An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
Cell membrane glycoproteins that are selectively permeable to potassium ions. At least eight major groups of K channels exist and they are made up of dozens of different subunits.
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
Stable potassium atoms that have the same atomic number as the element potassium, but differ in atomic weight. K-41 is a stable potassium isotope.
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
A class of drugs that act by inhibition of potassium efflux through cell membranes. Blockade of potassium channels prolongs the duration of ACTION POTENTIALS. They are used as ANTI-ARRHYTHMIA AGENTS and VASODILATOR AGENTS.
Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.
Potassium channel whose permeability to ions is extremely sensitive to the transmembrane potential difference. The opening of these channels is induced by the membrane depolarization of the ACTION POTENTIAL.
Positively charged atoms, radicals or group of atoms with a valence of plus 1, which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.
Potassium channels where the flow of K+ ions into the cell is greater than the outward flow.
A cardioactive glycoside consisting of rhamnose and ouabagenin, obtained from the seeds of Strophanthus gratus and other plants of the Apocynaceae; used like DIGITALIS. It is commonly used in cell biological studies as an inhibitor of the NA(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE.
A white crystal or crystalline powder used in BUFFERS; FERTILIZERS; and EXPLOSIVES. It can be used to replenish ELECTROLYTES and restore WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE in treating HYPOKALEMIA.
Potassium or potassium compounds used in foods or as foods.
The opening and closing of ion channels due to a stimulus. The stimulus can be a change in membrane potential (voltage-gated), drugs or chemical transmitters (ligand-gated), or a mechanical deformation. Gating is thought to involve conformational changes of the ion channel which alters selective permeability.
A delayed rectifier subtype of shaker potassium channels that is the predominant VOLTAGE-GATED POTASSIUM CHANNEL of T-LYMPHOCYTES.
A condition due to decreased dietary intake of potassium, as in starvation or failure to administer in intravenous solutions, or to gastrointestinal loss in diarrhea, chronic laxative abuse, vomiting, gastric suction, or bowel diversion. Severe potassium deficiency may produce muscular weakness and lead to paralysis and respiratory failure. Muscular malfunction may result in hypoventilation, paralytic ileus, hypotension, muscle twitches, tetany, and rhabomyolysis. Nephropathy from potassium deficit impairs the concentrating mechanism, producing POLYURIA and decreased maximal urinary concentrating ability with secondary POLYDIPSIA. (Merck Manual, 16th ed)
Inorganic compounds that contain potassium as an integral part of the molecule.
The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.
The movement of ions across energy-transducing cell membranes. Transport can be active, passive or facilitated. Ions may travel by themselves (uniport), or as a group of two or more ions in the same (symport) or opposite (antiport) directions.
Macrocyclic polyethers with the repeating unit of (-CH2-CH2-O)n where n is greater than 2 and some oxygens may be replaced by nitrogen, sulfur or phosphorus. These compounds are useful for coordinating CATIONS. The nomenclature uses a prefix to indicate the size of the ring and a suffix for the number of heteroatoms.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
An element that is an alkali metal. It has an atomic symbol Rb, atomic number 37, and atomic weight 85.47. It is used as a chemical reagent and in the manufacture of photoelectric cells.
The ability of a substrate to allow the passage of ELECTRONS.
A potassium-selective ion channel blocker. (From J Gen Phys 1994;104(1):173-90)
A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.
An enzyme that catalyzes the dehydration of 1,2-propanediol to propionaldehyde. EC
A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.
A member of the alkali metals. It has an atomic symbol Cs, atomic number 50, and atomic weight 132.91. Cesium has many industrial applications, including the construction of atomic clocks based on its atomic vibrational frequency.
A voltage-gated potassium channel that is expressed primarily in the HEART.
Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.
An enzyme that catalyzes the active transport system of sodium and potassium ions across the cell wall. Sodium and potassium ions are closely coupled with membrane ATPase which undergoes phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, thereby providing energy for transport of these ions against concentration gradients.
The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Voltage-gated potassium channels whose primary subunits contain six transmembrane segments and form tetramers to create a pore with a voltage sensor. They are related to their founding member, shaker protein, Drosophila.
A family of voltage-gated potassium channels that are characterized by long N-terminal and C-terminal intracellular tails. They are named from the Drosophila protein whose mutation causes abnormal leg shaking under ether anesthesia. Their activation kinetics are dependent on extracellular MAGNESIUM and PROTON concentration.
A macrolide antibiotic of the oligomycin group, obtained from Streptomyces rutgersensis. It is used in cytochemistry as a tool to inhibit various ATPases and to uncouple oxidative phosphorylation from electron transport and also clinically as an antifungal agent.
A superorder of CEPHALOPODS comprised of squid, cuttlefish, and their relatives. Their distinguishing feature is the modification of their fourth pair of arms into tentacles, resulting in 10 limbs.
Stable sodium atoms that have the same atomic number as the element sodium, but differ in atomic weight. Na-23 is a stable sodium isotope.
An actinomycete used for production of commercial ANTIBIOTICS and as a host for gene cloning.
An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.
Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
An element in the alkali metals family. It has the atomic symbol Li, atomic number 3, and atomic weight [6.938; 6.997]. Salts of lithium are used in treating BIPOLAR DISORDER.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
An inorganic compound that is used as a source of iodine in thyrotoxic crisis and in the preparation of thyrotoxic patients for thyroidectomy. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
An atom or group of atoms that have a positive or negative electric charge due to a gain (negative charge) or loss (positive charge) of one or more electrons. Atoms with a positive charge are known as CATIONS; those with a negative charge are ANIONS.
Unstable isotopes of potassium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. K atoms with atomic weights 37, 38, 40, and 42-45 are radioactive potassium isotopes.
Membrane proteins that allow the exchange of hydrogen ions for potassium ions across the cellular membrane. The action of these antiporters influences intracellular pH and potassium ion homeostasis.
A phylum of the kingdom Metazoa. Mollusca have soft, unsegmented bodies with an anterior head, a dorsal visceral mass, and a ventral foot. Most are encased in a protective calcareous shell. It includes the classes GASTROPODA; BIVALVIA; CEPHALOPODA; Aplacophora; Scaphopoda; Polyplacophora; and Monoplacophora.
Reversible chemical reaction between a solid, often one of the ION EXCHANGE RESINS, and a fluid whereby ions may be exchanged from one substance to another. This technique is used in water purification, in research, and in industry.
Inorganic compounds that contain barium as an integral part of the molecule.
A delayed rectifier subtype of shaker potassium channels that is selectively inhibited by a variety of SCORPION VENOMS.
A family of DNA plant viruses that infect eukaryotic algae.
A shaker subfamily that is prominently expressed in NEURONS and are necessary for high-frequency, repetitive firing of ACTION POTENTIALS.
A polyether antibiotic which affects ion transport and ATPase activity in mitochondria. It is produced by Streptomyces hygroscopicus. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
One of the POTASSIUM CHANNEL BLOCKERS, with secondary effect on calcium currents, which is used mainly as a research tool and to characterize channel subtypes.
Potassium channels whose activation is dependent on intracellular calcium concentrations.
The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.
A cyclododecadepsipeptide ionophore antibiotic produced by Streptomyces fulvissimus and related to the enniatins. It is composed of 3 moles each of L-valine, D-alpha-hydroxyisovaleric acid, D-valine, and L-lactic acid linked alternately to form a 36-membered ring. (From Merck Index, 11th ed) Valinomycin is a potassium selective ionophore and is commonly used as a tool in biochemical studies.
An order of the class Amphibia, which includes several families of frogs and toads. They are characterized by well developed hind limbs adapted for jumping, fused head and trunk and webbed toes. The term "toad" is ambiguous and is properly applied only to the family Bufonidae.
An element of the alkaline earth group of metals. It has an atomic symbol Ba, atomic number 56, and atomic weight 138. All of its acid-soluble salts are poisonous.
A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.
Abnormally low potassium concentration in the blood. It may result from potassium loss by renal secretion or by the gastrointestinal route, as by vomiting or diarrhea. It may be manifested clinically by neuromuscular disorders ranging from weakness to paralysis, by electrocardiographic abnormalities (depression of the T wave and elevation of the U wave), by renal disease, and by gastrointestinal disorders. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A powder that dissolves in water, which is administered orally, and is used as a diuretic, expectorant, systemic alkalizer, and electrolyte replenisher.
Nonmotile unicellular green algae potentially valuable as a source of high-grade protein and B-complex vitamins.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
A group of peptide antibiotics from BACILLUS brevis. Gramicidin C or S is a cyclic, ten-amino acid polypeptide and gramicidins A, B, D are linear. Gramicidin is one of the two principal components of TYROTHRICIN.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Electrodes with an extremely small tip, used in a voltage clamp or other apparatus to stimulate or record bioelectric potentials of single cells intracellularly or extracellularly. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
Interstitial space between cells, occupied by INTERSTITIAL FLUID as well as amorphous and fibrous substances. For organisms with a CELL WALL, the extracellular space includes everything outside of the CELL MEMBRANE including the PERIPLASM and the cell wall.
Potassium channels that contain two pores in tandem. They are responsible for baseline or leak currents and may be the most numerous of all K channels.
Higher-order DNA and RNA structures formed from guanine-rich sequences. They are formed around a core of at least 2 stacked tetrads of hydrogen-bonded GUANINE bases. They can be formed from one two or four separate strands of DNA (or RNA) and can display a wide variety of topologies, which are a consequence of various combinations of strand direction, length, and sequence. (From Nucleic Acids Res. 2006;34(19):5402-15)
The deductive study of shape, quantity, and dependence. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A group of slow opening and closing voltage-gated potassium channels. Because of their delayed activation kinetics they play an important role in controlling ACTION POTENTIAL duration.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A family of delayed rectifier voltage-gated potassium channels that share homology with their founding member, KCNQ1 PROTEIN. KCNQ potassium channels have been implicated in a variety of diseases including LONG QT SYNDROME; DEAFNESS; and EPILEPSY.
Positively-charged atomic nuclei that have been stripped of their electrons. These particles have one or more units of electric charge and a mass exceeding that of the Helium-4 nucleus (alpha particle).
A fast inactivating subtype of shaker potassium channels that contains two inactivation domains at its N terminus.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A delayed rectifier subtype of shaker potassium channels that conducts a delayed rectifier current. It contributes to ACTION POTENTIAL repolarization of MYOCYTES in HEART ATRIA.
Plant extracts from several species, including genera STRYCHNOS and Chondodendron, which contain TETRAHYDROISOQUINOLINES that produce PARALYSIS of skeletal muscle. These extracts are toxic and must be used with the administration of artificial respiration.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Permanganic acid (HMnO4), potassium salt. A highly oxidative, water-soluble compound with purple crystals, and a sweet taste. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Information, 4th ed)
Abnormally high potassium concentration in the blood, most often due to defective renal excretion. It is characterized clinically by electrocardiographic abnormalities (elevated T waves and depressed P waves, and eventually by atrial asystole). In severe cases, weakness and flaccid paralysis may occur. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.
Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.
A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A subfamily of shaker potassium channels that shares homology with its founding member, Shab protein, Drosophila. They regulate delayed rectifier currents in the NERVOUS SYSTEM of DROSOPHILA and in the SKELETAL MUSCLE and HEART of VERTEBRATES.
A shaker subfamily of potassium channels that participate in transient outward potassium currents by activating at subthreshold MEMBRANE POTENTIALS, inactivating rapidly, and recovering from inactivation quickly.
Measurement of the various properties of light.
A very slow opening and closing voltage-gated potassium channel that is expressed in NEURONS and is commonly mutated in BENIGN FAMILIAL NEONATAL CONVULSIONS.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Solution titration in which the end point is read from the electrode-potential variations with the concentrations of potential determining ions. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Derivatives of ammonium compounds, NH4+ Y-, in which all four of the hydrogens bonded to nitrogen have been replaced with hydrocarbyl groups. These are distinguished from IMINES which are RN=CR2.
A major class of calcium activated potassium channels whose members are voltage-dependent. MaxiK channels are activated by either membrane depolarization or an increase in intracellular Ca(2+). They are key regulators of calcium and electrical signaling in a variety of tissues.
The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.
Stable elementary particles having the smallest known positive charge, found in the nuclei of all elements. The proton mass is less than that of a neutron. A proton is the nucleus of the light hydrogen atom, i.e., the hydrogen ion.
Inorganic salts of HYDROGEN CYANIDE containing the -CN radical. The concept also includes isocyanides. It is distinguished from NITRILES, which denotes organic compounds containing the -CN radical.
A very slow opening and closing voltage-gated potassium channel that is expressed in NEURONS and is closely related to KCNQ2 POTASSIUM CHANNEL. It is commonly mutated in BENIGN FAMILIAL NEONATAL CONVULSIONS.
Endogenously-synthesized compounds that influence biological processes not otherwise classified under ENZYMES; HORMONES or HORMONE ANTAGONISTS.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
A proton ionophore. It is commonly used as an uncoupling agent and inhibitor of photosynthesis because of its effects on mitochondrial and chloroplast membranes.
A polyvinyl resin used extensively in the manufacture of plastics, including medical devices, tubing, and other packaging. It is also used as a rubber substitute.
Organic compounds that contain two nitro groups attached to a phenol.
Materials incorporated mechanically in plastics (usually PVC) to increase flexibility, workability or distensibility; due to the non-chemical inclusion, plasticizers leach out from the plastic and are found in body fluids and the general environment.
Property of membranes and other structures to permit passage of light, heat, gases, liquids, metabolites, and mineral ions.
An aminoperhydroquinazoline poison found mainly in the liver and ovaries of fishes in the order TETRAODONTIFORMES, which are eaten. The toxin causes paresthesia and paralysis through interference with neuromuscular conduction.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Materials that have a limited and usually variable electrical conductivity. They are particularly useful for the production of solid-state electronic devices.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
An edible species of the family Ranidae, occurring in Europe and used extensively in biomedical research. Commonly referred to as "edible frog".
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Chromic acid (H2Cr2O7), dipotassium salt. A compound having bright orange-red crystals and used in dyeing, staining, tanning leather, as bleach, oxidizer, depolarizer for dry cells, etc. Medically it has been used externally as an astringent, antiseptic, and caustic. When taken internally, it is a corrosive poison.
Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.
The tendency of a gas or solute to pass from a point of higher pressure or concentration to a point of lower pressure or concentration and to distribute itself throughout the available space. Diffusion, especially FACILITATED DIFFUSION, is a major mechanism of BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).
Modified cardiac muscle fibers composing the terminal portion of the heart conduction system.
The accumulation of an electric charge on a object
"Chapter 3 Sodium/Potassium Homeostasis in the Cell". In Banci, Lucia (ed.). Metallomics and the Cell. Metal Ions in Life ... "Cell Biology by the Numbers: What are the concentrations of different ions in cells?". Retrieved 8 March ... Some potent neurotoxins, such as batrachotoxin, increase the sodium ion permeability of the cell membranes in nerves and ... Calcium ion (Ca2+) also tastes salty and sometimes bitter to some people but, like potassium, can trigger other tastes. Sodium ...
These sodium/potassium exchangers pump three sodium ions out of the cell, into the interstitial fluid and two potassium ions ... Potassium concentration[edit]. Main articles: Potassium § Homeostasis, and Potassium in biology. High potassium concentrations ... Here it causes the reabsorption of sodium ions from the renal tubular fluid, in exchange for potassium ions which are secreted ... the renal tubular cells excrete hydrogen ions into the tubular fluid to leave the body via urine. Bicarbonate ions are ...
These sodium/potassium exchangers pump three sodium ions out of the cell, into the interstitial fluid and two potassium ions ... Here it causes the reabsorption of sodium ions from the renal tubular fluid, in exchange for potassium ions which are secreted ... the renal tubular cells excrete hydrogen ions into the tubular fluid to leave the body via urine. Bicarbonate ions are ... High potassium concentrations in the plasma cause depolarization of the zona glomerulosa cells' membranes in the outer layer of ...
... they researched the permeability of red blood cells to potassium and sodium ions. He was then part of the United States Army ... A majority of his research focused on the movement of ions across the cell membrane. In 1959 he joined the University of ... was an American biophysicist who researched the movement of ions across the cell membrane. He served as the editor of the ... Requena, Jaime (1996). "Lorin J. Mullins, Professor of Biophysics: A Life Dedicated to the Study of the Interaction of Ions ...
Opening of the channel allows positively charged ions to move across it; in particular, sodium enters the cell and potassium ... The CHRNA5/A3/B4 genes are co-expressed in many cell types and the transcriptional activities of the promoter regions of the ... As with all ligand-gated ion channels, opening of the nAChR channel pore requires the binding of a chemical messenger. Several ... The net flow of positively charged ions is inward. The nAChR is a non-selective cation channel, meaning that several different ...
Stanfield, Peter R (1983). "Tetraethylammonium Ions and the Potassium Permeability of Excitable Cells". Reviews of Physiology, ... This α7-nAChR functions to allow calcium ion influx into cells, and thus when blocked by ingested bungarotoxin will produce ... Normally, these receptor channels allow sodium ions into muscle cells to initiate an action potential that leads to muscle ... Neurotoxins inhibit neuron control over ion concentrations across the cell membrane, or communication between neurons across a ...
Potassium is mainly an intracellular ion. High turnover of tumor cells leads to spill of potassium into the blood. Symptoms ... In post-chemotherapy TLS, tumor cells are destroyed and no new tumor cells are being synthesized.[citation needed] TLS is most ... Massive cell death and nuclear breakdown generates large quantities of nucleic acids. Of these, the purines (adenine and ... uric acid > 8 mg/dL or 25% increase potassium > 6 meq/L or 25% increase phosphate > 4.5 mg/dL or 25% increase calcium < 7 mg/dL ...
... to transport H+ ions out of cell; this sets up an electrochemical gradient that causes positive ions to flow into cells. ... Plants absorb minerals in ionic form: nitrate (NO3−), phosphate (HPO4−) and potassium ions (K+); all have difficulty crossing a ... Some mineral ions diffuse in-between the cells. In contrast to water, some minerals are actively taken up by plant cells. ... Negative ions are carried across the plasma membrane in conjunction with H+ ions as H+ ions diffuse down their concentration ...
Damadian's early work on NMR concerned investigating potassium ions inside cells. He found that the potassium relaxation times ... both because of the disordering of malignant cells and because of their elevated potassium levels, since the potassium ions ... This suggested that potassium was not free but complexed to 'fixed-charge' counter-ions, as he had previously determined. He ... Damadian's research into sodium and potassium in living cells led him to his first experiments with nuclear magnetic resonance ...
Pérez-Fillol, M; Rodríguez-Valera, F (1986). "Potassium ion accumulation in cells of different halobacteria". Microbiología. 2 ... The S-layer is made of a cell-surface glycoprotein, which accounts for approximately 50% of the cell surface proteins. These ... salinarum expresses multiple active transporters which pump potassium into the cell. At extremely high salt concentrations ... in particular potassium chloride) to reduce osmotic stress. Potassium levels are not at equilibrium with the environment, so H ...
These channels transport positively charged potassium ions into and out of cells. In heart muscle, the ion channels produced ... which changes the flow of potassium ions between cells. This disruption in ion transport alters the way the heart beats, ... These genes provide instructions for making proteins that act as channels across the cell membrane. ...
This binding effectively closes these K+ ion channels. This decreases the efflux of potassium from the cell which leads to the ... depolarization of the cell. This causes voltage dependent Ca2+ ion channels to open increasing the Ca2+ influx. The calcium can ... high-affinity block of KATP channels in mouse isolated pancreatic beta cells but not rat heart or arterial smooth muscle cells ... on the surface of the pancreatic beta-cells. It was shown to provide cardiovascular protection as it does not bind to ...
Normally, these sodium-potassium pumps move potassium ions in and sodium ions out. Cardiac glycosides, however, inhibit this ... which is responsible for pumping calcium ions out of the cell and sodium ions in at a ratio of 3Na+ /Ca2+ . Thus, calcium ions ... With regard to potassium ion movement, because both cardiac glycosides and potassium compete for binding to the ATPase pump, ... hellebore) Cardiac glycosides affect the sodium-potassium ATPase pump in cardiac muscle cells to alter their function. ...
Within these cells, carbonic anhydrase converts the substances into bicarbonate and hydrogen ions. These are exchanged for ... Potassium and bicarbonate are also transported out of CSF. As a result, CSF contains a higher concentration of sodium and ... CSF is normally free of red blood cells and at most contains fewer than 5 white blood cells per mm³ (if the cell count of the ... It replaces the body fluid found outside the cells of all bilateral animals. The CSF is produced by specialised ependymal cells ...
For example, muscle contraction depends upon the movement of calcium, sodium and potassium through ion channels in the cell ... Electrolytes enter and leave cells through proteins in the cell membrane called ion channels. ... The most important ions are sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, chloride, phosphate, and bicarbonate. The maintenance of ... Levitan I (1988). "Modulation of ion channels in neurons and other cells". Annu Rev Neurosci. 11: 119-36. doi:10.1146/annurev. ...
This leads to a build-up of potassium ions in the cell, depolarization, and neurotransmitter release. It is also possible for ... Some weak acids such as acetic acid, can also penetrate taste cells; intracellular hydrogen ions inhibit potassium channels, ... By a combination of direct intake of hydrogen ions through OTOP1 ion channels (which itself depolarizes the cell) and the ... A sodium channel in the taste cell wall allows sodium cations to enter the cell. This on its own depolarizes the cell, and ...
His work developed to address the permeation of potassium ions in muscle cells. During a Rockefeller travelling scholarship in ... Another major research interest was the physiology of the chloride ion, a field which he summarised in a personal review. ...
This tendency is countered by manipulating the flow of sodium and potassium ions. A 'pump' forces sodium out of the cell and ... in which the membrane or outer coating of the cell 'leaks' sodium and potassium ions. The cause for these hereditary conditions ... The cell lyses and a haemolytic anaemia results. For as yet unknown reasons, the cells take on the shape of a cup, with a ' ... 1969). "Congenital hemolytic anemia with high-sodium, low-potassium red cells. Studies of three generations of a family with a ...
... "cell eating") and macrophage degranulation. PIP2 binds directly to ion channels and modulates their activity. PIP2 was shown to ... directly agonizes Inward rectifying potassium channels(Kir). In this regard intact PIP2 signals as a bona fide neurotransmitter ... Ceramide mediates many cell-stress responses, including the regulation of programmed cell death (apoptosis) and cell aging ( ... whereby the cells differentiated into white blood cells called macrophages. Treatment of the same cells by exogenous Sph caused ...
Membrane cell electrolysis employs permeable membrane as an ion exchanger. Saturated sodium (or potassium) chloride solution is ... 2 ions - the latter, in any case, are much less stable than the bifluoride ions (HF− 2) due to the very weak hydrogen bonding ... "The diaphragm cell process". Euro Chlor. Archived from the original on 2011-11-11. Retrieved 2007-08-15. "The membrane cell ... Conversely, the chloride ion is a weaker reducing agent than bromide, but a stronger one than fluoride. It is intermediate in ...
Ion channels play a key role in lymphocyte signal transduction. Potassium channels are required for the activation of T-cells. ... and B-cells. KV channel blockers inhibit activation, gene expression, killing by cytotoxic T cells and NK cells, lymphokine ... Due to changes in potassium channel type the vascular smooth muscle cells switch from the contractile to proliferating ... Margatoxin depolarizes resting human T cells. Pharmacological studies suggest that functional potassium channels are required ...
... is an inward-rectifier potassium ion channel. Inwardly rectifying potassium channels, such as Kir2.6, maintain resting ... January 2010). "Mutations in potassium channel Kir2.6 cause susceptibility to thyrotoxic hypokalemic periodic paralysis". Cell ... doi:10.1016/j.cell.2009.12.024. PMC 2885139. PMID 20074522. v t e This article incorporates text from the United States ... The Kir2.6 also known as inward rectifier potassium channel 18 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the KCNJ18 gene. ...
Hsu, K. (1959-12-14). "RADIATION EFFECT ON THE PERMEABILITY OF YEAST CELLS TO SODIUM AND POTASSIUM IONS (thesis)". OSTI 4191861 ... at the Donner Lab and wrote her thesis on the radiation effect on the permeability of yeast cells to sodium and potassium ions ...
... is highly selective for potassium ions over sodium ions within the cell membrane. It functions as a potassium- ... It is not actually locked into configuration because the size of the molecule makes it highly flexible, but the potassium ion ... This conformation changes when valinomycin is bound to a potassium ion. The molecule is "locked" into a conformation with the ... K ions must give up their water of hydration to pass through the pore. K+ ions are octahedrally coordinated in a square ...
Once the cell has been depolarized, voltage-gated sodium channels close, causing potassium channels to open; K+ ions then ... where there is a balance between potassium ions (K+) moving down their concentration gradient (inside the cell to outside), and ... ions must enter the cell through voltage gated sodium channels through membrane and depolarize the cell. The threshold is ... They used whole-cell patch recording in vivo and biophysical modeling in compartmental simulations of entorhinal stellate cells ...
All the ions travel through ion channels in the membrane of the sinoatrial cells. The potassium and calcium start to move out ... For this reason sodium moves into the cell from outside, and potassium moves from within the cell to outside the cell. Calcium ... Once the cell has a sufficiently high charge, the sodium channels close and calcium ions then begin to enter the cell, shortly ... Shortly after this, the calcium channels close and potassium channels open, allowing potassium to leave the cell. This causes ...
EPSPs are amplified by persistent sodium ion conductance in external tufted cells. Low-voltage activated calcium ion ... The open channels are selectively permeable to chloride or potassium ions (depending on the type of receptor) and allow these ... ionic permeability of the ion channel, as well as the concentrations of the ions in and out of the cell; this determines if it ... The calcium comes from stores and activate potassium conductance, which causes a pure inhibition in the dopamine cells. The ...
... is a multichannel blocker, acting on IKr (potassium), L-type calcium and sodium ion channels. By blocking these ... Experiments have successfully been performed on cell cultures,[citation needed] canine hosts and testing has moved towards ... The block is strongly frequency dependant: as the pacing of the heart increases so does the frequency of ion channel blocking ... At a cellular level, vanoxerine acts to block cardiac ion channels. ...
Harvey, AL (1997). "Recent studies on dendrotoxins and potassium ion channels". Gen. Pharmacol. 28 (1): 7-12. doi:10.1016/S0306 ... The MCD peptide has an immunotoxic effect on mast cells by releasing histamine from these cells. MCD peptide has also been ... Buku, A; Priceb, JA; Mendlowitzc, M; Masurd, S (2001). "Mast cell degranulating peptide binds to RBL-2H3 mast cell receptors ... Mast cell degranulating (MCD) peptide is a cationic 22-amino acid residue peptide, which is a component of the venom of the ...
Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese Iron Cobalt Nickel Copper Zinc Gallium Germanium Arsenic ... In this variant, the number of f electrons in the most common (trivalent) ions of the f-block elements consistently matches ... The element is known to damage cell membranes of water animals, causing several negative influences on reproduction and on the ... chloride with potassium to form metallic yttrium and potassium chloride.[6][7] ...
Other potassium channels like large conductance calcium-dependent potassium channels and sodium chloride dependent potassium ... It also contains pacemaker cells and nonpacemaker cells that initiate spontaneous breathing. Research is being conducted on the ... Disturbances in neuromodulatory processes acting on ion channels, receptors, and second messengers have been associated with ... Although the exact role of potassium currents is still being investigated, it appears that potassium and sodium leak currents ...
Ion channel, cell surface receptor: ligand-gated ion channels. Cys-loop receptors. ... inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity. • GABA-gated chloride ion channel activity. • transmitter-gated ion ... Bromide compounds (e.g., potassium bromide). *Carbamates (e.g., meprobamate). *Carbamazepine. *Chloralose ... ion transport. • regulation of response to drug. • central nervous system development. • chloride transport. • ion ...
This leads to a decrease in the influx of calcium ions into the cell and thus the intracellular calcium ion concentration falls ... The chief function of the inner segment is to provide ATP (energy) for the sodium-potassium pump. Finally, closest to the brain ... Reduction in cGMP allows the ion channels to close, preventing the influx of positive ions, hyperpolarizing the cell, and ... Further complexity arises from the various interconnections among bipolar cells, horizontal cells, and amacrine cells in the ...
Potassium is the major cation (positive ion) inside animal cells,[223] while sodium is the major cation outside animal cells.[ ... The balance between potassium and sodium is maintained by ion transporter proteins in the cell membrane.[231] The cell membrane ... potassium chloride).[30] Previously, potassium was generally made from the electrolysis of potassium chloride or potassium ... 4 ions.[66] The chemistry of alkali metal germanides, involving the germanide ion Ge4− and other cluster (Zintl) ions such as ...
Upon binding, it triggers the GABAA receptor to open its chloride channel to allow chloride ions into the neuron, making the ... synthesis and actions in rat glial cells". The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. 69 (1-6): 97-107. doi: ... Bromide compounds (e.g., lithium bromide, potassium bromide, sodium bromide). *Carbamazepine. *Chloralose ... The earliest compounds were ions, such as bromide. Barbiturates[edit]. In 1903, the first psychoactive derivative of barbituric ...
In this process, fats, obtained from adipose tissue, or fat cells, are broken down into glycerol and fatty acids, which can be ... "Mitochondrial Ion Channels: Gatekeepers of Life and Death". Physiology. 20 (5): 303-315. doi:10.1152/physiol.00020.2005. ISSN ... When the body is expending more energy than it is consuming (e.g. when exercising), the body's cells rely on internally stored ...
lithium, sodium, and potassium. Alexandre-Emile Béguyer de Chancourtois[edit]. Alexandre-Emile Béguyer de Chancourtois, a ... His 1863 publication included a chart (which contained ions and compounds,[12] in addition to elements), but his original paper ... Using information about their X-ray wavelengths, Moseley placed argon (with an atomic number Z=18) before potassium (Z=19), ... since argon is a noble gas and potassium is an alkali metal. Similarly, Moseley placed cobalt before nickel and was able to ...
"Cell. 157 (6): 1380-1392. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2014.05.009. PMC 4144415 . PMID 24906154.. ... Potassium 04700.0004700 NE; NE Quantity A systemic electrolyte and is essential in coregulating ATP with sodium Sweet potato, ... Sigel, Astrid; Sigel, Helmut; Sigel, Roland K. O. (27 January 2014). Interrelations between Essential Metal Ions and Human ... Boron is an essential plant nutrient, required primarily for maintaining the integrity of cell walls.[45][46][47] Boron has ...
The compound is often used as a carrier for the chromium ions. One such case is the use of barium chromate as a sulfate ... 2010) "Comparative Genotoxicity and Cytotoxicity of Four Haxevalent Chromium Compounds in Human Bronchial Cells." Chem. Res. ... It can be synthesized by reacting barium hydroxide or barium chloride with potassium chromate. ... The chromium ions accumulate in the bronchial bifurcation sites, settling into the tissue and inducing tumors. Using zinc ...
cell communication by electrical coupling involved in cardiac conduction. • regulation of ion transmembrane transport. • ion ... metal ion binding. • voltage-gated ion channel activity. • ion channel activity. • protein binding. • alpha-actinin binding. • ... cell projection. • perikaryon. • synapse. • postsynaptic membrane. Biological process. • calcium ion transport into cytosol. • ... calcium ion transport. • regulation of ventricular cardiac muscle cell action potential. • embryonic forelimb morphogenesis. • ...
positive regulation of potassium ion transport. • response to amphetamine. • научение. • пищевое поведение. • long term ... positive regulation of cell migration. • Оперантное обусловливание. • GO:0042311 вазодилатация. • regulation of dopamine ... positive regulation of release of sequestered calcium ion into cytosol. • mating behavior. • behavioral fear response. • ... positive regulation of cytosolic calcium ion concentration involved in phospholipase C-activating G-protein coupled signaling ...
To reduce that waste and the ecological footprint of a-Si:H-based solar cells further several recycling efforts have been ... ion in the Mg2Si antifluorite structure can serve as a Brønsted-Lowry base capable of accepting four protons. It can be written ... This resulted in a symbiotic benefit of making more stable solar photovoltaic cells as it reduced the Staebler-Wronski Effect. ... In Japan, in order to reduce the danger of silane for amorphous silicon solar cell manufacturing, several companies began to ...
While cell-surface modification and ion channel blocking are two newly discovered mechanisms of action, much research remains ... Potassium permanganate causes oxidation of the furan ring, while other methods of oxidation produce furan-2,3-carboxylic acid. ... Escherichia coli cells deficient in HRR are highly sensitive to PUVA compared to wild-type cells.[22] HRR appears to be ... "Cell. 165 (5): 1267-1279. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2016.04.028. PMC 5029792. PMID 27180905.. ...
Ions and salts. The crystal lattice structure of potassium chloride (KCl), a salt which is formed due to the attraction of K+ ... Instead, these substances are discussed in terms of formula units or unit cells as the smallest repeating structure within the ... Main article: Ion. An ion is a charged species, an atom or a molecule, that has lost or gained one or more electrons. When an ... When this rule is broken, giving the "molecule" a charge, the result is sometimes named a molecular ion or a polyatomic ion. ...
This is done in modern cells by ribosomes, a complex of several RNA molecules known as rRNA together with many proteins. The ... In segmented RNA viruses, "mating" can occur when a host cell is infected by at least two virus particles. If these viruses ... For two, rather than one, viable daughter cells to be produced would require an extra replication of the intact RNA gene ... The existence, in extant cells, of RNAs with molecular properties predicted for RNAs of the RNA World constitutes an additional ...
Therefore, presence of AmmTX3 in the solitary nucleus cells blocks the A-type potassium current almost completely. Similar ... A-type potassium currents can be generated by Kv1.4, Kv3.3, Kv3.4, all members of Kv4 and Erg3 channels. The influence of ... The Ki of AmmTX3 was found to be approximately 131 nM when tested on striatal neurons in cell culture.[1] AmmTX3 has a small ... The toxin is known for its ability to act as a specific Kv4 channel blocker, and thereby reducing the A-type potassium current ...
This cell membrane protein participates in the control of ion homeostasis at the distal convoluted tubule portion of the ... Severe deficits of potassium and magnesium require intravenous replacement. If low blood potassium levels are not sufficiently ... Sodium chloride (NaCl) enters the cell via the apical thiazide-sensitive NCC and leaves the cell through the basolateral Cl− ... Potassium and magnesium supplementation to normalize low blood levels of potassium and magnesium is the mainstay of treatment.[ ...
Samples for IR spectrophotometry may be smeared between two discs of potassium bromide or ground with potassium bromide and ... Where aqueous solutions are to be measured, insoluble silver chloride is used to construct the cell. ...
Proteins compose over 50% of the dry weight of an average living cell[citation needed][clarification needed] and are very ... and potassium while important trace minerals (RDI less than 200 mg/day) are copper, iron, and zinc. These are found in many ... They also play a fundamental role in the structure and function of cells.[11] Consisting mainly of carbon, nitrogen, hydrogen, ...
... cells and production of nano-channels that obstruct vital ion channels that ferry potassium and sodium ions across the cell ... This affects in the cells action potential profile, as seen in cardiomyocytes, pneumocytes and neurons leading to conduction ... McCormick A, Loeffler J, Ebel F (November 2010). "Aspergillus fumigatus: contours of an opportunistic human pathogen". Cell. ... attaching to cells along the respiratory tract and causing further problems.[21][22] Generally, when this occurs, the illness ...
As a result, it is possible for one element to be substituted for another.[51] Chemical substitution will occur between ions of ... Cell Biology and Mineral Deposition. by Kenneth Simkiss; Karl M. Wilbur On Biomineralization. by Heinz A. Lowenstam; Stephen ... The alkali feldspars are most commonly in a series between potassium-rich orthoclase and sodium-rich albite; in the case of ... In all minerals, one aluminium ion is always in six-fold coordination with oxygen. Silicon, as a general rule, is in four-fold ...
It has been suggested that EDHF is potassium ions (K+), as the activation of endothelial K-Ca+ channels causes an efflux of K+ ... reach underlying vascular smooth muscle cells at a concentration sufficient to activate ion channels, and initiate smooth ... its action is to hyperpolarize vascular smooth muscle cells, causing these cells to relax, thus allowing the blood vessel to ... Cell. Cardiol. 39 (5): 725-32. doi:10.1016/j.yjmcc.2005.07.007. PMID 16122755.. ...
EDTA aids cell hydrolysis by binding to divalent ions, such as Ca2+, and removing them from the wall thus softening the wall ... Dynamic oligomeric conversions of the cytoplasmic RCK domains mediate MthK potassium channel activity. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. ... Cell lysis[edit]. Yeast cells are normally protected by a thick cell wall which makes extraction of cellular proteins difficult ... A spheroplast is a cell from which the cell wall has been almost completely removed, as by the action of penicillin. The name ...
X. Zhang, D. Golberg, Y. Bando and N. Fukata : «n-ZnO/p-Si 3D heterojunction solar cells in Si holey arrays» NANOSCALE 4[3] ( ... H. Guan, X. Wang, H. Li, C. Zhi, T. Zhai, Y. Bando and D. Golberg : «CoO octahedral nanocages for high-performance lithium ion ... High-yield synthesis of boron nitride nanoribbons via longitudinal splitting of boron nitride nanotubes by potassium vapor» ACS ... L. Li, H. Wang, X. Fang, T. Zhai, Y. Bando and D. Golberg : «High-performance Schottky solar cells using ZrS2 nanobelt networks ...
Ion channel blockers. *Anticonvulsants (e.g., gabapentin, pregabalin, carbamazepine, oxcarbazepine, lacosamide, lamotrigine) ... Lamotrigine has been associated with a decrease in white blood cell count (leukopenia).[40] Lamotrigine does not prolong QT/QTc ... At high concentrations, it had no effect on spontaneous or potassium evoked amino acid release.[45] ... Serious side effects include lack of red blood cells, increased risk of suicide, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, and allergic ...
regulation of potassium ion transmembrane transport. • long-term memory. • positive regulation of cell death. • negative ... cell cycle arrest. • learning or memory. • cellular copper ion homeostasis. • cellular response to copper ion. • cell cycle. • ... metal ion binding. • tubulin binding. • protein binding. • identical protein binding. • copper ion binding. • lamin binding. • ... cupric ion binding. • cuprous ion binding. Cellular component. • mitochondrial outer membrane. • membrane. • mitochondrion. • ...
... and lithium-ion (Li-ion) cells. Li-ion has by far the highest share of the dry cell rechargeable market. NiMH has replaced NiCd ... Other primary wet cells are the Leclanche cell, Grove cell, Bunsen cell, Chromic acid cell, Clark cell, and Weston cell. The ... From top to bottom: a large 4.5-volt (3R12) battery, a D Cell, a C cell, an AA cell, an AAA cell, an AAAA cell, an A23 battery ... fuel cells, flow cells and voltaic piles.[30] Wet cell. A wet cell battery has a liquid electrolyte. Other names are flooded ...
The majority of the common ostrich's internal solutes are made up of sodium ions (Na+), potassium ions (K+), chloride ions (Cl ... The red blood cell count per unit volume in the ostrich is about 40% of that of a human; however, the red blood cells of the ... When the common ostrich is in a dehydrated state plasma osmolality, Na+, K+, and Cl- ions all increase, however, K+ ions ... 2,3- DPG constitutes approximately 42-47%, of the cells phosphate of the embryonic ostrich.[73] However, the adult ostrich have ...
... or monobasic potassium phosphate), KH. 2PO. 4, is a soluble salt of potassium and the dihydrogen phosphate ion which is used as ... Two unit cells of MKP viewed close to the b axis. Names ... It is a source of phosphorus and potassium. It is also a ... "Potassium Dihydrogen Phosphate". American Elements. Retrieved October 30, 2018.. *^ a b Fukami, T. (1990). "Refinement of the ... Also to be noted is KD*P, potassium dideuterium phosphate, with slightly different properties. Highly deuterated KDP is used in ...
Polyclonal Antibody Immunoprecipitation Potassium Ion Transport * Monoclonal Antibody Immunoprecipitation Potassium Ion ... Polyclonal Antibody Immunoprecipitation Potassium Ion Homeostasis. Polyclonal Antibody - NKCC1 Antibody - Immunoprecipitation, ... Polyclonal Antibody Immunoprecipitation Calcium Ion Homeostasis * Polyclonal Antibody Immunoprecipitation Phosphate Ion ... This ion channel uses the energy derived from ATP hydrolysis to maintain membrane potential by driving sodium export and ...
... we report a calcium and potassium multi-ion image sensor and its application to living cells (PC12). The multi-ion sensor had ... Keywords: Bio-imaging, ion image sensor, multi-ion image sensor, polyvinyl chloride membrane, PC12 cell ... Cultured PC12 cells treated with nerve growth factor were prepared, and a practical observation for the cells was conducted ... Each region on the sensor responded to only the corresponding ion. The multi-ion sensor has many advantages including not only ...
... cell-based high-throughput screening assay for identification of compounds that inhibit/block inward-rectifying potassium ion ... BioAssay record AID 1672 submitted by Johns Hopkins Ion Channel Center: Primary ...
... or pharmacological effects.This book is structured around the periodic table and focuses on the control of metal ions in cells ... Organisms have also developed mechanisms to deal with the non-essential metal ions. However, through new uses and manufacturing ... Others compete with those essential metal ions or have toxic ... diabetes and neurodegeneration are associated with metal ion ... Metal ions play key roles in biology. Many are essential for catalysis, for electron transfer and for the fixation, sensing, ...
The focus of the book then moves on to cover ligand-gated ion channels with two chapters on acetylcholine receptors. The final ... and anchoring of the protein complexes making up the most important ion channels and receptor families, fundamental to synaptic ... Chapter 2 The assembly and targeting of potassium channels Andrew Tinker. Chapter 3 Assembly and targeting of voltage-dependent ... Receptor and Ion-Channel Trafficking: Cell Biology of Ligand-Gated and Voltage-Sensitive Ion Channels. Stephen J. Moss and ...
The majority of ion channels fall into two broad categories: voltage-gated ion channels (VGIC) and ligand-gated ion channels ( ... LGIC). Members of the VGIC superfamily are usually closed at the resting potential of the cell. ... Sigma-Aldrichs Cell Signaling & Neuroscience Voltage-Gated Ion Channels. ... Potassium. Antibodies to Potassium Channels Potassium Channel Modulators. Sodium. Antibodies to Sodium Channels Sodium Channel ...
How does potassium enter cells?. For decades, it was assumed that protein channels and protein pumps fulfilled completely ... Do potassium ions pass through the selectivity filter of a potassium channel alone, or are there water molecules between the ... Researchers outline the current state of potassium-ion battery technology. A trio of researchers with the University of ... Researchers prove there are no water molecules between the ions in the selectivity filter of potassium channels. ...
Here, by characterizing rat models and analysing human T cells, the authors identify differential requirements of two potassium ... Potassium channels are essential for modulating T-cell functions. ... ion channel dependency in autoreactive T cells. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from HLA-typed Type I diabetes ... In vitro cell T-cell assays. Rat T-cell responses to anti-CD3 and anti-CD28 activation were determined using spleen cells from ...
Cell Proliferation, and Cancer - 1st Edition. Print Book & E-Book. ISBN 9780121230500, 9781483277486 ... Intracellular Potassium Activity During Liver Regeneration. Transepithelial Ion Transport and Differentiation in Epithelial ... Ions, Cell Proliferation, and Cancer present the credibility of ions as specific regulators of cell proliferation. This book ... Section III: Divalent Ions, Cell Proliferation, and Cancer. The Roles of Calcium and Magnesium in Cell Proliferation: An ...
SK potassium and TRPM7 ion channel role in CNS cell survival and breast cancer cell death decisions. PhD Thesis, Cardiff ... SK potassium and TRPM7 ion channel role in CNS cell survival and breast cancer cell death decisions ... Potassium (K+) ion channels appear to play a potent role in such illnesses since they can control many cellular gates in cell ... Cell survival is modulated by a cocktail of ion channels engaging cell life and death decisions through controlling key ...
... Give your taste buds a break with regular and solid ... These Potassium Ions Are Present Within A Cell And Outside The Cell Walls.. * Jun 27, 2016 ... The only difference is that there is more of potassium within the cell wall and more of sodium ions outside the cell wall. ... But, how much potassium do you need per day? So, the verdict is, an adolescent and an adult requires at least 4,700 mg of ...
Microbial Cell Biology. Rapid Surface Motility in Bacillus subtilis Is Dependent on Extracellular Surfactin and Potassium Ion. ... followed by profuse surface colonies if sufficient potassium ion was present. Potassium ion stimulated surfactin secretion, and ... Gram staining of cells in these dendrites showed tightly clustered cells. In contrast, addition of a potassium source, ... A striking feature of the surface motility of wild-type B. subtilis shown here is that in the presence of K+ ion, the cells ...
Therefore, ion channels represent a class of attractive drug targets and a class of important off-targets for in vitro ... Chronologically, HTS methods for ion channels include the ligand binding assay, flux-based assay, fluorescence-based assay, and ... In this review we summarize the current HTS technologies for different ion channel classes and their applications. ... Ion channels are involved in a variety of fundamental physiological processes, and their malfunction causes numerous human ...
Purchase Intestinal Absorption of Metal Ions, Trace Elements and Radionuclides - 1st Edition. Print Book & E-Book. ISBN ... Ion Transport in Plant Cells Part II. Absorption of Specific Metal Ions. The Intestinal Absorption of Sodium and Potassium The ... Effects of pH and Counter-ion on Absorption of Metal Ions Vascular Factors in Metal Ion Absorption Fine Structure of the ... mobilities of organic and inorganic ions in water; and complexing of alkali metal ions. The text then focuses on ion transport ...
... and most particularly in cell membranes, where they are central actors in shaping the physicochemical properties of the lipid ... We further focus on the mechanisms of FFA modulation operating on voltage-gated and ligand-gated ion channel function, ... We further focus on the mechanisms of FFA modulation operating on voltage-gated and ligand-gated ion channel function, ... has been interpreted as a protective mechanism possibly operative on ion channels, which in some cases is of stimulatory nature ...
Cell Membrane / physiology * Epithelium / physiology * Ion Exchange * Potassium / pharmacokinetics* * Sodium / pharmacokinetics ... Amiloride and its analogs as tools in the study of ion transport J Membr Biol. 1988 Oct;105(1):1-21. doi: 10.1007/BF01871102. ... The use of amiloride and its analogs in the study of ion transport requires a knowledge of the pharmacology of inhibition of ... the effects seen on various cellular processes are direct or due to a cascade of events triggered by an effect on an ion ...
The potassium-ion has certain advantages over similar lithium-ion (e.g., lithium-ion batteries): the cell design is simple and ... Lithium-air battery Thin film lithium-ion battery Alkali metal-ion battery Lithium-ion battery Sodium-ion battery Potassium-ion ... A potassium-ion battery or K-ion battery (abbreviated as KIB) is a type of battery and analogue to lithium-ion batteries, using ... "High-Capacity Aqueous Potassium-Ion Batteries for Large-Scale Energy Storage". 2 December 2016. "Potassium Ions Charge Li ...
Cation transport numbers for four of these electrolytes were measured in Franz cells by the electromo ... species was determined as a function of concentration in Franz diffusion cells. ... Humans; Skin; Chromium-compounds; Nickel-compounds; Sodium-compounds; Potassium-compounds; Ion-transport; Metabolism; Metabolic ... Human skin is permselective for the small, monovalent cations sodium and potassium but not for nickel and chromium.. ...
These sodium/potassium exchangers pump three sodium ions out of the cell, into the interstitial fluid and two potassium ions ... Potassium concentration[edit]. Main articles: Potassium § Homeostasis, and Potassium in biology. High potassium concentrations ... Here it causes the reabsorption of sodium ions from the renal tubular fluid, in exchange for potassium ions which are secreted ... the renal tubular cells excrete hydrogen ions into the tubular fluid to leave the body via urine. Bicarbonate ions are ...
Cell Hypoxia * Humans * Ion Channels / metabolism* * Oxidation-Reduction * Potassium / metabolism* * Pulmonary Circulation* ... Ion channel redox regulation has been described in detail for some ion channels, such as Kv channels or TRPC6. However, in ... Hypoxia-dependent reactive oxygen species signaling in the pulmonary circulation: focus on ion channels Antioxid Redox Signal. ... Recent advances: Regulation of ion channel expression and gating by cellular redox state is a widely accepted mechanism; ...
Potassium channels are K+-selective protein pores in cell membrane. The selectivity filter is the functional unit that allows K ... channels to distinguish potassium (K+) and sodium (Na+) ions. The filters structure depends on whether K+ or Na+ ions are ... is a fundamental aspect of ion selectivity, as is the ability of multiple K+ ions to compete effectively with Na+ for the ... A mutant potassium channel stuck in the open position still conducts K+ but not Na+, indicating that its conformation and the ...
We are interested in the study of structural and functional properties of ion channels and their role in cell physiology. Our ... research is focused in voltage and calcium activated potassium channel and TRP channels. We used electrophysiological, ... Welcome to the Ion channel lab, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana. ...
Ion channels provide exciting opportunities for drug development targeting a diverse array of therapeutic areas including ... Functional, HTS-validated universal potassium assay. BacMam Ion Channel Targets. BacMam-mediated delivery of potassium ion ... Our product offering for cell-based ion channel assays is designed for sensitivity, ease-of-use, and assay flexibility. ... To address the most challenging ion channel targets in any desired cell background, researchers need an assortment of optimized ...
Potassium secondary cell based on Prussian blue cathode journal, February 2004 * Eftekhari, Ali ... 25 ENERGY STORAGE; 36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; Electrochemical energy storage; Low-cost anodes; Potassium-ion batteries; Tire ... Sustainable Potassium-Ion Battery Anodes Derived from Waste-Tire Rubber. United States: N. p., Web. doi:10.1149/2.1391706jes. ... title = {Sustainable Potassium-Ion Battery Anodes Derived from Waste-Tire Rubber},. author = {Li, Yunchao and Adams, Ryan A. ...
0.30 g of potassium chloride (KCl) and 3.56g of glucose (C6H12O6). and find homework help for other Science questions at ... Calculate the concentration of potassium ions in the solution, in mol L^-1.Each 200 mL of an electrolyte solution designed for ... What are the three parts of the cell theory?. *. 2 educator answers ... Calculate the concentration of potassium ions in the solution, in mol L^-1.Each 200 mL of an electrolyte solution designed for ...
Induction of Refractive Errors Is Associated With Changes in Sodium, Chloride and Potassium Ions and Expression of AQP4 and ... Induction of Refractive Errors Is Associated With Changes in Sodium, Chloride and Potassium Ions and Expression of AQP4 and ... Chloride and Potassium Ions and Expression of AQP4 and Kir4.1 Channels Across the Retina. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2007;48 ... Results:: Comparison of the ratios of Na, Cl and K ion concentration of the lens wearing eyes to the fellow eyes showed a sign ...
The result is the sodium ion concentration increases in the mother cell, to help cancel out some of the potassium ion ... Potassium ions; K+, which accumulate in cells, are chaotropic. They add chaos or entropy to the large scale structuring of ... As the daughter cells restore the higher potassium ion environment, the potential of the water changes, again, and new ... This layer is connected to the difference between the impact of potassium ions and sodium ions on water. The hydrogen bonding ...
Also provided is an electrochemical cell comprising a spacer pierced by an aperture which defines a cell wall, a first metal ... means for admitting a sample to the cell volume defined between the electrodes and the cell wall, and means for heating a ... Miniaturized potassium ion sensor. US4517291 *. 15 Aug 1983. 14 May 1985. E. I. Du Pont De Nemours And Company. Biological ... When using a cell according to the second embodiment the sample is admitted to the cell, a potential is applied across the ...
GO:0006884 cell volume homeostasis GO:1902476 chloride transmembrane transport GO:0006811 ion transport ... mediates electroneutral potassium-chloride cotransport when activated by cell swelling under hypotonic conditions [PMID: ... Cell. Physiol. Biochem. 10 341-54 2000. Mount DB, Mercado A, Song L, Xu J, George AL Jr, Delpire E, Gamba G. Cloning and ... Chloride-activated passive potassium transport in human erythrocytes.. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 77 1711-5 1980 ...
  • In this paper, we report a calcium and potassium multi-ion image sensor and its application to living cells (PC12). (
  • 1 The VGIC superfamily includes calcium channels, chloride channels, potassium channels and sodium channels. (
  • and calcium and structure of cell membranes. (
  • Other variables include the pH of extracellular fluid , the concentrations of sodium , potassium and calcium ions , as well as that of the blood sugar level , and these need to be regulated despite changes in the environment, diet, or level of activity. (
  • Our research is focused in voltage and calcium activated potassium channel and TRP channels. (
  • In 2000, Professor Chikashi Toyoshima's group described the structure of a calcium-pump for the first time, and in 2007 and 2009 research groups from Aarhus University and Toyoshima's group described the potassium-bound form of the sodium-potassium pump. (
  • Ion channels allow ions such as potassium, sodium and calcium to flow in and out and so are key regulators of many fundamental processes in biology. (
  • Finally, a recent study ( 21 ) implicated the release of Zn 2+ ions from β-cells, based on the ability of micromolar concentrations of these ions to reverse the stimulatory effects of pyruvate on glucagon release from the perfused rat pancreas and the reversal of the effects of monomethyl succinate with calcium EDTA, a broad-range divalent metal ion chelator. (
  • ammonium, calcium, nitrate and potassium electrode replacement sensor modules. (
  • They could either trigger the opening of calcium release channels or compensate the charge release during the calcium efflux as counter ion channels. (
  • According to ion type permeability, the VGICs can be further classified into potassium (K), sodium (Na), calcium (Ca), and anion VGICs. (
  • Calcium ion (Ca2+) also tastes salty and sometimes bitter to some people but, like potassium, can trigger other tastes. (
  • Background: The Na-K-2Cl cotransporter (NKCC2) is a sodium-potassium-chloride cotransporter. (
  • The multi-ion sensor had two selective plasticized poly(vinyl chloride) membranes containing ionophores. (
  • KCC4, also known as solute carrier family 12 member 7 (SLC12A7), mediates electroneutral potassium-chloride cotransport when activated by cell swelling under hypotonic conditions [ PMID: 10913127 ]. (
  • Chloride-activated passive potassium transport in human erythrocytes. (
  • Calculate the concentration of potassium ions in the solution, in mol L^-1.Each 200 mL of an electrolyte solution designed for treating dehydration contains 0.47 g of sodium chloride (NaCl), 0.30 g. (
  • Each 200 mL of an electrolyte solution designed for treating dehydration contains 0.47 g of sodium chloride (NaCl), 0.30 g of potassium chloride (KCl) and 3.56g of glucose (C6H12O6). (
  • Calculate the concentration of chloride ions in the solution, in mol L^-1.Each 200 mL of an. (
  • Show that the concentration of chloride ions in the solution, in mol L^-1 is 0.061 M.Each 200 mL. (
  • A mixture of potassium chloride and potassium carbonate contain 0.1 mol of chloride and 0.1 mol. (
  • Induction of refractive compensation to optical defocus is associated with changes in the concentrations of sodium, chloride and potassium across the retina and in expression of AQP4 and Kir4.1. (
  • The potassium-chloride cotransporter 2 promotes cervical cancer cell migration and invasion by an ion transport-independent mechanism. (
  • Localization of chloride conductance to mitochondria-rich cells in frog skin epithelium. (
  • Chloride ions are also necessary for all known life. (
  • Some prokaryotes use chloride compounds as a carbon and energy source and chlorine ions as terminal electron acceptors during anaerobic growth. (
  • Potassium chloride can be used as a substitute for table salt. (
  • The addition of lithium chloride to the above improved battery cell in small amounts substantially increases the low-temperature range of these battery cells without improvement of battery capacity. (
  • 2. The battery cell of claim 1, wherein said cathode mix includes a substantially small amount of lithium chloride. (
  • 3. The battery cell of claim 1 in which said cathode dry mix and electrolyte includes small amounts of potassium monoperoxysulfate and lithium chloride. (
  • 7. The battery cell of claim 6 in which said cathode dry mix and electrolyte also includes a substantially small amount of lithium chloride. (
  • This electricity is generated by cell membranes causing potassium to move inside cells and chloride ions to stay outside. (
  • Another ion called chloride accumulates outside cells and prevents potassium from getting back inside cells. (
  • Lactic acid removes the chloride, so it is easier for potassium to get back inside cells. (
  • Chloride has an intermediate permeability and the organic anions have an almost zero permeability, i.e., in normal conditions they are not carried through the membrane, remaining in the cell´s interior. (
  • To survive in extremely salty environments, this archaeon-as with other halophilic Archaeal species-utilizes compatible solutes (in particular potassium chloride) to reduce osmotic stress. (
  • Intestinal Absorption of Metal Ions, Trace Elements, and Radionuclides focuses on the transport of metal ions across biological membranes. (
  • The selection is a recommendable source of data for readers interested in the transport of metal ions across biological membranes. (
  • Free fatty acids (FFA) are essential components of the cell, where they play a key role in lipid and carbohydrate metabolism, and most particularly in cell membranes, where they are central actors in shaping the physicochemical properties of the lipid bilayer and the cellular adaptation to the environment. (
  • FFA are normal constituents of biological membranes that are continuously being produced and catabolized in living cells. (
  • For example, the sugars can be linked to form polysaccharides such as starch and glycogen , the amino acids can be linked to form proteins , the nucleotides can be linked to form the DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) and RNA (ribonucleic acid) of chromosomes , and the fatty acids can be linked to form the lipids of all cell membranes . (
  • that transports charged potassium atoms (potassium ions) across cell membranes. (
  • It is concluded that m.r. cells have an amiloride-blockable Na conductance in the apical membrane, a ouabain-sensitive Na pump in the basolateral membrane, and a passive Cl permeability in both membranes. (
  • Mechanisms for the transport of ions and molecules across cell membranes. (
  • In most cells at rest, the concentration of Cl- is lower in the cytosol than in the extracellular fluid via activity of gated ion channels that contribute to the polarization of cellular membranes. (
  • What separates the apical and basolateral membranes of tubular epithelial cells? (
  • For all cell membranes that have been studied in the laboratory, permeability increases in parallel with the permeant's ability to dissolve in organic solvents. (
  • A ll cells in the human body are characterized by having a net electrical charge across its membranes. (
  • Neurons, like all cells, maintain different concentrations of certain ions (charged atoms) across their cell membranes. (
  • Myelin is the fatty membranes of cells called Oligodendroglia (in the CNS) and Schwann Cells (in the PNS) that wraps around the axon and acts as an insulator, preventing the dissipation of the depolarisation wave. (
  • Some potent neurotoxins, such as batrachotoxin, increase the sodium ion permeability of the cell membranes in nerves and muscles, causing a massive and irreversible depolarization of the membranes, with potentially fatal consequences. (
  • Proteins are also important in cell signaling, immune responses, cell adhesion, active transport across membranes, and the cell cycle. (
  • Their main structural uses are as part of biological membranes both internal and external, such as the cell membrane, or as a source of energy. (
  • Voltage-gated Kv1.3 and Ca 2+ -dependent KCa3.1 are the most prevalent K + channels expressed by human and rat T cells. (
  • At rest, T cells express low levels of both K + channels, and both are upregulated upon antigen-specific or mitogen-specific activation. (
  • This observation raises the possibility that ion channels other than Kv1.3, such as KCa3.1, may have functional activity. (
  • Cell survival is modulated by a cocktail of ion channels engaging cell life and death decisions through controlling key cellular messages such as apoptosis and proliferation. (
  • Potassium (K+) ion channels appear to play a potent role in such illnesses since they can control many cellular gates in cell physiology such as ionic homeostasis and signalling cascades. (
  • Amongst the K+ channels, small (SK1-3) and intermediate (SK4) conductance Ca2+-activated potassium ion channels have recently been shown to save cells, thereby protecting mitochondrial function which serves as a cell survival platform. (
  • In the case of other ion channels, for instance transient receptor potential melastatin 7 (TRPM7), it is also repeatedly stated that such membrane channels shows an impressive and differential role in excitable and non-excitable cell survival. (
  • Excitingly, SK1-4 channels differentially exist between wild-type and Huntington's affected mouse striatal cells, where diseased cells lack SK1-3 channels, key players in action potential activity. (
  • It is very noteworthy that SK2 and SK3 channels are not expressed in non-tumorigenic breast cells. (
  • The majority of ion channels fall into two broad categories: voltage-gated ion channels (VGIC) and ligand-gated ion channels (LGIC). (
  • Since the discovery of biological ion channels and their role in physiology, scientists have attempted to create man-made structures that mimic their biological counterparts. (
  • Ion channels are involved in a variety of fundamental physiological processes, and their malfunction causes numerous human diseases. (
  • Therefore, ion channels represent a class of attractive drug targets and a class of important off-targets for in vitro pharmacological profiling. (
  • Chronologically, HTS methods for ion channels include the ligand binding assay, flux-based assay, fluorescence-based assay, and automated electrophysiological assay. (
  • Ion channels are a very important membrane protein family involved in a variety of fundamental physiological processes. (
  • Ion channels are difficult targets to be investigated using high throughput approaches, which hinders the use of ion channels compared with other targets. (
  • The methodologies for studying ion channels can be divided into non-electrophysiological and electrophysiological methods. (
  • In the past, HTS methods for ion channels have been extensively developed and applied to most ion channels. (
  • Binding assays identify affinity data but do not identify the functional change of ion channels. (
  • The massive increase observed under some pathological conditions, especially in brain, has been interpreted as a protective mechanism possibly operative on ion channels, which in some cases is of stimulatory nature and in other cases inhibitory. (
  • Ion channel redox regulation has been described in detail for some ion channels, such as Kv channels or TRPC6. (
  • Potassium channels are K + -selective protein pores in cell membrane. (
  • The selectivity filter is the functional unit that allows K + channels to distinguish potassium (K + ) and sodium (Na + ) ions. (
  • We are interested in the study of structural and functional properties of ion channels and their role in cell physiology. (
  • Inward-rectifier potassium channels ( K ir , IRK ) are a specific subset of potassium channels . (
  • [4] IRK channels possess a pore domain, homologous to that of voltage-gated ion channels , and flanking transmembrane segments (TMSs). (
  • Whole-cell current recordings of K ir 2 inwardly-rectifying potassium channels expressed in an HEK293 cell . (
  • At membrane potentials negative to potassium's reversal potential , inwardly rectifying K + channels support the flow of positively charged K + ions into the cell, pushing the membrane potential back to the resting potential. (
  • These channels differ from the potassium channels that are typically responsible for repolarizing a cell following an action potential , such as the delayed rectifier and A-type potassium channels. (
  • Those more "typical" potassium channels preferentially carry outward (rather than inward) potassium currents at depolarized membrane potentials, and may be thought of as "outwardly rectifying. (
  • Inward rectifiers also differ from tandem pore domain potassium channels , which are largely responsible for "leak" K + currents. (
  • They, along with the "leak" channels, establish the resting membrane potential of the cell. (
  • The phenomenon of inward rectification of K ir channels is the result of high-affinity block by endogenous polyamines , namely spermine , as well as magnesium ions, that plug the channel pore at positive potentials, resulting in a decrease in outward currents. (
  • Inward-rectifying potassium (K + in ) channels in guard cells have been suggested to provide a pathway for K + uptake into guard cells during stomatal opening. (
  • To test the proposed role of guard cell K + in channels in light-induced stomatal opening, transgenic Arabidopsis plants were generated that expressed dominant negative point mutations in the K + in channel subunit KAT1. (
  • Comparisons of guard cell K + in current magnitudes among four different transgenic lines with different K + in current magnitudes show the range of activities of K + in channels required for guard cell K + uptake during light-induced stomatal opening. (
  • Inward-rectifying K + (K + in ) channels in the plasma membrane of plant cells have been suggested to play important roles for diverse cellular functions. (
  • Moreover, electrophysiological studies on guard cell K + channels have not been accompanied by measurements of K + contents in guard cells to verify the proposed functions of second messenger K + in channel regulators for K + uptake. (
  • Ion channels provide exciting opportunities for drug development targeting a diverse array of therapeutic areas including neurological, cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases, pain, and inflammation. (
  • Potassium channels are the most diverse group of the ion channel family [ PMID: 1772658 , PMID: 1879548 ]. (
  • In eukaryotic cells, K + channels are involved in neural signalling and generation of the cardiac rhythm, act as effectors in signal transduction pathways involving G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and may have a role in target cell lysis by cytotoxic T-lymphocytes [ PMID: 1373731 ]. (
  • Inwardly-rectifying potassium channels (Kir) are the principal class of two-TM domain potassium channels. (
  • Inwardly rectifying potassium channels (Kir) are responsible for regulating diverse processes including: cellular excitability, vascular tone, heart rate, renal salt flow, and insulin release [ PMID: 10102275 ]. (
  • Their different cells sort raw visual inputs into 20 different "channels," or parallel representations, before the data are recompiled and transmitted to the brain. (
  • Ion channels are in every cell in the human body. (
  • The gradual doling out or sudden influx of ions through ion channels are the basis for those cellular activities that give us thoughts, sights, tastes, sounds and our ability to move. (
  • Goldstein's team discovered the type of ion channel known as background (or leak) potassium channels in yeast cells in 1995 and in fruit flies in 1996. (
  • SUMO may very well act on other ion channels that have yet to reveal their function because they were silent like K2P1. (
  • Such asymmetric and clustered distribution of Kir4.1 channels in Müller cells is thought to be critical for the buffering of extracellular potassium concentration in retina. (
  • Herein we investigated whether the distribution and functional properties of Kir4.1 channels are dependent on expression of the Dp71, a dystrophin isoform expressed in Müller cells. (
  • Focal extracellular potassium increases in isolated Müller cells shows that Kir channels in the mdx 3Cv cells, as opposed to wild type, are less prominently concentrated in their endfeet. (
  • Discrete and clustered localization of ion channels and receptors are critical for the signaling properties of neurons. (
  • In glial cells, clustered localization of channels and receptors has also been demonstrated ( Newman, 1985 , 1987 ). (
  • Inwardly rectifying potassium (Kir) channels are highly concentrated in the endfoot of retinal glial Müller cell and sparsely expressed in other domains of the cell ( Newman, 1993 ). (
  • Despite its importance, the molecular mechanism by which the Kir channels are targeted and clustered in Müller cells remains unknown. (
  • Because CB1 receptors and K V channels are present on lymphocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells (DC) ( 13 , 14 , 15 ), the anti-inflammatory effects of cannabinoids might involve regulation of K + channels via CB1 receptor signaling in immune cells, including DC. (
  • The functioning of cells in the nervous system is dependent on a large number of molecules such as enzymes, receptors, transporters, neurotransmitters, channels, RNA, DNA and second messengers. (
  • Techniques used to study molecular function include gene cloning and nucleic acid sequence analysis, protein purification and analysis of protein structure and function, determination of protein-protein and protein-nucleic acid interactions, biophysical analysis of ion channels in neurons or expressed in heterologous cells, kinetic analysis of radioligand binding, mapping gene regulatory networks and signal transduction pathways, and generation of transgenic species. (
  • Ion homeostasis, channels, and transporters. (
  • 2010. Domain Reorientation and Rotation of an Intracellular Assembly Regulate Conduction in Kir Potassium Channels. (
  • Although the concentrations of the different ions endeavor to balance out on both sides of the membrane, they cannot because the cell membrane sanctions only some ions to pass through channels (ion channels). (
  • Various specialized proteins, such as ion channels, float in this bilayer. (
  • The cell membrane of a neuron is selectively permeable to potassium ions, meaning that ion channels that will only allow potassium ions to exit or enter the cell freely. (
  • Inward rectifier potassium channels are characterized by a greater tendency to allow potassium to flow into the cell rather than out of it. (
  • What type of gated ion channels are there (3)? (
  • Homology modeling suggested that the related proteins CASTOR and POLLUX might be ion channels. (
  • In contrast to RKOR, the channels underlying the SKOR current were sensitive to changes in the extracellular ion activity. (
  • Ion substitution in whole-cell and single-channel experiments indicated that although the SKOR and RKOR channels mediate a net outward K + current, they can also allow a significant Zn 2+ permeation (i.e. influx). (
  • In the present work, we used the patch clamp technique to study the properties of the ion channels of leaf mesophyll cells from two plant species, which although closely related, differ significantly in their physiology. (
  • Diffusion can occur passively through ion channels. (
  • Normally, potassium channels will create inward flux of potassium driven by the electrochemical gradient. (
  • The mechanism and structure of these potassium pump systems are not well understood, and from sequence analysis they appear to have elements pertaining both to potassium channels and to more classical sodium/potassium pumps known from animals. (
  • Ion channels mediate fast and passive 'downhill' transport, while ion pumps mediate slow and active 'uphill' transport against an electrochemical gradient. (
  • The concept of gated channels has been known and studied for a long time, and indeed most ion channels have one or more gates as an essential part of their physiological function. (
  • when stereocilia are deflected, the tip links cause ion channels to open which changes the polarity of the hair cell. (
  • It is the tip link proteins that reinforce this structure and organization, and allow ion channels to open when the stereocilia are moved. (
  • The FLIPR® Potassium Assay Kit measures functional activity of ligand- and voltage-gated potassium channels. (
  • The FLIPR Potassium Assay Kit exploits the permeability of thallium ions (Tl + ) through both voltage- and ligand-gated potassium (K + ) channels. (
  • In this assay, a novel, highly-sensitive Tl + indicator dye is utilized which produces a bright fluorescent signal upon the binding to Tl + conducted through potassium channels. (
  • The assay exploits the permeability of thallium (Tl + ) for potassium (K + ) channels. (
  • In cells, ion channels are one of the most important classes of membrane proteins which allow inorganic ions to move across the membrane. (
  • A wide range of biological processes are involved and regulated by the opening and closing of ion channels. (
  • Ion channels can be classified into numerous classes and different types of ion channels exhibit different functions. (
  • Thus, the correct identification of ion channels and their types using computational methods will provide in-depth insights into their function in various biological processes. (
  • Ion channels are a diverse group of proteins that extend across the lipid membrane of cells and form channel pores [ 1 ]. (
  • Many biological processes including muscle contraction, neuronal excitability, epithelial transport of nutrients and ions, hormone secretion, T-cell activation, and pancreatic beta-cell insulin release are all controlled and regulated by ion channels [ 2 ]. (
  • It has been reported that the normal function of ion channels can be disrupted by chemicals and genetics, which would result in negative impact on the organism [ 2 ]. (
  • Moreover, various neurotoxins bind to ion channels to modulate the nervous systems of animals. (
  • Since ion channels have such important biological function in various biological processes, scientists have developed drugs to target them for disease therapy. (
  • Ion channels have been demonstrated as valuable targets for the treatment of epilepsy, chronic pain, and other diseases [ 4 ]. (
  • Over 300 types of ion channels have been found in living cells [ 5 ]. (
  • Most channels are ion-selective and ion-specific. (
  • For example, most of potassium channels have a permeability ratio for potassium over sodium of 1000 : 1 [ 6 ]. (
  • Based on their biological properties, ion channels can be clustered into numerous types. (
  • The ion channels activated by the binding of ligand molecules (such as a neurotransmitter) are called ligand-gated ion channels (LGIC) that can be further classified into three superfamilies, namely, Cys-loop receptors, ionotropic glutamate receptors, and ATP-gated channels. (
  • Voltage-gated ion channels (VGIC) are another kind of ion channels which open to allow ions to pass through the membrane in response to the changes in electrical potential difference. (
  • Moreover, some ion channels can also be opened and closed by mechanical forces, temperature, and pressure. (
  • However, the number of these ion channels is too few to have statistical significance. (
  • Thus, this review focuses on the prediction of ligand-gated and voltage-gated ion channels. (
  • To identify the types of ion channels, traditional biochemical experimental methods are time-consuming and costly, whereas computational methods are cost-effective. (
  • To predict ion channels using machine learning method, the following issues should be considered. (
  • Data from both approaches suggested that similar types of ion-selective channels and membrane transporters, which catalyze the transport of Ca(2+), K(+), Na(+), and Pi, exist in the plasma membrane of the two cell types. (
  • However, patch-clamp data suggested that differential regulation of instantaneously activating ion channels in the plasma membrane could explain the preferential accumulation of Na(+) in the epidermis. (
  • The neuronal membrane also contains specialised proteins called channels , which form pores in the membrane that are selectively permeable to particular ions. (
  • Thus sodium channels allow sodium ions through the membrane while potassium channels allow potassium ions through. (
  • However, if the sodium channels are opened, positively charged sodium ions flood into the neuron, and making the inside of the cell momentarily positively charged - the cell is said to be depolarized. (
  • This has the effect of opening the potassium channels, allowing potassium ions to leave the cell. (
  • the distribution of sodium ions are mediated in all animals by sodium-potassium pumps, which are active transporter solute pumps, pumping ions against the gradient, and sodium-potassium channels. (
  • Sodium channels are known to be less selective in comparison to potassium channels. (
  • It is mainly expressed on the luminal membrane of renal epithelial cells of the thick ascending limb of Henle's loop (TALH) and mediates the majority of NaCl resorption and concentration of urine (1,2). (
  • 1. A study has been made of the oxygen consumption of kidney homogenates in relation to the ADP concentration as regulated by the cell-membrane adenosine triphosphatase. (
  • After the PC12 cells were stimulated by acetylcholine, only the extracellular Ca 2+ concentration increased while there was no increase in the extracellular K + concentration. (
  • Through the practical observation, we demonstrated that the sensor was helpful for analyzing the cell events with changing Ca 2+ and/or K + concentration. (
  • The molar conductance of excised human skin (lambda(skin)) immersed in electrolyte solutions comprising four cationic (Na(+), K(+), Ni(2+), and Cr(3+)) and five anionic (Cl(-), NO3(-), SO4(2-), CrO4(2-), and Cr2O7(2-)) species was determined as a function of concentration in Franz diffusion cells. (
  • measuring the concentration of the analyte or a concentration of a species representative of the analyte in the sample at a predetermined point on a reaction profile by means that are substantially independent of the temperature of the sample in the test cell. (
  • Calculate the concentration of potassium ions in the solution, in mol L^-1.Each 200 mL of an electrolyte solution designed for treating dehydration. (
  • Calculate the concentration of potassium ions in the solution, in mol L^-1. (
  • Comparison of the ratios of Na, Cl and K ion concentration of the lens wearing eyes to the fellow eyes showed a sign dependent differential pattern of abundance across the retina, especially in the outer retina and nerve fibre layer. (
  • Consistent with a direct effect of glucose on α-cell oxidative metabolism, an increase in glucose concentration (from 0 or 3 mmol/l to 20 mmol/l) increased [ATP] c by 7-9% in α-cells within the intact islet and by ∼4% in αTC1-9 cells. (
  • Never before has YSI offered ISEs for the lab, but this expansive line of electrodes is designed to meet the needs of customers who measure effective ion concentration in applications such as wastewater, drinking water, environmental testing, and the food/beverage industry. (
  • Ion selective electrodes for the electro-chemical concentration determination of selected ions - combined electrodes as well as half cells available. (
  • Solution kits contain the solutions and accessories needed for calibration, sample preparation, and measurement of ion concentration and activity. (
  • Using this value and the change in cell volume in response to bilateral Cl-free solutions, we calculated an intracellular steady-state Cl concentration of 19.8±1.7 mm ( n =6) of the short-circuited cell. (
  • Microorganisms use transmembrane ion pumps, such as the Na + /H + antiporter or Na + translocation systems coupled to metabolic reactions, to move Na + ions against their concentration gradient, generating electrochemical energy to drive solute transport or to move flagellar motors (in bacteria) and to produce reducing power for biochemical reactions. (
  • In animals, the Na + /K + ion pump pushes sodium and potassium across the cell membrane in opposite directions, maintaining a low Na + concentration and a high K + concentration inside the cell. (
  • A sensor (10) is provided for detecting the concentration of potassium ions which comprises a molecule which selectively complexes potassium ions. (
  • The change in fluorescent intensity is a direct measure of the concentration of potassium ions. (
  • The present invention relates to sensors, and more particularly, to a sensor that can selectively recognize and transduce the change in potassium ion concentration into a measurable optical signal. (
  • Monitoring of blood levels of potassium ion concentration is of considerable importance in intensive care medicine. (
  • However, by the addition of energy from an outside source (through the work of an ion pump , for example), the solute may be returned to its former concentration and state of high free energy. (
  • For most substances of biological interest, the concentrations inside and outside the cell are different, creating concentration gradients down which the solutes spontaneously diffuse, provided they can permeate the lipid bilayer. (
  • Under stable conditions (eletrochemical equilibrium), the Cl- and Na+ ions exist in a higher concentration outside the cell than inside. (
  • Potassim (K+) exists in higher concentration inside than outside the cell. (
  • Furthermore, there are some large organic anions (negative in charge), related to proteins, which exist in higher concentration inside the cell. (
  • Now, instead of putting an impermeable membrane, where only osmosis can occur, or a permeable membrane, where eventually all ions will have the same concentration of both sides (diffusion), we put a selectively permeable membrane. (
  • Thus there is a high concentration of sodium ions present outside the neuron, and a high concentration of potassium ions inside. (
  • His research interests began with the catalytic mechanisms of metalloenzymes as investigated with spectroscopic and kinetic methods and continued with the role of metal ions in health and disease, the molecular mechanisms of how proteins control metal ions, and the cellular mechanism of how metal ions control protein structure and function. (
  • The use of amiloride and its analogs in the study of ion transport requires a knowledge of the pharmacology of inhibition of transport proteins, as well as effects on enzymes, receptors, and other cellular processes, such as DNA, RNA, and protein synthesis, and cellular metabolism. (
  • In terms of function, these proteins transport potassium (K + ) , with a greater tendency for K + uptake than K + export. (
  • However, nearly all these proteins would fail to fold in the unique ways required to form efficient functional surfaces and would therefore be useless to the cell. (
  • The proteins present in cells of modern animals and humans are products of a long evolutionary history, during which the ancestor proteins were naturally selected for their ability to fold into specific three-dimensional forms with unique functional surfaces useful for cell survival. (
  • RNA molecules are much less frequently used as catalysts in cells than are protein molecules, presumably because proteins, with the greater variety of amino acid side chains, are more diverse and capable of complex shape changes. (
  • 7 Recently, neurologists worked with macaque eyes to discover that retinal pre-processing works by precise placement of voltage-gated channel proteins within each ganglion cell. (
  • Thus, someone had to ensure proper placement of these channel proteins, mental software, Müller cells, and 11- cis -retinal. (
  • Ion channel are membrane-spanning proteins that allows the passage of certain ions through the membrane. (
  • This potassium channel is controlled by G proteins. (
  • Cell with membrane proteins. (
  • The "hairs" (called stereocilia) of each hair cell are connected by very important proteins called tip links. (
  • Dsh proteins also participate in the planar cell polarity pathway by acting through JNK (1,2). (
  • Those membrane proteins serving as pumps accomplish this by coupling the energy required for transport to the energy produced by cell metabolism or by the diffusion of other solutes. (
  • The S-layer is made of a cell-surface glycoprotein, which accounts for approximately 50% of the cell surface proteins. (
  • Other proteins have structural or mechanical functions, such as those that form the cytoskeleton, a system of scaffolding that maintains the cell shape. (
  • The study of how carbon atoms interact with other atoms in molecular compounds forms the basis of the field of organic chemistry and plays a large role in understanding the basic functions of cells. (
  • The structural analysis showed the channel is lined by oxygen atoms that mimic the water cluster normally surrounding a potassium ion in aqueous solution. (
  • The anode experiences an oxidation reaction in which two or more ions (electrically charged atoms or molecules) from the electrolyte combine with the anode, producing a compound and releasing one or more electrons. (
  • After the invention of potassium-ion battery with the prototype device, researchers have increasingly been focusing on enhancing the specific capacity and cycling performance with the application of new materials to electrode and electrolyte. (
  • Commercial ethylene carbonate (EC) and diethyl carbonate (DEC) or other traditional ether/ester liquid electrolyte showed poor cycling performance and fast capacity degradation due to the Lewis acidity of potassium, also the highly flammable feature of it has prevented further application. (
  • Ionic liquid electrolyte offers new way to expand electrochemical window of potassium ion battery with much negative redox voltage and it's especially stable with graphite anode. (
  • Recently, solid polymer electrolyte for all-solid-state potassium-ion battery have attracted much attention due to its flexibility and enhanced safety, Feng et al proposed a poly (propylene carbonate)-KFSI solid polymer electrolyte with the frame work of cellulose non-woven membrane, with boosted ionic conductivity of 1.36 × {\displaystyle \times } 10−5 S cm−1. (
  • Research on electrolyte for potassium-ion battery is focusing on achieving fast ion diffusion kinetics, stable SEI formation as well as enhanced safety. (
  • Australian scientists have developed a nonflammable electrolyte for potassium and potassium-ion batteries, for applications in next-generation energy-storage systems beyond lithium technology. (
  • Lithium-ion technology still dominates energy-storage applications, but it has intrinsic disadvantages, among which are the price, environmental issues, and the flammability of the electrolyte. (
  • The researchers developed an electrolyte based on a flame-retardant material and adapted it for use in potassium batteries. (
  • Guo and her team have demonstrated that next-generation potassium-ion batteries can be made safe by using a novel inorganic, phosphate-based electrolyte. (
  • Potassium hydroxide is used in the electrolyte of alkaline cells . (
  • It gets its name from the potassium hydroxide electrolyte, which is an alkaline substance. (
  • Potassium is an electrolyte that's essential for proper muscle and nerve function. (
  • Your doctor may order a potassium test if they suspect you have an electrolyte imbalance or as part of a routine check-up. (
  • Potassium is an electrolyte. (
  • A battery cell which comprises an anode element of magnesium alloy metal, a carbon or stainless steel current collector, and a manganese-dioxide-type cathode mix and electrolyte comprising mainly manganese dioxide with the addition of potassium monoperoxysulfate to substantially improve the open-circuit. (
  • 4. The battery cell containing an anode, a combined cathode and a cathode dry mix and aqueous electrolyte primarily composed of manganese dioxide and including a substantially small amount of potassium monoperoxysulfate. (
  • 6. A battery cell having a magnesium metal anode, a carbon current collector, and a combined manganese-dioxide-type cathode dry mix and electrolyte containing a small amount of potassium monoperoxysulfate. (
  • 12. A battery cell comprising a magnesium metal anode, a carbon current collector, a manganese-dioxide-type cathode dry mix and electrolyte with the addition to said cathode dry mix and electrolyte of potassium monoperoxysulfate in a solution which is 5-20% by weight of the total cathode dry mix and electrolyte and which solution contains 2-5% by weight of potassium monoperoxysulfate. (
  • Sodium ions (Na+) are necessary in small amounts for some types of plants, but sodium as a nutrient is more generally needed in larger amounts by animals, due to their use of it for generation of nerve impulses and for maintenance of electrolyte balance and fluid balance. (
  • Human skin is permselective for the small, monovalent cations sodium and potassium but not for nickel and chromium. (
  • Permeability ratio determination and competition experiments reveled a weak preference of CASTOR for cations such as potassium over anions. (
  • Both have a single valence electron in their outer shell, which they readily donate, creating positive ions, or Na + and K + cations. (
  • In brief, SK1-4 and TRPM7 molecules are clearly implicated in the survival of diverse cell types through an apoptotic route, indicating that these ionic regulators are promising targets in channelopathies related to cellular degeneration and growth. (
  • Do potassium ions pass through the selectivity filter of a potassium channel alone, or are there water molecules between the ions, too? (
  • Most, but not all, of the carbon-containing molecules in cells are built up from members of one of four different families of small organic molecules: sugars, amino acids , nucleotides , and fatty acids . (
  • However, RNA molecules are thought to have preceded protein molecules during evolution and to have catalyzed most of the chemical reactions required before cells could evolve ( see below The evolution of cells ). (
  • We report in this study that cannabinoids reduced the DC surface expression of MHC class II molecules as well as their capacity to stimulate T cells. (
  • Human and animal cannabinoids belong to the group of endocannabinoids that are cell membrane-derived signaling molecules formed during the metabolism of eicosanoid fatty acids ( 1 ). (
  • Maturation is also associated with increased cell surface levels of costimulatory molecules and enhanced production of soluble inflammatory mediators ( 23 , 24 , 25 , 26 ). (
  • The phospholipid bilayer of an animal cell is a thin membrane made of two layers of lipid molecules. (
  • Lipid-soluble molecules and some small molecules can permeate the membrane, but the lipid bilayer effectively repels the many large, water-soluble molecules and electrically charged ions that the cell must import or export in order to live. (
  • The rates at which biologically important molecules cross the cell membrane through permeation vary over an enormous range. (
  • As these molecules are vital for life, metabolic reactions either focus on making these molecules during the construction of cells and tissues, or by breaking them down and using them as a source of energy, by their digestion. (
  • Too much potassium and the cell can rupture due to water influx, too little and the cell will shrivel as water leaves. (
  • The increase in fluorescent signal represents the influx of Tl + into the cell specifically through the potassium channel and becomes a measure of potassium channel functional activity. (
  • Thus, there is first an influx of sodium ions (leading to massive depolarization) followed by a rapid efflux of potassium ions from the neuron (leading to repolarisation). (
  • This book discusses as well the two widely applicable methods for measuring free concentrations of ions inside cells. (
  • Initially, we should know that there are different concentrations of ions (Na+, Cl- and K+) inside and outside the neuron. (
  • It states in mathematical terms that the chemical concentrations of ions and electrical charges are in equilibrium for any given ion, and that the steady potential is proportional to the logarithm of the ratio of concentrations on each side of the membrane. (
  • This ion channel uses the energy derived from ATP hydrolysis to maintain membrane potential by driving sodium export and potassium import across the plasma membrane against their electrochemical gradients. (
  • The prototype device used a potassium anode and a Prussian blue compound as the cathode material for its high electrochemical stability. (
  • A general picture of the material used for potassium-ion battery can be found as follows: Anodes: Same as the case of lithium-ion battery, graphite could also accommodate the intercalation of potassium within electrochemical process. (
  • While the upstream pathways affecting channel gating are often well described, we need a better understanding of redox protein modifications to be able to determine the complexity of ion channel redox regulation. (
  • Chen YF, Chou CY, Wilkins RJ, Ellory JC, Mount DB, Shen MR. Motor protein-dependent membrane trafficking of KCl cotransporter-4 is important for cancer cell invasion. (
  • The blue web shows the inner surface of the protein blocking the potassium ions. (
  • The new protein structure shows how the smaller sodium ions are bound and subsequently transported out of the cell, whereas the access of the slightly larger potassium ions is blocked. (
  • Johns Hopkins School of Medicine researchers demonstrate the importance of the signaling protein WISP-1 in regulating the differentiation of perivascular stem cells, helping our understanding of bone healing. (
  • 50-year-old Mystery Solved: Protein Tags Regulate Key Ion Channel ( Researchers at the University of Chicag. (
  • The researchers cracked the structure of the protein through a technique called X-ray crystallography, and it then became clear how the channel would admit potassium ions only, even though closely-related sodium ions were even smaller. (
  • Free cytosolic concentrations of ATP ([ATP] c ) or Ca 2+ ([Ca 2+ ] c ) were imaged using α-cell-targeted firefly luciferase or a green fluorescent protein-based Ca 2+ probe ("pericam"), respectively. (
  • any that involve a protein (except ions because that one is just a pore) so Facilitated, prim active, and second active transport. (
  • Immunogold labeling localized the endogenous CASTOR protein to the nuclear envelope of Lotus root cells. (
  • In humans, the defective protein in the disease cystic fibrosis is an ion channel specific for Cl- whose impaired activity results in less bactericidal activity - and more infections - in the lungs. (
  • New research results from Aarhus University and New York University show how active transport of potassium can be achieved by a membrane protein complex that has roots in both ion pump and ion channel super-families. (
  • The recruitment and association of TIF1β with heterochromatin protein (HP1) is essential for transcriptional repression, and for progression through differentiation of F9 embryonic carcinoma cells (6,7). (
  • The word metabolism can also refer to the sum of all chemical reactions that occur in living organisms, including digestion and the transport of substances into and between different cells, in which case the above described set of reactions within the cells is called intermediary metabolism or intermediate metabolism. (
  • The metabolism of cancer cells is different from the metabolism of normal cells, and these differences can be used to find targets for therapeutic intervention in cancer. (
  • Amino acids also contribute to cellular energy metabolism by providing a carbon source for entry into the citric acid cycle (tricarboxylic acid cycle), especially when a primary source of energy, such as glucose, is scarce, or when cells undergo metabolic stress. (
  • K+Cl- cotransporters (KCCs) belong to the SLC12 family and act as electroneutral symporters of K+ and Cl- ions across the plasma membrane [ PMID: 6929518 , PMID: 11125215 ]. (
  • Transgenic expression of KAT1 in tobacco ( Nicotiana tabacum ) mesophyll cells resulted in plasma membrane K + in channel activity ( Bei and Luan, 1998 ). (
  • Goldstein's team first demonstrated that the SUMO-conjugating enzyme was plentiful at the plasma membrane, just inside the cell surface. (
  • The cell or plasma membrane surrounding each cell has been called living because of its extremely precise selectivity--allowing or actively pumping some materials in or out, but not others. (
  • The work focused on the extent to which differences in plasma membrane ion transport processes underlie these observations. (
  • Ion transport across the plasma membrane of barley epidermal and mesophyll protoplasts was investigated electrophysiologically (by microelectrode impalement and patch clamping) and radiometrically. (
  • However, experiments with Kv1.3 KO rats and Kv1.3 siRNA knockdown or channel-specific inhibition of human T cells show that maximal T-cell responses against autoantigen or repeated tetanus toxoid stimulations require both Kv1.3 and KCa3.1. (
  • Electrophysiology studies have implicated the potassium ion (K + ) channel Kv1.3 as having a critical role in the regulation of chronically activated effector memory T (T EM ) cell immune responses. (
  • In the context of single cells, channel blockers abrogate Kv1.3 channel function in patch-clamp experiments. (
  • This channel also modulates ionic homeostasis of crucial ions in cellular physiology such as Ca2+. (
  • This study reveals that central nervous system (CNS) and breast cancer cells differentially express SK1-4 ion channel subtypes, and their functional presence is pharmacologically confirmed, however, in most cases these results were further clarified through small interference RNA (siRNA) method. (
  • Similarly, functional TRPM7 channel expression in CNS cells is also confirmed. (
  • In the CNS, SK1-4 channel activation rescues neurons from oxidative stress, whereas, TRPM7 channel inhibition protects CNS cells from this hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) harmful effect, as well as hypoxia and apoptosis, so improving cell survival. (
  • Interestingly, SK2 or SK3 channel subtypes are also functionally expressed in breast cancer cells with various phenotypes. (
  • SK2 or SK3 channel activation enhances cell viability, while its inhibition dampens cell growth. (
  • In this review we summarize the current HTS technologies for different ion channel classes and their applications. (
  • Traditionally, patch clamp electrophysiology is the gold standard for ion channel studies. (
  • Consequently, HTS was designed to identify active compounds for ion channel targets, which are of great interest to academic and industrial researchers. (
  • This review will summarize the current technologies and commonly used screening methods for different ion channel classes. (
  • Ligand binding assays have been widely used to screen for ion channel modulators. (
  • However, these assays are not considered as functional assays because they detect the binding affinity of a compound to an ion channel rather than the ability of altering channel function. (
  • We further focus on the mechanisms of FFA modulation operating on voltage-gated and ligand-gated ion channel function, contrasting the still conflicting evidence on direct vs. indirect mechanisms of action. (
  • Field potential duration (FPD) in human-induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPS-CMs), which can express QT interval in an electrocardiogram, is reported to be a useful tool to predict K{sup +} channel and Ca{sup 2+} channel blocker effects on QT interval. (
  • However, in general, information on ion channel redox regulation remains scant. (
  • Against this background, we summarize the current knowledge on hypoxia-induced ROS-mediated ion channel signaling in the pulmonary circulation. (
  • A mutant potassium channel stuck in the open position still conducts K + but not Na + , indicating that its conformation and the presence of K + in the pore confer selectivity. (
  • Welcome to the Ion channel lab, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana. (
  • We used electrophysiological, molecular and cellular techniques to the study of ion channel activity. (
  • A channel that is "inwardly-rectifying" is one that passes current (positive charge) more easily in the inward direction (into the cell) than in the outward direction (out of the cell). (
  • Analyses of intracellular K + content using both sodium hexanitrocobaltate (III) and elemental x-ray microanalyses showed that light-induced K + uptake was also significantly reduced in guard cells of K + in channel depressor lines. (
  • To address the most challenging ion channel targets in any desired cell background, researchers need an assortment of optimized assays for their discovery efforts. (
  • Our product offering for cell-based ion channel assays is designed for sensitivity, ease-of-use, and assay flexibility. (
  • One channel uses parasol ganglion cells to detect motion and flicker. (
  • Mutations in the ABCC9 gene alter the structure of the potassium channel, which causes the channel to open when it should be closed. (
  • It is unknown how this problem with potassium channel function leads to excess hair growth, heart defects, and the other features of Cantú syndrome. (
  • This adds a new chapter to the book of how cells control ion channel function: reversible peptide linkage. (
  • Consequently," he adds, "cells control these actions as carefully as we watch our finances, which is why so many of the most potent mediations we use to care for our patients' target one or another ion channel. (
  • When a different enzyme removed the SUMO tag, however, ions began to stream through the channel. (
  • The primary conductance in Müller cells is the inwardly rectifying potassium channel Kir4.1 (BIR10 and KAB-2), which is highly concentrated at the endfeet at the vitreal border and to processes enveloping blood vessels. (
  • Genetic linkage studies have identified mutations in the gene encoding the voltage-gated delayed rectifier potassium channel Kv1.1 as underlying EA1. (
  • Potassium channel diversity results from a large number of α subunit genes ( Jan and Jan, 1989 , 1990 ). (
  • The membrane of Streptomyces lividans cells lets potassium ions in but not sodium via a potassium-specific channel. (
  • Ion Channel SpliceArray Service from ExonHit Therapeutics Inc. (
  • Interestingly, cannabinoid-treated DC also showed altered voltage-gated potassium (K V ) channel function. (
  • The CB1-mediated modulation of voltage-gated potassium (K V ) 3 channel function can be regulated by both endogenous and exogenous cannabinoids ( 6 , 9 ). (
  • Illustration of how sodium (Na+) and potassium (K+) ions are pumped through a channel (red) in a cell membrane (blue). (
  • 4 Working in exquisite harmony, the four principal parts of the gate--collectively called the Kir channel--are designed to selectively allow millions of potassium ions per second to pass through the gate while keeping out legions of pesky gatecrashers (other ions). (
  • as external potassium is raised, the voltage range of the channel opening shifts to more positive voltages. (
  • CASTOR reconstituted in planar lipid bilayers exhibited ion channel activity, and the channel characteristics were altered in a symbiosis-defective mutant carrying an amino acid replacement close to the selectivity filter. (
  • POLLUX has an identical selectivity filter region and complemented a potassium transport-deficient yeast mutant, suggesting that POLLUX is also a potassium-permeable channel. (
  • The correlation between these recordings and the whole-cell data indicated that although one type of channel kinetics is preferentially activated in each Thlaspi spp. (
  • Members from channel and pump super-families come together in a large complex to create active ion transport. (
  • For the first time, a joint research collaboration between Aarhus University and New York University have visualized a potassium transporting structure where members from channel and pump super-families come together in a large complex to create active transport. (
  • One 'pump-like' subunit creates the energy input (similar to a motor), while a 'channel-like' subunit has been re-purposed to function as an active carrier mediating transport of potassium against a 10,000 fold gradient. (
  • therefore it provides a functional indication of the potassium channel activities. (
  • The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor is an example of a ligand-gated ion channel. (
  • Upon binding acetylcholine, the channel opens and allows diffusion of sodium (Na + ) and potassium (K + ) ions through the conducting pore. (
  • In this review, we will briefly introduce and discuss the recent progress in ion channel prediction using machine learning methods. (
  • For example, channelopathies are caused by mutations in ion channel-encoding genes [ 3 ]. (
  • Different ion channel types perform different biological functions and regulate different biological possesses. (
  • Therefore, in this paper, we review the development of machine learning methods in the prediction of ion channel and their types. (
  • ii) How to formulate the ion channel sequences using an effective mathematical descriptor which can truly reflect the properties of samples? (
  • potassium voltage-gated channel, Isk-relate. (
  • potassium voltage-gated channel, Shaw-relat. (
  • potassium inwardly-rectifying channel, subf. (
  • potassium voltage-gated channel, KQT-like s. (
  • potassium voltage-gated channel, delayed-re. (
  • potassium voltage-gated channel, shaker-rel. (
  • Now, under resting conditions, the potassium channel is more permeable to potassium ions than the sodium channel is to sodium ions. (
  • SLC12A1/NKCC2 and SLC12A2/NKCC1 regulate cell volume and maintain cellular homeostasis in response to osmotic and oxidative stress (1). (
  • It is concluded that K(+) regulates cellular respiration at two structures, one directly in mitochondria, and the second indirectly through control of ADP production at the cell membrane. (
  • This text then examines the relationship between ionic events and cellular production, specifically in mammalian cell systems. (
  • One must consider whether the effects seen on various cellular processes are direct or due to a cascade of events triggered by an effect on an ion transport system. (
  • Ions are the currency of the cellular world explained Goldstein. (
  • Cellular solvency," he added, "the ability to respond to the stimuli that are life, is all about the balance between ions inside and outside each cell. (
  • 2 The awareness of cellular sophistication has only increased by orders of magnitude since then, further demolishing the increasingly anemic Darwinian explanations for the origin of cells. (
  • For example, among many other ions, potassium is critical for cellular function and homeostasis. (
  • Glucose-induced increases in total cellular ATP content and in the ATP-to-ADP(AMP) ratio have been reported in isolated pancreatic β-cells ( 22 ) as well as rodent islets ( 23 - 25 ). (
  • The Na + /K + pump uses energy from the breakdown of adenosine triphosphate into adenosine diphosphate and inorganic phosphate to move 3 Na ions out to the extracellular space and 2 K ions into the cytoplasm, creating a charge imbalance across the cellular membrane. (
  • The figure shows the tunnel-like entry point to the binding sites of the sodium-potassium pump in the sodium-bound state. (
  • The three small sodium ions are bound inside the pump (violet spheres to the left), whereas there is not sufficient room for the larger potassium ions (green spheres to the right). (
  • Researchers from Aarhus University have collaborated with a Japanese group of researchers to establish the structure of a crucial enzyme-the so-called sodium-potassium pump-which forms part of every cell in the human body. (
  • It's not visible to the naked eye and you can't feel it, but up to 40 per cent of your body's energy goes into supplying the microscopic sodium-potassium pump with the energy it needs. (
  • The pump is constantly doing its job in every cell of all animals and humans. (
  • The sodium-potassium pump transports sodium out and potassium into the cell in a fixed cycle. (
  • It is well-established that the pump has a sodium and a potassium form. (
  • But the structural differences between the two forms have remained a mystery, and researchers have been unable to explain how the pump distinguishes sodium from potassium. (
  • For the first time ever, the sodium ions can be studied at a resolution so high - 0.28 nanometres - that researchers can actually see the sodium ions and observe where they bind in the structure of the pump. (
  • We now understand how the pump distinguishes between sodium and potassium at the molecular level. (
  • This is a great leap forward for research into ion pumps and may help us understand and treat serious neurological conditions associated with mutations of the sodium-potassium pump , including a form of Parkinsonism and alternating hemiplegia of childhood in which sodium binding is defective," explains Bente Vilsen, a professor at Aarhus University who spearheaded the project's activities in Aarhus with Associate Professor Flemming Cornelius. (
  • The pump transports potassium into and sodium out of the cells, so it must be capable of distinguishing between the two ions. (
  • The Na-K-ATPase pump (red) transports 3 sodium ions out and 2 potassium ions in for every molecule of ATP (adenosine triphosphate) hydrolysed. (
  • Is the sodium-potassium pump energy dependent or independent? (
  • However, in environments with very little potassium present, this potential cannot maintain inward flux, and active transport through potassium pump systems rapidly takes over to directly drive the uptake of potassium. (
  • Similarly, the molecular mechanism behind ion pump function is well described. (
  • In addition, they pump in positively charged potassium ions (potash to the gardeners out there! (
  • Potassium levels are not at equilibrium with the environment, so H. salinarum expresses multiple active transporters which pump potassium into the cell. (
  • Polyanionic compounds with inductive defects could provide the highest working voltage among other types of cathode for potassium-ion batteries. (
  • Cells are largely composed of compounds that contain carbon. (
  • Most potassium compounds are nontoxic. (
  • At the same time, the cathode goes through a reduction reaction in which the cathode substance, ions and free electrons also combine to form compounds. (
  • The patch clamp technique was used to study the physiology of ion transport in mesophyll cells from two Thlaspi spp. (
  • Thus there will be an equilibrium between electrical and chemical forces driving the movements of ions across the selectively permeable membrane and the concentrations become stable. (
  • The final chapter deals with magnesium ion as the most abundant divalent action in living cells. (
  • Passive ion permeability of the chromaffin-granule membrane. (
  • In other words, we say that the degree of permeability is different for each ion. (
  • Potassium has a higher permeability, around 25 times that of sodium. (
  • This means that this membrane will have a higher permeability to one type of ion than to another. (
  • When this happens, the ion with a higher permeability (K+) will flow more rapidly to the other side, following its chemical gradient. (
  • Bilateral exposure of the tissue to hypo- or hypertonic bathing solutions changed cell volume without detectable changes in the Cl conductance. (
  • The membrane conductance of every T. arvense leaf cell was dominated by a slowly activating, time-dependent outward rectifying current (SKOR). (
  • potassium intermediate/small conductance ca. (
  • K(+)-Cl(-) cotransporters (KCCs) play a fundamental role in epithelial cell function, both in the context of ionic homeostasis and also in cell morphology, cell division and locomotion. (
  • what are the "sides" of an epithelial cell? (
  • Pore-forming toxin-mediated ion dysregulation leads to death receptor-independent necroptosis of lung epithelial cells during bacterial pneumonia. (
  • We report that pore-forming toxins (PFTs) induce respiratory epithelial cell necroptosis independently of death receptor signaling during bacterial pneumonia. (
  • PFT-induced necroptosis in respiratory epithelial cells did not involve CamKII or reactive oxygen species. (
  • 3. If the external pH is varied between 5.5 and 8.0, 3-deoxy-2-oxo-D-gluconate uptake is gradually inhibited by valinomycin plus K+ ions, whereas the inhibition caused by nigericin is concomitantly relieved, thus reflecting the relative contribution of deltapH and deltapsi to the total protonmotive force at each external pH. (
  • It is concluded that the voltage-activated Cl currents flow through the m.r. cells and that swelling is caused by an uptake of Cl ions from the apical bath and K ions from the serosal bath. (
  • As potassium is virtually impermeable to the cell membrane, potassium transporters have evolved that will mediate its uptake. (
  • The hydrogen produced during its reaction with water can burst into flames when a large amount of potassium is added to water. (
  • A potassium test is used to measure the amount of potassium in your blood. (
  • Even minor increases or decreases in the amount of potassium in your blood can result in serious health problems. (
  • The amount of potassium in your blood is so small that tiny increases or decreases can cause serious problems. (
  • and further includes a small amount of potassium monoperoxysulfate. (
  • Implementation of electrophysiological techniques for studying ion transporters in higher plant cells have broadened our understanding of the mechanisms by which plants absorb major ions, such as K + and Ca 2+ , from soils and translocate them to the shoots. (
  • Therefore, the mesophyll cell PM transporters from these related plant species have had to adapt to significantly different ionic conditions. (
  • In general, the simple presence or absence of ion transporters could not explain cell-type-specific differences in ion accumulation. (
  • This phenomenon is generated through the flow of positively charged ions across the neuronal membrane. (
  • Taken together, our data establish that KCC2 expression and function are not restricted to neurons and that KCC2 serves to increase cervical tumourigenesis via an ion transport-independent mechanism. (
  • Nerve cells, called neurons, send signals in the body that travel through impulses to reach their destinations. (
  • The CNS contains specific neurons called interneurons that transmit impulses between other nerve cells. (
  • [5] [6] Homeostasis is an almost exclusively biological term, referring to the concepts described by Bernard and Cannon, concerning the constancy of the internal environment in which the cells of the body live and survive. (
  • Sodium ions are essential to numerous biological processes in animals. (
  • ISEs can be used to measure ion concentrations in water, food, pharmaceuticals and biological samples. (
  • In order to understant how different permeabilities generate different concentrations,lt's repeat here the experiment we saw in the previous section: a beaker divided into two by a biological membrane, and a salt solution of two ions in equal concentrations on left compartment. (
  • Metal ions play key roles in biology. (
  • Others compete with those essential metal ions or have toxic or pharmacological effects. (
  • This book is structured around the periodic table and focuses on the control of metal ions in cells. (
  • Organisms have also developed mechanisms to deal with the non-essential metal ions. (
  • This book is the first to comprehensively survey the molecular nature of the overall natural balance of metal ions in nutrition, toxicology and pharmacology. (
  • and complexing of alkali metal ions. (
  • Metal ions could be targeted for recovery or detoxification. (
  • Regulation of the immunostimulatory capacity of DC is therefore a key step for determining the nature and effectiveness of T cell-mediated immune responses. (
  • In particular, the relative importance of direct metabolic coupling versus paracrine regulation by β-cell secretory products is unresolved. (
  • The regulation of volume and ion composition of frog skin. (
  • Enzymes act as catalysts - they allow a reaction to proceed more rapidly - and they also allow the regulation of the rate of a metabolic reaction, for example in response to changes in the cell's environment or to signals from other cells. (
  • Hsu YM, Chou CY, Chen HH, Lee WY, Chen YF, Lin PW, Alper SL, Ellory JC, Shen MR. IGF-1 upregulates electroneutral K-Cl cotransporter KCC3 and KCC4 which are differentially required for breast cancer cell proliferation and invasiveness. (
  • One of the explanations is that the neuronal membrane doesn´t let ions traverse it all at the same speed. (
  • Since the neuronal membrane resting potential is around -60 mV, we conclude that other ions must be involved besides potassium. (
  • It discusses a few examples including brain development and neuron cell biology. (
  • Scientists' expanding knowledge and understanding of stem cells is transforming the way we research human biology and medicine. (
  • This means that the membrane has a charge on the inside face that is negative relative to the outside, as more positively charged ions flow out of the neuron than flow in. (
  • Similarly, there is a pressure for the sodium ions to enter the neuron, but they are prevented from doing so by the membrane and the pumping mechanisms that remove any ions that manage to get in. (
  • Excess ions are subsequently pumped in/out of the neuron. (
  • As large amounts of potassium ions accumulate outside cells, electricity is not generated and the cells cannot contract. (
  • Oakton has a large selection of ion-selective electrodes (ISEs) to suit a wide variety of applications. (
  • Early attempts at designing an in-dwelling sensor for potassium measurement were directed at modifying the potassium electrodes used in the clinical lab machines. (
  • 1987. The effect of electrically generated silver ions on human cells. (
  • Treatment of orthopedic infections with electrically generated silver ions. (
  • Behind this movement of solutes across the cell membrane is the principle of diffusion . (
  • [3] The process of inward-rectification was discovered by Denis Noble in cardiac muscle cells in 1960s and by Richard Adrian and Alan Hodgkin in 1970 in skeletal muscle cells. (
  • ability of cardiac cells to receive an electrical stimulus and then to transmit it to other cells, so they function collectively. (
  • TINY silicon needles stabbed into heart tissue can give an early warning of cell damage during cardiac surgery, say scientists in Spain. (
  • When first discovered, inward rectification was named "anomalous rectification" to distinguish it from outward potassium currents. (
  • Surface expression of Kir4.1 is not affected in mdx 3Cv Müller cells as current density of barium-sensitive inward currents in mdx 3Cv Müller cells are not different from wild type. (
  • This book is a valuable resource for animal cell biologists, molecular biologists, and research workers. (
  • Amiloride: a molecular probe of sodium transport in tissue and cells. (
  • Consequently, mature DC possess important properties for activating and directing functional differentiation of Ag-specific T cells ( 27 ). (
  • The bewildering complexity of these tiny functional units was acknowledged even before recent discoveries of how cells operate at the nanotechnological level. (
  • However, through new uses and manufacturing processes, organisms are increasingly exposed to changing levels of both essential and non-essential ions in new chemical forms. (
  • Electrolytes: Due to the chemical activity higher than lithium, electrolytes for potassium ion battery requires more delicate engineering to address safety concerns. (
  • The conditions vary with each organism, and with whether the chemical processes take place inside the cell or in the interstitial fluid bathing the cells. (
  • Separation of potassium can be used to create ionic salts or other chemical reactions. (
  • For the first time, researchers who explore the physical and chemical properties of electrical energy storage have found a new way to improve lithium-ion batteries. (
  • Specifically, a set of chemical reactions on glucose creates ATP (adenosine triphosphate), and a phosphate bond in ATP powers most of the machinery in any human cell. (
  • 2. In respiring cells, the magnitude of the pH gradient alone, as measured by distribution of [3H]acetate, appears to be insufficient to account for the chemical gradient of 3-deoxy-2-oxo-D-gluconate that is developed between pH 6.0 and 8.0. (
  • A chemical communication between both partners accompanies the bacterial invasion of plant host cells and the development of a newly formed organ, the root nodule. (
  • Sodium and potassium, atomic numbers 11 and 19, respectively, are highly reactive metals with similar chemical properties, both listed in group 1, the alkali metals, of the periodic table. (
  • Potassium is a chemical element in the periodic table . (
  • Potassium reacts in many chemical reactions similar to sodium and other alkali metals . (
  • A potassium test is often performed as part of a basic metabolic panel, which is a group of chemical tests run on your blood serum. (
  • The chemical structure of the cell membrane makes it remarkably flexible, the ideal boundary for rapidly growing and dividing cells. (
  • The best known homeostatic mechanisms in humans and other mammals are regulators that keep the composition of the extracellular fluid (or the "internal environment") constant, especially with regard to the temperature , pH , osmolality , and the concentrations of sodium , potassium , glucose , carbon dioxide , and oxygen . (
  • Glucose, also called 'blood sugar' and 'dextrose,' flows in the bloodstream so that it is available to every cell in your body. (
  • Your cells absorb glucose and convert it into energy to drive the cell. (
  • Here, we compare the responses to glucose of 1 ) α-cells within the intact mouse islet, 2 ) dissociated α-cells, and 3 ) clonal αTC1-9 cells. (
  • Moreover, glucose also dose-dependently decreased the frequency of [Ca 2+ ] c oscillations in both dissociated α-cells and αTC1-9 cells. (
  • We conclude that glucose and insulin, but not Zn 2+ ions, independently suppress glucagon secretion in the mouse. (
  • On the other hand, retrograde perfusion at slightly elevated glucose concentrations increased both insulin and glucagon release, suggesting an inhibitory role for β-cell factors at elevated glucose concentrations ( 19 ). (
  • Potassium is highly concentrated in all cells, and it is the main determinant of turgor pressure. (
  • In others, it substitutes for potassium in several roles, such as maintaining turgor pressure and aiding in the opening and closing of stomata. (
  • By convention, inward current (positive charge moving into the cell) is displayed in voltage clamp as a downward deflection, while an outward current (positive charge moving out of the cell) is shown as an upward deflection. (
  • Voltage clamping of the preparation in the physiological range of potentials (0 to −100 mV, serosa grounded) resulted in a cell volume increase with a time course similar to that of the stimulation of the voltage-dependent activation were prevented by exposure of the tissue to a Cl-free apical solution. (
  • The steady-state volume of the m.r. cells increased with the clamping voltage, and at −100 mV the volume was about 1.15 times that under short-circuit conditions. (
  • They allow ions to move into and out of the cell to establish and control the voltage gradient across the cell membrane in response to stimuli, such as ligand, voltage, and pressure changes. (
  • Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of potassium ion transmembrane transport. (
  • Potassium ion stimulated surfactin secretion, and the role of surfactin in surface motility was confirmed by deletion of a surfactin synthase gene. (
  • Moreover, cessation of β-cell secretion is required for the activation of glucagon release during hypoglycemia in rats ( 20 ). (
  • The ion with the higher speed of diffusion (in this case, K+) is the one that contributes most toward this value. (
  • In contrast, only 23% of T. caerulescens cells showed SKOR activity, whereas the remaining 77% exhibit a rapidly developing instantaneous K + outward rectifier (RKOR) current. (
  • So there is a slow outward leak of potassium ions that is larger than the inward leak of sodium ions. (