Cell Polarity: Orientation of intracellular structures especially with respect to the apical and basolateral domains of the plasma membrane. Polarized cells must direct proteins from the Golgi apparatus to the appropriate domain since tight junctions prevent proteins from diffusing between the two domains.Frizzled Receptors: A family of seven-pass transmembrane cell-surface proteins that combines with LOW DENSITY LIPROTEIN RECEPTOR-RELATED PROTEIN-5 or LOW DENSITY LIPROTEIN RECEPTOR-RELATED PROTEIN-5 to form receptors for WNT PROTEINS. Frizzled receptors often couple with HETEROTRIMERIC G PROTEINS and regulate the WNT SIGNALING PATHWAY.Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Morphogenesis: The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.cdc42 GTP-Binding Protein, Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A member of the Rho family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS from SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. It is involved in morphological events related to the cell cycle. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.Body Patterning: The processes occurring in early development that direct morphogenesis. They specify the body plan ensuring that cells will proceed to differentiate, grow, and diversify in size and shape at the correct relative positions. Included are axial patterning, segmentation, compartment specification, limb position, organ boundary patterning, blood vessel patterning, etc.Cadherins: Calcium-dependent cell adhesion proteins. They are important in the formation of ADHERENS JUNCTIONS between cells. Cadherins are classified by their distinct immunological and tissue specificities, either by letters (E- for epithelial, N- for neural, and P- for placental cadherins) or by numbers (cadherin-12 or N-cadherin 2 for brain-cadherin). Cadherins promote cell adhesion via a homophilic mechanism as in the construction of tissues and of the whole animal body.Drosophila: A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Acid Sensing Ion Channel Blockers: A subclass of sodium channel blockers that are specific for ACID-SENSING SODIUM CHANNELS.Actins: Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.Embryo, Nonmammalian: The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.Wnt Proteins: Wnt proteins are a large family of secreted glycoproteins that play essential roles in EMBRYONIC AND FETAL DEVELOPMENT, and tissue maintenance. They bind to FRIZZLED RECEPTORS and act as PARACRINE PROTEIN FACTORS to initiate a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. The canonical Wnt signaling pathway stabilizes the transcriptional coactivator BETA CATENIN.WingCytoskeleton: The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.cdc42 GTP-Binding Protein: A member of the Rho family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. It is associated with a diverse array of cellular functions including cytoskeletal changes, filopodia formation and transport through the GOLGI APPARATUS. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.Tight Junctions: Cell-cell junctions that seal adjacent epithelial cells together, preventing the passage of most dissolved molecules from one side of the epithelial sheet to the other. (Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, p22)Neural Tube: A tube of ectodermal tissue in an embryo that will give rise to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, including the SPINAL CORD and the BRAIN. Lumen within the neural tube is called neural canal which gives rise to the central canal of the spinal cord and the ventricles of the brain. For malformation of the neural tube, see NEURAL TUBE DEFECTS.Animal Experimentation: The use of animals as investigational subjects.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Cilia: Populations of thin, motile processes found covering the surface of ciliates (CILIOPHORA) or the free surface of the cells making up ciliated EPITHELIUM. Each cilium arises from a basic granule in the superficial layer of CYTOPLASM. The movement of cilia propels ciliates through the liquid in which they live. The movement of cilia on a ciliated epithelium serves to propel a surface layer of mucus or fluid. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing: A broad category of carrier proteins that play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They generally contain several modular domains, each of which having its own binding activity, and act by forming complexes with other intracellular-signaling molecules. Signal-transducing adaptor proteins lack enzyme activity, however their activity can be modulated by other signal-transducing enzymesDrosophila melanogaster: A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.rho GTP-Binding Proteins: A large family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that are involved in regulation of actin organization, gene expression and cell cycle progression. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Gastrulation: A process of complicated morphogenetic cell movements that reorganizes a bilayer embryo into one with three GERM LAYERS and specific orientation (dorsal/ventral; anterior/posterior). Gastrulation describes the germ layer development of a non-mammalian BLASTULA or that of a mammalian BLASTOCYST.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Adherens Junctions: Anchoring points where the CYTOSKELETON of neighboring cells are connected to each other. They are composed of specialized areas of the plasma membrane where bundles of the ACTIN CYTOSKELETON attach to the membrane through the transmembrane linkers, CADHERINS, which in turn attach through their extracellular domains to cadherins in the neighboring cell membranes. In sheets of cells, they form into adhesion belts (zonula adherens) that go all the way around a cell.Caenorhabditis elegans Proteins: Proteins from the nematode species CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS. The proteins from this species are the subject of scientific interest in the area of multicellular organism MORPHOGENESIS.Intercellular Junctions: Direct contact of a cell with a neighboring cell. Most such junctions are too small to be resolved by light microscopy, but they can be visualized by conventional or freeze-fracture electron microscopy, both of which show that the interacting CELL MEMBRANE and often the underlying CYTOPLASM and the intervening EXTRACELLULAR SPACE are highly specialized in these regions. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p792)LIM Domain Proteins: A large class of structurally-related proteins that contain one or more LIM zinc finger domains. Many of the proteins in this class are involved in intracellular signaling processes and mediate their effects via LIM domain protein-protein interactions. The name LIM is derived from the first three proteins in which the motif was found: LIN-11, Isl1 and Mec-3.Caenorhabditis elegans: A species of nematode that is widely used in biological, biochemical, and genetic studies.Cell Shape: The quality of surface form or outline of CELLS.Porphyra: A genus of RED ALGAE in the family Bangiaceae. It is the most widely consumed SEAWEED in the world and especially in Asia.Microtubule-Organizing Center: An amorphous region of electron dense material in the cytoplasm from which the MICROTUBULES polymerization is nucleated. The pericentriolar region of the CENTROSOME which surrounds the CENTRIOLES is an example.Animals, Genetically Modified: ANIMALS whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING, or their offspring.Zebrafish Proteins: Proteins obtained from the ZEBRAFISH. Many of the proteins in this species have been the subject of studies involving basic embryological development (EMBRYOLOGY).Pseudopodia: A dynamic actin-rich extension of the surface of an animal cell used for locomotion or prehension of food.Microfilament Proteins: Monomeric subunits of primarily globular ACTIN and found in the cytoplasmic matrix of almost all cells. They are often associated with microtubules and may play a role in cytoskeletal function and/or mediate movement of the cell or the organelles within the cell.Neural Tube Defects: Congenital malformations of the central nervous system and adjacent structures related to defective neural tube closure during the first trimester of pregnancy generally occurring between days 18-29 of gestation. Ectodermal and mesodermal malformations (mainly involving the skull and vertebrae) may occur as a result of defects of neural tube closure. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch55, pp31-41)Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Tooth Replantation: Reinsertion of a tooth into the alveolus from which it was removed or otherwise lost.Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled: The largest family of cell surface receptors involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They share a common structure and signal through HETEROTRIMERIC G-PROTEINS.Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.Pupa: An inactive stage between the larval and adult stages in the life cycle of insects.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Tight Junction Proteins: Proteins that take part in the formation or structure of TIGHT JUNCTIONS.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Epithelium: One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.PhosphoproteinsCarrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Cytoskeletal Proteins: Major constituent of the cytoskeleton found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They form a flexible framework for the cell, provide attachment points for organelles and formed bodies, and make communication between parts of the cell possible.Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Cell Adhesion Molecules: Surface ligands, usually glycoproteins, that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion. Their functions include the assembly and interconnection of various vertebrate systems, as well as maintenance of tissue integration, wound healing, morphogenic movements, cellular migrations, and metastasis.Eye: The organ of sight constituting a pair of globular organs made up of a three-layered roughly spherical structure specialized for receiving and responding to light.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Thoracic Cavity: The region of the thorax that includes the PLEURAL CAVITY and MEDIASTINUM.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Genes, Insect: The functional hereditary units of INSECTS.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Natural History: A former branch of knowledge embracing the study, description, and classification of natural objects (as animals, plants, and minerals) and thus including the modern sciences of zoology, botany, and mineralogy insofar as they existed at that time. In the 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries it was much used for the generalized pursuit of certain areas of science. (Webster, 3d ed; from Dr. James H. Cassedy, NLM History of Medicine Division)Nerve Tissue ProteinsNatural Springs: Water that emerges to the surface of the earth from underground.Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors: Protein factors that promote the exchange of GTP for GDP bound to GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.Organogenesis: Formation of differentiated cells and complicated tissue organization to provide specialized functions.Genocide: The deliberate annihilation of a national, ethnic, or religious group, in part or in whole.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Bioprosthesis: Prosthesis, usually heart valve, composed of biological material and whose durability depends upon the stability of the material after pretreatment, rather than regeneration by host cell ingrowth. Durability is achieved 1, mechanically by the interposition of a cloth, usually polytetrafluoroethylene, between the host and the graft, and 2, chemically by stabilization of the tissue by intermolecular linking, usually with glutaraldehyde, after removal of antigenic components, or the use of reconstituted and restructured biopolymers.Neurulation: An early embryonic developmental process of CHORDATES that is characterized by morphogenic movements of ECTODERM resulting in the formation of the NEURAL PLATE; the NEURAL CREST; and the NEURAL TUBE. Improper closure of the NEURAL GROOVE results in congenital NEURAL TUBE DEFECTS.Cell Surface Extensions: Specialized structures of the cell that extend the cell membrane and project out from the cell surface.Zonula Occludens-1 Protein: A 195-kDa zonula occludens protein that is distinguished by the presence of a ZU5 domain at the C-terminal of the molecule.Xenopus Proteins: Proteins obtained from various species of Xenopus. Included here are proteins from the African clawed frog (XENOPUS LAEVIS). Many of these proteins have been the subject of scientific investigations in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Guanylate Kinase: Catalyzes the ATP-dependent PHOSPHORYLATION of GMP to generate GDP and ADP.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.Centrosome: The cell center, consisting of a pair of CENTRIOLES surrounded by a cloud of amorphous material called the pericentriolar region. During interphase, the centrosome nucleates microtubule outgrowth. The centrosome duplicates and, during mitosis, separates to form the two poles of the mitotic spindle (MITOTIC SPINDLE APPARATUS).Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.Cell Cycle Proteins: Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Embryonic Development: Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS.Cytokinesis: The process by which the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided.Thiazolidines: Reduced (protonated) form of THIAZOLES. They can be oxidized to THIAZOLIDINEDIONES.Actin Cytoskeleton: Fibers composed of MICROFILAMENT PROTEINS, which are predominately ACTIN. They are the smallest of the cytoskeletal filaments.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Knee-Chest Position: The posture of an individual supported by the knees and chest resting on a table.Cell Communication: Any of several ways in which living cells of an organism communicate with one another, whether by direct contact between cells or by means of chemical signals carried by neurotransmitter substances, hormones, and cyclic AMP.rhoA GTP-Binding Protein: A RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEIN involved in regulating signal transduction pathways that control assembly of focal adhesions and actin stress fibers. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.Sf9 Cells: Cell line derived from SF21 CELLS which are a cell line isolated from primary explants of SPODOPTERA FRUGIPERDA pupal tissue.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.PDZ Domains: Protein interaction domains of about 70-90 amino acid residues, named after a common structure found in PSD-95, Discs Large, and Zona Occludens 1 proteins. PDZ domains are involved in the recruitment and interaction of proteins, and aid the formation of protein scaffolds and signaling networks. This is achieved by sequence-specific binding between a PDZ domain in one protein and a PDZ motif in another protein.Chemotaxis: The movement of cells or organisms toward or away from a substance in response to its concentration gradient.Spindle Apparatus: A microtubule structure that forms during CELL DIVISION. It consists of two SPINDLE POLES, and sets of MICROTUBULES that may include the astral microtubules, the polar microtubules, and the kinetochore microtubules.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.rab GTP-Binding Proteins: A large family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that play a key role in cellular secretory and endocytic pathways. EC 3.6.1.-.Gastrula: The developmental stage that follows BLASTULA or BLASTOCYST. It is characterized by the morphogenetic cell movements including invagination, ingression, and involution. Gastrulation begins with the formation of the PRIMITIVE STREAK, and ends with the formation of three GERM LAYERS, the body plan of the mature organism.Indoleacetic Acids: Acetic acid derivatives of the heterocyclic compound indole. (Merck Index, 11th ed)Two-Hybrid System Techniques: Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.Photoreceptor Cells, Invertebrate: Specialized cells in the invertebrates that detect and transduce light. They are predominantly rhabdomeric with an array of photosensitive microvilli. Illumination depolarizes invertebrate photoreceptors by stimulating Na+ influx across the plasma membrane.Wnt1 Protein: A proto-oncogene protein and member of the Wnt family of proteins. It is expressed in the caudal MIDBRAIN and is essential for proper development of the entire mid-/hindbrain region.Anemone: A plant genus of the family RANUNCULACEAE that contains triterpene saponins. The root of Anemone raddeana is the source of a Chinese folk medicine, zhu jie xian fu. The common name of liverwort is also used with other plants. This genus is unrelated to SEA ANEMONES.beta Catenin: A multi-functional catenin that participates in CELL ADHESION and nuclear signaling. Beta catenin binds CADHERINS and helps link their cytoplasmic tails to the ACTIN in the CYTOSKELETON via ALPHA CATENIN. It also serves as a transcriptional co-activator and downstream component of WNT PROTEIN-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Septins: A family of GTP-binding proteins that were initially identified in YEASTS where they were shown to initiate the process of septation and bud formation. Septins form into hetero-oligomeric complexes that are comprised of several distinct septin subunits. These complexes can act as cytoskeletal elements that play important roles in CYTOKINESIS, cytoskeletal reorganization, BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, and membrane dynamics.Nucleoside-Phosphate Kinase: An enzyme that catalyzes reversible reactions of a nucleoside triphosphate, e.g., ATP, with a nucleoside monophosphate, e.g., UMP, to form ADP and UDP. Many nucleoside monophosphates can act as acceptor while many ribo- and deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates can act as donor. EC 2.7.4.4.Thiabendazole: 2-Substituted benzimidazole first introduced in 1962. It is active against a variety of nematodes and is the drug of choice for STRONGYLOIDIASIS. It has CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM side effects and hepatototoxic potential. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1992, p919)Insect Proteins: Proteins found in any species of insect.Embryo, Mammalian: The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.Kidney Diseases, Cystic: A heterogeneous group of hereditary and acquired disorders in which the KIDNEY contains one or more CYSTS unilaterally or bilaterally (KIDNEY, CYSTIC).Helminth Proteins: Proteins found in any species of helminth.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Endocytosis: Cellular uptake of extracellular materials within membrane-limited vacuoles or microvesicles. ENDOSOMES play a central role in endocytosis.Junctional Adhesion Molecules: A family of membrane glycoproteins localized to TIGHT JUNCTIONS that contain two extracellular Ig-like domains, a single transmembrane segment, and a cytoplasmic tail of variable length.Microtubule-Associated Proteins: High molecular weight proteins found in the MICROTUBULES of the cytoskeletal system. Under certain conditions they are required for TUBULIN assembly into the microtubules and stabilize the assembled microtubules.Fluorescence Recovery After Photobleaching: A method used to study the lateral movement of MEMBRANE PROTEINS and LIPIDS. A small area of a cell membrane is bleached by laser light and the amount of time necessary for unbleached fluorescent marker-tagged proteins to diffuse back into the bleached site is a measurement of the cell membrane's fluidity. The diffusion coefficient of a protein or lipid in the membrane can be calculated from the data. (From Segen, Current Med Talk, 1995).Compound Eye, Arthropod: Light sensory organ in ARTHROPODS consisting of a large number of ommatidia, each functioning as an independent photoreceptor unit.Hyphae: Microscopic threadlike filaments in FUNGI that are filled with a layer of protoplasm. Collectively, the hyphae make up the MYCELIUM.Dictyostelium: A genus of protozoa, formerly also considered a fungus. Its natural habitat is decaying forest leaves, where it feeds on bacteria. D. discoideum is the best-known species and is widely used in biomedical research.Neuroepithelial Cells: Cells of epithelial origin possessing specialized sensory functions. They include cells that are found in the TASTE BUDS; OLFACTORY MUCOSA; COCHLEA; and NEUROEPITHELIAL BODIES.Armadillo Domain Proteins: A family of proteins that contain several 42-amino acid repeat domains and are homologous to the Drosophila armadillo protein. They bind to other proteins through their armadillo domains and play a variety of roles in the CELL including SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION, regulation of DESMOSOME assembly, and CELL ADHESION.Bicyclo Compounds, Heterocyclic: A class of saturated compounds consisting of two rings only, having two or more atoms in common, containing at least one hetero atom, and that take the name of an open chain hydrocarbon containing the same total number of atoms. (From Riguady et al., Nomenclature of Organic Chemistry, 1979, p31)rac1 GTP-Binding Protein: A rac GTP-binding protein involved in regulating actin filaments at the plasma membrane. It controls the development of filopodia and lamellipodia in cells and thereby influences cellular motility and adhesion. It is also involved in activation of NADPH OXIDASE. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.Time-Lapse Imaging: Recording serial images of a process at regular intervals spaced out over a longer period of time than the time in which the recordings will be played back.Myosin Type V: A subclass of myosin involved in organelle transport and membrane targeting. It is abundantly found in nervous tissue and neurosecretory cells. The heavy chains of myosin V contain unusually long neck domains that are believed to aid in translocating molecules over large distances.rac GTP-Binding Proteins: A sub-family of RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that is involved in regulating the organization of cytoskeletal filaments. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.GTPase-Activating Proteins: Proteins that activate the GTPase of specific GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.Blastomeres: Undifferentiated cells resulting from cleavage of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE). Inside the intact ZONA PELLUCIDA, each cleavage yields two blastomeres of about half size of the parent cell. Up to the 8-cell stage, all of the blastomeres are totipotent. The 16-cell MORULA contains outer cells and inner cells.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Cell Lineage: The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.Multiprotein Complexes: Macromolecular complexes formed from the association of defined protein subunits.Tissue Engineering: Generating tissue in vitro for clinical applications, such as replacing wounded tissues or impaired organs. The use of TISSUE SCAFFOLDING enables the generation of complex multi-layered tissues and tissue structures.Guanine Nucleotide Dissociation Inhibitors: Protein factors that inhibit the dissociation of GDP from GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.Stereocilia: Mechanosensing organelles of hair cells which respond to fluid motion or fluid pressure changes. They have various functions in many different animals, but are primarily used in hearing.Myosins: A diverse superfamily of proteins that function as translocating proteins. They share the common characteristics of being able to bind ACTINS and hydrolyze MgATP. Myosins generally consist of heavy chains which are involved in locomotion, and light chains which are involved in regulation. Within the structure of myosin heavy chain are three domains: the head, the neck and the tail. The head region of the heavy chain contains the actin binding domain and MgATPase domain which provides energy for locomotion. The neck region is involved in binding the light-chains. The tail region provides the anchoring point that maintains the position of the heavy chain. The superfamily of myosins is organized into structural classes based upon the type and arrangement of the subunits they contain.Kinesin: A microtubule-associated mechanical adenosine triphosphatase, that uses the energy of ATP hydrolysis to move organelles along microtubules toward the plus end of the microtubule. The protein is found in squid axoplasm, optic lobes, and in bovine brain. Bovine kinesin is a heterotetramer composed of two heavy (120 kDa) and two light (62 kDa) chains. EC 3.6.1.-.Polycystic Kidney Diseases: Hereditary diseases that are characterized by the progressive expansion of a large number of tightly packed CYSTS within the KIDNEYS. They include diseases with autosomal dominant and autosomal recessive inheritance.Oogenesis: The process of germ cell development in the female from the primordial germ cells through OOGONIA to the mature haploid ova (OVUM).Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Gene Knockdown Techniques: The artificial induction of GENE SILENCING by the use of RNA INTERFERENCE to reduce the expression of a specific gene. It includes the use of DOUBLE-STRANDED RNA, such as SMALL INTERFERING RNA and RNA containing HAIRPIN LOOP SEQUENCE, and ANTI-SENSE OLIGONUCLEOTIDES.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Tubulin: A microtubule subunit protein found in large quantities in mammalian brain. It has also been isolated from SPERM FLAGELLUM; CILIA; and other sources. Structurally, the protein is a dimer with a molecular weight of approximately 120,000 and a sedimentation coefficient of 5.8S. It binds to COLCHICINE; VINCRISTINE; and VINBLASTINE.Larva: Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Ectropion: The turning outward (eversion) of the edge of the eyelid, resulting in the exposure of the palpebral conjunctiva. (Dorland, 27th ed)Vertebrates: Animals having a vertebral column, members of the phylum Chordata, subphylum Craniata comprising mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fishes.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Mesoderm: The middle germ layer of an embryo derived from three paired mesenchymal aggregates along the neural tube.GTP Phosphohydrolases: Enzymes that hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.Golgi Apparatus: A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)p21-Activated Kinases: A family of serine-threonine kinases that bind to and are activated by MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS such as RAC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS and CDC42 GTP-BINDING PROTEIN. They are intracellular signaling kinases that play a role the regulation of cytoskeletal organization.Plant Cells: Basic functional unit of plants.Vesicular Transport Proteins: A broad category of proteins involved in the formation, transport and dissolution of TRANSPORT VESICLES. They play a role in the intracellular transport of molecules contained within membrane vesicles. Vesicular transport proteins are distinguished from MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS, which move molecules across membranes, by the mode in which the molecules are transported.Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Hair Cells, Auditory: Sensory cells in the organ of Corti, characterized by their apical stereocilia (hair-like projections). The inner and outer hair cells, as defined by their proximity to the core of spongy bone (the modiolus), change morphologically along the COCHLEA. Towards the cochlear apex, the length of hair cell bodies and their apical STEREOCILIA increase, allowing differential responses to various frequencies of sound.Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3: A glycogen synthase kinase that was originally described as a key enzyme involved in glycogen metabolism. It regulates a diverse array of functions such as CELL DIVISION, microtubule function and APOPTOSIS.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Cochlea: The part of the inner ear (LABYRINTH) that is concerned with hearing. It forms the anterior part of the labyrinth, as a snail-like structure that is situated almost horizontally anterior to the VESTIBULAR LABYRINTH.Pteridaceae: A plant family of the order Polypodiales, class Filicopsida, division Pteridophyta (FERNS).Transport Vesicles: Vesicles that are involved in shuttling cargo from the interior of the cell to the cell surface, from the cell surface to the interior, across the cell or around the cell to various locations.Organ of Corti: The spiral EPITHELIUM containing sensory AUDITORY HAIR CELLS and supporting cells in the cochlea. Organ of Corti, situated on the BASILAR MEMBRANE and overlaid by a gelatinous TECTORIAL MEMBRANE, converts sound-induced mechanical waves to neural impulses to the brain.Immunoprecipitation: The aggregation of soluble ANTIGENS with ANTIBODIES, alone or with antibody binding factors such as ANTI-ANTIBODIES or STAPHYLOCOCCAL PROTEIN A, into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.rho-Associated Kinases: A group of intracellular-signaling serine threonine kinases that bind to RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. They were originally found to mediate the effects of rhoA GTP-BINDING PROTEIN on the formation of STRESS FIBERS and FOCAL ADHESIONS. Rho-associated kinases have specificity for a variety of substrates including MYOSIN-LIGHT-CHAIN PHOSPHATASE and LIM KINASES.Arabidopsis Proteins: Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.Homeodomain Proteins: Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).Epidermis: The external, nonvascular layer of the skin. It is made up, from within outward, of five layers of EPITHELIUM: (1) basal layer (stratum basale epidermidis); (2) spinous layer (stratum spinosum epidermidis); (3) granular layer (stratum granulosum epidermidis); (4) clear layer (stratum lucidum epidermidis); and (5) horny layer (stratum corneum epidermidis).rap1 GTP-Binding Proteins: A genetically related subfamily of RAP GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that share homology with RAS PROTEINS. They bind to Ras effectors but do not activate them, therefore they may antagonize the effects of RAS PROTEINS. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.Genes, Developmental: Genes that determine the fate of a cell or CELLS in a region of the embryo during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT.Ectoderm: The outer of the three germ layers of an embryo.Catenins: A family of cytoskeletal proteins that play essential roles in CELL ADHESION at ADHERENS JUNCTIONS by linking CADHERINS to the ACTIN FILAMENTS of the CYTOSKELETON.

Cell polarization: chemotaxis gets CRACKing. (1/6230)

An early stage in the establishment of cell polarity during chemotaxis of Dictyostelium dicoideum has been identified by a recent study; the new results also show that the development of cell polarity does not rely upon cytoskeletal rearrangement, and may use a spatial sensing mechanism.  (+info)

Deletion analysis of the Drosophila Inscuteable protein reveals domains for cortical localization and asymmetric localization. (2/6230)

The Drosophila Inscuteable protein acts as a key regulator of asymmetric cell division during the development of the nervous system [1] [2]. In neuroblasts, Inscuteable localizes into an apical cortical crescent during late interphase and most of mitosis. During mitosis, Inscuteable is required for the correct apical-basal orientation of the mitotic spindle and for the asymmetric segregation of the proteins Numb [3] [4] [5], Prospero [5] [6] [7] and Miranda [8] [9] into the basal daughter cell. When Inscuteable is ectopically expressed in epidermal cells, which normally orient their mitotic spindle parallel to the embryo surface, these cells reorient their mitotic spindle and divide perpendicularly to the surface [1]. Like the Inscuteable protein, the inscuteable RNA is asymmetrically localized [10]. We show here that inscuteable RNA localization is not required for Inscuteable protein localization. We found that a central 364 amino acid domain - the Inscuteable asymmetry domain - was necessary and sufficient for Inscuteable localization and function. Within this domain, a separate 100 amino acid region was required for asymmetric localization along the cortex, whereas a 158 amino acid region directed localization to the cell cortex. The same 158 amino acid fragment could localize asymmetrically when coexpressed with the full-length protein, however, and could bind to Inscuteable in vitro, suggesting that this domain may be involved in the self-association of Inscuteable in vivo.  (+info)

Polarized distribution of Bcr-Abl in migrating myeloid cells and co-localization of Bcr-Abl and its target proteins. (3/6230)

Bcr-Abl plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of Philadelphia chromosome-positive leukemia. Although a large number of substrates and interacting proteins of Bcr-Abl have been identified, it remains unclear whether Bcr-Abl assembles multi-protein complexes and if it does where these complexes are within cells. We have investigated the localization of Bcr-Abl in 32D myeloid cells attached to the extracellular matrix. We have found that Bcr-Abl displays a polarized distribution, colocalizing with a subset of filamentous actin at trailing portions of migrating 32D cells, and localizes on the cortical F-actin and on vesicle-like structures in resting 32D cells. Deletion of the actin binding domain of Bcr-Abl (Bcr-AbI-AD) dramatically enhances the localization of Bcr-Abl on the vesicle-like structures. These distinct localization patterns of Bcr-Abl and Bcr-Abl-AD enabled us to examine the localization of Bcr-Abl substrate and interacting proteins in relation to Bcr-Abl. We found that a subset of biochemically defined target proteins of Bcr-Abl redistributed and co-localized with Bcr-Abl on F-actin and on vesicle-like structures. The co-localization of signaling proteins with Bcr-Abl at its sites of localization supports the idea that Bcr-Abl forms a multi-protein signaling complex, while the polarized distribution and vesicle-like localization of Bcr-Abl may play a role in leukemogenesis.  (+info)

Changes in basement membrane thickness in the human endometrium during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. (4/6230)

We have examined aspects of the fine structure of the basal laminae associated with the luminal and glandular epithelium and small blood vessels in the human endometrium. Four short studies are presented and reviewed. Study 1 examined biopsies from 20 fertile women taken on days after the luteinizing hormone surge (LH): LH +2, 4, 6, 8 and 10. The basal lamina (both lamina densa and lucida) increased in thickness over the period studied. Study 2 again studied the glandular epithelium and examined the effect of RU486 (a progesterone receptor blocker) administered on day LH +3 and biopsied on day LH +6. The basal laminae were found to be the same as LH +2 control group but thinner than LH +6 control. Study 3 documented increased thickness of the basal laminae between LH +6, 8 and 13 in the luminal epithelium. The within-group coefficient of variation was 16% and 27% for LH +6 and LH +13 groups but only 2 % for LH +8. Study 4 demonstrated an increase in basal lamina thickness associated with small blood vessels between LH +6 and LH +10 in normal fertile women. The basal lamina provides the interface between epithelial and mesenchymal environments; changes in its structure can alter the phenotypic expression of the epithelia. It is one of the maternal barriers that must be transgressed by the trophoblast during implantation. Together, these combined studies provide quantitative baseline structural information on the electron microscopical appearance of the basal lamina during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle.  (+info)

Myometrial zonal differentiation and uterine junctional zone hyperplasia in the non-pregnant uterus. (5/6230)

Human non-gravid myometrium differentiates in response to ovarian sex steroids into a subendometrial layer or junctional zone and an outer myometrial layer. Compared to the outer myometrial layer, the junctional zone myocytes are characterized by higher cellular density and lower cytoplasmic-nuclear ratio. These structural differences allow in-vivo visualization of the myometrial zonal anatomy by T2-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. The human myometrium is also functionally polarized. Video-vaginosonography studies have shown that propagated myometrial contractions in the non-pregnant uterus originate only from the junctional zone and that the frequency and orientation of these contraction waves are dependent on the phase of the menstrual cycle. The mechanisms underlying zonal myometrial differentiation are not known, but growing evidence suggests that ovarian hormone action may be mediated through cytokines and uterotonins locally released by the basal endometrial layer and endometrio-myometrial T-lymphocytes. Irregular thickening of the junctional zone due to inordinate proliferation of the inner myometrium, junctional zone hyperplasia, is a common MR finding in women suffering from menstrual dysfunction. Preliminary data suggest that junctional zone hyperplasia is further characterized by loss of normal inner myometrial function. Although irregular thickening of the junctional zone has been associated with diffuse uterine adenomyosis, the precise relationship between subendometrial smooth muscle proliferation and myometrial invasion by endometrial glands and stroma remains to be established.  (+info)

Sodium reabsorption and distribution of Na+/K+-ATPase during postischemic injury to the renal allograft. (6/6230)

BACKGROUND: A loss of proximal tubule cell polarity is thought to activate tubuloglomerular feedback, thereby contributing to glomerular filtration rate depression in postischemic acute renal failure (ARF). METHODS: We used immunomicroscopy to evaluate the segmental distribution of Na+/K+-ATPase in tubules of recipients of cadaveric renal allografts. Fractional excretion (FE) of sodium and lithium was determined simultaneously. Observations were made on two occasions: one to three hours after graft reperfusion (day 0) and again on post-transplant day 7. An inulin clearance below or above 25 ml/min on day 7 was used to divide subjects into groups with sustained (N = 15) or recovering (N = 16) ARF, respectively. RESULTS: In sustained ARF, the fractional excretion of sodium (FENa) was 40 +/- 6% and 11 +/- 5%, and the fractional excretion of lithium (FELi) was 76 +/- 5% and 70 +/- 2% on days 0 and 7, respectively. Corresponding findings in recovering ARF were 28 +/- 2% and 6 +/- 2% for the FENa and 77 +/- 4% and 55 +/- 3% (P < 0.05 vs. sustained) for FELi. Na+/K+-ATPase distribution in both groups was mainly basolateral in distal straight and convoluted tubule segments and collecting ducts. However, Na+/K+-ATPase was poorly retained in the basolateral membrane of proximal convoluted and straight tubule segments in sustained and recovering ARF on both days 0 and 7. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that loss of proximal tubule cell polarity for Na+/K+-ATPase distribution is associated with enhanced delivery of filtered Na+ to the macula densa for seven days after allograft reperfusion. Whether an ensuing activation of tubuloglomerular feedback is an important cause of glomerular filtration rate depression in this form of ARF remains to be determined.  (+info)

Coupling assembly of the E-cadherin/beta-catenin complex to efficient endoplasmic reticulum exit and basal-lateral membrane targeting of E-cadherin in polarized MDCK cells. (7/6230)

The E-cadherin/catenin complex regulates Ca++-dependent cell-cell adhesion and is localized to the basal-lateral membrane of polarized epithelial cells. Little is known about mechanisms of complex assembly or intracellular trafficking, or how these processes might ultimately regulate adhesion functions of the complex at the cell surface. The cytoplasmic domain of E-cadherin contains two putative basal-lateral sorting motifs, which are homologous to sorting signals in the low density lipoprotein receptor, but an alanine scan across tyrosine residues in these motifs did not affect the fidelity of newly synthesized E-cadherin delivery to the basal-lateral membrane of MDCK cells. Nevertheless, sorting signals are located in the cytoplasmic domain since a chimeric protein (GP2CAD1), comprising the extracellular domain of GP2 (an apical membrane protein) and the transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains of E-cadherin, was efficiently and specifically delivered to the basal-lateral membrane. Systematic deletion and recombination of specific regions of the cytoplasmic domain of GP2CAD1 resulted in delivery of <10% of these newly synthesized proteins to both apical and basal-lateral membrane domains. Significantly, >90% of each mutant protein was retained in the ER. None of these mutants formed a strong interaction with beta-catenin, which normally occurs shortly after E-cadherin synthesis. In addition, a simple deletion mutation of E-cadherin that lacks beta-catenin binding is also localized intracellularly. Thus, beta-catenin binding to the whole cytoplasmic domain of E-cadherin correlates with efficient and targeted delivery of E-cadherin to the lateral plasma membrane. In this capacity, we suggest that beta-catenin acts as a chauffeur, to facilitate transport of E-cadherin out of the ER and the plasma membrane.  (+info)

Identification and characterization of genes required for hyphal morphogenesis in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans. (8/6230)

In the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans, germination of an asexual conidiospore results in the formation of a hyphal cell. A key feature of spore germination is the switch from isotropic spore expansion to polarized apical growth. Here, temperature-sensitive mutations are used to characterize the roles of five genes (sepA, hypA, podB-podD) in the establishment and maintenance of hyphal polarity. Evidence that suggests that the hypA, podB, and sepA genes are required for multiple aspects of hyphal morphogenesis is presented. Notably, podB and sepA are needed for organization of the cytoskeleton at sites of polarized growth. In contrast, podC and podD encode proteins that appear to be specifically required for the establishment of hyphal polarity during spore germination. The role of sepA and the pod genes in controlling the spatial pattern of polarized morphogenesis in germinating spores is also described. Results obtained from these experiments indicate that the normal pattern of germ-tube emergence is dependent upon the integrity of the actin cytoskeleton.  (+info)

*Dishevelled

Planar cell polarity pathway[edit]. The planar cell polarity pathway (PCP) is the most notable β-catenin independent pathway - ... an enigmatic protein governing cell fate and cell polarity". Development. 132 (20): 4421-36. doi:10.1242/dev.02068. PMID ... Dishevelled plays important roles in both the embryo and the adult, ranging from cellular differentiation and cell polarity to ... it regulates the polarity and movement of a cell, in processes in vertebrates (like Xenopus) including gastrulation, neural ...

*Cell membrane

Permeability depends mainly on the electric charge and polarity of the molecule and to a lesser extent the molar mass of the ... Hooke misled the cell membrane theory that all cells contained a hard cell wall since only plant cells could be observed at the ... The cell membrane, being exposed to the outside environment, is an important site of cell-cell communication. As such, a large ... Main article: History of cell membrane theory. While Robert Hooke's discovery of cells in 1665 led to the proposal of the Cell ...

*Cell membrane

Permeability depends mainly on the electric charge and polarity of the molecule and to a lesser extent the molar mass of the ... Hooke misled the cell membrane theory that all cells contained a hard cell wall since only plant cells could be observed at the ... The cell membrane, being exposed to the outside environment, is an important site of cell-cell communication. As such, a large ... Main article: History of cell membrane theory. While Robert Hooke's discovery of cells in 1665 led to the proposal of the Cell ...

*Diane Barber

". "A polarity/proton loop". "Arp2/3 phosphorylation kickstarts cells". Official CV at UCSF CV at UCSF Cancer Center. ... is an American cell physiologist and cell biologist. She is Professor and Chair of the Department of Cell and Tissue Biology at ... She is currently a Professor and Chair of the Department of Cell and Tissue Biology at University of California, San Francisco ... Barber's research addresses questions on how signaling networks and the actin cytoskeleton control normal and pathological cell ...

*FGD1

... a key player in the establishment of cell polarity in all eukaryotic cells. The GEF activity of FGD1, which activates Cdc42, is ... Cell. Biol. 18 (8): 4689-97. PMC 109055 . PMID 9671479. Etienne-Manneville S (March 2004). "Cdc42--the centre of polarity". J. ... Cell. 20 (9): 2413-27. doi:10.1091/mbc.E08-11-1136. PMC 2675621 . PMID 19261807. Olson MF, Pasteris NG, Gorski JL, Hall A ( ... FGD1 also activates the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling cascade, important in cell differentiation and apoptosis. It ...

*Torsin A

Ferrari Toninelli G, Spano P, Memo M (2003). "TorsinA, microtubules and cell polarity". Funct. Neurol. 18 (1): 7-10. PMID ... 2000). "Mutant torsinA, responsible for early-onset torsion dystonia, forms membrane inclusions in cultured neural cells". Hum ...

*Symmetry breaking and cortical rotation

In fact, the origin of asymmetry in cell division, cell polarity and the mechanism that breaks the symmetry continue to be ... Cells first need to establish a polarity through a symmetry-breaking event before tissues and organs themselves can be polar. ... Wong, Fei (2009). "The Signaling Mechanisms Underlying Cell Polarity and Chemotaxis". Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in ... Nelson, James W. (2009). "Remodeling epithelial cell organization: Transitions between front-rear and apical-basal polarity". ...

*Synapse

Arimura, Nariko; Kaibuchi, Kozo (December 22, 2005). "Key regulators in neuronal polarity". Neuron. Cambridge, MA: Cell Press. ... The distinctive structure of nerve cells allows action potentials to travel directionally (from dendrites to cell body down the ... neurons are cells that are specialized to pass signals to individual target cells, and synapses are the means by which they do ... causing voltage changes in the presynaptic cell to induce voltage changes in the postsynaptic cell. The main advantage of an ...

*Dominique Bergmann

Dominique C. Bergmann is a plant scientist working on cell differentiation, stem cell renewal, and cell polarity with a focus ... Powell, Kendall (2014-12-22). "Dominique Bergmann: Passionate about plant polarity". The Journal of Cell Biology. 207 (6): 680- ... on guard cell development as a model for all three cellular behaviors. She is a professor at Stanford University. Her lab has a ...

*Cilium

"Molecular Biology of the Cell". Johnson, KA; Rosenbaum, JL (1992). "Polarity of flagellar assembly in Chlamydomonas". Journal ... Some epithelial cells are ciliated, and they commonly exist as a sheet of polarized cells forming a tube or tubule with cilia ... In comparison to motile cilia, non-motile (or primary) cilia usually occur one per cell; nearly all mammalian cells have a ... Scholey, JM (2008). "Intraflagellar transport motors in cilia: Moving along the cell's antenna". Journal of Cell Biology. 180 ( ...

*Arp2/3 complex

The complex has also been shown to be involved in the establishment of cell polarity and the migration of fibroblast monolayers ... pavement cells, hypocotyl cells, and root hair cells. The Arp2/3 complex is composed of seven subunits: Arp2, Arp3, p41/ARPC1, ... Xu J, Scheres B (December 2005). "Cell polarity: ROPing the ends together". Current Opinion in Plant Biology. 8 (6): 613-8. doi ... "Involvement of the Arp2/3 complex and Scar2 in Golgi polarity in scratch wound models". Molecular Biology of the Cell. 14 (2): ...

*Neural plate

Additionally, cells destined to become neural plate cells express nerve cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) to further neural plate ... Eom, Dae S; Amarnath, Smita; Agarwala, Seema (20 December 2012). "Apicobasal Polarity and neural tube closure". Development, ... Without BMP4 the ectoderm cells would develop into neural cells. Axial mesoderm cells under the ectoderm secrete inhibitory ... the overlying cells take their normal course and develop into neural cells. The cells in the ectoderm that circumscribe these ...

*Amelogenesis

The IEE cells then elongate and become preameloblasts. There is a shift in polarity. Each preameloblast elongates and becomes ... In the secretory stage, ameloblasts are polarized columnar cells. In the rough endoplasmic reticulum of these cells, enamel ... processes at the end of the cell which is in contact with the DEJ. Tomes' process is the term given to the end of the cell ... Microscopically, the most notable aspect of this phase is that these cells become striated, or have a ruffled border. These ...

*Strabismus (protein)

Prickle is another protein in the planar cell polarity signaling pathway. Prickle is recruited to the cell surface membrane by ... Fanto M, McNeill H (February 2004). "Planar polarity from flies to vertebrates". J. Cell Sci. 117 (Pt 4): 527-33. doi:10.1242/ ... Wolff T, Rubin GM (March 1998). "Strabismus, a novel gene that regulates tissue polarity and cell fate decisions in Drosophila ... Strabismus was originally identified as a Drosophila protein involved in planar cell polarity. Flies with mutated strabismus ...

*Synapse

The function of neurons depends upon cell polarity. The distinctive structure of nerve cells allows action potentials to travel ... Arimura, Nariko; Kaibuchi, Kozo (December 22, 2005). "Key regulators in neuronal polarity". Neuron. Cambridge, MA: Cell Press. ... Synapses are essential to neuronal function: neurons are cells that are specialized to pass signals to individual target cells ... and for these signals to then be received and carried on by post-synaptic neurons or received by effector cells. Nerve cells ...

*Kai Simons

van Meer G, Simons K (1988). "Lipid polarity and sorting in epithelial cells". J. Cell. Biochem. 36 (1): 51-8. doi:10.1002/jcb. ... Simons K, Fuller SD (1985). "Cell surface polarity in epithelia". Annu. Rev. Cell Biol. 1: 243-88. doi:10.1146/annurev.cb. ... American Society of Cell Biology 1991 Anders Jahre Prize for Medical Research 1991 NICHD Lectureship in Cell Biology 1993 Carl ... molecular organization of the cell, and biochemistry and physiology of a cell membrane. Considering his work from years 1996- ...

*CAB39

Baas AF, Smit L, Clevers H (2004). "LKB1 tumor suppressor protein: PARtaker in cell polarity". Trends Cell Biol. 14 (6): 312-9 ... 2005). "Analysis of the LKB1-STRAD-MO25 complex". J. Cell Sci. 117 (Pt 26): 6365-75. doi:10.1242/jcs.01571. PMID 15561763. ...

*LYK5

Baas AF, Smit L, Clevers H (2004). "LKB1 tumor suppressor protein: PARtaker in cell polarity". Trends Cell Biol. 14 (6): 312-9 ... Cell Sci. 117 (Pt 26): 6365-75. doi:10.1242/jcs.01571. PMID 15561763. Veleva-Rotse BO, Smart JL, Baas AF, Edmonds B, Zhao ZM, ... Cell Sci. 117 (Pt 26): 6365-75. doi:10.1242/jcs.01571. PMID 15561763. ...

*Homeosis

... proteins that stably determined one of two possible cell fates for a cell and its cellular descendants in a tissue. While most ... "Mutations affecting segment number and polarity in Drosophila". Nature. 287 (5785): 795-801. doi:10.1038/287795a0. PMID 6776413 ... Molecular Cell Biology, 5th Edition. W.H. Freeman and Company, New York.[page needed] Nüsslein-Volhard, Christiane; Wieschaus, ... tissue compartments is deeply intertwined with the selector model of homeosis because the selector-mediated maintenance of cell ...

*Neurite

The neural cell adhesion molecule N-CAM simultaneously combines with another N-CAM and a fibroblast growth factor receptor to ... ISBN 978-1-4419-1170-4. Arimura, Nariko; Kaibuchi, Kozo (2007-03-01). "Neuronal polarity: from extracellular signals to ... It is known that 60% of the time the first neurite that protrudes from the cell body will become the axon. 30% of the time, a ... A neurite or neuronal process refers to any projection from the cell body of a neuron. This projection can be either an axon or ...

*Morphogen

... is often invoked for additional activities such as controlling the growth of the tissue or orienting the polarity of cells ... ISBN 978-0-87969-881-2. Roth S, Lynch J (2012). "Does the Bicoid gradient matter?". Cell. 149 (3): 511-2. doi:10.1016/j.cell. ... Essentially the embryo remains a single cell with over 8000 nuclei evenly spaced near the membrane until the fourteenth cell ... These gradients drive the process of differentiation of unspecialised stem cells into different cell types, ultimately forming ...

*PRICKLE1

Prickle planar cell polarity protein 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PRICKLE1 gene. This gene encodes a nuclear ... Prickle planar cell polarity protein 1". Retrieved 2017-08-08. Katoh M, Katoh M (2003). "Identification and characterization of ... "Prickle and Strabismus form a functional complex to generate a correct axis during planar cell polarity signaling". EMBO J. 22 ... Cell. Biol. 23 (24): 9025-31. PMC 309669 . PMID 14645515. Kim SM, Yang JW, Park MJ, Lee JK, Kim SU, Lee YS, Lee MA (2006). " ...

*PDZ domain

Liu, Jie; Li, Juan; Ren, Yu; Liu, Peijun (2014-01-01). "DLG5 in cell polarity maintenance and cancer development". ... Cell. 131 (1): 80-92. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2007.07.037. ISSN 0092-8674. PMID 17923089. van den Berk, Lieke C. J.; Landi, Elena; ... both play an important role at cell junctions and in cell signaling complexes. Since the discovery of PDZ domains more than 20 ... For cells to function properly it is important for components-proteins and other molecules- to be in the right place at the ...

*STK11

Baas AF, Smit L, Clevers H (2004). "LKB1 tumor suppressor protein: PARtaker in cell polarity". Trends Cell Biol. 14 (6): 312-9 ... The STK11/LKB1 gene, which encodes a member of the serine/threonine kinase family, regulates cell polarity and functions as a ... A picture from current research is emerging that loss of LKB1 leads to disorganization of cell polarity and facilitates tumour ... Activation of AMPK-related kinases by LKB1 plays vital roles maintaining cell polarity thereby inhibiting inappropriate ...

*Axon

Cells called guidepost cells assist in the guidance of neuronal axon growth. These cells are typically other, sometimes ... This alteration of polarity only occurs when the axon is cut at least 10 μm shorter than the other neurites. After the incision ... which is formed by two types of glial cells Schwann cells and oligodendrocytes. In the peripheral nervous system Schwann cells ... Depending on the type of receptors that are activated, the effect on the target cell can be to excite the target cell, inhibit ...

*Centre for Genomic Regulation

Cell polarity is a prerequisite for several fundamental operations in animal cells, such as asymmetric cell division and ... It is not known how these proteins set polarity. The investigators have proposed a dual approach, combining in vitro and cell ... Cell and Developmental Biology, or CDB, is built on the idea that the cell should be the primary focus of developmental biology ... Stem cell research includes differentiation and transdifferentiation in the hematopoietic system, somatic cell reprogramming, ...

*LMNA - 维基百科,自由的百科全书

regulation of cell migration. · establishment or maintenance of microtubule cytoskeleton polarity. · endoplasmic reticulum ... M phase of mitotic cell cycle. · mitotic prophase. · mitotic anaphase. · mitotic cell cycle. · apoptotic process. · cellular ... Halaschek-Wiener J, Brooks-Wilson A. Progeria of stem cells: stem cell exhaustion in Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome. J. ... J. Cell. Sci. October 2000, 113 (19): 3473-84. PMID 10984438.. *^ Dreuillet C, Tillit J, Kress M, Ernoult-Lange M. In vivo and ...

*Allomyces macrogynus

39 233 - 240 Youatt, J.; Gow, N. A. R.; Gooday, G. W. (1988). "Bioelectric and biosynthetic aspects of cell polarity ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The Aspergillus nidulans sepA gene encodes an FH1/2 protein involved in cytokinesis and the maintenance of cellular polarity. AU - Harris, Steven D.. AU - Hamer, Lisbeth. AU - Sharpless, Kathryn E.. AU - Hamer, John E.. PY - 1997/6/16. Y1 - 1997/6/16. N2 - Cytokinesis (septation) in the fungus Aspergillus nidulans occurs through the formation of a transient actin ring at the incipient division site. Temperature-sensitive mutations in the sepA gene prevent septation and cause defects in the maintenance of cellular polarity, without affecting growth and nuclear division. The sepA gene encodes a member of the growing family of FH1/2 proteins, which appear to have roles in morphogenesis and cytokinesis in organisms such as yeast and Drosophila. Results from temperature shift and immunofluorescence microscopy experiments strongly suggest that sepA function requires a preceding mitosis and that sepA acts prior to actin ring formation. Deletion mutants of sepA exhibit ...
Although regulators of the Wnt/planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway are widely expressed in vertebrate nervous systems, their roles at synapses are unknown. Here, we show that Vangl2 is a postsynaptic factor crucial for synaptogenesis and that it coprecipitates with N-cadherin and PSD-95 from synapse-rich brain extracts. Vangl2 directly binds N-cadherin and enhances its internalization in a Rab5-dependent manner. This physical and functional interaction is suppressed by β-catenin, which binds the same intracellular region of N-cadherin as Vangl2. In hippocampal neurons expressing reduced Vangl2 levels, dendritic spine formation as well as synaptic marker clustering is significantly impaired. Furthermore, Prickle2, another postsynaptic PCP component, inhibits the N-cadherin-Vangl2 interaction and is required for normal spine formation. These results demonstrate direct control of classic cadherin by PCP factors; this control may play a central role in the precise formation and maturation of cell-cell
Cellular polarization is crucial for many biological processes, including cell morphogenesis, proliferation, and differentiation. The orientation of the polarity axis is initially defined by asymmetrical extrinsic or intrinsic cues acting at the cell surface, which then have to be recognized and interpreted by signaling molecules, leading to the asymmetrical activation/inhibition and/or distribution of downstream effectors. This asymmetry is further stabilized by rearrangements of the cytoskeleton, enabling the cell to assume an asymmetric shape (Sohrmann and Peter, 2003).. In pollen tubes, we can consider two distinct axes: the polarity axis and the growth axis. The polarity axis can be drawn transversally at the base of the tip dome separating the tip region from the rest of the tube, whereas the growth axis is perpendicular to the polarity axis and divides the tubes longitudinally (symmetry axis). Despite the fact that pollen tubes are highly polarized cells undergoing polar growth, they have ...
What is the importance of polarity signaling in regulating asymmetric divisions in mammals? In Drosophila neuroblasts, the initial polarization cue comes from the apical enrichment of the polarity proteins Par3, Par6 and aPKC. This apical distribution is essential for asymmetric localization of cell fate determinants, which is coupled to spindle orientation by binding to the adaptor protein Inscuteable (Insc) (Fig. 3A). Insc then recruits a protein complex consisting of the heterotrimeric G protein α1-subunit (Gα1), PINS and MUD, which provides attachment sites for astral microtubules (Knoblich, 2010). Polarized distribution of the aPKC-Par complex is inherited from the epithelial cell, from which the neuroblast arose after delamination (Prehoda, 2009). Similarly, in both mouse neurons and in the epidermis, PAR3 and aPKC show an apical distribution that is independent of cell division (Lechler and Fuchs, 2005). In the epidermis, this apical polarity might have been inherited from the polarized ...
Proper spatial and temporal specification of cells during development is crucial for the generation of cellular diversity in the nervous system of complex organisms. We are interested in the mechanisms underlying the establishment of cellular polarity and the generation of neuronal cell lineages during neurulation in Danio rerio. We were able to show that neurulation in zebrafish embryos is characterised by oriented cell divisions and the progressive establishment of cellular polarity. Mitoses in the neural plate and neural tube are planar, but in the neural keel/rod stage the mitotic spindle rotates by 90°, causing cell divisions to occur perpendicular to the plane of the neuroepithelium. However, the mechanisms and molecules that establish cellular polarity and cause the stereotypic orientation of the mitotic spindle during neurulation are still largely unknown. In order to address this topic, we are currently analyzing the putative cell fate determinant Numb and the role of the ...
Involved in the planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway that is essential for the polarization of epithelial cells during morphogenetic processes, including gastrulation and neurulation (By similarity). PCP is maintained by two molecular modules, the global and the core modules, PRICKLE3 being part of the core module (By similarity). Distinct complexes of the core module segregate to opposite sides of the cell, where they interact with the opposite complex in the neighboring cell at or near the adherents junctions (By similarity). Involved in the organization of the basal body (By similarity). Involved in cilia growth and positioning (By similarity).
Cells in some tissues acquire a polarisation in the plane of the tissue in addition to apical-basal polarity. This polarisation is commonly known as planar cell polarity and has been found to be important in developmental processes, as planar polarity is required to define the in-plane tissue coordinate system at the cellular level. We have built an in-silico functional model of cellular polarisation that includes cellular asymmetry, cell-cell signalling and a response to a global cue. The model has been validated and parameterised against domineering non-autonomous wing hair phenotypes in Drosophila. We have carried out a systematic comparison of in-silico polarity phenotypes with patterns observed in vivo under different genetic manipulations in the wing. This has allowed us to classify the specific functional roles of proteins involved in generating cell polarity, providing new hypotheses about their specific functions, in particular for Pk and Dsh. The predictions from the model allow direct
These studies suggest a non-cell-autonomous role for Vangl2-PCP signaling in coronary artery formation. The coronary vessels in Lp/Lp hearts fail to develop a normal SMC layer and enlarged ectopic vessels are found in the subepicardium, on the surface of the heart. Loss of functional Vangl2 results in reduced deposition of fibronectin in the subepicardial space, which may limit normal migration of EPDCs into the myocardium. In addition activation of RhoA/ROCK signaling in the myocardium is disrupted, which causes disorganization within the ventricular wall via effects on the cytoskeleton. Although the precise mechanism by which PCP signaling regulates cytoskeletal organization remains unclear, mislocalization of activated MYPT is likely to have major implications for polarization and organization of ventricular cardiomyocytes. These data suggest that PCP signaling may be important at a number of levels for development of the mature ventricular myocardium and coronary vessels.. Proper ...
The exon junction complex regulates the cell polarity determinant Discs large 1, which acts independently from its role in cell polarity to protect Dishevelled protein from lysosomal degradation in Wingless/Wnt signaling.
Mutations in the C. elegans gene egl-27 cause defects in cell polarity and cell migration: the polarity of the asymmetric T cell division is disrupted and the descendants of the migratory QL neuroblast migrate incorrectly because they fail to express the Hox gene mab-5. Both of these processes are known to be controlled by Wnt pathways. Mosaic analysis indicates that egl-27 function is required in the T cell for proper cell polarity. We cloned egl-27 and discovered that a domain of the predicted EGL-27 protein has similarity to Mta1, a mammalian factor overexpressed in metastatic cells. Overlaps in the phenotypes of egl-27 and Wnt pathway mutants suggest that the EGL-27 protein interacts with Wnt signaling pathways in C. elegans.. ...
Background-Sprouting angiogenesis is a key process driving blood vessel growth in ischemic tissues and an important drug target in a number of diseases, including wet macular degeneration and wound healing. Endothelial cells forming the sprout must develop front-rear polarity to allow sprout extension. The adaptor proteins Nck1 and 2 are known regulators of cytoskeletal dynamics and polarity, but their function in angiogenesis is poorly understood. Here we show that the Nck adaptors are required for endothelial cell front-rear polarity and migration downstream of the angiogenic growth factors VEGF-A and Slit2. Methods and Results-Mice carrying inducible, endothelial-specific Nck1/2 deletions fail to develop front-rear polarized vessel sprouts and exhibit severe angiogenesis defects in the postnatal retina and during embryonic development. Inactivation of NCK1 and 2 inhibits polarity by preventing Cdc42 and Pak2 activation by VEGF-A and Slit2. Mechanistically, NCK binding to ROBO1 is required for ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Brefeldin A rapidly disrupts plasma membrane polarity by blocking polar sorting in common endosomes of MDCK cells. AU - Wang, E.. AU - Pennington, J. G.. AU - Goldenring, J. R.. AU - Hunziker, W.. AU - Dunn, Kenneth. PY - 2001. Y1 - 2001. N2 - Recent studies showing thorough intermixing of apical and basolateral endosomes have demonstrated that endocytic sorting is critical to maintaining the plasma membrane polarity of epithelial cells. Our studies of living, polarized cells show that disrupting endocytosis with brefeldin-A rapidly destroys the polarity of transferrin receptors in MDCK cells while having no effect on tight junctions. Brefeldin-A treatment induces tubulation of endosomes, but the sequential compartments and transport steps of the transcytotic pathway remain intact. Transferrin is sorted from LDL, but is then missorted from common endosomes to the apical recycling endosome, as identified by its nearly neutral pH, and association with GFP chimeras of Rabs 11a and ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Establishing and maintaining epithelial cell polarity is essential for animal development and physiology. Epithelia are sheets of adherent cells that form our skin and line our organs. Each side of an epithelium has distinct molecular properties to engage the extracellular environments on either side of the sheet. Similarly to all polarized cells, apical-basal epithelial cell polarity is established and maintained by cortical landmarks (reviewed by Nelson, 2003; Suzuki and Ohno, 2006; Goldstein and Macara, 2007; St Johnston and Ahringer, 2010). Defining how these landmarks are positioned and how they organize the cell is essential for understanding epithelial cell polarity.. Bazooka (Baz/PAR-3) forms apical polarity landmarks in epithelial cells. In MDCK cells, PAR-3 is important for assembling and maintaining tight junctions and adherens junctions (Chen and Macara, 2005; Ooshio et al., 2007). In C. elegans, PAR-3 has been shown to direct adherens junction assembly during intestinal development ...
Polarized light has vibrations occurring within them in one plane. On the other hand, unpolarized light has vibrations occurring within them randomly angles with no plane.. In a Polarized light, a process which evolves during this stage can help to transform the light into polarized that originally remains unpolarized and has the title of polarization. Note that its possible to alter unpolarized light into an energized light and the process is called polarization.. This is quite not exactly like what you may see in case you somehow managed to look together with a silent and watch a constant wave moving towards you. According to quantum mechanics, electromagnetic waves may similarly be flooding of particles known as photons. A photon has one of two possible twists; it could either turn in a right-hand sense or a left-hand sense about its path of travel.. ...
How is the polarity of epithelial cells established and maintained?. Epithelial cells constitute the most widespread and evolutionarily ancient mode of animal tissue organization. The functions of epithelia rely on their highly polarized architecture, in which specific proteins are restricted to apical, junctional, and basolateral surfaces. We are working to understand the mechanisms that regulate cell polarity, exploiting our discovery of the Scribble module that acts to distinguish the epithelial basolateral domain by antagonizing the apical Par/aPKC complex. Cell biological assays of protein trafficking and biochemical studies of Scribble module partners are revealing their mysterious basic polarizing activities. As novel insights can come from unbiased genetic screens, we have designed several to isolate new regulators of epithelial polarity. These screens identify genes that directly interface with the conserved polarity regulators, revealing mechanistic links with basic membrane ...
Genetics and biochemistry have been used to map many of the individual pathways that establish and maintain cell polarity in yeast, but Drees et al. (page 549) have now produced the equivalent of an aerial photograph of these processes. Using a high-throughput yeast two-hybrid screen, the authors assayed the universe of likely protein-protein interactions involved in cell polarity development. The resulting protein interaction map provides tantalizing insights and identifies dozens of potential mechanistic connections worth closer examination.. The authors used 68 yeast proteins associated with the actin cytoskeleton, septins, the secretory apparatus, and Rho-type GTPases as baits in parallel two-hybrid screens covering ∼90% of the predicted Saccharomyces cerevisiae ORFs. The screen uncovered 128 novel protein-protein interactions, including 44 involving previously uncharacterized proteins. The appearance of known interactions in the screen, along with subcellular localization studies, ...
Cell polarity - the morphological and functional differentiation of cellular compartments in a directional manner - is required for processes such as orientation of cell division, directed cellular growth and motility. How the interplay of components within the complexity of a cell leads to cell polarity is still heavily debated. In this Review, we focus on one specific aspect of cell polarity: the non-uniform accumulation of proteins on the cell membrane. In cells, this is achieved through reaction-diffusion and/or cytoskeleton-based mechanisms. In reaction-diffusion systems, components are transformed into each other by chemical reactions and are moving through space by diffusion. In cytoskeleton-based processes, cellular components (i.e. proteins) are actively transported by microtubules (MTs) and actin filaments to specific locations in the cell. We examine how minimal systems - in vitro reconstitutions of a particular cellular function with a minimal number of components - are designed, how ...
The leading edge two regions hdlg-13 and insertion 12, both unique and partially redundant functions in two regions of alternative splicing the human homolog of the Drosophila Discs-large tumor suppressor. In adult flies, is located at the apical-lateral membrane boundary, isoform S97 expression is localized to the cell borders, coexpressed with scrib, at the septate junction and within the CNS of both embryos and larvae (in non-neural and neural cells) and are only the characteristics of malignant cancers derived from epithelial tissues. Loss of either Stardust [Sdt] or Dlg affects epithelial development, assembling Crumbs [Crb] homologs among MPP family members of Drosoplila sdt. Self-refinement of Notch activity through the transmembrane protein Crumbs: modulation have been implicated in the specification of tissue boundaries, in the Drosophila wing imaginal disc, Crumbs is involved in a feedback mechanism used by the Notch polarity determinant. In the control of both apico-basal polarity and ...
Heterotrimeric guanosine triphosphate (GTP)-binding proteins (G proteins) determine tissue and cell polarity in a variety of organisms. In yeast, cells orient polarized growth toward the mating partner along a pheromone gradient by a mechanism that requires Far1p and Cdc24p. Far1p bound Gβγ and interacted with polarity establishment proteins, which organize the actin cytoskeleton. Cells containing mutated Far1p unable to bind Gβγ or polarity establishment proteins were defective for orienting growth toward their mating partner. In response to pheromones, Far1p moves from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. Thus, Far1p functions as an adaptor that recruits polarity establishment proteins to the site of extracellular signaling marked by Gβγ to polarize assembly of the cytoskeleton in a morphogenetic gradient. ...
One unique aspect of VEGFR2 endocytosis is its regulation by several transmembrane and cytosolic interacting proteins, which play a role in either VEGFR2 internalization or degradation. A group of such proteins involved in VEGFR2 internalization is Dab2, ephrin-B2, and PAR-3. Dab2,46 a clathrin-associated sorting protein, and the cell polarity regulator PAR-3 interact with the transmembrane protein ephrin-B2 and VEGFR2. Disruption of this interaction by silencing of Dab2 or PAR-3 causes reduced VEGFR2 internalization and impaired VEGF-induced angiogenesis. After RTKs are internalized into early endosomes, a proportion of the receptors is modified by ubiquitin and then sorted for lysosomal degradation. CCM347 and myoferlin,48 respectively, associate with VEGFR2 in ECs and serve to enhance VEGFR2 stability by preventing receptor degradation.. Apart from internalization and degradation, VEGFR2 signaling is regulated by protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs), such as VE-PTP and PTP1b. VE-PTP is a ...
The asymmetric localization of planar cell polarity (PCP) proteins is essential for the establishment of many planar polarized cellular processes, but the mechanisms that maintain these asymmetric distributions remain poorly understood. A body of evidence has tied oriented subapical microtubules (MTs) to the establishment of PCP protein polarity, yet recent studies have suggested that the MT cytoskeleton is later dispensable for the maintenance of this asymmetry. As MTs underlie the vesicular trafficking of membrane-bound proteins within cells, the requirement for MTs in the maintenance of PCP merited further investigation. I sought to investigate the complex interactions between PCP proteins and the MT cytoskeleton in the polarized context of the floorplate of the zebrafish neural tube. We demonstrated that the progressive posterior polarization of the primary cilia of floorplate cells requires not only Vangl2 but also Fzd3a. I determined that GFP-Vangl2 asymmetrically localizes to anterior ...
The asymmetric distribution of membrane proteins along the apical to basal axis of a simple epithelial cell ensures that epithelial barrier and transport functions are properly regulated. However, apico-basal polarity means something different in a multi-layered epithelium such as the epidermis. This tissue provides essential protection against water loss, mechanical stress, and other environmental insults. These functions require that architectural features be polarized along the entire apical to basal axis (i.e. superficial to deep layers) of the stratified epithelium, not just within an individual cell. How information embedded within this polarized architecture is translated to generate a functional epidermis is poorly understood.. While canonical polarity proteins such as Par3/5 and aPKC have been established to play important roles in the epidermis, the contributions of other highly patterned membrane proteins to tissue polarity are poorly understood. Among the most highly polarized ...
Kinesins, including the kinesin 2/KIF3 molecular motor, play an important role in intracellular traffic and can deliver vesicles to distal axon terminals, to cilia, to nonpolarized cell surfaces or to epithelial cell basolateral membranes, thus taking part in the establishment of cellular polarity. We report here the consequences of kinesin 2 motor inactivation in the thyroid of 3-week-old Kif3a(Δ)(/flox) Pax8(Cre/)(+) mutant mice. Our results indicate first that 3-week-old Pax8(Cre/)(+) mice used in these experiments present minor thyroid functional defects resulting in a slight increase in circulating bioactive TSH and intracellular cAMP levels, sufficient to maintain blood thyroxine levels in the normal range ...
Despite decades of research there are still basic aspects of planar cell polarity that are not well understood. Recent work in mouse tracheal epithelial cells links microtubules with both establishing asymmetry as well as responding to this asymmetry to coordinate cellular orientation ...
Complete information for PRICKLE2 gene (Protein Coding), Prickle Planar Cell Polarity Protein 2, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
The virologic synapse (VS), which is formed between a virus-infected and uninfected cell, plays a central role in the transmission of certain viruses, such as HIV and HTLV-1. During VS formation, HTLV-1-infected T-cells polarize cellular and viral proteins toward the uninfected T-cell. This polarization resembles anterior-posterior cell polarity induced by immunological synapse (IS) formation, which is more extensively characterized than VS formation and occurs when a T-cell interacts with an antigen-presenting cell. One measure of cell polarity induced by both IS or VS formation is the repositioning of the microtubule organizing center (MTOC) relative to the contact point with the interacting cell. Here we describe an automated, high throughput system to score repositioning of the MTOC and thereby cell polarity establishment. The method rapidly and accurately calculates the angle between the MTOC and the IS for thousands of cells. We also show that the system can be adapted to score anterior-posterior
Partitioning defective 3 (Par-3), a crucial component of partitioning-defective complex proteins, controls cell polarity and contributes to cell migration and cancer cell epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. However, the clinical relevance of Par-3 in tumor progression and metastasis has not been well elucidated. In this study, we investigated the impact and association of Par-3 expression and clinical outcomes with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We first confirmed that Par-3 was abundantly expressed in HCC cell lines by Western blot analysis. We used immunohistochemistry to analyze the association of Par-3 expression and clinicopathological characteristics in primary and subsequent metastatic tumors of patients with HCC. Par-3 was overexpressed in 47 of 111 (42.3%) primary tumors. Increased expression of Par-3 in primary tumors predicted an increased five-year cumulative incidence of extrahepatic metastasis. In addition, multivariate analysis revealed that Par-3 overexpression was an independent
The coordination of cell polarity within the plane of the tissue layer (planar polarity) is crucial for the development of diverse multicellular organisms. Small Rac/Rho-family GTPases and the actin cytoskeleton contribute to planar polarity formation at sites of polarity establishment in animals and plants. Yet, upstream pathways coordinating planar polarity differ strikingly between kingdoms. In the root of Arabidopsis thaliana, a concentration gradient of the phytohormone auxin coordinates polar recruitment of Rho-of-plant (ROP) to sites of polar epidermal hair initiation. However, little is known about cytoskeletal components and interactions that contribute to this planar polarity or about their relation to the patterning machinery. Here, we show that ACTIN7 (ACT7) represents a main actin isoform required for planar polarity of root hair positioning, interacting with the negative modulator ACTIN-INTERACTING PROTEIN1-2 (AIP1-2). ACT7, AIP1-2 and their genetic interaction are required for ...
Genetic and cytogenetic analysis of the 43A-E region containing the segment polarity gene costa and the cellular polarity genes prickle and spiny-legs in Drosophila melanogaster ...
I am interested in cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying co-ordinated and directional cell movements. The primary focus is on morphogenetic movements occurring during gastrualtion using the zebrafish as a model system; epiboly, convergence/extension and anterior migration of mesodermal cells. Since we showed that Wnt11 is an important regulator of convergence/extension movements during gastrulation in vertebrates, it has been evident that this ligand acts in a pathway related to the planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway in Drosophila. Recently, the core PCP genes have been also implicated in regulating a variety of morphogenetic processes in vertebrates including neural tube closure, orientation of cochlear hair cells, migration of facial motorneurons and ciliogenesis. Current projects are a) Understanding mechanisms by which core PCP proteins regulate gastrulation movements in zebrafish; b) Identifying and characterising genetic pathways that act in or in parallel with the PCP pathway ...
Figure 3. The CeAJ and cell-cell adhesion. (A) Schematic representation of known components CeAJ components. Like in vertebrates and Drosophila, C. elegans epithelial cells contain two adhesion complexes, the cadherin-catenin (CCC) and the DLG-1/AJM-1 (DAC) complexes. C. elegans is unique in three respects: (i) there is a single electron-dense area in the CeAJ (see Figure 1B); (ii) LET-413 does not colocalize with DLG-1 (as its homologue Scribble in Drosophila); (iii) PAR-3, PAR-6, PKC-3 and CRB-1 are present at the apical membrane in tubular organs (the existence of apical polarity determinants in epidermal cells is an open question). CeAJs from different epithelia contain the same set of proteins; notable differences concern the identity of the classical claudin-like protein (CLC-1 present in the pharynx, vulva and spermatheca; CLC-2 present in the lateral epidermis). The DAC complex might correspond to the electron-density in the CeAJ. Indeed, immunogold staining experiments localize AJM-1 at ...
The directed orientation of T cell signaling molecules and associated membrane rafts towards a chemokine gradient or a contact point with antigen presenting cell.
We then considered that increased cell death might explain the reduced number of RPCs and neurons observed at E13.5, but staining for activated caspase-3 at E11.5 and E13.5 revealed no significant changes in cell death (E13.5: control, 2.4 ± 1.3 cells/200 μm, n = 4; cDKO, 3.2 ± 1.1 cells/200 μm, n = 4). At E16.5 and P0, however, we found an important increase in the number of caspase-positive cells in cDKO compared with controls (data not shown). Intriguingly, we noticed that the timing of appearance of dead cells in cDKO correlates with the appearance of a dysmorphic retinal neuroepithelium. At E13.5, the cDKO retinas are normally layered and display the expected apical staining of the polarity proteins Par-3 and atypical PKC (data not shown). In addition, there are no ectopic RPC mitoses at E13.5. As seen with PH3 staining, all mitoses appear at the apical surface (Fig. 2D,E). Since the increased cell death and disrupted neuroepithelium polarity are observed after the initial reduction of ...
PARD3 is thought to be a master regulator of apical-basal cell polarity, a process that has been indirectly implicated in tumorigenesis (15, 16). Recently, SCRIB (also known as Scribble) was proposed as a tumor suppressor by virtue of its mislocalization in human breast cancers (17). However, inactivating mutations in SCRIB have not been identified, and it is possible that mutational inactivation of PARD3 (and potentially other polarity complex family members) provides a genetic mechanism that explains dysregulation of cell polarity in a subset of human cancers. While this article was in preparation, Zen and colleagues (18) reported finding PARD3 deletions in the SCCE cell lines also described here (e.g., KYSE-30 and KYSE-270). As shown in our two studies, loss of PARD3 in SCCE cells leads to abnormal cellular contacts, consistent with disruption of the PAR polarity complex. The apparent tissue specificity of PARD3 deletions uncovered in our study, affecting both diverse squamous epithelial ...
Neural Morphogenesis. We study patterning and biomechanics of convergent extension in the neural plate, and the mechanisms of neural tube closure. What cell behaviors shape the neural plate and how are they regulated by midline-originating signals? Mesodermal Morphogenesis. We are interested in the biomechanical role of such molecules as integrin, fibrillin, and cadherins during convergence and extension of the mesoderm. How do molecular components such as these and others such as members of the planar cell polarity pathway drive or guide convergence and extension and axis elongation? Comparative Morphogenesis. We are interested in understanding the variation among species in the mechanisms and biomechanics of gastrulation. This include the mechanisms by which surface mesoderm is removed during gastrulation and neurulation, and the degree to which the embryo uses convergent extension, mesendoderm migration, and Winklebauer rotation to drive gastrulation ...
Epithelial cells display distinct apical and basolateral membrane domains, and maintenance of this asymmetry is essential to the function of epithelial tissues. Polarized delivery of apical and basolateral membrane proteins from the trans Golgi network (TGN) and/or endosomes to the correct domain requires specific cytoplasmic machinery to control the sorting, budding and fission of vesicles. However, the molecular machinery that regulates polarized delivery of apical proteins remains poorly understood. In this study, we show that the small guanosine triphosphatase Rab14 is involved in the apical targeting pathway. Using yeast two-hybrid analysis and glutathione S-transferase pull down, we show that Rab14 interacts with apical membrane proteins and localizes to the TGN and apical endosomes. Overexpression of the GDP mutant form of Rab14 (S25N) induces an enlargement of the TGN and vesicle accumulation around Golgi membranes. Moreover, expression of Rab14-S25N results in mislocalization of the ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Signals emanating from polarity determinants, such as the Crumbs/Amot complex, processes such as mechanotransduction that act through the actin cytoskeleton and mediators of cell density sensing, all can control Yap localization (Genevet & Tapon, 2011; Boggiano & Fehon, 2012; Schroeder & Halder, 2012). In general, these signals flow to the Mst/Lats kinase cassette, and while Mst1/2‐independent Yap phosphorylation has been reported (Yu et al, 2012, 2013; Zhao et al, 2012; Kim et al, 2013), there appears to be a more ubiquitous requirement for Lats. Our data demonstrate that βPix functions at the level of Lats, consistent with the notion that βPix acts in the Hippo pathway downstream of multiple cues. Accordingly, we observed a requirement for βPix in regulating Yap activity in response to cell-cell contact and cell density, actin cytoskeleton disruption and in attachment/detachment events. In all the cases, loss of βPix expression resulted in retention of Yap/Taz in the nucleus and ...
This chapter will take up two types of bipolar items in Japanese to identify various factors that contribute to polarity sensitivity. It has been well known since Fauconnier (1975) that scalar semantics is closely related to licensing of negative polarity items. There are indeed languages like Dutch and Hindi that have negative polarity items overtly marked with a scalar focus particle. The chapter show that there are other morphological characteristics that play important roles in polarity sensitivity. Furthermore, the chapter suggest that the relation between negative concord and negative polarity must be taken into account when concord items and polarity items are morphologically very similar.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Absence of transepithelial anion exchange by rabbit OMCD. T2 - Evidence against reversal of cell polarity. AU - Hayashi, M.. AU - Schuster, V. L.. AU - Stokes, J. B.. PY - 1988/1/1. Y1 - 1988/1/1. N2 - In the rabbit cortical collecting duct (CCD), Cl tracer crosses the epithelium predominantly via an anion exchange system that operates in either a Cl-Cl or Cl-HCO3 exchange mode. In the present study, we used the 36Cl lumen-to-bath rate coefficient (K(Cl), nm/s), a sensitive measurement of CCD transepithelial anion transport, to investigate the nature of Cl transport in the medullary collecting duct dissected from inner stripe, outer medulla (OMCD). The K(Cl) in OMCD perfused and bathed in HCO3-Ringer solution was low (46.2 ± 8.5 nm/s) and similar to that value observed in the CCD when anion exchange is inhibited and Cl permeates the epithelium by diffusion. Unlike K(Cl) in CCD, K(Cl) in OMCD was not stimulated by adenosine 3,5-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP). OMCD K(Cl) was not ...
This advanced course covers cell polarity and cytoskeletal dynamics emphasizing current literature. For each topic, the course examines (1) the proteins involved, (2) their interactions and regulation, and (3) how they organize specific cellular structures. The coordination of these complexes for orchestrating complex cellular processes is also addressed. These important topics of cell biology are pursued with question-driven lectures, and both round-table discussions and group presentations of research papers.. ...
In recent years, great progress has been made by experimental biologists towards understanding how during plant and animal morphogenesis cells become polarised in a manner that is coordinated between each other and the axes of the tissue. Significant efforts have also been made by theoreticians to model such processes. Nevertheless, we believe that there are a number of barriers to progress: First, although the evidence suggests that similar mechanisms are used by animals and plants, there has been almost no cross-fertilisation between these fields; second, much modelling has been carried out without input from experimentalists, and many experiments have been carried out without reference to plausible models; third even within individual organisms it is apparent that multiple different strategies may be used to coordinate cell polarities, yet those working on different pathways do not always interact.. The aims of this meeting are to bring together as diverse a group as possible of experimental ...
Sep 13, 2011 ... Most, if not all, epithelial cells show polarity along two distinct axes. The first ... the known and potential roles for PCP in the development and. ...
Abstract: We present three distinct examples where phaseless auxiliary-field Quantum Monte Carlo (ph-AFQMC) can be reliably performed with a single-determinant trial wavefunction with essential symmetry breaking. We first utilized essential time-reversal symmetry breaking with ph-AFQMC to compute the triplet-singlet energy gap in the TS12 set. We found statistically better performance of ph-AFQMC with complex-restricted orbitals than with spin-unrestricted orbitals. We then showed the utilization of essential spin symmetry breaking when computing the single-triplet gap of a known biradicaloid, C$_{36}$. ph-AFQMC with spin-unrestricted Hartree-Fock (ph-AFQMC+UHF) fails catastrophically even with spin-projection and predicts no biradicaloid character. With approximate Br{u}ckner orbitals obtained from regularized orbital-optimized second-order M{\o}ller-Plesset perturbation theory ($\kappa$-OOMP2), ph-AFQMC quantitatively captures strong biradicaloid character of C$_{36}$. Lastly, we applied ...
Principal Investigator:MINAMI YASUHIRO, Project Period (FY):2011-04-01 - 2016-03-31, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research on Innovative Areas (Research in a proposed research area), Project Area:Regulation of polarity signaling during morphogenesis, remodeling, and breakdown of epithelial tubular structure
163866497093122: cell polarity cultures can help all philosophers of the Page. 1493782030835866: Can get, revive or update patterns in the showdown and sure library applications. Can run and have artistic Achievers of this deine to think fields with them.
Assembly of the mitotic spindle during cell division, a microtubule-based structure, is crucial for equal chromosome distribution in the daughter cells. Furthermore, the correct positioning of the spindle along the cell polarity axis is required for asymmetric delivery of cell fate, proteins a process that maintains tissue homeostasis. Our research goal is to understand how spindle assembly and positioning is regulated during cell division in developing tissues.
Previous studies have shown that the PCP transmembrane proteins are key to forming an intrinsically asymmetric complex in the pupal wing cells. Here, we make the unexpected finding that the transmembrane protein VhaPRR shares decisive characteristics with the other PCP core proteins: (1) PCP phenotypes in various fly tissues, (2) an asymmetric localization, (3) the reciprocal stabilization of PCP core proteins within PCP domains and (4) the physical interaction with other PCP core components, with Fmi as the primary binding partner.. Current models propose that polarized transport from the trans‐Golgi network or recycling endosomes is important for the formation of PCP domains at P-D boundaries (Shimada et al, 2006; Strutt and Strutt, 2008; Harumoto et al, 2010; Strutt et al, 2011). The directionality is provided by different levels of Fz signalling between neighbouring cells in the P-D axis, induced by a poorly understood cue (Goodrich and Strutt, 2011). Fmi seems to be the first among the ...
Cell polarity is the property of cells to be spacially oriented in a tissue or organ. Loss of cell polarity is a hallmark of cancer and is associated with more aggressive tumours. In this grant, we propose experiments to understand a new family of proteins that act on cell polarity and proliferation to prevent cancer. We will study how the protein hScrib regulates the behaviour of breast cancer cells and assess whether alterations in hScrib are important for cancer development ...
Inflammatory immune response requires the recruitment of leukocytes to the site of inflammation upon foreign insult. Chemokines are small chemoattractant peptides that provide directional cues for the cell trafficking and thus are vital for protective host response. In addition, chemokines regulate plethora of biological processes of hematopoietic cells to lead cellular activation, differentiation and survival. The chemokine signal is transduced by chemokine receptors (G-protein coupled receptors) expressed on the immune cells. After receptor activation, the alpha- and beta-gamma-subunits of G protein dissociate to activate diverse downstream pathways resulting in cellular polarization and actin reorganization. Various members of small GTPases are involved in this process. Induction of nitric oxide and production of reactive oxygen species are as well regulated by chemokine signal via calcium mobilization and diacylglycerol production ...
Inflammatory immune response requires the recruitment of leukocytes to the site of inflammation upon foreign insult. Chemokines are small chemoattractant peptides that provide directional cues for the cell trafficking and thus are vital for protective host response. In addition, chemokines regulate plethora of biological processes of hematopoietic cells to lead cellular activation, differentiation and survival. The chemokine signal is transduced by chemokine receptors (G-protein coupled receptors) expressed on the immune cells. After receptor activation, the alpha- and beta-gamma-subunits of G protein dissociate to activate diverse downstream pathways resulting in cellular polarization and actin reorganization. Various members of small GTPases are involved in this process. Induction of nitric oxide and production of reactive oxygen species are as well regulated by chemokine signal via calcium mobilization and diacylglycerol production ...
Inflammatory immune response requires the recruitment of leukocytes to the site of inflammation upon foreign insult. Chemokines are small chemoattractant peptides that provide directional cues for the cell trafficking and thus are vital for protective host response. In addition, chemokines regulate plethora of biological processes of hematopoietic cells to lead cellular activation, differentiation and survival. The chemokine signal is transduced by chemokine receptors (G-protein coupled receptors) expressed on the immune cells. After receptor activation, the alpha- and beta-gamma-subunits of G protein dissociate to activate diverse downstream pathways resulting in cellular polarization and actin reorganization. Various members of small GTPases are involved in this process. Induction of nitric oxide and production of reactive oxygen species are as well regulated by chemokine signal via calcium mobilization and diacylglycerol production ...
Cell adhesion and polarity are vital to the growth and differentiation of epithelial tissues and to maintaining their long-term integrity. We are interested in understanding the molecular and genetic pathways that are responsible for establishing and maintaining epithelial identity during development and how disruptions in these pathways contribute to disease. In particular, we have focused our efforts on determining the molecular pathways that regulate the development of various epithelial tissues of the mouse eye. The mouse eye offers a number of advantages for study. It is nonessential for animal viability and accessible yet the properties of the epithelial tissues in this organ reflect the properties of epithelia throughout the organism. We use a variety of genetic, molecular, cell biological and embryological techniques and transgenic and knockout mice.. In invertebrates such as Drosophila melanogaster members of the PDZ (PSD95/Dlg/ZO-1) family such as dlg and scrib regulate cell adhesion, ...
Gradients of morphogens (in the embryo), pheromones (in yeast) or chemoattractants in prospective migrating cells provide spatial cues that generate cellular asymmetry[6] by activating specific receptors. These receptors often belong to the G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) superfamily[12], members of which are distributed homogeneously in the cellular membrane[13],[14]. Asymmetric activation of these receptors is amplified through the asymmetric recruitment and activation of signaling adaptors in a process that magnifies very shallow differences in the gradient as perceived by the front and the rear of the cell[6].. Among the effectors that are asymmetrically recruited and activated by the membrane receptors are heterotrimeric G proteins, which activate - among other enzymes - phospholipase C (PLC) and different isoforms of protein kinase C (PKC), inducing the local formation of second messengers (such as diacylglycerol (DAG) and inositol trisphosphate (InsP3)) and protein phosphorylation[15]. ...
The Earth has a magnetic field and two magnetic poles. Polarity is used to describe the location of the magnetic north pole and where it is presently located geographically. Normal polarity is when...
When I opened the package from India and saw Farhans s beautiful board with all those little SMD parts, I immediately worried about frying those parts by accidentally reversing the polarity of the 12 volt DC input. Believe me, this can happen. It is especially likely during the early, enthusiastic testing and experimenting that takes place in the days after the arrival of a new rig. So, my friends: Save yourselves the agony of fried components! Dont let your BITX 40 Module go up in smoke! Install a simple reverse polarity protection circuit BEFORE you start working with your new board. ...
J:194042 Mahaffey JP, Grego-Bessa J, Liem KF Jr, Anderson KV, Cofilin and Vangl2 cooperate in the initiation of planar cell polarity in the mouse embryo. Development. 2013 Mar;140(6):1262-71 ...
Epithelial cells often require polarization in two axes for their function, ubiquitous apical-basal polarity and a second axis within the plane of the epitheliu...
Many internal organs, such as the kidney, consist of hollow tubules and spheres lined by a layer of polarized epithelial cells. These cells have an apical plasm...
E-cadherin mediated cell-cell adhesion takes on a crucial part in epithelial cell polarization and morphogenesis. cells with overexpression of Dsg3 likened to control cells. Significantly, this modified cadherin trafficking Rabbit Polyclonal to ADAMTS18 was discovered to become coincided with the decreased manifestation and activity of Rab protein, including Rab5, Rab7 and Rab11 which are known […]. ...
Molecular mechanics in the skin of mice are driven by polarity genes, a team led by Sandra Iden of the Cluster of Excellence for Aging Research CECAD reports in Nature Communications.
Water is a polar molecule, and polarity occurs when the electrons in molecules are not spread evenly. This causes on end of the molecule to be negative, while the other is positive....
Ive picked up some discarded laptop battery packs from my local campus. One battery was 3S2P 18650 cells, two of the pairs are OK ( they had ~4.0v and I get from them approx 2050 mah per cell (tested with Imax B8), But the last pair had reversed -0.27v !!! First question is: how could this happen in the first place? Theres big PCB in the laptop battery to prevent this kind of situation Ive tried to charge these - 0.27v cells, but my charger wont accept them (it says reverse polarity).
http://www.liz-green.com - The Law of Polarity gives you a sense of understand as to why we sometimes attract negative stuff into our lives. Everything has it…
has a role in the establishment of neuronal polarity, and in the morphogenesis of neuronal processes, in part through the activation of the non-canonical Wnt mechanism involving JNK ...
A fine-grained pattern by a set of nested pattern forming reaction. Initially, a relatively crude pattern is formed that controls the formation of the next finer pattern, and so on. Imagine that under the influence of the maternal positional information a primary basic subdivision into relative coarse regions is achieved by regional activation of the gap genes. To avoid confusion by the strange and arbitrary names (such as krüppel, knirps…) they should be called I, II, III and IV. These regions would be in itself more or less homogeneous. It may appear straightforward to assume that each of these regions become further subdivided into two or three sub-regions. However, the polarity must be transmitted throughout the cascade in order to make sure that the final segments have the correct polarity. Each of the region regions I, II, III... has per se no polarity but the borders between the regions have. For instance, II is anterior to III). For this reason, I have proposed that not the ...
Christine Obbink-Huizer will defend het PhD thesis entitled Computational analysis of cell orientation in response to mechanical stimuli; implications for myocardial repair strategies
Chemistry 11 (Block 1). Polar and Nonpolar molecules - Polarity and molecules. Practice problems on last slide. Math 10. Expanding and factoring polynomials. Practice page 166, #7, 10 - 15, 17, 19 - 21. Chemistry 11 (Block 3). Polar and Nonpolar molecules - Polarity and molecules. Practice problems on last slide. ...
The Chan-Zuckerberg Biohub aims to support the fundamental research and develop the technologies that will enable physicians to cure, prevent, or manage all diseases in our childrens lifetimes. The CZ Biohub brings together researchers from UC Berkeley, Stanford, and UCSF. Find the latest research from the CZ Biohub researcher network here. ...
Notch signaling is used for cell fate determination throughout the animal kingdom, and differences in Notch activity between two daughter cells determine their future fates. Thus, Notch signaling promotes progenitor cell identity at the expense of differentiated cell phenotypes (Jadhav et al., 2006; Mizutani et al., 2007). Differences in the Notch activities between two daughter cells can be specified by the asymmetric localization and inheritance of Numb, a negative regulator of the Notch pathway (Guo et al., 1996; Cayouette et al., 2001; Petersen et al., 2002; Shen et al., 2002). In the embryonic lung, Notch signaling controls cell fates in developing airways (Post et al., 2000; Tsao et al., 2008; Tsao et al., 2009), and Notch activation inhibits the differentiation of distal progenitors into alveolar cells (Guseh et al., 2009). Yet the role of asymmetric segregation of cell fate determinant/Notch inhibitor Numb during lung development, and the way the process might be regulated are still ...
The formation of the basoapical polarity axis in epithelia is critical for maintaining the homeostasis of differentiated tissues. Factors that influence cancer development notoriously affect tissue organization. Apical polarity appears as a specific tissue feature that, once disrupted, would facilitate the onset of mammary tumors. Thus, developing means to rapidly measure apical polarity alterations would greatly favor screening for factors that endanger or protect the breast epithelium. A Raman scattering based platform was used for label-free determination of apical polarity in live breast epithelial structures (acini) produced in three-dimensional cell culture. The coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering signal permitted the visualization of the apical and basal surfaces in the equatorial plane of an acinus. Raman microspectroscopy subsequently revealed that in polarized acini lipids were more ordered at the apical membranes compared to basal membranes, and that an inverse situation occurred in ...
BRSK2 was initially identified through a computer screen of the human genome and shows significant homology to the C. elegans neuronal cell polarity regulator SAD1. BRSK2 is expressed in the brain and to a lesser extent in the testes. BRSK2 is a member of the AMP-activated protein kinase subfamily and can be activated by the tumor suppressor kinase LKB1. More recently, it has been shown that both BRSK2 and the related protein BRSK1 are required for mammalian neuronal polarization. While BRSK1- and BRSK2-null mice were viable, double-mutant mice died within two hours of birth. Neurons from these mice showed uniformly-sized neurites as opposed to the normal long axon and multiple shorter dendrites. These neurites also displayed both axonal and dendritic markers. BRSK2 has also been shown to be an autoantigen in paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis. At least four isoforms of BRSK2 are known to exist. ...
Looking for online definition of segment polarity protein dishevelled homolog DVL-3 in the Medical Dictionary? segment polarity protein dishevelled homolog DVL-3 explanation free. What is segment polarity protein dishevelled homolog DVL-3? Meaning of segment polarity protein dishevelled homolog DVL-3 medical term. What does segment polarity protein dishevelled homolog DVL-3 mean?
The Wnt signaling pathways are a group of signal transduction pathways made of proteins that pass signals into a cell through cell surface receptors. Three Wnt signaling pathways have been characterized: the canonical Wnt pathway, the noncanonical planar cell polarity pathway, and the noncanonical Wnt/calcium pathway. All three pathways are activated by binding a Wnt-protein ligand to a Frizzled family receptor, which passes the biological signal to the Dishevelled protein inside the cell. The canonical Wnt pathway leads to regulation of gene transcription, and is thought to be negatively regulated in part by the SPATS1 gene. The noncanonical planar cell polarity pathway regulates the cytoskeleton that is responsible for the shape of the cell. The noncanonical Wnt/calcium pathway regulates calcium inside the cell. Wnt signaling pathways use either nearby cell-cell communication (paracrine) or same-cell communication (autocrine). They are highly evolutionarily conserved in animals, which means ...
The Wnt signaling pathways are a group of signal transduction pathways made of proteins that pass signals from outside of a cell through cell surface receptors to the inside of the cell. Three Wnt signaling pathways have been characterized: the canonical Wnt pathway, the noncanonical planar cell polarity pathway, and the noncanonical Wnt/calcium pathway. All three Wnt signaling pathways are activated by the binding of a Wnt-protein ligand to a Frizzled family receptor, which passes the biological signal to the protein Dishevelled inside the cell. The canonical Wnt pathway leads to regulation of gene transcription, the noncanonical planar cell polarity pathway regulates the cytoskeleton that is responsible for the shape of the cell, and the noncanonical Wnt/calcium pathway regulates calcium inside the cell. The clinical importance of Wnt signaling pathway has been demonstrated by mutations that lead to a variety of diseases, including breast and prostate cancer, glioblastoma, type II ...
The neural crest is an embryonic stem cell population whose migratory behaviour has been likened to malignant invasion. The neural crest, as does cancer, undergoes an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and migrates to colonize almost all the tissues of the embryo. Neural crest cells exhibit collective cell migration, moving in streams of high directionality. The migratory neural crest streams are kept in shape by the presence of negative signals in their vicinity. The directionality of the migrating neural crest is achieved by contact-dependent cell polarization, in a phenomenon called contact inhibition of locomotion. Two cells experiencing contact inhibition of locomotion move away from each other after collision. However, if the cell density is high only cells exposed to a free edge can migrate away from the cluster leading to the directional migration of the whole group. Recent work performed in chicks, zebrafish and frogs has shown that the non-canonical Wnt-PCP (planar cell polarity) ...
Neuronal polarization lies at the heart of neuronal development, synaptic wiring, and interneuronal communication. Although much progress has been made in understanding axon growth and path finding, the mechanisms that regulate axonal neurite selection and polarity initiation remain poorly understood. Rapid axon growth requires a large quantity of building material and efficient intracellular transport. Coordination between axon initiation and cellular energy homeostasis may thus be important during the early stages of neuronal polarization. Using cultured hippocampal neurons and embryonic brain slices, Amato et al. investigated the role of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), which is involved in the sensing and regulation of bioenergy homeostasis, in neuronal polarization. Up-regulation of AMPK activity reduced the proportion of neurons possessing a typical axon. The ability of AMPK to inhibit polarization was restricted to the early stages of polarization; AMPK activation ...
Scribble (SCRIB) is an important adaptor protein that controls the establishment and maintenance of apico-basal cell polarity. To better understand how SCRIB controls cell polarity signalling via its PDZ domains, we investigated human SCRIB interactions with adenomatous polyposis coli (APC). We show that SCRIB PDZ1, PDZ2 and PDZ3 are the major interactors with the APC PDZ-binding motif (PBM), whereas SCRIB PDZ4 does not show detectable binding to APC. We then determined the crystal structure of SCRIB PDZ1 domain bound to the APC PBM. Our findings reveal a previously unreported pattern of interactions between the SCRIB PDZ domain region with the C-terminal PDZ binding motif of APC, where SCRIB PDZ1 domain is the highest affinity site ...
Polarization of epithelial cells depends on a hierarchical process whereby specific membrane-associated proteins become targeted to specialized membrane domains. Here, we describe a novel Drosophila protein, Discs Lost (DLT), that plays a crucial role in the polarization of embryonic epithelia during cellular blastoderm formation. At subsequent stages of development, DLT interacts with the apical determinant Crumbs (CRB) and the laterally localized protein Neurexin IV (NRX IV). Mutations in dlt or double-stranded RNA interference lead to aberrant localization of CRB and NRX IV and cause a concomitant loss of epithelial cell polarity. Hence, DLT is required to establish and maintain cell polarity and participates in different molecular complexes that define apical and lateral membrane domains ...
The Hippo pathway, by tightly controlling the phosphorylation state and activity of the transcription cofactors YAP and TAZ is essential during development and tissue homeostasis whereas its deregulation may lead to cancer. Recent studies have linked the apicobasal polarity machinery in epithelial cells to components of the Hippo pathway and YAP and TAZ themselves. However the molecular mechanism by which the junctional pool of YAP proteins is released and activated in epithelial cells remains unknown. Here we report that the tumour suppressor ASPP2 forms an apical-lateral polarity complex at the level of tight junctions in polarised epithelial cells, acting as a scaffold for protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) and junctional YAP via dedicated binding domains. ASPP2 thereby directly induces the dephosphorylation and activation of junctional YAP. Collectively, this study unearths a novel mechanistic paradigm revealing the critical role of the apical-lateral polarity complex in activating this localised pool of
Planar cell polarity (PCP) refers to the coordinated orientation, movement, or structure of cells within the plane of a tissue. Zebrafish PCP mutants such as the vangl2 mutant exhibit defects in convergent extension, neural tube morphogenesis, and ciliary positioning. Tmem14a is a putative tetraspanin protein that was identified as an potential interactor of Vangl2 in a membrane yeast-two hybrid screen. GFP-tagged versions of Tmem14a are localized to the trans-Golgi network in zebrafish neuroepithelial cells. Knockdown of Tmem14a activity results in convergent extension defects, an ectopic accumulation of cells in the neural tube, and disorganized cilia. The localization of GFP-tagged Tmem14a to the trans-Golgi network suggested that Tmem14a plays a role in the trafficking of core PCP components to the cell membrane. Indeed, the membrane localization of GFP-Vangl2 was disrupted in Tmem14a morphants. Thus, Tmem14a is an interactor of Vangl2 and a novel regulator of vertebrate planar cell polarity
Tight junctions (TJs) are constructions indispensable to epithelial cells and are responsible for regulations of paracellular diffusion and maintenance of cellular polarity. interstitial tissues spaces. Located at the pinnacle of horizontal walls, TJs have both wall and barriers features. The barriers function represents a selectively permeable filtration system that adjusts paracellular diffusion of ions and solutes structured on charge and size, respectively (Gemstone, 1977 ). Barriers function is certainly firmly governed by a particular arranged of TJ protein, the claudins (Tsukita made up of a non-specific shRNA into MDCK II cells (brief hairpin non-specific control [shCtrl] cells). Specificities of RalA and RalB exhaustion had been ABT-263 decided by immunoblotting and immunofluorescence marking of endogenous protein; both RalB and RalA localised to the plasma membrane layer in subconfluent MDCK II cells, and this localization was untouched in shCtrl cells (Body 1B). In shRalA cells, ...
Little is known about the molecular mechanisms that regulate the organization of vascular lumen. In this paper we show that lumen formation correlates with endothelial polarization. Adherens junctions (AJs) and VE-cadherin (VEC, encoded by CDH5) are required for endothelial apicobasal polarity in vitro and during embryonic development. Silencing of CDH5 gene expression leads to abrogation of endothelial polarity accompanied by strong alterations in lumenal structure. VEC co-distributes with members of the Par polarity complex (Par3 and PKCzeta) and is needed for activation of PKCzeta. CCM1 is encoded by the CCM1 gene, which is mutated in 60% of patients affected by cerebral cavernous malformation (CCM). The protein interacts with VEC and directs AJ organization and AJ association with the polarity complex, both in cell-culture models and in human CCM1 lesions. Both VEC and CCM1 control Rap1 concentration at cell-cell junctions. We propose that VEC, CCM1 and Rap1 form a signaling complex. In the ...
AMP/ATP-binding subunit of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), an energy sensor protein kinase that plays a key role in regulating cellular energy metabolism. In response to reduction of intracellular ATP levels, AMPK activates energy-producing pathways and inhibits energy-consuming processes: inhibits protein, carbohydrate and lipid biosynthesis, as well as cell growth and proliferation. AMPK acts via direct phosphorylation of metabolic enzymes, and by longer-term effects via phosphorylation of transcription regulators. Also acts as a regulator of cellular polarity by remodeling the actin cytoskeleton; probably by indirectly activating myosin. Gamma non-catalytic subunit mediates binding to AMP, ADP and ATP, leading to activate or inhibit AMPK: AMP-binding results in allosteric activation of alpha catalytic subunit (PRKAA1 or PRKAA2) both by inducing phosphorylation and preventing dephosphorylation of catalytic subunits. ADP also stimulates phosphorylation, without stimulating already ...
Non-catalytic subunit of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), an energy sensor protein kinase that plays a key role in regulating cellular energy metabolism. In response to reduction of intracellular ATP levels, AMPK activates energy-producing pathways and inhibits energy-consuming processes: inhibits protein, carbohydrate and lipid biosynthesis, as well as cell growth and proliferation. AMPK acts via direct phosphorylation of metabolic enzymes, and by longer-term effects via phosphorylation of transcription regulators. Also acts as a regulator of cellular polarity by remodeling the actin cytoskeleton; probably by indirectly activating myosin. Beta non-catalytic subunit acts as a scaffold on which the AMPK complex assembles, via its C-terminus that bridges alpha (PRKAA1 or PRKAA2) and gamma subunits (PRKAG1, PRKAG2 or PRKAG3) (By similarity).
Disheveled-associated activator of morphogenesis 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DAAM1 gene. Evidence of alternative splicing has been observed for this gene but the full-length nature of these variants has not been determined. Cell motility, adhesion, and cytokinesis, and other functions of the cell cortex are mediated by the reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton and recent evidence suggests a role for formin homology (FH) proteins in these processes. The protein encoded by this gene contains FH domains and belongs to a novel FH protein subfamily implicated in cell polarity. Wnt/Fz signaling activates the small GTPase Rho, a key regulator of cytoskeleton architecture, to control cell polarity and movement during development. Activation requires Dvl-Rho complex formation, an assembly mediated by this gene product, which is thought to function as a scaffolding protein. The deletion of a single copy of this gene has been associated with congenital heart defects. GRCh38: Ensembl ...
The establishment of cell polarity involves positive-feedback mechanisms that concentrate polarity regulators, including the conserved GTPase Cdc42p, at the "front" of the polarized cell. Previous studies in yeast suggested the presence of two parallel positive-feedback loops, one operating as a diffusion-based system, and the other involving actin-directed trafficking of Cdc42p on vesicles. F-actin (and hence directed vesicle traffic) speeds fluorescence recovery of Cdc42p after photobleaching, suggesting that vesicle traffic of Cdc42p contributes to polarization. We present a mathematical modeling framework that combines previously developed mechanistic reaction-diffusion and vesicle-trafficking models. Surprisingly, the combined model recapitulated the observed effect of vesicle traffic on Cdc42p dynamics even when the vesicles did not carry significant amounts of Cdc42p. Vesicle traffic reduced the concentration of Cdc42p at the front, so that fluorescence recovery mediated by Cdc42p flux ...
Motile airway cilia that propel contaminants out of the lung are oriented in a common direction by planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling, which localizes PCP protein complexes to opposite cell sides throughout the epithelium to orient cytoskeletal remodeling. In airway epithelia, PCP is determined in a 2-phase process. First, cell-cell communication via PCP complexes polarizes all cells with respect to the proximal-distal tissue axis. Second, during ciliogenesis, multiciliated cells (MCCs) undergo cytoskeletal remodeling to orient their cilia in the proximal direction. The second phase not only directs cilium polarization, but also consolidates polarization across the epithelium. Here, we demonstrate that in airway epithelia, PCP depends on MCC differentiation. PCP mutant epithelia have misaligned cilia, and also display defective barrier function and regeneration, indicating that PCP regulates multiple aspects of airway epithelial homeostasis. In humans, MCCs are often sparse in chronic ...
The acquisition of spatial and functional asymmetry between the rear and the front of the cell is a necessary step for cell chemotaxis. Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) stimulation of the human adenocarcinoma MCF-7 induces a polarized phenotype characterized by asymmetrical CCR5 chemokine receptor redistribution to the leading cell edge. CCR5 associates with membrane raft microdomains, and its polarization parallels redistribution of raft molecules, including the raft-associated ganglioside GM1, glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored green fluorescent protein and ephrinB1, to the leading edge. The non-raft proteins transferrin receptor and a mutant ephrinB1 are distributed homogeneously in migrating MCF-7 cells, supporting the raft localization requirement for polarization. IGF-I stimulation of cholesterol-depleted cells induces projection of multiple pseudopodia over the entire cell periphery, indicating that raft disruption specifically affects the acquisition of cell polarity, but not IGF-I
Neuronal migration is essential to the formation of the central nervous system in vertebrates. In Caenorhabditis elegans, a screen was performed previously to identify mutations that affected the migration of the Q neuroblast descendants. One of the mutants isolated from this screen was mig-15. MIG-15, a Nck Interacting Kinase (NIK), is homologous to proteins found in a wide variety of organisms, including Drosophila, mice, and humans, in which NIK kinases have been implicated in cell migration. Interestingly, multiple components of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway had already been found to control the Q cell descendant migrations. Additionally, the MIG-15 homolog in Drosophila, Misshapen had also been found to work with Wnt signaling components in the non-canonical planar cell polarity pathway. To determine how MIG-15 was working to control the migrations of the Q cell descendants, a characterization of the Q neuroblast migration defects was performed. mig-15 mutants were found to affect the ...
Withdrawal of differentiating cells from proliferative tissue is critical for embryonic development and adult tissue homeostasis; however, the mechanisms that control this cell behavior are poorly understood. Using high-resolution live-cell imaging in chick neural tube, we uncover a form of cell subdivision that abscises apical cell membrane and mediates neuron detachment from the ventricle. This mechanism operates in chick and mouse, is dependent on actin-myosin contraction, and results in loss of apical cell polarity. Apical abscission also dismantles the primary cilium, known to transduce sonic-hedgehog signals, and is required for expression of cell-cycle-exit gene p27/Kip1. We further show that N-cadherin levels, regulated by neuronal-differentiation factor Neurog2, determine cilium disassembly and final abscission. This cell-biological mechanism may mediate such cell transitions in other epithelia in normal and cancerous conditions.. ...
Proudfoot A, Bayliffe A, OKane CM, Wright T, Serone A, Bareille PJ, Brown V, Hamid UI, Chen Y, Wilson R, Cordy J, Morley P, de Wildt R, Elborn S, Hind M, Chilvers ER, Griffiths M, Summers C, McAuley DF. Novel anti-tumour necrosis factor receptor-1 (TNFR1) domain antibody prevents pulmonary inflammation in experimental acute lung injury. Thorax. 2018 Aug;73(8):723-730.. Hind M, Jordan S, Hansell DM, Nicholson AG, Neild G, Polkey MI. A man with progressive type II respiratory failure. Lancet Respir Med. 2017 May;5(5):456. doi: 10.1016/S2213-2600(17)30139-X. Epub 2017 Apr 24. No abstract available.. Poobalasingam T, Yates LL, Walker SA, Pereira M, Gross NY, Ali A, Kolatsi-Joannou M, Jarvelin MR, Pekkanen J, Papakrivopoulou E, Long DA, Griffiths M, Wagner D, Königshoff M, Hind M, Minelli C, Lloyd CM, Dean CH. Heterozygous Vangl2Looptail mice reveal novel roles for the planar cell polarity pathway in adult lung homeostasis and repair. Dis Model Mech. 2017 Apr 1;10(4):409-423.. Ng-Blichfeldt JP, ...
Though NMII-A and NMII-B are genetically and structurally very similar, Juanes-Garcia et al. (2015) identified a serine-rich sequence (SFSSSRS) in the C terminus of NMII-B (Fig. 1 B). The authors effectively used cells depleted of NMII-B (Vicente-Manzanares et al., 2007) to test the role of this serine motif in front-to-back polarity. Although expression of wild-type NMII-B rescued front-to-back polarity, expressing NMII-B lacking the serine motif did not. Interestingly, simply inserting the serine-rich motif from NMII-B into NMII-A (NMII-A5S) conferred the ability to rescue front-to-back polarity. In addition, NMII-A5S did not localize to the front of the cell or play a role in adhesion maturation like wild-type NMII-A. Mass spectrometry analysis revealed three of the residues in the serine motif of NMII-B were phosphorylated in cells, and one of these, serine 1935, was found to be crucial for the wild-type kinetics and localization of NMII-B. A phosphomimetic point mutation, S1935D, failed to ...
For directional movement, eukaryotic cells depend on the proper organization of their actin cytoskeleton. This engine of motility is made up of highly dynamic nonequilibrium actin structures such as flashes, oscillations, and traveling waves. In Dictyostelium, oscillatory actin foci interact with signals such as Ras and phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate (PIP3) to form protrusions. However, how signaling cues tame actin dynamics to produce a pseudopod and guide cellular motility is a critical open question in eukaryotic chemotaxis. Here, we demonstrate that the strength of coupling between individual actin oscillators controls cell polarization and directional movement. We implement an inducible sequestration system to inactivate the heterotrimeric G protein subunit Gβ and find that this acute perturbation triggers persistent, high-amplitude cortical oscillations of F-actin. Actin oscillators that are normally weakly coupled to one another in wild-type cells become strongly synchronized following
GbpD, a Dictyostelium discoideum guanine exchange factor specific for Rap1, has been implicated in adhesion, cell polarity, and chemotaxis. Cells overexpressing GbpD are flat, exhibit strongly increased cell-substrate attachment, and extend many bifurcated and lateral pseudopodia. Phg2, a serine/threonine-specific kinase, mediates Rap1-regulated cell-substrate adhesion, but not cell polarity or chemotaxis. In this study we demonstrate that overexpression of GbpD in pi3k1/2-null cells does not induce the adhesion and cell morphology phenotype. Furthermore we show that Rap1 directly binds to the Ras binding domain of PI3K, and overexpression of GbpD leads to strongly enhanced PIP3 levels. Consistently, upon overexpression of the PIP3-degradating enzyme PTEN in GbpD-overexpressing cells, the strong adhesion and cell morphology phenotype is largely lost. These results indicate that a GbpD/Rap/PI3K pathway helps control pseudopod formation and cell polarity. As in Rap-regulated pseudopod formation in ...
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TABLE-US-00001 TABLE 1 Cell Role BNI1 BEM1 Cell Polarity BEM2 Cell Polarity BEM4 Cell Polarity BUD6† Cell Polarity SLA1† Cell Polarity CLA4 Cell Polarity ELM1† Cell Polarity GIN4 Cell Polarity NAP1† Cell Polarity SWE1† Cell Polarity BNR1 Cytokinesis CYK3† Cytokinesis SHS1 Cytokinesis BCK1 Cell Wall Maintenance BNI4† Cell Wall Maintenance FAB1 Cell Wall Maintenance CHS3 Cell Wall Maintenance SKT5† Cell Wall Maintenance CHS5† Cell Wall Maintenance CHS7† Cell Wall Maintenance SLT2 Cell Wall Maintenance SMI1† Cell Wall Maintenance ARP1 Mitosis ASE1 Mitosis DYN1 Mitosis DYN2† MitOSis JNM1 Mitosis NIP100 Mitosis NUM1 Mitosis PAC1 Mitosis ATS1 Cell Structure PACI1 Cell Structure YKE2† Cell Structure PCL1† Cell Cycle Control DRS2 RNA Processing SNC2 Vesicular Transport VPS28 Vesicular Transport YPT6† Vesicular Transport ELP2 Pol II Transcription ELP3† Pol II Transcription 8BC1† Unknown N8P2† Unknown TUS1† Unknown YBL051c† Unknown YBL062w† Unknown YDR149c Unknown ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Characterization of apical and basolateral plasma membrane domains derived from cultured rat cholangiocytes. AU - Tietz, Pamela. AU - Levine, Susan. AU - Holman, Ralph. AU - Fretham, Chris. AU - La Russo, Nicholas F. PY - 1997/12/15. Y1 - 1997/12/15. N2 - Cholangiocytes, the epithelial cells that line intrahepatic bile ducts, are composed of plasma membranes with discrete apical (lumenal) and basolateral domains that contain different channels, transporters, and receptors. In recent work, we developed a long-term, primary culture system of normal rat cholangiocytes (NRC). Our aims here were to prepare and characterize apical and basolateral plasma membrane vesicles from NRC. Using serial isopycnic centrifugation on sucrose gradients, we generated separate apical and basolateral plasma membrane vesicles. We characterized these vesicles by transmission electron microscopy, specific marker enzyme assays, and immunoblotting; we also determined the percentage of sealed vesicles and ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Linkers of Cell Polarity and Cell Cycle Regulation in the Fission Yeast Protein Interaction Network. AU - Vaggi, Federico. AU - Dodgson, James. AU - Bajpai, Archana. AU - Chessel, Anatole. AU - Jordán, Ferenc. AU - Sato, Masamitsu. AU - Carazo-Salas, Rafael Edgardo. AU - Csikász-Nagy, Attila. PY - 2012/10. Y1 - 2012/10. N2 - The study of gene and protein interaction networks has improved our understanding of the multiple, systemic levels of regulation found in eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms. Here we carry out a large-scale analysis of the protein-protein interaction (PPI) network of fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe) and establish a method to identify linker proteins that bridge diverse cellular processes - integrating Gene Ontology and PPI data with network theory measures. We test the method on a highly characterized subset of the genome consisting of proteins controlling the cell cycle, cell polarity and cytokinesis and identify proteins likely to play a key ...
Citable URI: http://udspace.udel.edu/handle/19716/19610 Advisor: Jia L. Song. Publisher: University of Delaware. Date Issued: 2016-05. Abstract: The Wnt signaling pathways are highly evolutionarily conserved in regulating cell specification, cell polarity and morphogenesis in development. The non-canonical Wnt pathways (ncWnt) consist of the Wnt/Planar Cell Polarity (Wnt/PCP) and the Wnt/calcium (Wnt/Ca2+) pathways. In all Wnt signaling pathways, Dvl transduces Wnt ligand activation. We hypothesize that perturbation of the Wnt/Ca2+ pathway with drugs will impact the morphogenic movements of primary mesenchyme cells (PMCs), which give rise to the skeleton spicules that facilitate larval swimming and feeding in the sea urchin embryo. To investigate specifically the regulation of ncWnt/Ca2+ pathway on the directed migration of PMCs, we treated sea urchin embryos with inhibitor Cyclosporin A (CsA), activator Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) and inhibitor KN-93 that disrupt the ncWnt/Ca2+ ...
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia is a disease with upregulated expression of the transmembrane tyrosine-protein kinase ROR1, a member of the Wnt/planar cell polarity pathway. In this study, we identified COBLL1 as a novel interaction partner of ROR1. COBLL1 shows clear bimodal expression with high levels in chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients with mutated IGHV and approximately 30% of chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients with unmutated IGHV. In the remaining 70% of chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients with unmutated IGHV, COBLL1 expression is low. Importantly, chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients with unmutated IGHV and high COBLL1 have an unfavorable disease course with short overall survival and time to second treatment. COBLL1 serves as an independent molecular marker for overall survival in chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients with unmutated IGHV. In addition, chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients with unmutated IGHV and high COBLL1 show impaired motility and chemotaxis towards CCL19 and ...
Neutrophils play a critical role in host defense against invading pathogens. Chemotaxis, the directed migration of cells, allows neutrophil to seek out the sites of inflammation and infection. Neutrophil chemotaxis as well as other type of cell migration are considered as cycles composed of highly orchestrated steps. Recently the underlying signaling mechanisms of neutrophil chemotaxis are better understood with the studies in knockout mice and neutrophil-like cell lines: a number of signaling molecules in neutrophil chemotaxis have been identified, and a feedback loop-based model of "frontness" and "backness" pathways has been proposed to explain the establishment of neutrophil polarity and chemotaxis. However, the signaling mechanisms that control actin cytoskeleton reorganization and interaction between the cells and the substratum on which cells migrate are still not fully understood. In my first research project, we have identified a signaling pathway, mediated by non-receptor tyrosine ...
article{1864472, abstract = {Endocytosis is a crucial mechanism by which eukaryotic cells internalize extracellular and plasma membrane material, and it is required for a multitude of cellular and developmental processes in unicellular and multicellular organisms. In animals and yeast, the best characterized pathway for endocytosis depends on the function of the vesicle coat protein clathrin. Clathrin-mediated endocytosis has recently been demonstrated also in plant cells, but its physiological and developmental roles remain unclear. Here, we assessed the roles of the clathrin-mediated mechanism of endocytosis in plants by genetic means. We interfered with clathrin heavy chain (CHC) function through mutants and dominant-negative approaches in Arabidopsis thaliana and established tools to manipulate clathrin function in a cell type-specific manner. The chc2 single mutants and dominant-negative CHC1 (HUB) transgenic lines were defective in bulk endocytosis as well as in internalization of ...
A software programmable device means such as a microprocessor discriminates between evoked response signals and post-pace polarization signals sensed by an implantable medical device. The polarity of the positive or negative change in voltage in respect of time (or dv/dt) of the waveform incident on the lead electrodes is monitored during a short period of time immediately following a paced event. It has been discovered that the post-pace polarization signal exhibits a relatively constant polarity during the capture detect window, and that the evoked response signal may cause the polarity of post-pace polarization signal to reverse during the capture detect window . The sign of the post-pace polarization polarity, either positive or negative, is determined by the design of the specific output circuitry. The evoked response signal may reverse the polarity of the sensed signal in either case, from positive to negative or from negative to positive, during the time window of interest. In another embodiment

The Aspergillus nidulans sepA gene encodes an FH1/2 protein involved in cytokinesis and the maintenance of cellular polarity<...The Aspergillus nidulans sepA gene encodes an FH1/2 protein involved in cytokinesis and the maintenance of cellular polarity<...

The Aspergillus nidulans sepA gene encodes an FH1/2 protein involved in cytokinesis and the maintenance of cellular polarity. ... The Aspergillus nidulans sepA gene encodes an FH1/2 protein involved in cytokinesis and the maintenance of cellular polarity. ... The Aspergillus nidulans sepA gene encodes an FH1/2 protein involved in cytokinesis and the maintenance of cellular polarity. ... Temperature-sensitive mutations in the sepA gene prevent septation and cause defects in the maintenance of cellular polarity, ...
more infohttps://nebraska.pure.elsevier.com/en/publications/the-aspergillus-nidulans-sepa-gene-encodes-an-fh12-protein-involv

Glossary | PorphyraGlossary | Porphyra

Blade archeospore - formed by differentiation of a vegetative cell, which releases a single cell product that germinates into ... Protothalli - cellular masses, which do not exhibit developmental polarity and release protoplasts, which develop into foliar ... Conchocelis archeospore - formed by differentiation of a vegetative cell, which releases a single cell product, which ... and released through cell wall breakdown. They are unable to live independently. The division formula (the arrangement of cells ...
more infohttp://www.porphyra.org/glossary

Intrinsic polarity of mammalian neuroepithelial cells.  - PubMed - NCBIIntrinsic polarity of mammalian neuroepithelial cells. - PubMed - NCBI

Mol Cell Neurosci. 1998 Jul;11(4):183-93. Research Support, Non-U.S. Govt; Research Support, U.S. Govt, P.H.S. ... Mol Cell Neurosci. 1998 Jul;11(4):183-93.. Intrinsic polarity of mammalian neuroepithelial cells.. Chenn A1, Zhang YA, Chang BT ... Here we explore the intrinsic polarity of neuroepithelial cells in the developing telencephalon. Actin microfilaments are ... Progenitor cells in the mammalian forebrain can undergo either symmetric or asymmetric cell divisions by varying their cleavage ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9675050?dopt=Abstract

Cell Polarity in the Preimplantation Mouse Embryo | SpringerLinkCell Polarity in the Preimplantation Mouse Embryo | SpringerLink

The union of two highly polarized cells, the sperm and the egg, initiates a series of dramatic cellular transformations that ... 8-cell blastomere polarity-inducing ability of a variety of embryonic cells and non-cellular materials, J. Cell Biol. 101: 343a ... The calcium-dependent cell-cell adhesion system regulates inner cell mass formation and cell surface polarization in early ... Nuccitelli, R., 1983, Transcellular ion currents: Signals and effectors of cell polarity, in: Modern Cell Biology, Vol. 2 (J.R ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4684-5332-4_2

Microtubule-based cell polarity in vitroMicrotubule-based cell polarity in vitro

... pombe cells with microtubules in red and the polarity factor for cell growth (tea1p) in green. Tea1p is transported to the cell ... To establish polarity, cells rely on elaborate regulation networks to control the distribution of specific proteins at the cell ... Cell polarity is crucial for many processes in living cells, including differentiation, division, growth and directional ... Microtubule-based cell polarity in vitro Kim Vendel Collaborators: Philippe Bastiaens (MPI Dortmund), Pieter Rein ten Wolde ( ...
more infohttps://www.tudelft.nl/tnw/over-faculteit/afdelingen/bionanoscience/research/research-labs/marileen-dogterom-lab/research-projects/microtubule-based-cell-polarity-in-vitro/

Budding and cell polarity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  - PubMed - NCBIBudding and cell polarity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. - PubMed - NCBI

Budding and cell polarity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.. Chant J1, Pringle JR. ... organization of that site and establishment of an associated axis of cytoskeletal polarity, and localized growth of the cell ... there may exist common mechanisms involved in the establishment of cell polarity. ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1840891?dopt=Abstract

Reversed polarity 18650 cell.Reversed polarity 18650 cell.

0.27v cells, but my charger wont accept them (it says reverse polarity). ... 4.0v and I get from them approx 2050 mah per cell (tested with Imax B8), But the last pair had reversed -0.27v !!! First ... One battery was 3S2P 18650 cells, two of the pairs are OK ( they had ~ ... Reverse polarity in a Li-Ion cell indicates that damage has been done to the cell. Using a Li-Ion cell that has been damaged is ...
more infohttp://www.candlepowerforums.com/vb/showthread.php?316280-Reversed-polarity-18650-cell

Cell polarity - WikipediaCell polarity - Wikipedia

Epithelial polarity Cell migration Embryogenesis Embryonic development Asymmetric cell division 3D cell culture Cell culture ... cell migration, cell-cell signalling and fertilization. Cell polarity is an example of the self-organization property that all ... Cell polarity refers to spatial differences in shape, structure, and function within a cell. Almost all cell types exhibit some ... "Cell Polarity in Eggs and Epithelia: Parallels and Diversity". Cell. 141 (5): 757-774. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2010.05.011. PMID ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cell_polarity

Planar Cell Polarity Signaling Pathway in Congenital Heart DiseasesPlanar Cell Polarity Signaling Pathway in Congenital Heart Diseases

The planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway is a highly conserved signaling pathway that mediates changes in cell polarity and cell ... Noncanonical Wnt pathways, also called the planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling pathway, work on planar cell polarity in ... strongly suggesting that this is a defect in cell polarity and/or cell movement, rather than some other aspect of cell behavior ... The planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling pathway, responsible for tissue polarity in Drosophila and gastrulation movements and ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2011/589414/

Cadherin-26 (CDH26) regulates airway epithelial cell cytoskeletal structure and polarity | Cell DiscoveryCadherin-26 (CDH26) regulates airway epithelial cell cytoskeletal structure and polarity | Cell Discovery

... in regulation of cell-cell contact and cell integrity through maintaining cytoskeletal structures. Overexpression of CDH26 in ... CDH26 expression is also important for localization of planar cell polarity proteins. Knockdown of CDH26 in AECs results in ... Using human AECs and cell lines, we demonstrate that cadherin-26 (CDH26) is abundantly expressed in differentiated AECs, ... localizes to the cell apices near ciliary membranes, and has functional cadherin domains with homotypic binding. We find a ...
more infohttps://www.nature.com/articles/s41421-017-0006-x?error=cookies_not_supported&code=90cfb4f6-d18b-42d9-bfef-12c4a210ecb2

Cell Polarity
	Cell Polarity

Download a Free Excerpt from Cell Polarity:. Preface. Role of Polarity Proteins in the Generation and Organization of Apical ... Phosphoinositides and Membrane Targeting in Cell Polarity. Gerald R. Hammond and Yang Hong. The Crumbs3 Polarity Protein. Ben ... Making Heads or Tails of It: Cell-Cell Adhesion in Cellular and Supracellular Polarity in Collective Migration. Jan-Hendrik ... Cell Polarity. Book Series: A Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology Collection. Subject Area(s): Developmental Biology; ...
more infohttps://cshlpress.com/default.tpl?action=full&cart=1580016619350683254&--eqskudatarq=1159

Cell Polarity
	Cell Polarity

Download a Free Excerpt from Cell Polarity:. Preface. Role of Polarity Proteins in the Generation and Organization of Apical ... Phosphoinositides and Membrane Targeting in Cell Polarity. Gerald R. Hammond and Yang Hong. The Crumbs3 Polarity Protein. Ben ... Making Heads or Tails of It: Cell-Cell Adhesion in Cellular and Supracellular Polarity in Collective Migration. Jan-Hendrik ... Cell Polarity. Book Series: A Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology Collection. Subject Area(s): Developmental Biology; ...
more infohttps://cshlpress.com/default.tpl?action=full&cart=154730500414533417&--eqskudatarq=1159

Cell PolarityCell Polarity

Download a Free Excerpt from Cell Polarity:. Preface. Role of Polarity Proteins in the Generation and Organization of Apical ... Phosphoinositides and Membrane Targeting in Cell Polarity. Gerald R. Hammond and Yang Hong. The Crumbs3 Polarity Protein. Ben ... Making Heads or Tails of It: Cell-Cell Adhesion in Cellular and Supracellular Polarity in Collective Migration. Jan-Hendrik ... Cell Polarity. Book Series: A Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology Collection. Subject Area(s): Developmental Biology; ...
more infohttps://www.cshlpress.com/default.tpl?action=full&cart=1573307550690491884&--eqskudatarq=1159&typ=ps&newtitle=Cell%20Polarity

Cell PolarityCell Polarity

Download a Free Excerpt from Cell Polarity:. Preface. Role of Polarity Proteins in the Generation and Organization of Apical ... Phosphoinositides and Membrane Targeting in Cell Polarity. Gerald R. Hammond and Yang Hong. The Crumbs3 Polarity Protein. Ben ... Making Heads or Tails of It: Cell-Cell Adhesion in Cellular and Supracellular Polarity in Collective Migration. Jan-Hendrik ... Cell Polarity. Book Series: A Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology Collection. Subject Area(s): Developmental Biology; ...
more infohttps://www.cshlpress.com/default.tpl?action=full&cart=1573330181696313829&--eqskudatarq=1159&typ=ps&newtitle=Cell%20Polarity

Finding a minimal system to establish cell polarity with microtubulesFinding a minimal system to establish cell polarity with microtubules

In fission yeast microtubules bring polarity markers to the cell poles. Those will make the cell happily grow from both ends. ... Microtubule-based cell polarity in vitro. *In vitro reconstitution and (photo)control of the microtubule plus-end tracking ... Microtubule-based cell polarity in vitro. *In vitro reconstitution and (photo)control of the microtubule plus-end tracking ... Microtubule-based cell polarity in vitro. *In vitro reconstitution and (photo)control of the microtubule plus-end tracking ...
more infohttps://www.tudelft.nl/tnw/over-faculteit/afdelingen/bionanoscience/research/research-labs/marileen-dogterom-lab/research-projects/finding-a-minimal-system-to-establish-cell-polarity-with-microtubules/

Skin in balance: Joint forces of polarity and cell mechanics | EurekAlert! Science NewsSkin in balance: Joint forces of polarity and cell mechanics | EurekAlert! Science News

Molecular mechanics in the skin of mice are driven by polarity genes, a team led by Sandra Iden of the Cluster of Excellence ... The cell polarity protein Par3 controls mechanic changes in the skin and plays an important role in cell division. Malfunction ... The polarity protein Par3 controls the mechanical properties of the main skin epithelial cells, called keratinocytes. It has ... In a previous study, the researchers showed that inactivation of the polarity protein Par3 resulted in a decline of stem cells ...
more infohttps://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2019-07/uoc-sib073019.php

Cell Polarity and Subcellular RNA Localization : Dietmar Richter : 9783540411420Cell Polarity and Subcellular RNA Localization : Dietmar Richter : 9783540411420

Cell Polarity and Subcellular RNA Localization by Dietmar Richter, 9783540411420, available at Book Depository with free ... Selective cytoplasmic organelle and protein targeting has long been thought to constitute the sole determinant of cell polarity ... Selective cytoplasmic organelle and protein targeting has long been thought to constitute the sole determinant of cell polarity ... 4 CREB Protein Moves from the Dendrite to the Cell Nucleus.- 5 Potential Importance of Dendritic CREB in Modulating.- Neuronal ...
more infohttps://www.bookdepository.com/Cell-Polarity-Subcellular-RNA-Localization-Dietmar-Richter/9783540411420?ref=bd_ser_1_1

Wd repeat containing planar cell polarity effector - WikipediaWd repeat containing planar cell polarity effector - Wikipedia

A similar gene in frogs encodes a planar cell polarity protein that plays a critical role in collective cell movement and ... WD repeat containing planar cell polarity effector is a protein that in humans is encoded by the WDPCP gene. This gene encodes ... WD repeat containing planar cell polarity effector". Retrieved 2017-06-07. Talmud PJ, Drenos F, Shah S, Shah T, Palmen J, ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wd_repeat_containing_planar_cell_polarity_effector

Helicobacter pylori Usurps Cell Polarity to Turn the Cell Surface into a Replicative NicheHelicobacter pylori Usurps Cell Polarity to Turn the Cell Surface into a Replicative Niche

We utilized live-cell imaging and a cell culture model of polarized epithelial cells to address why Hp attaches to the cell ... which is injected directly into host cells by the bacteria. We found that CagAs ability to perturb cell polarity is important ... We discovered that Hp is able to grow on the surface of epithelial cells, even in conditions where the free-swimming bacteria ... The bacteria live in close proximity to the epithelial lining and can adhere directly to the host cell membrane and deliver ...
more infohttps://journals.plos.org/plospathogens/article?id=10.1371/journal.ppat.1000407

Putting cell polarity on the map | JCBPutting cell polarity on the map | JCB

Genetics and biochemistry have been used to map many of the individual pathways that establish and maintain cell polarity in ... Because the machinery of cell polarity development is highly conserved from yeast to humans, the newly described interactions ... the authors assayed the universe of likely protein-protein interactions involved in cell polarity development. The resulting ... which is essential for establishing and maintaining cell polarity. Still other interactions suggest direct connections between ...
more infohttp://jcb.rupress.org/content/154/3/478.1

Targeting NCK-Mediated Endothelial Cell Front-Rear Polarity Inhibits Neo-Vascularization | CirculationTargeting NCK-Mediated Endothelial Cell Front-Rear Polarity Inhibits Neo-Vascularization | Circulation

Endothelial cells forming the sprout must develop front-rear polarity to allow sprout extension. The adaptor proteins Nck1 and ... Targeting NCK-Mediated Endothelial Cell Front-Rear Polarity Inhibits Neo-Vascularization. Alexandre Dubrac, Gael Genet, Roxana ... Here we show that the Nck adaptors are required for endothelial cell front-rear polarity and migration downstream of the ... Targeting NCK-Mediated Endothelial Cell Front-Rear Polarity Inhibits Neo-Vascularization. Alexandre Dubrac, Gael Genet, Roxana ...
more infohttp://circ.ahajournals.org/content/early/2015/12/09/CIRCULATIONAHA.115.017537

Cell Polarity In Development And Disease, Book by Douglas W Houston (Paperback) | chapters.indigo.caCell Polarity In Development And Disease, Book by Douglas W Houston (Paperback) | chapters.indigo.ca

Buy the Paperback Book Cell Polarity In Development And Disease by Douglas W Houston at Indigo.ca, Canadas largest bookstore ... 3. Pluripotency and cell polarity. 4. The role of cell polarity in adult stem cell maintenance. 5. Integration of cell polarity ... Hepatic cell polarity and disease. 14. Epidermal cell polarity and disease. 15. Cell polarity and sensory cell defects ... 6. Cell polarity and the onset and progression of cancer. 7. Cell division and cell polarity. 8. Polarized membrane/vesicle ...
more infohttps://www.chapters.indigo.ca/en-ca/books/cell-polarity-in-development-and/9780128024386-item.html

Recent Articles | Planar-cell Polarity And Genetics & Genomics | The Scientist Magazine®| Page 5Recent Articles | Planar-cell Polarity And Genetics & Genomics | The Scientist Magazine®| Page 5

Single-cell genome analyses reveal the amount of mutations a human brain cell will collect from its fetal beginnings until ... T-cell therapies are not just for cancer. Researchers are also advancing immunotherapy methods to protect bone marrow ... From single-cell analysis to whole-genome sequencing, this years best new products shine on many levels. ... tags: planar-cell polarity x genetics & genomics x The Scientist. » planar-cell polarity and genetics & genomics ...
more infohttps://www.the-scientist.com/?articles.list/tagNo/2480,9/tags/planar-cell-polarity,genetics--amp--genomics/pageNo/5/

Apical Abscission Alters Cell Polarity and Dismantles the Primary Cilium During Neurogenesis | ScienceApical Abscission Alters Cell Polarity and Dismantles the Primary Cilium During Neurogenesis | Science

Using high-resolution live-cell imaging in chick neural tube, we uncover a form of cell subdivision that abscises apical cell ... Apical Abscission Alters Cell Polarity and Dismantles the Primary Cilium During Neurogenesis ... Apical Abscission Alters Cell Polarity and Dismantles the Primary Cilium During Neurogenesis ... Apical Abscission Alters Cell Polarity and Dismantles the Primary Cilium During Neurogenesis ...
more infohttp://science.sciencemag.org/content/343/6167/200
  • Temperature-sensitive mutations in the sepA gene prevent septation and cause defects in the maintenance of cellular polarity, without affecting growth and nuclear division. (elsevier.com)
  • The cells then extend across the midline to develop a crescent-shaped epithelium called the cardiac crescent, which fuses at the midline to form the early heart tube [ 7 ] called the primary heart field or the first heart field (FHF). (hindawi.com)
  • A digitally processed micrograph of mouse skin and hair follicles, with DNA damage (green) in the skin epithelium, including the hair follicle stem cells (purple). (eurekalert.org)
  • Planar cell polarity (PCP) has been demonstrated in the epithelium of organisms from flies to humans. (biologists.org)
  • Planar cell polarity (PCP) is a process in which cells develop with uniform orientation within the plane of an epithelium. (jneurosci.org)
  • Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) originates via malignant transformation of the pseudostratified nasopharyngeal epithelium, composed of basal and luminal cells. (bioportfolio.com)
  • One type of organization is planar cell polarity (PCP) , the biological process through which a cell develops a specific orientation or direction within the plane of an epithelium (Figure 1). (taylor.edu)
  • 2) Ohata S, Alvarez-Buylla A. Planar Organization of Multiciliated Ependymal (E1) Cells in the Brain Ventricular Epithelium. (taylor.edu)
  • By the use of a strict tetracycline-regulation system, we found that the continuous suppression of β-catenin/TCF4-mediated gene transactivation by dominant-negative TCF4B (ΔN30) reduced these piled-up foci and restored a simple monolayer of polarized columnar cells resembling normal intestinal epithelium. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Furthermore also FRT parental cells expressing the same construct appeared to be hampered in the expression of certain properties of the polarized epithelium, indicating that sustained but not regulated acivation of Rac1 impairs the acquisition of cell polarity. (unina.it)
  • Cell polarity is essential for normal mammary glandular epithelium organization. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Many cell types are capable of migration, such as leukocytes and fibroblasts, and in order for these cells to move in one direction, they must have a defined front and rear. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here, actin polymerization in the direction of migration allows cells to extend the leading edge of the cell and to attach to the surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • Without this front-rear polarity, cells would be unable to coordinate directed migration. (wikipedia.org)
  • Formation of the vertebrate heart can be subdivided into distinct but partially overlapping phases, such as specification of cardiac progenitors and the formation of the linear heart tube by cell migration and morphogenetic movements, followed by cardiac looping, chamber formation, septation, and maturation [ 8 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Here we show that the Nck adaptors are required for endothelial cell front-rear polarity and migration downstream of the angiogenic growth factors VEGF-A and Slit2. (ahajournals.org)
  • Selective inhibition of polarized endothelial cell migration by targeting Nck1/2 prevents hypersprouting induced by Notch or Bmp signaling inhibition, as well as pathological ocular neovascularization and wound healing. (ahajournals.org)
  • A Travelling Fellowship from Journal of Cell Science allowed her to spend time in Prof Maddy Parson's lab at King's College London, learning new cell migration assays and analysing fibroblasts cultured from individuals with Parkinson's. (biologists.org)
  • Wnt signals control multiple biological processes, including cellular proliferation, fate specification, polarity and migration. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Our data show that EMT is a prolonged process in which adherens junctions progressively decrease in number throughout the mesoderm cells' migration. (biologists.org)
  • We also found that, at the completion of migration, cells form a monolayer and undergo a reverse mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition (MET). (biologists.org)
  • Neural crest cells exhibit collective cell migration, moving in streams of high directionality. (biochemj.org)
  • However, if the cell density is high only cells exposed to a free edge can migrate away from the cluster leading to the directional migration of the whole group. (biochemj.org)
  • Recent work performed in chicks, zebrafish and frogs has shown that the non-canonical Wnt-PCP (planar cell polarity) pathway plays a major role in neural crest migration. (biochemj.org)
  • Upon collision RhoA (ras homologue family member A) is activated, whereas Rac1 is inhibited at the contact between two migrating neural crest cells, leading to the collapse of protrusions and the migration of cells away from one another. (biochemj.org)
  • Several aspects including directional migration, TER acquisition, cell aggregation and formation of polarized follicles were investigated and found to be affected by the pharmacological inhibition of Rac1 activity. (unina.it)
  • Reduced fibronectin deposition in the subepicardial space is associated with limited migration of epicardially derived cells (EPDCs) into the ventricular myocardium and likely contributes to these defects. (ahajournals.org)
  • Cell polarity, which is defined as asymmetry in cell shape, organelle distribution and cell function, is essential in numerous biological processes, including cell growth, cell migration and invasion, molecular transport, and cell fate. (ijbs.com)
  • Cell polarity is essential in numerous biological processes, including cell growth, cell migration and invasion, and molecular transport [ 2 ]. (ijbs.com)
  • Intrinsic polarity of mammalian neuroepithelial cells. (nih.gov)
  • Here we explore the intrinsic polarity of neuroepithelial cells in the developing telencephalon. (nih.gov)
  • They show that in asymmetrically dividing Drosophila neural stem cells, cell intrinsic polarity cues provide spatial and temporal information to regulate biased Myosin activity. (washington.edu)
  • We show that accounting for functional polarity of MBECs with either asymmetric LAT1 distribution between membranes and/or intrinsic LAT1 asymmetry with low intraendothelial binding affinity is required to reproduce the experimentally measured brain ISF response to intraperitoneal (IP) L-tyrosine and L-phenylalanine injection. (frontiersin.org)
  • In plants, cell polarity is an issue more recurring than in other systems, because plants, due to their adaptive and flexible development, often change cell polarity postembryonically according to intrinsic cues and demands of the environment. (ugent.be)
  • Endothelial cells forming the sprout must develop front-rear polarity to allow sprout extension. (ahajournals.org)
  • Mechanistically, NCK binding to ROBO1 is required for both Slit2 and VEGF induced front-rear polarity. (ahajournals.org)
  • Conclusions -These data reveal a novel signal integration mechanism involving NCK1/2, ROBO1/2 and VEGFR2 that controls endothelial cell front-rear polarity during sprouting angiogenesis. (ahajournals.org)
  • Although these authors conclude that recombination occurs uniformly within the bz gene, we would like to point out the clear evidence in their data for a 5′ to 3′ polarity in meiotic gene conversion at this locus. (plantcell.org)
  • However, polarity is usually not detected as a gradient in the frequency of recombination (or of recombination junctions), but as a gradient of gene conversion. (plantcell.org)
  • In all but two of the marker pairs, the 5′-most marker is converted more frequently than is the 3′ marker, thereby defining a 5′ to 3′ polarity of gene conversion across the bz locus ( Figure 1 ). (plantcell.org)
  • Both of these marker pairs include the mutation E9 , and so it is possible that a marker-specific effect, for instance the efficiency by which E9 is repaired in heteroduplexes, accounts for the apparent reversal in the polarity of gene conversion exhibited in these two crosses. (plantcell.org)
  • Polarity of Gene Conversion in the bz Locus of Maize. (plantcell.org)
  • The patterns of polymorphisms in the IGRs analyzed by Dooner and Martínez-Férez ( 1997 ) (see their Figures 4 and 5) are also compatible with a 5′ to 3′ polarity of gene conversion across the bz locus. (plantcell.org)
  • Based principally on the results from bz-m1 / bz-m2(DI) and bz-m1 / bz-m2(DII) heterozygotes, Thijs and Heyting have raised the possibility that there is 5′ to 3′ polarity of meiotic gene conversion at the bronze ( bz ) locus. (plantcell.org)
  • Thijs and Heyting also state that the patterns of polymorphisms in the Bz IGRs we have analyzed (see Figures 4 and 5 in Dooner and Martínez-Férez, 1997 ) are compatible with a 5′ to 3′ polarity of gene conversion across the bz locus, and they claim that these data show a clear polarity of coconversion. (plantcell.org)
  • Thymoma cells were cultured and transfected with shRNA plasmids targeting the Wnt4 gene. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Opposite replication polarity of the germ line c-myc gene in HeLa cells compared with that of two Burkitt lymphoma cell lines. (asm.org)
  • In this study, we describe defects in the formation of the coronary vasculature in the loop-tail ( Lp ) mutant in which the planar cell polarity (PCP) gene, Vangl2 , is disrupted. (ahajournals.org)
  • LIN7A , a Crumbs-complex polarity gene, was one of the most differentially over-expressed genes in the IMPCs. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The establishment of neuronal polarity during normal development may similarly involve an interaction among processes whose identities have not yet been determined. (rupress.org)
  • At the rear of the cell, adhesions are disassembled and bundles of actin microfilaments, called stress fibers, contract and pull the trailing edge forward to keep up with the rest of the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Overexpression of CDH26 in cells with a fibroblastoid phenotype increases contact inhibition and promotes monolayer formation and cortical actin structures. (nature.com)
  • Distinct complexes of the core module segregate to opposite sides of the cell, where they interact with the opposite complex in the neighboring cell at or near the adherents junctions (By similarity). (uniprot.org)
  • It is now accepted that defects in expression or localization of polarity complexes induce disturbances of epithelial organization and are precancerous events. (univ-mrs.fr)
  • Planar cell polarity (PCP) and intercellular junctional complexes establish tissue structure and coordinated behaviors across epithelial sheets. (sebbm.es)
  • First, cell-cell communication via PCP complexes polarizes all cells with respect to the proximal-distal tissue axis. (jci.org)
  • Epidermal and gastrodermal cells are joined by different set of junctional complexes. (elifesciences.org)
  • Three major polarity complexes have been identified. (ijbs.com)
  • Recent work is also beginning to unravel how this complex acts in concert with additional molecular complexes to establish and maintain polarity. (pasteur.fr)
  • AJs and TJs can interact with cell polarity complexes. (ijbs.com)
  • Airway epithelial cells (AECs) create a physical barrier to inhaled particles and pathogens, regulate airway surface fluid, secrete mediators to recruit immune cells in response to injury, and help regulate smooth muscle cells to facilitate respiration 1 . (nature.com)
  • Conditional inhibition of myocardial Rho kinase activity disrupts the organization of the cardiomyocytes and formation of the coronary vessels to produce the same spectrum of defects as seen in Lp . These data suggest that Vangl2 and Rho kinase act cell autonomously in the myocardium to regulate the organization of cardiomyocytes but also have non-cell-autonomous effects on the formation of the coronary vasculature. (ahajournals.org)
  • Finally, Hh signaling can regulate tumor stem cell amounts aswell as the tumor microenvironment, creating circumstances that promote Rabbit Polyclonal to RPL22 tumor development. (bioinf.org)
  • How do secreted growth factors regulate cell polarity and cell shape? (mssm.edu)
  • When cells can perform symmetry breaking in absence of any spatial cue (landmarks), is called spontaneous polarization or spontaneous symmetry breaking. (wikipedia.org)
  • Polarization of the airway epithelial cells (AECs) in the airway lumen is critical to the proper function of the mucociliary escalator and maintenance of lung health, but the cellular requirements for polarization of AECs are poorly understood. (nature.com)
  • In parallel, together with Sophie Roth , they are developing a similar system resembling fission yeast cells: polarization in elongated droplets. (tudelft.nl)
  • Involved in the planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway that is essential for the polarization of epithelial cells during morphogenetic processes, including gastrulation and neurulation (By similarity). (uniprot.org)
  • This polarization resembles anterior-posterior cell polarity induced by immunological synapse (IS) formation, which is more extensively characterized than VS formation and occurs when a T-cell interacts with an antigen-presenting cell. (mdpi.com)
  • Results indicate that Vangl2 becomes asymmetrically localized to specific cell-cell boundaries along the axis of polarization and that this asymmetry is lost in PCP mutants. (jneurosci.org)
  • The high degree of conservation of the polarity of syntaxin 3 and 4 suggests that their function and proper localization may play an important role in epithelial polarization. (rupress.org)
  • When stimulated with MBP, the production of nitric oxide (NO), IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-12p70, and the expressions of CD80, MHC class II and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) were all increased in RAW264.7 cells, indicating the activation and polarization of RAW264.7 cells into M1 macrophages induced by MBP. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The directionality of the migrating neural crest is achieved by contact-dependent cell polarization, in a phenomenon called contact inhibition of locomotion. (biochemj.org)
  • Subsequentely, to analyze the role of Rac1 in the control of cell polarization in the FRT cells, the cultures were treated with NSC23766, a molecule that does not allow Rac1 specific GEFs, such as Tiam1 and Trio, to bind to Rac1 and therefore acts as an inibitor of Rac1 activation. (unina.it)
  • This experimental appoach allowed us to establish that Rac1 is a major regulator of the polarization process in FRT cells. (unina.it)
  • This particular architecture has been attributed to a rotation of cell polarization and has been described as an inside-out growth pattern. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Cell polarity is an example of the self-organization property that all living organism share. (wikipedia.org)
  • We are interested in the spontaneous symmetry breaking, as an example of self-organization phenomena in living cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recent research has revealed that the planar organization of cells requires a conserved set of genes, known as the PCP genes. (biologists.org)
  • Mutations in PCP genes cause cells to lose their planar organization, yet maintaining their individual cell polarity. (biologists.org)
  • Here, using further optimized 3D culture that allows highly selective induction and long-term growth of human ES cell (hESC)-derived cortical neuroepithelium, we demonstrate unique aspects of self-organization in human neocorticogenesis. (pnas.org)
  • Epithelial organization and function depend on coordinated cell polarity. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Using live cell imaging and a genetically encoded Myosin activity sensor, they found that Drosophila Rho kinase (Rok) enriches for activated Myosin on the neuroblast cortex prior to nuclear envelope breakdown (NEB). (washington.edu)
  • Moreover, activation of RhoA/Rho kinase signaling is disrupted in these cells. (ahajournals.org)
  • Unraveling how signaling transduced via Rac1 are translated into oriented distribution of molecules in epithelial cells is a central issue to fully understand the processes of acquisition/maintenance of cell polarity. (unina.it)
  • The role of integrin signaling in the acquisition/maintenance of cell polarity has been studied to some extent in polarized epithelial cells in culture. (unina.it)
  • Single-cell genome analyses reveal the amount of mutations a human brain cell will collect from its fetal beginnings until death. (the-scientist.com)
  • Although a clear gradient of recombination junctions in the region between these two mutations is indeed debatable, the polarity of coconversion is not. (plantcell.org)
  • In addition, mutations or chemical interference with PIN-based auxin transport result in abnormal cell divisions. (ugent.be)
  • As previously talked about, activating mutations of Hh signaling can travel the introduction of BCCs, medulloblastomas, rhabdomyosarcomas, gastrointestinal stromal-like tumors, and Barretts esophagus.23 In little cell lung tumor (SCLC), Hh signaling may promote cancer advancement but cannot travel tumor formation. (bioinf.org)
  • Epidermal cells (ectodermally derived) are joined most likely by AJs (Red arrowheads). (elifesciences.org)
  • a and b: two different types of epidermal cells. (elifesciences.org)
  • 1995). The K14-K5 keratin network provides an essential mechanical framework to these developing basal epidermal cells (Vassar et al. (rockefeller.edu)
  • Dissection of Arabidopsis ADP-RIBOSYLATION FACTOR 1 function in epidermal cell polarity. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Budding yeast is a highly accessible experimental system, which serves as a paradigm for deciphering the molecular mechanism underlying the generation of polarity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Stem cells and cancer cells have enough molecular similarities that the former can be used to trigger immunity against the latter. (the-scientist.com)
  • Finally, we discuss how the molecular controls of the cell cycle might be integrated with cell polarity and cell fate to maintain oocyte production. (frontiersin.org)
  • Proteomics will then be employed to identify novel molecular determinants that interact with polarity-inducing factors to influence neuron repolarisation. (findaphd.com)
  • El grupo de biología celular de la inflamación del Centro de Biología Molecular Severo Ochoa se creo en 2009 para estudiar los aspectos celulares de la respuesta inmunitaria. (sebbm.es)
  • This volume will thus be essential reading for all cell and developmental biologists, as well as those interested in how cell polarity processes impact human health and disease. (cshlpress.com)
  • Recent findings on the directional movement of the plant signalling molecule auxin provide a unique connection between individual cell polarity and the establishment of polarity at the tissue, organ, and whole-plant levels. (ugent.be)
  • Some examples of planar cell polarity include the scales of fish being oriented in the same direction and similarly the feathers of birds, the fur of mammals, and the cuticular projections (sensory hairs, etc.) on the bodies and appendages of flies and other insects. (wikipedia.org)
  • One measure of cell polarity induced by both IS or VS formation is the repositioning of the microtubule organizing center (MTOC) relative to the contact point with the interacting cell. (mdpi.com)
  • The long ciliary nerves of rabbits were prepared for a standard "hook assay" of microtubule polarity. (jneurosci.org)
  • Rho-GTPases and their effectors are also key regulators of microfilament and microtubule dynamics and, consequently, are crucially involved in polarity signaling. (unina.it)
  • We were now able to show that Par3 has a direct influence on the homeostasis of the skin by controlling the mechanical properties of keratinocytes, the main skin epithelial cell,' said leading scientist of the study Dr Sandra Iden. (eurekalert.org)
  • One of the first authors, Martim Dias Gomes, said: 'We realized that inactivating Par3 leads to failures in cell divisions, resulting in DNA damage responses. (eurekalert.org)
  • As they now show, Par3 is an important regulator of contractility of keratinocytes, which is required to maintain the accuracy of cell division events. (eurekalert.org)
  • Their work suggests that Par3 is a novel, long-sought exocyst receptor and that this function is required for mammary epithelial cells. (technologynetworks.com)
  • Because the machinery of cell polarity development is highly conserved from yeast to humans, the newly described interactions merit further study in a variety of cell types. (rupress.org)
  • Using 3D culture of human ES cells, we show new self-organizing aspects of human corticogenesis: spontaneous development of intracortical polarity, curving morphology, and complex zone separations. (pnas.org)
  • Early in their development, germ cells are an interconnected group of mitotically dividing cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • Novel function of ∆Np63 in cell polarity and metabolism in pubertal mammary gland development. (bioportfolio.com)
  • stem cells that is involved in breast cancer development. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Overall, the present concluded that Wnt4 has an important role in thymoma development, which appears to be activated through a JNK mediated planar cell polarity‑like pathway. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • 3) Simons M, Mlodzik M. Planar cell polarity signaling: from fly development to human disease. (taylor.edu)
  • To support tissue and organ development, cells transition between epithelial and mesenchymal states. (biologists.org)
  • Loss of cell polarity and inflammation are hallmarks of breast cancer development. (uky.edu)
  • Moving forward, figuring out ways to reduce ROS levels in mammary epithelial cells is a potential strategy to inhibit cancer-associated inflammation and prevent cancer development and progression. (uky.edu)
  • 5-7 Once in contact with the myocardium, the epicardial cells release trophic factors such as retinoic acid, erythropoietin, fibroblast growth factors, and Wnts, 8,9 which are essential for the growth and development of the compact myocardium. (ahajournals.org)
  • The establishment of planar cell polarity (PCP) in epithelial and mesenchymal cells is a critical, evolutionarily conserved process during development and organogenesis. (semanticscholar.org)
  • It all starts during development, when sensory cells in the inner ear acquire a crown of motion detectors known as the stereocilia bundle. (biologists.com)
  • Liu J, Li J, Ren Y, Liu P. DLG5 in Cell Polarity Maintenance and Cancer Development. (ijbs.com)
  • Since the roles of DLG5 in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and Crohn's disease (CD) have been reviewed, here, our review focuses on the roles of DLG5 in epithelial cell polarity maintenance and cancer development. (ijbs.com)
  • Experimental observations on the development of polarity by hippocampal neurons in culture. (rupress.org)
  • Li P, Mao X, Ren Y, Liu P. Epithelial Cell Polarity Determinant CRB3 in Cancer Development. (ijbs.com)
  • We demonstrate that deletion of ∆Np63 at puberty results in depletion of mammary stem cell-enriched basal cells, reduces expression of E-cadherin and β-catenin, and leads to a closed ductal lumen. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Basal bodies, kinocilia and planar cell polarity. (taylor.edu)
  • 2014). Basal cells make and secrete extracellular matrix (ECM) composed of laminin 5, collagen IV and fibronectin, which act as receptors for transmembrane integrins composed of α and β subunits. (rockefeller.edu)
  • By yet, two substances (vismodegib and sonidegib) have already been approved by the united states Food and Medication Administration (FDA) to take care of basal cell carcinomas (BCCs). (bioinf.org)