Cellular functions, mechanisms, and activities.
The functions and activities of living organisms that support life in single- or multi-cellular organisms from their origin through the progression of life.

Annexin II/annexin II receptor axis regulates adhesion, migration, homing, and growth of prostate cancer. (1/97)

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PID: the Pathway Interaction Database. (2/97)

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Is cell rheology governed by nonequilibrium-to-equilibrium transition of noncovalent bonds? (3/97)

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Robustness analysis of cellular memory in an autoactivating positive feedback system. (4/97)

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Rest-mediated regulation of extracellular matrix is crucial for neural development. (5/97)

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Actin nucleation and elongation factors: mechanisms and interplay. (6/97)

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Genetic and cell biological analysis of integrin outside-in signaling. (7/97)

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Attachment of osteocyte cell processes to the bone matrix. (8/97)

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Cell physiological processes refer to the functional activities and biochemical reactions that occur within a cell to maintain its survival, growth, and reproduction. These processes are essential for the overall functioning of an organism and can be categorized into several key areas:

1. Metabolism: This is the sum total of all chemical reactions that occur within a cell, including catabolic reactions (breaking down molecules to release energy) and anabolic reactions (building up molecules for growth and repair).
2. Homeostasis: Cells maintain a stable internal environment by regulating various factors such as pH, temperature, and ion balance through processes like osmoregulation, buffering systems, and active transport.
3. Signal Transduction: Cells communicate with each other and respond to external stimuli through signal transduction pathways that involve the binding of signaling molecules to receptors, activation of intracellular signaling cascades, and regulation of gene expression.
4. Cell Cycle and Division: Cells grow and divide through a series of coordinated events known as the cell cycle, which includes DNA replication, chromosome segregation, and cytokinesis.
5. Apoptosis: This is a programmed cell death process that eliminates damaged or unnecessary cells to maintain tissue homeostasis and prevent the development of cancer.
6. Motility and Chemotaxis: Some cells have the ability to move and migrate in response to chemical gradients, which is important for processes such as embryonic development, wound healing, and immune responses.
7. Autophagy: This is a process by which cells recycle their own damaged or dysfunctional organelles and proteins through lysosomal degradation.

Overall, cell physiological processes are highly regulated and interconnected, allowing cells to adapt to changing environmental conditions and maintain the health and function of an organism.

Physiological processes refer to the functional activities or functions of living organisms and their parts, including cells, tissues, and organs. These processes are necessary for the maintenance of life and include various functions such as:

1. Metabolism: the sum of all chemical reactions that occur in the body to maintain life, including anabolic (building up) and catabolic (breaking down) processes.
2. Circulation: the movement of blood and other fluids throughout the body, which helps transport nutrients, oxygen, and waste products.
3. Respiration: the process of gas exchange between the body and the environment, involving the inhalation of oxygen and the exhalation of carbon dioxide.
4. Digestion: the breakdown of food into smaller molecules that can be absorbed and utilized by the body for energy and growth.
5. Nerve impulse transmission: the electrical signals that transmit information between neurons and other cells in the body.
6. Endocrine regulation: the release and transport of hormones that regulate various physiological processes, such as growth, development, and metabolism.
7. Immune function: the body's defense system against foreign invaders, such as bacteria, viruses, and toxins.
8. Reproduction: the process of producing offspring through sexual or asexual means.
9. Maintenance of homeostasis: the ability of the body to maintain a stable internal environment despite changes in external conditions.

Physiological processes are regulated by complex systems of feedback and control, involving various hormones, nerves, and other signaling molecules. Understanding these processes is essential for understanding how the body functions and how to diagnose and treat various medical conditions.

Orban, G. (2008). Higher order visual processing in macaque extrastriate cortex. Physiological Reviews, 88, 59-89. (Brodmann ... Akin to simple cells, complex cell receptive fields are orientation selective. However, unlike simple cells, complex cells do ... "all cells that exceed complex cells in intricacy of behavior." Hypercomplex cells displayed selectivity akin to complex cells, ... A hypercomplex cell (currently called an end-stopped cell) is a type of visual processing neuron in the mammalian cerebral ...
Mechanism and Process in Physiological Evolution. Oxford: Oxford University Press. v t e (CS1 errors: generic name, CS1 maint: ... Cell Bio. Methods in Cell Biology. 84: 679-735. doi:10.1016/S0091-679X(07)84022-2. ISBN 9780123725202. PMID 17964947. Hochachka ... Osmolytes are present in the cells of fish, and function to protect the cells from water pressure. As the osmolyte ... inside and outside cells. Osmolytes help cells adapt to changing osmotic conditions, thereby ensuring their survival and ...
"Genomic Imprinting and Physiological Processes in Mammals". Cell. 176 (5): 952-965. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2019.01.043. PMID ... This process of erasure and reprogramming is necessary such that the germ cell imprinting status is relevant to the sex of the ... Genomic imprinting is an inheritance process independent of the classical Mendelian inheritance. It is an epigenetic process ... Cell Stem Cell. 23 (5): 625-627. doi:10.1016/j.stem.2018.10.012. PMID 30388415. S2CID 53252140. Li ZK, Wang LY, Wang LB, Feng ...
... the basic physiological functions of cells can be divided into the processes of cell division, cell signaling, cell growth, and ... cell physiology, and comparative physiology. Central to physiological functioning are biophysical and biochemical processes, ... It provides insights into the genetic basis of physiological processes and the ways in which genes interact with the ... It helps to explain the origin and adaptive significance of physiological processes and the ways in which organisms have ...
Afanas'ev IB (2005). "Free radical mechanisms of aging processes under physiological conditions". Biogerontology. 6 (4): 283-90 ... look at free radicals in the aging process. Trends In Cell Biology. 2011;21(10) 569-76. Erbas M, Sekerci H. "Importance of Free ... Cell. 157 (4): 897-909. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2014.02.055. PMC 4454526. PMID 24813612. Brewer GJ (2010). "Epigenetic oxidative ... This mitochondrial theory has been more widely accepted that it could play a major role in contributing to the aging process. ...
... or during developments and processes in cancer, an apoptotic cell undergoes structural changes including cell shrinkage, plasma ... Apoptosis occurs in many physiological and pathological processes. It plays an important role during embryonal development as ... During a normal embryologic processes, or during cell injury (such as ischemia-reperfusion injury during heart attacks and ... Cell. 122 (6): 957-68. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2005.08.029. hdl:11858/00-001M-0000-0010-8592-0. PMID 16169070. S2CID 8235923. Imai Y ...
... or during developments and processes in cancer, an apoptotic cell undergoes structural changes including cell shrinkage, plasma ... Apoptosis occurs in many physiological and pathological processes. It plays an important role during embryonal development as ... Studies demonstrated that DAP3 expression tended to be low to nonexistent in the tumor cells of B-cell lymphoma, non-small cell ... During a normal embryologic processes, or during cell injury (such as ischemia-reperfusion injury during heart attacks and ...
... or during developments and processes in cancer, an apoptotic cell undergoes structural changes including cell shrinkage, plasma ... Apoptosis occurs in many physiological and pathological processes. It plays an important role during embryonal development as ... During a normal embryologic processes, or during cell injury (such as ischemia-reperfusion injury during heart attacks and ... PTPIP51 is also expressed differentially in neutrophils, but not other immune cells, and thus may partake in immune cell ...
Apoptosis occurs in many physiological and pathological processes. It plays an important role during embryonal development as ... and loose specialized surface elements such as microvilli and cell-cell junctions. A shift of fluid out of the cells causes ... An apoptotic cell undergoes structural changes including cell shrinkage, plasma membrane blebbing, nuclear condensation, and ... During apoptosis the cell decrease in size, loose contact with neighboring cells, ...
... or during developments and processes in cancer, an apoptotic cell undergoes structural changes including cell shrinkage, plasma ... Apoptosis occurs in many physiological and pathological processes. It plays an important role during embryonal development as ... During normal embryologic processes, or during cell injury (such as ischemia-reperfusion injury during heart attacks and ... Accordingly, these processes regulating apoptosis during clinical processes such as cancer and ischemia-reperfusion injury. ...
... or during developments and processes in cancer, an apoptotic cell undergoes structural changes including cell shrinkage, plasma ... Apoptosis occurs in many physiological and pathological processes. It plays an important role during embryonal development as ... During a normal embryologic processes, or during cell injury (such as ischemia-reperfusion injury during heart attacks and ... Its functions contribute to biological processes including signal transduction, apoptosis, protein homeostasis, and cell growth ...
... or during developments and processes in cancer, an apoptotic cell undergoes structural changes including cell shrinkage, plasma ... Apoptosis occurs in many physiological and pathological processes. It plays an important role during embryonal development as ... During a normal embryologic processes, or during cell injury (such as ischemia-reperfusion injury during heart attacks and ... Cell. 149 (6): 1393-406. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2012.04.031. PMID 22658674. Colas E, Perez C, Cabrera S, Pedrola N, Monge M, ...
... or during developments and processes in cancer, an apoptotic cell undergoes structural changes including cell shrinkage, plasma ... Apoptosis occurs in many physiological and pathological processes. It plays an important role during embryonal development as ... During a normal embryologic processes, or during cell injury (such as ischemia-reperfusion injury during heart attacks and ... programmed cell death and accompanies a variety of normal involutional processes in which it serves as a mechanism to remove " ...
... or during developments and processes in cancer, an apoptotic cell undergoes structural changes including cell shrinkage, plasma ... Apoptosis occurs in many physiological and pathological processes. It plays an important role during embryonal development as ... During a normal embryologic processes, or during cell injury (such as ischemia-reperfusion injury during heart attacks and ... The proapoptotic function is similarly observed in prostate cancer cells, but not in other cells; it is suggested that ...
... or during developments and processes in cancer, an apoptotic cell undergoes structural changes including cell shrinkage, plasma ... Apoptosis occurs in many physiological and pathological processes. It plays an important role during embryonal development as ... During a normal embryologic processes, or during cell injury (such as ischemia-reperfusion injury during heart attacks and ... Its functions contribute to biological processes including signal transduction, apoptosis, protein homeostasis, and cell growth ...
Apoptosis occurs in many physiological and pathological processes. It plays an important role during embryonal development as ... An apoptotic cell undergoes structural changes including cell shrinkage, plasma membrane blebbing, nuclear condensation, and ... programmed cell death and accompanies a variety of normal involutional processes in which it serves as a mechanism to remove " ... Inhibits cell growth. When overexpressed, activates JNK through MAP3K7/TAK1 and induces caspase-dependent apoptosis. Involved ...
... or during developments and processes in cancer, an apoptotic cell undergoes structural changes including cell shrinkage, plasma ... Apoptosis occurs in many physiological and pathological processes. It plays an important role during embryonal development as ... Additionally, PPIA induces cell migration and proliferation in smooth muscle. In the case of T cells, PPIA regulates the T-cell ... During a normal embryologic processes, or during cell injury (such as ischemia-reperfusion injury during heart attacks and ...
Without regulation, proteases will destroy many essential proteins for physiological processes. One way the body regulates ... A polypeptide chain in the cell does not have to stay linear; it can become branched or fold in on itself. Polypeptide chains ... Protein anabolism is the process by which proteins are formed from amino acids. It relies on five processes: amino acid ... The process of bind an amino acid to a tRNA is known as tRNA charging. Here, the enzyme aminoacyl-tRNA-synthetase catalyzes two ...
... is used in the study of signal processing, numerical analysis, statistical and physiological data processing. DADiSP is ... However, unlike a typical business spreadsheet that operates on a table of cells each of which contain single scalar values, a ... Signal Processing of Random Physiological Signals (Google eBook), Morgan & Claypool Publishers DSP Development Corporation ( ... doi:10.1111/j.0033-0124.1992.00103.x. Allen Brown, Zhang Jun: First Course In Digital Signal Processing Using DADiSP, Abramis, ...
Each of these bodies is composed of a similar collection of cells, and it is the post-transduction signal processing that ... Physiological Reviews. American Physiological Society. 74 (4): 829-898. doi:10.1152/physrev.1994.74.4.829. ISSN 0031-9333. PMID ... Each of these peripheral chemoreceptors is composed of type I glomus cells and glia-like type II cells. The type-I cells ... Type II cells occur in a ratio of about 1 to 4 with type I cells. Their long bodies usually occur in close association with ...
The cell membrane potential created by potassium and sodium ions allows the cell to generate an action potential-a "spike" of ... The process may be speeded up by a catalyst. Similar solutions are formed by the heavy divalent alkaline earth metals calcium, ... Relman, A. S. (1956). "The Physiological Behavior of Rubidium and Cesium in Relation to That of Potassium". The Yale Journal of ... Potassium is the major cation (positive ion) inside animal cells, while sodium is the major cation outside animal cells. The ...
... targets spermatogonial stem cells. Ever since the discovery of ENU as the most potent mutagen by Russell et al. it has been ... However, if two or more genes involved in the same biological processes or pathways are lost, then this leads to non-allelic ... The progeny are assessed for behavioral, physiological or dysmorphological changes. The abnormal phenotype is identified. ... As illustrated in Figure 1, the screening process begins with mutagenising a male mouse with ENU. This is followed by ...
Meanwhile, the granulosa cells within the follicle regulate the hydrolysis of cAMP, a process which involves cyclic guanosine ... Jaffe studies the physiological mechanisms that regulate oocyte cell and fertilisation. In particular, she is interested in the ... Meiosis is a type of cell division that prepares the oocyte for fertilisation. The process begins during embryonic development ... Her research considers the physiological mechanisms that regulate oocyte cell and fertilisation. She was elected to the ...
This allows for investigation into developmental or physiological processes in animal models. The targeted DamID (TaDa) ... A DamID protocol for single cells has also been developed and applied to human cells. Single cell approaches can highlight the ... "Genome-wide maps of nuclear lamina interactions in single human cells". Cell. 163 (1): 134-147. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2015.08.040 ... In stable cell lines or fully transgenic animals, this bias is not observed as no plasmid DNA is recovered. Apoptotic cells ...
Attachment of the osteoclast to the osteon begins the process. The osteoclast then induces an infolding of its cell membrane ... Bone resorption is an integral part of both physiological and pathological processes. Pathological bone resorption could be ... The osteoclasts are multi-nucleated cells that contain numerous mitochondria and lysosomes. These are the cells responsible for ... These processes make a child's skeleton grow and extend, while childhood is characterized by bone tissue growth rather than its ...
... and can be physiological or pathological. It is related to peripolesis, which is the attachment of one cell to another. ... Autoimmune hepatitis Leukocyte migration from the blood stream to tissues through endothelial cells, in a process also known as ... Emperipolesis is the presence of an intact cell within the cytoplasm of another cell. It is derived from Greek (en is inside, ... Instead, the engulfed cell remains viable within the other, and can exit at any time without causing structural or functional ...
When melatonin receptor agonists bind to and activate their receptors it causes numerous physiological processes. In 1917 ... myometrium and granulosa cells, immune cells, duodenum and adipocytes. The binding of melatonin to melatonin receptors ... When melatonin receptor agonists activate their receptors it causes numerous physiological processes. MT1 and MT2 receptors may ... MT1 receptors also activate phospholipase C (PLC), affect ion channels and regulate ion flux inside the cell. The binding of ...
It is composed of specialized cells responsible for several vital physiological processes. The term is also used for the ... In Coelenterates, the gastrodermis contains mucous secreting cells and gland cells, that secrete digestive enzymes to assist in ... Gastrodermis (From Ancient Greek: γαστήρ, gastḗr, "stomach"; δέρμα, dérma, "skin") is the inner layer of cells that serves as a ... Traylor-Knowles, Nikki; Rose, Noah H.; Palumbi, Stephen R. (2017). "The cell specificity of gene expression in the response to ...
Additionally, physiological or chronic stress is strongly correlated in women being underweight. India has one of the worst ... In moments of high stress, free radicals are produced which attack healthy red blood cells, therefore lowering hemoglobin blood ... Psychological stress also affects anemia through a process labeled oxidative stress. ...
The cells of Y. lipolytica have over 20% fat content, placing it in the group of oleaginous yeasts. Most lipids are stored as ... For example, genetic engineering and process optimization allow it to produce high amounts of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). ... triacylglycerids (TAGs). This physiological trait makes this species especially interesting for producing lipid derivates. ... The usual form of the cells can be described as round and spherical. When exposed to stressful conditions such as temperature, ...
Orban, G. (2008). Higher order visual processing in macaque extrastriate cortex. Physiological Reviews, 88, 59-89. (Brodmann ... Akin to simple cells, complex cell receptive fields are orientation selective. However, unlike simple cells, complex cells do ... "all cells that exceed complex cells in intricacy of behavior." Hypercomplex cells displayed selectivity akin to complex cells, ... A hypercomplex cell (currently called an end-stopped cell) is a type of visual processing neuron in the mammalian cerebral ...
"Genomic Imprinting and Physiological Processes in Mammals". Cell. 176 (5): 952-965. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2019.01.043. PMID ... This process of erasure and reprogramming is necessary such that the germ cell imprinting status is relevant to the sex of the ... Genomic imprinting is an inheritance process independent of the classical Mendelian inheritance. It is an epigenetic process ... Cell Stem Cell. 23 (5): 625-627. doi:10.1016/j.stem.2018.10.012. PMID 30388415. S2CID 53252140. Li ZK, Wang LY, Wang LB, Feng ...
... ethanol affects cell migration, and hypothyroidism affects cell differentiation) [Rice and Barone 2000]. Each of these ... Disruption before completion of the processes themselves or their coordination can result in irreparable damage. Different ... Neuronal cell division is thought to be complete by 6 months of gestational age. CNS development, however, continues to involve ... Specifically, membrane transporters that are capable of extruding toxicants from cells (e.g., blood-brain barrier, hepatocytes ...
NIOSH-Grant; Cancer; Free-radicals; Genetics; Oxidative-processes; Cell-function; Physiological-stress; Host-resistance; Toxic- ... harmful free radical reactions may be suppressed by the antioxidant defenses of target cells or cells in the immune system. ... When the ratio of oxidative stress begins to disproportionately exceed a cells antioxidant status, alterations in gene ... Specific examples of agents that can induce pathological processes attributed to free radical mediated gene expression were ...
Wishart, D. S. (2019). Metabolomics for investigating physiological and pathophysiological processes. Physiol. Rev. 99, 1819- ... For infected cells, they were fixed with acetone ethanol (3:2) for 15 min at room temperature to fix cells, and then the cells ... The replication process of MDV needs to accurately regulate the metabolic pathway of host cells, so as to provide sufficient ... Cells infected with MDV-GA strain were collected at 0 h, 24 h, and 36 h, with 4 replicate samples of 1.5 × 107 cells per group ...
Cell Physiological Phenomena [G04]. *Cell Physiological Processes [G04.299]. *Cell Growth Processes [G04.299.233] ... Excessive Cell Growth Causes Cytoplasm Dilution And Contributes to Senescence. Cell. 2019 02 21; 176(5):1083-1097.e18. ... A Chemical Inhibitor of Cell Growth Reduces Cell Size in Bacillus subtilis. ACS Chem Biol. 2019 04 19; 14(4):688-695. ... "Cell Enlargement" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject ...
Endothelium plays a critical role in vascular physiological, pathophysiological, and reparative processes. The functions of the ... A high ratio of plasma and platelets to packed red blood cells in the first 6 hours of massive transfusion improves outcomes in ... Due to oxygen deprivation, endothelial cell apoptosis is induced following hypovolemic shock. [1] ... endothelium are highly altered following hypovolemic shock due to ischemia of the endothelial cells and by reperfusion due to ...
They play an important role in maintenance of biophysiological homeostasis and cellular, physiological, and pathological ... processes. EVs have significant diagnostic and therapeutic potentials and have been studied both ,i,in vitro,/i, and ,i,in vivo ... Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent cells with many therapeutic applications and have also gained much attention as ... are cell-derived membrane-bound nanoparticles, which act as shuttles, delivering a range of biomolecules to diverse target ...
Free radicals and antioxidants in normal physiological functions and human disease. Int. J. Biochem. Cell Biol. 2007, 39, 44-84 ... Cell development can be affected by the cleavage of DNA molecules, leading to the formation of cancer cells and the appearance ... Human HepG2 liver cancer cells are cultured in a 96-well plate. Subsequently, cells are pre-incubated with a fluorescent probe ... The excessive consumption of EDB and the lack of fruit processing or inadequate processing (to reduce the toxic effect) can ...
Researchers assessed the association between consumption of ultra-processed food and dietary nutrient profiles. ... Her college project work based on The manifestations and causes of sickle cell anemia formed the stepping stone to a life- ... Her educational background allowed her to foster an interest in anatomical and physiological sciences. ... minimally processed or unprocessed foods, (2) processed culinary ingredients, (3) processed foods, and (4) ultra-processed ...
Mitochondria are integral to many essential physiological processes in the body. Not only do they produce energy for cells, but ... the powerhouses of the cell. In addition to supplying energy to the cells, mitochondria also help to regulate cell growth and ... When energy production became anaerobic, a process that produces lactic acid in the body, then cancer cells would proliferate. ... The most common type of renal cancer is clear cell renal cell carcinoma (RCC), which accounts for about three-quarters of all ...
Autophagy is a ubiquitous physiological process in all eukaryotic cells. The most prevalent form of autophagy known as macro- ... Cell proliferation of AGS cancer cells was assessed using MTT. Cells were seeded at density of 2.5×104 cells per well in a 24- ... Clozapine induces autophagic cell death in non-small cell lung cancer cells. Cell Physiol Biochem. 35:945-956. 2015. View ... Cell culture and treatment. AGS cancer cell line, which is a gastric adenocarcinoma, was obtained from the Korean Cell Line ...
The importance of these processes to the normal physiological function of these organ systems is reflected by the ... Either BI20B2 Physiology of Human Cells (Passed) or BI25B2 Physiology of Human Organ Systems (Passed) ... In this course you will explore the features of transporting epithelial cells which make them uniquely suited for mediating the ... Following on from this, the role of epithelial cells in the kidney, gastrointestinal tract and respiratory system will be ...
In the auditory system, inhibition already modulates second order neurons in the cochlear nucleus, e.g. spherical bushy cells ( ... SBCs). While the physiological basis of inhibition and excitation is well descri … ... Inhibition plays a crucial role in neural signal processing, shaping and limiting responses. ... While the physiological basis of inhibition and excitation is well described, their functional interaction in signal processing ...
It orchestrates growth, cell regeneration, and various metabolic processes. From a scientific perspective, HGH holds critical ... importance in maintaining physiological balance.. Discovery and Development: The quest to harness the potential of HGH began ...
Introduces common human disease processes. Emphasis is on interrelationships among systems and regulation of physiological ... Topics include the structure and function of cells, tissues, and the integumentary, skeletal, muscular, and nervous systems. ... Introduces common human disease processes. Emphasis is on interrelationships among systems and regulation of physiological ... with a strong focus on the molecular basis of physiological processes. Laboratory sessions will emphasize the culture, ...
... and their environmental interactions in physiological processes.. (d). To foster closer relationships and the interchange of ... To stress the importance of the interrelationships between molecules, cells, organs, ... BYLAWS OF THE PHYSIOLOGICAL AND ECOPHYSIOLOGICAL SECTION. ARTICLE I. Purpose. The objectives of this organization shall be: (a) ... To promote the use of plant physiological principles in agriculture and forestry in order to abate the worldwide food and fiber ...
However, exosomes do not incorporate everything that is present in the parent cell, suggesting that this well-regulated process ... Thus, the composition of these vesicles varies depending on the source, the physiological conditions of cells releasing them ... Cell Mol Life Sci., doi: 10.1007/s00018-020-03500-3. [Epub ahead of print], Mar 19, 2020, PMID: 32193609 ... miR-34a-mediated regulation of XIST in female cells under inflammation Shenoda BB, Tian Y, Alexander GM, Aradillas-Lopez E, ...
Cell death is a normal physiological process. Morphological studies have shown that cells that die by physiological mechanisms ... there appears to be more than one physiological cell-death mechanism. Targets of cytotoxic T cells and cells deprived of growth ... Although the process of cell death controlled by bcl-2 can occur in many cell types, ... The ability of bcl-2 to protect cells from a wide variety of pathological, as well as physiological, stimuli indicates that ...
It helps stimulate collagen and protein synthesis and influences age-related processes including stem cell proliferation. AKG ... AKG is involved in many fundamental physiological processes. It contributes to metabolism, providing energy for cellular ... Cell Metab. 2020;32(3):447-456.e6. doi:10.1016/j.cmet.2020.08.004. This article has been republished from the following ... Results from the double-blinded study, published in Cell Metabolism, were based on clinically-relevant markers of healthspan.. ...
... human metabolism other physiological processes.. The various organs of... ... Definition and the scope of anatomy; organization of the body systems, the cell, embryology, body cavity and its contents; ... Introduction to public speaking, the process of communication; models of communication, knowing your audience, performing ...
A common challenge is that donor cells do not assume the fate of desired cells once transplanted into recipient muscles. Dr. ... Their work will help speed up the process of developing a new approach to target other therapeutic genes in dystrophic muscle. ... They have been shown to upregulate protein synthesis within physiological levels, which shows an optimal safety profile. Dr. ... Formation of clumps inside the cells of DM patients leading to a cascade of effects that interferes with muscle cells ...
... indicating that aggregation is a conserved physiological process in this clade. Capsaspora is easily culturable in axenic ... 2022) An evolutionary and physiological perspective on cell-substrate adhesion machinery for cell migration Frontiers in Cell ... cells proliferated at similar rates as WT cells, whereas coWts-/- cells proliferated slower than WT (Figure 2B). As cells ... cells. While most cells showed a round cell body morphology (Figure 3A), a distinct elongated cell morphology was observed in a ...
Front Cell Dev Biol. 2019;7:123 25. Saito A. Physiological functions of endoplasmic reticulum stress transducer OASIS in ... Angiogenesis plays a vital role in diverse processes of physiological and pathological conditions. The impacts of CREB3L1 on ... p53-independent tumor suppression by cell-cycle arrest via CREB/ATF transcription factor OASIS. Cell Rep. 2023;42:112479 ... CREB3L1 and CREB3L2 control Golgi remodelling during decidualization of endometrial stromal cells. Front Cell Dev Biol. 2022;10 ...
... as well as cells, which is essential to maintain cellular viab ... as well as cells, which is essential to maintain cellular viab ... Special Collection: Bio-transport processes and drug delivery in physiological micro-devices ... Solution containing cells and reagents can be perfused inside the cell spheroids through the vascular network by injecting it ... endothelial cells were seeded into both sides of the hydrogel so that angiogenic sprouts from the cell spheroids and the ...
Recent advances in the field indicate that cell-cell communication via autoinducers occurs both within and between bacterial ... Presumably, this process bestows upon bacteria some of the qualities of higher organisms. The evolution of quorum sensing ... Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria use quorum sensing communication circuits to regulate a diverse array of physiological ... These processes include symbiosis, virulence, competence, conjugation, antibiotic production, motility, sporulation, and ...
Random processes would not allow for survival and evolutionary mechanisms have acted to improve the efficiencies of host/prey ... Environmental and physiological control of phenoptype. Wingless asexual forms reproduce fast and give birth to some 100 ... of feeding can be monitored electrically and we have recently shown that chemical constituents in peripheral plant cells are ...
Background Gene expression profile analysis on mammalian cell lines and animal models after exposure to botulinum neurotoxin ( ... BoNT/A evokes profound up and down-regulation of genes to impact physiological processes in SH-SY5Y cells ... Several observations point to a physiological role of SGK1 in cell cycle progression (Buse et al., 1999) and cell survival ... SH-SY5Y cells grew as a mixture of floating and adherent cells. The base growth medium was 1:1 mixture of ATCC-formulated ...
2000) Proteolytic processing and cell biological functions of the amyloid precursor protein. J Cell Sci 113:1857-1870. ... vivo models systems will be required to elucidate its potential physiological and pathological implications on APP processing. ... SH-SY5Y cells, mutant CHO cells, or A431 cells were incubated with 50 μg/ml LDL in the presence or absence of 0.75 or 3 μg/ml ... This expression system has been used widely to study sorting and processing of APP in neuronal cells and did not affect ...
  • Specific examples of agents that can induce pathological processes attributed to free radical mediated gene expression were described. (cdc.gov)
  • They play an important role in maintenance of biophysiological homeostasis and cellular, physiological, and pathological processes. (hindawi.com)
  • Nitric oxide (NO), is a ubiquitous, water soluble, free radical gas, which plays key role in various physiological as well as pathological processes. (springer.com)
  • Zhao Y, Yu Z, Song Y, Fan L, Lei T, He Y, Hu S. The Regulatory Network of CREB3L1 and Its Roles in Physiological and Pathological Conditions. (medsci.org)
  • This review summarizes the upstream and downstream regulatory network of CREB3L1 and thoroughly presents our current understanding of CREB3L1 research progress in both physiological and pathological conditions with special focus on the novel findings of CREB3L1 in cancers. (medsci.org)
  • Then the released N-terminal domains translocate to the nuclei and serve as transcription factors to bind to the CRE sequence to regulate the transcription of target genes, thus functioning in diverse physiological and pathological conditions. (medsci.org)
  • AIMS: To review the role played by the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) in different physiological and pathological processes. (lu.se)
  • Under normal physiological condition, MMPs are weakly expressed in tissues, whereas in pathological events, their overexpression is the cause of the imbalance between MMPs and tissue inhibitors of MMPs (TIMPs) 5-6-7 . (bvsalud.org)
  • In a recent study published in Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases , researchers assessed the association between consumption of ultra-processed food and dietary nutrient profiles. (news-medical.net)
  • Results from the double-blinded study , published in Cell Metabolism , were based on clinically-relevant markers of healthspan. (technologynetworks.com)
  • It contributes to metabolism, providing energy for cellular processes. (technologynetworks.com)
  • human metabolism other physiological processes. (edu.gh)
  • Cell Metabolism, 29, 202-210. (lu.se)
  • Due to oxygen deprivation, endothelial cell apoptosis is induced following hypovolemic shock. (medscape.com)
  • NO has been suggested to modulate different cancer-related events including angiogenesis, apoptosis, cell cycle, invasion, and metastasis. (springer.com)
  • The Bcl-2 protein blocks a distal step in an evolutionarily conserved pathway for programmed cell death and apoptosis. (embl.de)
  • To further explore the mechanism of the toxic effects of methidathion, gene expression levels associated with cardiac development, cell apoptosis, and the immune system were tested through qPCR assays. (bvsalud.org)
  • the process of apoptosis and necrosis. (who.int)
  • Apoptosis is a well-recognized process and sex-matched controls. (who.int)
  • Extracellular vesicles (EVs) bearing nucleic acids, proteins, and lipids can be released into the extracellular space from eukaryotic cells, as well as from some prokaryotic cells [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Autophagy is a ubiquitous physiological process in all eukaryotic cells. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Both microvesicles and apoptotic bodies are directly shed from the plasma membrane but via different cellular processes, whereas exosomes are generated by the endocytic pathway and are originally considered to play a particularly important role in cell-to-cell communication [ 7 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • These serine/theorine proteins are regarded as important key regulators of many essential cellular processes including cell survival, proliferation, growth, and differentiation ( 8 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Learn more about cell signaling processes and protocols to study complex cellular processes. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • These epigenetic marks are established ("imprinted") in the germline (sperm or egg cells) of the parents and are maintained through mitotic cell divisions in the somatic cells of an organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Hippo pathway, which regulates cell proliferation and tissue size in animals, is present in some of the closest unicellular relatives of animals, including the amoeboid organism Capsaspora owczarzaki . (elifesciences.org)
  • This important study examines the ancestral function of Hippo pathway kinases in contractility and cell density in the ameboid organism Capsaspora owczarzaki , a unicellular animal that is a close relative of multicellular animals. (elifesciences.org)
  • A very high number of different types of blood cells must be generated daily through a process called haematopoiesis in order to meet the physiological requirements of the organism. (lu.se)
  • AGS cell proliferation was inhibited by Naringin in a dose- and time-dependent manner. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • It helps stimulate collagen and protein synthesis and influences age-related processes including stem cell proliferation. (technologynetworks.com)
  • We previously showed that the Capsaspora ortholog of the Hippo pathway nuclear effector Yorkie/YAP/TAZ (coYki) regulates actin dynamics and the three-dimensional morphology of Capsaspora cell aggregates, but is dispensable for cell proliferation control (Phillips et al. (elifesciences.org)
  • We further show that this increased cell density is not due to differences in proliferation, but rather actomyosin-dependent changes in the multicellular architecture of aggregates. (elifesciences.org)
  • Given its well-established role in cell density-regulated proliferation in animals, the increased density of cell packing in coHpo and coWts mutants suggests a shared and possibly ancient and conserved function of the Hippo pathway in cell density control. (elifesciences.org)
  • Together, these results implicate cytoskeletal regulation but not proliferation as an ancestral function of the Hippo pathway kinase cascade and uncover a novel role for Hippo signaling in regulating cell density in a proliferation-independent manner. (elifesciences.org)
  • There is convincing evidence for Hippo kinases regulating contractility and cell density but not proliferation in C. owczarzaki . (elifesciences.org)
  • Matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) are zinc-dependent proteinases that participate in extracellular matrix degradation 1-3 and favor the invasion and proliferation of tumor cells 4 . (bvsalud.org)
  • However, the underlying mechanisms how MDV disrupts host cells and causes damage still remain elusive. (frontiersin.org)
  • Emphasis is placed on understanding the cellular transport mechanisms required for the normal physiological function of these systems in health. (abdn.ac.uk)
  • Further studies however are required to delineate the full significance of Bcl-2/Bcl-2, Bcl-2/Bax, and Bax/Bax dimers and the biochemical mechanisms by which Bcl-2 family proteins ultimately control cell life and death. (embl.de)
  • Random processes would not allow for survival and evolutionary mechanisms have acted to improve the efficiencies of host/prey location. (imperial.ac.uk)
  • You will gain hands-on experience in planning and conducting laboratory experiments that address fundamental cellular mechanisms underlying physiological and disease processes. (lu.se)
  • Our goal is to gain a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms and implications of C3 and CD59 in pancreatic β-cell function and diabetes. (lu.se)
  • We aim to investigate the molecular mechanisms responsible for these novel functions of COMP, particularly those related to basic cell biology and tumor immunology. (lu.se)
  • Under physiological circumstances, the resistance of the endothelial cell lining to interactions with platelets and coagulation factors prevents thrombosis. (medscape.com)
  • In addition, MDV infection can regulate the metabolic reprogramming of host cell glycolysis. (frontiersin.org)
  • In addition it possesses the capability to regulate cancer cell development and progression by downregulating the growth-stimulatory signals, upon activation of tumor suppressor genes. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • THE Bcl-2 family of proteins regulate programmed cell death by an unknown mechanism. (embl.de)
  • Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria use quorum sensing communication circuits to regulate a diverse array of physiological activities. (annualreviews.org)
  • Mammalian cells are endowed with three genes encoding distinct isoforms of NOS- NOS1, NOS2, and NOS3 -with 51-57% homology between isoforms and different localizations, regulation, catalytic properties, and inhibitor sensitivity. (springer.com)
  • However, little is known about the function of such genes in unicellular organisms or the evolutionary process by which these genes came to function in multicellular development. (elifesciences.org)
  • little is known about the function of such developmental regulators in the unicellular ancestor, and the process of how such genes came to function in these roles over evolutionary time is poorly understood. (elifesciences.org)
  • Currently, simple end-stopped and complex end-stopped cells are the terms of choice to describe neurons with end-stopping properties. (wikipedia.org)
  • Investigations into the localization of function as well as the advent of single-cell recordings of neurons fostered greater insights into the processing of information from sensation to perception. (wikipedia.org)
  • NOS1, also known as nNOS (isoform first purified and cloned from neuronal tissue), and NOS3 or eNOS (isoform first found in endothelial cells) are also termed as constitutive since they are expressed continuously in neurons and endothelial cells, respectively. (springer.com)
  • In the auditory system, inhibition already modulates second order neurons in the cochlear nucleus, e.g. spherical bushy cells (SBCs). (nih.gov)
  • We have also found that CD59 is essential for secretion from other cell types such as neurons. (lu.se)
  • Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent cells with many therapeutic applications and have also gained much attention as prolific producers of EVs. (hindawi.com)
  • We recapitulated a bone-like microenvironment by culturing multicellular spheroids containing osteo-differentiated mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), as well as endothelial cells, and fibroblasts in the device. (aip.org)
  • Endothelium plays a critical role in vascular physiological, pathophysiological, and reparative processes. (medscape.com)
  • Current in vitro 3D culture models lack a vascular system to transport oxygen and nutrients, as well as cells, which is essential to maintain cellular viability and functions. (aip.org)
  • Multicellular spheroids containing endothelial cells and lung fibroblasts were embedded within a hydrogel inside a microchannel, and then, endothelial cells were seeded into both sides of the hydrogel so that angiogenic sprouts from the cell spheroids and the microchannels were anastomosed to form a 3D vascular network. (aip.org)
  • Solution containing cells and reagents can be perfused inside the cell spheroids through the vascular network by injecting it into a microchannel. (aip.org)
  • This method can be used to study cancer cell migration towards 3D co-culture spheroids through a vascular network. (aip.org)
  • After the formation of vascularized spheroids, breast cancer cells were injected into a microchannel connected to a vascular network and cultured for 7 days on-chip to monitor cellular migration. (aip.org)
  • Excessive Cell Growth Causes Cytoplasm Dilution And Contributes to Senescence. (harvard.edu)
  • At low levels of xenobiotic exposure, harmful free radical reactions may be suppressed by the antioxidant defenses of target cells or cells in the immune system. (cdc.gov)
  • Immunology covers all aspects of the immune system, including physiological functioning and malfunctions, in all multicellular organisms. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • In this thesis, total internal fluorescence microscopy (TIRF) and single-molecule imaging were used to observe and characterize protein-functionalized supported lipid bilayers (SLBs) interacting with immune cells to obtain the binding kinetics of various protein-protein pairs. (lu.se)
  • Here we show that alterations in cholesterol transport from late endocytic organelles to the endoplasmic reticulum have important consequences for both APP processing and the localization of γ-secretase-associated presenilins (PS). (jneurosci.org)
  • METHOD: Both genetic and functional alterations in mitochondria can lead to errors that trigger programmed cell death, which in turn give rise to a number of diseases that affect the nervous system. (lu.se)
  • Se- lective receptor inactivation is an early change fol- lowing exposure to certain neurotoxins, e.g., failure of the generator potential, followed by loss of the axon filopod processes in Pacinian corpuscles, are early physiological and morphological alterations following acrylamide intoxication (4, 5). (cdc.gov)
  • produced by mammalian cells at an appropriate magnitude and tempo, it serves as a key signaling molecule in various physiological processes. (springer.com)
  • It is inducible by immunological stimuli in virtually all nucleated mammalian cells. (springer.com)
  • Deletion of the BH1, BH2, or BH4 domains of Bcl-2 abolishes its ability to suppress cell death in mammalian cells and prevents homodimerization of these mutant proteins, though these mutants can still bind to the wild-type Bcl-2 protein. (embl.de)
  • The BH3 domain of Bax is also required for Bax/Bax homodimerization and pro-apoptotic function in both yeast and mammalian cells. (embl.de)
  • such shifts in metabolic processing may underestimate or obscure differences in kinetics. (cdc.gov)
  • A number of toxic xenobiotic agents have been shown to induce formation of free radicals either spontaneously, through metabolic pathways, or by interacting with cells. (cdc.gov)
  • In order to survive and replicate in host cells, viruses hijack the host's energy and metabolic products for their own synthesis of virus genomes and proteins. (frontiersin.org)
  • It orchestrates growth, cell regeneration, and various metabolic processes. (all4webs.com)
  • We demonstrated that migration rates of the breast cancer cells towards multicellular spheroids via blood vessels were significantly higher in the bone-like microenvironment compared with the microenvironment formed by undifferentiated MSCs. (aip.org)
  • Today, exosomes are recognised to play an important role in intercellular communication through transfer of proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids into recipient cells [ 6 , 14 , 15 ] (Figure 1 ). (hindawi.com)
  • Formation of cytoplasmic vacuoles and autophagosomes were observed in Naringin-treated AGS cells, further confirmed by the activation of autophagic proteins Beclin 1 and LC3B with a significant phosphorylation of mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • These mutants also fail to bind to BAG-1 and Raf-1, two proteins that we have shown can associate with protein complexes containing Bcl-2 and which cooperate with Bcl-2 to suppress cell death. (embl.de)
  • Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are cell-derived membrane-bound nanoparticles, which act as shuttles, delivering a range of biomolecules to diverse target cells. (hindawi.com)
  • The term "extracellular vesicles" (EVs) was introduced by ISEV to describe preparations of vesicles isolated from biofluids and cell cultures [ 3 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Autophagy begins with the formation of double-membrane vesicles known as autophagosomes that engulf cytoplasmic constituents including organelles followed by maturation process upon fusion with lysosomes and finally become autolysosomes, which undergoes a cellular degradation process lead by lysosomal enzyme in response to starvation and stress ( 10 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Thus, the composition of these vesicles varies depending on the source, the physiological conditions of cells releasing them and disease states. (drexel.edu)
  • Extracellular fluids such as serum, blood, and lavage fluids also contain a number of naturally occurring antioxidants, such as ceruloplasmin, ascorbic-acid, or superoxide-dismutase, that can quench free radical reactions before they affect cells. (cdc.gov)
  • Rooted in physiology and biochemistry, cell and development biology features an interdisciplinary approach to understand intracellular and extracellular dynamics. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • OThe molecules of the extracellular matrix play an important role during cell development and morphogenesis. (bvsalud.org)
  • Following on from this, the role of epithelial cells in the kidney, gastrointestinal tract and respiratory system will be examined in detail. (abdn.ac.uk)
  • Inhibition plays a crucial role in neural signal processing, shaping and limiting responses. (nih.gov)
  • Overall, inhibition plays a central role in improving the temporal response fidelity of SBCs across a wide range of input intensities and thereby provides the basis for high-fidelity signal processing. (nih.gov)
  • We found that C3 regulates process of autophagy and cell survival upon stress and now we aim to investigate what role C3 may play in β-cell physiology and islet inflammation. (lu.se)
  • Platelets play a primary role in this process, interacting with subendothelium-bound von Willebrand factor (vWf) via the membrane glycoprotein (GP) Ib complex. (medscape.com)
  • It is well known that sustaining proliferative signals and resisting cell death are crucial hallmarks of cancer cells ( 6 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Protein-protein interactions are crucial in numerous cellular functions and biological processes that take place inside our body. (lu.se)
  • Second, artificial organs function as laboratory models to study disease and effects of medicines much more accurately than simply growing cells in a dish. (lu.se)
  • The first relates to the fact that no matter how good you are at putting organs together, you still need cells to make them out of. (lu.se)
  • Stop feeding cancer cells! (vitanetonline.com)
  • This study investigated the inhibitory effect of Naringin on human AGS cancer cells. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Collectively, our observed results determined that anti-proliferative activity of Naringin in AGS cancer cells is due to suppression of PI3K/Akt/mTOR cascade via induction of autophagy with activated MAPKs. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • 2019) Cartilage Oligomeric Matrix Protein initiates cancer stem cells through activation of Jagged1-Notch3 signaling. (lu.se)
  • Received 12 February 2009 of chemicals on germ cell mutagenicity. (cdc.gov)
  • Transported biomolecules can contribute to normal physiology or disease states or could be therapeutics to be delivered to damaged cells and tissues. (hindawi.com)
  • The authors conclude that elucidating the processes by which oxidants induce their toxic effects is key to understanding the pathogenesis of disease and developing effective therapeutic approaches. (cdc.gov)
  • Naringin did not induce apoptotic cell death, determined by no DNA fragmentation and the reduced Bax/Bcl-xL ratio. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Strikingly, we find that loss of either kinase causes a contractile cell behavior and increased density of cell packing within Capsaspora aggregates. (elifesciences.org)
  • MSC-derived EVs are being explored as a therapeutic alternative to MSCs since they may have similar therapeutic effects but are cell-free. (hindawi.com)
  • Exosome uptake results in modulation of gene expression in recipient cells and represents a novel mechanism of cellular communication. (drexel.edu)
  • In diploid organisms (like humans), the somatic cells possess two copies of the genome, one inherited from the father and one from the mother. (wikipedia.org)
  • Presumably, this process bestows upon bacteria some of the qualities of higher organisms. (annualreviews.org)
  • Regulators of programmed cell death. (embl.de)
  • indicate that APP processing may be linked to intracellular cholesterol distribution. (jneurosci.org)
  • However, exosomes do not incorporate everything that is present in the parent cell, suggesting that this well-regulated process is dynamically altered by signaling cues. (drexel.edu)
  • Cell Communication and Signaling 2021 Jul 10;19(1):75. (drexel.edu)
  • Cell signaling refers to the stimuli-driven communication cascade between cells. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Embryo morphology al ows options, the discovery of cell-free DNA in the evaluation of its growth, viability, and biological fluids has led to major advances in implantation capacity. (who.int)
  • Notably, MDV infection induces an up-regulation of amino acids in host cells during the early stages of infection to provide the energy and intermediary metabolites necessary for efficient multiplication of its own replication. (frontiersin.org)
  • MDV has been shown to hijack glycolysis and protein synthesis to enhance its replication in host cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • After intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), 48 embryos were evaluated on day 3 of their development, according to their cell number. (who.int)
  • In vivo and in organized cells, and proper symmetry are healthy individuals, macrophages can characteristics of higher-quality embryos, which phagocytize DNA that has been passively point to healthy development and higher rates of released into the blood from apoptotic or necrotic implantation. (who.int)
  • Functional and transcriptomic insights into pathogenesis of R9C phospholamban mutation using human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes. (harvard.edu)
  • While the physiological basis of inhibition and excitation is well described, their functional interaction in signal processing remains elusive. (nih.gov)
  • They carry mRNAs and miRNAs to recipient cells via circulation, with functional gene regulatory consequences. (drexel.edu)
  • The study described the mean values for dietary contribution in terms of the percentage of total energy uptake of ultra-processed foods, ultra-processed food population attributable fraction (PAF), along with the percentages of diets having insufficient energy density, or contents of saturated fats, free sugars, and fibers. (news-medical.net)
  • The most prevalent form of autophagy known as 'macro-autophagy', has been defined as type II programmed cell death (PCD) ( 9 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Engraftment of Human Stem Cell-Derived Otic Progenitors in the Damaged Cochlea. (harvard.edu)
  • She described cell sources and engraftment as major remaining barriers between patients and artificial lungs of the future. (lu.se)
  • The hemostatic system consists of platelets, coagulation factors, and the endothelial cells lining the blood vessels. (medscape.com)
  • We propose inbodied interaction as a frame through which to engage the complexity of the body to make its internal processes accessible to designers. (acm.org)
  • The projects feature state-of-the-art methods for the investigation of cell biology, such as flow cytometry and confocal microscopy, protein interaction analyses using the proximity-ligation assay and Biacore, and genetic manipulation employing the Cas9/CRISPR system. (lu.se)
  • In the first part of this thesis, the interaction between the rat CD2 (rCD2) adhesion protein and its ligand rat CD48T92A (rCD48T92A), a high-affinity mutant of the wild type rat CD48, was used to establish a new method of obtaining single-cell binding affinities of T cells interacting with SLBs using imidazole titrations. (lu.se)
  • The lifetime of the rCD2/rCD48T92A interaction was also investigated using single-molecule imaging and tracking displaying a similarly small lifetime spread within the cell population. (lu.se)
  • Later, the studies focused on the CD4-TCR-MHC II ternary complex where it was demonstrated that the presence of L3-12 TCR strongly supported the CD4-MHC II interaction by increasing the local density of MHC II inside the cell-SLB contacts. (lu.se)
  • Originally, EVs were regarded as cellular waste [ 2 ] but since have been shown to play important biological roles in cellular homeostasis and the spreading of biomolecules to neighbouring cells and tissues. (hindawi.com)
  • A Chemical Inhibitor of Cell Growth Reduces Cell Size in Bacillus subtilis. (harvard.edu)
  • X-ray and NMR structure of human Bcl-xL, an inhibitor of programmed cell death. (embl.de)
  • Over the last few years the mitochondrion has been seen as the link between the different signalling pathways involved in some degenerative processes. (lu.se)
  • The importance of these processes to the normal physiological function of these organ systems is reflected by the pathophysiological symptoms which manifest themselves when transport regulation breaks down. (abdn.ac.uk)
  • Quorum sensing bacteria produce and release chemical signal molecules called autoinducers that increase in concentration as a function of cell density. (annualreviews.org)
  • Although its primary function in vivo remains unclear, it generally is accepted that amyloid precursor protein (APP) is processed sequentially by several proteolytic events. (jneurosci.org)
  • The study results showed that the average ultra-processed foods contribution to total energy intake varied between 15.8% in Colombia to 56.8% in the UK. (news-medical.net)
  • As for day 3 CM, the results showed no significant difference between the Cell-Free DNA levels in CM of 7-8 and those of 4-6 cell embryos (p=0.4). (who.int)
  • The results showed a relatively small spread in the rCD2-rCD48T92A binding affinity values despite the considerable spread of receptor densities within the cell population. (lu.se)
  • Furthermore, the team estimated the ultra-processed food PAF for diets having one or more, two or more, three or more, and four nutrient inadequacies that can be avoided if the level of ultra-processed food consumption is reduced to levels similar to those in the 20% lowest consumers. (news-medical.net)
  • If the contribution of ultra-processed foods were reduced to levels reported in each country's first quintile, statistically significant reductions in inadequate energy density or free sugar, saturated fat, and fiber content would be detected in all eight countries. (news-medical.net)
  • Understanding the association between Cell-free DNA levels in embryo CM and the quality of embryo cleavage could help improve the quality of IVF techniques. (who.int)
  • This prospective study was conducted with 96 spent CM from patients undergoing IVF cycle, in order to determine relationships of Cell-free DNA levels in embryo CM with embryo cleavage quality on day 3. (who.int)
  • Day 2 and day 3 CM corresponding to each one of the embryos was analyzed, by quantitative PCR, for estimation of Cell-free DNA levels. (who.int)
  • The results revealed a significant increase in Cell-free DNA levels on day 2 CM corresponding to 4 to 6 cell embryos compared to those corresponding to 7 to 8 cel embryos (p=0.04). (who.int)
  • Lastly, CD4 binding studies showed that the co-receptor did not noticeably affect the TCR-MHC II binding at physiological levels of hCD4 in the SLB. (lu.se)
  • One of the important discoveries in the field was the presence of nucleic acids-mRNA and miRNA in exosomes and hence the ability to alter specific gene expression and protein translation in recipient cells [ 13 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • All blood cells originate from a population of relatively few haematopoietic stem cells residing in the bone marrow, which give rise to specific progenitors through different lineages. (lu.se)
  • There, she focused on bone tissue engineering - specifically on how to physiological mineral deposition with manufacturing processes outside the body. (lu.se)
  • For this reason, the influence of an adhesion molecule, rat CD2, on the obtained binding kinetics of the human CD4 co-receptor was initially examined showing that the accumulation of CD4 was influenced when having a high concentration of bound CD2 inside the cell-SLB contacts. (lu.se)
  • However, in 2004, experimental manipulation by Japanese researchers of a paternal methylation imprint controlling the Igf2 gene led to the birth of a mouse (named Kaguya) with two maternal sets of chromosomes, though it is not a true parthenogenone since cells from two different female mice were used. (wikipedia.org)
  • Linking single-cell measurements of mass, growth rate, and gene expression. (harvard.edu)
  • Quorum sensing is the regulation of gene expression in response to fluctuations in cell-population density. (annualreviews.org)
  • Matured MVB is then transported to the cell periphery and fuses with the plasma membrane to release ILVs (exosomes). (hindawi.com)
  • Recent advances in the field indicate that cell-cell communication via autoinducers occurs both within and between bacterial species. (annualreviews.org)
  • Steady-state dynamics are governed by cell division and commitment rates as well as by population sizes, while feedback components guarantee the restoration of steady-state conditions. (lu.se)
  • Infants suffering of cell death occurring as a series of changes from chronic illnesses, chromosomal abnor- in dying cells under several physiological malities and those on medication prior to conditions [ 6,7 ] and has been implicated enrolment were excluded from the study. (who.int)
  • Taken together, these data not only hold promise in identifying the biochemical molecules utilized by MDV replication in host cells, but also provides a new insight into understanding MDV-host interactions. (frontiersin.org)
  • Where insight into these processes has been enhanced by the study of disease models, these will be highlighted. (abdn.ac.uk)
  • In the present study, researchers estimated the proportion of diets having excessive free sugars content or energy density and diets having insufficient fiber content that could be negated if people reduced the consumption of ultra-processed food. (news-medical.net)
  • Exposure of neuronal cells to cholesterol transport-inhibiting agents resulted in a marked decrease in β-cleavage of full-length APP. (jneurosci.org)
  • Transcriptional regulation of neural stem cell expansion in the adult hippocampus. (harvard.edu)