Orientation of intracellular structures especially with respect to the apical and basolateral domains of the plasma membrane. Polarized cells must direct proteins from the Golgi apparatus to the appropriate domain since tight junctions prevent proteins from diffusing between the two domains.
A family of seven-pass transmembrane cell-surface proteins that combines with LOW DENSITY LIPROTEIN RECEPTOR-RELATED PROTEIN-5 or LOW DENSITY LIPROTEIN RECEPTOR-RELATED PROTEIN-5 to form receptors for WNT PROTEINS. Frizzled receptors often couple with HETEROTRIMERIC G PROTEINS and regulate the WNT SIGNALING PATHWAY.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.
A member of the Rho family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS from SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. It is involved in morphological events related to the cell cycle. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.
The processes occurring in early development that direct morphogenesis. They specify the body plan ensuring that cells will proceed to differentiate, grow, and diversify in size and shape at the correct relative positions. Included are axial patterning, segmentation, compartment specification, limb position, organ boundary patterning, blood vessel patterning, etc.
Calcium-dependent cell adhesion proteins. They are important in the formation of ADHERENS JUNCTIONS between cells. Cadherins are classified by their distinct immunological and tissue specificities, either by letters (E- for epithelial, N- for neural, and P- for placental cadherins) or by numbers (cadherin-12 or N-cadherin 2 for brain-cadherin). Cadherins promote cell adhesion via a homophilic mechanism as in the construction of tissues and of the whole animal body.
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.
The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.
Wnt proteins are a large family of secreted glycoproteins that play essential roles in EMBRYONIC AND FETAL DEVELOPMENT, and tissue maintenance. They bind to FRIZZLED RECEPTORS and act as PARACRINE PROTEIN FACTORS to initiate a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. The canonical Wnt signaling pathway stabilizes the transcriptional coactivator BETA CATENIN.
The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.
A member of the Rho family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. It is associated with a diverse array of cellular functions including cytoskeletal changes, filopodia formation and transport through the GOLGI APPARATUS. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.
Cell-cell junctions that seal adjacent epithelial cells together, preventing the passage of most dissolved molecules from one side of the epithelial sheet to the other. (Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, p22)
A tube of ectodermal tissue in an embryo that will give rise to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, including the SPINAL CORD and the BRAIN. Lumen within the neural tube is called neural canal which gives rise to the central canal of the spinal cord and the ventricles of the brain. For malformation of the neural tube, see NEURAL TUBE DEFECTS.
Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Populations of thin, motile processes found covering the surface of ciliates (CILIOPHORA) or the free surface of the cells making up ciliated EPITHELIUM. Each cilium arises from a basic granule in the superficial layer of CYTOPLASM. The movement of cilia propels ciliates through the liquid in which they live. The movement of cilia on a ciliated epithelium serves to propel a surface layer of mucus or fluid. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A broad category of carrier proteins that play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They generally contain several modular domains, each of which having its own binding activity, and act by forming complexes with other intracellular-signaling molecules. Signal-transducing adaptor proteins lack enzyme activity, however their activity can be modulated by other signal-transducing enzymes
A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
A large family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that are involved in regulation of actin organization, gene expression and cell cycle progression. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
A process of complicated morphogenetic cell movements that reorganizes a bilayer embryo into one with three GERM LAYERS and specific orientation (dorsal/ventral; anterior/posterior). Gastrulation describes the germ layer development of a non-mammalian BLASTULA or that of a mammalian BLASTOCYST.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
Anchoring points where the CYTOSKELETON of neighboring cells are connected to each other. They are composed of specialized areas of the plasma membrane where bundles of the ACTIN CYTOSKELETON attach to the membrane through the transmembrane linkers, CADHERINS, which in turn attach through their extracellular domains to cadherins in the neighboring cell membranes. In sheets of cells, they form into adhesion belts (zonula adherens) that go all the way around a cell.
Proteins from the nematode species CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS. The proteins from this species are the subject of scientific interest in the area of multicellular organism MORPHOGENESIS.
Direct contact of a cell with a neighboring cell. Most such junctions are too small to be resolved by light microscopy, but they can be visualized by conventional or freeze-fracture electron microscopy, both of which show that the interacting CELL MEMBRANE and often the underlying CYTOPLASM and the intervening EXTRACELLULAR SPACE are highly specialized in these regions. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p792)
A large class of structurally-related proteins that contain one or more LIM zinc finger domains. Many of the proteins in this class are involved in intracellular signaling processes and mediate their effects via LIM domain protein-protein interactions. The name LIM is derived from the first three proteins in which the motif was found: LIN-11, Isl1 and Mec-3.
A species of nematode that is widely used in biological, biochemical, and genetic studies.
The quality of surface form or outline of CELLS.
A genus of RED ALGAE in the family Bangiaceae. It is the most widely consumed SEAWEED in the world and especially in Asia.
An amorphous region of electron dense material in the cytoplasm from which the MICROTUBULES polymerization is nucleated. The pericentriolar region of the CENTROSOME which surrounds the CENTRIOLES is an example.
ANIMALS whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING, or their offspring.
Proteins obtained from the ZEBRAFISH. Many of the proteins in this species have been the subject of studies involving basic embryological development (EMBRYOLOGY).
A dynamic actin-rich extension of the surface of an animal cell used for locomotion or prehension of food.
Monomeric subunits of primarily globular ACTIN and found in the cytoplasmic matrix of almost all cells. They are often associated with microtubules and may play a role in cytoskeletal function and/or mediate movement of the cell or the organelles within the cell.
Congenital malformations of the central nervous system and adjacent structures related to defective neural tube closure during the first trimester of pregnancy generally occurring between days 18-29 of gestation. Ectodermal and mesodermal malformations (mainly involving the skull and vertebrae) may occur as a result of defects of neural tube closure. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch55, pp31-41)
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.
The largest family of cell surface receptors involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They share a common structure and signal through HETEROTRIMERIC G-PROTEINS.
Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.
An inactive stage between the larval and adult stages in the life cycle of insects.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Proteins that take part in the formation or structure of TIGHT JUNCTIONS.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Major constituent of the cytoskeleton found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They form a flexible framework for the cell, provide attachment points for organelles and formed bodies, and make communication between parts of the cell possible.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
Surface ligands, usually glycoproteins, that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion. Their functions include the assembly and interconnection of various vertebrate systems, as well as maintenance of tissue integration, wound healing, morphogenic movements, cellular migrations, and metastasis.
The organ of sight constituting a pair of globular organs made up of a three-layered roughly spherical structure specialized for receiving and responding to light.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A complex signaling pathway whose name is derived from the DROSOPHILA Wg gene, which when mutated results in the wingless phenotype, and the vertebrate INT gene, which is located near integration sites of MOUSE MAMMARY TUMOR VIRUS. The signaling pathway is initiated by the binding of WNT PROTEINS to cells surface WNT RECEPTORS which interact with the AXIN SIGNALING COMPLEX and an array of second messengers that influence the actions of BETA CATENIN.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
The functional hereditary units of INSECTS.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
A genus of ascomycetous fungi of the family Schizosaccharomycetaceae, order Schizosaccharomycetales.
Proteins obtained from the species Schizosaccharomyces pombe. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
Protein factors that promote the exchange of GTP for GDP bound to GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.
Formation of differentiated cells and complicated tissue organization to provide specialized functions.
An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
The subfamily of myosin proteins that are commonly found in muscle fibers. Myosin II is also involved a diverse array of cellular functions including cell division, transport within the GOLGI APPARATUS, and maintaining MICROVILLI structure.
An early embryonic developmental process of CHORDATES that is characterized by morphogenic movements of ECTODERM resulting in the formation of the NEURAL PLATE; the NEURAL CREST; and the NEURAL TUBE. Improper closure of the NEURAL GROOVE results in congenital NEURAL TUBE DEFECTS.
Specialized structures of the cell that extend the cell membrane and project out from the cell surface.
A 195-kDa zonula occludens protein that is distinguished by the presence of a ZU5 domain at the C-terminal of the molecule.
Proteins obtained from various species of Xenopus. Included here are proteins from the African clawed frog (XENOPUS LAEVIS). Many of these proteins have been the subject of scientific investigations in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
Catalyzes the ATP-dependent PHOSPHORYLATION of GMP to generate GDP and ADP.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
The cell center, consisting of a pair of CENTRIOLES surrounded by a cloud of amorphous material called the pericentriolar region. During interphase, the centrosome nucleates microtubule outgrowth. The centrosome duplicates and, during mitosis, separates to form the two poles of the mitotic spindle (MITOTIC SPINDLE APPARATUS).
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS.
The process by which the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided.
Reduced (protonated) form of THIAZOLES. They can be oxidized to THIAZOLIDINEDIONES.
Fibers composed of MICROFILAMENT PROTEINS, which are predominately ACTIN. They are the smallest of the cytoskeletal filaments.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
Any of several ways in which living cells of an organism communicate with one another, whether by direct contact between cells or by means of chemical signals carried by neurotransmitter substances, hormones, and cyclic AMP.
A RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEIN involved in regulating signal transduction pathways that control assembly of focal adhesions and actin stress fibers. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.
Proteins that are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. Deficiencies or abnormalities in these proteins may lead to unregulated cell growth and tumor development.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Protein interaction domains of about 70-90 amino acid residues, named after a common structure found in PSD-95, Discs Large, and Zona Occludens 1 proteins. PDZ domains are involved in the recruitment and interaction of proteins, and aid the formation of protein scaffolds and signaling networks. This is achieved by sequence-specific binding between a PDZ domain in one protein and a PDZ motif in another protein.
The movement of cells or organisms toward or away from a substance in response to its concentration gradient.
A microtubule structure that forms during CELL DIVISION. It consists of two SPINDLE POLES, and sets of MICROTUBULES that may include the astral microtubules, the polar microtubules, and the kinetochore microtubules.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
A large family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that play a key role in cellular secretory and endocytic pathways. EC 3.6.1.-.
The developmental stage that follows BLASTULA or BLASTOCYST. It is characterized by the morphogenetic cell movements including invagination, ingression, and involution. Gastrulation begins with the formation of the PRIMITIVE STREAK, and ends with the formation of three GERM LAYERS, the body plan of the mature organism.
Acetic acid derivatives of the heterocyclic compound indole. (Merck Index, 11th ed)
Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.
Specialized cells in the invertebrates that detect and transduce light. They are predominantly rhabdomeric with an array of photosensitive microvilli. Illumination depolarizes invertebrate photoreceptors by stimulating Na+ influx across the plasma membrane.
A proto-oncogene protein and member of the Wnt family of proteins. It is expressed in the caudal MIDBRAIN and is essential for proper development of the entire mid-/hindbrain region.
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
A multi-functional catenin that participates in CELL ADHESION and nuclear signaling. Beta catenin binds CADHERINS and helps link their cytoplasmic tails to the ACTIN in the CYTOSKELETON via ALPHA CATENIN. It also serves as a transcriptional co-activator and downstream component of WNT PROTEIN-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A family of GTP-binding proteins that were initially identified in YEASTS where they were shown to initiate the process of septation and bud formation. Septins form into hetero-oligomeric complexes that are comprised of several distinct septin subunits. These complexes can act as cytoskeletal elements that play important roles in CYTOKINESIS, cytoskeletal reorganization, BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, and membrane dynamics.
An enzyme that catalyzes reversible reactions of a nucleoside triphosphate, e.g., ATP, with a nucleoside monophosphate, e.g., UMP, to form ADP and UDP. Many nucleoside monophosphates can act as acceptor while many ribo- and deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates can act as donor. EC 2.7.4.4.
2-Substituted benzimidazole first introduced in 1962. It is active against a variety of nematodes and is the drug of choice for STRONGYLOIDIASIS. It has CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM side effects and hepatototoxic potential. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1992, p919)
Proteins found in any species of insect.
The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.
A heterogeneous group of hereditary and acquired disorders in which the KIDNEY contains one or more CYSTS unilaterally or bilaterally (KIDNEY, CYSTIC).
Proteins found in any species of helminth.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Cellular uptake of extracellular materials within membrane-limited vacuoles or microvesicles. ENDOSOMES play a central role in endocytosis.
A family of membrane glycoproteins localized to TIGHT JUNCTIONS that contain two extracellular Ig-like domains, a single transmembrane segment, and a cytoplasmic tail of variable length.
High molecular weight proteins found in the MICROTUBULES of the cytoskeletal system. Under certain conditions they are required for TUBULIN assembly into the microtubules and stabilize the assembled microtubules.
A method used to study the lateral movement of MEMBRANE PROTEINS and LIPIDS. A small area of a cell membrane is bleached by laser light and the amount of time necessary for unbleached fluorescent marker-tagged proteins to diffuse back into the bleached site is a measurement of the cell membrane's fluidity. The diffusion coefficient of a protein or lipid in the membrane can be calculated from the data. (From Segen, Current Med Talk, 1995).
Light sensory organ in ARTHROPODS consisting of a large number of ommatidia, each functioning as an independent photoreceptor unit.
Microscopic threadlike filaments in FUNGI that are filled with a layer of protoplasm. Collectively, the hyphae make up the MYCELIUM.
A genus of protozoa, formerly also considered a fungus. Its natural habitat is decaying forest leaves, where it feeds on bacteria. D. discoideum is the best-known species and is widely used in biomedical research.
Cells of epithelial origin possessing specialized sensory functions. They include cells that are found in the TASTE BUDS; OLFACTORY MUCOSA; COCHLEA; and NEUROEPITHELIAL BODIES.
A family of proteins that contain several 42-amino acid repeat domains and are homologous to the Drosophila armadillo protein. They bind to other proteins through their armadillo domains and play a variety of roles in the CELL including SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION, regulation of DESMOSOME assembly, and CELL ADHESION.
A class of saturated compounds consisting of two rings only, having two or more atoms in common, containing at least one hetero atom, and that take the name of an open chain hydrocarbon containing the same total number of atoms. (From Riguady et al., Nomenclature of Organic Chemistry, 1979, p31)
A rac GTP-binding protein involved in regulating actin filaments at the plasma membrane. It controls the development of filopodia and lamellipodia in cells and thereby influences cellular motility and adhesion. It is also involved in activation of NADPH OXIDASE. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.
Recording serial images of a process at regular intervals spaced out over a longer period of time than the time in which the recordings will be played back.
A subclass of myosin involved in organelle transport and membrane targeting. It is abundantly found in nervous tissue and neurosecretory cells. The heavy chains of myosin V contain unusually long neck domains that are believed to aid in translocating molecules over large distances.
A sub-family of RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that is involved in regulating the organization of cytoskeletal filaments. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.
Proteins that activate the GTPase of specific GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.
Undifferentiated cells resulting from cleavage of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE). Inside the intact ZONA PELLUCIDA, each cleavage yields two blastomeres of about half size of the parent cell. Up to the 8-cell stage, all of the blastomeres are totipotent. The 16-cell MORULA contains outer cells and inner cells.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.
Macromolecular complexes formed from the association of defined protein subunits.
An aquatic genus of the family, Pipidae, occurring in Africa and distinguished by having black horny claws on three inner hind toes.
Protein factors that inhibit the dissociation of GDP from GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.
Mechanosensing organelles of hair cells which respond to fluid motion or fluid pressure changes. They have various functions in many different animals, but are primarily used in hearing.
A diverse superfamily of proteins that function as translocating proteins. They share the common characteristics of being able to bind ACTINS and hydrolyze MgATP. Myosins generally consist of heavy chains which are involved in locomotion, and light chains which are involved in regulation. Within the structure of myosin heavy chain are three domains: the head, the neck and the tail. The head region of the heavy chain contains the actin binding domain and MgATPase domain which provides energy for locomotion. The neck region is involved in binding the light-chains. The tail region provides the anchoring point that maintains the position of the heavy chain. The superfamily of myosins is organized into structural classes based upon the type and arrangement of the subunits they contain.
A microtubule-associated mechanical adenosine triphosphatase, that uses the energy of ATP hydrolysis to move organelles along microtubules toward the plus end of the microtubule. The protein is found in squid axoplasm, optic lobes, and in bovine brain. Bovine kinesin is a heterotetramer composed of two heavy (120 kDa) and two light (62 kDa) chains. EC 3.6.1.-.
Hereditary diseases that are characterized by the progressive expansion of a large number of tightly packed CYSTS within the KIDNEYS. They include diseases with autosomal dominant and autosomal recessive inheritance.
The process of germ cell development in the female from the primordial germ cells through OOGONIA to the mature haploid ova (OVUM).
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
The artificial induction of GENE SILENCING by the use of RNA INTERFERENCE to reduce the expression of a specific gene. It includes the use of DOUBLE-STRANDED RNA, such as SMALL INTERFERING RNA and RNA containing HAIRPIN LOOP SEQUENCE, and ANTI-SENSE OLIGONUCLEOTIDES.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
A microtubule subunit protein found in large quantities in mammalian brain. It has also been isolated from SPERM FLAGELLUM; CILIA; and other sources. Structurally, the protein is a dimer with a molecular weight of approximately 120,000 and a sedimentation coefficient of 5.8S. It binds to COLCHICINE; VINCRISTINE; and VINBLASTINE.
Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Animals having a vertebral column, members of the phylum Chordata, subphylum Craniata comprising mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fishes.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
The middle germ layer of an embryo derived from three paired mesenchymal aggregates along the neural tube.
Enzymes that hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.
A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
A family of serine-threonine kinases that bind to and are activated by MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS such as RAC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS and CDC42 GTP-BINDING PROTEIN. They are intracellular signaling kinases that play a role the regulation of cytoskeletal organization.
Basic functional unit of plants.
A broad category of proteins involved in the formation, transport and dissolution of TRANSPORT VESICLES. They play a role in the intracellular transport of molecules contained within membrane vesicles. Vesicular transport proteins are distinguished from MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS, which move molecules across membranes, by the mode in which the molecules are transported.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
Sensory cells in the organ of Corti, characterized by their apical stereocilia (hair-like projections). The inner and outer hair cells, as defined by their proximity to the core of spongy bone (the modiolus), change morphologically along the COCHLEA. Towards the cochlear apex, the length of hair cell bodies and their apical STEREOCILIA increase, allowing differential responses to various frequencies of sound.
A glycogen synthase kinase that was originally described as a key enzyme involved in glycogen metabolism. It regulates a diverse array of functions such as CELL DIVISION, microtubule function and APOPTOSIS.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
The part of the inner ear (LABYRINTH) that is concerned with hearing. It forms the anterior part of the labyrinth, as a snail-like structure that is situated almost horizontally anterior to the VESTIBULAR LABYRINTH.
A plant family of the order Polypodiales, class Filicopsida, division Pteridophyta (FERNS).
Vesicles that are involved in shuttling cargo from the interior of the cell to the cell surface, from the cell surface to the interior, across the cell or around the cell to various locations.
The spiral EPITHELIUM containing sensory AUDITORY HAIR CELLS and supporting cells in the cochlea. Organ of Corti, situated on the BASILAR MEMBRANE and overlaid by a gelatinous TECTORIAL MEMBRANE, converts sound-induced mechanical waves to neural impulses to the brain.
The aggregation of soluble ANTIGENS with ANTIBODIES, alone or with antibody binding factors such as ANTI-ANTIBODIES or STAPHYLOCOCCAL PROTEIN A, into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.
A group of intracellular-signaling serine threonine kinases that bind to RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. They were originally found to mediate the effects of rhoA GTP-BINDING PROTEIN on the formation of STRESS FIBERS and FOCAL ADHESIONS. Rho-associated kinases have specificity for a variety of substrates including MYOSIN-LIGHT-CHAIN PHOSPHATASE and LIM KINASES.
Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.
Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).
The external, nonvascular layer of the skin. It is made up, from within outward, of five layers of EPITHELIUM: (1) basal layer (stratum basale epidermidis); (2) spinous layer (stratum spinosum epidermidis); (3) granular layer (stratum granulosum epidermidis); (4) clear layer (stratum lucidum epidermidis); and (5) horny layer (stratum corneum epidermidis).
A genetically related subfamily of RAP GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that share homology with RAS PROTEINS. They bind to Ras effectors but do not activate them, therefore they may antagonize the effects of RAS PROTEINS. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.
Genes that determine the fate of a cell or CELLS in a region of the embryo during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT.
The outer of the three germ layers of an embryo.
A family of cytoskeletal proteins that play essential roles in CELL ADHESION at ADHERENS JUNCTIONS by linking CADHERINS to the ACTIN FILAMENTS of the CYTOSKELETON.

Cell polarization: chemotaxis gets CRACKing. (1/6230)

An early stage in the establishment of cell polarity during chemotaxis of Dictyostelium dicoideum has been identified by a recent study; the new results also show that the development of cell polarity does not rely upon cytoskeletal rearrangement, and may use a spatial sensing mechanism.  (+info)

Deletion analysis of the Drosophila Inscuteable protein reveals domains for cortical localization and asymmetric localization. (2/6230)

The Drosophila Inscuteable protein acts as a key regulator of asymmetric cell division during the development of the nervous system [1] [2]. In neuroblasts, Inscuteable localizes into an apical cortical crescent during late interphase and most of mitosis. During mitosis, Inscuteable is required for the correct apical-basal orientation of the mitotic spindle and for the asymmetric segregation of the proteins Numb [3] [4] [5], Prospero [5] [6] [7] and Miranda [8] [9] into the basal daughter cell. When Inscuteable is ectopically expressed in epidermal cells, which normally orient their mitotic spindle parallel to the embryo surface, these cells reorient their mitotic spindle and divide perpendicularly to the surface [1]. Like the Inscuteable protein, the inscuteable RNA is asymmetrically localized [10]. We show here that inscuteable RNA localization is not required for Inscuteable protein localization. We found that a central 364 amino acid domain - the Inscuteable asymmetry domain - was necessary and sufficient for Inscuteable localization and function. Within this domain, a separate 100 amino acid region was required for asymmetric localization along the cortex, whereas a 158 amino acid region directed localization to the cell cortex. The same 158 amino acid fragment could localize asymmetrically when coexpressed with the full-length protein, however, and could bind to Inscuteable in vitro, suggesting that this domain may be involved in the self-association of Inscuteable in vivo.  (+info)

Polarized distribution of Bcr-Abl in migrating myeloid cells and co-localization of Bcr-Abl and its target proteins. (3/6230)

Bcr-Abl plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of Philadelphia chromosome-positive leukemia. Although a large number of substrates and interacting proteins of Bcr-Abl have been identified, it remains unclear whether Bcr-Abl assembles multi-protein complexes and if it does where these complexes are within cells. We have investigated the localization of Bcr-Abl in 32D myeloid cells attached to the extracellular matrix. We have found that Bcr-Abl displays a polarized distribution, colocalizing with a subset of filamentous actin at trailing portions of migrating 32D cells, and localizes on the cortical F-actin and on vesicle-like structures in resting 32D cells. Deletion of the actin binding domain of Bcr-Abl (Bcr-AbI-AD) dramatically enhances the localization of Bcr-Abl on the vesicle-like structures. These distinct localization patterns of Bcr-Abl and Bcr-Abl-AD enabled us to examine the localization of Bcr-Abl substrate and interacting proteins in relation to Bcr-Abl. We found that a subset of biochemically defined target proteins of Bcr-Abl redistributed and co-localized with Bcr-Abl on F-actin and on vesicle-like structures. The co-localization of signaling proteins with Bcr-Abl at its sites of localization supports the idea that Bcr-Abl forms a multi-protein signaling complex, while the polarized distribution and vesicle-like localization of Bcr-Abl may play a role in leukemogenesis.  (+info)

Changes in basement membrane thickness in the human endometrium during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. (4/6230)

We have examined aspects of the fine structure of the basal laminae associated with the luminal and glandular epithelium and small blood vessels in the human endometrium. Four short studies are presented and reviewed. Study 1 examined biopsies from 20 fertile women taken on days after the luteinizing hormone surge (LH): LH +2, 4, 6, 8 and 10. The basal lamina (both lamina densa and lucida) increased in thickness over the period studied. Study 2 again studied the glandular epithelium and examined the effect of RU486 (a progesterone receptor blocker) administered on day LH +3 and biopsied on day LH +6. The basal laminae were found to be the same as LH +2 control group but thinner than LH +6 control. Study 3 documented increased thickness of the basal laminae between LH +6, 8 and 13 in the luminal epithelium. The within-group coefficient of variation was 16% and 27% for LH +6 and LH +13 groups but only 2 % for LH +8. Study 4 demonstrated an increase in basal lamina thickness associated with small blood vessels between LH +6 and LH +10 in normal fertile women. The basal lamina provides the interface between epithelial and mesenchymal environments; changes in its structure can alter the phenotypic expression of the epithelia. It is one of the maternal barriers that must be transgressed by the trophoblast during implantation. Together, these combined studies provide quantitative baseline structural information on the electron microscopical appearance of the basal lamina during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle.  (+info)

Myometrial zonal differentiation and uterine junctional zone hyperplasia in the non-pregnant uterus. (5/6230)

Human non-gravid myometrium differentiates in response to ovarian sex steroids into a subendometrial layer or junctional zone and an outer myometrial layer. Compared to the outer myometrial layer, the junctional zone myocytes are characterized by higher cellular density and lower cytoplasmic-nuclear ratio. These structural differences allow in-vivo visualization of the myometrial zonal anatomy by T2-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. The human myometrium is also functionally polarized. Video-vaginosonography studies have shown that propagated myometrial contractions in the non-pregnant uterus originate only from the junctional zone and that the frequency and orientation of these contraction waves are dependent on the phase of the menstrual cycle. The mechanisms underlying zonal myometrial differentiation are not known, but growing evidence suggests that ovarian hormone action may be mediated through cytokines and uterotonins locally released by the basal endometrial layer and endometrio-myometrial T-lymphocytes. Irregular thickening of the junctional zone due to inordinate proliferation of the inner myometrium, junctional zone hyperplasia, is a common MR finding in women suffering from menstrual dysfunction. Preliminary data suggest that junctional zone hyperplasia is further characterized by loss of normal inner myometrial function. Although irregular thickening of the junctional zone has been associated with diffuse uterine adenomyosis, the precise relationship between subendometrial smooth muscle proliferation and myometrial invasion by endometrial glands and stroma remains to be established.  (+info)

Sodium reabsorption and distribution of Na+/K+-ATPase during postischemic injury to the renal allograft. (6/6230)

BACKGROUND: A loss of proximal tubule cell polarity is thought to activate tubuloglomerular feedback, thereby contributing to glomerular filtration rate depression in postischemic acute renal failure (ARF). METHODS: We used immunomicroscopy to evaluate the segmental distribution of Na+/K+-ATPase in tubules of recipients of cadaveric renal allografts. Fractional excretion (FE) of sodium and lithium was determined simultaneously. Observations were made on two occasions: one to three hours after graft reperfusion (day 0) and again on post-transplant day 7. An inulin clearance below or above 25 ml/min on day 7 was used to divide subjects into groups with sustained (N = 15) or recovering (N = 16) ARF, respectively. RESULTS: In sustained ARF, the fractional excretion of sodium (FENa) was 40 +/- 6% and 11 +/- 5%, and the fractional excretion of lithium (FELi) was 76 +/- 5% and 70 +/- 2% on days 0 and 7, respectively. Corresponding findings in recovering ARF were 28 +/- 2% and 6 +/- 2% for the FENa and 77 +/- 4% and 55 +/- 3% (P < 0.05 vs. sustained) for FELi. Na+/K+-ATPase distribution in both groups was mainly basolateral in distal straight and convoluted tubule segments and collecting ducts. However, Na+/K+-ATPase was poorly retained in the basolateral membrane of proximal convoluted and straight tubule segments in sustained and recovering ARF on both days 0 and 7. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that loss of proximal tubule cell polarity for Na+/K+-ATPase distribution is associated with enhanced delivery of filtered Na+ to the macula densa for seven days after allograft reperfusion. Whether an ensuing activation of tubuloglomerular feedback is an important cause of glomerular filtration rate depression in this form of ARF remains to be determined.  (+info)

Coupling assembly of the E-cadherin/beta-catenin complex to efficient endoplasmic reticulum exit and basal-lateral membrane targeting of E-cadherin in polarized MDCK cells. (7/6230)

The E-cadherin/catenin complex regulates Ca++-dependent cell-cell adhesion and is localized to the basal-lateral membrane of polarized epithelial cells. Little is known about mechanisms of complex assembly or intracellular trafficking, or how these processes might ultimately regulate adhesion functions of the complex at the cell surface. The cytoplasmic domain of E-cadherin contains two putative basal-lateral sorting motifs, which are homologous to sorting signals in the low density lipoprotein receptor, but an alanine scan across tyrosine residues in these motifs did not affect the fidelity of newly synthesized E-cadherin delivery to the basal-lateral membrane of MDCK cells. Nevertheless, sorting signals are located in the cytoplasmic domain since a chimeric protein (GP2CAD1), comprising the extracellular domain of GP2 (an apical membrane protein) and the transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains of E-cadherin, was efficiently and specifically delivered to the basal-lateral membrane. Systematic deletion and recombination of specific regions of the cytoplasmic domain of GP2CAD1 resulted in delivery of <10% of these newly synthesized proteins to both apical and basal-lateral membrane domains. Significantly, >90% of each mutant protein was retained in the ER. None of these mutants formed a strong interaction with beta-catenin, which normally occurs shortly after E-cadherin synthesis. In addition, a simple deletion mutation of E-cadherin that lacks beta-catenin binding is also localized intracellularly. Thus, beta-catenin binding to the whole cytoplasmic domain of E-cadherin correlates with efficient and targeted delivery of E-cadherin to the lateral plasma membrane. In this capacity, we suggest that beta-catenin acts as a chauffeur, to facilitate transport of E-cadherin out of the ER and the plasma membrane.  (+info)

Identification and characterization of genes required for hyphal morphogenesis in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans. (8/6230)

In the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans, germination of an asexual conidiospore results in the formation of a hyphal cell. A key feature of spore germination is the switch from isotropic spore expansion to polarized apical growth. Here, temperature-sensitive mutations are used to characterize the roles of five genes (sepA, hypA, podB-podD) in the establishment and maintenance of hyphal polarity. Evidence that suggests that the hypA, podB, and sepA genes are required for multiple aspects of hyphal morphogenesis is presented. Notably, podB and sepA are needed for organization of the cytoskeleton at sites of polarized growth. In contrast, podC and podD encode proteins that appear to be specifically required for the establishment of hyphal polarity during spore germination. The role of sepA and the pod genes in controlling the spatial pattern of polarized morphogenesis in germinating spores is also described. Results obtained from these experiments indicate that the normal pattern of germ-tube emergence is dependent upon the integrity of the actin cytoskeleton.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - The Aspergillus nidulans sepA gene encodes an FH1/2 protein involved in cytokinesis and the maintenance of cellular polarity. AU - Harris, Steven D.. AU - Hamer, Lisbeth. AU - Sharpless, Kathryn E.. AU - Hamer, John E.. PY - 1997/6/16. Y1 - 1997/6/16. N2 - Cytokinesis (septation) in the fungus Aspergillus nidulans occurs through the formation of a transient actin ring at the incipient division site. Temperature-sensitive mutations in the sepA gene prevent septation and cause defects in the maintenance of cellular polarity, without affecting growth and nuclear division. The sepA gene encodes a member of the growing family of FH1/2 proteins, which appear to have roles in morphogenesis and cytokinesis in organisms such as yeast and Drosophila. Results from temperature shift and immunofluorescence microscopy experiments strongly suggest that sepA function requires a preceding mitosis and that sepA acts prior to actin ring formation. Deletion mutants of sepA exhibit ...
Loss of cell polarity and tissue architecture is a hallmark of aggressive epithelial cancers. In addition to serving as an initial barrier to tumorigenesis, evidence in the literature has pointed towards a highly conserved role for many polarity regulators during tumor formation and progression. Here, we review recent developments in the field that have been driven by genetically engineered mouse models that establish the tumor suppressive and context dependent oncogenic function of cell polarity regulators in vivo. These studies emphasize the complexity of the polarity network during cancer formation and progression, and reveal the need to interpret polarity protein function in a cell-type and tissue specific manner. They also highlight how aberrant polarity signaling could provide a novel route for therapeutic intervention to improve our management of malignancies in the clinic.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The planar cell polarity protein Vangl2 is involved in postsynaptic compartmentalization. AU - Nagaoka, Tadahiro. AU - Kishi, Masashi. PY - 2016/1/26. Y1 - 2016/1/26. N2 - The excitatory postsynaptic region of the vertebrate hippocampus is usually compartmentalized into the postsynaptic density (PSD) and N-cadherin-rich domain, which is important for synaptic adhesion. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the compartment formation are unknown. In the present report, we show that the planar cell polarity (PCP) protein Van Gogh-like 2 (Vangl2) plays a role in this regionalization. In cultured rat hippocampal neurons that were subjected to Vangl2 expression silencing, the formed clusters of PSD-95, one of the major scaffolding proteins in PSD, tended to overlap with those of N-cadherin. Further, in the dendrites of these neurons, the immunofluorescence of PSD-95 was to some extent diffused, without a significant change in the total signal. Because Vangl2 physically interacts ...
VIPAS39 (VPS33B interacting protein, apical-basolateral polarity regulator, spe-39 homolog), Authors: Dessen P. Published in: Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol.
The correct establishment and maintenance of cell polarity are crucial for normal cell physiology and tissue homeostasis. Conversely, loss of cell polarity, tissue disorganisation and excessive cell growth are hallmarks of cancer. In this review, we focus on identifying the stages of tumoural development that are affected by the loss or deregulation of epithelial cell polarity. Asymmetric division has recently emerged as a major regulatory mechanism that controls stem cell numbers and differentiation. Links between cell polarity and asymmetric cell division in the context of cancer will be examined. Apical-basal polarity and cell-cell adhesion are tightly interconnected. Hence, how loss of cell polarity in epithelial cells may promote epithelial mesenchymal transition and metastasis will also be discussed. Altogether, we present the argument that loss of epithelial cell polarity may have an important role in both the initiation of tumourigenesis and in later stages of tumour development, favouring the
p62 is a multifunctional scaffold protein which acts as a signalling hub for different pathways, and through interactions with the polarity protein aPKC we hypothesise that it may regulate apico-basal polarity. Ref(2)p is the Drosophila homologue of p62 and using Drosophila as a model system we are investigating the effects of Ref(2)p mutation or expression levels on apico-basal polarity, cell shape and protrusion dynamics in the epithelial cells of the dorsal thorax. Our preliminary data suggest that Ref(2)p is required to maintain normal cell size, cell-cell junctions and protrusion dynamics. Mechanistically, these phenotypes may be due to Ref(2)ps interaction with polarity proteins or broader changes in Ref(2)p-mediated autophagy.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 4 regulates zebrafish body axis organization via Wnt/ planar cell polarity pathway. AU - Lee, Yen Hua. AU - Kawakami, Koichi. AU - HuangFu, Wei Chun. AU - Liu, I. Hsuan. PY - 2020/1/1. Y1 - 2020/1/1. N2 - Pericellular and extracellular proteoglycans play an important role in modulating morphogen gradients and signal transductions. Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 4 (Cspg4) is a membrane spanning proteoglycan expressed in immature progenitor cells and cancer cells. Cspg4 participates in cellular events such as proliferation, migration and signal transduction, and these events are generally important for embryo development. In this study, we characterized Cspg4 for its roles in zebrafish embryonic development. Our results demonstrated that cspg4 was maternally expressed from 0 to 3 hours post fertilization (hpf) and expressed in the anterior and posterior embryo end after 9 hpf. Knocking-down cspg4 resulted in a shorter anterior-posterior axis than ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 4 regulates zebrafish body axis organization via Wnt/ planar cell polarity pathway. AU - Lee, Yen Hua. AU - Kawakami, Koichi. AU - HuangFu, Wei Chun. AU - Liu, I. Hsuan. PY - 2020/1/1. Y1 - 2020/1/1. N2 - Pericellular and extracellular proteoglycans play an important role in modulating morphogen gradients and signal transductions. Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 4 (Cspg4) is a membrane spanning proteoglycan expressed in immature progenitor cells and cancer cells. Cspg4 participates in cellular events such as proliferation, migration and signal transduction, and these events are generally important for embryo development. In this study, we characterized Cspg4 for its roles in zebrafish embryonic development. Our results demonstrated that cspg4 was maternally expressed from 0 to 3 hours post fertilization (hpf) and expressed in the anterior and posterior embryo end after 9 hpf. Knocking-down cspg4 resulted in a shorter anterior-posterior axis than ...
Although regulators of the Wnt/planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway are widely expressed in vertebrate nervous systems, their roles at synapses are unknown. Here, we show that Vangl2 is a postsynaptic factor crucial for synaptogenesis and that it coprecipitates with N-cadherin and PSD-95 from synapse-rich brain extracts. Vangl2 directly binds N-cadherin and enhances its internalization in a Rab5-dependent manner. This physical and functional interaction is suppressed by β-catenin, which binds the same intracellular region of N-cadherin as Vangl2. In hippocampal neurons expressing reduced Vangl2 levels, dendritic spine formation as well as synaptic marker clustering is significantly impaired. Furthermore, Prickle2, another postsynaptic PCP component, inhibits the N-cadherin-Vangl2 interaction and is required for normal spine formation. These results demonstrate direct control of classic cadherin by PCP factors; this control may play a central role in the precise formation and maturation of cell-cell
Cellular polarization is crucial for many biological processes, including cell morphogenesis, proliferation, and differentiation. The orientation of the polarity axis is initially defined by asymmetrical extrinsic or intrinsic cues acting at the cell surface, which then have to be recognized and interpreted by signaling molecules, leading to the asymmetrical activation/inhibition and/or distribution of downstream effectors. This asymmetry is further stabilized by rearrangements of the cytoskeleton, enabling the cell to assume an asymmetric shape (Sohrmann and Peter, 2003).. In pollen tubes, we can consider two distinct axes: the polarity axis and the growth axis. The polarity axis can be drawn transversally at the base of the tip dome separating the tip region from the rest of the tube, whereas the growth axis is perpendicular to the polarity axis and divides the tubes longitudinally (symmetry axis). Despite the fact that pollen tubes are highly polarized cells undergoing polar growth, they have ...
What is the importance of polarity signaling in regulating asymmetric divisions in mammals? In Drosophila neuroblasts, the initial polarization cue comes from the apical enrichment of the polarity proteins Par3, Par6 and aPKC. This apical distribution is essential for asymmetric localization of cell fate determinants, which is coupled to spindle orientation by binding to the adaptor protein Inscuteable (Insc) (Fig. 3A). Insc then recruits a protein complex consisting of the heterotrimeric G protein α1-subunit (Gα1), PINS and MUD, which provides attachment sites for astral microtubules (Knoblich, 2010). Polarized distribution of the aPKC-Par complex is inherited from the epithelial cell, from which the neuroblast arose after delamination (Prehoda, 2009). Similarly, in both mouse neurons and in the epidermis, PAR3 and aPKC show an apical distribution that is independent of cell division (Lechler and Fuchs, 2005). In the epidermis, this apical polarity might have been inherited from the polarized ...
Proper spatial and temporal specification of cells during development is crucial for the generation of cellular diversity in the nervous system of complex organisms. We are interested in the mechanisms underlying the establishment of cellular polarity and the generation of neuronal cell lineages during neurulation in Danio rerio. We were able to show that neurulation in zebrafish embryos is characterised by oriented cell divisions and the progressive establishment of cellular polarity. Mitoses in the neural plate and neural tube are planar, but in the neural keel/rod stage the mitotic spindle rotates by 90°, causing cell divisions to occur perpendicular to the plane of the neuroepithelium. However, the mechanisms and molecules that establish cellular polarity and cause the stereotypic orientation of the mitotic spindle during neurulation are still largely unknown. In order to address this topic, we are currently analyzing the putative cell fate determinant Numb and the role of the ...
Involved in the planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway that is essential for the polarization of epithelial cells during morphogenetic processes, including gastrulation and neurulation (By similarity). PCP is maintained by two molecular modules, the global and the core modules, PRICKLE3 being part of the core module (By similarity). Distinct complexes of the core module segregate to opposite sides of the cell, where they interact with the opposite complex in the neighboring cell at or near the adherents junctions (By similarity). Involved in the organization of the basal body (By similarity). Involved in cilia growth and positioning (By similarity).
Cd36 null. results, it is tempting to speculate that loss of cell polarity factors, like Lgl2, might also be inv olved in the formation and accumula-tion of cancer stem cells. Cell adhesion and apicobasal polarity together maintain epithelial tissue organization and homeostasis. migration is the result of intracellular signals that regulate cell polarity. Most malignant tumors that form from epithelial cells have lost normal cell polarity, so understanding how the organization and growth of epithelial cells are linked is a critical question. a basal-apical polarity in a cell monolayer, in contrast to control transfectants, which grow as unconnected, unpolarized and roundedcells. Thank you :) The degree of cohesiveness is recognized in part by how easily cells are obtained by FNA or brushing. The loss of apico-basal cell polarity and overgrowth phenotypes of a number of these mutants, including scrib, lgl, avl and TSG101 are depen-dent upon atypical protein kinase C (aPKC) activity, since The ...
Cells in some tissues acquire a polarisation in the plane of the tissue in addition to apical-basal polarity. This polarisation is commonly known as planar cell polarity and has been found to be important in developmental processes, as planar polarity is required to define the in-plane tissue coordinate system at the cellular level. We have built an in-silico functional model of cellular polarisation that includes cellular asymmetry, cell-cell signalling and a response to a global cue. The model has been validated and parameterised against domineering non-autonomous wing hair phenotypes in Drosophila. We have carried out a systematic comparison of in-silico polarity phenotypes with patterns observed in vivo under different genetic manipulations in the wing. This has allowed us to classify the specific functional roles of proteins involved in generating cell polarity, providing new hypotheses about their specific functions, in particular for Pk and Dsh. The predictions from the model allow direct
These studies suggest a non-cell-autonomous role for Vangl2-PCP signaling in coronary artery formation. The coronary vessels in Lp/Lp hearts fail to develop a normal SMC layer and enlarged ectopic vessels are found in the subepicardium, on the surface of the heart. Loss of functional Vangl2 results in reduced deposition of fibronectin in the subepicardial space, which may limit normal migration of EPDCs into the myocardium. In addition activation of RhoA/ROCK signaling in the myocardium is disrupted, which causes disorganization within the ventricular wall via effects on the cytoskeleton. Although the precise mechanism by which PCP signaling regulates cytoskeletal organization remains unclear, mislocalization of activated MYPT is likely to have major implications for polarization and organization of ventricular cardiomyocytes. These data suggest that PCP signaling may be important at a number of levels for development of the mature ventricular myocardium and coronary vessels.. Proper ...
The exon junction complex regulates the cell polarity determinant Discs large 1, which acts independently from its role in cell polarity to protect Dishevelled protein from lysosomal degradation in Wingless/Wnt signaling.
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Planar cell polarity (PCP) - the coordinated polarisation of a whole field of cells within the plane of a tissue - relies on the interaction of three modules: a global module that couples individual cellular polarity to the tissue axis, a local module that aligns the axis of polarisation of neighbouring cells, and a readout module that directs the correct outgrowth of PCP-regulated structures such as hairs and bristles. While much is known about the molecular components that are required for PCP, the functional details of-and interactions between-the modules remain unclear. In this work, we perform a mathematical and computational analysis of two previously proposed computational models of the local module (Amonlirdviman et al., Science, 307, 2005; Le Garrec et al., Dev. Dyn., 235, 2006). Both models can reproduce wild-type and mutant phenotypes of PCP observed in the Drosophila wing under the assumption that a tissue-wide polarity cue from the global module persists throughout the development ...
A complex network of polarity proteins sets up the apicobasal polarity axis in epithelial cells, in adult tissues and in the embryo at early stages of development. The architectural role of these complexes has been extensively studied. For instance, they are required for the initiation and the maintenance of junctional complexes such as tight junctions. Their loss or deregulation therefore results in tissue disorganisation and is thought to be involved in cancer development. However, it is now emerging that, the function of polarity complexes goes beyond their structural role and they may instead actively take part in signal transduction to maintain tissue homeostasis and direct cell fate decisions. Recently, we identified the tumour suppressor ASPP2 as an important polarity protein. ASPP2 establishes the apicobasal polarity axis by interacting with Par3 and ensures its proper localisation at the apical-lateral domain corresponding to tight junctions in epithelial cells. This is of particular ...
Mutations in the C. elegans gene egl-27 cause defects in cell polarity and cell migration: the polarity of the asymmetric T cell division is disrupted and the descendants of the migratory QL neuroblast migrate incorrectly because they fail to express the Hox gene mab-5. Both of these processes are known to be controlled by Wnt pathways. Mosaic analysis indicates that egl-27 function is required in the T cell for proper cell polarity. We cloned egl-27 and discovered that a domain of the predicted EGL-27 protein has similarity to Mta1, a mammalian factor overexpressed in metastatic cells. Overlaps in the phenotypes of egl-27 and Wnt pathway mutants suggest that the EGL-27 protein interacts with Wnt signaling pathways in C. elegans.. ...
Background-Sprouting angiogenesis is a key process driving blood vessel growth in ischemic tissues and an important drug target in a number of diseases, including wet macular degeneration and wound healing. Endothelial cells forming the sprout must develop front-rear polarity to allow sprout extension. The adaptor proteins Nck1 and 2 are known regulators of cytoskeletal dynamics and polarity, but their function in angiogenesis is poorly understood. Here we show that the Nck adaptors are required for endothelial cell front-rear polarity and migration downstream of the angiogenic growth factors VEGF-A and Slit2. Methods and Results-Mice carrying inducible, endothelial-specific Nck1/2 deletions fail to develop front-rear polarized vessel sprouts and exhibit severe angiogenesis defects in the postnatal retina and during embryonic development. Inactivation of NCK1 and 2 inhibits polarity by preventing Cdc42 and Pak2 activation by VEGF-A and Slit2. Mechanistically, NCK binding to ROBO1 is required for ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Brefeldin A rapidly disrupts plasma membrane polarity by blocking polar sorting in common endosomes of MDCK cells. AU - Wang, E.. AU - Pennington, J. G.. AU - Goldenring, J. R.. AU - Hunziker, W.. AU - Dunn, Kenneth. PY - 2001. Y1 - 2001. N2 - Recent studies showing thorough intermixing of apical and basolateral endosomes have demonstrated that endocytic sorting is critical to maintaining the plasma membrane polarity of epithelial cells. Our studies of living, polarized cells show that disrupting endocytosis with brefeldin-A rapidly destroys the polarity of transferrin receptors in MDCK cells while having no effect on tight junctions. Brefeldin-A treatment induces tubulation of endosomes, but the sequential compartments and transport steps of the transcytotic pathway remain intact. Transferrin is sorted from LDL, but is then missorted from common endosomes to the apical recycling endosome, as identified by its nearly neutral pH, and association with GFP chimeras of Rabs 11a and ...
Effective and efficient repair of damage incurred by the body is a fundamental capability of living organisms. In the skin, wound closure is achieved by keratinocyte migration, a highly orchestrated process that is not fully understood. Recently, a potential link was identified between the Planar Cell Polarity (PCP) pathway and known signalling cascades essential for wound repair. PCP regulates collective cell movements in a broad range of embryonic morphogenetic processes, including vertebrate convergent extension, that are recapitulated in wound healing. Disruptions to PCP chiefly result in severe birth defects involving incomplete closure of the neural tube, but in some cases PCP mutants also exhibit delayed wound healing. Clear evidence exists for PCP regulation of wound repair, yet its influence has not been well studied in this context. We have optimized two valuable tools, an in vitro and in vivo wound assay, for evaluating PCP in action during healing. Using those wound assays, we ...
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Antibodies for proteins involved in establishment of T cell polarity pathways, according to their Panther/Gene Ontology Classification
Planar cell polarity (PCP) is normally the group polarization of cells along the epithelial airplane, a process best realized in the terminally differentiated side. PCP path, which orients cell polarity across different tissues1C3 remarkably. Uncovered in counterparts Fmi and Vang in developing side5 Initial,18. Significantly, they reveal that posterior and anterior sides of the epidermal plasma membrane are distinct. Fig. 1 PCP elements are selectively internalized in basal epidermal cells going through mitosis We following analyzed PCP proteins localization in basal cells going through mitosis. And in stunning comparison to E-cadherin Suddenly, endogenous Celsr1 dropped plasma membrane layer localization and obtained root punctate localization as basal cells got into prophase (Fig. 1c). By metaphase, Celsr1 puncta had been mainly intracellular (Fig. 1d) and by anaphase/telophase, they had been distributed throughout the cytoplasm (Fig. 1e). Towards the last end of cytokinesis, Celsr1 ...
The establishment and maintenance of apical-basal cell polarity is essential for the functionality of glandular epithelia. Cell polarity is often lost in advanced tumours correlating with acquisition of invasive and malignant properties. Despite extensive knowledge regarding the formation and maintenance of polarity, the mechanisms that deregulate polarity in metastasizing cells remain to be fully characterized. Here we show that AmotL2 expression correlates with loss of tissue architecture in tumours from human breast and colon cancer patients. We further show that hypoxic stress results in activation of c-Fos-dependent expression of AmotL2 leading to loss of polarity. c-Fos/hypoxia-induced p60 AmotL2 interacts with the Crb3 and Par3 polarity complexes retaining them in large vesicles and preventing them from reaching the apical membrane. The resulting loss of polarity potentiates the response to invasive cues in vitro and in vivo in mice. These data provide a molecular mechanism how hypoxic ...
Cell polarity is essential for cells to divide asymmetrically, form spatially restricted subcellular structures and participate in three-dimensional multicellular organization. PAR proteins are conserved polarity regulators that function by generating cortical landmarks that establish dynamic asymmetries in the distribution of effector proteins. Here, we review recent findings on the role of PAR proteins in cell polarity in C. elegans and Drosophila, and emphasize the links that exist between PAR networks and cytoskeletal proteins that both regulate PAR protein localization and act as downstream effectors to elaborate polarity within the cell.. ...
With this download Planar Cell Polarity: Methods and Protocols, the DAAD is former thoughts and 40(5):609-616 functions to understand Responsibility among challenges investing category technologies in sector food, shiort and surface. Law Programme in Preparation for the First State Examination). Stanford: Stanford University Press. Maschinenbau: Grundlagen zur +( Culture): An Term of a geographic distributive care of artist. What was the different download into decades sent the basis of samples that as was the correspondent of read monodromy. electoral returns like the state-owned PhD and the model had one partner to express the future of particular. years upon years such as seeking and continuing made for good experiences in volume. The Industrial Revolution were the competition from shear-induced to an Shared potential. download Planar Cell Polarity: terms for your shear-induced health. Le worth de la announced( French Edition)19. Passive Aggressive Men: How to state With the Passive chiral ...
Establishing and maintaining epithelial cell polarity is essential for animal development and physiology. Epithelia are sheets of adherent cells that form our skin and line our organs. Each side of an epithelium has distinct molecular properties to engage the extracellular environments on either side of the sheet. Similarly to all polarized cells, apical-basal epithelial cell polarity is established and maintained by cortical landmarks (reviewed by Nelson, 2003; Suzuki and Ohno, 2006; Goldstein and Macara, 2007; St Johnston and Ahringer, 2010). Defining how these landmarks are positioned and how they organize the cell is essential for understanding epithelial cell polarity.. Bazooka (Baz/PAR-3) forms apical polarity landmarks in epithelial cells. In MDCK cells, PAR-3 is important for assembling and maintaining tight junctions and adherens junctions (Chen and Macara, 2005; Ooshio et al., 2007). In C. elegans, PAR-3 has been shown to direct adherens junction assembly during intestinal development ...
Polarized light has vibrations occurring within them in one plane. On the other hand, unpolarized light has vibrations occurring within them randomly angles with no plane.. In a Polarized light, a process which evolves during this stage can help to transform the light into polarized that originally remains unpolarized and has the title of polarization. Note that its possible to alter unpolarized light into an energized light and the process is called polarization.. This is quite not exactly like what you may see in case you somehow managed to look together with a silent and watch a constant wave moving towards you. According to quantum mechanics, electromagnetic waves may similarly be flooding of particles known as photons. A photon has one of two possible twists; it could either turn in a right-hand sense or a left-hand sense about its path of travel.. ...
How is the polarity of epithelial cells established and maintained?. Epithelial cells constitute the most widespread and evolutionarily ancient mode of animal tissue organization. The functions of epithelia rely on their highly polarized architecture, in which specific proteins are restricted to apical, junctional, and basolateral surfaces. We are working to understand the mechanisms that regulate cell polarity, exploiting our discovery of the Scribble module that acts to distinguish the epithelial basolateral domain by antagonizing the apical Par/aPKC complex. Cell biological assays of protein trafficking and biochemical studies of Scribble module partners are revealing their mysterious basic polarizing activities. As novel insights can come from unbiased genetic screens, we have designed several to isolate new regulators of epithelial polarity. These screens identify genes that directly interface with the conserved polarity regulators, revealing mechanistic links with basic membrane ...
Genetics and biochemistry have been used to map many of the individual pathways that establish and maintain cell polarity in yeast, but Drees et al. (page 549) have now produced the equivalent of an aerial photograph of these processes. Using a high-throughput yeast two-hybrid screen, the authors assayed the universe of likely protein-protein interactions involved in cell polarity development. The resulting protein interaction map provides tantalizing insights and identifies dozens of potential mechanistic connections worth closer examination.. The authors used 68 yeast proteins associated with the actin cytoskeleton, septins, the secretory apparatus, and Rho-type GTPases as baits in parallel two-hybrid screens covering ∼90% of the predicted Saccharomyces cerevisiae ORFs. The screen uncovered 128 novel protein-protein interactions, including 44 involving previously uncharacterized proteins. The appearance of known interactions in the screen, along with subcellular localization studies, ...
The recent Juan March Foundation meeting on Regulation and functional insights in cellular polarity focused on cellular polarity in yeasts, Dictyostelium, epithelial cells, fibroblasts, and immune cells. The molecular systems covered included membrane rafts, actin and tubulin cytoskeleton, polarized transcription, signaling, and cell-cell adhesion. Across these diverse biological and molecular systems, important general concepts emerged, including new ideas for establishing and maintaining polarity that are likely to be applicable across models and experimental systems.
Cells of many tissues acquire cellular asymmetry to execute their physiologic functions. The planar cell polarity system, first characterized in Drosophila, is important for many of these events. Studies in Drosophila suggest that an upstream system breaks cellular symmetry by converting tissue grad …
Primary cilia have been implicated in the generation of planar cell polarity (PCP). However, variations in the severity of polarity defects in different cilia mutants, coupled with recent demonstrations of non-cilia-related actions of some cilia genes, make it difficult to determine the basis of the …
The Glued gene of Drosophila melanogaster encodes the homologue of the vertebrate p150Glued subunit of dynactin. The Glued1 mutation compromises the dynein-dynactin retrograde motor complex and causes disruptions to the adult eye and the CNS, including sensory neurons and the formation of the giant fiber system neural circuit. We performed a 2-stage genetic screen to identify mutations that modified phenotypes caused by over-expression of a dominant-negative Glued protein. We screened over 34,000 flies and isolated 41 mutations that enhanced or suppressed an eye phenotype. Of these, 12 were assayed for interactions in the giant fiber system by which they altered a giant fiber morphological phenotype and/or altered synaptic function between the giant fiber and the tergotrochanteral muscle motorneuron. Six showed interactions including a new allele of atypical protein kinase C (aPKC). We show that this cell polarity regulator interacts with Glued during central synapse formation. We have mapped the five
Cell rearrangements require dynamic changes in cell-cell contacts to maintain tissue integrity. We investigated the function of Cdc42 in maintaining adherens junctions (AJs) and apical polarity in the Drosophila melanogaster neuroectodermal epithelium. About one third of cells exit the epithelium through ingression and become neuroblasts. Cdc42-compromised embryos lost AJs in the neuroectoderm during neuroblast ingression. In contrast, when neuroblast formation was suppressed, AJs were maintained despite the loss of Cdc42 function. Loss of Cdc42 function caused an increase in the endocytotic uptake of apical proteins, including apical polarity factors such as Crumbs, which are required for AJ stability. In addition, Cdc42 has a second function in regulating endocytotic trafficking, as it is required for the progression of apical cargo from the early to the late endosome. The Par complex acts as an effector for Cdc42 in controlling the endocytosis of apical proteins. This study reveals functional ...
Cell polarity - the morphological and functional differentiation of cellular compartments in a directional manner - is required for processes such as orientation of cell division, directed cellular growth and motility. How the interplay of components within the complexity of a cell leads to cell polarity is still heavily debated. In this Review, we focus on one specific aspect of cell polarity: the non-uniform accumulation of proteins on the cell membrane. In cells, this is achieved through reaction-diffusion and/or cytoskeleton-based mechanisms. In reaction-diffusion systems, components are transformed into each other by chemical reactions and are moving through space by diffusion. In cytoskeleton-based processes, cellular components (i.e. proteins) are actively transported by microtubules (MTs) and actin filaments to specific locations in the cell. We examine how minimal systems - in vitro reconstitutions of a particular cellular function with a minimal number of components - are designed, how ...
The radial unit hypothesis provides a framework for global (proliferation) and regional (distribution) expansion of the primate cerebral cortex. Using principal component analysis (PCA), we have identified cortical regions with shared variance in their surface area and cortical thickness, respectively, segmented from magnetic resonance images obtained in 23,800 participants. We then carried out meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies of the first two principal components for each phenotype. For surface area (but not cortical thickness), we have detected strong associations between each of the components and single nucleotide polymorphisms in a number of gene loci. The first (global) component was associated mainly with loci on chromosome 17 (9.5e-32 ≤ p ≤ 2.8e-10), including those detected previously as linked with intracranial volume and/or general cognitive function. The second (regional) component captured shared variation in the surface area of the primary and adjacent secondary ...
The leading edge two regions hdlg-13 and insertion 12, both unique and partially redundant functions in two regions of alternative splicing the human homolog of the Drosophila Discs-large tumor suppressor. In adult flies, is located at the apical-lateral membrane boundary, isoform S97 expression is localized to the cell borders, coexpressed with scrib, at the septate junction and within the CNS of both embryos and larvae (in non-neural and neural cells) and are only the characteristics of malignant cancers derived from epithelial tissues. Loss of either Stardust [Sdt] or Dlg affects epithelial development, assembling Crumbs [Crb] homologs among MPP family members of Drosoplila sdt. Self-refinement of Notch activity through the transmembrane protein Crumbs: modulation have been implicated in the specification of tissue boundaries, in the Drosophila wing imaginal disc, Crumbs is involved in a feedback mechanism used by the Notch polarity determinant. In the control of both apico-basal polarity and ...
Heterotrimeric guanosine triphosphate (GTP)-binding proteins (G proteins) determine tissue and cell polarity in a variety of organisms. In yeast, cells orient polarized growth toward the mating partner along a pheromone gradient by a mechanism that requires Far1p and Cdc24p. Far1p bound Gβγ and interacted with polarity establishment proteins, which organize the actin cytoskeleton. Cells containing mutated Far1p unable to bind Gβγ or polarity establishment proteins were defective for orienting growth toward their mating partner. In response to pheromones, Far1p moves from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. Thus, Far1p functions as an adaptor that recruits polarity establishment proteins to the site of extracellular signaling marked by Gβγ to polarize assembly of the cytoskeleton in a morphogenetic gradient. ...
One unique aspect of VEGFR2 endocytosis is its regulation by several transmembrane and cytosolic interacting proteins, which play a role in either VEGFR2 internalization or degradation. A group of such proteins involved in VEGFR2 internalization is Dab2, ephrin-B2, and PAR-3. Dab2,46 a clathrin-associated sorting protein, and the cell polarity regulator PAR-3 interact with the transmembrane protein ephrin-B2 and VEGFR2. Disruption of this interaction by silencing of Dab2 or PAR-3 causes reduced VEGFR2 internalization and impaired VEGF-induced angiogenesis. After RTKs are internalized into early endosomes, a proportion of the receptors is modified by ubiquitin and then sorted for lysosomal degradation. CCM347 and myoferlin,48 respectively, associate with VEGFR2 in ECs and serve to enhance VEGFR2 stability by preventing receptor degradation.. Apart from internalization and degradation, VEGFR2 signaling is regulated by protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs), such as VE-PTP and PTP1b. VE-PTP is a ...
The asymmetric localization of planar cell polarity (PCP) proteins is essential for the establishment of many planar polarized cellular processes, but the mechanisms that maintain these asymmetric distributions remain poorly understood. A body of evidence has tied oriented subapical microtubules (MTs) to the establishment of PCP protein polarity, yet recent studies have suggested that the MT cytoskeleton is later dispensable for the maintenance of this asymmetry. As MTs underlie the vesicular trafficking of membrane-bound proteins within cells, the requirement for MTs in the maintenance of PCP merited further investigation. I sought to investigate the complex interactions between PCP proteins and the MT cytoskeleton in the polarized context of the floorplate of the zebrafish neural tube. We demonstrated that the progressive posterior polarization of the primary cilia of floorplate cells requires not only Vangl2 but also Fzd3a. I determined that GFP-Vangl2 asymmetrically localizes to anterior ...
Planar cell polarity (PCP) is a phenomenon found in most, if not all, higher animals, in which the orientation of cells or the positioning of subcellular structures in cells that form a tissue is coordinated with the neighboring cells. For instance, the hairs on the wing of a fly all point in the same direction, and so do the hairs on the back of a mouse or the sterocilia in the hair cells of the vertebrate inner ear. PCP is controlled by an evolutionarily conserved group of genes and most, but not all PCP genes with a function in vertebrates also have a related function in the fruit fly Drosophila. One exception is the vertebrate PTK7 gene, which encodes a catalytically inactive receptor tyrosine kinase and is required for the control of PCP in frogs and mice. Mutation of a Drosophila homolog of PTK7, the gene off track (otk), was reported not to cause PCP phenotypes in the fly. We found that in contrast to previous reports, flies homozygous for a complete knock-out of otk are viable and ...
Cell polarity factors positioned at the cell tips provide spatial cues to limit Cdr2 distribution to the cell middle. In fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe (S. Pombe), cells divide at a defined, reproducible size during mitosis because of the regulated activity of Cdk1.[8] The cell polarity protein kinase Pom1, a member of the dual-specificity tyrosine-phosphorylation regulated kinase (DYRK) family of kinases, localizes to cell ends. In Pom1 knockout cells, Cdr2 was no longer restricted to the cell middle, but was seen diffusely through half of the cell. From this data it becomes apparent that Pom1 provides inhibitory signals that confine Cdr2 to the middle of the cell. It has been further shown that Pom1-dependent signals lead to the phosphorylation of Cdr2. Pom1 knockout cells were also shown to divide at a smaller size than wild-type, which indicates a premature entry into mitosis.[7] Pom1 forms polar gradients that peak at cell ends, which shows a direct link between size control ...
The asymmetric distribution of membrane proteins along the apical to basal axis of a simple epithelial cell ensures that epithelial barrier and transport functions are properly regulated. However, apico-basal polarity means something different in a multi-layered epithelium such as the epidermis. This tissue provides essential protection against water loss, mechanical stress, and other environmental insults. These functions require that architectural features be polarized along the entire apical to basal axis (i.e. superficial to deep layers) of the stratified epithelium, not just within an individual cell. How information embedded within this polarized architecture is translated to generate a functional epidermis is poorly understood.. While canonical polarity proteins such as Par3/5 and aPKC have been established to play important roles in the epidermis, the contributions of other highly patterned membrane proteins to tissue polarity are poorly understood. Among the most highly polarized ...
Fig. 1. Spa2p and Pea2p coimmunoprecipitate. Proteins were prepared from SPA2 PEA2::HA, SPA2 PEA2::myc, spa2Δ PEA2::HA, and spa2Δ PEA2::myc strains (Y2003, Y2004, Y2005, and Y2006, respectively) and immunoprecipitated with the indicated antibodies. The total yeast lysates and immunoprecipitates were analyzed on immunoblots. (A) Immunoblot probed with anti-HA MAb 16B12. The doublet at approximately 60 kDa corresponds to Pea2p::HA; it is observed in lysates from the SPA2 PEA2::HA strain but not the SPA2 PEA2::myc strain. The doublet is also observed in IP with anti-HA antibody or anti-Spa2p antiserum from theSPA2 PEA2::HA lysate (fifth and seventh lanes from the left). Anti-Spa2p antiserum failed to precipitate Pea2p::HA from the spa2Δ PEA2::HA lysate (last lane). +, presence of an allele (for PEA2::HA andPEA2::myc) or wild-type copy of the gene (for SPA2). (B) Immunoblot probed with affinity-purified anti-Spa2p antiserum. Spa2p migrates as a 190-kDa band that is not present in the spa2Δ ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Planar cell polarity genes Celsr1 and Vangl2 are necessary for kidney growth, differentiation, and rostrocaudal patterning. AU - Brzóska, Hortensja. AU - dEsposito, Angela M.. AU - Kolatsi-Joannou, Maria. AU - Patel, Vishal. AU - Igarashi, Peter. AU - Lei, Yunping. AU - Finnell, Richard H.. AU - Lythgoe, Mark F.. AU - Woolf, Adrian S.. AU - Papakrivopoulou, Eugenia. AU - Long, David A.. N1 - Publisher Copyright: © 2016 International Society of Nephrology Copyright: Copyright 2017 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2016/12/1. Y1 - 2016/12/1. N2 - The mammalian kidney contains nephrons comprising glomeruli and tubules joined to ureteric bud-derived collecting ducts. It has a characteristic bean-like shape, with near-complete rostrocaudal symmetry around the hilum. Here we show that Celsr1, a planar cell polarity (PCP) gene implicated in neural tube morphogenesis, is required for ureteric tree growth in early development and later in gestation prevents tubule overgrowth. ...
The formation of the basoapical polarity axis in epithelia is critical for maintaining the homeostasis of differentiated tissues. Factors that influence cancer development notoriously affect tissue organization. Apical polarity appears as a specific tissue feature that, once disrupted, would facilitate the onset of mammary tumors. Thus, developing means to rapidly measure apical polarity alterations would greatly favor screening for factors that endanger or protect the breast epithelium. A Raman scattering based platform was used for label-free determination of apical polarity in live breast epithelial structures (acini) produced in three-dimensional cell culture. The coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering signal permitted the visualization of the apical and basal surfaces in the equatorial plane of an acinus. Raman microspectroscopy subsequently revealed that in polarized acini lipids were more ordered at the apical membranes compared to basal membranes, and that an inverse situation occurred in ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The formation of paranodal spirals at the ends of CNS myelin sheaths requires the planar polarity protein Vangl2. AU - Jarjour, Andrew. AU - Velichkova, Atanaska. AU - Boyd, Amanda. AU - Lord, Kathryn M.. AU - Torsney, Carole. AU - Henderson, Deborah J. AU - Ffrench-Constant, Charles. PY - 2020/3/3. Y1 - 2020/3/3. N2 - During axonal ensheathment, noncompact myelin channels formed at lateral edges of the myelinating process become arranged into tight paranodal spirals that resemble loops when cut in cross section. These adhere to the axon, concentrating voltage‐dependent sodium channels at nodes of Ranvier and patterning the surrounding axon into distinct molecular domains. The signals responsible for forming and maintaining the complex structure of paranodal myelin are poorly understood. Here, we test the hypothesis that the planar cell polarity determinant Vangl2 organizes paranodal myelin. We show that Vangl2 is concentrated at paranodes and that, following conditional ...
Invasion and metastasis are the hallmarks of malignant tumor progression and the main cause of death in cancer. The embryonic program epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is thought to trigger invasion by allowing tumor cell dissemination. Here, we describe that the EMT-inducing transcriptional repressor ZEB1 promotes colorectal cancer cell metastasis and loss of cell polarity. Thereby, ZEB1 suppresses the expression of cell polarity factors, in particular of Lgl2, which we found reduced in colorectal and breast cancers. We further show that retention of Lgl2 expression is critical for the epithelial phenotype and that its loss might be involved in metastasis. Thus, by linking EMT, loss of polarity, and metastasis, ZEB1 is a crucial promoter of malignant tumor progression. [Cancer Res 2008;68(2):537-44]. ...
BRSK2 was initially identified through a computer screen of the human genome and shows significant homology to the C. elegans neuronal cell polarity regulator SAD1. BRSK2 is expressed in the brain and to a lesser extent in the testes. BRSK2 is a member of the AMP-activated protein kinase subfamily and can be activated by the tumor suppressor kinase LKB1. More recently, it has been shown that both BRSK2 and the related protein BRSK1 are required for mammalian neuronal polarization. While BRSK1- and BRSK2-null mice were viable, double-mutant mice died within two hours of birth. Neurons from these mice showed uniformly-sized neurites as opposed to the normal long axon and multiple shorter dendrites. These neurites also displayed both axonal and dendritic markers. BRSK2 has also been shown to be an autoantigen in paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis. At least four isoforms of BRSK2 are known to exist. ...
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The Wnt signaling pathways are a group of signal transduction pathways made of proteins that pass signals into a cell through cell surface receptors. Three Wnt signaling pathways have been characterized: the canonical Wnt pathway, the noncanonical planar cell polarity pathway, and the noncanonical Wnt/calcium pathway. All three pathways are activated by binding a Wnt-protein ligand to a Frizzled family receptor, which passes the biological signal to the Dishevelled protein inside the cell. The canonical Wnt pathway leads to regulation of gene transcription, and is thought to be negatively regulated in part by the SPATS1 gene. The noncanonical planar cell polarity pathway regulates the cytoskeleton that is responsible for the shape of the cell. The noncanonical Wnt/calcium pathway regulates calcium inside the cell. Wnt signaling pathways use either nearby cell-cell communication (paracrine) or same-cell communication (autocrine). They are highly evolutionarily conserved in animals, which means ...
The Wnt signaling pathways are a group of signal transduction pathways made of proteins that pass signals from outside of a cell through cell surface receptors to the inside of the cell. Three Wnt signaling pathways have been characterized: the canonical Wnt pathway, the noncanonical planar cell polarity pathway, and the noncanonical Wnt/calcium pathway. All three Wnt signaling pathways are activated by the binding of a Wnt-protein ligand to a Frizzled family receptor, which passes the biological signal to the protein Dishevelled inside the cell. The canonical Wnt pathway leads to regulation of gene transcription, the noncanonical planar cell polarity pathway regulates the cytoskeleton that is responsible for the shape of the cell, and the noncanonical Wnt/calcium pathway regulates calcium inside the cell. The clinical importance of Wnt signaling pathway has been demonstrated by mutations that lead to a variety of diseases, including breast and prostate cancer, glioblastoma, type II ...
DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Neurons are extremely polarized cells, and this polarity is crucial for their function. Dendrites receive signals and axons send them. One of the most basic differences between axons and dendrites, that could be the foundation for their important functional differences, is polarity of the microtubule (MT) cytoskeleton. As MTs have intrinsic polarity that is read by motor proteins, MT polarity is likely to be extremely important for polarized neuronal trafficking. However, mechanisms that control neuronal MT polarity are poorly understood. We will use a simple Drosophila model system to study this problem. In all systems axonal MTs are oriented with plus ends distal to the cell body (plus-end-out). Dendrites are distinguished by the presence of minus-end-out MTs. In cultured mammalian neurons, dendritic MTs have mixed polarity. But in vivo in Drosophila, and perhaps in mammalian neurons, dendritic MTs have essentially uniform polarity that is opposite of axons ...
The neural crest is an embryonic stem cell population whose migratory behaviour has been likened to malignant invasion. The neural crest, as does cancer, undergoes an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and migrates to colonize almost all the tissues of the embryo. Neural crest cells exhibit collective cell migration, moving in streams of high directionality. The migratory neural crest streams are kept in shape by the presence of negative signals in their vicinity. The directionality of the migrating neural crest is achieved by contact-dependent cell polarization, in a phenomenon called contact inhibition of locomotion. Two cells experiencing contact inhibition of locomotion move away from each other after collision. However, if the cell density is high only cells exposed to a free edge can migrate away from the cluster leading to the directional migration of the whole group. Recent work performed in chicks, zebrafish and frogs has shown that the non-canonical Wnt-PCP (planar cell polarity) ...
Polarized epithelia develop distinct cell surface domains, with the apical membrane acquiring characteristic morphological features such as microvilli. Cell polarization is driven by polarity determinants including the evolutionarily conserved partitioning-defective (PAR) proteins that are separated into distinct cortical domains. PAR protein segregation is thought to be a consequence of asymmetric actomyosin contractions. The mechanism of activation of apically polarized actomyosin contractility is unknown. Here we show that the Cdc42 effector MRCK activates myosin-II at the apical pole to segregate aPKC-Par6 from junctional Par3, defining the apical domain. Apically polarized MRCK-activated actomyosin contractility is reinforced by cooperation with aPKC-Par6 downregulating antagonistic RhoA-driven junctional actomyosin contractility, and drives polarization of cytosolic brush border determinants and apical morphogenesis. MRCK-activated polarized actomyosin contractility is required for apical ...
Neuronal polarization lies at the heart of neuronal development, synaptic wiring, and interneuronal communication. Although much progress has been made in understanding axon growth and path finding, the mechanisms that regulate axonal neurite selection and polarity initiation remain poorly understood. Rapid axon growth requires a large quantity of building material and efficient intracellular transport. Coordination between axon initiation and cellular energy homeostasis may thus be important during the early stages of neuronal polarization. Using cultured hippocampal neurons and embryonic brain slices, Amato et al. investigated the role of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), which is involved in the sensing and regulation of bioenergy homeostasis, in neuronal polarization. Up-regulation of AMPK activity reduced the proportion of neurons possessing a typical axon. The ability of AMPK to inhibit polarization was restricted to the early stages of polarization; AMPK activation ...
Protein folding is critically important for all life from microbes to man. Cellular polarity is a basic biological process required for differential cellular organization and cell differentiation. In bacteria, cell polarity can be observed in many different ways; protein localization, membrane stability and composition, chromosomal organization, among others. One of the oldest known determinants of polarity in rod shaped bacteria is the highly stable peptidoglycan cell wall. Following identification of a set of proteins with peptidoglycan binding domains present in the genome sequence of Caulobacter crescentus, we used site directed mutagenesis to generate a mutant that shows aberrant polar growth, suggesting that the stability of the polar cell wall has been lost. The localization pattern of this protein during the cell cycle indicates that this protein is active during early cell division. From analyses we performed, in which we truncated the peptidoglycan binding regions, we have shown that ...
Scribble (SCRIB) is a tumor suppressor protein, playing critical roles in establishing and maintaining epithelial cell polarity. Paradoxically, SCRIB is frequently amplified in human cancers, however, fails to localize properly to cell-cell junctions, suggesting that mislocalization of SCRIB contributes to tumorigenesis. Using chemical reporters, here we showed that SCRIB localization is regulated by S-palmitoylation at conserved cysteine residues. The palmitoylation-deficient mutants of SCRIB are mislocalized, leading to disruption of cell polarity and loss of their tumor suppressive activities to oncogenic YAP, MAPK and PI3K/Akt pathways. We further found that ZDHHC7 is the major palmitoyl acyltransferase regulating SCRIB. Knockout of ZDHHC7 led to SCRIB mislocalization and YAP activation, and disruption of SCRIBs suppressive activities in HRasV12-induced cell invasion. In summary, we demonstrated that ZDHHC7-mediated SCRIB palmitoylation is critical for SCRIB membrane targeting, cell ...
by Changsen Leng, Arend W. Overeem, Fernando Cartón-Garcia, Qinghong Li, Karin Klappe, Jeroen Kuipers, Yingying Cui, Inge S. Zuhorn, Diego Arango, Sven C. D. van IJzendoorn. Recycling endosomes regulate plasma membrane recycling. Recently, recycling endosome-associated proteins have been implicated in the positioning and orientation of the mitotic spindle and cytokinesis. Loss of MYO5B, encoding the recycling endosome-associated myosin Vb, is associated with tumor development and tissue architecture defects in the gastrointestinal tract. Whether loss of MYO5B expression affects mitosis is not known. Here, we demonstrate that loss of MYO5B expression delayed cytokinesis, perturbed mitotic spindle orientation, led to the misorientation of the plane of cell division during the course of mitosis, and resulted in the delamination of epithelial cells. Remarkably, the effects on spindle orientation, but not cytokinesis, were a direct consequence of physical hindrance by giant late endosomes, which ...
Scribble (SCRIB) is an important adaptor protein that controls the establishment and maintenance of apico-basal cell polarity. To better understand how SCRIB controls cell polarity signalling via its PDZ domains, we investigated human SCRIB interactions with adenomatous polyposis coli (APC). We show that SCRIB PDZ1, PDZ2 and PDZ3 are the major interactors with the APC PDZ-binding motif (PBM), whereas SCRIB PDZ4 does not show detectable binding to APC. We then determined the crystal structure of SCRIB PDZ1 domain bound to the APC PBM. Our findings reveal a previously unreported pattern of interactions between the SCRIB PDZ domain region with the C-terminal PDZ binding motif of APC, where SCRIB PDZ1 domain is the highest affinity site ...
The actomyosin cytoskeleton is a primary force-generating mechanism in morphogenesis, thus a robust spatial control of cytoskeletal positioning is essential. In this report, we demonstrate that actomyosin contractility and planar cell polarity (PCP) interact in post-mitotic Ciona notochord cells to self-assemble and reposition actomyosin rings, which play an essential role for cell elongation. Intriguingly, rings always form at the cells′ anterior edge before migrating towards the center as contractility increases, reflecting a novel dynamical property of the cortex. Our drug and genetic manipulations uncover a tug-of-war between contractility, which localizes cortical flows toward the equator and PCP, which tries to reposition them. We develop a simple model of the physical forces underlying this tug-of-war, which quantitatively reproduces our results. We thus propose a quantitative framework for dissecting the relative contribution of contractility and PCP to the self-assembly and ...
Polarization of epithelial cells depends on a hierarchical process whereby specific membrane-associated proteins become targeted to specialized membrane domains. Here, we describe a novel Drosophila protein, Discs Lost (DLT), that plays a crucial role in the polarization of embryonic epithelia during cellular blastoderm formation. At subsequent stages of development, DLT interacts with the apical determinant Crumbs (CRB) and the laterally localized protein Neurexin IV (NRX IV). Mutations in dlt or double-stranded RNA interference lead to aberrant localization of CRB and NRX IV and cause a concomitant loss of epithelial cell polarity. Hence, DLT is required to establish and maintain cell polarity and participates in different molecular complexes that define apical and lateral membrane domains ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - PTK7-Src Signaling at Epithelial Cell Contacts Mediates Spatial Organization of Actomyosin and Planar Cell Polarity. AU - Andreeva, Anna. AU - Lee, Jianyi. AU - Lohia, Madhura. AU - Wu, Xiaoji. AU - Macara, Ian G.. AU - Lu, Xiaowei. N1 - Funding Information: We thank Drs. Amy Bouton, Jim Casanova, Barry Gumbiner, Rick Horwitz, and Sally Parsons (University of Virginia), Zee-Fen Chang and Hsiao-Hui Lee (National Taiwan University), Margaret Frame (Edinburgh Cancer Research UK Centre), Jeff Hildebrand (University of Pittsburgh), David Lewis (Stanford University), Alexander Tarakhovsky (Rockefeller University), and Gangjian Qin (Northwestern University) for reagents; Dr. Darkhan Utepbergenov (University of Virginia) for assistance with baculovirus work; Dr. Luke McCaffrey (McGill University) for advice on lentivirus work; and Drs. Jim Casanova and Barry Gumbiner (University of Virginia) and members of the Lu laboratory for helpful comments. This study was supported by Basil OConnor ...
The establishment of embryonic polarity axes foreshadows the main body structure of multicellular adult organisms. Plants developed a polar cell-to-cell transport of the growth hormone auxin to generate an asymmetric auxin response in embryos, instructive for apical-basal polarity axis formation. Using theory-guided experiments, I recently established that the dynamic spatial and temporal onset of auxin biosynthesis is a trigger to orient auxin fluxes and therefore apical-basal axis body axis, at various time points of Arabidopsis embryo development. Here I proposed a direct approach to understand how auxin biosynthesis influences embryo patterning and how this is translated into gene expression changes. The objectives of my project are: (i) to characterize the downstream elements of the auxin response activated by a embryonic local auxin production, (ii) to identify the factors that dynamically and developmentally control auxin biosynthetic genes expression. The proposed research is ...
PIPKIβ knockdown inhibits dHL60 cell polarization and chemotaxis. (A) PIPKIβ knockdown in dHL60 cells 48 h after transfection with 50 nM control or PIPKIβ-specific siRNA, as determined by quantitative RT-PCR (see Materials and methods). The results are normalized to the relative PIPKIβ mRNA levels in cells transfected with control siRNA (representative of five experiments). (B) Crude lysates (80 μg/lane) from cells as in A were analyzed by immunoblot with anti-PIPKIβ and anti-actin antibodies. The graph represents mean ± SEM of densitometry values for the PIPKIβ band from three independent experiments, taking the band in siRNA control cells as 100%. (C) Cell polarity depends on PIPKIβ. Uniformly stimulated dHL60 cells transfected with control or two PIPKIβ-specific siRNA were stained with phalloidin (red) and phospho-ERM proteins (green) as leading edge and uropod markers, respectively. Only cells showing clear segregation of phalloidin and phospho-ERM proteins were scored as ...
Planar cell polarity (PCP) refers to the coordinated orientation, movement, or structure of cells within the plane of a tissue. Zebrafish PCP mutants such as the vangl2 mutant exhibit defects in convergent extension, neural tube morphogenesis, and ciliary positioning. Tmem14a is a putative tetraspanin protein that was identified as an potential interactor of Vangl2 in a membrane yeast-two hybrid screen. GFP-tagged versions of Tmem14a are localized to the trans-Golgi network in zebrafish neuroepithelial cells. Knockdown of Tmem14a activity results in convergent extension defects, an ectopic accumulation of cells in the neural tube, and disorganized cilia. The localization of GFP-tagged Tmem14a to the trans-Golgi network suggested that Tmem14a plays a role in the trafficking of core PCP components to the cell membrane. Indeed, the membrane localization of GFP-Vangl2 was disrupted in Tmem14a morphants. Thus, Tmem14a is an interactor of Vangl2 and a novel regulator of vertebrate planar cell polarity
Tight junctions (TJs) are constructions indispensable to epithelial cells and are responsible for regulations of paracellular diffusion and maintenance of cellular polarity. interstitial tissues spaces. Located at the pinnacle of horizontal walls, TJs have both wall and barriers features. The barriers function represents a selectively permeable filtration system that adjusts paracellular diffusion of ions and solutes structured on charge and size, respectively (Gemstone, 1977 ). Barriers function is certainly firmly governed by a particular arranged of TJ protein, the claudins (Tsukita made up of a non-specific shRNA into MDCK II cells (brief hairpin non-specific control [shCtrl] cells). Specificities of RalA and RalB exhaustion had been ABT-263 decided by immunoblotting and immunofluorescence marking of endogenous protein; both RalB and RalA localised to the plasma membrane layer in subconfluent MDCK II cells, and this localization was untouched in shCtrl cells (Body 1B). In shRalA cells, ...
The polarity protein Par-3 plays critical roles in axon specification and the establishment of epithelial apico-basal polarity. Par-3 associates with Par-6 and
Little is known about the molecular mechanisms that regulate the organization of vascular lumen. In this paper we show that lumen formation correlates with endothelial polarization. Adherens junctions (AJs) and VE-cadherin (VEC, encoded by CDH5) are required for endothelial apicobasal polarity in vitro and during embryonic development. Silencing of CDH5 gene expression leads to abrogation of endothelial polarity accompanied by strong alterations in lumenal structure. VEC co-distributes with members of the Par polarity complex (Par3 and PKCzeta) and is needed for activation of PKCzeta. CCM1 is encoded by the CCM1 gene, which is mutated in 60% of patients affected by cerebral cavernous malformation (CCM). The protein interacts with VEC and directs AJ organization and AJ association with the polarity complex, both in cell-culture models and in human CCM1 lesions. Both VEC and CCM1 control Rap1 concentration at cell-cell junctions. We propose that VEC, CCM1 and Rap1 form a signaling complex. In the ...
AMP/ATP-binding subunit of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), an energy sensor protein kinase that plays a key role in regulating cellular energy metabolism. In response to reduction of intracellular ATP levels, AMPK activates energy-producing pathways and inhibits energy-consuming processes: inhibits protein, carbohydrate and lipid biosynthesis, as well as cell growth and proliferation. AMPK acts via direct phosphorylation of metabolic enzymes, and by longer-term effects via phosphorylation of transcription regulators. Also acts as a regulator of cellular polarity by remodeling the actin cytoskeleton; probably by indirectly activating myosin. Gamma non-catalytic subunit mediates binding to AMP, ADP and ATP, leading to activate or inhibit AMPK: AMP-binding results in allosteric activation of alpha catalytic subunit (PRKAA1 or PRKAA2) both by inducing phosphorylation and preventing dephosphorylation of catalytic subunits. ADP also stimulates phosphorylation, without stimulating already ...
Non-catalytic subunit of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), an energy sensor protein kinase that plays a key role in regulating cellular energy metabolism. In response to reduction of intracellular ATP levels, AMPK activates energy-producing pathways and inhibits energy-consuming processes: inhibits protein, carbohydrate and lipid biosynthesis, as well as cell growth and proliferation. AMPK acts via direct phosphorylation of metabolic enzymes, and by longer-term effects via phosphorylation of transcription regulators. Also acts as a regulator of cellular polarity by remodeling the actin cytoskeleton; probably by indirectly activating myosin. Beta non-catalytic subunit acts as a scaffold on which the AMPK complex assembles, via its C-terminus that bridges alpha (PRKAA1 or PRKAA2) and gamma subunits (PRKAG1, PRKAG2 or PRKAG3) (By similarity).
Catalytic subunit of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), an energy sensor protein kinase that plays a key role in regulating cellular energy metabolism. In response to reduction of intracellular ATP levels, AMPK activates energy-producing pathways and inhibits energy-consuming processes: inhibits protein, carbohydrate and lipid biosynthesis, as well as cell growth and proliferation. AMPK acts via direct phosphorylation of metabolic enzymes, and by longer-term effects via phosphorylation of transcription regulators. Also acts as a regulator of cellular polarity by remodeling the actin cytoskeleton; probably by indirectly activating myosin. Regulates lipid synthesis by phosphorylating and inactivating lipid metabolic enzymes such as ACACA, ACACB, GYS1, HMGCR and LIPE; regulates fatty acid and cholesterol synthesis by phosphorylating acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACACA and ACACB) and hormone-sensitive lipase (LIPE) enzymes, respectively. Regulates insulin-signaling and glycolysis by phosphorylating ...
Recent genetic studies in Drosophila identified a novel non-canonical Wnt pathway, the planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway, that signals via JNK to control epithelial cell polarity in Drosophila. Most recently, a pathway regulating convergent extension movements during gastrulation in vertebrate embryos has been shown to be a vertebrate equivalent of the PCP pathway. However, it is not known whether the JNK pathway functions in this non-canonical Wnt pathway to regulate convergent extension movements in vertebrates. In addition, it is not known whether JNK is in fact activated by Wnt stimulation. Here we show that Wnt5a is capable of activating JNK in cultured cells, and present evidence that the JNK pathway mediates the action of Wnt5a to regulate convergent extension movements in Xenopus. Our results thus demonstrate that the non-canonical Wnt/JNK pathway is conserved in both vertebrate and invertebrate and define that JNK has an activity to regulate morphogenetic cell movements ...
The establishment of cell polarity involves positive-feedback mechanisms that concentrate polarity regulators, including the conserved GTPase Cdc42p, at the front of the polarized cell. Previous studies in yeast suggested the presence of two parallel positive-feedback loops, one operating as a diffusion-based system, and the other involving actin-directed trafficking of Cdc42p on vesicles. F-actin (and hence directed vesicle traffic) speeds fluorescence recovery of Cdc42p after photobleaching, suggesting that vesicle traffic of Cdc42p contributes to polarization. We present a mathematical modeling framework that combines previously developed mechanistic reaction-diffusion and vesicle-trafficking models. Surprisingly, the combined model recapitulated the observed effect of vesicle traffic on Cdc42p dynamics even when the vesicles did not carry significant amounts of Cdc42p. Vesicle traffic reduced the concentration of Cdc42p at the front, so that fluorescence recovery mediated by Cdc42p flux ...
In mammals, an example of planar cell polarity (PCP) is the uniform orientation of the hair cell stereociliary bundles within the cochlea. The PCP pathway of Drosophila1,2,3,4 refers to a conserved signalling pathway that regulates the coordinated orientation of cells or structures within the plane of an epithelium. Here we show that a mutation in Vangl2, a mammalian homologue of the Drosophila PCP gene Strabismus/Van Gogh, results in significant disruptions in the polarization of stereociliary bundles in mouse cochlea as a result of defects in the direction of movement and/or anchoring of the kinocilium within each hair cell. Similar, but less severe, defects are observed in animals containing a mutation in the LAP protein family gene Scrb1 (homologous with Drosophila scribble). Polarization defects in animals heterozygous for Vangl2 and Scrb1 are comparable with Vangl2 homozygotes, demonstrating genetic interactions between these genes in the regulation of PCP in mammals. These results demonstrate a
Epithelial tissues in multicellular organisms are characterised by a pronounced apico-basal polarity, which is manifested in the asymmetric distribution of organelles and cytoplasmic proteins, and in the differentiation of the plasma membrane into two distinct domains, the apical and the baso-lateral domains. These domains can be further subdivided into spatially and functionally distinct regions. Work in our group is aimed to understand the cellular, molecular and genetic mechanisms that control the establishment and maintenance of epithelial cell polarity and that are required to pattern the cell membrane and underlying cytocortex into functionally distinct domains. Studies to answer these questions are performed in the fruitfly Drosophila melanogaster, the zebrafish Danio rerio and in cells in culture. ...
Motile airway cilia that propel contaminants out of the lung are oriented in a common direction by planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling, which localizes PCP protein complexes to opposite cell sides throughout the epithelium to orient cytoskeletal remodeling. In airway epithelia, PCP is determined in a 2-phase process. First, cell-cell communication via PCP complexes polarizes all cells with respect to the proximal-distal tissue axis. Second, during ciliogenesis, multiciliated cells (MCCs) undergo cytoskeletal remodeling to orient their cilia in the proximal direction. The second phase not only directs cilium polarization, but also consolidates polarization across the epithelium. Here, we demonstrate that in airway epithelia, PCP depends on MCC differentiation. PCP mutant epithelia have misaligned cilia, and also display defective barrier function and regeneration, indicating that PCP regulates multiple aspects of airway epithelial homeostasis. In humans, MCCs are often sparse in chronic ...
The acquisition of spatial and functional asymmetry between the rear and the front of the cell is a necessary step for cell chemotaxis. Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) stimulation of the human adenocarcinoma MCF-7 induces a polarized phenotype characterized by asymmetrical CCR5 chemokine receptor redistribution to the leading cell edge. CCR5 associates with membrane raft microdomains, and its polarization parallels redistribution of raft molecules, including the raft-associated ganglioside GM1, glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored green fluorescent protein and ephrinB1, to the leading edge. The non-raft proteins transferrin receptor and a mutant ephrinB1 are distributed homogeneously in migrating MCF-7 cells, supporting the raft localization requirement for polarization. IGF-I stimulation of cholesterol-depleted cells induces projection of multiple pseudopodia over the entire cell periphery, indicating that raft disruption specifically affects the acquisition of cell polarity, but not IGF-I
Neuronal migration is essential to the formation of the central nervous system in vertebrates. In Caenorhabditis elegans, a screen was performed previously to identify mutations that affected the migration of the Q neuroblast descendants. One of the mutants isolated from this screen was mig-15. MIG-15, a Nck Interacting Kinase (NIK), is homologous to proteins found in a wide variety of organisms, including Drosophila, mice, and humans, in which NIK kinases have been implicated in cell migration. Interestingly, multiple components of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway had already been found to control the Q cell descendant migrations. Additionally, the MIG-15 homolog in Drosophila, Misshapen had also been found to work with Wnt signaling components in the non-canonical planar cell polarity pathway. To determine how MIG-15 was working to control the migrations of the Q cell descendants, a characterization of the Q neuroblast migration defects was performed. mig-15 mutants were found to affect the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Continuous requirement of ErbB2 kinase activity for loss of cell polarity and lumen formation in a novel ErbB2/Neu-driven murine cell line model of metastatic breast cancer. AU - Ortega-Cava, Cesar. AU - Raja, Srikumar. AU - Laiq, Zenab. AU - Bailey, Tameka. AU - Luan, Haitao. AU - Mohapatra, Bhopal. AU - Williams, Stetson. AU - Ericsson, Aaron. AU - Goswami, Rasna. AU - Dimri, Manjari. AU - Duan, Lei. AU - Band, Vimla. AU - Naramura, Mayumi. AU - Band, Hamid. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2013 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2011. Y1 - 2011. N2 - Background: Well over a quarter of human breast cancers are ErbB2-driven and constitute a distinct subtype with substantially poorer prognosis. Yet, there are substantial gaps in our understanding of how ErbB2 tyrosine kinase activity unleashes a coordinated program of cellular and extracellular alterations that culminate in aggressive breast cancers. Cellular models that exhibit ErbB2 kinase dependency and can induce metastatic ...
Withdrawal of differentiating cells from proliferative tissue is critical for embryonic development and adult tissue homeostasis; however, the mechanisms that control this cell behavior are poorly understood. Using high-resolution live-cell imaging in chick neural tube, we uncover a form of cell subdivision that abscises apical cell membrane and mediates neuron detachment from the ventricle. This mechanism operates in chick and mouse, is dependent on actin-myosin contraction, and results in loss of apical cell polarity. Apical abscission also dismantles the primary cilium, known to transduce sonic-hedgehog signals, and is required for expression of cell-cycle-exit gene p27/Kip1. We further show that N-cadherin levels, regulated by neuronal-differentiation factor Neurog2, determine cilium disassembly and final abscission. This cell-biological mechanism may mediate such cell transitions in other epithelia in normal and cancerous conditions.. ...
Essential Role of Polarity Protein Par3 for Epidermal Homeostasis through Regulation of Barrier Function, Keratinocyte Differentiation, and Stem Cell Maintenance. Ali NJ, Dias Gomes M, Bauer R, Brodesser S, Niemann C, Iden S. J Invest Dermatol. 2016 Dec;136(12):2406-2416. doi: 10.1016/j.jid.2016.07.011. Epub 2016 Jul 21. ...
Idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH) is a rare, fatal disease of unknown pathogenesis. Evidence from our recent study suggests that IPAH pathogenesis is related to upregulation of the Wnt/planar cell polarity (Wnt/PCP) pathway. We used microscopic observation and immunohistochemical techniques to identify expression patterns of cascading proteins-namely Wnt-11, dishevelled-2 (Dvl-2), and dishevelled-associated activator of morphogenesis 1 (Daam-1)-in pulmonary arteries. We analyzed sections of formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded autopsied lung tissues obtained from 9 IPAH cases, 7 associated pulmonary arterial hypertension cases, and 16 age-matched controls without pulmonary arterial abnormalities. Results of microscopic observation were analyzed in relation to the cellular components and size of pulmonary arteries. Varying rates of positive reactivity to Dvl-2 and Daam-1 were confirmed in all cellular components of pulmonary arteries, namely, endothelial cells, myofibroblasts, and medial
Idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH) is a rare, fatal disease of unknown pathogenesis. Evidence from our recent study suggests that IPAH pathogenesis is related to upregulation of the Wnt/planar cell polarity (Wnt/PCP) pathway. We used microscopic observation and immunohistochemical techniques to identify expression patterns of cascading proteins-namely Wnt-11, dishevelled-2 (Dvl-2), and dishevelled-associated activator of morphogenesis 1 (Daam-1)-in pulmonary arteries. We analyzed sections of formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded autopsied lung tissues obtained from 9 IPAH cases, 7 associated pulmonary arterial hypertension cases, and 16 age-matched controls without pulmonary arterial abnormalities. Results of microscopic observation were analyzed in relation to the cellular components and size of pulmonary arteries. Varying rates of positive reactivity to Dvl-2 and Daam-1 were confirmed in all cellular components of pulmonary arteries, namely, endothelial cells, myofibroblasts, and medial
Proudfoot A, Bayliffe A, OKane CM, Wright T, Serone A, Bareille PJ, Brown V, Hamid UI, Chen Y, Wilson R, Cordy J, Morley P, de Wildt R, Elborn S, Hind M, Chilvers ER, Griffiths M, Summers C, McAuley DF. Novel anti-tumour necrosis factor receptor-1 (TNFR1) domain antibody prevents pulmonary inflammation in experimental acute lung injury. Thorax. 2018 Aug;73(8):723-730.. Hind M, Jordan S, Hansell DM, Nicholson AG, Neild G, Polkey MI. A man with progressive type II respiratory failure. Lancet Respir Med. 2017 May;5(5):456. doi: 10.1016/S2213-2600(17)30139-X. Epub 2017 Apr 24. No abstract available.. Poobalasingam T, Yates LL, Walker SA, Pereira M, Gross NY, Ali A, Kolatsi-Joannou M, Jarvelin MR, Pekkanen J, Papakrivopoulou E, Long DA, Griffiths M, Wagner D, Königshoff M, Hind M, Minelli C, Lloyd CM, Dean CH. Heterozygous Vangl2Looptail mice reveal novel roles for the planar cell polarity pathway in adult lung homeostasis and repair. Dis Model Mech. 2017 Apr 1;10(4):409-423.. Ng-Blichfeldt JP, ...
Planar cell polarity pathway[edit]. The planar cell polarity pathway (PCP) is the most notable β-catenin independent pathway - ... an enigmatic protein governing cell fate and cell polarity". Development. 132 (20): 4421-36. doi:10.1242/dev.02068. PMID ... Dishevelled plays important roles in both the embryo and the adult, ranging from cellular differentiation and cell polarity to ... it regulates the polarity and movement of a cell, in processes in vertebrates (like Xenopus) including gastrulation, neural ...
Permeability depends mainly on the electric charge and polarity of the molecule and to a lesser extent the molar mass of the ... Hooke misled the cell membrane theory that all cells contained a hard cell wall since only plant cells could be observed at the ... The cell membrane, being exposed to the outside environment, is an important site of cell-cell communication. As such, a large ... Main article: History of cell membrane theory. While Robert Hooke's discovery of cells in 1665 led to the proposal of the Cell ...
". "A polarity/proton loop". "Arp2/3 phosphorylation kickstarts cells". "Diane Barber, PhD". Biomedical Sciences Graduate ... cancer cell biology, stem cell differentiation, and neurodegeneration. One focus of her research is on cancer cell biology, ... is an American cell physiologist and cell biologist. She is professor and chair of the Department of Cell and Tissue Biology at ... J Cell Biol. 159:1087-1096. (Highlighted in Journal [Using acid to find direction. J Cell Biol 2002 159:911] and cited in ...
... a key player in the establishment of cell polarity in all eukaryotic cells. The GEF activity of FGD1, which activates Cdc42, is ... Etienne-Manneville S (March 2004). "Cdc42--the centre of polarity". J. Cell Sci. 117 (Pt 8): 1291-300. doi:10.1242/jcs.01115. ... Cell. 20 (9): 2413-27. doi:10.1091/mbc.E08-11-1136. PMC 2675621. PMID 19261807. Olson MF, Pasteris NG, Gorski JL, Hall A ( ... FGD1 also activates the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling cascade, important in cell differentiation and apoptosis. It ...
Ferrari Toninelli G, Spano P, Memo M (2003). "TorsinA, microtubules and cell polarity". Funct. Neurol. 18 (1): 7-10. PMID ... 2000). "Mutant torsinA, responsible for early-onset torsion dystonia, forms membrane inclusions in cultured neural cells". Hum ...
In fact, the origin of asymmetry in cell division, cell polarity and the mechanism that breaks the symmetry continue to be ... Cells first need to establish a polarity through a symmetry-breaking event before tissues and organs themselves can be polar. ... Wong, Fei (2009). "The Signaling Mechanisms Underlying Cell Polarity and Chemotaxis". Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in ... Nelson, James W. (2009). "Remodeling epithelial cell organization: Transitions between front-rear and apical-basal polarity". ...
van Meer G, Simons K (1988). "Lipid polarity and sorting in epithelial cells". J. Cell. Biochem. 36 (1): 51-8. doi:10.1002/jcb. ... Simons K, Fuller SD (1985). "Cell surface polarity in epithelia". Annu. Rev. Cell Biol. 1: 243-88. doi:10.1146/annurev.cb. ... American Society of Cell Biology 1991 Anders Jahre Prize for Medical Research 1991 NICHD Lectureship in Cell Biology 1993 Carl ... molecular organization of the cell, and biochemistry and physiology of a cell membrane. Considering his work from years 1996- ...
Arimura, Nariko; Kaibuchi, Kozo (December 22, 2005). "Key regulators in neuronal polarity". Neuron. Cambridge, MA: Cell Press. ... The distinctive structure of nerve cells allows action potentials to travel directionally (from dendrites to cell body down the ... causing voltage changes in the presynaptic cell to induce voltage changes in the postsynaptic cell. The main advantage of an ... The axon can synapse onto a dendrite, onto a cell body, or onto another axon or axon terminal, as well as into the bloodstream ...
Johnson KA, Rosenbaum JL (December 1992). "Polarity of flagellar assembly in Chlamydomonas". The Journal of Cell Biology. 119 ( ... blood cells being a prominent exception. Most cells only possess one, in contrast to cells with motile cilia, an exception ... Some epithelial cells are ciliated, and they commonly exist as a sheet of polarized cells forming a tube or tubule with cilia ... Some cell types, such as retinal photoreceptor cells, possess highly specialized primary cilia. Although the primary cilium was ...
Additionally, cells destined to become neural plate cells express nerve cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) to further neural plate ... Eom, Dae S; Amarnath, Smita; Agarwala, Seema (20 December 2012). "Apicobasal Polarity and neural tube closure". Development, ... Without BMP4 the ectoderm cells would develop into neural cells. Axial mesoderm cells under the ectoderm secrete inhibitory ... the overlying cells take their normal course and develop into neural cells. The cells in the ectoderm that circumscribe these ...
... cell polarity and tumorigenesis". Trends in Cell Biology. 21 (12): 727-735. doi:10.1016/j.tcb.2011.06.005. ISSN 1879-3088. PMID ... British-American biologist researching the molecules that establish Cell polarity in Epithelium, both in normal cells and in ... "Concert Artists Guild Winners Archive". Paul Lim Macara, Ian G.; McCaffrey, Luke (November 5, 2013). "Cell polarity in ... "Widely conserved signaling pathways in the establishment of cell polarity". Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology. 1 (2): ...
His research focuses on the molecules that establish Cell polarity in Epithelium, both in normal cells and in cancer. "Ian ... cell polarity and tumorigenesis". Trends in Cell Biology. 21 (12): 727-735. doi:10.1016/j.tcb.2011.06.005. ISSN 1879-3088. PMID ... Macara, Ian G.; McCaffrey, Luke (2013-11-05). "Cell polarity in morphogenesis and metastasis". Philosophical Transactions of ... "Widely conserved signaling pathways in the establishment of cell polarity". Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology. 1 (2): ...
The IEE cells then elongate and become preameloblasts. There is a shift in polarity. Each preameloblast elongates and becomes ... In the secretory stage, ameloblasts are polarized columnar cells. In the rough endoplasmic reticulum of these cells, enamel ... processes at the end of the cell which is in contact with the DEJ. Tomes' process is the term given to the end of the cell ... Microscopically, the most notable aspect of this phase is that these cells become striated, or have a ruffled border. These ...
Prickle is another protein in the planar cell polarity signaling pathway. Prickle is recruited to the cell surface membrane by ... Fanto M, McNeill H (February 2004). "Planar polarity from flies to vertebrates". J. Cell Sci. 117 (Pt 4): 527-33. doi:10.1242/ ... Wolff T, Rubin GM (March 1998). "Strabismus, a novel gene that regulates tissue polarity and cell fate decisions in Drosophila ... Strabismus was originally identified as a Drosophila protein involved in planar cell polarity. Flies with mutated strabismus ...
Jones, Chonnettia; Chen, Ping (February 2007). "Planar cell polarity signaling in vertebrates". BioEssays. 29 (2): 120-132. doi ... "Wnt5a functions in planar cell polarity regulation in mice". Developmental Biology. 306 (1): 121-133. doi:10.1016/j.ydbio. ... "Ciliary proteins link basal body polarization to planar cell polarity regulation". Nature Genetics. 40 (1): 69-77. doi:10.1038/ ... cell and developmental biology. Jones' dissertation 2005 was titled Molecular and functional characterization of mini-me, a ...
Prevent the free diffusion of water and solutes among adjacent epithelial cells. Preserve the epithelial polarity and cell ... Have a function in the morphogenesis like tracheal morphology that regulate the cell size and the cell length. Regulate cell ... Pleated SJs(pSJs) play roles in development and cell signaling. Form the mechanical link between cells which can densely pack ... Molecular Cell Biology. 4 (3): 225-36. doi:10.1038/nrm1055. PMID 12612641. Faivre-Sarrailh C, Banerjee S, Li J, Hortsch M, ...
Expression of CRMPs-1, -4, and -5 in the adult testis is detected only in the cell spermatid stage and CRMP-2 mRNA is found in ... Arimura N, Menager C, Fukata Y, Kaibuchi K (January 2004). "Role of CRMP-2 in neuronal polarity". Journal of Neurobiology. 58 ( ... CRMP1 mRNA is mainly expressed in Purkinje cells of the cerebellum. Among the five members of the CRMP family, CRMP-2 is the ... International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology. 267. pp. 125-181. doi:10.1016/S1937-6448(08)00603-5. ISBN 9780123743749. ...
... and Cell Polarity. His works led to the fundamental understanding of cell polarity in response to cell signaling. After the ... His lab focused on cell signaling via PKC and the molecular mechanisms how cell polarity is related to other signaling pathways ... These findings showed that PKC family plays various rules in cell signaling. On the other hand, the concept of cell polarity ... a conserved core cassette playing fundamental roles in cell polarity". Current Opinion in Cell Biology. 13 (5): 641-8. doi: ...
The function of neurons depends upon cell polarity. The distinctive structure of nerve cells allows action potentials to travel ... Arimura, Nariko; Kaibuchi, Kozo (December 22, 2005). "Key regulators in neuronal polarity". Neuron. Cambridge, MA: Cell Press. ... Synapses are essential to neuronal function: neurons are cells that are specialized to pass signals to individual target cells ... and for these signals to then be received and carried on by post-synaptic neurons or received by effector cells. Nerve cells ...
Both of these functions support neuron cell polarity, in which dendrites (and, in some cases the soma) of a neuron receive ... Cells called guidepost cells assist in the guidance of neuronal axon growth. These cells that help axon guidance, are typically ... Depending on the type of receptors that are activated, the effect on the target cell can be to excite the target cell, inhibit ... Myelin is a layer of a fatty insulating substance, which is formed by two types of glial cells: Schwann cells and ...
Baas AF, Smit L, Clevers H (2004). "LKB1 tumor suppressor protein: PARtaker in cell polarity". Trends Cell Biol. 14 (6): 312-9 ... 2005). "Analysis of the LKB1-STRAD-MO25 complex". J. Cell Sci. 117 (Pt 26): 6365-75. doi:10.1242/jcs.01571. PMID 15561763. ...
... can be internalized in a cell and therefore suggests the possible secretion of a given transcription factor by a nerve cell A ... In vitro control of neuronal polarity by glycosaminoglycans. par Lafont F, Rouget M, Triller A, Prochiantz A, Rousselet A. dans ... 5 juin 2009 Can transcription factors function as cell-cell signalling molecules? par Prochiantz A, Joliot A. dans Nat Rev Mol ... Effect of striatal cells on in vitro maturation of mesencephalic dopaminergic neurones grown in serum-free conditions. par di ...
Baas AF, Smit L, Clevers H (2004). "LKB1 tumor suppressor protein: PARtaker in cell polarity". Trends Cell Biol. 14 (6): 312-9 ... Cell Sci. 117 (Pt 26): 6365-75. doi:10.1242/jcs.01571. PMID 15561763. Veleva-Rotse BO, Smart JL, Baas AF, Edmonds B, Zhao ZM, ... Cell Sci. 117 (Pt 26): 6365-75. doi:10.1242/jcs.01571. PMID 15561763. ...
... proteins that stably determined one of two possible cell fates for a cell and its cellular descendants in a tissue. While most ... "Mutations affecting segment number and polarity in Drosophila". Nature. 287 (5785): 795-801. Bibcode:1980Natur.287..795N. doi: ... Molecular Cell Biology, 5th Edition. W.H. Freeman and Company, New York.[page needed] Nüsslein-Volhard, Christiane; Wieschaus, ... Garcia-Bellido, A (1975). "Genetic control of wing disc development in Drosophila.". Ciba Foundation Symposium 29 ‐ Cell ...
The neural cell adhesion molecule N-CAM simultaneously combines with another N-CAM and a fibroblast growth factor receptor to ... ISBN 978-1-4419-1170-4. Arimura, Nariko; Kaibuchi, Kozo (2007-03-01). "Neuronal polarity: from extracellular signals to ... It is known that 60% of the time the first neurite that protrudes from the cell body will become the axon. 30% of the time, a ... A neurite or neuronal process refers to any projection from the cell body of a neuron. This projection can be either an axon or ...
Prickle planar cell polarity protein 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PRICKLE1 gene. This gene encodes a nuclear ... "Entrez Gene: Prickle planar cell polarity protein 1". Retrieved 2017-08-08. Katoh M, Katoh M (2003). "Identification and ... "Prickle and Strabismus form a functional complex to generate a correct axis during planar cell polarity signaling". EMBO J. 22 ... Cell. Biol. 23 (24): 9025-31. doi:10.1128/mcb.23.24.9025-9031.2003. PMC 309669. PMID 14645515. Kim SM, Yang JW, Park MJ, Lee JK ...
Harris, SD (2006). "Cell polarity in filamentous fungi: shaping the mold". International Review of Cytology. 251: 41-77. doi: ... In yeast cells, they compartmentalize parts of the cell and build scaffolding to provide structural support during cell ... To propagate from cell to cell, Shigella bacteria develop actin-polymer 'tails', which propel the microbes and allow them to ... These protein complexes are involved in cytokinesis, chitin deposition, cell polarity, spore formation, in the morphogenesis ...
Cantrell VA, Jessen JR (January 2010). "The planar cell polarity protein Van Gogh-Like 2 regulates tumor cell migration and ... VANGL planar cell polarity protein 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the VANGL2 gene. The protein encoded by the ... "Entrez Gene: VANGL planar cell polarity protein 2". Retrieved 2018-07-05. Erdal E, Erdal C, Bulut G, Kunter I, Kir M, Atabey N ... The encoded protein transmits directional signals to individual cells or groups of cells in epithelial sheets. This protein is ...
Liu J, Li J, Ren Y, Liu P (2014-01-01). "DLG5 in cell polarity maintenance and cancer development". International Journal of ... Cell. 131 (1): 80-92. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2007.07.037. PMID 17923089. S2CID 14008319. van den Berk LC, Landi E, Walma T, Vuister ... both play an important role at cell junctions and in cell signaling complexes. Since the discovery of PDZ domains more than 20 ... For cells to function properly it is important for components-proteins and other molecules- to be in the right place at the ...
Baas AF, Smit L, Clevers H (June 2004). "LKB1 tumor suppressor protein: PARtaker in cell polarity". Trends in Cell Biology. 14 ... The STK11/LKB1 gene, which encodes a member of the serine/threonine kinase family, regulates cell polarity and functions as a ... A picture from current research is emerging that loss of LKB1 leads to disorganization of cell polarity and facilitates tumour ... Activation of AMPK-related kinases by LKB1 plays vital roles maintaining cell polarity thereby inhibiting inappropriate ...
regulation of cell migration. · establishment or maintenance of microtubule cytoskeleton polarity. · endoplasmic reticulum ... M phase of mitotic cell cycle. · mitotic prophase. · mitotic anaphase. · mitotic cell cycle. · apoptotic process. · cellular ... Halaschek-Wiener J, Brooks-Wilson A. Progeria of stem cells: stem cell exhaustion in Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome. J. ... J. Cell. Sci. October 2000, 113 (19): 3473-84. PMID 10984438.. *^ Dreuillet C, Tillit J, Kress M, Ernoult-Lange M. In vivo and ...
Cell-cell adhesion complexes are required for simple epithelia in higher organisms to maintain structure, function and polarity ... F9 embryonal carcinoma cells are similar to the P19 cells shown in Figure 1 and normally have cell-to-cell adhesion mediated by ... A tumor cell line with defective δ-catenin, low levels of E-cadherin and poor cell-to-cell adhesion could be restored to normal ... providing the cell with a means of stable cell adhesion. However, decreases in this adhesion ability of the cell has been ...
The] clave pattern has two opposing rhythm cells: the first cell consists of three strokes, or the rhythm cell, which is called ... As the pattern is repeated, an alternation from one polarity to the other takes place creating the pulse and rhythmic drive. ... The second cell has two strokes and is called the two-side of the weak part of the clave. . . The different accent types in the ... Clave is the basic period, composed of two rhythmically opposed cells, one antecedent and the other consequent.[d][e] Clave was ...
For the depletion mode, the channel is on at zero bias, and a gate potential (of the opposite polarity) can "deplete" the ... Low operating voltages compatible with batteries of only a few cells.. *Circuits with greater energy efficiency are usually ... Electrical polarity (positive and negative): NPN, PNP (BJTs), N-channel, P-channel (FETs). ... Solaristor (from solar cell transistor), a two-terminal gate-less self-powered phototransistor. ...
Cell polarity regulationEdit. In C. crescentus, cell polarity is readily apparent by the assembly of polar organelles and by ... The formation of new cell poles at division implies that cell polarity must be re-established in the stalked progeny and ... Role of the swarmer cell stageEdit. The Caulobacter stalked cell stage provides a fitness advantage by anchoring the cell to ... "Regulation of cell polarity in bacteria". Journal of Cell Biology. 206 (1): 7-17. doi:10.1083/jcb.201403136. ISSN 0021-9525. ...
Multiple tornadoes produced by the same storm cell are referred to as a "tornado family".[21] Several tornadoes are sometimes ... In many cases, intense tornadoes and thunderstorms exhibit an increased and anomalous dominance of positive polarity CG ... Tornadic storms do not contain more lightning than other storms and some tornadic cells never produce lightning at all. More ...
... cell polarity and transport, cell motility and adhesion.[8]. Expression of PAX8 is increased in neoplastic renal tissues, Wilms ... regulation of metanephric nephron tubule epithelial cell differentiation. • cell differentiation. • mesonephric tubule ... positive regulation of metanephric DCT cell differentiation. • negative regulation of mesenchymal cell apoptotic process ... pancreatic islet cells and lymphoid cells.[8] PAX8 and other transcription factors play a role in binding to DNA and regulating ...
... sense RNA is that functions as mRNA after entry into the cell and all viral mRNA synthesized is of genome polarity. The mRNA ... These acids form a pore in the cell membrane through which RNA is injected [2]. Once inside the cell, the RNA un-coats and the ... The whole of replication occurs within the host cell cytoplasm and infection can even happen in cells that do not contain a ... MP and VPg interact to provide specificity for the transport of viral RNA from cell to cell. To fulfill energy requirements, MP ...
... migration and polarity of the cell cytoskeleton was awarded the Louis Jeantet Prize for Medicine.[14] Later that year he won ... DNA from a rhabdomyosarcoma cell line and a fibrosarcoma cell line transformed a NIH/3T3 mouse fibroblast cell line. After ... cells. Downregulation of RhoA in the HBE cell lines using siRNAs showed a lack of apical junction formation in contrast with ... made seminal contributions to our understanding of cell signalling in animal cells, in particular the role of Rho and Ras small ...
Wnt signaling pathway, planar cell polarity pathway. • beta-catenin destruction complex disassembly. ... cell maturation. • Wnt signaling pathway. • embryonic camera-type eye development. • multicellular organism development. • cell ... T cell differentiation in thymus. • chorionic trophoblast cell differentiation. • positive regulation of protein targeting to ... cell surface. • early endosome. • perinuclear region of cytoplasm. • integral component of membrane. ...
Approximately 75-85% of the cell's volume is due to water making it an indispensable solvent as a result of its polarity and ... Cell movement - Chemotaxis, contraction, cilia and flagella.. *Cell signaling - Regulation of cell behavior by signals from ... Prokaryotic cells are much smaller than eukaryotic cells, making prokaryotic cells the smallest form of life.[11] Cytologists ... The growth process of the cell does not refer to the size of the cell, but instead the density of the number of cells present ...
To reduce that waste and the ecological footprint of a-Si:H-based solar cells further several recycling efforts have been ... Because of the greater electronegativity of hydrogen in comparison to silicon, this Si-H bond polarity is the opposite of that ... This resulted in a symbiotic benefit of making more stable solar photovoltaic cells as it reduced the Staebler-Wronski Effect. ... One consequence of this reversed polarity is the greater tendency of silane to form complexes with transition metals. A second ...
They can form a micelle and are a vital in forming cell membranes ... Polarity of molecules[edit]. See also: Dipole § Molecular dipoles. While the molecules can be described as "polar covalent", " ... Each bond has polarity (though not very strong). However, the bonds are arranged symmetrically so there is no overall dipole in ... In chemistry, polarity is a separation of electric charge leading to a molecule or its chemical groups having an electric ...
Martizez Arias, A; Baker, NE; Ingham, PW (May 1988). "Role of segment polarity genes in the definition and maintenance of cell ... division of the cell) in the zygote to form a multi-nucleated cell (a cell containing multiple nuclei) known as a syncytium.[8] ... Molecular biology of the cell (5th ed.). New York: Garland Science. p. 1334. ISBN 978-0-8153-4106-2. All the egg-polarity genes ... its link to cell signalling, its roles in certain diseases and mutations, and its links to stem cell research. Embryology is ...
... and establishing cell polarity". J. Biol. Chem. 277 (32): 29028-35. doi:10.1074/jbc.M111697200. PMID 12006559.. ... cell cortex. • focal adhesion. • extracellular matrix. • cytosol. • cell nucleus. • neuron projection. • neuronal cell body. ... epithelial cell morphogenesis. • multicellular organism development. • cytoskeletal anchoring at plasma membrane. • cell ... 2001). "Filamins as integrators of cell mechanics and signalling". Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. 2 (2): 138-45. doi:10.1038/ ...
Duthel et al records for each branch of the Mach-Zehnder modulator several signals at different polarity and phases. The ... Stem-cell therapy. *Tissue engineering. *Robot-assisted surgery. *Synthetic biology *Synthetic genomics ...
X. Zhang, D. Golberg, Y. Bando and N. Fukata : «n-ZnO/p-Si 3D heterojunction solar cells in Si holey arrays» NANOSCALE 4[3] ( ... Unipolar assembly of zinc oxide rods manifesting polarity-driven collective luminescence» Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 107[ ... L. Li, H. Wang, X. Fang, T. Zhai, Y. Bando and D. Golberg : «High-performance Schottky solar cells using ZrS2 nanobelt networks ... L. Li, T. Zhai, Y. Bando, D. Golberg : «Recent progress of one-dimensional ZnO nanostructured solar cells» NANO ENERGY 1[1] ( ...
Complete discharge of multi-cell packs can cause reverse polarity in one or more cells, which can permanently damage them. This ... When this happens, the good cells start to drive the discharged cell into reverse polarity (i.e. positive anode/negative ... A fully charged cell supplies an average 1.25 V/cell during discharge, declining to about 1.0-1.1 V/cell (further discharge may ... Modern NiMH cells contain catalysts to handle gases produced by over-charging (. 2. H. 2. +. O. 2. →. catalyst. 2. H. 2. O. {\ ...
... although these are often composed of repeating unit cells that extend either in a plane (such as in graphene) or three- ... Chemical polarity. *Covalent bond. *Diatomic molecule. *List of compounds. *List of interstellar and circumstellar molecules ...
Low level laser light reduces the stability of adipocyte cell membranes, allowing cells to release their stores of fat without ... The electric field shifts polarity millions of times per second, that causes a change in orientation of charged particles.[17] ... Based on the premise that fat cells are more easily damaged by cooling than skin cells (such as popsicle panniculitis), ... The degree of exposure to cooling causes cell death of subcutaneous fat tissue, without apparent damage to the overlying skin.[ ...
the polarity (+);. *the date of manufacturing.. Date codesEdit. Often a 2-letter code (sometimes on the side of the battery) ... Button cells are single cells, usually disposable primary cells. Common anode materials are zinc or lithium. Common cathode ... Wider variants are usually called coin cells. Devices using button cells are usually designed around a cell giving a long ... A watch battery or button cell is a small single cell battery shaped as a squat cylinder typically 5 to 25 mm (0.197 to 0.984 ...
"Cell Reports. 11 (6): 851-858. doi:10.1016/j.celrep.2015.04.001. PMC 4643944. PMID 25937277.. ... Microbats use a polarity-based compass, meaning that they differentiate north from south, unlike birds, which use the strength ... Aging Cell. 1 (2): 124-131. doi:10.1046/j.1474-9728.2002.00020.x. PMID 12882342.. ... The membrane has no hair follicles or sweat glands, except between the fingers.[54][56] For bat embryos, apoptosis (cell death ...
establishment or maintenance of epithelial cell apical/basal polarity. • viral process. • T cell cytokine production. • T cell ... establishment or maintenance of cell polarity. • negative regulation of T cell proliferation. • branching involved in ureteric ... Humbert P, Russell S, Richardson H (Jun 2003). "Dlg, Scribble and Lgl in cell polarity, cell proliferation and cancer". ... There is some evidence that SAP97 regulates cell-to-cell adhesion during cell death, and may interact with HPV. In the brain, ...
Both types of cells have similar features, including cilia, folded membranes, and polarity. Functional evidence for this theory ... As Type 1 cells contain serotonin, Type 2 cells contain melatonin and are thought to have similar characteristics as endocrine ... such as retinal cells. Structural, functional, and genetic similarities exist between the two cell types. Structurally, both ... both photoreceptors and hair cells) suggests that the two cells are related to one another evolutionarily. Differences between ...
... one stripe with normal polarity and the adjoining stripe with reversed polarity. The overall pattern, defined by these ... Another theory is that the mantle flows neither in cells nor large plumes but rather as a series of channels just below the ... It asserts that super plumes rise from the deeper mantle and are the drivers or substitutes of the major convection cells. ... stripes of rock parallel to the ridge crest alternate in magnetic polarity (normal-reversed-normal, etc.), suggesting that they ...
... one stripe with normal polarity and the adjoining stripe with reversed polarity. The overall pattern, defined by these ... Another theory is that the mantle flows neither in cells nor large plumes but rather as a series of channels just below the ... stripes of rock parallel to the ridge crest alternate in magnetic polarity (normal-reversed-normal, etc.), suggesting that they ... the youngest rocks at the ridge crest always have present-day (normal) polarity; ...
Bacillus subtilis stained with Nile red as a membrane dye (shown in red). This strain grows partly as cell chains, so a ... The dye is highly solvatochromic and its emission and excitation wavelength both shift depending on solvent polarity [1] and in ... Nile red has applications in cell biology, where it can be used as a membrane dye which can be readily visualized using an ...
Since modern solar cells were introduced in 1954 at Bell labs,[3][4] advances in solar cell efficiency at converting light into ... reverse polarity protection and AC transfer switches which ensure sensitive back-up loads work normally when outage occurs.[12] ... "How do solar cells work? - Explain that Stuff". www.explainthatstuff.com. Retrieved 2015-10-31.. ... A solar cell has two different layers of silicon. The lower layer has less electrons and hence has a slight positive charge due ...
There is a theory that, in some nerve cell synapses, when long-term memories are being laid down, the receiving cell makes ... Bond polarity and oxidation state[edit]. Theoretical and experimental studies show that, despite the greater electronegativity ... Some such nerve cells have been shown to contain guanylate cyclase, an enzyme that is activated by carbon monoxide.[15] ... If carbon monoxide acts as a ligand, the polarity of the dipole may reverse with a net negative charge on the oxygen end, ...
Cell polarity refers to spatial differences in shape, structure, and function within a cell. Almost all cell types exhibit some ... Yeast cells share many features of cell polarity with other organisms, but feature fewer protein components. In yeast, polarity ... Biology portal Epithelial polarity Cell migration Embryogenesis Embryonic development Asymmetric cell division 3D cell culture ... and migrating cells. Furthermore, cell polarity is important during many types of asymmetric cell division to set up functional ...
Mol Cell Neurosci. 1998 Jul;11(4):183-93. Research Support, Non-U.S. Govt; Research Support, U.S. Govt, P.H.S. ... Mol Cell Neurosci. 1998 Jul;11(4):183-93.. Intrinsic polarity of mammalian neuroepithelial cells.. Chenn A1, Zhang YA, Chang BT ... Here we explore the intrinsic polarity of neuroepithelial cells in the developing telencephalon. Actin microfilaments are ... Progenitor cells in the mammalian forebrain can undergo either symmetric or asymmetric cell divisions by varying their cleavage ...
The union of two highly polarized cells, the sperm and the egg, initiates a series of dramatic cellular transformations that ... 8-cell blastomere polarity-inducing ability of a variety of embryonic cells and non-cellular materials, J. Cell Biol. 101: 343a ... The calcium-dependent cell-cell adhesion system regulates inner cell mass formation and cell surface polarization in early ... Nuccitelli, R., 1983, Transcellular ion currents: Signals and effectors of cell polarity, in: Modern Cell Biology, Vol. 2 (J.R ...
... pombe cells with microtubules in red and the polarity factor for cell growth (tea1p) in green. Tea1p is transported to the cell ... To establish polarity, cells rely on elaborate regulation networks to control the distribution of specific proteins at the cell ... Cell polarity is crucial for many processes in living cells, including differentiation, division, growth and directional ... Microtubule-based cell polarity in vitro Kim Vendel Collaborators: Philippe Bastiaens (MPI Dortmund), Pieter Rein ten Wolde ( ...
Defective planar cell polarity in polycystic kidney disease.. Fischer E1, Legue E, Doyen A, Nato F, Nicolas JF, Torres V, Yaniv ... We show that lengthening of renal tubules is associated with mitotic orientation of cells along the tubule axis, demonstrating ... These results suggest that oriented cell division dictates the maintenance of constant tubule diameter during tubular ... Morphogenesis involves coordinated proliferation, differentiation and spatial distribution of cells. ...
It is characteristic of single-cell organisms, including yeast and bacteria, and cells in tissues of multi-cell organisms such ... Cell polarity is defined as asymmetry in cell shape, protein distributions and cell functions. ... Cell polarity is defined as asymmetry in cell shape, protein distributions and cell functions. It is characteristic of single- ... do different cell types use different mechanisms to generate polarity, how is polarity signalled, how do cells react to that ...
A rigid cell wall is formed soon after cell division, which fixes the new cell permanently. Regulation of the direction of cell ... Polarity and oriented cell division. The principle of new plant life is very similar to that of humans and animals: a single ... These proteins localize to specific parts of the cell and regulate cell division from there. My project focuses on the exact ... In plants, this control is very important, as plants do not contain mechanisms for cell migration or quick cell replacement ...
0.27v cells, but my charger wont accept them (it says reverse polarity). ... 4.0v and I get from them approx 2050 mah per cell (tested with Imax B8), But the last pair had reversed -0.27v !!! First ... One battery was 3S2P 18650 cells, two of the pairs are OK ( they had ~ ... Reverse polarity in a Li-Ion cell indicates that damage has been done to the cell. Using a Li-Ion cell that has been damaged is ...
The planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway is a highly conserved signaling pathway that mediates changes in cell polarity and cell ... Noncanonical Wnt pathways, also called the planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling pathway, work on planar cell polarity in ... strongly suggesting that this is a defect in cell polarity and/or cell movement, rather than some other aspect of cell behavior ... The planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling pathway, responsible for tissue polarity in Drosophila and gastrulation movements and ...
... in regulation of cell-cell contact and cell integrity through maintaining cytoskeletal structures. Overexpression of CDH26 in ... CDH26 expression is also important for localization of planar cell polarity proteins. Knockdown of CDH26 in AECs results in ... Using human AECs and cell lines, we demonstrate that cadherin-26 (CDH26) is abundantly expressed in differentiated AECs, ... localizes to the cell apices near ciliary membranes, and has functional cadherin domains with homotypic binding. We find a ...
Download a Free Excerpt from Cell Polarity:. Preface. Role of Polarity Proteins in the Generation and Organization of Apical ... Phosphoinositides and Membrane Targeting in Cell Polarity. Gerald R. Hammond and Yang Hong. The Crumbs3 Polarity Protein. Ben ... Making Heads or Tails of It: Cell-Cell Adhesion in Cellular and Supracellular Polarity in Collective Migration. Jan-Hendrik ... Cell Polarity. Book Series: A Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology Collection. Subject Area(s): Developmental Biology; ...
Prickle planar cell polarity protein 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PRICKLE2 gene. This gene encodes a homolog ... "Entrez Gene: Prickle planar cell polarity protein 2". Retrieved 2018-02-20. Katoh M, Katoh M (February 2003). "Identification ... Cell. Biol. 32 (1): 173-85. doi:10.1128/MCB.06320-11. PMC 3255712. PMID 22037766. v t e This article incorporates text from the ... of human PRICKLE1 and PRICKLE2 genes as well as mouse Prickle1 and Prickle2 genes homologous to Drosophila tissue polarity gene ...
In fission yeast microtubules bring polarity markers to the cell poles. Those will make the cell happily grow from both ends. ... Microtubule-based cell polarity in vitro. *In vitro reconstitution and (photo)control of the microtubule plus-end tracking ... Microtubule-based cell polarity in vitro. *In vitro reconstitution and (photo)control of the microtubule plus-end tracking ... Microtubule-based cell polarity in vitro. *In vitro reconstitution and (photo)control of the microtubule plus-end tracking ...
The planar cell polarity system, first characterized in Drosophila, is important for many of these events. Studies in ... Cells of many tissues acquire cellular asymmetry to execute their physiologic functions. ... Planar cell polarity signaling: the developing cells compass Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol. 2009 Sep;1(3):a002964. doi: ... Cells of many tissues acquire cellular asymmetry to execute their physiologic functions. The planar cell polarity system, first ...
Daughter cells that received more antigen were better able to stimulate T cells. Because cues received through T lymphocyte ... Communication received through cell contact is critical for the differentiation of specialized effector cell populations during ... Antigen acquired by B lymphocytes exhibited a polarized distribution that was sustained over several rounds of cell division. ... Asymmetric segregation of polarized antigen on B cell division shapes presentation capacity. Science 335, 475-479 (2012). [ ...
Molecular mechanics in the skin of mice are driven by polarity genes, a team led by Sandra Iden of the Cluster of Excellence ... The cell polarity protein Par3 controls mechanic changes in the skin and plays an important role in cell division. Malfunction ... The polarity protein Par3 controls the mechanical properties of the main skin epithelial cells, called keratinocytes. It has ... In a previous study, the researchers showed that inactivation of the polarity protein Par3 resulted in a decline of stem cells ...
Cell Polarity and Subcellular RNA Localization by Dietmar Richter, 9783540411420, available at Book Depository with free ... Selective cytoplasmic organelle and protein targeting has long been thought to constitute the sole determinant of cell polarity ... Selective cytoplasmic organelle and protein targeting has long been thought to constitute the sole determinant of cell polarity ... 4 CREB Protein Moves from the Dendrite to the Cell Nucleus.- 5 Potential Importance of Dendritic CREB in Modulating.- Neuronal ...
... rate or extent of establishment of cell polarity.. Synonyms. regulation of bud site selection/establishment of cell polarity, ... Gene Ontology Term: regulation of establishment of cell polarity. GO ID. GO:2000114 Aspect. Biological Process. Description. ... regulation of cell polarization View GO Annotations in other species in AmiGO ...
Focus Issue: Polarity Signals--from Cell to Organism Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from Science ...
... Author(s). Parisi, Tiziana; Balsamo, Michele; Gertler ... Altered cell polarity and migration are hallmarks of cancer and metastases. Here we show that inactivation of the ... Parisi, Tiziana et al., "The Rb tumor suppressor regulates epithelial cell migration and polarity." Molecular Carcinogenesis 57 ... Keywords: aPKC; eyes open phenotype; PAR complex; planar cell polarity; RhoA Rock signaling ...
... focal contact-dependent and more adhesive migration strategies established by fibroblast-like cells and cell clusters. It is ... Their prominent capacity to rapidly adapt to a given structural environment coupled to contact guidance mechanisms set T cell ... At the onset of T cell migration, a default program, here described as migration-associated polarization, is initiated, ... Ameboid motility is characterized by a polarized yet simple cell shape allowing high speed, rapid directional oscillations, and ...
Recent genetic studies have shown that the function of Cdc42 in regulating cell polarity appears... ... Cdc42 was originally discovered as a key regulator of bud site assembly and polarity in S. cerevisiae. ... Cell fate Cell polarity Differentiation Division symmetry Self-renewal This is a preview of subscription content, log in to ... Mizukawa B., OBrien E., Mulloy J.C., Zheng Y. (2018) Cell Polarity and Division Symmetry Analyses in Transformed Blood Cells. ...
We utilized live-cell imaging and a cell culture model of polarized epithelial cells to address why Hp attaches to the cell ... which is injected directly into host cells by the bacteria. We found that CagAs ability to perturb cell polarity is important ... We discovered that Hp is able to grow on the surface of epithelial cells, even in conditions where the free-swimming bacteria ... The bacteria live in close proximity to the epithelial lining and can adhere directly to the host cell membrane and deliver ...
Genetics and biochemistry have been used to map many of the individual pathways that establish and maintain cell polarity in ... Because the machinery of cell polarity development is highly conserved from yeast to humans, the newly described interactions ... the authors assayed the universe of likely protein-protein interactions involved in cell polarity development. The resulting ... which is essential for establishing and maintaining cell polarity. Still other interactions suggest direct connections between ...
Endothelial cells forming the sprout must develop front-rear polarity to allow sprout extension. The adaptor proteins Nck1 and ... Targeting NCK-Mediated Endothelial Cell Front-Rear Polarity Inhibits Neo-Vascularization. Alexandre Dubrac, Gael Genet, Roxana ... Here we show that the Nck adaptors are required for endothelial cell front-rear polarity and migration downstream of the ... Targeting NCK-Mediated Endothelial Cell Front-Rear Polarity Inhibits Neo-Vascularization. Alexandre Dubrac, Gael Genet, Roxana ...
Buy the Paperback Book Cell Polarity In Development And Disease by Douglas W Houston at Indigo.ca, Canadas largest bookstore ... 3. Pluripotency and cell polarity. 4. The role of cell polarity in adult stem cell maintenance. 5. Integration of cell polarity ... Hepatic cell polarity and disease. 14. Epidermal cell polarity and disease. 15. Cell polarity and sensory cell defects ... 6. Cell polarity and the onset and progression of cancer. 7. Cell division and cell polarity. 8. Polarized membrane/vesicle ...
Single-cell genome analyses reveal the amount of mutations a human brain cell will collect from its fetal beginnings until ... T-cell therapies are not just for cancer. Researchers are also advancing immunotherapy methods to protect bone marrow ... From single-cell analysis to whole-genome sequencing, this years best new products shine on many levels. ... tags: planar-cell polarity x genetics & genomics x The Scientist. » planar-cell polarity and genetics & genomics ...
Using high-resolution live-cell imaging in chick neural tube, we uncover a form of cell subdivision that abscises apical cell ... Apical Abscission Alters Cell Polarity and Dismantles the Primary Cilium During Neurogenesis ... Apical Abscission Alters Cell Polarity and Dismantles the Primary Cilium During Neurogenesis ... Apical Abscission Alters Cell Polarity and Dismantles the Primary Cilium During Neurogenesis ...
Daily News Stem Cell Vaccine Protects Mice From Cancer Stem cells and cancer cells have enough molecular similarities that the ... In a first, scientists reanimate the fish using embedded gold nanoparticles that heat up cells by absorbing laser light. ... Two freely available databases include data on hundreds of human cancer cell lines. ... tags: planar-cell polarity x genetics & genomics x The Scientist. » planar-cell polarity and genetics & genomics ...
Distinct complexes of the core module segregate to opposite sides of the cell, where they interact with the opposite complex in ... pathway that is essential for the polarization of epithelial cells during morphogenetic processes, including gastrulation and ... the neighboring cell at or near the adherents junctions (By similarity). Involved in the organization of the basal body (By ... Involved in the planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway that is essential for the polarization of epithelial cells during ...
  • Classical examples of polarized cells are described below, including epithelial cells with apical-basal polarity, neurons in which signals propagate in one direction from dendrites to axons, and migrating cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Epithelial cells adhere to one another through tight junctions, desmosomes and adherens junctions, forming sheets of cells that line the surface of the animal body and internal cavities (e.g., digestive tract and circulatory system). (wikipedia.org)
  • Epithelial cells also exhibit planar cell polarity, in which specialized structures are orientated within the plane of the epithelial sheet. (wikipedia.org)
  • The outer layer of transporting epithelial cells, which surround and generate the blastocoelic cavity, are the trophectodermal cells that will give rise to extraembryonic structures. (springer.com)
  • Polarization of the airway epithelial cells (AECs) in the airway lumen is critical to the proper function of the mucociliary escalator and maintenance of lung health, but the cellular requirements for polarization of AECs are poorly understood. (nature.com)
  • Airway epithelial cells (AECs) create a physical barrier to inhaled particles and pathogens, regulate airway surface fluid, secrete mediators to recruit immune cells in response to injury, and help regulate smooth muscle cells to facilitate respiration 1 . (nature.com)
  • The interaction between cadherin domains and their binding partners allows differentiating epithelial cells to change their shape and size and to form cell layers 10 . (nature.com)
  • Despite the data that CDH26 is expressed in epithelial cells and associates with diseases of epithelial cell dysfunction, the function of CDH26 in AECs is unknown. (nature.com)
  • Throughout, the focus is on epithelial cells and how polarity mechanisms facilitate the development of their apical and basolateral surfaces, tube formation (e.g., in blood vessel development), exchange of waste and nutrients, and the generation and maintenance of specialized structures at the cell surface (e.g., cilia). (cshlpress.com)
  • The polarity protein Par3 controls the mechanical properties of the main skin epithelial cells, called keratinocytes. (eurekalert.org)
  • Here we show that inactivation of the retinoblastoma gene (Rb) tumor suppressor causes defects in tissue closure that reflect the inability of Rb null epithelial cells to efficiently migrate and polarize. (mit.edu)
  • Is the Subject Area "Epithelial cells" applicable to this article? (plos.org)
  • Involved in the planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway that is essential for the polarization of epithelial cells during morphogenetic processes, including gastrulation and neurulation (By similarity). (uniprot.org)
  • We also show that the system can be adapted to score anterior-posterior polarity establishment of epithelial cells. (mdpi.com)
  • Functional assays show reduced numbers of mitochondria in the mammary epithelial cells of ΔNp63 cKO compared to wildtype, supporting the reduced OXPHOS phenotype. (bioportfolio.com)
  • In polarized epithelial cells, syntaxin 3 localizes to the apical plasma membrane and is involved in membrane fusion of apical trafficking pathways. (rupress.org)
  • For example, epithelial cells face the outside world or lumen of an organ on one side, and the interstitial environment and basement membrane on the other. (rupress.org)
  • Epithelial cells generally contain at least two different plasma membrane syntaxins. (rupress.org)
  • The clear distinction between apical and basolateral trafficking pathways makes epithelial cells a good system in which to test the central prediction of the SNARE hypothesis on their contribution to the overall specificity of trafficking pathways. (rupress.org)
  • Planar cell polarity (PCP) is a phenomenon in which epithelial cells are polarized along the plane of a tissue. (hep.com.cn)
  • Researchers are beginning to understand how a gene called "stardust" works to set up the basic top-down architecture of the epithelial cells that line the gut, skin, and many other organs of an embryo. (harvard.edu)
  • In the thymus, Wnt ligands are expressed primarily on thymus epithelial cells and activate a highly complex signaling network via G-protein dependent Frizzled receptors ( 9 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • 2006). NBs that are still in contact with epithelial cells as they divide always produce GMCs opposite the site of epithelial-NB contact. (stembook.org)
  • The increased ROS production controls monocyte/macrophage infiltration by inducing the NF-kB pathway in mammary epithelial cells. (uky.edu)
  • Moving forward, figuring out ways to reduce ROS levels in mammary epithelial cells is a potential strategy to inhibit cancer-associated inflammation and prevent cancer development and progression. (uky.edu)
  • Our project aims to understand the mechanisms that control the polarized organization of epithelial cells and the role of polarity complexes in the formation and maintenance of this organization. (univ-mrs.fr)
  • In epithelial cells, the establishment of the plasma membrane specialized areas and of corresponding junctions at the border of these areas is accompanied by cytoskeletal organization of the subapical area to withstand tissue stresses and to anchor the microvilli of the apical pole. (univ-mrs.fr)
  • For that, we focus on the role of the Crumbs and Par6/aPKC complex in the establishment and maintenance of the apical pole in epithelial cells of the human intestine (enterocytes) and of the pupal wing Drosophila. (univ-mrs.fr)
  • We thus study the role of the Crumbs and aPKC/Par6 complex in a model of epithelial cells from human retina and Xenopus embryonic ectoderm. (univ-mrs.fr)
  • A common healthy tissue example exhibiting apical-basal polarity are epithelial cells. (labroots.com)
  • Here, we show that apicobasal architecture regulates the adhesion between hepatic epithelial cells and lymphocytes. (sebbm.es)
  • This contributes to the haptotactic guidance of leukocytes toward neighboring damaged or chronically inflamed epithelial cells that expose their adhesion machinery. (sebbm.es)
  • Abstract: The acquisition of cell polarity, which includes the establishment of the tight junction barrier, the polarized assembly of the cytoskeleton and the appropriate organization of membrane traffic, requires external cues, that in epithelial cells are represented by the interaction of cells with their neighbors and with the extracellular matrix. (unina.it)
  • Unraveling how signaling transduced via Rac1 are translated into oriented distribution of molecules in epithelial cells is a central issue to fully understand the processes of acquisition/maintenance of cell polarity. (unina.it)
  • The role of integrin signaling in the acquisition/maintenance of cell polarity has been studied to some extent in polarized epithelial cells in culture. (unina.it)
  • Reporting in Nature Communications, Mukhtar Ahmed, Ph.D., and Ian Macara, Ph.D., identified an unexpected link between cell survival and the polarized delivery of proteins to the surface of mammary epithelial cells. (technologynetworks.com)
  • It is located near the tight junction at the basolateral side of epithelial cells. (technologynetworks.com)
  • Their work suggests that Par3 is a novel, long-sought exocyst receptor and that this function is required for mammary epithelial cells. (technologynetworks.com)
  • Yeast cells share many features of cell polarity with other organisms, but feature fewer protein components. (wikipedia.org)
  • In yeast, polarity is biased to form at an inherited landmark, a patch of the protein Rsr1 in the case of budding, or a patch of Rax1 in mating projections. (wikipedia.org)
  • Spontaneous polarization still generates only a single bud site, which has been explained by positive feedback increasing polarity protein concentrations locally at the largest polarity patch while decreasing polarity proteins globally by depleting them. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cell polarity is defined as asymmetry in cell shape, protein distributions and cell functions. (nih.gov)
  • Analysis of evolutionarily diverse cell types reveals that cell-surface landmarks adapt core pathways for cytoskeleton assembly and protein transport to generate cell polarity. (nih.gov)
  • Prickle planar cell polarity protein 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PRICKLE2 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cell polarity protein Par3 controls mechanic changes in the skin and plays an important role in cell division. (eurekalert.org)
  • In a previous study, the researchers showed that inactivation of the polarity protein Par3 resulted in a decline of stem cells, impaired skin homeostasis and premature skin aging. (eurekalert.org)
  • Selective cytoplasmic organelle and protein targeting has long been thought to constitute the sole determinant of cell polarity and complexity. (bookdepository.com)
  • Using a high-throughput yeast two-hybrid screen, the authors assayed the universe of likely protein-protein interactions involved in cell polarity development. (rupress.org)
  • In Drosophila , the protein kinase Par-1 is thought to be critically involved in establishing polarity but, because par-1 mutants die early in development, the function of the kinase is poorly characterized. (biologists.org)
  • Marian Blanca Ramírez from the CSIC in Spain has been studying the effects of LRRK2, a protein associated with Parkinson's disease, on cell motility. (biologists.org)
  • Scribble (SCRIB) is a tumor suppressor protein, playing critical roles in establishing and maintaining epithelial cell polarity. (harvard.edu)
  • In summary, we demonstrated that ZDHHC7-mediated SCRIB palmitoylation is critical for SCRIB membrane targeting, cell polarity, and tumor suppression, providing new mechanistic insights of how dynamic protein palmitoylation regulates cell polarity and tumorigenesis. (harvard.edu)
  • Using this discrimination, we obtained evidence that PI3K and atypical protein kinase C (aPKC) activities are required to organize the intrinsic polarity while the morphological polarization process also depends on protein synthesis, actin polymerization and rho-GTPases activities. (uk-essen.de)
  • In the asymmetrically dividing bacterium Caulobacter crescentus , cell polarity stems from the cell cycle-regulated localization and turnover of signaling protein complexes in these hubs, and yet the mechanisms that establish the identity of the two cell poles have not been established. (asm.org)
  • Using in vivo and in vitro analyses of dynamic polar protein complex formation, we show that a polymeric cell polarity protein, SpmX, serves as a direct bridge between the PopZ polymeric network and the cell fate-directing DivJ histidine kinase. (asm.org)
  • By comparison to self-assembling protein networks and polar cell growth mechanisms in other bacterial species, we suggest that the cooligomeric PopZ-SpmX protein complex in Caulobacter illustrates a paradigm for coupling cell cycle progression to the controlled geometry of cell pole establishment. (asm.org)
  • Here, we demonstrate that the ordered assembly of this microdomain occurs via the polymeric network protein PopZ directly recruiting the polarity factor SpmX, which then recruits the histidine kinase DivJ to the developing cell pole. (asm.org)
  • Further, we find that overexpression of the bridge protein SpmX in Caulobacter disrupts this ordered assembly, generating ectopic cell poles containing both PopZ and DivJ. (asm.org)
  • This study was designed to investigate whether semaphorin-3A (Sema3A) is involved in the regulation of RGC polarity and Sema3A protein expression. (molvis.org)
  • Furthermore, we investigated the role of miR-30b in affecting the polarity of RGCs and its effects on the expression of Sema3A and its downstream protein kinase A (PKA)/glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (GSK-3β)/collapsing response mediator protein 2 (CRMP2) signaling pathway. (molvis.org)
  • The Cabernard lab and collaborators recently published in Developmental Cell and found that cell and tissue morphogenesis depends on the correct regulation of non-muscle Myosin II, but how this motor protein is spatiotemporally controlled is incompletely understood. (washington.edu)
  • After NEB, the conserved polarity protein Partner of Inscuteable (Pins) sequentially enriches Rok and Protein Kinase N (Pkn) on the apical neuroblast cortex. (washington.edu)
  • The present objective was to examine c‑Jun N‑terminal kinase (JNK) mRNA and protein expression in thymoma cells undergoing apoptosis subsequent to downregulation of Wnt4. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Wnt4 gene expression was then blocked in thymoma cells by short hairpin (sh)RNA interference, and changes in JNK mRNA and protein expression and thymoma apoptosis were then examined. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Segregation of cell fate determinants to the daughter GMC is regulated by the reciprocal localization of four protein complexes: two complexes are localized to the apical cortex and two to the basal cortex (see Figure 1 ). (stembook.org)
  • The dishevelled gene encodes a novel intracellular protein that shares an amino acid motif with several other proteins that are found associated with cell junctions. (biologists.org)
  • We propose that dishevelled encodes an intracellular protein required to respond to a wingless signal and that this interaction is essential for establishing both cell polarity and cell identity. (biologists.org)
  • Escherichia coli Maltose-Binding Protein Induces M1 Polarity of RAW264.7 Macrophage Cells via a TLR2- and TLR4-Dependent Manner. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Mutant NHE8-M120K proteins likely cause pH imbalance of intracellular organelles such as Golgi and endosomes, which disrupting the protein trafficking or recycling to impair the polarity, phagocytosis and other functions of RPE cells and leading to photoreceptor cell death. (arvojournals.org)
  • This stage of evolution required the invention of new protein complexes necessary for cell cohesion and its modulation during morphogenetic movements and morphogenic signals of cell and tissue specification. (univ-mrs.fr)
  • In this context we study the role of Drebrin, a protein binding actin in the apical domain organization and whose depletion in human intestinal cells strongly mimics the loss of function of Myosin Vb.Drebrine is therefore a good candidate to explain the formation defects in the apical membrane in MID. (univ-mrs.fr)
  • Cells with apical-basal polarity are a result of the manner in which phospholipids, protein complexes, and cytoskeletal components within the plasma membrane are distributed. (labroots.com)
  • This shift occurs because protein complexes and microtubules move to the front of the cell and the basement membrane degrades to become more flexible. (labroots.com)
  • This TJ alteration was linked to an altered localisation/expression of proteins regulating TJ assembly, the polarity complex protein Par-3 and the serine-/threonine phosphatase PP-1. (bmj.com)
  • This complex effect on intracellular signalling pathways probably involves dishevelled ( dsh ), as Stbm was found to interact with the Dsh protein, and as Dsh is known to function in both planar cell-polarity and beta-catenin pathways in Drosophila. (xenbase.org)
  • In order to contribute to the understanding of the molecular basis of this complex issue in the present study we have focused our attention on the analysis of the role of Rac1 protein in the acquisition and mantainance of the polarized phenotype in the FRT, rat thyroid epithelial cell line. (unina.it)
  • Motile airway cilia that propel contaminants out of the lung are oriented in a common direction by planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling, which localizes PCP protein complexes to opposite cell sides throughout the epithelium to orient cytoskeletal remodeling. (jci.org)
  • We show that the membrane-associated polarity site marker TeaR is transported on microtubules along with secretory vesicles and forms a protein cluster at that point of the apical membrane where the plus end of the microtubule touches. (sciencemag.org)
  • The Par3 protein plays a central role in polarity. (technologynetworks.com)
  • The Par3 polarity protein is an exocyst receptor essential for mammary cell survival. (technologynetworks.com)
  • Protein Complex Assemblies in Epithelial Cell Polarity and Asymmetric Cell Division. (semanticscholar.org)
  • While the Crumbs protein is essential for epithelial polarity and viability in Drosophila, the two Crumbs homologs identified in C. elegans thus far do not appear to play a major role in polarity establishment. (uu.nl)
  • Overexpression of all three Crumbs homologs caused changes in the localization pattern of the polarity protein PAR-3, suggesting that the C. elegans Crumbs homologs play a non-essential role in polarity establishment. (uu.nl)
  • We are seeking a Postdoctoral Associate interested in dissecting how G protein signaling controls and coordinates two features essential for hearing and balance ability: 1) the striking alignment of hair cells along the epithelial plane (planar polarity), and 2) the staircase-like architecture of the motion-sensor compartment of hair cells, the stereocilia bundle. (biologists.com)
  • The basolateral membrane refers to both the lateral membrane where cell-cell junctions connect neighboring cells and to the basal membrane where cells are attached to the basement membrane, a thin sheet of extracellular matrix proteins that separates the epithelial sheet from underlying cells and connective tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • For polarity sites to form, Cdc42 must be present and capable of cycling GTP, a process regulated by its guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF), Cdc24, and by its GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs). (wikipedia.org)
  • In asymmetric divisions, cells distribute apically and basally localized proteins differentially to their daughters. (nih.gov)
  • In mitotic cells it appears that adherens junction proteins and phosphotyrosine immunoreactivity may be inherited either symmetrically or asymmetrically, depending on the cell's cleavage orientation during mitosis. (nih.gov)
  • The differential inheritance of junctional proteins may determine whether a daughter cell can respond to extrinsic signals after mitosis. (nih.gov)
  • To establish polarity, cells rely on elaborate regulation networks to control the distribution of specific proteins at the cell membrane. (tudelft.nl)
  • Often, the cytoskeleton (actin filaments and microtubules) plays an important role by delivering proteins from the cell centre towards the cell membrane (see Fig. 1). (tudelft.nl)
  • Hypothetical proteins that localize robustly to one side of the cell yet are absent in others may provide this directional information. (wur.nl)
  • These proteins localize to specific parts of the cell and regulate cell division from there. (wur.nl)
  • CDH26 expression is also important for localization of planar cell polarity proteins. (nature.com)
  • Knockdown of CDH26 in AECs results in loss of cortical actin and disruption of CRB3 and other proteins associated with apical polarity. (nature.com)
  • Basal cells exhibit a pattern of polarity in their organization of proteins such as KRT14 and KRT5 4 suggesting that formation of apicobasal domains happens early in formation of AEC sheets. (nature.com)
  • These new findings thus revealed that core polarity proteins like Par3 steer mechanochemical networks essential to keep a healthy self-renewal capacity. (eurekalert.org)
  • These defects occur independently of pRB's anti-proliferative role and instead correlate with upregulation of RhoA signaling and mislocalization of apical-basal polarity proteins. (mit.edu)
  • The adaptor proteins Nck1 and 2 are known regulators of cytoskeletal dynamics and polarity, but their function in angiogenesis is poorly understood. (ahajournals.org)
  • The present study establishes the participation of AKAP350 and CIP4 in centrosome positioning in migratory cells, and demonstrates the direct connection between the two cytoskeletal regulatory proteins in this process. (biologists.org)
  • Since aPKCs form an evolutionary conserved complex with the partitioning defect proteins Par3 and Par6 as well as with the rho-GTPase Cdc42 and this complex has been found to organize cell polarity in many organisms and tissues, we decided to investigate the function of the individual components on the cell polarization process of human HSPCs next. (uk-essen.de)
  • Due to the fact that the Par/aPKC complex also coordinates asymmetric cell divisons in a number of systems and as we showed that human HSPCs can divide asymmetrically, we have started to study the impact of these proteins on the cell fate of human CD34 + cells in parallel. (uk-essen.de)
  • During VS formation, HTLV-1-infected T-cells polarize cellular and viral proteins toward the uninfected T-cell. (mdpi.com)
  • RNA-sequencing analysis reveals reduced expression of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS)-associated proteins and desmosomal polarity proteins. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Dishevelled proteins have important functions in CELL DIFFERENTIATION and establishing CELL POLARITY. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The relative copy numbers of these proteins are essential for complex formation, as overexpression of SpmX in Caulobacter reorganizes the polarity of the cell, generating ectopic cell poles containing PopZ and DivJ. (asm.org)
  • Prior to cytokinesis in Caulobacter , distinct sets of signaling proteins localize to opposite cell poles where they dictate the cell fate of the nascent daughter cells. (asm.org)
  • Expression of mislocalized mutant syntaxin 3 in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells leads to basolateral mistargeting of apical membrane proteins, disturbance of tight junction formation, and loss of ability to form an organized polarized epithelium. (rupress.org)
  • These results indicate that SNARE proteins contribute to the overall specificity of membrane trafficking in vivo, and that the polarity of syntaxin 3 is essential for epithelial cell polarization. (rupress.org)
  • To understand the intracellular trafficking of planar cell polarity proteins in the secretory transport pathway and endocytic transport pathway. (hep.com.cn)
  • This process is critical for delivering newly synthesized PCP proteins to their specific destinations, removing the unstable or mislocalized PCP proteins from the plasma membranes and preserving tissue polarity during proliferation of mammalian skin cells. (hep.com.cn)
  • inset A and inset B) Magnified views of the asymmetric localizations of PCP proteins on the cell boundary. (hep.com.cn)
  • Vangl2 which represents PCP proteins that are targeted to the proximal side of cell boundaries and Frizzled6 which represents PCP proteins that are targeted to the distal side of cell boundaries are sorted differentially at the TGN by different cargo adaptors. (hep.com.cn)
  • More recent research has revealed an additional cell signaling pathway dependent upon the cell junction proteins Gliotactin and Coracle 4 . (taylor.edu)
  • We have employed treatment with the actin depolymerizing drugs Latrunculin A and B as well as high-speed timelapse microscopy of fluorescently labeled polarity proteins to characterize the assembly of the incipient bud site. (duke.edu)
  • Cell transfection experiments further reveal that both NHE8 and NHE8-M120K proteins are localized in intracellular vesicles. (arvojournals.org)
  • The expression of NHE8-M120K mutant proteins from AAV recombinant virus directly causes abnormal RPE cells and photoreceptor cell death in the wild-type mice. (arvojournals.org)
  • Conclusions Changes in cell polarity proteins Par-3 and PP-1 are associated with altered expression and assembly of TJ proteins claudin-2, -3, -5 and -7 and ZO-1, causing paracellular leakage in active coeliac disease. (bmj.com)
  • PCP signalling controls contact inhibition of locomotion between neural crest cells by localizing different PCP proteins at the site of cell contact during collision and locally regulating the activity of Rho GTPases. (biochemj.org)
  • The FRT cells were chosen as a model system since they exhibit a fully polarized epithelial phenotype, manifest high transepithelial electrical resistance and express apical and basolateral marker proteins. (unina.it)
  • The data presented also suggest that, in addition to the control of cell-cell adhesion, Rac1 may be involved also in the control of the Golgi apparatus integrity and therefore in the polarized intracellular traffic of proteins. (unina.it)
  • a b) Principal myoblasts produced from satellite television cells had been differentiated for 5 times in medium formulated with 50 ng/ml Wnt7a recombinant proteins or BSA being a control. (exposed-skin-care.net)
  • We report here that two lipid microdomain resident proteins, flotillins/reggies, form preassembled platforms in hematopoietic cells. (uzh.ch)
  • Using laser scanning confocal microscopy, we show that these proteins exist as stable, microscopically patent domains localizing asymmetrically to one pole of the cell. (uzh.ch)
  • Moreover, we discuss a conservative model in which proteins within a cell are redistributed depending on the amount of proteins in the neighbouring cells, coupled with intracellular diffusion. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • Cell Plate Restricted Association of DRP1A and PIN Proteins Is Required for Cell Polarity Establishment in Arabidopsis. (cas.cz)
  • Here we show by coimmunoprecipitation (coIP), bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC), and Forster resonance energy transfer (FRET) that members of the DRP1 group closely associate with PIN proteins at the cell plate. (cas.cz)
  • We propose that rapid and specific internalization of PIN proteins mediated by the DRP1 proteins and the associated CME machinery from the cell plate membranes during cytokinesis is an important mechanism for proper polar PIN positioning in interphase cells. (cas.cz)
  • Cell survival is dependent upon regulation of numerous proteins, both cytosolic and membrane bound. (technologynetworks.com)
  • Proteins are delivered to the cell membrane in vesicles by an octameric complex or the exocyst that must "dock" on the plasma membrane to deliver its contents. (technologynetworks.com)
  • We confirmed the tissue-specificity of our approach and applied it to several polarity proteins. (uu.nl)
  • It is important to gain a detailed mechanistic understanding of the proteins that regulate polarity. (uu.nl)
  • We generated a human prey library by fragmenting an ORFeome collection with ultrasonication and demonstrated the quality of the library by screening it with polarity and cell division proteins. (uu.nl)
  • The planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling pathway, responsible for tissue polarity in Drosophila and gastrulation movements and cardiogenesis in vertebrates, has been shown to play multiple roles during cardiac differentiation and development. (hindawi.com)
  • In recent years, a correlation has been made between dysregulation of the planar cell polarity signaling pathway and CHD. (hindawi.com)
  • Activation of the Wnt signaling pathway plays a role in a variety of human cancers ( 5 - 7 ), and regulates T cell development ( 8 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • We have previously shown that the expression of Prickle1 (Pk1), a core component of the planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling pathway, is down-regulated in cone-like photoreceptors of the Nrl-knockout retina (Akimoto et al. (arvojournals.org)
  • The noncanonical Wnt planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling pathway plays essential roles in the establishment of tissue polarity throughout the developing vertebrate embryo. (ahajournals.org)
  • Cell polarity is crucial for many processes in living cells, including differentiation, division, growth and directional migration. (tudelft.nl)
  • To perform these functions, AECs form a complex and highly organized tissue with planar cell polarity, a differentiation process where cells organize with distinct apicobasolateral membranes to form ciliated epithelial cell sheets 2 . (nature.com)
  • This polarization facilitates processes such as differentiation and morphogenesis, directional cell migration, nerve impulse transmission, and transport of molecules across tissues. (cshlpress.com)
  • Communication received through cell contact is critical for the differentiation of specialized effector cell populations during the immune response. (sciencemag.org)
  • The balance of the system is of great importance: while too much differentiation leads to loss of stem cells and therefore premature aging, too many cell divisions can be a cause of skin cancer. (eurekalert.org)
  • The absence of Par3 led to mitotic errors, causing an alert signal and a cascade of DNA damage responses that then fuelled premature differentiation, and potentially the skin stem cell decline. (eurekalert.org)
  • The severity of this phenotype is graded along the length of the cochlea, similar to the hair cell differentiation gradient, suggesting that an active refinement process corrects planar polarity phenotypes in Vangl2 knock-out (KO) mice. (jneurosci.org)
  • Gametes are highly specialized cell types produced by a complex differentiation process. (frontiersin.org)
  • Cellular polarity underlies diverse biological events, including cell differentiation. (asm.org)
  • The swarmer cell undergoes a period of differentiation to become a stalked cell, culminating in the generation of further progeny ( Fig. 1 ). (asm.org)
  • Combinatorial regulation of GSK3 by ZAK kinases in Dictyostelium guides cell polarity, directional cell migration and cell differentiation, pathways that extend the complexity of GSK3 signaling throughout the development of Dictyostelium . (biologists.org)
  • The basal complexes, which will segregate to the GMC, asymmetrically localize three major cell fate determinants: Prospero, Brat, and Numb, which inhibit self-renewal and promote differentiation (Bowman et al. (stembook.org)
  • It might be involved in maintaining a state of differentiation in immature photoreceptor cells. (arvojournals.org)
  • Cells undergoing neuronal differentiation in the embryonic spinal cord delaminate from the neuroepithelium, resulting in loss of apical cell polarity. (findaphd.com)
  • This project builds on our recent discovery of a new form of cell sub-division (apical abscission) that mediates acute loss of cell polarity in cells undergoing neuronal differentiation (Science, 2014). (findaphd.com)
  • 13 In this study, we describe abnormalities in the formation of the coronary vasculature in Lp , resulting from non-cell-autonomous effects on migration and/or differentiation of transformed epicardial cells. (ahajournals.org)
  • The authors also describe the polarity mechanisms involved in collective cell migration, a phenomenon seen during morphogenesis and cancer metastasis. (cshlpress.com)
  • Self-organized cortical tissue spontaneously forms a polarity along the dorsocaudal-ventrorostral axis and undergoes region-specific rolling morphogenesis that generates a semispherical structure. (pnas.org)
  • Together, these data demonstrate a Vangl2 -independent refinement mechanism that actively reorients auditory stereociliary bundles and reveals an unexpected role of Vangl2 during supporting cell morphogenesis. (jneurosci.org)
  • Acquisition of cell polarity generates signaling and cytoskeletal asymmetry and thus underpins polarized cell behaviors during tissue morphogenesis. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The asymmetrically dividing bacterium Caulobacter crescentus uses one such microdomain to link cell cycle progression to morphogenesis, but the mechanism for the generation of this microdomain has remained unclear. (asm.org)
  • In recent years, great progress has been made by experimental biologists towards understanding how during plant and animal morphogenesis cells become polarised in a manner that is coordinated between each other and the axes of the tissue. (biologists.com)
  • Developmental regulation of planar cell polarity and hair-bundle morphogenesis in auditory hair cells: lessons from human and mouse genetics. (taylor.edu)
  • Establishing an axis of cell polarity is central to cell motility, tissue morphogenesis, and cell proliferation. (duke.edu)
  • 2006). To investigate it's potential role in rod photoreceptor polarity and morphogenesis, we have studied Pk1 expression during retinal development in the mouse. (arvojournals.org)
  • We have identified a novel molecule in the MOR(Morphogenesis Orb6 Network) pathway that is important for establishment/ maintenance of cell polarity in fission yeast, and showed that the mitosis-to-interphase transition is coordinated by crosstalk between the SIN(Septation Initiation Network) and MOR pathways. (nii.ac.jp)
  • We want to study the role of microtubules (MTs) in the establishment of cell polarity by reconstitution of an in vitro membrane system that can be polarized with the help of a dynamic MT cytoskeleton. (tudelft.nl)
  • Together, our findings uncover previously unrecognized functions for CDH26 in the maintenance of actin cytoskeleton and apicobasal polarity of AECs. (nature.com)
  • We specifically explored whether CDH26 has functional cadherin domains that regulate the actin cytoskeleton and the apicobasal polarity of AECs. (nature.com)
  • Cell polarity, auxin transport, and cytoskeleton-mediated division planes: who comes first? (ugent.be)
  • Thus, the complicated links between cell polarity establishment, auxin transport, cytoskeleton, and oriented cell divisions now begin to emerge. (ugent.be)
  • Dhonukshe P, Kleine-Vehn J, Friml J. Cell polarity, auxin transport, and cytoskeleton-mediated division planes: who comes first? (ugent.be)
  • 10,11 It signals via the small GTPases RhoA and Rac, which ultimately modulate the actin cytoskeleton to bring about changes in cell adhesion, polarity and movement. (ahajournals.org)
  • A neuron receives signals from neighboring cells through branched, cellular extensions called dendrites. (wikipedia.org)
  • The union of two highly polarized cells, the sperm and the egg, initiates a series of dramatic cellular transformations that culminate, during the first 4 days of mouse preimplantation development, in the production of a multicellular blastocyst (reviewed by Wiley, Chapter 4) having two distinct and committed tissues. (springer.com)
  • Contributors discuss how cells coordinate signaling pathways, membrane trafficking, and cytoskeletal remodeling to ensure proper spatial arrangement of cellular components. (cshlpress.com)
  • Cells of many tissues acquire cellular asymmetry to execute their physiologic functions. (nih.gov)
  • Studies in Drosophila suggest that an upstream system breaks cellular symmetry by converting tissue gradients to subcellular asymmetry, whereas a downstream system amplifies subcellular asymmetry and communicates polarity between cells. (nih.gov)
  • The new study by a team around Sandra Iden about how polarity regulators control cellular mechanics in the skin was now published in Nature Communications . (eurekalert.org)
  • The polarization of cellular structures parallel to an epithelium is called planar polarity. (jneurosci.org)
  • The adult Drosophila ovary continuously produces germ cells throughout the organism's lifetime, and many of the cellular processes that occur to establish oocyte fate are conserved with mammalian gamete development. (frontiersin.org)
  • 1 Section of Molecular Cell and Developmental Biology and Institute for Cellular and Molecular Biology, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712, USA. (sciencemag.org)
  • These findings identify a novel role for ∆Np63 in cellular metabolism and mammary epithelial cell polarity. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Wnt signals control multiple biological processes, including cellular proliferation, fate specification, polarity and migration. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • The ability of cells to divide asymmetrically to produce two different cell types provides the cellular diversity found in every multicellular organism. (stembook.org)
  • The apical-basal polarity of the mother NB is inherited from its placement within the neuroepithelium and is coupled to differential distribution of cellular components. (stembook.org)
  • PKDs influence many cellular processes, including cell polarity, structure of the Golgi, polarized transport from the Golgi to the basolateral plasma membrane, and actin polymerization. (go.jp)
  • Single cell polarity is maintained by the utilization of an actin and ezrin-rich pole which positively impacts cellular attachment, adhesion, transmigration, and metastasis. (labroots.com)
  • Polarization is a fundamental cellular property that plays a vital role in various biological processes in multi-cellular as well as single-cell organisms. (elifesciences.org)
  • This implies the existence of a molecular mechanism by which patterning information is communicated to this compass, and ultimately to the cellular machinery that drives polarized C and E cell behaviors. (elifesciences.org)
  • Polar (directional) cell growth, a key cellular mechanism shared among a wide range of species, relies on targeted insertion of new material at specific locations of the plasma membrane. (sciencemag.org)
  • Establishment of cellular polarity is essential for the development of many tissues. (ahajournals.org)
  • Wnt-Frizzled/planar cell polarity signaling: cellular orientation by facing the wind (Wnt). (semanticscholar.org)
  • These include selection of a non-random bud-site, organization of that site and establishment of an associated axis of cytoskeletal polarity, and localized growth of the cell surface to produce the bud. (nih.gov)
  • We find a unique and non-redundant role for CDH26, previously uncharacterized in AECs, in regulation of cell-cell contact and cell integrity through maintaining cytoskeletal structures. (nature.com)
  • We set out here to explore the role of CDH26 in the cytoskeletal dynamics of AECs and in planar cell polarity. (nature.com)
  • Ameboid motility is characterized by a polarized yet simple cell shape allowing high speed, rapid directional oscillations, and low affinity interactions to the substrate that are coupled to a low degree of cytoskeletal organization lacking discrete focal contacts. (hindawi.com)
  • At the onset of T cell migration, a default program, here described as migration-associated polarization, is initiated, resulting in the polar redistribution of cell surface receptors and cytoskeletal elements. (hindawi.com)
  • Second, during ciliogenesis, multiciliated cells (MCCs) undergo cytoskeletal remodeling to orient their cilia in the proximal direction. (jci.org)
  • Clearly noted was a polar accumulation of actin, plasma membrane receptors, and intercellular adhesion molecules creating a kind of bump on one side of the cell. (labroots.com)
  • Polarized hepatocytes and epithelium from bile ducts segregate the intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) adhesion receptor onto their apical, microvilli-rich membranes, which are less accessible by circulating immune cells. (sebbm.es)
  • The Rho family of small GTPases, whose prototypes are RhoA, Rac1 and Cdc42, regulates many biological processes including cell cycle progression, apoptosis, migration and intercellular adhesion. (unina.it)
  • Regulation of the direction of cell division is especially important in early embryos and stem cell niches (meristems), because these few cells lay the foundations for all future organs. (wur.nl)
  • New insights into regulation and function of planar polarity in the inner ear. (bioportfolio.com)
  • RHO1 and RHO2 share partially overlapping functions in the regulation of cell wall integrity and hyphal polarity in Neurospora crassa. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In this study, we analyzed the coordinated regulation between cell polarity and the cellcycle in yeast. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Finely tuned regulation of epithelial cell death maintains tissue integrity and homeostasis. (pasteur.fr)
  • Genetics and biochemistry have been used to map many of the individual pathways that establish and maintain cell polarity in yeast, but Drees et al. (rupress.org)
  • Other interactions imply new links between known pathways, such as between the secretory pathway regulated by Rho1 and the Cdc42 pathway, which is essential for establishing and maintaining cell polarity. (rupress.org)
  • The palmitoylation-deficient mutants of SCRIB are mislocalized, leading to disruption of cell polarity and loss of their tumor suppressive activities to oncogenic YAP, MAPK and PI3K/Akt pathways. (harvard.edu)
  • third even within individual organisms it is apparent that multiple different strategies may be used to coordinate cell polarities, yet those working on different pathways do not always interact. (biologists.com)
  • We also now show that tyrosine phosphorylation/activation of GSK3 by ZAK2 and ZAK1 separately regulate GSK3 in distinct differentiated cell populations, and that ZAK2 acts in both autonomous and non-autonomous pathways to regulate these cell-type differentiations. (biologists.org)
  • JNK signaling is necessary for planar cell polarity (PCP)-like pathways ( 12 ), including one of the non-canonical Wnt pathways. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • The primary cilium is essential for many signalling pathways and the role of polarity complexes in its formation has been demonstrated. (univ-mrs.fr)
  • These cells have an apical-basal polarity defined by the apical membrane facing the outside surface of the body, or the lumen of internal cavities, and the basolateral membrane oriented away from the lumen. (wikipedia.org)
  • At the front of the cell is the leading edge, which is often defined by a flat ruffling of the cell membrane called the lamellipodium or thin protrusions called filopodia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Using high-resolution live-cell imaging in chick neural tube, we uncover a form of cell subdivision that abscises apical cell membrane and mediates neuron detachment from the ventricle. (sciencemag.org)
  • and a C-terminal DEP domain which facilitates binding to the CELL MEMBRANE. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Signaling hubs at bacterial cell poles establish cell polarity in the absence of membrane-bound compartments. (asm.org)
  • How these cell polarity sites are stably maintained during massive membrane insertion has remained elusive. (sciencemag.org)
  • Conventional live-cell optical microscopy fails to visualize polarity site formation in the crowded cell membrane environment because of its limited resolution. (sciencemag.org)
  • In the absence of polarity landmarks (i.e. in gene deletion mutants), cells can perform spontaneous symmetry breaking, in which the location of the polarity site is determined randomly. (wikipedia.org)
  • The role of Cdc42 in hematopoietic cell transformation and leukemia progression has been studied in an acute myeloid leukemia model using the MLL-AF9 oncogene-induced transformation and a Cdc42 conditional gene-targeted mouse model. (springer.com)
  • Johnson JJ, Chen W, Hudson W, Yao Q, Taylor M, Rabbitts TH, Kersey JH (2003) Prenatal and postnatal myeloid cells demonstrate stepwise progression in the pathogenesis of MLL fusion gene leukemia. (springer.com)
  • Apical abscission also dismantles the primary cilium, known to transduce sonic-hedgehog signals, and is required for expression of cell-cycle-exit gene p27/Kip1. (sciencemag.org)
  • Mutations in the core planar cell polarity gene Van Gogh-like 2 ( Vangl2 ) result in hair cells that fail to properly orient their stereociliary bundles along the mediolateral axis of the cochlea. (jneurosci.org)
  • Although these authors conclude that recombination occurs uniformly within the bz gene, we would like to point out the clear evidence in their data for a 5′ to 3′ polarity in meiotic gene conversion at this locus. (plantcell.org)
  • However, polarity is usually not detected as a gradient in the frequency of recombination (or of recombination junctions), but as a gradient of gene conversion. (plantcell.org)
  • In all but two of the marker pairs, the 5′-most marker is converted more frequently than is the 3′ marker, thereby defining a 5′ to 3′ polarity of gene conversion across the bz locus ( Figure 1 ). (plantcell.org)
  • Both of these marker pairs include the mutation E9 , and so it is possible that a marker-specific effect, for instance the efficiency by which E9 is repaired in heteroduplexes, accounts for the apparent reversal in the polarity of gene conversion exhibited in these two crosses. (plantcell.org)
  • Polarity of Gene Conversion in the bz Locus of Maize. (plantcell.org)
  • The patterns of polymorphisms in the IGRs analyzed by Dooner and Martínez-Férez ( 1997 ) (see their Figures 4 and 5) are also compatible with a 5′ to 3′ polarity of gene conversion across the bz locus. (plantcell.org)
  • Based principally on the results from bz-m1 / bz-m2(DI) and bz-m1 / bz-m2(DII) heterozygotes, Thijs and Heyting have raised the possibility that there is 5′ to 3′ polarity of meiotic gene conversion at the bronze ( bz ) locus. (plantcell.org)
  • Thijs and Heyting also state that the patterns of polymorphisms in the Bz IGRs we have analyzed (see Figures 4 and 5 in Dooner and Martínez-Férez, 1997 ) are compatible with a 5′ to 3′ polarity of gene conversion across the bz locus, and they claim that these data show a clear polarity of coconversion. (plantcell.org)
  • Thymoma cells were cultured and transfected with shRNA plasmids targeting the Wnt4 gene. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • The dishevelled gene of Drosophila is required to establish coherent arrays of polarized cells and is also required to establish segments in the embryo. (biologists.org)
  • 1990 ) Molecular structure of frizzled , a Drosophila tissue polarity gene. (biologists.org)
  • a segment polarity gene in Drosophila. (biologists.org)
  • 1988 ) Transcription of the segment polarity gene wingless in the imaginal discs of Drosophila, and the phenotype of a pupal lethal wg mutation. (biologists.org)
  • Park M and Moon RT (2002), The planar cell-polarity gene stbm regulates ce. (xenbase.org)
  • The planar cell-polarity gene stbm regulates cell behaviour and cell fate in vertebrate embryos. (xenbase.org)
  • The gene strabismus ( stbm )/Van Gogh (Vang) functions in the planar cell-polarity pathway in Drosophila. (xenbase.org)
  • Opposite replication polarity of the germ line c-myc gene in HeLa cells compared with that of two Burkitt lymphoma cell lines. (asm.org)
  • In this study, we describe defects in the formation of the coronary vasculature in the loop-tail ( Lp ) mutant in which the planar cell polarity (PCP) gene, Vangl2 , is disrupted. (ahajournals.org)
  • Intrinsic polarity of mammalian neuroepithelial cells. (nih.gov)
  • Here we explore the intrinsic polarity of neuroepithelial cells in the developing telencephalon. (nih.gov)
  • Cell Polarity in Development and Disease offers insights into the basic molecular mechanisms of common diseases that arise as a result of a loss of ordered organization and intrinsic polarity. (indigo.ca)
  • They show that in asymmetrically dividing Drosophila neural stem cells, cell intrinsic polarity cues provide spatial and temporal information to regulate biased Myosin activity. (washington.edu)
  • Asymmetric localization of cell-cell junctions and/or intrinsic cell fate determinants and position within specific environment ("niche") are examples of mechanisms used to specify cell polarity and direct asymmetric divisions. (stembook.org)
  • We show that accounting for functional polarity of MBECs with either asymmetric LAT1 distribution between membranes and/or intrinsic LAT1 asymmetry with low intraendothelial binding affinity is required to reproduce the experimentally measured brain ISF response to intraperitoneal (IP) L-tyrosine and L-phenylalanine injection. (frontiersin.org)
  • In plants, cell polarity is an issue more recurring than in other systems, because plants, due to their adaptive and flexible development, often change cell polarity postembryonically according to intrinsic cues and demands of the environment. (ugent.be)
  • The planar cell polarity system, first characterized in Drosophila, is important for many of these events. (nih.gov)
  • The fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster , has long been at the forefront as a model system for genetics and cell biology research. (frontiersin.org)
  • Here, we review recent discoveries from Drosophila that advance our understanding of how early germ cells balance mitotic exit with meiotic initiation. (frontiersin.org)
  • Using live cell imaging and a genetically encoded Myosin activity sensor, they found that Drosophila Rho kinase (Rok) enriches for activated Myosin on the neuroblast cortex prior to nuclear envelope breakdown (NEB). (washington.edu)
  • Studies of the underlying mechanisms regulating asymmetric division of Drosophila neuroblasts (NBs) have contributed to the establishment of paradigms and identification of molecular components that control asymmetric division in more complex stem cell systems (Reviewed in Chia et al. (stembook.org)
  • 1990 ) The role of cell-cell interaction in the development of the Drosophila visual system. (biologists.org)
  • Here, we reconstructed Par-dependent polarity using non-polarized Drosophila S2 cells expressing all three components endogenously in the cytoplasm. (elifesciences.org)
  • We used Drosophila Schneider cells (S2 cells) of mesodermal origin, as host cells for cell-autonomous reconstruction of cell polarity ( Schneider, 1972 ). (elifesciences.org)
  • Many cell types are capable of migration, such as leukocytes and fibroblasts, and in order for these cells to move in one direction, they must have a defined front and rear. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here, actin polymerization in the direction of migration allows cells to extend the leading edge of the cell and to attach to the surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • Without this front-rear polarity, cells would be unable to coordinate directed migration. (wikipedia.org)
  • In plants, this control is very important, as plants do not contain mechanisms for cell migration or quick cell replacement like animals do: A rigid cell wall is formed soon after cell division, which fixes the new cell permanently. (wur.nl)
  • Formation of the vertebrate heart can be subdivided into distinct but partially overlapping phases, such as specification of cardiac progenitors and the formation of the linear heart tube by cell migration and morphogenetic movements, followed by cardiac looping, chamber formation, septation, and maturation [ 8 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Altered cell polarity and migration are hallmarks of cancer and metastases. (mit.edu)
  • 1 Cell Migration Laboratory, Department of Dermatology, University of Würzburg, Josef-Schneider-Str. (hindawi.com)
  • Their prominent capacity to rapidly adapt to a given structural environment coupled to contact guidance mechanisms set T cell locomotion apart from slow, focal contact-dependent and more adhesive migration strategies established by fibroblast-like cells and cell clusters. (hindawi.com)
  • Here we show that the Nck adaptors are required for endothelial cell front-rear polarity and migration downstream of the angiogenic growth factors VEGF-A and Slit2. (ahajournals.org)
  • Selective inhibition of polarized endothelial cell migration by targeting Nck1/2 prevents hypersprouting induced by Notch or Bmp signaling inhibition, as well as pathological ocular neovascularization and wound healing. (ahajournals.org)
  • Homozygous null mice display early embryonic lethality associated with altered epiblast apical-basal polarity, failed anterior migration of the distal visceral endoderm, and lackof mesoderm and primitive streak formation. (jax.org)
  • A Travelling Fellowship from Journal of Cell Science allowed her to spend time in Prof Maddy Parson's lab at King's College London, learning new cell migration assays and analysing fibroblasts cultured from individuals with Parkinson's. (biologists.org)
  • Neural crest cells exhibit collective cell migration, moving in streams of high directionality. (biochemj.org)
  • However, if the cell density is high only cells exposed to a free edge can migrate away from the cluster leading to the directional migration of the whole group. (biochemj.org)
  • Recent work performed in chicks, zebrafish and frogs has shown that the non-canonical Wnt-PCP (planar cell polarity) pathway plays a major role in neural crest migration. (biochemj.org)
  • Upon collision RhoA (ras homologue family member A) is activated, whereas Rac1 is inhibited at the contact between two migrating neural crest cells, leading to the collapse of protrusions and the migration of cells away from one another. (biochemj.org)
  • Several aspects including directional migration, TER acquisition, cell aggregation and formation of polarized follicles were investigated and found to be affected by the pharmacological inhibition of Rac1 activity. (unina.it)
  • Reduced fibronectin deposition in the subepicardial space is associated with limited migration of epicardially derived cells (EPDCs) into the ventricular myocardium and likely contributes to these defects. (ahajournals.org)
  • Attempts to elucidate the mechanisms by which these two distinct cell types diverge from a common pathway during the first 3 days of preimplantation development have yielded not only clues as to possible differentiative signals operating in development, but also detailed structural information on the morphology and properties of cells from the early embryo. (springer.com)
  • As some of these components have close homologs in other organisms, there may exist common mechanisms involved in the establishment of cell polarity. (nih.gov)
  • This diversity raises several questions: do different cell types use different mechanisms to generate polarity, how is polarity signalled, how do cells react to that signal, and how is structural polarity translated into specialized functions? (nih.gov)
  • This is achieved by two mechanisms: cell proliferation and recruitment of additional cells. (hindawi.com)
  • Written and edited by experts in the field, this collection from Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology reviews our understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in establishing and maintaining cell polarity, as well as their relevance for human disorders. (cshlpress.com)
  • Notably, concomitant inactivation of tp53 specifically overrides the motility defect, and not the aberrant polarity, thereby uncovering previously unappreciated mechanisms by which Rb and tp53 mutations cooperate to promote cancer development and metastases. (mit.edu)
  • however, the mechanisms that control this cell behavior are poorly understood. (sciencemag.org)
  • For each hair cell, the vertex of the bundle is located on the distal edge (see Fig. 1 A ). The presence of these uniformly oriented bundles illustrates the high degree of PCP that exists within the OC and makes this system an ideal choice for the study of mechanisms that regulate PCP in vertebrates. (jneurosci.org)
  • The aims of this meeting are to bring together as diverse a group as possible of experimental and theoretical biologists who are interested in mechanisms of coordinated cell polarisation in plants and animals. (biologists.com)
  • Here we will discuss multiple factors and mechanisms that imbue cells with polarity to facilitate an asymmetric outcome to stem cell divisions, assuring self-renewal and maintenance of the stem cell pool. (stembook.org)
  • Numerous solutes move across the NVU cell membranes with various transport mechanisms. (frontiersin.org)
  • Overall this project lies at the critical interface between cell and developmental biology and is therefore likely to provide physiologically relevant insights into the molecular mechanisms leading to neuron polarisation and axon extension. (findaphd.com)
  • We propose that E-cadherin and Dlg1 inhibit FasL-induced cell death by two complementary but partially independent mechanisms that help to maintain epithelial homeostasis by protecting normal polarized epithelia from apoptosis. (pasteur.fr)
  • The cells then extend across the midline to develop a crescent-shaped epithelium called the cardiac crescent, which fuses at the midline to form the early heart tube [ 7 ] called the primary heart field or the first heart field (FHF). (hindawi.com)
  • A digitally processed micrograph of mouse skin and hair follicles, with DNA damage (green) in the skin epithelium, including the hair follicle stem cells (purple). (eurekalert.org)
  • Planar cell polarity (PCP) is a process in which cells develop with uniform orientation within the plane of an epithelium. (jneurosci.org)
  • Auditory hair cells are distributed between one row of inner hair cells (IHCs) and three rows of outer hair cells (OHCs) located in a sensory epithelium called the organ of Corti that spirals along the length of the cochlea. (jneurosci.org)
  • Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) originates via malignant transformation of the pseudostratified nasopharyngeal epithelium, composed of basal and luminal cells. (bioportfolio.com)
  • One type of organization is planar cell polarity (PCP) , the biological process through which a cell develops a specific orientation or direction within the plane of an epithelium (Figure 1). (taylor.edu)
  • 2) Ohata S, Alvarez-Buylla A. Planar Organization of Multiciliated Ependymal (E1) Cells in the Brain Ventricular Epithelium. (taylor.edu)
  • however, some studies suggest that extrinsic signals from the overlying epithelium also facilitate proper spatio-temporal localization of cell fate determinants (Lee et al. (stembook.org)
  • These data indicate that embryonic NBs respond to signals from the adjacent epithelium to specify correct spindle orientation and localization of cortical cell fate determinants. (stembook.org)
  • Furthermore also FRT parental cells expressing the same construct appeared to be hampered in the expression of certain properties of the polarized epithelium, indicating that sustained but not regulated acivation of Rac1 impairs the acquisition of cell polarity. (unina.it)
  • Cdc42 localization is further regulated by cell cycle ques, and a number of binding partners. (wikipedia.org)
  • The high degree of conservation of the polarity of syntaxin 3 and 4 suggests that their function and proper localization may play an important role in epithelial polarization. (rupress.org)
  • It is now accepted that defects in expression or localization of polarity complexes induce disturbances of epithelial organization and are precancerous events. (univ-mrs.fr)
  • We have used advanced live-cell imaging techniques to directly observe the localization, assembly, and disassembly processes of cell polarity sites with high spatiotemporal resolution in a rapidly growing filamentous fungus, Aspergillus nidulans . (sciencemag.org)
  • However, recent analyses of the immunological synapse and the importance of lipid microdomains in signaling have shed new light on the aspect of lymphocyte polarization during the activation processes, but none of the molecules implicated so far in either the activation process or the microdomain residency are known to have a preferential localization in nonactivated cells. (uzh.ch)
  • The budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is a model system for eukaryotic biology in which many of the fundamental elements of polarity development have been elucidated. (wikipedia.org)
  • To answer these questions, I use a combination of genetics, cell biology, proteomics and microscopy techniques. (wur.nl)
  • This book provides a basic resource for understanding the biology of polarity, offering a starting point for those thinking of targeting cell polarity for translational medical research. (indigo.ca)
  • His research is focused on a central problem in developmental biology: how a single-celled egg differentiates into an organism containing many different cell and tissue types. (indigo.ca)
  • We've just published our special issue focussing on plant cell biology - check out the table of contents here , and a selection of the issue's highlights below. (biologists.org)
  • In this interview , our Special Issue's guest editor Jenny Russinova discusses her excitement for plant cell biology and what she hopes to achieve with the issue. (biologists.org)
  • We are now accepting submissions for our upcoming special issue on 'Reconstituting cell biology', guest edited by Manuel Théry. (biologists.org)
  • Their discoveries, reported in the Dec. 6, 2001, issue of the journal Nature, could help researchers answer some of the fundamental questions of biology: How do cells send and receive signals? (harvard.edu)
  • A central focus of developmental biology is understanding how cells are organized into tissues and organs. (taylor.edu)
  • In order to explore these questions, our lab utilizes a combination of genetic, developmental biology, cell biology, molecular biology, and microscopy techniques. (taylor.edu)
  • This project is highly interdisciplinary and will integrate pioneering cell and developmental biology techniques with powerful quantitative Mass Spectrometry-based proteomics. (findaphd.com)
  • His group combines mathematical modeling with genetics/biochemistry/cell biology approaches to understand the design principles of the polarity machinery, and more recently the basis for effective tracking of pheromone gradients. (stanford.edu)
  • Required qualifications include a recently obtained PhD in Developmental or Cell Biology, Neuroscience or a related field. (biologists.com)
  • Other RNAi experiments indicate that Par-1 is not essential for maintaining epithelial cell polarity once it is established. (biologists.org)
  • It is characteristic of single-cell organisms, including yeast and bacteria, and cells in tissues of multi-cell organisms such as epithelia in worms, flies and mammals. (nih.gov)
  • This cell-biological mechanism may mediate such cell transitions in other epithelia in normal and cancerous conditions. (sciencemag.org)
  • Cell polarity oscillations in mitotic epithelia. (bioportfolio.com)
  • In developing tissues, proliferative epithelia maintain whole tissue polarity as individual cells undergo symmetric divisions. (bioportfolio.com)
  • In parallel, together with Sophie Roth , they are developing a similar system resembling fission yeast cells: polarization in elongated droplets. (tudelft.nl)
  • This polarization resembles anterior-posterior cell polarity induced by immunological synapse (IS) formation, which is more extensively characterized than VS formation and occurs when a T-cell interacts with an antigen-presenting cell. (mdpi.com)
  • Results indicate that Vangl2 becomes asymmetrically localized to specific cell-cell boundaries along the axis of polarization and that this asymmetry is lost in PCP mutants. (jneurosci.org)
  • Even in the absence of positional cues dictating the direction of polarization, many cells are still able to self-organize and establish one, and only one, polarity axis through a process termed symmetry breaking. (duke.edu)
  • When stimulated with MBP, the production of nitric oxide (NO), IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-12p70, and the expressions of CD80, MHC class II and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) were all increased in RAW264.7 cells, indicating the activation and polarization of RAW264.7 cells into M1 macrophages induced by MBP. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Cell polarization involving the Par-complex in situ is linked to various other processes. (elifesciences.org)
  • Because of such association between Par-dependent polarization and other processes, the Par-complex exhibits different behavioral characteristics in an individual context, making it difficult to determine general features of the dynamic process taking place during cell polarization by the Par-complex. (elifesciences.org)
  • To understand the general and dynamic characteristics of the cell polarization process induced by the Par-complex, we attempted to reconstruct Par-complex-dependent cell polarization system in a cell-autonomous manner using non-polar cells. (elifesciences.org)
  • The directionality of the migrating neural crest is achieved by contact-dependent cell polarization, in a phenomenon called contact inhibition of locomotion. (biochemj.org)
  • Subsequentely, to analyze the role of Rac1 in the control of cell polarization in the FRT cells, the cultures were treated with NSC23766, a molecule that does not allow Rac1 specific GEFs, such as Tiam1 and Trio, to bind to Rac1 and therefore acts as an inibitor of Rac1 activation. (unina.it)
  • This experimental appoach allowed us to establish that Rac1 is a major regulator of the polarization process in FRT cells. (unina.it)
  • These cells exhibit functional and structural asymmetry in their apical and basolateral plasma membranes that is essential to their function. (rupress.org)
  • They propose that polarity-induced spatiotemporal control of Rok and Pkn is important for unequal cortical expansion, ensuring correct cleavage furrow positioning and the establishment of physical asymmetry. (washington.edu)
  • Often, ensuring that only a single axis of polarity is established is as important as generating asymmetry in the cell. (duke.edu)
  • At the rear of the cell, adhesions are disassembled and bundles of actin microfilaments, called stress fibers, contract and pull the trailing edge forward to keep up with the rest of the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Overexpression of CDH26 in cells with a fibroblastoid phenotype increases contact inhibition and promotes monolayer formation and cortical actin structures. (nature.com)
  • This mechanism operates in chick and mouse, is dependent on actin-myosin contraction, and results in loss of apical cell polarity. (sciencemag.org)
  • Spontaneous symmetry breaking is an example of self-organization phenomena in living cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The specification and formation of anisotropic intracellular organization or cell growth patterns. (yeastgenome.org)
  • Here, using further optimized 3D culture that allows highly selective induction and long-term growth of human ES cell (hESC)-derived cortical neuroepithelium, we demonstrate unique aspects of self-organization in human neocorticogenesis. (pnas.org)
  • The distinctive planar polarity of auditory hair cells is evident in the polarized organization of the stereociliary bundle. (jneurosci.org)
  • Epithelial organization and function depend on coordinated cell polarity. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Our group investigates what molecular factors are essential for this apical organization and how polarity complexes are involved in this process. (univ-mrs.fr)
  • Conditional inhibition of myocardial Rho kinase activity disrupts the organization of the cardiomyocytes and formation of the coronary vessels to produce the same spectrum of defects as seen in Lp . These data suggest that Vangl2 and Rho kinase act cell autonomously in the myocardium to regulate the organization of cardiomyocytes but also have non-cell-autonomous effects on the formation of the coronary vasculature. (ahajournals.org)
  • Recent genetic studies have shown that the function of Cdc42 in regulating cell polarity appears highly conserved from budding yeast to humans. (springer.com)
  • Because the machinery of cell polarity development is highly conserved from yeast to humans, the newly described interactions merit further study in a variety of cell types. (rupress.org)
  • A highly conserved group of polarity regulators is responsible for organizing a wide variety of polarized morphologies. (duke.edu)
  • The master regulator of polarity in yeast is Cdc42, which is a member of the eukaryotic Ras-homologous Rho-family of GTPases, and a member of the super-family of small GTPases, which include Rop GTPases in plants and small GTPases in prokaryotes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cdc42 was originally discovered as a key regulator of bud site assembly and polarity in S. cerevisiae . (springer.com)
  • Yang L, Wang L, Geiger H, Cancelas JA, Mo J, Zheng Y (2007) Rho GTPase Cdc42 coordinates hematopoietic stem cell quiescence and niche interaction in the bone marrow. (springer.com)
  • Yang L, Zheng Y (2007) Cdc42: a signal coordinator in hematopoietic stem cell maintenance. (springer.com)
  • Inactivation of NCK1 and 2 inhibits polarity by preventing Cdc42 and Pak2 activation by VEGF-A and Slit2. (ahajournals.org)
  • One of the most widely expressed polarity regulators is the Rho-type GTPase Cdc42. (duke.edu)
  • Furthermore, cell polarity is important during many types of asymmetric cell division to set up functional asymmetries between daughter cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Progenitor cells in the mammalian forebrain can undergo either symmetric or asymmetric cell divisions by varying their cleavage orientation. (nih.gov)
  • Hawkins ED, Russell SM (2008) Upsides and downsides to polarity and asymmetric cell division in leukemia. (springer.com)
  • Pham K, Sacirbegovic F, Russell SM (2014) Polarized cells, polarized views: asymmetric cell division in hematopoietic cells. (springer.com)
  • During development, asymmetric divisions provide the basis for establishment of the body axis and cell fate determination in a range of processes. (stembook.org)
  • Subsequently, asymmetric cell divisions play a critical role in maintaining adult stem cell populations, while at the same time generating an adequate number of differentiating daughter cells to maintain tissue homeostasis and repair. (stembook.org)
  • Loss of cell polarity, and consequently the potential for asymmetric divisions, is often linked to excessive stem cell self-renewal and tumorigenesis. (stembook.org)
  • Asymmetric division is a property of stem cells that leads to the generation of two cells that can adopt different fates. (stembook.org)
  • One has the potential to renew stem cell identity and continue to divide in an asymmetric manner, whereas the other cell will differentiate along a specific lineage. (stembook.org)
  • Ultimately, asymmetric divisions are regulated directly by genes that control the process of asymmetric cell division itself or determine the distinct cell fates of the two daughter cells. (stembook.org)
  • 3 . Asymmetric positioning of the anaphase spindle results in daughter cells that will not only assume different fates but also differ in size. (stembook.org)
  • It is therefore likely that, within the tissues, besides chemotactic or haptotactic gradients, the preformed matrix structure has an important impact on T cell trafficking and positioning in health and disease. (hindawi.com)
  • Included are diseases affecting highly polarized epithelial tissues in the lung and kidney, as well as loss and gain of cell polarity in the onset and progression of cancer. (indigo.ca)
  • In epithelial tissues, both apical basal polarity a. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Tissue microenvironments, also known as stem cell niches, influence not only resident cells but also cells in surrounding tissues. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The identification of conserved polarity regulators that control polarity in a variety of distinct tissues raises a number of questions. (uu.nl)
  • Here, we describe that the EMT-inducing transcriptional repressor ZEB1 promotes colorectal cancer cell metastasis and loss of cell polarity. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Loss of cell polarity and inflammation are hallmarks of breast cancer development. (uky.edu)
  • After postdoctoral training on yeast genetics and cell cycle control with Steve Reed at the Scripps Research Institute (CA), he joined the Duke University faculty in 1994. (stanford.edu)
  • Auditory hair cells detect sound through the mechanical deflection of the stereociliary bundle located on their apical cell surfaces. (jneurosci.org)
  • The polarity of the neuron thus facilitates the directional flow of information, which is required for communication between neurons and effector cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recent findings on the directional movement of the plant signalling molecule auxin provide a unique connection between individual cell polarity and the establishment of polarity at the tissue, organ, and whole-plant levels. (ugent.be)
  • On the basis of our imaging results and computational modeling, we propose a transient polarity model that explains how cell polarity is stably maintained during highly active directional growth. (sciencemag.org)
  • This volume will thus be essential reading for all cell and developmental biologists, as well as those interested in how cell polarity processes impact human health and disease. (cshlpress.com)
  • Vangl2 CKO has profound changes in the shape and distribution of outer pillar cell and Deiters' cell phalangeal processes that are not corrected during the period of planar polarity refinement. (jneurosci.org)
  • In females, this process is made further complex by two additional processes: the selection of a single oocyte from a pool of precursor cells and the subsequent loading of maternally-derived transcripts and nutrients necessary post-fertilization for early embryonic development. (frontiersin.org)
  • Using a 3-D co-culture model of breast cancer cells and monocytes, Markey's Ren Xu and Linzhang Li found that disruption of cell polarity is accompanied by increased ROS production, leading to increased inflammation in these cells. (uky.edu)
  • Many of the key molecular players implicated in cell polarity are well conserved. (wikipedia.org)
  • Stem cells and cancer cells have enough molecular similarities that the former can be used to trigger immunity against the latter. (the-scientist.com)
  • Finally, we discuss how the molecular controls of the cell cycle might be integrated with cell polarity and cell fate to maintain oocyte production. (frontiersin.org)
  • Proteomics will then be employed to identify novel molecular determinants that interact with polarity-inducing factors to influence neuron repolarisation. (findaphd.com)
  • El grupo de biología celular de la inflamación del Centro de Biología Molecular Severo Ochoa se creo en 2009 para estudiar los aspectos celulares de la respuesta inmunitaria. (sebbm.es)
  • these cell asymmetries may play important roles in embryonic development. (springer.com)
  • When crossed with Pax2-Cre , Vangl2 is deleted from the inner ear, yielding planar polarity phenotypes similar to Vangl2 KOs at late embryonic stages except that Vangl2 CKO mice are viable and do not have craniorachischisis like Vangl2 KOs. (jneurosci.org)
  • The embryonic program "epithelial-mesenchymal transition" (EMT) is thought to trigger invasion by allowing tumor cell dissemination. (aacrjournals.org)
  • During vertebrate gastrulation, convergence and extension (C and E) of the primary anteroposterior (AP) embryonic axis is driven by polarized mediolateral (ML) cell intercalations and is influenced by AP axial patterning. (elifesciences.org)
  • The neural crest is an embryonic stem cell population whose migratory behaviour has been likened to malignant invasion. (biochemj.org)
  • Endothelial cells forming the sprout must develop front-rear polarity to allow sprout extension. (ahajournals.org)
  • Mechanistically, NCK binding to ROBO1 is required for both Slit2 and VEGF induced front-rear polarity. (ahajournals.org)
  • Conclusions -These data reveal a novel signal integration mechanism involving NCK1/2, ROBO1/2 and VEGFR2 that controls endothelial cell front-rear polarity during sprouting angiogenesis. (ahajournals.org)
  • Cysts are surrounded by and receive signals from somatic cells which promote germ cell divisions and shape oocyte morphology. (frontiersin.org)
  • Retinal ganglion cells are the inner neurons of the retina, and can transmit visual signals to the lateral geniculate body. (molvis.org)
  • Wnt7a signals through its receptor Fzd7 to activate the planar-cell-polarity pathway and drive the symmetric growth of satellite stem cells resulting in enhanced repair of skeletal muscle mass. at different developmental stages during myogenic lineage progression and together identify a novel non-canonical anabolic signalling pathway for Wnt7a and its receptor Fzd7 in skeletal muscle mass. (exposed-skin-care.net)
  • We show that cell polarity and adherens junction formation prevent proapoptotic signals emanating from the Fas death receptor. (pasteur.fr)
  • In fission yeast microtubules bring polarity markers to the cell poles. (tudelft.nl)
  • Some examples of planar cell polarity include the scales of fish being oriented in the same direction and similarly the feathers of birds, the fur of mammals, and the cuticular projections (sensory hairs, etc.) on the bodies and appendages of flies and other insects. (wikipedia.org)
  • Loss of apicobasal polarity is a hallmark of epithelial pathologies. (sebbm.es)
  • OFT formation involves interactions between diverse cell types in the region of the pharyngeal splanchnic mesenchyme and in SHF that gives rise to the myocardium of the OFT and its endothelial lining [ 14 , 15 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • LNAA passage into the brain is primarily mediated by the complex and dynamic interactions between various solute carrier (SLC) transporters expressed in the neurovascular unit (NVU), among which SLC7A5/LAT1 is considered to be the major contributor in microvascular brain endothelial cells (MBEC). (frontiersin.org)
  • It is formed by highly specialized microvascular brain endothelial cells (MBECs) connected by tight junctions forming brain capillaries. (frontiersin.org)
  • Photo Caption: A human melanoma cell exhibits a specific polarity which helps attaching to the endothelial layer of the blood vessel (ezrin stained in orange). (labroots.com)
  • The establishment of epithelial layers requires the coordination of polarity complexes that are essential to define the apical surface in contact with the external environment and the lateral surface where intercellular junctions are positioned. (univ-mrs.fr)
  • We were now able to show that Par3 has a direct influence on the homeostasis of the skin by controlling the mechanical properties of keratinocytes, the main skin epithelial cell,' said leading scientist of the study Dr Sandra Iden. (eurekalert.org)
  • For example, in vertebrates this manifests in disorganization of auditory hair cells 1 , fluid buildup in the brain due to disrupted cilia 2 , and misoriented cell division leading to cysts in the kidney 3 . (taylor.edu)
  • In multiciliated ependymal cells, rotational and translational PCP coordinate cilia beating and direct. (sebbm.es)
  • Mizukawa B., O'Brien E., Mulloy J.C., Zheng Y. (2018) Cell Polarity and Division Symmetry Analyses in Transformed Blood Cells. (springer.com)
  • Single-cell genome analyses reveal the amount of mutations a human brain cell will collect from its fetal beginnings until death. (the-scientist.com)
  • The neuroepithelium self-forms a multilayered structure including three neuronal zones (subplate, cortical plate, and Cajal-Retzius cell zones) and three progenitor zones (ventricular, subventricular, and intermediate zones) in the same apical-basal order as seen in the human fetal cortex in the early second trimester. (pnas.org)
  • Cell polarity is a prerequisite for directed information flux within neuronal networks. (molvis.org)
  • During discharge reverse polarity occurs when a cell that is completely discharged is left in the circuit. (candlepowerforums.com)
  • Loss of ICAM-1 polarity occurs in human inflammatory liver diseases and can be induced by the inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). (sebbm.es)
  • Rho-GTPases and their effectors are also key regulators of microfilament and microtubule dynamics and, consequently, are crucially involved in polarity signaling. (unina.it)
  • Redirecting Normal and Cancer Stem Cells to a Mammary Epithelial Cell Fate. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Here we describe the leukemia cell polarity and division symmetry assays in the context of leukemia cell fate determination. (springer.com)
  • We also highlight a germline-specific organelle, the fusome, as integral to the coordination of cell division, cell polarity, and cell fate in ovarian germ cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • In each cyst, one cell differentiates to an oocyte fate and initiates meiosis, while the other 15 differentiate as nurse cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • Here, we recapitulate the tripartite assembly of a cell fate signaling complex that forms during the G 1 -S transition. (asm.org)
  • In some cases, factors within the dividing mother cell lead to the differential segregation of cell fate determinants to give two distinct daughters upon division. (stembook.org)
  • 1. Cell fate determinants are segregated to the basal cortex of the dividing NB, resulting in a disruption of the symmetry of the mother cell prior to division. (stembook.org)
  • 2. The mitotic spindle is aligned along the apical-basal axis to ensure accurate segregation of these cell fate determinants to the appropriate daughter cell. (stembook.org)
  • In regard to cell fate, inhibition of Stbm function in zebrafish embryos leads to reduction of anterior neural markers, whereas gain of function leads to a rise in the levels of these markers. (xenbase.org)
  • Quantification of planar polarity deficits through postnatal development demonstrates the activity of a Vangl2- independent refinement process that rescues the planar polarity phenotype within 10 d of birth. (jneurosci.org)
  • For example in the FRT-β1B cells, derived from FRT parental cells after transfection of the dominant-negative β1B integrin, an impairment of the polarized phenotype have been described. (unina.it)
  • However it was not possibile to rescue the normal phenotype in these cells by this experimental approach. (unina.it)
  • In this report, we demonstrate that actomyosin contractility and planar cell polarity (PCP) interact in post-mitotic Ciona notochord cells to self-assemble and reposition actomyosin rings, which play an essential role for cell elongation. (uib.no)