Orientation of intracellular structures especially with respect to the apical and basolateral domains of the plasma membrane. Polarized cells must direct proteins from the Golgi apparatus to the appropriate domain since tight junctions prevent proteins from diffusing between the two domains.
A family of seven-pass transmembrane cell-surface proteins that combines with LOW DENSITY LIPROTEIN RECEPTOR-RELATED PROTEIN-5 or LOW DENSITY LIPROTEIN RECEPTOR-RELATED PROTEIN-5 to form receptors for WNT PROTEINS. Frizzled receptors often couple with HETEROTRIMERIC G PROTEINS and regulate the WNT SIGNALING PATHWAY.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.
A member of the Rho family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS from SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. It is involved in morphological events related to the cell cycle. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
The processes occurring in early development that direct morphogenesis. They specify the body plan ensuring that cells will proceed to differentiate, grow, and diversify in size and shape at the correct relative positions. Included are axial patterning, segmentation, compartment specification, limb position, organ boundary patterning, blood vessel patterning, etc.
Calcium-dependent cell adhesion proteins. They are important in the formation of ADHERENS JUNCTIONS between cells. Cadherins are classified by their distinct immunological and tissue specificities, either by letters (E- for epithelial, N- for neural, and P- for placental cadherins) or by numbers (cadherin-12 or N-cadherin 2 for brain-cadherin). Cadherins promote cell adhesion via a homophilic mechanism as in the construction of tissues and of the whole animal body.
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.
The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.
Wnt proteins are a large family of secreted glycoproteins that play essential roles in EMBRYONIC AND FETAL DEVELOPMENT, and tissue maintenance. They bind to FRIZZLED RECEPTORS and act as PARACRINE PROTEIN FACTORS to initiate a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. The canonical Wnt signaling pathway stabilizes the transcriptional coactivator BETA CATENIN.
The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.
A member of the Rho family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. It is associated with a diverse array of cellular functions including cytoskeletal changes, filopodia formation and transport through the GOLGI APPARATUS. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
Cell-cell junctions that seal adjacent epithelial cells together, preventing the passage of most dissolved molecules from one side of the epithelial sheet to the other. (Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, p22)
A tube of ectodermal tissue in an embryo that will give rise to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, including the SPINAL CORD and the BRAIN. Lumen within the neural tube is called neural canal which gives rise to the central canal of the spinal cord and the ventricles of the brain. For malformation of the neural tube, see NEURAL TUBE DEFECTS.
Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Populations of thin, motile processes found covering the surface of ciliates (CILIOPHORA) or the free surface of the cells making up ciliated EPITHELIUM. Each cilium arises from a basic granule in the superficial layer of CYTOPLASM. The movement of cilia propels ciliates through the liquid in which they live. The movement of cilia on a ciliated epithelium serves to propel a surface layer of mucus or fluid. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A broad category of carrier proteins that play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They generally contain several modular domains, each of which having its own binding activity, and act by forming complexes with other intracellular-signaling molecules. Signal-transducing adaptor proteins lack enzyme activity, however their activity can be modulated by other signal-transducing enzymes
A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
A large family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that are involved in regulation of actin organization, gene expression and cell cycle progression. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
A process of complicated morphogenetic cell movements that reorganizes a bilayer embryo into one with three GERM LAYERS and specific orientation (dorsal/ventral; anterior/posterior). Gastrulation describes the germ layer development of a non-mammalian BLASTULA or that of a mammalian BLASTOCYST.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
Anchoring points where the CYTOSKELETON of neighboring cells are connected to each other. They are composed of specialized areas of the plasma membrane where bundles of the ACTIN CYTOSKELETON attach to the membrane through the transmembrane linkers, CADHERINS, which in turn attach through their extracellular domains to cadherins in the neighboring cell membranes. In sheets of cells, they form into adhesion belts (zonula adherens) that go all the way around a cell.
Proteins from the nematode species CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS. The proteins from this species are the subject of scientific interest in the area of multicellular organism MORPHOGENESIS.
Direct contact of a cell with a neighboring cell. Most such junctions are too small to be resolved by light microscopy, but they can be visualized by conventional or freeze-fracture electron microscopy, both of which show that the interacting CELL MEMBRANE and often the underlying CYTOPLASM and the intervening EXTRACELLULAR SPACE are highly specialized in these regions. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p792)
A large class of structurally-related proteins that contain one or more LIM zinc finger domains. Many of the proteins in this class are involved in intracellular signaling processes and mediate their effects via LIM domain protein-protein interactions. The name LIM is derived from the first three proteins in which the motif was found: LIN-11, Isl1 and Mec-3.
A species of nematode that is widely used in biological, biochemical, and genetic studies.
The quality of surface form or outline of CELLS.
A genus of RED ALGAE in the family Bangiaceae. It is the most widely consumed SEAWEED in the world and especially in Asia.
An amorphous region of electron dense material in the cytoplasm from which the MICROTUBULES polymerization is nucleated. The pericentriolar region of the CENTROSOME which surrounds the CENTRIOLES is an example.
ANIMALS whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING, or their offspring.
Proteins obtained from the ZEBRAFISH. Many of the proteins in this species have been the subject of studies involving basic embryological development (EMBRYOLOGY).
A dynamic actin-rich extension of the surface of an animal cell used for locomotion or prehension of food.
Monomeric subunits of primarily globular ACTIN and found in the cytoplasmic matrix of almost all cells. They are often associated with microtubules and may play a role in cytoskeletal function and/or mediate movement of the cell or the organelles within the cell.
Congenital malformations of the central nervous system and adjacent structures related to defective neural tube closure during the first trimester of pregnancy generally occurring between days 18-29 of gestation. Ectodermal and mesodermal malformations (mainly involving the skull and vertebrae) may occur as a result of defects of neural tube closure. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch55, pp31-41)
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.
The largest family of cell surface receptors involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They share a common structure and signal through HETEROTRIMERIC G-PROTEINS.
Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.
An inactive stage between the larval and adult stages in the life cycle of insects.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Proteins that take part in the formation or structure of TIGHT JUNCTIONS.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Major constituent of the cytoskeleton found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They form a flexible framework for the cell, provide attachment points for organelles and formed bodies, and make communication between parts of the cell possible.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
Surface ligands, usually glycoproteins, that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion. Their functions include the assembly and interconnection of various vertebrate systems, as well as maintenance of tissue integration, wound healing, morphogenic movements, cellular migrations, and metastasis.
The organ of sight constituting a pair of globular organs made up of a three-layered roughly spherical structure specialized for receiving and responding to light.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A complex signaling pathway whose name is derived from the DROSOPHILA Wg gene, which when mutated results in the wingless phenotype, and the vertebrate INT gene, which is located near integration sites of MOUSE MAMMARY TUMOR VIRUS. The signaling pathway is initiated by the binding of WNT PROTEINS to cells surface WNT RECEPTORS which interact with the AXIN SIGNALING COMPLEX and an array of second messengers that influence the actions of BETA CATENIN.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
The functional hereditary units of INSECTS.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
A genus of ascomycetous fungi of the family Schizosaccharomycetaceae, order Schizosaccharomycetales.
Proteins obtained from the species Schizosaccharomyces pombe. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
Protein factors that promote the exchange of GTP for GDP bound to GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.
Formation of differentiated cells and complicated tissue organization to provide specialized functions.
An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
The subfamily of myosin proteins that are commonly found in muscle fibers. Myosin II is also involved a diverse array of cellular functions including cell division, transport within the GOLGI APPARATUS, and maintaining MICROVILLI structure.
An early embryonic developmental process of CHORDATES that is characterized by morphogenic movements of ECTODERM resulting in the formation of the NEURAL PLATE; the NEURAL CREST; and the NEURAL TUBE. Improper closure of the NEURAL GROOVE results in congenital NEURAL TUBE DEFECTS.
Specialized structures of the cell that extend the cell membrane and project out from the cell surface.
A 195-kDa zonula occludens protein that is distinguished by the presence of a ZU5 domain at the C-terminal of the molecule.
Proteins obtained from various species of Xenopus. Included here are proteins from the African clawed frog (XENOPUS LAEVIS). Many of these proteins have been the subject of scientific investigations in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
Catalyzes the ATP-dependent PHOSPHORYLATION of GMP to generate GDP and ADP.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
The cell center, consisting of a pair of CENTRIOLES surrounded by a cloud of amorphous material called the pericentriolar region. During interphase, the centrosome nucleates microtubule outgrowth. The centrosome duplicates and, during mitosis, separates to form the two poles of the mitotic spindle (MITOTIC SPINDLE APPARATUS).
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS.
The process by which the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided.
Reduced (protonated) form of THIAZOLES. They can be oxidized to THIAZOLIDINEDIONES.
Fibers composed of MICROFILAMENT PROTEINS, which are predominately ACTIN. They are the smallest of the cytoskeletal filaments.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
Any of several ways in which living cells of an organism communicate with one another, whether by direct contact between cells or by means of chemical signals carried by neurotransmitter substances, hormones, and cyclic AMP.
A RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEIN involved in regulating signal transduction pathways that control assembly of focal adhesions and actin stress fibers. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
Proteins that are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. Deficiencies or abnormalities in these proteins may lead to unregulated cell growth and tumor development.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Protein interaction domains of about 70-90 amino acid residues, named after a common structure found in PSD-95, Discs Large, and Zona Occludens 1 proteins. PDZ domains are involved in the recruitment and interaction of proteins, and aid the formation of protein scaffolds and signaling networks. This is achieved by sequence-specific binding between a PDZ domain in one protein and a PDZ motif in another protein.
The movement of cells or organisms toward or away from a substance in response to its concentration gradient.
A microtubule structure that forms during CELL DIVISION. It consists of two SPINDLE POLES, and sets of MICROTUBULES that may include the astral microtubules, the polar microtubules, and the kinetochore microtubules.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
A large family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that play a key role in cellular secretory and endocytic pathways. EC 3.6.1.-.
The developmental stage that follows BLASTULA or BLASTOCYST. It is characterized by the morphogenetic cell movements including invagination, ingression, and involution. Gastrulation begins with the formation of the PRIMITIVE STREAK, and ends with the formation of three GERM LAYERS, the body plan of the mature organism.
Acetic acid derivatives of the heterocyclic compound indole. (Merck Index, 11th ed)
Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.
Specialized cells in the invertebrates that detect and transduce light. They are predominantly rhabdomeric with an array of photosensitive microvilli. Illumination depolarizes invertebrate photoreceptors by stimulating Na+ influx across the plasma membrane.
A proto-oncogene protein and member of the Wnt family of proteins. It is expressed in the caudal MIDBRAIN and is essential for proper development of the entire mid-/hindbrain region.
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
A multi-functional catenin that participates in CELL ADHESION and nuclear signaling. Beta catenin binds CADHERINS and helps link their cytoplasmic tails to the ACTIN in the CYTOSKELETON via ALPHA CATENIN. It also serves as a transcriptional co-activator and downstream component of WNT PROTEIN-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A family of GTP-binding proteins that were initially identified in YEASTS where they were shown to initiate the process of septation and bud formation. Septins form into hetero-oligomeric complexes that are comprised of several distinct septin subunits. These complexes can act as cytoskeletal elements that play important roles in CYTOKINESIS, cytoskeletal reorganization, BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, and membrane dynamics.
An enzyme that catalyzes reversible reactions of a nucleoside triphosphate, e.g., ATP, with a nucleoside monophosphate, e.g., UMP, to form ADP and UDP. Many nucleoside monophosphates can act as acceptor while many ribo- and deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates can act as donor. EC
2-Substituted benzimidazole first introduced in 1962. It is active against a variety of nematodes and is the drug of choice for STRONGYLOIDIASIS. It has CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM side effects and hepatototoxic potential. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1992, p919)
Proteins found in any species of insect.
The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.
A heterogeneous group of hereditary and acquired disorders in which the KIDNEY contains one or more CYSTS unilaterally or bilaterally (KIDNEY, CYSTIC).
Proteins found in any species of helminth.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Cellular uptake of extracellular materials within membrane-limited vacuoles or microvesicles. ENDOSOMES play a central role in endocytosis.
A family of membrane glycoproteins localized to TIGHT JUNCTIONS that contain two extracellular Ig-like domains, a single transmembrane segment, and a cytoplasmic tail of variable length.
High molecular weight proteins found in the MICROTUBULES of the cytoskeletal system. Under certain conditions they are required for TUBULIN assembly into the microtubules and stabilize the assembled microtubules.
A method used to study the lateral movement of MEMBRANE PROTEINS and LIPIDS. A small area of a cell membrane is bleached by laser light and the amount of time necessary for unbleached fluorescent marker-tagged proteins to diffuse back into the bleached site is a measurement of the cell membrane's fluidity. The diffusion coefficient of a protein or lipid in the membrane can be calculated from the data. (From Segen, Current Med Talk, 1995).
Light sensory organ in ARTHROPODS consisting of a large number of ommatidia, each functioning as an independent photoreceptor unit.
Microscopic threadlike filaments in FUNGI that are filled with a layer of protoplasm. Collectively, the hyphae make up the MYCELIUM.
A genus of protozoa, formerly also considered a fungus. Its natural habitat is decaying forest leaves, where it feeds on bacteria. D. discoideum is the best-known species and is widely used in biomedical research.
Cells of epithelial origin possessing specialized sensory functions. They include cells that are found in the TASTE BUDS; OLFACTORY MUCOSA; COCHLEA; and NEUROEPITHELIAL BODIES.
A family of proteins that contain several 42-amino acid repeat domains and are homologous to the Drosophila armadillo protein. They bind to other proteins through their armadillo domains and play a variety of roles in the CELL including SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION, regulation of DESMOSOME assembly, and CELL ADHESION.
A class of saturated compounds consisting of two rings only, having two or more atoms in common, containing at least one hetero atom, and that take the name of an open chain hydrocarbon containing the same total number of atoms. (From Riguady et al., Nomenclature of Organic Chemistry, 1979, p31)
A rac GTP-binding protein involved in regulating actin filaments at the plasma membrane. It controls the development of filopodia and lamellipodia in cells and thereby influences cellular motility and adhesion. It is also involved in activation of NADPH OXIDASE. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
Recording serial images of a process at regular intervals spaced out over a longer period of time than the time in which the recordings will be played back.
A subclass of myosin involved in organelle transport and membrane targeting. It is abundantly found in nervous tissue and neurosecretory cells. The heavy chains of myosin V contain unusually long neck domains that are believed to aid in translocating molecules over large distances.
A sub-family of RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that is involved in regulating the organization of cytoskeletal filaments. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
Proteins that activate the GTPase of specific GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.
Undifferentiated cells resulting from cleavage of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE). Inside the intact ZONA PELLUCIDA, each cleavage yields two blastomeres of about half size of the parent cell. Up to the 8-cell stage, all of the blastomeres are totipotent. The 16-cell MORULA contains outer cells and inner cells.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.
Macromolecular complexes formed from the association of defined protein subunits.
An aquatic genus of the family, Pipidae, occurring in Africa and distinguished by having black horny claws on three inner hind toes.
Protein factors that inhibit the dissociation of GDP from GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.
Mechanosensing organelles of hair cells which respond to fluid motion or fluid pressure changes. They have various functions in many different animals, but are primarily used in hearing.
A diverse superfamily of proteins that function as translocating proteins. They share the common characteristics of being able to bind ACTINS and hydrolyze MgATP. Myosins generally consist of heavy chains which are involved in locomotion, and light chains which are involved in regulation. Within the structure of myosin heavy chain are three domains: the head, the neck and the tail. The head region of the heavy chain contains the actin binding domain and MgATPase domain which provides energy for locomotion. The neck region is involved in binding the light-chains. The tail region provides the anchoring point that maintains the position of the heavy chain. The superfamily of myosins is organized into structural classes based upon the type and arrangement of the subunits they contain.
A microtubule-associated mechanical adenosine triphosphatase, that uses the energy of ATP hydrolysis to move organelles along microtubules toward the plus end of the microtubule. The protein is found in squid axoplasm, optic lobes, and in bovine brain. Bovine kinesin is a heterotetramer composed of two heavy (120 kDa) and two light (62 kDa) chains. EC 3.6.1.-.
Hereditary diseases that are characterized by the progressive expansion of a large number of tightly packed CYSTS within the KIDNEYS. They include diseases with autosomal dominant and autosomal recessive inheritance.
The process of germ cell development in the female from the primordial germ cells through OOGONIA to the mature haploid ova (OVUM).
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
The artificial induction of GENE SILENCING by the use of RNA INTERFERENCE to reduce the expression of a specific gene. It includes the use of DOUBLE-STRANDED RNA, such as SMALL INTERFERING RNA and RNA containing HAIRPIN LOOP SEQUENCE, and ANTI-SENSE OLIGONUCLEOTIDES.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
A microtubule subunit protein found in large quantities in mammalian brain. It has also been isolated from SPERM FLAGELLUM; CILIA; and other sources. Structurally, the protein is a dimer with a molecular weight of approximately 120,000 and a sedimentation coefficient of 5.8S. It binds to COLCHICINE; VINCRISTINE; and VINBLASTINE.
Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Animals having a vertebral column, members of the phylum Chordata, subphylum Craniata comprising mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fishes.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
The middle germ layer of an embryo derived from three paired mesenchymal aggregates along the neural tube.
Enzymes that hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.
A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
A family of serine-threonine kinases that bind to and are activated by MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS such as RAC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS and CDC42 GTP-BINDING PROTEIN. They are intracellular signaling kinases that play a role the regulation of cytoskeletal organization.
Basic functional unit of plants.
A broad category of proteins involved in the formation, transport and dissolution of TRANSPORT VESICLES. They play a role in the intracellular transport of molecules contained within membrane vesicles. Vesicular transport proteins are distinguished from MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS, which move molecules across membranes, by the mode in which the molecules are transported.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
Sensory cells in the organ of Corti, characterized by their apical stereocilia (hair-like projections). The inner and outer hair cells, as defined by their proximity to the core of spongy bone (the modiolus), change morphologically along the COCHLEA. Towards the cochlear apex, the length of hair cell bodies and their apical STEREOCILIA increase, allowing differential responses to various frequencies of sound.
A glycogen synthase kinase that was originally described as a key enzyme involved in glycogen metabolism. It regulates a diverse array of functions such as CELL DIVISION, microtubule function and APOPTOSIS.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
The part of the inner ear (LABYRINTH) that is concerned with hearing. It forms the anterior part of the labyrinth, as a snail-like structure that is situated almost horizontally anterior to the VESTIBULAR LABYRINTH.
A plant family of the order Polypodiales, class Filicopsida, division Pteridophyta (FERNS).
Vesicles that are involved in shuttling cargo from the interior of the cell to the cell surface, from the cell surface to the interior, across the cell or around the cell to various locations.
The spiral EPITHELIUM containing sensory AUDITORY HAIR CELLS and supporting cells in the cochlea. Organ of Corti, situated on the BASILAR MEMBRANE and overlaid by a gelatinous TECTORIAL MEMBRANE, converts sound-induced mechanical waves to neural impulses to the brain.
The aggregation of soluble ANTIGENS with ANTIBODIES, alone or with antibody binding factors such as ANTI-ANTIBODIES or STAPHYLOCOCCAL PROTEIN A, into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.
A group of intracellular-signaling serine threonine kinases that bind to RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. They were originally found to mediate the effects of rhoA GTP-BINDING PROTEIN on the formation of STRESS FIBERS and FOCAL ADHESIONS. Rho-associated kinases have specificity for a variety of substrates including MYOSIN-LIGHT-CHAIN PHOSPHATASE and LIM KINASES.
Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.
Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).
The external, nonvascular layer of the skin. It is made up, from within outward, of five layers of EPITHELIUM: (1) basal layer (stratum basale epidermidis); (2) spinous layer (stratum spinosum epidermidis); (3) granular layer (stratum granulosum epidermidis); (4) clear layer (stratum lucidum epidermidis); and (5) horny layer (stratum corneum epidermidis).
A genetically related subfamily of RAP GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that share homology with RAS PROTEINS. They bind to Ras effectors but do not activate them, therefore they may antagonize the effects of RAS PROTEINS. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
Genes that determine the fate of a cell or CELLS in a region of the embryo during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT.
The outer of the three germ layers of an embryo.
A family of cytoskeletal proteins that play essential roles in CELL ADHESION at ADHERENS JUNCTIONS by linking CADHERINS to the ACTIN FILAMENTS of the CYTOSKELETON.

Cell polarization: chemotaxis gets CRACKing. (1/6230)

An early stage in the establishment of cell polarity during chemotaxis of Dictyostelium dicoideum has been identified by a recent study; the new results also show that the development of cell polarity does not rely upon cytoskeletal rearrangement, and may use a spatial sensing mechanism.  (+info)

Deletion analysis of the Drosophila Inscuteable protein reveals domains for cortical localization and asymmetric localization. (2/6230)

The Drosophila Inscuteable protein acts as a key regulator of asymmetric cell division during the development of the nervous system [1] [2]. In neuroblasts, Inscuteable localizes into an apical cortical crescent during late interphase and most of mitosis. During mitosis, Inscuteable is required for the correct apical-basal orientation of the mitotic spindle and for the asymmetric segregation of the proteins Numb [3] [4] [5], Prospero [5] [6] [7] and Miranda [8] [9] into the basal daughter cell. When Inscuteable is ectopically expressed in epidermal cells, which normally orient their mitotic spindle parallel to the embryo surface, these cells reorient their mitotic spindle and divide perpendicularly to the surface [1]. Like the Inscuteable protein, the inscuteable RNA is asymmetrically localized [10]. We show here that inscuteable RNA localization is not required for Inscuteable protein localization. We found that a central 364 amino acid domain - the Inscuteable asymmetry domain - was necessary and sufficient for Inscuteable localization and function. Within this domain, a separate 100 amino acid region was required for asymmetric localization along the cortex, whereas a 158 amino acid region directed localization to the cell cortex. The same 158 amino acid fragment could localize asymmetrically when coexpressed with the full-length protein, however, and could bind to Inscuteable in vitro, suggesting that this domain may be involved in the self-association of Inscuteable in vivo.  (+info)

Polarized distribution of Bcr-Abl in migrating myeloid cells and co-localization of Bcr-Abl and its target proteins. (3/6230)

Bcr-Abl plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of Philadelphia chromosome-positive leukemia. Although a large number of substrates and interacting proteins of Bcr-Abl have been identified, it remains unclear whether Bcr-Abl assembles multi-protein complexes and if it does where these complexes are within cells. We have investigated the localization of Bcr-Abl in 32D myeloid cells attached to the extracellular matrix. We have found that Bcr-Abl displays a polarized distribution, colocalizing with a subset of filamentous actin at trailing portions of migrating 32D cells, and localizes on the cortical F-actin and on vesicle-like structures in resting 32D cells. Deletion of the actin binding domain of Bcr-Abl (Bcr-AbI-AD) dramatically enhances the localization of Bcr-Abl on the vesicle-like structures. These distinct localization patterns of Bcr-Abl and Bcr-Abl-AD enabled us to examine the localization of Bcr-Abl substrate and interacting proteins in relation to Bcr-Abl. We found that a subset of biochemically defined target proteins of Bcr-Abl redistributed and co-localized with Bcr-Abl on F-actin and on vesicle-like structures. The co-localization of signaling proteins with Bcr-Abl at its sites of localization supports the idea that Bcr-Abl forms a multi-protein signaling complex, while the polarized distribution and vesicle-like localization of Bcr-Abl may play a role in leukemogenesis.  (+info)

Changes in basement membrane thickness in the human endometrium during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. (4/6230)

We have examined aspects of the fine structure of the basal laminae associated with the luminal and glandular epithelium and small blood vessels in the human endometrium. Four short studies are presented and reviewed. Study 1 examined biopsies from 20 fertile women taken on days after the luteinizing hormone surge (LH): LH +2, 4, 6, 8 and 10. The basal lamina (both lamina densa and lucida) increased in thickness over the period studied. Study 2 again studied the glandular epithelium and examined the effect of RU486 (a progesterone receptor blocker) administered on day LH +3 and biopsied on day LH +6. The basal laminae were found to be the same as LH +2 control group but thinner than LH +6 control. Study 3 documented increased thickness of the basal laminae between LH +6, 8 and 13 in the luminal epithelium. The within-group coefficient of variation was 16% and 27% for LH +6 and LH +13 groups but only 2 % for LH +8. Study 4 demonstrated an increase in basal lamina thickness associated with small blood vessels between LH +6 and LH +10 in normal fertile women. The basal lamina provides the interface between epithelial and mesenchymal environments; changes in its structure can alter the phenotypic expression of the epithelia. It is one of the maternal barriers that must be transgressed by the trophoblast during implantation. Together, these combined studies provide quantitative baseline structural information on the electron microscopical appearance of the basal lamina during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle.  (+info)

Myometrial zonal differentiation and uterine junctional zone hyperplasia in the non-pregnant uterus. (5/6230)

Human non-gravid myometrium differentiates in response to ovarian sex steroids into a subendometrial layer or junctional zone and an outer myometrial layer. Compared to the outer myometrial layer, the junctional zone myocytes are characterized by higher cellular density and lower cytoplasmic-nuclear ratio. These structural differences allow in-vivo visualization of the myometrial zonal anatomy by T2-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. The human myometrium is also functionally polarized. Video-vaginosonography studies have shown that propagated myometrial contractions in the non-pregnant uterus originate only from the junctional zone and that the frequency and orientation of these contraction waves are dependent on the phase of the menstrual cycle. The mechanisms underlying zonal myometrial differentiation are not known, but growing evidence suggests that ovarian hormone action may be mediated through cytokines and uterotonins locally released by the basal endometrial layer and endometrio-myometrial T-lymphocytes. Irregular thickening of the junctional zone due to inordinate proliferation of the inner myometrium, junctional zone hyperplasia, is a common MR finding in women suffering from menstrual dysfunction. Preliminary data suggest that junctional zone hyperplasia is further characterized by loss of normal inner myometrial function. Although irregular thickening of the junctional zone has been associated with diffuse uterine adenomyosis, the precise relationship between subendometrial smooth muscle proliferation and myometrial invasion by endometrial glands and stroma remains to be established.  (+info)

Sodium reabsorption and distribution of Na+/K+-ATPase during postischemic injury to the renal allograft. (6/6230)

BACKGROUND: A loss of proximal tubule cell polarity is thought to activate tubuloglomerular feedback, thereby contributing to glomerular filtration rate depression in postischemic acute renal failure (ARF). METHODS: We used immunomicroscopy to evaluate the segmental distribution of Na+/K+-ATPase in tubules of recipients of cadaveric renal allografts. Fractional excretion (FE) of sodium and lithium was determined simultaneously. Observations were made on two occasions: one to three hours after graft reperfusion (day 0) and again on post-transplant day 7. An inulin clearance below or above 25 ml/min on day 7 was used to divide subjects into groups with sustained (N = 15) or recovering (N = 16) ARF, respectively. RESULTS: In sustained ARF, the fractional excretion of sodium (FENa) was 40 +/- 6% and 11 +/- 5%, and the fractional excretion of lithium (FELi) was 76 +/- 5% and 70 +/- 2% on days 0 and 7, respectively. Corresponding findings in recovering ARF were 28 +/- 2% and 6 +/- 2% for the FENa and 77 +/- 4% and 55 +/- 3% (P < 0.05 vs. sustained) for FELi. Na+/K+-ATPase distribution in both groups was mainly basolateral in distal straight and convoluted tubule segments and collecting ducts. However, Na+/K+-ATPase was poorly retained in the basolateral membrane of proximal convoluted and straight tubule segments in sustained and recovering ARF on both days 0 and 7. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that loss of proximal tubule cell polarity for Na+/K+-ATPase distribution is associated with enhanced delivery of filtered Na+ to the macula densa for seven days after allograft reperfusion. Whether an ensuing activation of tubuloglomerular feedback is an important cause of glomerular filtration rate depression in this form of ARF remains to be determined.  (+info)

Coupling assembly of the E-cadherin/beta-catenin complex to efficient endoplasmic reticulum exit and basal-lateral membrane targeting of E-cadherin in polarized MDCK cells. (7/6230)

The E-cadherin/catenin complex regulates Ca++-dependent cell-cell adhesion and is localized to the basal-lateral membrane of polarized epithelial cells. Little is known about mechanisms of complex assembly or intracellular trafficking, or how these processes might ultimately regulate adhesion functions of the complex at the cell surface. The cytoplasmic domain of E-cadherin contains two putative basal-lateral sorting motifs, which are homologous to sorting signals in the low density lipoprotein receptor, but an alanine scan across tyrosine residues in these motifs did not affect the fidelity of newly synthesized E-cadherin delivery to the basal-lateral membrane of MDCK cells. Nevertheless, sorting signals are located in the cytoplasmic domain since a chimeric protein (GP2CAD1), comprising the extracellular domain of GP2 (an apical membrane protein) and the transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains of E-cadherin, was efficiently and specifically delivered to the basal-lateral membrane. Systematic deletion and recombination of specific regions of the cytoplasmic domain of GP2CAD1 resulted in delivery of <10% of these newly synthesized proteins to both apical and basal-lateral membrane domains. Significantly, >90% of each mutant protein was retained in the ER. None of these mutants formed a strong interaction with beta-catenin, which normally occurs shortly after E-cadherin synthesis. In addition, a simple deletion mutation of E-cadherin that lacks beta-catenin binding is also localized intracellularly. Thus, beta-catenin binding to the whole cytoplasmic domain of E-cadherin correlates with efficient and targeted delivery of E-cadherin to the lateral plasma membrane. In this capacity, we suggest that beta-catenin acts as a chauffeur, to facilitate transport of E-cadherin out of the ER and the plasma membrane.  (+info)

Identification and characterization of genes required for hyphal morphogenesis in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans. (8/6230)

In the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans, germination of an asexual conidiospore results in the formation of a hyphal cell. A key feature of spore germination is the switch from isotropic spore expansion to polarized apical growth. Here, temperature-sensitive mutations are used to characterize the roles of five genes (sepA, hypA, podB-podD) in the establishment and maintenance of hyphal polarity. Evidence that suggests that the hypA, podB, and sepA genes are required for multiple aspects of hyphal morphogenesis is presented. Notably, podB and sepA are needed for organization of the cytoskeleton at sites of polarized growth. In contrast, podC and podD encode proteins that appear to be specifically required for the establishment of hyphal polarity during spore germination. The role of sepA and the pod genes in controlling the spatial pattern of polarized morphogenesis in germinating spores is also described. Results obtained from these experiments indicate that the normal pattern of germ-tube emergence is dependent upon the integrity of the actin cytoskeleton.  (+info)

There are several types of NTDs, including:

1. Anencephaly: A severe form of NTD where a large portion of the neural tube does not develop, resulting in the absence of a major part of the brain and skull.
2. Spina Bifida: A type of NTD where the spine does not close properly, leading to varying degrees of neurological damage and physical disability.
3. Encephalocele: A type of NTD where the brain or meninges protrude through a opening in the skull.
4. Meningomyelocele: A type of NTD where the spinal cord and meninges protrude through a opening in the back.

Causes and risk factors:

1. Genetic mutations: Some NTDs can be caused by genetic mutations that affect the development of the neural tube.
2. Environmental factors: Exposure to certain chemicals, such as folic acid deficiency, has been linked to an increased risk of NTDs.
3. Maternal health: Women with certain medical conditions, such as diabetes or obesity, are at a higher risk of having a child with NTDs.

Symptoms and diagnosis:

1. Anencephaly: Severely underdeveloped brain, absence of skull, and often death shortly after birth.
2. Spina Bifida: Difficulty walking, weakness or paralysis in the legs, bladder and bowel problems, and intellectual disability.
3. Encephalocele: Protrusion of brain or meninges through a opening in the skull, which can cause developmental delays, seizures, and intellectual disability.
4. Meningomyelocele: Protrusion of spinal cord and meninges through a opening in the back, which can cause weakness or paralysis in the legs, bladder and bowel problems, and intellectual disability.

Treatment and management:

1. Surgery: Depending on the type and severity of the NTD, surgery may be necessary to close the opening in the skull or back, or to release compressed tissue.
2. Physical therapy: To help improve mobility and strength in affected limbs.
3. Occupational therapy: To help with daily activities and fine motor skills.
4. Speech therapy: To help with communication and language development.
5. Medications: To manage seizures, pain, and other symptoms.
6. Nutritional support: To ensure adequate nutrition and growth.
7. Supportive care: To help manage the physical and emotional challenges of living with an NTD.


1. Folic acid supplements: Taking a daily folic acid supplement during pregnancy can help prevent NTDs.
2. Good nutrition: Eating a balanced diet that includes foods rich in folate, such as leafy greens, citrus fruits, and beans, can help prevent NTDs.
3. Avoiding alcohol and tobacco: Both alcohol and tobacco use have been linked to an increased risk of NTDs.
4. Getting regular prenatal care: Regular check-ups with a healthcare provider during pregnancy can help identify potential problems early on and reduce the risk of NTDs.
5. Avoiding infections: Infections such as rubella (German measles) can increase the risk of NTDs, so it's important to avoid exposure to these infections during pregnancy.

It's important to note that not all NTDs can be prevented, and some may be caused by genetic factors or other causes that are not yet fully understood. However, taking steps to maintain good health and getting regular prenatal care can help reduce the risk of NTDs and improve outcomes for babies born with these conditions.

There are several types of kidney diseases that are classified as cystic, including:

1. Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD): This is the most common form of cystic kidney disease and is caused by a genetic mutation. It is characterized by the growth of numerous cysts in both kidneys, which can lead to kidney damage and failure.
2. Autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD): This is a rare form of cystic kidney disease that is also caused by a genetic mutation. It is characterized by the growth of numerous cysts in both kidneys, as well as other organs such as the liver and pancreas.
3. Cystinosis: This is a rare genetic disorder that causes the accumulation of cystine crystals in the kidneys and other organs. It can lead to the formation of cysts and damage to the kidneys.
4. Medullary cystic kidney disease (MCKD): This is a rare genetic disorder that affects the medulla, the innermost layer of the kidney. It is characterized by the growth of cysts in the medulla, which can lead to kidney damage and failure.
5. Other rare forms of cystic kidney disease: There are several other rare forms of cystic kidney disease that can be caused by genetic mutations or other factors. These include hereditary cystic papillary necrosis, familial juvenile nephropathy, and others.

The symptoms of kidney diseases, cystic can vary depending on the specific type of disease and the severity of the condition. Common symptoms include:

* High blood pressure
* Proteinuria (excess protein in the urine)
* Hematuria (blood in the urine)
* Decreased kidney function
* Abdominal pain
* Weight loss
* Fatigue
* Swelling in the legs and ankles

If you suspect that you or your child may have a cystic kidney disease, it is important to seek medical attention as soon as possible. A healthcare provider can perform a physical examination, take a medical history, and order diagnostic tests such as urinalysis, blood tests, and imaging studies (such as ultrasound or CT scans) to determine the cause of the symptoms.

Treatment for cystic kidney disease will depend on the specific type of disease and the severity of the condition. Treatment options may include:

* Medications to control high blood pressure and proteinuria
* Medications to slow the progression of kidney damage
* Dialysis or kidney transplantation in advanced cases
* Cyst aspiration or surgical removal of cysts in some cases

It is important to note that there is no cure for cystic kidney disease, and the best treatment approach is to slow the progression of the disease and manage its symptoms. Early detection and aggressive management can help improve quality of life and delay the need for dialysis or transplantation.

In addition to medical treatment, there are some lifestyle modifications that may be helpful in managing cystic kidney disease. These include:

* Maintaining a healthy diet with low salt and protein intake
* Staying hydrated by drinking plenty of water
* Engaging in regular physical activity
* Avoiding harmful substances such as tobacco and alcohol
* Monitoring blood pressure and weight regularly

It is important to note that cystic kidney disease can be a serious condition, and it is important to work closely with a healthcare provider to manage the disease and slow its progression. With appropriate treatment and lifestyle modifications, many people with cystic kidney disease are able to lead active and fulfilling lives.

There are two main types of PKD: autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) and autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD). ADPKD is the most common form of PKD and accounts for about 90% of all cases. It is caused by mutations in the PKD1 or PKD2 genes, which are inherited from one's parents. ARPKD is less common and is caused by mutations in the PKHD1 gene.

The symptoms of PKD can vary depending on the severity of the disease and the age of onset. Common symptoms include high blood pressure, back pain, kidney stones, urinary tract infections, and frequent urination. As the cysts grow, they can also cause complications such as kidney damage, anemia, and electrolyte imbalances.

PKD is typically diagnosed through a combination of imaging tests such as ultrasound, CT scans, and MRI, as well as genetic testing to identify the presence of the disease-causing mutations. There is no cure for PKD, but treatment options are available to manage the symptoms and slow the progression of the disease. These may include medications to control high blood pressure, pain management, and dialysis in advanced cases.

In conclusion, polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is a genetic disorder that affects the kidneys and can lead to chronic kidney disease and eventually kidney failure. It is important to be aware of the symptoms and risk factors for PKD, as well as to seek medical attention if they are present, in order to receive proper diagnosis and treatment.

... refers to spatial differences in shape, structure, and function within a cell. Almost all cell types exhibit some ... Yeast cells share many features of cell polarity with other organisms, but feature fewer protein components. In yeast, polarity ... Biology portal Epithelial polarity Cell migration Embryogenesis Embryonic development Asymmetric cell division 3D cell culture ... and migrating cells. Furthermore, cell polarity is important during many types of asymmetric cell division to set up functional ...
... is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PRICKLE2 gene. This gene encodes a homolog ... "Entrez Gene: Prickle planar cell polarity protein 2". Retrieved 2018-02-20. Katoh M, Katoh M (February 2003). "Identification ... Cell. Biol. 32 (1): 173-85. doi:10.1128/MCB.06320-11. PMC 3255712. PMID 22037766. v t e This article incorporates text from the ... of human PRICKLE1 and PRICKLE2 genes as well as mouse Prickle1 and Prickle2 genes homologous to Drosophila tissue polarity gene ...
A similar gene in frogs encodes a planar cell polarity protein that plays a critical role in collective cell movement and ... WD repeat containing planar cell polarity effector is a protein that in humans is encoded by the WDPCP gene. This gene encodes ... "Entrez Gene: WD repeat containing planar cell polarity effector". Retrieved 2017-06-07. Talmud PJ, Drenos F, Shah S, Shah T, ...
... is one example of the cell polarity that is a fundamental feature of many types of cells. Epithelial cells ... In at least one cultured cell line, the MDCK cell, this system is required for epithelial polarity. The relationship between ... How epithelial cells generate and maintain polarity remains unclear, but certain molecules have been found to play a key role. ... How epithelial cells polarize is still not fully understood. Some key principles have been proposed to maintain polarity, but ...
Cell, 47(6), 1033-1040. Patel, N. H., Schafer, B., Goodman, C. S., & Holmgren, R. (1989). The role of segment polarity genes ... In the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, segment polarity genes help to define the anterior and posterior polarities within ... The segment polarity is the last step in embryonic development and a repeated pattern where each half of each segment is ... Segment polarity genes are expressed in the embryo following expression of the gap genes and pair-rule genes. The most commonly ...
... the polarity (+); the date of manufacturing. Often a 2-letter code (sometimes on the side of the battery) where the first ... Button cells are single cells, usually disposable primary cells. Common anode materials are zinc or lithium. Common cathode ... Wider variants are usually called coin cells. Devices using button cells are usually designed around a cell giving a long ... A button cell, watch battery, or coin battery is a small single-cell battery shaped as a squat cylinder typically 5 to 25 mm ( ...
". "A polarity/proton loop". "Arp2/3 phosphorylation kickstarts cells". "Diane Barber, PhD". Biomedical Sciences Graduate ... J Cell Biol. 159:1087-1096. (Highlighted in Journal [Using acid to find direction. J Cell Biol. 2002 159:911]) (Cited in > 340 ... J Cell Biol. 217:3965-3976. Also included in JCB Special Collection of published outstanding articles on the cell biology of ... 2017 Cancer cell behaviors mediated by dysregulated pH dynamics at a glance. J Cell Sci. 130(4):663-669. (Cited by > 150 ...
Journal of Cell Biology, 103(6), 2739-2746. Drubin, D. G., & Nelson, W. J. (1996). Origins of cell polarity. Cell, 84(3), 335- ... "Origins of Cell Polarity". "A protein interaction map for cell polarity development". Kaksonen, Marko; Toret, Christopher P.; ... He extended these studies to mammalian cells, and determined the roles of these proteins in endocytosis and cell polarity ... Drubin developed cell culture models to study its biological function. He distilled general principles for cell polarity ...
In the absence of occludin some polarity is still lost and the neuroepithelial cell gives rise to the radial glial cell. In the ... Neuroepithelial cells undergo mitosis generating more neuroepithelial cells, radial glial cells or progenitor cells, the latter ... The asymmetric cell division results in two different varieties of daughter cells (i.e. a neuroepithelial cell divides into a ... Neuroepithelial cells are the stem cells of the central nervous system, known as neural stem cells, and generate the ...
... a key player in the establishment of cell polarity in all eukaryotic cells. The GEF activity of FGD1, which activates Cdc42, is ... Etienne-Manneville S (March 2004). "Cdc42--the centre of polarity". J. Cell Sci. 117 (Pt 8): 1291-300. doi:10.1242/jcs.01115. ... Cell. 20 (9): 2413-27. doi:10.1091/mbc.E08-11-1136. PMC 2675621. PMID 19261807. Olson MF, Pasteris NG, Gorski JL, Hall A ( ... FGD1 also activates the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling cascade, important in cell differentiation and apoptosis. It ...
v t e (Cell anatomy, All stub articles, Cell biology stubs). ... Dworkin, J (December 2009). "Cellular polarity in prokaryotic ... There, the membrane appears slightly thickened with a finely frilled layer facing the inside of the cell. It is also possible ... especially where multiple flagella bases are grouped in a region of the cell membrane. It may thus be inferred that the polar ... "ATPase activity of the polar organelle demonstrated by cytochemical reaction in whole unstained cells of Rhodopseudomonas ...
Ferrari Toninelli G, Spano P, Memo M (2003). "TorsinA, microtubules and cell polarity". Funct. Neurol. 18 (1): 7-10. PMID ... 2000). "Mutant torsinA, responsible for early-onset torsion dystonia, forms membrane inclusions in cultured neural cells". Hum ...
In fact, the origin of asymmetry in cell division, cell polarity and the mechanism that breaks the symmetry continue to be ... Cells first need to establish a polarity through a symmetry-breaking event before tissues and organs themselves can be polar. ... Wong, Fei (2009). "The Signaling Mechanisms Underlying Cell Polarity and Chemotaxis". Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in ... Nelson, James W. (2009). "Remodeling epithelial cell organization: Transitions between front-rear and apical-basal polarity". ...
van Meer G, Simons K (1988). "Lipid polarity and sorting in epithelial cells". J. Cell. Biochem. 36 (1): 51-8. doi:10.1002/jcb. ... Simons K, Fuller SD (1985). "Cell surface polarity in epithelia". Annu. Rev. Cell Biol. 1: 243-88. doi:10.1146/annurev.cb. ... American Society of Cell Biology 1991 Anders Jahre Prize for Medical Research 1991 NICHD Lectureship in Cell Biology 1993 Carl ... molecular organization of the cell, and biochemistry and physiology of a cell membrane. Considering his work from years 1996- ...
The function of neurons depends upon cell polarity. The distinctive structure of nerve cells allows action potentials to travel ... Arimura, Nariko; Kaibuchi, Kozo (December 22, 2005). "Key regulators in neuronal polarity". Neuron. Cambridge, MA: Cell Press. ... and for these signals to then be received and carried on by post-synaptic neurons or received by effector cells. Nerve cells ... Cell. 185 (18): 3390-3407.e18. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2022.07.026. ISSN 0092-8674. PMID 36055200. S2CID 251958800. University press ...
Sexual differentiation may be seen between pairs of bacteria cells engaged in bacterial conjugation. The genetic-element donor ... Sexual polarity is a concept of dualism between masculine and feminine. More generally, the term may be used to denote mutual ... Sexual polarity is sometimes presented in New Age spirituality and self-help materials. In The Way of the Superior Man, David ... Researchers at the University of Connecticut devised a scale of sexual polarity between right-wing and left-wing sexual ...
Johnson KA, Rosenbaum JL (December 1992). "Polarity of flagellar assembly in Chlamydomonas". The Journal of Cell Biology. 119 ( ... blood cells being a prominent exception. Most cells only possess one, in contrast to cells with motile cilia, an exception ... duct cells. Endocrine tissue is composed of different hormone secreting cells. Insulin secreting beta cells and glucagon ... Some epithelial cells are ciliated, and they commonly exist as a sheet of polarized cells forming a tube or tubule with cilia ...
Additionally, cells destined to become neural plate cells express nerve cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) to further neural plate ... Eom, Dae S; Amarnath, Smita; Agarwala, Seema (20 December 2012). "Apicobasal Polarity and neural tube closure". Development, ... Without BMP4 the ectoderm cells would develop into neural cells. Axial mesoderm cells under the ectoderm secrete inhibitory ... the overlying cells take their normal course and develop into neural cells. The cells in the ectoderm that circumscribe these ...
... cell polarity and tumorigenesis". Trends in Cell Biology. 21 (12): 727-735. doi:10.1016/j.tcb.2011.06.005. ISSN 1879-3088. PMID ... British-American biologist researching the molecules that establish Cell polarity in Epithelium, both in normal cells and in ... Macara, Ian G.; McCaffrey, Luke (November 5, 2013). "Cell polarity in morphogenesis and metastasis". Philosophical Transactions ... "Widely conserved signaling pathways in the establishment of cell polarity". Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology. 1 (2): ...
His research focuses on the molecules that establish Cell polarity in Epithelium, both in normal cells and in cancer. "Ian ... cell polarity and tumorigenesis". Trends in Cell Biology. 21 (12): 727-735. doi:10.1016/j.tcb.2011.06.005. ISSN 1879-3088. PMID ... Macara, Ian G.; McCaffrey, Luke (2013-11-05). "Cell polarity in morphogenesis and metastasis". Philosophical Transactions of ... "Widely conserved signaling pathways in the establishment of cell polarity". Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology. 1 (2): ...
The IEE cells then elongate and become preameloblasts. There is a shift in polarity. Each preameloblast elongates and becomes ... In the secretory stage, ameloblasts are polarized columnar cells. In the rough endoplasmic reticulum of these cells, enamel ... processes at the end of the cell which is in contact with the DEJ. Tomes' process is the term given to the end of the cell ... Microscopically, the most notable aspect of this phase is that these cells become striated, or have a ruffled border. These ...
Prickle is another protein in the planar cell polarity signaling pathway. Prickle is recruited to the cell surface membrane by ... Fanto M, McNeill H (February 2004). "Planar polarity from flies to vertebrates". J. Cell Sci. 117 (Pt 4): 527-33. doi:10.1242/ ... Wolff T, Rubin GM (March 1998). "Strabismus, a novel gene that regulates tissue polarity and cell fate decisions in Drosophila ... Strabismus was originally identified as a Drosophila protein involved in planar cell polarity. Flies with mutated strabismus ...
Jones, Chonnettia; Chen, Ping (February 2007). "Planar cell polarity signaling in vertebrates". BioEssays. 29 (2): 120-132. doi ... "Wnt5a functions in planar cell polarity regulation in mice". Developmental Biology. 306 (1): 121-133. doi:10.1016/j.ydbio. ... "Ciliary proteins link basal body polarization to planar cell polarity regulation". Nature Genetics. 40 (1): 69-77. doi:10.1038/ ... cell and developmental biology. Jones' dissertation 2005 was titled Molecular and functional characterization of mini-me, a ...
MDCK cells are used for a wide variety of cell biology studies including cell polarity, cell-cell adhesions (termed adherens ... "Cell-cell interaction and polarity of epithelial cells: specific perturbation using a monoclonal antibody". Cell. 35 (3): 667- ... epithelial cells acquire invasive properties after the loss of uvomorulin-mediated cell-cell adhesion". J Cell Biol. 108 (6): ... Cell motility by which MDCK cells produce and elongate branches was linked with these polarity changes. These findings were ...
Effective migration requires cell elongation and polarity. Environmental guidance cues are required for the PGCs to initiate ... Down-regulation will result in reduced cell-cell adhesion which allows the germ cells to separate and begin the migration ... Coffman, Clark R. (May 2003). "Cell migration and programmed cell death of Drosophila germ cells". Annals of the New York ... the germ cells move towards the somatic gonadal precursor cells and associate with them. These two associated cell types then ...
Prevent the free diffusion of water and solutes among adjacent epithelial cells. Preserve the epithelial polarity and cell ... Have a function in the morphogenesis like tracheal morphology that regulate the cell size and the cell length. Regulate cell ... Pleated SJs(pSJs) play roles in development and cell signaling. Form the mechanical link between cells which can densely pack ... CS1 errors: missing periodical, Cell anatomy, Cell biology). ... Band 4.1-Coracle is necessary for the interaction of the cell. ...
Expression of CRMPs-1, -4, and -5 in the adult testis is detected only in the cell spermatid stage and CRMP-2 mRNA is found in ... Arimura N, Menager C, Fukata Y, Kaibuchi K (January 2004). "Role of CRMP-2 in neuronal polarity". Journal of Neurobiology. 58 ( ... CRMP1 mRNA is mainly expressed in Purkinje cells of the cerebellum. Among the five members of the CRMP family, CRMP-2 is the ... International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology. Vol. 267. pp. 125-181. doi:10.1016/S1937-6448(08)00603-5. ISBN ...
... and Cell Polarity. His works led to the fundamental understanding of cell polarity in response to cell signaling. After the ... His lab focused on cell signaling via PKC and the molecular mechanisms how cell polarity is related to other signaling pathways ... These findings showed that PKC family plays various rules in cell signaling. On the other hand, the concept of cell polarity ... a conserved core cassette playing fundamental roles in cell polarity". Current Opinion in Cell Biology. 13 (5): 641-8. doi: ...
E. R. Gavis; R. Lehmann (1 October 1992). "Localization of nanos RNA controls embryonic polarity". Cell. 71 (2): 301-313. doi: ... She showed that these mRNAs pack into highly ordered germ granules, which are segregated into germ cell progenitors and their ... Lerit, Dorothy A.; Gavis, Elizabeth R. (2011-03-22). "Transport of Germ Plasm on Astral Microtubules Directs Germ Cell ... Nature Cell Biology. 17 (5): 558-568. doi:10.1038/ncb3143. ISSN 1476-4679. PMC 4417036. PMID 25848747. Eagle, Whitby V. I.; ...
Both of these functions support neuron cell polarity, in which dendrites (and, in some cases the soma) of a neuron receive ... Cells called guidepost cells assist in the guidance of neuronal axon growth. These cells that help axon guidance, are typically ... Depending on the type of receptors that are activated, the effect on the target cell can be to excite the target cell, inhibit ... Myelin is a layer of a fatty insulating substance, which is formed by two types of glial cells: Schwann cells and ...
Cell-cell adhesion complexes are required for simple epithelia in higher organisms to maintain structure, function and polarity ... F9 embryonal carcinoma cells are similar to the P19 cells shown in Figure 1 and normally have cell-to-cell adhesion mediated by ... A tumor cell line with defective δ-catenin, low levels of E-cadherin and poor cell-to-cell adhesion could be restored to normal ... providing the cell with a means of stable cell adhesion. However, decreases in this adhesion ability of the cell has been ...
Bergmann uses the development of stomata as a model to study cell fate, the self renewal of stem cells and cell polarity in ... Through their research, their goal is to uncover the differing elements in nature that ensure that cells can restore themselves ... Young, Susan (2010-11-11). "Stem cells to hypersonic vehicles: Four young scientists win presidential award". Stanford ... she is a professor of Biology at Stanford University and is in association with the Stanford Institute for Stem Cell Biology ...
Formin-related proteins have been implicated in morphogenesis, cytokinesis, and cell polarity. An alternative splice variant ... binds to Rac and regulates cell motility and survival of macrophages". Mol. Cell. Biol. UNITED STATES. 20 (18): 6872-6881. doi: ... doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.09.026. PMID 17081983. S2CID 7827573. v t e (Articles with short description, Short description matches ... Cell. Biol. 20 (18): 6872-6881. doi:10.1128/MCB.20.18.6872-6881.2000. PMC 86228. PMID 10958683. Strausberg RL, Feingold EA, ...
The D flip-flop can be viewed as a memory cell, a zero-order hold, or a delay line. Truth table: (X denotes a don't care ... If the middle NAND gate is omitted, then one gets the polarity hold latch, which is commonly used because it demands less logic ...
... attracting opposite polarity charge and repelling like polarity charges, thus an opposite polarity charge will be induced on ... After Volta's discovery of the electrochemical cell in 1800, the term was then applied to a group of electrochemical cells " ... Voltage reversal is the change of polarity in a circuit. Reversal is generally described as the percentage of the maximum rated ... In dynamic random-access memory (DRAM), each memory cell typically consists of a MOSFET and MOS capacitor. A capacitor consists ...
The emission system of the plate reader uses polarizing filters to analyze the polarity of the emitted light. A low level of ... Some of the most common assays are: ELISAs Protein and cell growth assays Protein:protein interactions Reporter assays Nucleic ... to look at cell populations Label-free instruments that use specialized microplates to measure binding events without the use ... as well as cell viability, cytotoxicity, and biorhythm assays based on the luminescent detection of ATP. Time-resolved ...
"Syntaxins 3 and 4 are concentrated in separate clusters on the plasma membrane before the establishment of cell polarity". Mol ... "Interaction of Munc-18-2 with syntaxin 3 controls the association of apical SNAREs in epithelial cells". J. Cell Sci. 111 (17 ... "Human syntaxin 3 is localized apically in human intestinal cells". J. Cell Sci. 110 (18): 2207-14. doi:10.1242/jcs.110.18.2207 ... Cell. 9 (6): 1437-48. doi:10.1091/mbc.9.6.1437. PMC 25366. PMID 9614185. Riento K, Galli T, Jansson S, Ehnholm C, Lehtonen E, ...
A feature or aspect is an attribute or component of an entity, e.g., the screen of a cell phone, the service for a restaurant, ... One can also classify a document's polarity on a multi-way scale, which was attempted by Pang and Snyder among others: Pang and ... Attitudinal term has shifted polarity recently in certain domains) I love my mobile but would not recommend it to any of my ... It refers to determining the opinions or sentiments expressed on different features or aspects of entities, e.g., of a cell ...
... such as cell proliferation and motility and the establishment of cell polarity. They are also involved in pathophysiologic ... Cell. 14 (12): 4846-56. doi:10.1091/mbc.E03-04-0254. PMC 284789. PMID 12960428. Strausberg RL, Feingold EA, Grouse LH, et al. ( ... Ruusala A, Aspenström P (2004). "Isolation and characterisation of DOCK8, a member of the DOCK180-related regulators of cell ... 2005). "High-throughput mapping of a dynamic signaling network in mammalian cells". Science. 307 (5715): 1621-5. Bibcode: ...
With further division they begin to become flattened, and develop an inside-out polarity that optimises the cell to cell ... Embryoblast cells also known as the inner cell mass form a compact mass of cells at the embryonic pole on one side of the ... The blastomeres are the daughter cells of the zygote, and when the blastomeres number from 16-32 the ball of cells is called a ... The cells on the outside and inside become differentially fated into trophoblast (outside) and inner cell mass (inside) ...
Narrow-band transmitters like cell phones and walkie-talkies have an ATU circuit inside, permanently set to work with the ... but with opposite polarity. Either the usual "hot" output wire or the matching circuit "hot ground" will give you exactly the ... such as cell phones and walkie-talkies, have an internal, non-user adjustable ATU circuit, permanently set to work with the ...
The amputation is sensed by a large number of somatic stem cells, that migrate to the wound they increase their division rate. ... These gradients are driven by the polarity in the hydra. The hypostome in the head region inhibits the formation of another ... At the wound blastema forms and the blastema cells proliferate to re-generate the lost tissues. There is no significant re- ... Pellettieri J (March 2019). "Regenerative tissue remodeling in planarians - The mysteries of morphallaxis". Seminars in Cell & ...
There are two magnetic polarities, each of which is used to represent either 0 or 1.[citation needed] The magnetic surface is ... echoing four bit multi level flash memory cells, that have six different bits, as opposed to two. Research is also being done ...
The voltage delivered by a lead-acid battery with six-cells used as an automotive battery will vary depending on various ... For use in amateur radio, the community has adopted a standard color code, polarity, and specific physical arrangement for ... reverse polarity damages equipment) and non-hermaphroditic connectors can be mechanically incompatible with each other (won't ... or which end has the correct polarity. This is in contrast to the physically-but not electrically-hermaphroditic two-wire ...
"AlphaII-spectrin is critical for cell adhesion and cell cycle" (PDF). The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 284 (4): 2409-18. ... "Caenorhabditis elegans beta-G spectrin is dispensable for establishment of epithelial polarity, but essential for muscular and ... Bennett PM, Baines AJ, Lecomte MC, Maggs AM, Pinder JC (2004). "Not just a plasma membrane protein: in cardiac muscle cells ... The spectrins are a family of widely distributed cytoskeletal proteins which are involved in actin crosslinking, cell adhesion ...
The complex is also essential for the biogenesis of epithelial cell surface polarity. EXOC3 has been shown to interact with ... Cell Biol. 5 (6): 520-30. doi:10.1038/ncb990. PMID 12738960. S2CID 13444388. Inoue M, Chang L, Hwang J, Chiang SH, Saltiel AR ( ... Cell. Biol. 22 (6): 1714-22. doi:10.1128/MCB.22.6.1714-1722.2002. PMC 135608. PMID 11865051. Inoue M, Chang L, Hwang J, Chiang ... Wang S, Hsu SC (2004). "Immunological characterization of exocyst complex subunits in cell differentiation". Hybrid. ...
The molecule's polarity, and especially, its ability to form hydrogen bonds, makes ammonia highly miscible with water. The lone ... Ammonia can also be used as a source of hydrogen for acid fuel cells if the unreacted ammonia can be removed. Ruthenium and ...
... such as mRNA localization and translation control in molecular biology as well as the establishment of polarity axes in cell ... "Editorial Board: Cell". www.cell.com. "New editorial board members". The Journal of Cell Biology. 217 (1): 01-03. 2018-01-02. ... Editorial Board Trends in Cell Biology (since 1997) Editorial Board, Genes to Cells (since 2003) Genes to Cells Editorial Board ... Cell (since 2009) Editorial Board, RNA (since 2018) RNA -- Editors and Editorial Board Editorial Board, Journal of Cell Biology ...
Ectopic Shroom3 has been shown to be sufficient to induce apical constriction, but only in cells with apico-basal polarity. The ... These cells are known as bottle cells, for their eventual shape. Because all of the cells constrict on the apical side, the ... Apical constriction is the process in which contraction of the apical side of a cell causes the cell to take on a wedged shape ... In these cells, apical constriction occurs when actomyosin contractility folds the cell membrane to reduce the apical surface ...
To explain the polarity of the PV which is independent of the illumination direction one must assume that there exists a large ... This would not occur in an ordinary solar cell like silicon. The bulk photovoltaic effect is believed to play a role in the ... There are two electronic levels per unit cell, separated by a large energy gap, say 3 eV. The blue arrows indicate radiative ... This is unusual: For example, in a normal silicon solar cell, electrons move in the direction of decreasing electron-quasi- ...
The non-polarity of PDMS allows for biomolecules to readily adsorb to its surface in order to lower interfacial energy. However ... 2 June 2010), "Integrated Antimicrobial and Nonfouling Hydrogels to Inhibit the Growth of Planktonic Bacterial Cells and Keep ... correlating wettability with cell attachment". Biofouling. 22 (1): 11-21. doi:10.1080/08927010500484854. PMID 16551557. S2CID ...
The Hull cell is a type of test cell used to semi-quantitatively check the condition of an electroplating bath. It measures ... duration and polarity, separated by zero current. By changing the pulse amplitude and width, it is possible to change the ... The "work" is replaced with a Hull cell test panel that will be plated to show the "health" of the bath. The Hull cell is a ... The Hull cell replicates the plating bath on a lab scale. It is filled with a sample of the plating solution, an appropriate ...
For large unit cell models, the RBME method can reduce the time for computing the band structure by up to two orders of ... determines the polarity of wave propagation (wave vector). Hence within the last equation, Veselago-type solutions (n2 = u*ε) ... Each cell consists of a large rigid disk and two thin ligaments, and acts as a tiny oscillator connected by springs. One spring ... To obtain the frequency band structure of a phononic crystal, Bloch's theorem is applied on a single unit cell in the ...
... cell polarity, and the formation of other cell junction complexes. Tight junctions, also called zonula occludens, are the most ... Goblet cells, enteroendocrine cells, Paneth cells, microfold cells, cup cells and tuft cells. Their functions are listed here: ... M cells are associated with Peyer's patches. Cup cells are a distinct cell type but with no known function. Tuft cells play a ... Paneth cells produce antimicrobial peptides such as human alpha-defensin. Microfold cells (commonly referred to as M cells) ...
Hardy WB (May 1899). "On the structure of cell protoplasm: Part I. The Structure produced in a Cell by Fixative and Post-mortem ... The Dsh protein functions both in planar polarity and Wnt signalling, where it recruits another supramolecular complex (the ... June 2018). "Protein Phase Separation: A New Phase in Cell Biology". Trends in Cell Biology. 28 (6): 420-435. doi:10.1016/j.tcb ... Membrane protein, or membrane-associated protein, clustering at neurological synapses, cell-cell tight junctions, or other ...
"A Solvatochromic Fluorescent Probe Reveals Polarity Heterogeneity upon Protein Aggregation in Cells". Angewandte Chemie ... However, as cells age, these control mechanisms are weakened and the cell is less able to resolve the aggregates. The ... In mammalian cells, these protein aggregates are termed "aggresomes" and they are formed when the cell is diseased. This is ... After the cell divides, the daughter cells with the older pole gets the protein aggregate and grows more slowly than daughter ...
... in protecting hair cells against ototoxic drug-induced hearing loss and hair cell death. As chief, she led a team aimed at ... Her 1991 thesis was titled: Effects of click polarity on auditory brainstem responses in man using high-pass noise masking. She ... In January 2011, Cunningham joined the NIDCD Intramural Division as acting chief of the Section on Sensory Cell Biology. Her ... She is a senior investigator of sensory cell biology at the National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders ( ...
Lyotropic LCs abound in living systems; many proteins and cell membranes are LCs, as well as the tobacco mosaic virus. LCs in ... Because there is no physical polarity along the director axis, n and -n are fully equivalent. The description of liquid ... Monolayers of elongated cells have also been described to exhibit liquid-crystal behavior, and the associated topological ... In particular, biological membranes and cell membranes are a form of liquid crystal. Their constituent molecules (e.g. ...
This is done in a configuration called an electrodialysis cell. The cell consists of a feed (dilute) compartment and a ... reversal systems seek to minimize scaling by periodically reversing the flows of diluate and concentrate and polarity of the ... dilute ED cell inlet concentration, mol/L C o u t l e t d {\displaystyle C_{outlet}^{d}} = dilute ED cell outlet concentration ... In almost all practical electrodialysis processes, multiple electrodialysis cells are arranged into a configuration called an ...
Because of its polarity and thermal stability, MSM has been used industrially as a high-temperature solvent. For example, ... This is supported by in vitro research showing MSM inhibits over-activation of white blood cells and has an anti-apoptotic ... In a xenograft model the mice showed inhibited tumor cell migration and suppressed tumor growth in a dose dependent manner when ... The authors postulate that MSM's anti-inflammatory properties reduce the overstimulation of inflammatory cells during exercise ...
These data provide a molecular mechanism how hypoxic stress deregulates cell polarity during tumour progression. Loss of cell ... Cell polarity is often lost in advanced tumours correlating with acquisition of invasive and malignant properties. Despite ... the mechanisms that deregulate polarity in metastasizing cells remain to be fully characterized. Here we show that AmotL2 ... We further show that hypoxic stress results in activation of c-Fos-dependent expression of AmotL2 leading to loss of polarity. ...
We have evaluated the utility of the hepatoma-derived hybrid cell line, WIF-B, for in vitro studies of polarized hepatocyte ... WIF-B cells: an in vitro model for studies of hepatocyte polarity. G Ihrke, G Ihrke ... The majority (, 70%) of cells in confluent culture formed closed spaces with adjacent cells. These bile canalicular-like spaces ... G Ihrke, E B Neufeld, T Meads, M R Shanks, D Cassio, M Laurent, T A Schroer, R E Pagano, A L Hubbard; WIF-B cells: an in vitro ...
Cell polarity refers to spatial differences in the shape and structure of cells, which leads to the generation of diverse cell ... Liu, Y., & Lo, W-C. (2019). Analysis of spontaneous emergence of cell polarity with delayed negative feedback. Mathematical ... Liu, Y & Lo, W-C 2019, Analysis of spontaneous emergence of cell polarity with delayed negative feedback, Mathematical ... Analysis of spontaneous emergence of cell polarity with delayed negative feedback. / Liu, Yue; Lo, Wing-Cheong. ...
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We explored this relationship during cell polarity establishment in the one-cell-stage C. elegans embryo. We quantified the ... feedback between polarity proteins and the actomyosin cortex, and mutual antagonism amongst polarity proteins. We characterized ... Patterns in cells and tissues however often do not form spontaneously, but are under control of upstream pathways that provide ... By coupling a mass-conserved Turing-like reaction-diffusion system for polarity proteins to an active gel description of the ...
T cell receptor reversed polarity recognition of a self-antigen major histocompatibility complex.. Beringer, Dennis X; ... Presumably reflecting TCR-MHC bias and T cell signaling constraints, the TCR universally adopts a canonical polarity atop the ... We report the structures of two TCRs, derived from human induced T regulatory (iT(reg)) cells, complexed to an MHC class II ... Central to adaptive immunity is the interaction between the αß T cell receptor (TCR) and peptide presented by the major ...
... comparative genomics and evolutionary cell biology reveal that the polarity regulators of animal epithelial cells have a ... Epithelial cells display a marked apico-basal polarity, which is highly conserved across the animal kingdom, both in terms of ... We suggest that the polarity network that polarized animal epithelial cells evolved by integration of initially independent ... Finally, the bulk of polarity proteins as well as specialized adhesion complexes evolved in the metazoan stem-line, in ...
STAT1-induced ASPP2 transcription identifies a link between neuroinflammation, cell polarity, and tumor suppression ... STAT1-induced ASPP2 transcription identifies a link between neuroinflammation, cell polarity, and tumor suppression ...
... a known Wnt/planar cell polarity ligand. This Wnt5a spike was not seen in PAH PMVECs, which correlated with an inability to ... but whether production and release of specific Wnt ligands by PMVECs are responsible for Wnt/planar cell polarity activation in ... We have shown that activation of the Wnt/planar cell polarity pathway is required for pericyte recruitment, ... partly by the inability of pericytes to respond to signaling cues from neighboring pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells ( ...
Cell polarity Is the Subject Area "Cell polarity" applicable to this article? Yes. No. ... Cell membranes Is the Subject Area "Cell membranes" applicable to this article? Yes. No. ...
These giant cells (fusion cells) usually develop late in the infection, and each giant cell contains between 2 and 7 nuclei. ... Noninfectious virions with positive RNA polarity have been reported. [9] The HPIV genome contains approximately 15,000 to ... HPIV infections tend to be more severe in individuals with defective cell-mediated immunity, indicating that T cells may have a ... Subsequently, the viruses enter the cell via fusion with the cell membrane mediated by F1 and F2 receptors. ...
CRB1: crumbs cell polarity complex component 1. *CREBBP: CREB binding protein. *CRLF1: cytokine receptor like factor 1 ...
These giant cells (fusion cells) usually develop late in the infection, and each giant cell contains between 2 and 7 nuclei. ... Noninfectious virions with positive RNA polarity have been reported. [9] The HPIV genome contains approximately 15,000 to ... HPIV infections tend to be more severe in individuals with defective cell-mediated immunity, indicating that T cells may have a ... Subsequently, the viruses enter the cell via fusion with the cell membrane mediated by F1 and F2 receptors. ...
Cell Polarity. Edited By Keith E. Mostov, University of California School of Medicine © 2017 312 pages, illustrated (42 color, ... T-Cell Memory. Edited By David Masopust, University of Minnesota; Rafi Ahmed, Emory University © 2021 366 pages, illustrated ( ... Stem Cells: From Biological Principles to Regenerative Medicine. Edited By Cristina Lo Celso; Kristy Red-Horse; Fiona M. Watt ...
Cell Polarity. Edited By Keith E. Mostov, University of California School of Medicine © 2017 312 pages, illustrated (42 color, ... T-Cell Memory. Edited By David Masopust, University of Minnesota; Rafi Ahmed, Emory University © 2021 366 pages, illustrated ( ... Stem Cells: From Biological Principles to Regenerative Medicine. Edited By Cristina Lo Celso; Kristy Red-Horse; Fiona M. Watt ...
MERS-CoV‒Specific T-Cell Responses in Camels Extended Viral Shedding of MERS-CoV Clade B Virus About the Cover More articles on ... Multifocal loss of epithelial polarity and cilia with squamous metaplasia were observed. The epithelium was infiltrated by ... Virus and Cells. MERS-CoV (strain HCoV-EMC/2012) was provided by the Department of Viroscience, Erasmus Medical Center, ... The virus was propagated in Vero E6 cells cultured in Dulbecco modified Eagle medium (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA, USA) ...
Cell Polarity and Mechanics in Fission Yeast 11:10 am - 11:20 am. Discussion ... MAPK-Dependent Cell-to-Cell Movement During Tissue Invasion by the Rice Blast Fungus ... A Secreted Fungal Polysaccharide Alters Fungal Cell Morphology and Facilitates Dissemination Within the Mammalian Host ... Fungal Warfare: NOD-Like Receptor and Pyroptotic-Like Proteins in Allorecognition and Cell Death ...
Epithelial cells develop tight junctions (TJs) and cell polarity. Both properties are sensitive to environmental signals such ... cell survival, and cell adhesion. After treatment with epidermal growth factor or ouabain, epithelial dog kidney MDCK cells ... Whole communicating junctions and desmosomes are internalized by one cell and sent to degradation by nonselective autophagy. ... Nonselective and selective autophagies in epithelial cells are very context dependent; nevertheless, it is clear that, together ...
Name: par-6 family cell polarity regulator beta. Type: Gene. Species: Mus musculus (mouse) ...
membrane domain, role in protein sorting and cell polarity Org.: Prof. Reika Watanabe Castillon ... Max Planck Institute of Molecular Cell Biology and Genetics, Dresden, Germany Blebs and lamellipodia formation during cell ... Department of Cell Biology and Physiology, Washington School of Medecine, St Louis, U.S.A. Growth Factor Receptor Signaling, ... Cell cycle control in the wing disc : from static to live imaging Org.: Prof. Reika Watanabe Castillon ...
A subset of familial and sporadic clear cell renal cell carcinomas (ccRCCs) is believed to develop f ... Fischer E, Pontoglio M: Planar cell polarity and cilia. Semin Cell Dev Biol 20: 998-1005, 2009. * Cited Here , ... A and B) Examples of tubules from Kif3aΔ / Δ;VhlΔ / Δ mice in which a wild-type cell (B) and a Vhl-deficient cell marked by ... 24 The primary cilium controls oriented cell division via noncanonical WNT and planar cell polarity signaling pathways; loss of ...
Guard cells. The stoma is bounded by two guard cells. The guard cells differ from the epidermal cells in the following aspects ... The zygote divides with regard to its long axis, establishing polarity early on. The lower pole divides to produce the ... The epidermal tissue includes several differentiated cell types: epidermal cells, guard cells, subsidiary cells, and epidermal ... The epidermal cells do not contain chloroplasts.). *Guard Cells are the only epidermal cells that can make sugar. According to ...
... cell sliding, a novel cellular behavior induced by chiral cell deformation, in which cells change their position relative to ... Because hindgut epithelial cells have apical-basal polarity, like other epithelial cells, their LR asymmetric shape can be ... The LR asymmetric cell shape is termed cell chirality because the cell shape cannot be superimposed on its mirror image. Cell ... such as cell intercalation and cell deformation. Cell intercalation involves anisotropic cell-boundary remodeling (Bertet et al ...
Wnt; Planar cell polarity; Cell migration; Axon guidance; Vangl; neural crest cell migration; amoeboid migration ... Wnt signalling is known to generate cellular asymmetry via Wnt/planar cell polarity pathway (Wnt/PCP). Wnt/PCP acts locally (i ... and breast cancer cells. Last, we collected evidence for local Wnt signalling in amoeboid cells, especially lymphocytes. As the ... Local Wnt signalling in the asymmetric migrating vertebrate cells. Varování. Publikace nespadá pod Lékařskou fakultu, ale pod ...
Is this a cordless phone or a cell phone? If you changed a cordless phone batterie chech to make sure the new batterie plug is ... Some are black and some are white and the polarity is opposite. ...
PRICKLE4: prickle planar cell polarity protein 4 (6p21.1). *PRSS16: protease, serine 16 (6p22.1) ... RIPOR2: RHO family interacting cell polarization regulator 2 (6p22.3). *RPL10A: encoding protein 60S ribosomal protein L10a ( ... of the total DNA in cells. It contains the Major Histocompatibility Complex, which contains over 100 genes related to the ... and encodes cell-surface antigen-presenting proteins among other functions. ...
Special Issue of Cell MDPI focusing on Vascular Signalling Drs. Silvia Dragoni and Patric Turowski, NAVBO Member, are the guest ... Constitutive Active Mutant TIE2 Induces Enlarged Vascular Lumen Formation with Loss of Apico-basal Polarity and Pericyte ... In this review, we begin with a brief overview of the molecular changes in vascular cells associated with hypoxia and then ... Yanan Cao and colleagues at the Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine in China discuss in Cell Discovery further ...
Ick Ciliary Kinase Is Essential for Planar Cell Polarity Formation in Inner Ear Hair Cells and Hearing Function Shio Okamoto, ... Live-Cell Imaging Reveals Tau Isoforms Imbalance Disrupts Traffic of APP Vesicles in Human Neurons Christy Oi Ying Hung ... Climbing Fibers Control Purkinje Cell Representations of Behavior Martha L. Streng, Laurentiu S. Popa and Timothy J. Ebner ... An RNA-Sequencing Transcriptome and Splicing Database of Glia, Neurons, and Vascular Cells of the Cerebral Cortex ...
A coils magnetic field is opposite polarity of the applied current.. This is why a coil pulsed with dc will give ac.. Pulse a ... Examples of such photovoltaic cells are chalcogenide cells, in particular copper indium(gallium)selenide (Cl(G)S) cells, cells ... It is emphasized that in the context of the present invention "thin-film photovoltaic cells" include all photovoltaic cells ... So many different types of solar cells to select from! I expect the ideal would be one that allows for the through transmission ...
Schwann cells, mast cells, and macrophages), increased angiogenesis, and improvement of blood flow to regenerating nerves. ... Possible mechanisms of BoNT/A action include activation or proliferation of support cells ( ... Tricaud, N. Myelinating Schwann cell polarity and mechanically-driven myelin sheath elongation. Front. Cell. Neurosci. 2018, 11 ... Possible mechanisms of BoNT/A action include activation or proliferation of support cells (Schwann cells, mast cells, and ...
  • We have shown that activation of the Wnt/planar cell polarity pathway is required for pericyte recruitment, but whether production and release of specific Wnt ligands by PMVECs are responsible for Wnt/planar cell polarity activation in pericytes is unknown. (nih.gov)
  • Wnt signalling is known to generate cellular asymmetry via Wnt/planar cell polarity pathway (Wnt/PCP). (muni.cz)
  • Four apical PM proteins were concentrated in the BC membrane of WIF-B cells. (rupress.org)
  • We quantified the strength of two feedback systems that operate during polarity establishment, feedback between polarity proteins and the actomyosin cortex, and mutual antagonism amongst polarity proteins. (figshare.com)
  • By coupling a mass-conserved Turing-like reaction-diffusion system for polarity proteins to an active gel description of the actomyosin cortex, we reveal a transition point beyond which feedback ensures self-organized polarization even when cues are removed. (figshare.com)
  • Finally, the bulk of "polarity proteins" as well as specialized adhesion complexes evolved in the metazoan stem-line, in concert with the newly evolved intercellular junctional belts. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • After treatment with epidermal growth factor or ouabain, epithelial dog kidney MDCK cells undergo a drastic remodeling that includes changes in the transcription, translation, localization, and degradation of cell junction proteins. (intechopen.com)
  • Wnt/PCP acts locally (i) to orient membrane polarity and asymmetric establishment of intercellular junctions via conserved set of PCP proteins most specifically represented by Vangl and Prickle, and (ii) to asymmetrically rearrange cytoskeletal structures via downstream effectors of Dishevelled (Dvl). (muni.cz)
  • The human leukocyte antigen lies on chromosome 6, with the exception of the gene for β2-microglobulin (which is located on chromosome 15 ), and encodes cell-surface antigen -presenting proteins among other functions. (wikidoc.org)
  • Polarized cells must direct proteins from the Golgi apparatus to the appropriate domain since tight junctions prevent proteins from diffusing between the two domains. (bvsalud.org)
  • The formation of three-dimensional (3D) epithelial structures in organs such as the breast, prostate and colon is dependent on the establishment of cell polarity. (nature.com)
  • Epithelial cells display a marked apico-basal polarity, which is highly conserved across the animal kingdom, both in terms of morphology and of molecular regulators. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • Although the last eukaryotic common ancestor almost certainly possessed a simple form of apico-basal polarity (marked by the presence of one or several flagella at a single cellular pole), comparative genomics and evolutionary cell biology reveal that the polarity regulators of animal epithelial cells have a surprisingly complex and stepwise evolutionary history. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • We suggest that the "polarity network" that polarized animal epithelial cells evolved by integration of initially independent cellular modules that evolved at distinct steps of our evolutionary ancestry. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • Epithelial cells develop tight junctions (TJs) and cell polarity. (intechopen.com)
  • Using live-imaging analysis and a three-dimensional vertex model, we identified 'cell sliding,' a novel mechanism driving epithelial morphogenesis, in which cells directionally change their position relative to their subjacent (posterior) neighbors by sliding in one direction. (elifesciences.org)
  • In Drosophila embryonic hindgut, an initial left-right (LR) asymmetry of the cell shape (cell chirality in three dimensions), which occurs intrinsically before tissue deformation, is converted through LR asymmetric cell sliding into a directional axial twisting of the epithelial tube. (elifesciences.org)
  • Cell sliding may also be involved in other cases of LR-polarized epithelial morphogenesis. (elifesciences.org)
  • This process is best described on stable phenotypes of epithelial cells. (muni.cz)
  • The ability of glomerular epithelial cells, podocytes, to form foot processes with unique intercellular slit diaphragms (SD) reflects a special organization with possible direct consequences for glomerular filtration. (lww.com)
  • c-Fos/hypoxia-induced p60 AmotL2 interacts with the Crb3 and Par3 polarity complexes retaining them in large vesicles and preventing them from reaching the apical membrane. (nature.com)
  • The establishment and the maintenance of apical-basal cell polarity and eventually the depolarization of a cell is a complex process controlled by a set of core protein complexes. (nature.com)
  • The ternary complexes revealed a 180° polarity reversal compared to all other TCR- peptide -MHC complex structures. (bvsalud.org)
  • With the recent molecular findings, the podocyte is emerging as a key cell type involved in glomerular damage, but protein complexes involved remain poorly understood. (lww.com)
  • Currently, either conventional cancer therapies or modern immunotherapies are non-tumor-targeted therapeutic approaches that cannot accurately distinguish malignant cells from healthy ones, giving rise to multiple undesired side effects. (bvsalud.org)
  • Recent advances in nanotechnology, accompanied by our growing understanding of cancer biology and nano-bio interactions, have led to the development of a series of nanocarriers, which aim to improve the therapeutic efficacy while reducing off-target toxicity of the encapsulated anticancer agents through tumor tissue-, cell-, or organelle-specific targeting. (bvsalud.org)
  • This Review outlines current and prospective strategies in the design of tumor tissue-, cell-, and organelle-targeted cancer nanomedicines, and highlights the latest progress in hierarchical targeting technologies that can dynamically integrate these three different stages of static tumor targeting to maximize therapeutic outcomes. (bvsalud.org)
  • The establishment and maintenance of apical-basal cell polarity is essential for the functionality of glandular epithelia. (nature.com)
  • We explored this relationship during cell polarity establishment in the one-cell-stage C. elegans embryo. (figshare.com)
  • These data provide a molecular mechanism how hypoxic stress deregulates cell polarity during tumour progression. (nature.com)
  • Patterns in cells and tissues however often do not form spontaneously, but are under control of upstream pathways that provide molecular guiding cues. (figshare.com)
  • Previous studies have shown that hydrophobicity, polarity, molecular volume and hydrogen bonding capability of chemicals are among the most important characteristics to be used for predicting permeability. (cdc.gov)
  • A signature feature of the animal kingdom is the presence of epithelia: sheets of polarized cells that both insulate the organism from its environment and mediate interactions with it. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • EGF is regarded as the main protector against injuries in epithelia, and ouabain is a hormone that regulates blood pressure, natriuresis, cell survival, and cell adhesion. (intechopen.com)
  • We explored the functional properties of this boundary in living cells using fluorescent membrane lipid analogs and soluble tracers. (rupress.org)
  • Cell polarization usually involves the localization of some specific signaling molecules to a proper location of the cell membrane. (edu.hk)
  • Here, however, we review the activity of Wnt signalling in migratory cells which experience the extensive rearrangements of cytoskeleton and consequently dynamic asymmetry, making the localised effects of Wnt signalling easier to distinguish. (muni.cz)
  • Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205. (rupress.org)
  • Reduced pericyte coverage of pulmonary microvessels is a pathological feature of PAH and is caused partly by the inability of pericytes to respond to signaling cues from neighboring pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (PMVECs). (nih.gov)
  • Despite extensive knowledge regarding the formation and maintenance of polarity, the mechanisms that deregulate polarity in metastasizing cells remain to be fully characterized. (nature.com)
  • Due to its known involvement in the synaptic organization, maintenance of cell shape and polarity in nerve cells, together with its demonstrated interactions with α-actinin-4, densin may share the same functions in podocytes by associating with the nephrin interacting protein complex at the slit diaphragm. (lww.com)
  • Central to adaptive immunity is the interaction between the αß T cell receptor (TCR) and peptide presented by the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecule. (bvsalud.org)
  • We report the structures of two TCRs, derived from human induced T regulatory (iT(reg)) cells , complexed to an MHC class II molecule presenting a proinsulin -derived peptide . (bvsalud.org)
  • This type of chemical derivatization results in loss of ionic charge and reduced polarity making each mercury species molecule volatile so that it can escape the liquid phase and accumulate in the gaseous phase ("headspace") directly above the sample. (cdc.gov)
  • However, the fundamental mechanisms for achieving cell polarization under negative feedback remain controversial. (edu.hk)
  • While this process is mostly attributed to directional cell intercalation, it can also be induced by other mechanisms. (elifesciences.org)
  • The resulting loss of polarity potentiates the response to invasive cues in vitro and in vivo in mice. (nature.com)
  • Through the Turing stability analysis, we identify the parameter conditions, including the range of the time delay constant, for achieving cell polarization without any inhomogeneous spatial cues. (edu.hk)
  • The virus was propagated in Vero E6 cells cultured in Dulbecco modified Eagle medium (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA, USA) supplemented with 2% fetal bovine serum, 2 mmol/L glutamine, 50 U/mL penicillin, and 50 μg/mL streptomycin. (cdc.gov)
  • Fetal damage occurs through destruction of cells, as well as disruption of cell division. (cdc.gov)
  • which may render the genetic mate doses of NDMA is the kidney, but a Transplacental carcinogenesis rial of fetal cells highly accessible to much lower incidence of tumours is stu dies with ENU in nonhuman pri carcinogens. (who.int)
  • Cell polarity is often lost in advanced tumours correlating with acquisition of invasive and malignant properties. (nature.com)
  • Thus TCRs are not 'hardwired' to interact with MHC molecules in a stereotypic manner to elicit a T cell signal, a finding that fundamentally challenges our understanding of TCR recognition. (bvsalud.org)
  • Recent studies proposed that delayed negative feedback may be important for maintaining the robustness of cell polarization and the observed oscillating behavior of signaling cluster. (edu.hk)
  • The results suggest that a previously unidentified type of cell behavior called 'cell sliding' is responsible for twisting the hindgut. (elifesciences.org)
  • WIF-B cells: an in vitro model for studies of hepatocyte polarity. (rupress.org)
  • We have evaluated the utility of the hepatoma-derived hybrid cell line, WIF-B, for in vitro studies of polarized hepatocyte functions. (rupress.org)
  • T cell receptor reversed polarity recognition of a self-antigen major histocompatibility complex. (bvsalud.org)
  • Then, we reviewed the role of Wnt signalling in models of mesenchymal migration including neural crest, melanoma, and breast cancer cells. (muni.cz)
  • Digenic variants of planar cell polarity genes in human neural tube defect patients. (cdc.gov)
  • Rare copy number variations of planar cell polarity genes are associated with human neural tube defects. (cdc.gov)
  • We further show that hypoxic stress results in activation of c-Fos-dependent expression of AmotL2 leading to loss of polarity. (nature.com)
  • Cell polarity refers to spatial differences in the shape and structure of cells, which leads to the generation of diverse cell types playing different roles in biological processes. (edu.hk)
  • During twisting, the cells in the hindgut also change shape. (elifesciences.org)
  • It was not known how this shape change and other behaviors of the cells cause the hindgut to twist. (elifesciences.org)
  • Sliding is triggered by the cells in the hindgut taking on a more symmetrical shape. (elifesciences.org)
  • Cell sliding may prove to be a common way to shape organs, many of which feature non-symmetrical twisted tubes of cells. (elifesciences.org)
  • In a Drosophila inversion mutant showing inverted cell chirality and hindgut rotation, cell sliding occurs in the opposite direction to that in wild-type. (elifesciences.org)
  • The evolution of this vascular tissue allowed for an early dominance of these plants on land (first appearing 430 million years ago, during the Silurian period), giving them the ability to transport water and dissolved minerals through specialized strands of elongated cells that run from the plant root to the tips of the leaves . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • In the future, learning how to control cell sliding could help researchers to create organs and biological structures in the laboratory that could be used in organ transplants and regenerative medicine. (elifesciences.org)
  • Is the Subject Area "Cell membranes" applicable to this article? (plos.org)
  • During sliding, the cells stay in contact with their neighbors as they move in a single direction. (elifesciences.org)
  • It is an enveloped virus with a single-stranded RNA of positive polarity and has a single antigenic type. (cdc.gov)
  • In this paper, we formulate the cell polarization system as a non-local reaction diffusion equation with positive and delayed negative feedback loops. (edu.hk)
  • Liu, Y & Lo, W-C 2019, ' Analysis of spontaneous emergence of cell polarity with delayed negative feedback ', Mathematical Biosciences and Engineering , vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 1392-1413. (edu.hk)
  • Early vascular plants only developed by primary growth , in which the plants grew through cell division of the plant body. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Secondary growth developed early (the Devonian period, 380 million years ago) in the evolution of vascular plants, which allowed for cell division to take place in the active regions of the plant's periphery. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The negative polarity has a silvery stripe on it. (safenow.org)
  • Identify this negative polarity and have it on the negative side. (safenow.org)
  • The viruses attach to the host cells through hemagglutinin, which specifically combines with neuraminic acid receptors in the host cells. (medscape.com)
  • Nous avons examiné 132 agents de santé à la recherche d'ADN du virus de l'hépatite B (VHB) au moyen de l'amplification en chaîne par polymérase (PCR) nichée et de l'anticorps du virus de l'hépatite C (anti-VHC) par la méthode ELISA. (who.int)