Liu Q, ... Méhes G, Pajor L (Jun 1995). "Nucleolin and fibrillarin expression in stimulated lymphocytes and differentiating HL-60 cells. ... European Journal of Cell Biology. 75 (2): 174-83. doi:10.1016/s0171-9335(98)80059-9. PMID 9548374. Ai LS, Lin CH, Hsieh M, Li C ... The Journal of Cell Biology. 113 (4): 715-29. doi:10.1083/jcb.113.4.715. PMC 2288999 . PMID 2026646. "Entrez Gene: FBL ...
Cell Proliferation. 39 (2): 147-155. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2184.2006.00377.x. PMID 16542349. Akhondzadeh, S.; Noroozian, M.; ... Hamamelitannin from Witch Hazel (Hamamelis virginiana) Displays Specific Cytotoxic Activity against Colon Cancer Cells. Susana ... "Inhibition of the Adherence of P-FimbriatedEscherichia colito Uroepithelial-Cell Surfaces by Proanthocyanidin Extracts from ...
Zone of cell proliferation. A little closer to the marrow cavity, chondrocytes multiply and arrange themselves into ... Blood cells that are created in bone marrow include red blood cells, platelets and white blood cells. Progenitor cells such as ... These cells give rise to other cells, including white blood cells, red blood cells, and platelets. Osteoblasts are mononucleate ... After the cells are matured, they enter the circulation. Every day, over 2.5 billion red blood cells and platelets, and 50-100 ...
Essentially spindle cell proliferation. Stroma is rich in collagen and/or myxoid ground substance. Low mag. Intermed. mag. ...
Oncogenes: Stimulate cell proliferation. It is in this group where members of the RAS family are found. Oncogenes generally ... which causes abnormal cell proliferation. This could provoke a malignant tumor if combined with a separate mutation in a ... RASEF is mainly found in the perinuclear region of the cell. In addition, the protein's mid-region also seems to be involved in ... Apart from binding calcium ions in the N-terminus, RASEF plays a significant role in lung cancer cell-growth. This occurs ...
Cell Proliferation. 39 (2): 147-155. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2184.2006.00377.x. PMID 16542349.. ... renal cell carcinoma), and certain types of thyroid cancer.[66] ... therapeutics-to-build-leading-position-in-cell-therapy/?s=79 ...
Detection of apoptosis and cell proliferation. Cell Proliferation 28: 571-579. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2184.1995.tb00045.x PMID ... Analogy to apoptosis of somatic cells. Exp Cell Res 1993; 207:202-205. PMID 8391465 doi:10.1006/excr.1993.1182 Lozano G.M., ... "In situ apoptotic cell labeling by the TUNEL method: improvement and evaluation on cell preparations". J Histochem Cytochem. 44 ... It may also label cells having DNA damaged by other means than in the course of apoptosis. The fluorochrome-based TUNEL assay ...
This pathway stimulates cell proliferation. It was shown that an increased expression of Ets2 can be associated with various ... Cdh1 plays a pivotal role in controlling cell division at the end of mitosis (telophase) and in the subsequent G1 phase of cell ... Li M, Zhang P (2009). "The function of APC/CCdh1 in cell cycle and beyond". Cell Div. 4: 2. doi:10.1186/1747-1028-4-2. PMC ... In healthy cells Cdh1 stays inactive from late G1 to early mitosis. It stays inactive in early mitosis and only becomes active ...
Mc Keehan, WL (1982). "Glycolysis, glutaminolysis and cell proliferation". Cell Bio. Int. Rep. 6 (7): 635-650. doi:10.1016/0309 ... "Effect of extracellular AMP on cell proliferation and metabolism of breast cancer cell lines with high and low glycolytic rates ... Matsuno, T (1991). "Pathway of glutamate oxidation and its regulation in HuH13 line of human hepatoma cells". J. Cell. Physiol ... "Glutamine modulates phenotype and stimulates proliferation in human colon cancer cell lines". Cancer Res. 54 (22): 5974-5980. ...
... cell proliferation, differentiation and cell death (apoptosis). Inhibition of nonmuscle myosin II blocks most of these effects ... Plant cells are tessellated to form tissues. The cell wall is the relatively rigid structure surrounding the plant cell. The ... Fibronectins bind collagen and cell-surface integrins, causing a reorganization of the cell's cytoskeleton to facilitate cell ... Cell. 126 (4): 677-89. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.06.044. PMID 16923388. Lo CM, Wang HB, Dembo M, Wang YL (2000). "Cell movement ...
It negatively regulates cell proliferation. BTG1 has been shown to interact with: CNOT7, CNOT8, HOXB9, and PRMT1. Recurrent ... In fact the deletion of Btg1 leads in mouse to uncontrolled proliferation of the cerebellar precursor cells during the early ... The closest homolog of BTG1 is BTG2, which also controls the proliferation and differentiation of adult neural stem cells; the ... BTG1 expression is maximal in the G0/G1 phases of the cell cycle and downregulated when cells progressed through G1. ...
2019-07-20: Cell Proliferation (journal). *2019-07-20: European Review of Aging and Physical Activity ...
Cell Proliferation. 44 (1): 59-66. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2184.2010.00717.x. PMID 21199010. Li, L.; Zhang, Z. M.; Liu, Y.; Wei, M. ... Xu, W.; Li, J. Y.; Lu, F. X. (2006). "Expression of miR-28 in B cell lymphoma cell lines detected by solution hybridization". ... lpp and miR-28 genes in diffuse large B cell lymphoma cell lines". Zhongguo shi yan xue ye xue za zhi / Zhongguo bing li sheng ... Choong, M. L.; Yang, H. H.; McNiece, I. (2007). "MicroRNA expression profiling during human cord blood-derived CD34 cell ...
Draetta G, Eckstein J (1997). "Cdc25 protein phosphatases in cell proliferation". Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 1332 (2): M53-63. doi ... Amini S, Khalili K, Sawaya BE (2004). "Effect of HIV-1 Vpr on cell cycle regulators". DNA Cell Biol. 23 (4): 249-60. doi: ... Nilsson I, Hoffmann I (2000). "Cell cycle regulation by the Cdc25 phosphatase family". Progress in cell cycle research. 4: 107- ... "Entrez Gene: CDC25C cell division cycle 25 homolog C (S. pombe)". Bulavin, D V; Higashimoto Y; Popoff I J; Gaarde W A; Basrur V ...
Draetta G, Eckstein J (1997). "Cdc25 protein phosphatases in cell proliferation". Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 1332 (2): M53-63. doi ... Nilsson I, Hoffmann I (2000). "Cell cycle regulation by the Cdc25 phosphatase family". Progress in cell cycle research. 4: 107- ... Cell. 67 (6): 1181-94. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(91)90294-9. PMID 1836978. "Entrez Gene: CDC25B cell division cycle 25 homolog B (S ... The protein is nuclear in the M and G1 phases of the cell cycle and moves to the cytoplasm during S and G2. CDC25B has ...
Huang SS, Huang JS (Oct 2005). "TGF-beta control of cell proliferation". Journal of Cellular Biochemistry. 96 (3): 447-62. doi: ... Lillis AP, Mikhailenko I, Strickland DK (Aug 2005). "Beyond endocytosis: LRP function in cell migration, proliferation and ... Lillis AP, Mikhailenko I, Strickland DK (Aug 2005). "Beyond endocytosis: LRP function in cell migration, proliferation and ... cell growth, cell migration, inflammation, and apoptosis, as well as diseases such as neurodegenerative diseases, ...
Affect cell growth, proliferation and differentiation. Cause immunosuppression. Suppress cell adhesion, antigen presentation, ... and cytotoxic T cells, B cells, and natural killer cells (NK). They also reported stress-related decreases in NK and T cell ... decreases in number and percentages of total T cells and helper T cells, and decreases in percentages of natural killer cell ( ... They also replicated Herbert and Cohen's finding of stress-related decreases in NKCC and T cell mitogen proliferation to ...
"Skin Cell Proliferation Stimulated by Microneedles". J Am Coll Clin Wound Spec. 4 (1): 2-6. doi:10.1016/j.jccw.2012.11.001. ... The stimulating effects on fibroblasts, cells and stemcells already shown in scientific publications regarding microneedling, ...
In normal cells, TGF-β, acting through its signaling pathway, stops the cell cycle at the G1 stage to stop proliferation, ... TGF-β inhibits B cell proliferation. The exact mechanism is unknown, but there is evidence that TGF-β inhibits B cell ... Both cells increase their production of TGF-β. This TGF-β acts on the surrounding stromal cells, immune cells, endothelial and ... Li MO, Flavell RA (August 2008). "TGF-beta: a master of all T cell trades". Cell. 134 (3): 392-404. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2008.07. ...
Role in the control of cell proliferation]". Minerva Endocrinologica. 26 (3): 91-102. PMID 11753230. Yamada Y, Reisine T, Law ... is a peptide hormone that regulates the endocrine system and affects neurotransmission and cell proliferation via interaction ... Sharma K, Patel YC, Srikant CB (December 1996). "Subtype-selective induction of wild-type p53 and apoptosis, but not cell cycle ... In addition, somatostatin release from delta cells can act in a paracrine manner. In the stomach, somatostatin acts directly on ...
Plant Cell Proliferation in Growth and Development. Ed J.A. Bryant and D. Chiatante. Johon Wiley & Sons Ltd. Buchanan-Wollaston ... The idea that a plant does not impose efficiency demands on immature cells is that most immature cells are part of so-called ... Parallels to cell division - the theory, perhaps even more controversially, asserts that just as both auxin and cytokinin seem ... This is an oversimplification, in that it is arguable that some shoot and root cells serve other functions than to acquire ...
... inhibits human breast cancer cell proliferation. Anandamide is found in chocolate together with two substances that ... "The endogenous cannabinoid anandamide inhibits human breast cancer cell proliferation". Proceedings of the National Academy of ...
Expression levels fluctuate in normal, but not in cancerous cells. Expression is often associated with cell proliferation. ... signalling and consequently regulates cell proliferation (in part through control of cyclin D1 levels and stability) and cell ... It was found to be essential for cell division in some organisms. By 1999, however, it was apparent that Pin1 knockout mice had ... He J, Xu J, Xu XX, Hall RA (Jul 2003). "Cell cycle-dependent phosphorylation of Disabled-2 by cdc2". Oncogene. 22 (29): 4524-30 ...
This stimulates cell proliferation and gall formation. The T-DNA contains genes for encoding enzymes that cause the plant to ... Jun 1977). "Stable incorporation of plasmid DNA into higher plant cells: the molecular basis of crown gall tumorigenesis". Cell ... The Ti plasmid integrates a segment of its DNA, known as T-DNA, into the chromosomal DNA of its host plant cells. A. ... The mechanism by which Agrobacterium inserts materials into the host cell is by a type IV secretion systemwhich is very similar ...
Flores ER, Halder G (2011). "Stem cell proliferation in the skin: alpha-catenin takes over the hippo pathway". Sci Signal. 4 ( ... F9 embryonal carcinoma cells are similar to the P19 cells shown in Figure 1 and normally have cell-to-cell adhesion mediated by ... A tumor cell line with defective δ-catenin, low levels of E-cadherin and poor cell-to-cell adhesion could be restored to normal ... providing the cell with a means of stable cell adhesion. However, decreases in this adhesion ability of the cell has been ...
positive regulation of cell proliferation. • ovarian follicle development. • Sertoli cell proliferation. • توصيل الإشارة. • ... cell-cell signaling. • hormone-mediated signaling pathway. • follicle-stimulating hormone signaling pathway. • regulation of ... positive regulation of cell migration. • positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter. • حمل أنثوي. • ... 1989). "Expression of biologically active human follitropin in Chinese hamster ovary cells". J. Biol. Chem. 264 (9): 4769-75. ...
... transcription factor MN1 stimulates vitamin D receptor-mediated transcription and inhibits osteoblastic cell proliferation". ... "Blood Cells Mol. Dis. 39 (3): 336-9. doi:10.1016/j.bcmd.2007.06.009. PMC 2387274. PMID 17698380.. ... Cell. Proteomics. 7 (3): 499-508. doi:10.1074/mcp.M700325-MCP200. PMID 18029348.. ... 2009). "Meningioma 1 gene is differentially expressed in CD34 positive cells from bone marrow of patients with myelodysplastic ...
cell proliferation. •organ morphogenesis. •extracellular matrix organization. •regulation of actin filament polymerization. • ... Bax DV, Rodgers UR, Bilek MM, Weiss AS (2009). «Cell adhesion to tropoelastin is mediated via the C-terminal GRKRK motif and ... Bertram C, Hass R (2009). «Cellular senescence of human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) is associated with an altered MMP-7/HB- ...
Basu et al (2014) Intestinal cell proliferation and senescence is regulated by receptor guanylyl cyclase C and p21 J. Biol. ... the Alliance for Cell Signalling[20] (1997-present), the TB Structural Genomics Consortium, the American Society for ... Indian Society of Cell Biology[19] (1995-present) and the Society of Research in Reproduction, India (1994-present). ...
Cell growth, proliferation, angiogenesis, and migrationEdit. The above processes are part and parcel to tissue integrity and ... Substance P has been known to stimulate cell growth in normal and cancer cell line cultures,[37] and it was shown that ... "Substance P is a promoter of adult neural progenitor cell proliferation under normal and ischemic conditions". Journal of ... on cells (including cancer cells) bestowing upon them mobility.[40] and metastasis.[41] It has been suggested that cancer ...
... proliferation of multi-potent retinal progenitor cells (RPCs); restriction of competence of RPCs; cell fate specification; ... Further complexity arises from the various interconnections among bipolar cells, horizontal cells, and amacrine cells in the ... ON bipolar cells or inhibit (hyperpolarize) OFF bipolar cells. Thus, it is at the photoreceptor-bipolar cell synapse where ... which releases a neurotransmitter called glutamate to bipolar cells. Farther back is the cell body, which contains the cell's ...
TGF-β is important for cell proliferation and differentiation during skeletogenesis. During this process, TGF-β can stimulate ... Osteochondroprogenitor cells are progenitor cells that arise from mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) in the bone marrow. They have ... Sox9 blocked osteochondroprogenitor cells were found to express osteoblast marker genes, reprogramming the cells into the ... McBride, SH; Falls T; Knothe Tate ML (2008). "Modulation of stem cell shape and fate B: mechanical modulation of cell shape and ...
... cell-cycle processes). PAX8 is shown to be involved in tumor cell proliferation and differentiation, signal transduction, ... regulation of metanephric nephron tubule epithelial cell differentiation. • cell differentiation. • mesonephric tubule ... positive regulation of metanephric DCT cell differentiation. • negative regulation of mesenchymal cell apoptotic process ... pancreatic islet cells and lymphoid cells.[8] PAX8 and other transcription factors play a role in binding to DNA and regulating ...
At the same time, Michael confronts Leila over the call made using the stolen cell phone. He then kills Leila's handler as he ... Some more cautious commentators said the show had promise but could not go on tantalizing the audience with a proliferation of ... At the end, Leila manages to contact Sean using a stolen cell phone and informs him of Sophia's plan. ...
Pitx2 pathway mediating cell-type-specific proliferation during development.". Cell. 111 (5): 673-85. PMID 12464179. doi: ... cell-cell adhesion. • positive regulation of nucleic acid-templated transcription. • heart development. • actin cytoskeleton ... cadherin binding involved in cell-cell adhesion. • actin binding. • muscle alpha-actinin binding. ... Vallenius T، Mäkelä TP (2003). "Clik1: a novel kinase targeted to actin stress fibers by the CLP-36 PDZ-LIM protein.". J. Cell ...
van der Woude H, Ter Veld MG, Jacobs N, van der Saag PT, Murk AJ, Rietjens IM (2005). "The stimulation of cell proliferation by ... "The Plant Cell. 9 (10): 1767-1780. doi:10.1105/tpc.9.10.1767. PMC 157020. PMID 12237347.. ... A colorful model for genetics, biochemistry, cell biology, and biotechnology". Plant Physiology. 126 (2): 485-93. doi:10.1104/ ... "Sustained proliferation in cancer: Mechanisms and novel therapeutic targets". (review). Seminars in Cancer Biology. 35 Suppl: ...
regulation of epithelial cell proliferation. • progesterone receptor signaling pathway. • tertiary branching involved in ... cell nucleus. • cytosol. Biological process. • regulation of transcription, DNA-templated. • cell-cell signaling. • negative ... epithelial cell proliferation both in response to estrogen alone and in the presence of progesterone and estrogen. These ... the PR-A isoform is necessary to oppose estrogen-induced proliferation as well as PR-B-dependent proliferation. ...
Electrolysis cells can be either open cell or closed cell. In open cell systems, the electrolysis products, which are gaseous, ... thus allowing the proliferation of crackpots and hampering the conduct of serious science.[165] Critics and skeptics stopped ... the power input to the cell was equal to the calculated power leaving the cell within measurement accuracy, and the cell ... Groups that did report successes found that some of their cells were producing the effect, while other cells that were built ...
"Methods for High-Content, High-Throughput Image-Based Cell Screening" (PDF). Proceedings of the Workshop on Microscopic Image ... "Identification of interferon-modulated proliferation-related cDNA sequences" (PDF). Proceedings of the National Academy of ...
... diversity cytotoxic activity of Natural Killer T-cells (NKTs) decreases impaired proliferation in response to antigenic ... The cytotoxicity of Natural Killer (NK) cells and the antigen-presenting function of dendritic cells is known to diminish with ... Mocchegiani, E; M. Malavolta (2004). "NK and NKT cell functions in immunosenescence". Aging Cell. 3 (4): 177-184. doi:10.1111/j ... "B cell diversity decreases in old age and is correlated with poor health status". Ageing Cell. 8: 18-25. doi:10.1111/j.1474- ...
epithelial cell proliferation. • neuron migration. • negative regulation of apoptotic process. • negative regulation of ... cell nucleus. • kinetochore. • centrosome. • rough endoplasmic reticulum. • dendritic shaft. • aggresome. • cell surface. • ... cell cortex. • integral component of membrane. • azurophil granule membrane. • Z disc. • neuronal cell body. • perinuclear ... cell-cell adhesion. • cellular response to amyloid-beta. • negative regulation of core promoter binding. • negative regulation ...
... only one cell released into the environment could exponentially grow into many thousands of cells over a short amount of time. ... Dispersal and subsequent proliferation of species is not solely an anthropogenic phenomenon. There are many mechanisms by which ... For organisms between 10 and 50 microns, such as certain types of phytoplankton, current regulations allow less than 10 cells ...
"Cell proliferation at 122°C and isotopically heavy CH4 production by a hyperthermophilic methanogen under high-pressure ... Further information: Cell wall § Archaeal cell walls. Most archaea (but not Thermoplasma and Ferroplasma) possess a cell wall.[ ... Cell division is controlled in a cell cycle; after the cell's chromosome is replicated and the two daughter chromosomes ... In euryarchaea the cell division protein FtsZ, which forms a contracting ring around the cell, and the components of the septum ...
Konradt C, Ueno N, Christian DA, Delong JH, et al «Endothelial cells are a replicative niche for entry of Toxoplasma gondii to ... High-content imaging assay to evaluate Toxoplasma gondii infection and proliferation: A multiparametric assay to screen new ...
DNA from a rhabdomyosarcoma cell line and a fibrosarcoma cell line transformed a NIH/3T3 mouse fibroblast cell line. After ... in particular the role of Rho and Ras small GTPases in regulating a variety of cellular functions such as proliferation, ... cells. Downregulation of RhoA in the HBE cell lines using siRNAs showed a lack of apical junction formation in contrast with ... "At Work: Cell Biology Program Chair Alan Hall". Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center. Archived from the original on 2 April ...
negative regulation of cell proliferation. • signal transduction. • Wnt signaling pathway, calcium modulating pathway. • Wnt ... cell maturation. • Wnt signaling pathway. • embryonic camera-type eye development. • multicellular organism development. • cell ... regulation of chorionic trophoblast cell proliferation. • regulation of bicellular tight junction assembly. • regulation of ... T cell differentiation in thymus. • chorionic trophoblast cell differentiation. • positive regulation of protein targeting to ...
... which is the cell growth phase - makes up approximately 95% of the cycle.[14] The proliferation of cells is instigated by ... Cell movement - Chemotaxis, contraction, cilia and flagella.. *Cell signaling - Regulation of cell behavior by signals from ... Prokaryotic cells are much smaller than eukaryotic cells, making prokaryotic cells the smallest form of life.[11] Cytologists ... The growth process of the cell does not refer to the size of the cell, but instead the density of the number of cells present ...
Follicular dendritic cell sarcoma. Extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type. MCPyV Merkel-cell carcinoma. RNA virus. HCV ... also plays a key role in viral proliferation,[11] directing the initiation of DNA replication for the virus as well as ... For example, JCV has been found to infect the granule cell layer of the cerebellum, while sparing purkinje fibers, ultimately ... Immunohistochemical detection of JC virus protein (stained brown) in a brain biopsy (glial cells demonstrating progressive ...
T lymphocyte proliferation assay - T lymphocytes - T suppressor cells - T4 cell - T4 cells (T-helper cells) - T8 cells - Tanner ... B-cell lymphoma - B cells - B lymphocytes (B cells) - bactericidal - bacteriostatic - bacterium - baculovirus - baseline - ... cells - CDC National Prevention Information Network (CDC-NPIN) - cell lines - cell-mediated immunity (CMI) - cellular immunity ... human T cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) - human T cell lymphotropic virus type II (HTLV-II) - humoral immunity - HVTN ...
... when excess H2O2 accumulates in the cell, catalase converts it to H2O through this reaction: 2. H. 2. O. 2. →. 2. H. 2. O. +. O ... Proliferation of the organelle is regulated by Pex11p. Genes that encode peroxin proteins include: PEX1, PEX2 (PXMP3), PEX3, ... "The Journal of Cell Biology. 119 (5): 1129-36. doi:10.1083/jcb.119.5.1129. PMC 2289717. PMID 1447292.. ... doi:10.1016/j.cell.2005.04.025. PMID 16009135.. *^ Saleem RA, Smith JJ, Aitchison JD (Dec 2006). "Proteomics of the peroxisome" ...
positive regulation of mesenchymal cell proliferation. · transcription, DNA-dependent. · pattern specification process. · ... 第四亚族NUR(英语:Nur (biology))(NGFIB、NOR1、NURR1) · 第五亚族LRH-1、SF1 · 第六亚族GCNF(英语:Germ cell nuclear factor) · 第零亚族DAX1、SHP
cell volume homeostasis. • nucleocytoplasmic transport. • protein localization. • positive regulation of cell proliferation. • ... negative regulation of cell proliferation. • nucleosome assembly. • viral process. • DNA damage response, signal transduction ... J Cell Biol. 183 (4): 589-95. PMC 2582899. . PMID 19015314. doi:10.1083/jcb.200807185. !CS1 manut: Uso explícito de et al. ( ... Cell. Biol. 11 (5): 2567-75. PMC 360026. . PMID 2017166. !CS1 manut: Uso explícito de et al. (link) !CS1 manut: Nomes múltiplos ...
... can be evaluated in vitro by determining their effects on stimulation of pulmonary and airway epithelial cell proliferation. ... 57:51-9. Tang PS, Mura M, Seth R, Liu M. (2008) Acute lung injury and cell death: how many ways can cells die? Am J Physiol 294 ... There are two types of alveolar epithelial cells - Type 1 pneumocytes represent 90% of the cell surface area, and are easily ... Furthermore, when phosgene hydrolyzes it forms hydrochloric acid, which can damage the cell surface and cause cell death in the ...
This is due to the lysis of neutrophils, a type of white blood cell, caused by the lecithinases and other toxins released by ... Alongside such rapid proliferation is a corresponding mass-production of exotoxin that causes severe damage to local tissue in ...
Cells are structural and functional unit of our body that control and maintain the function of all unicellular and ... Therefore, cell proliferation assays become crucial to scrutinise the rate of cell proliferation in both in vitro and in vivo ... in laboratories to determine cell proliferation. Key Concepts:. * Cell proliferation plays a vital role in regular tissue and ... by recycling the old cells with new cells. In addition, abnormal cell proliferation is also associated with various human ...
The cell proliferation assay is an important tool in the assessment of... Introduction ...Cell proliferation assays are ... employed frequently in immunological ca...,Cell,Proliferation,Assays,biological,advanced biology technology,biology laboratory ... Identification of cells in S phase using the Cell Proliferation Fluorescence Kit and IN Cell Analyzer 1000. 7. Fluorescence- ... Cell Proliferation Kit Outperforms the Competition in the Range of Cells Typically Counted. 2. Quantitative Measurement of Cell ...
... particularly hematopoietic cells and bone marrow stromal cells, the medium comprising cell proliferation and development ... growth factors that stimulate the proliferation and development of stromal cells and cells from a variety of tissues or organs ... when the cells to be cultured are hematopoietic cells); nucleosides for synthesis of DNA and RNA; ... and long-term proliferation and development of cells, ... cell proliferation and SCF stimulating mast cell proliferation. ...
... cell proliferation, cell movement. Check out our upgraded Cell Health and Proliferation webpage to learn more about how these ... Cell labeling probes (both antibodies and non- antibodies) can be used in a number of applications, including cell cycle, ... Below is a table to aid in reagent choice for cell health and proliferation labeling applications. Cell type suitability ... While some assays utilize antibodies to study cell health, proliferation, cell cycle or apoptosis, other types of experiments ...
WST-1 premixed Cell Proliferation Assay Kit- An effortless protocol, start to finish under 4 hours. Get 2,500 Rxns for $316.00 ... Products , Cell_Biology_and_Epigenetics , Cell_Proliferation_and_Viability , WST-1_Cell_Proliferation. ... WST-1 Cell Proliferation Assay Kit. The Premixed WST-1 Cell Proliferation Reagent allows fast and easy colorimetric measurement ... The Premixed WST-1 Cell Proliferation Reagent will simplify and streamline your cell proliferation assays. The simple, one- ...
... proliferation, differentiation and programmed cell death of cancer cells and (iv) bioinformatics will result into a ... Molecular mechanisms of the cell proliferation and differentiation Project Identification GD204/08/H054 Project Period 1/2008 ... The project is based on collaboration of laboratories involved in the study of the processes of the cell proliferation and ... regulation of cell proliferation and differentiation, genomics and proteomics, plant, animal and microbial models, ...
cell proliferation - Read articles from Issue 2015(12). Read article PDFs using your inistitutions subscriptions with no ... Cell Proliferation , 2015(12) articles. * Cervical cancer stem cells * microRNA deregulation in keloids: an opportunity for ... Sam68 regulates cell proliferation and cell adhesion-mediated drug resistance (CAM-DR) via the AKT pathway in non-Hodgkins ... TGFβ signalling pathway regulates angiogenesis by endothelial cells, in an adipose-derived stromal cell/endothelial cell co- ...
They have high rates of cell division and growth. ... Cancer cells are very prolific. They have high rates of cell ...
Purchase Recombinant DNA And Cell Proliferation - 1st Edition. Print Book & E-Book. ISBN 9780126650808, 9780323153362 ... Murine Erythroleukemia Cells (Friend Cells). III. Role of the Cell Cycle in Friend Cell Differentiation. IV. Friend Cell ... SV40 and Cell Proliferation. IV. A Growing Cell Receives Signals for Growth in Size. V. A Growing Cell Receives Signals to ... Mathematical Models and Kinetics of Cell Proliferation. III. Biochemistry of Cell Proliferation. IV. The Role of RNA Polymerase ...
In addition, we found that ONA directly suppressed cancer cell proliferation. Thus, ONA is considered useful for the additional ... "Onion compound suppresses ovarian cancer cell proliferation." Medical News Today. MediLexicon, Intl., 22 Oct. 2016. Web.. 20 ... Ellis, M. (2016, October 22). "Onion compound suppresses ovarian cancer cell proliferation." Medical News Today. Retrieved from ... "We found that ONA reduced the extent of ovarian cancer cell proliferation induced by co-culture with human macrophages. ...
Cell Proliferation, and Cancer - 1st Edition. Print Book & E-Book. ISBN 9780121230500, 9781483277486 ... Ions, Cell Proliferation, and Cancer present the credibility of ions as specific regulators of cell proliferation. This book ... Section III: Divalent Ions, Cell Proliferation, and Cancer. The Roles of Calcium and Magnesium in Cell Proliferation: An ... Section II: Monovalent Ions, Cell Proliferation, and Cancer. Monovalent Cations, Cell Proliferation, and Cancer: An Overview. ...
... the essential control of cell proliferation is therefore the signal that commits a cell to... ... In most cells initiation of DNA synthesis is inexorably followed by a premitotic phase and then by mitosis, ... the essential control of cell proliferation is therefore the signal that commits a cell to DNA synthesis. Since cells may be ... Phosphoinositide metabolism and control of cell proliferation. In: Miller A.O.A. (eds) Advanced Research on Animal Cell ...
... and inhibitory effect on proliferation of A549 human lung epithelial cancer cells. Differences among the strawberry genotypes ... between the scavenging capacities for the reactive oxygen species and the inhibition of cancer cell proliferation were 0.8074, ... There was also a relationship between scavenging capacity and the inhibition of cancer cell proliferation. The correlations (R2 ... and inhibitory effect on proliferation of A549 human lung epithelial cancer cells. Differences among the strawberry genotypes ...
... and valuable tools for the quantitative evaluation of a cell populations response to external factors that affect cell ... Cell Proliferation Assay Kits ATCC Cell Proliferation Assay kits are convenient and valuable tools for the quantitative ... Is a resazurin-based cell proliferation assay that is sensitive and non-toxic. This single-component reagent can determine cell ... XTT Cell Proliferation Assay Kit Utilizes the second generation tetrazolium dye, XTT (sodium 2,3,-bis(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5- ...
... and valuable tools for the quantitative evaluation of a cell populations response to external factors that affect cell ... Cell Proliferation Assay Kits ATCC Cell Proliferation Assay kits are convenient and valuable tools for the quantitative ... XTT Cell Proliferation Assay Kit Utilizes the second generation tetrazolium dye, XTT (sodium 2,3,-bis(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5- ... MTT Cell Proliferation Assay Kit Utilizes the most widely accepted detection reagents, tetrazolium salts, for the safe, ...
Compounds in this class (exemplified by GNF-2) show exclusive antiproliferative activity toward Bcr-abl-transformed cells, with ... Figure 2: GNF-2 blocks proliferation and induces apoptosis of Ba/F3 cells expressing wild-type Bcr-abl and the E255V mutant.. ... Adrián, F., Ding, Q., Sim, T. et al. Allosteric inhibitors of Bcr-abl-dependent cell proliferation. Nat Chem Biol 2, 95-102 ( ... Allosteric inhibitors of Bcr-abl-dependent cell proliferation. *Francisco J Adrián1. , ...
Gene Ontology (GO) annotations for cell population proliferation All GO annotations for Meis2 (19) ...
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Gene Ontology (GO) annotations for cell population proliferation All GO annotations for Col8a1 (15) ...
... whereas β cell-specific overexpression of Smad7 enhanced proliferation of β cells and expression of CyclinD1 and CyclinD2. M2 ... β cell-specific deficiency of Smad7 did not affect macrophage infiltration but reduced β cell proliferation and expression of ... reduced pancreatic infiltration of macrophages and proliferation of β cells induced by PDL. Isolated β cells of control but not ... Some preclinical therapeutic strategies have focused on β cell replacement through differentiation of progenitor cells; however ...
... and are expressed as percentages of control cell proliferation (1 − [Control cell number − treated cell number]/[Control cell ... and are expressed as percentages of cell proliferation ([Cell number − initial cell number]/initial cell number × 100). AEA ... Data from cell proliferation experiments were expressed as mean ± SEM (or SD) of percentage of cell proliferation in untreated ... Effect of anandamide (AEA) on HBC cell proliferation. (a) Dose-dependent inhibition of EFM-19 and MCF-7 cell proliferation by ...
... gans in which many proliferating cells can be found. In general the proliferating cells have been identified either in ... Studies on cell kinetics in untreated animals have for the most part been done on or- ... histologic sections as mitoses or by autoradiography as labeled interphase cells following the ... Proliferation of Different Cell Types in the Brain. Authors. * Hubert Korr Series Title. Advances in Anatomy, Embryology and ...
Nicotine Cell Proliferation And Invasion. 1807 Words , 8 Pages. induces cell proliferation and invasion as well as epithelial ... Animal Cells And Their Functions. 1044 Words , 5 Pages. Animal cells and their functions Cell Membrane The cell "surface" ... Eukaryotic Cells And Its Functions. 978 Words , 4 Pages. *. The Effect Of Calf Serum On Cell Proliferation. 1154 Words , 5 ... More about Cell Proliferation And The Control Of Cellular Function. *. Cell Cycle And Dna Rn Mirnas Regulating Cellular ...
... Chun San Tai,1,2 Yi Yun Chen,2 and Wen Liang Chen1 ... Chun San Tai, Yi Yun Chen, and Wen Liang Chen, "β-Lactoglobulin Influences Human Immunity and Promotes Cell Proliferation," ...
Surh, CD, Sprent, J. Homeostatic T cell proliferation. How far can T cells be activated to self-ligands? J Exp Med 2000. 192:F9 ... In vivo proliferation and FACS analyses. To establish homeostatic T cell proliferation of different populations in various ... Lymph node T cells depleted of regulatory CD25+ cells were prepared using an AutoMACS magnetic cell sorter (Miltenyi Biotec, ... All animals rejected the melanoma cells, but not the colon carcinoma cells, verifying that rejection of melanoma cells during ...
Proliferation profiles of gated Thy1.1+CD4+ and Thy1.1+CD4- (CD8+) cells in secondary lymphoid organs shown as CFSE histograms ... Total number of proliferating (one or more cell divisions) donor CD4+ and CD8+ cells in C57BL/6 recipients of 5 × 106 or 5 × 10 ... Inhibition of melanoma growth by homeostatic T cell proliferation. (. a. ) Nonirradiated (circles) or sublethally irradiated ( ... 106 B6.PL LN cells; lower panel: C57BL/6 mice irradiated and transfused with 5 × 107 B6.PL LN cells. FACS dot plots of host ...
... is an open-access journal devoted to studies into all aspects of cell proliferation and differentiation in ... Home , Journals , Cell Proliferation View PDF. Cell Proliferation. Editor(s): Dr. C. Sarraf. Publisher: Wiley. Impact Factor*: ... Cell Proliferation is an open-access journal devoted to studies into all aspects of cell proliferation and differentiation in ... In addition to original research papers Cell Proliferation publishes invited review articles, book reviews and letters ...
... has been shown to inhibit cell growth in cancer cells. Tehranolide was purified from Artemisia diffusa. To detect cell ... Tehranolide significantly reduces cell proliferation in a time and dose-dependent manner in K562 cells which probably involves ... To detect the role of PKA activity on cell proliferation, cells were pretreated with RpcAMP(10 μM) for 20 min and then treated ... Our results show that tehranolide significantly reduces cell proliferation in a time and dose-dependent manner in K562 cells ...
A. Proliferation of 143Bwt and 143Bcytb cells cultured in medium containing the indicated doses of metformin. Cell numbers were ... A. Proliferation of H1299 NSCLC cells treated with the indicated concentrations of metformin for 72 h. Cell numbers are ... Cell number is expressed relative to control cell number (no metformin) at 72 h. Shown are cell numbers for control (WT) and ... Proliferation of 143Bwt and 143Bcytb cells treated with control siRNA (CTL) or ACL-specific siRNA. Cell counts were determined ...
... constantly regenerating cells throughout the body: skin and the lining of the intestine, for example. And to University of ... including turning off the proliferation of cancer stem cells or inducing proliferation of somatic stem cells where we want to ... Tags: Autonomic Nervous System, Blood, Brain, Breathing, Cancer, Cell, Cell Proliferation, Central Nervous System, Depression, ... Proliferation, Research, Skin, Somatic Stem Cells, Stem Cells, Stress, Stress Related ...
The recruitment and progression of CMM cells in the cell cycle of proliferation depend on mitogen-activated protein kinase ( ... The involvement of cancer stem cells and transient amplifier cells in CMM genesis is beyond doubt. The proliferation activity ... Cell Proliferation in Cutaneous Malignant Melanoma: Relationship with Neoplastic Progression. G. E. Piérard ... Key molecular components involved in the deregulation of the growth fraction, the cell cycle phases of proliferation, and ...
Oncogenes, Inositol Lipids and Cell Proliferation Lead researcher. Dr J A Hamilton ... Cancer is a disease of the cells, which are the bodys basic building blocks. ...
Recent advances in STAT signalling research include a better understanding of the roles of mammalian STAT proteins in cell ... proliferation and apoptosis, and of non-mammalian STAT proteins in morphogenesis. Two different ways in which STAT signalling ... STAT signalling in cell proliferation and in development Curr Opin Genet Dev. 2000 Oct;10(5):503-7. doi: 10.1016/s0959-437x(00) ... in STAT signalling research include a better understanding of the roles of mammalian STAT proteins in cell proliferation and ...
Increased cellular proliferation in KO testes as shown by increased proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) staining and ... FSTL3: A Crucial Regulator of Sertoli Cell Proliferation. Notwithstanding current world population, infertility in humans is on ... Sertoli cells (SC) in the testis allow for the duplications and development of the cells that give rise to sperm and generally ... Also, within the testis there is an increase in SC numbers and related increase in cells that give rise to sperm. We, therefore ...
CLOCK Regulation of Cell Growth and Proliferation.. Disrupting circadian rhythms has been shown to have an impact on cell cycle ... The deficiency in cell proliferation and lack of DNA synthesis suggests that Clock cells fail to respond to mitogenic signals ... DNA synthesis and cell proliferation is diminished in Clock primary cells. (A) The average expression intensities from 24-h ... Cells were plated on 10-cm dishes at a density of 3 × 106 cells per dish. Passage 2 and 3 cells were plated in 96-well plates ...
Cell proliferation associated with inflammation may be induced by RONS released from inflammatory cells. Regeneration after ... F) Ki-67 immunohistochemistry shows low levels of baseline proliferation in control pancreata. (G) Cell proliferation remains ... Inflammation-induced cell proliferation potentiates DNA damage-induced mutations in vivo.. Kiraly O1, Gong G2, Olipitz W2, ... H) Increased cell proliferation during regeneration from acute pancreatitis is indicated by increased BrdU labeling. Five days ...