Cellular functions, mechanisms, and activities.
The functions and activities of living organisms that support life in single- or multi-cellular organisms from their origin through the progression of life.

Annexin II/annexin II receptor axis regulates adhesion, migration, homing, and growth of prostate cancer. (1/97)

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PID: the Pathway Interaction Database. (2/97)

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Is cell rheology governed by nonequilibrium-to-equilibrium transition of noncovalent bonds? (3/97)

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Robustness analysis of cellular memory in an autoactivating positive feedback system. (4/97)

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Rest-mediated regulation of extracellular matrix is crucial for neural development. (5/97)

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Actin nucleation and elongation factors: mechanisms and interplay. (6/97)

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Genetic and cell biological analysis of integrin outside-in signaling. (7/97)

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Attachment of osteocyte cell processes to the bone matrix. (8/97)

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Cells, either as unicellular organisms or as part of a tissue of a multicellular organism, can acquire different functions thanks to their capability of changing their expression state. The enzyme synthesis, cell division or cell differentiation are some examples of these functions. The turning on and off of them lie in the mechanisms by which cells are able to integrate the information they perceive from the environment. Frequently, cells exhibit different responses under the same stimulus or environment. These probabilistic processes, whose behaviours are not univocal, are known as cellular decision making. We can classify these processes according to the range at which the decision is made. We denominate cell-autonomous decision those in which of each cell chooses its response independently of the choice of the other cells of the population. By contrast, if the decision is made collectively by the whole population, it is classified as non autonomous. This second type of decisions involve ...
Many cellular processes require decision making mechanisms, which must act reliably even in the unavoidable presence of substantial amounts of noise. However, the multistable genetic switches that underlie most decision-making processes are dominated by fluctuations that can induce random jumps between alternative cellular states. Here we show, via theoretical modeling of a population of noise-driven bistable genetic switches, that reliable timing of decision-making processes can be accomplished for large enough population sizes, as long as cells are globally coupled by chemical means. In the light of these results, we conjecture that cell proliferation, in the presence of cell-cell communication, could provide a mechanism for reliable decision making in the presence of noise, by triggering cellular transitions only when the whole cell population reaches a certain size. In other words, the summation performed by the cell population would average out the noise and reduce its detrimental impact ...
My laboratory is interested in a variety of signal transduction mechanisms mediated by nucleotides. We are based within the Department of Chemistry and work closely with physicists, chemists, and mathematicians on a number of research questions.. 1. Carbon dioxide sensing. CO2 is a critical constituent of all known biological systems yet its molecular interactions with the cell are relatively unexplored. Cells are exposed to fluctuating CO2 through altered environmental conditions, changes in cell metabolism, and the effects of lifestyle and pathology. Our current work is directed toward understanding how CO2 impacts on cell function through alterations in cellular levels of the second messenger molecule, cAMP.. 2. Resistance protein function. Plant resistance proteins trigger disease resistance in response to pathogen (avirulence) proteins. R-proteins typically consist of a nucleotide binding (NB) domain adjacent to one or more ARC domains and a Leucine Rich Repeat (LRR). The LRR is involved in ...
Objective: We investigated the association of anti-inflammatory cytokines interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) and adiponectin as well as pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, CCL2 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α with β-cell function, metabolic status and clinical remission in patients with recent onset type 1 diabetes.. Research Design and Methods: Serum was obtained from 256 newly diagnosed patients (122 males/134 females, median age 9.6 years). Stimulated C-peptide, blood glucose and HbA1c were determined in addition to circulating concentration of cytokines at one, six and twelve months after diagnosis. Analyses were adjusted for sex, age and BMI percentiles.. Results: Anti-inflammatory IL-1ra was positively associated with C-peptide after six (p=0.0009) and twelve months (p=0.009). The beneficial association of IL-1ra on β-cell function was complemented by the negative association of IL-1β with C-peptide after one month (p=0.009). In contrast, anti-inflammatory adiponectin ...
The body becomes a storage site for chemicals as it is exposed to toxins in our environment, from cigarette smoke and traffic emissions to food pesticides and chemicals in personal care products. The accumulation of these harmful substances takes its toll on our health and vitality, and eventually leads to a host of problems; but with some warning signs. Symptoms that may indicate your body needs a detox include lethargy, headaches, poor concentration, fatigue, infertility, constipation, skin rashes, eczema, allergies, depression, weight gain, muscle aches, and PMS, along with others.. So what exactly is a detox? Detoxification is the process of purifying the body of compounds that have a detrimental effect on cell functions or structures. When one starts the process of detoxification, the body begins to discharge excesses that have been carried for years. According to ancient healing traditions, spring is recognized as the prime season for cleansing the body because the rhythms of the body ...
The folding state of polypeptides is easily perturbed by adverse conditions. Misfolded proteins are non-functional and lead to a measure of inefficiency in the cells economy. Their presence has additional consequences that are unrelated to loss-of-function features as numerous genetic and biochemical observations suggest that structures elaborated by polypeptides that fail to attain their proper three dimensional structure have deleterious gain-of-function effects on cell function. This process, also referred to as proteotoxicity, appears to be particularly important to the fate of non-renewable cells of long-lived organisms in which accumulating misfolded proteins can act over extended periods of time. The hypothesized contribution of such proteotoxins to cellular dysfunction fits our intuitive notions of aging as a time and use-dependent process. The progressive aging of the human population has led to an increase in the incidence of diseases hypothesized to be associated with various ...
We aim to decipher the ground rules of gene regulation and establish their functional interplay in biological phenomena involving global changes in phenotype, such as in cell differentiation and activation. Our current focus is on the role of non-coding DNA elements such as enhancers in integrating and transmitting gene regulatory information.. We combine experimental and computational approaches to study these questions, capitalising on our previous work on promoter-enhancer relationships, organisation of DNA regulatory elements and population genomics. Our particular interest is in human primary cells as models, and in genetic and epigenetic variation as natural perturbations in the system.. Our ultimate goal is to generate comprehensive functional models of gene control logic underlying cellular decisions. Interrogation and validation of these models will pinpoint key individual players (regulatory elements, genes, extrinsic signals) and their regulatory relationships in these processes ...
Won Jang1, Tae-Geun Park1, Soo-Hyun Song1, You-Soub Lee1, Xin-Zi Chi1, Il Yeong Park2, Jin-Won Hyun3, Yoshiaki Ito4 and Suk-Chul Bae 1 The cellular decision ...
Un exemple typique est notre effort actuel pour imiter divers aspects des cellules (motifs nano-bio en surface, y compris des élastomères mous) ou des tissus (fentes spléniques) en utilisant des techniques de micro/nano-fabrication. Nous innovons dans les techniques dimagerie ainsi que dans les outils danalyse dimages et de données. Un autre axe majeur concerne les capteurs innovants : les nanocapteurs à rayons X pour la topographie et la cartographie chimique simultanées, les capteurs FET à base de lipides pour la détection ultra-sensible dions et de biomolécules et les capteurs photo-thermiques rapides pour la détection de réactions biochimiques par molécule unique.. ...
Can Vitamin D Benefit Patients with Prediabetes? No Effect of High-Dose Vitamin D Treatment on β-Cell Function, Insulin Sensitivity, or Glucose Homeostasis in Subjects With Abnormal Glucose Tolerance: A Randomized Clinical Trial Henrik Wagner1⇑, Michael Alvarsson1, Buster Mannheimer2, Marie Degerblad1 and Claes Göran Östenson1 http://care.diabetesjournals.org/content/early/2016/01/07/dc15 -1057.abstract Abstract OBJECTIVE There has been conflicting evidence regarding the potential role of vitamin D in glucose homeostasis. This study was designed to investigate the effect of high-dose vitamin D3 treatment on β-cell function, insulin sensitivity, and glucose tolerance in subjects with prediabetes or … Continue reading →. ...
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This message is to announce the creation of a new WWW resource deidicated to spreading information regarding the study of chromatin structure, with emphasis on the proteins that modify chromatin structure, and the effects that these modifications have on cell function. Please view this site frequently, because the field is evolving rapidly, and so the website is updated quite often. If you have any suggestions or announcements that you wish posted (Job openings, meetings, etc) my email address is included as part of the page, so feel free to contact me. Thanks, Jim bone Chromatin Structure and Function Page http://rampages.onramp.net/~jrbone/chrom.html ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- James R. Bone Dept. of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Box 117 1515 Holcombe Avenue Houston, TX 77030 email:jrbone at odin.mdacc.tmc.edu :jrbone at onramp.net voice: 713-792-2549 Roth Lab Homepage-- ...
We have shown that near-total α-cell loss in adult mice has little effect on glucagonemia and no apparent effect on β-cell function or glucose homeostasis. This reveals that 2 to 4% of the normal α-cell mass is astonishingly sufficient to produce enough glucagon to ensure glycemic control under basal conditions. Massive α-cell loss is associated with a rapid enhancement of glucagon sensitivity, which allows increased glucose mobilization, even if the decrease in glucagonemia is very mild.. A corollary of this observation is that the normal amount of pancreatic α-cells apparently exceeds the physiologic requirement for proper blood glucose homeostasis. Indeed, the total glucagon found in the pancreas when only 2% of the α-cells remain was sufficient to maintain normoglucagonemia. A simple calculation reveals that if all pancreatic glucagon found 1 week after α-cell loss (∼7,400 pg; Supplementary Table 2) were entirely released at once into the circulation, glucagonemia would be more than ...
Systems theory suggests that the slowest evolving variables determine the long term outcome of a system. In a biological context, it is thus the change in gene expression that reflects the macroscopic decision of a cell. Formalizing these ideas in a dynamic modeling approach, we use neural network and rule based modelling approaches to reconstruct the dynamic control logic of cellular decision processes based on gene expression kinetics. Time-resolved experimental data will be recorded in our lab under well defined cell culture and context-dependent conditions. Data is collected on the cell population level using DNA microarrays and RT-PCR as well as on the single cell level by time-lapse microscopy ...
I take glandular supplements about one month. In the beginning i consume only adrenal, thymus and orchic ones in the different products. But the result not so expressive as this product gave me. I think this because of spleen and pancreas tissues maybe. The spleen takes very important role in a growth of lymphocytes. And it takes to be proved this taking spleen glands supplement separately. And of course this product is highly recommended! ...
Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry is a multidisciplinary scientific forum dedicated to advancing the frontiers of basic cellular research. It addresses scientists from both the physiological and bi
Alteration in charge means the membrane acts as a capacitor, with most cells having a resting potential 70-80mV lower than extracellular ...
As indicated above, renin cells communicate with one another and with adjacent cells, including smooth muscle, mesangial cells, and perivascular interstitial cells. Disruption of such communication alters the renin phenotype, demonstrating that the identity of these cells is heavily dependent on the cells context, particularly their interaction with other cell types.. The Notch pathway is an ancestral, highly conserved, cell-to-cell communication system involved in cell fate decisions during development and in response to physiological challenges.54,55 Notch receptors, their ligands, and their final transcriptional effector, RBP-J, are expressed in renin cells.32 We found that the disruption of the Notch pathway either by the inhibition of γ-secretase (unpublished) or conditional deletion of RBP-J in renin cells56 results in severe reduction in the number of renin cells, low circulating renin, and decreased blood pressure. Further, mutant mice are unable to recruit renin cells in response to a ...
Novel features of the present work include the extensive comparison of renin cells with numerous cells types from the renal cortex at different developmental points. Furthermore, we developed a single cell isolation and amplification procedure that allowed us to identify the transcriptome of individual adult JG cells. Specifically, we show that renin cells express a unique set of genes vastly different from other cell types in the kidney: They possess markers that topologically and functionally link them to arterial and interstitial pericytes, and express Akr1b7, a new and valuable marker for renin cells, independent from renin expression. Contrary to arteriolar cells distant from the glomerulus, which transiently express renin during development and/or a homeostatic threat, adult JG cells maintain a dual smooth muscle and renin phenotype, driven by a unique transcriptional network that maintains, at all cost, the cells dual endocrine and contractile functions necessary for the maintenance of ...
Engineering quantum science into quantum reality 16 April 2015 The University of Bristol has today launched its new state-of-the-art Quantum Engineering Technology (QET) Labs. The QET Labs will provide unique world-leading facilities, bringing together industrial and academic collaborators to build devices that span numerous areas of quantum technology development from the nano-fabrication of quantum devices to a city-scale Quantum Key Distribution network. ...
Genetics is a powerful tool, especially when used in combination with embryology, in the seeking of genes necessary for assembly of the cardiovasculature. The first questions must address the types of cellular decisions that are made during development. As for simpler systems in C elegans and D melanogaster, the lineage and cell-fate decisions of the cardiovascular progenitors need to be assessed. In addition it is likely that new paradigms will emerge for multicellular assembly. The study of cardiovascular mutations will define individual genetic steps that define organotypic decisions. A genetic approach is a natural extension of embryology, physiology, and anatomy, fields of great sophistication with regard to the cardiovasculature, because, like them, it focuses on integrative biology and on the intact organism. The zebrafish is particularly well suited to a combination genetic-embryologic study of the fashioning of the cardiovasculature. ...
Expression of CDK11A (CDC2L2, CDC2L3, CDK11-p110, CDK11-p46, CDK11-p58, p58GTA, PITSLRE) in pancreas tissue. Antibody staining with HPA025061 and CAB010467 in immunohistochemistry.
Expression of ACSBG2 (BGR, DKFZp434K1635, PRTD-NY3) in pancreas tissue. Antibody staining with HPA043421 and HPA051013 in immunohistochemistry.
My research interests include Bacterial Cell Cycle Regulation and Signal Transduction mechanisms.. 1. Bacterial Cell Cycle Regulation- Epigenetic mechanisms regulating various physiological activities in the prokaryotic cells are increasingly being appreciated. Methylation of specific bases of the DNA molecule by methyltransferases is the most common epigenetic modification observed in the bacterial cells. This modification of nucleotides adds another level of regulation at the transcription; furthermore, it has a fundamental role in the cell physiological processes such as DNA replication, DNA mismatch repair, and virulence mechanisms in many pathogens. Among the prokaryotic DNA methyltransferases, Dam expressed among the Gammaproteobacteria is the most intensively studied. In contrast to Dam, another DNA methyltransferase CcrM (Cell Cycle Regulated Methylase) has been described in the Alphaproteobacteria, where it plays an important role in the cell cycle regulation of Caulobacter crescentus ...
From previous studies, it is known that the low OA risk haplogroup J is associated with lower serum levels of markers of collagen type-II degradation and of matrix metalloproteinases, but all of these studies failed to address the key question arising from this large body of evidence: What is the functional role of these mtDNA haplogroups?. To answer this question, Fernandez-Moreno et al7 used cytoplasmic hybrid (cybrid) cell lines. Cybrids incorporate mitochondria from human subjects and perpetuate the mtDNA-encoded components while maintaining the nuclear background of different cybrid lines as constant.16 Thus, this technique allows investigators to assess the influence of mtDNA variation on cell function. To investigate the role of mtDNA haplogroups, they also created cybrids using osteosarcoma cell lines with the same nuclear background, one of them harbouring the haplogroup J (which protects against OA) and another harbouring the haplogroup H (linked to higher risk of OA).. The cybrids ...
Sigma Zeta 2014 Fall Banquet:. On Tuesday, November 4th our own Dr. Nathan Lindquist from the physics department spoke on Interdisciplinary nanotechnology research: the science and its many applications. Over the past few years, Bethel has invested in building a NanoLab for interdisciplinary student/faculty research on microscopy, spectroscopy, imaging, bio-sensing, nano-fabrication and nano-characterization. The recent addition of a Scanning Electron Microscope further builds our potential for cutting-edge projects. The talk provided some background on the science of nanotechnology, the tools of the trade, and its many promising applications. We found out how nano-research is directly aimed at solving some of our biggest challenges in energy, healthcare, and the environment. As is our custom in the fall, our banquet is a combined event with members of the Minnesota Microscopy Society. We had a total of 48 in attendance including students, faculty and MMS members. We recognized new members ...
Cellular decisions to live or die are fundamental to development and adult homeostasis, playing roles in a wide variety of physiological and pathological processes. These include cancer, degenerative disease, innate and adaptive immunity, ischemia-reperfusion injury, and infectious disease. As the study of cell death moves beyond the central mechanisms of apoptosis to wider issues of regulation and other forms of cell death, this vibrant area of research widens its influence and importance for human health and disease.
Pancreatic cancer begins in pancreas tissues. Pancreas lies in the abdomen just behind the lower part of the stomach. These secrete enzymes which help in digestion and hormones which help in regulating sugar metabolism. Often, pancreatic cancer has a poor prognosis even it is diagnosed early. Typically, it spreads rapidly. It is rarely detected in the initial stage. This is the major reason for many pancreatic cancer deaths. Symptoms do not develop till the cancer reaches advanced stage and it is not possible to remove it surgically. Pancreatic Cancer Causes: ...
The Food and Drug Administration is looking into new evidence that suggests a group of recently approved diabetes drugs can increase the risk of pancreatitis and other problems. The agency said Thursday samples of pancreas tissue taken from a small number of patients showed inflammation and cellular changes that often precede cancer. Academic researchers took the samples from diabetes patients who were taking the new medications, after they died from various causes.
A new class of viologen-phosphorus dendrimers (VPDs) has been recently shown to possess the ability to inhibit neurodegenerative processes in vitro. Nevertheless, in the Central Nervous Systems domain, there is little information on their impact on cell functions, especially on neuronal cells. In this work, we examined the influence of two VPD (VPD1 and VPD3) of zero generation (G0) on murine hippocampal cell line (named mHippoE-18). Extended analyses of cell responses to these nanomolecules comprised cytotoxicity test, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation studies, mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) assay, cell death detection, cell morphology assessment, cell cycle studies, as well as measurements of catalase (CAT) activity and glutathione (GSH) level. The results indicate that VPD1 is more toxic than VPD3. However, these two tested dendrimers did not cause a strong cellular response, and induced a low level of apoptosis. Interestingly, VPD1 and VPD3 treatment led to a small decline in ROS
Philip Calder is Professor of Nutritional Immunology at the University of Southampton, UK. He has a first class honours degree in biochemistry from Massey University, New Zealand, a PhD in biochemistry from the University of Auckland, New Zealand, and a DPhil in biochemistry from the University of Oxford, UK. He held a Nuffield Medical Fellowship in the Department of Biochemistry, University of Oxford from 1987 to 1991. Professor Calder has been studying the influence of dietary fatty acids on aspects on cell function and human health, in particular in relation to cardiovascular disease, inflammation and immunity, since 1987. In 1995 he was awarded the Sir David Cuthbertson Medal by the UK Nutrition Society for this work and he has been awarded the Belgian Danone Institute Chair for 2004, the Nutricia International Award for 2007, the ESPEN Cuthbertson Lecture for 2008, and the Muriel Bell Award for 2009. Professor Calder served as an elected member of the Council of the UK Nutrition Society and ...
Pancreatic diseases can be very difficult to diagnose and monitor because of the location of the pancreas deep within the abdomen. Also, with the current range of tests it may not be possible (in some cases) to tell the difference between pancreatitis (inflammation of the pancreas) and other conditions such as cancer of the pancreas without surgery and direct biopsy of tissues from this organ. This project is aimed to create a research tissue bank (explained below), specifically for pancreatic diseases. It will help researchers conduct a range of investigations in the near future. Thus this research project aims to develop new diagnostic tests as well as treatments for patients with pancreatic disease.. ...
The MRC laboratories reach users from many different fields: electronics, optics, physics, chemistry, astronomy, as well as chemical, mechanical, and petroleum engineering. Lab users are both from universities and corporates. UT MRC is more than a cleanroom with open-access with a comprehensive set of nano-fabrication equipment - it is a community of scientists who works together to build advanced technology products and knowledge.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Hydrolysis of bis(dimethylamido)tin to tin (II) oxyhydroxide and its selective transformation into tin (II) or tin (IV) oxide. AU - Khanderi, Jayaprakash. AU - Shi, Lei. AU - Rothenberger, Alexander. N1 - KAUST Repository Item: Exported on 2020-10-01 Acknowledgements: Research reported in this publication was supported by the King Abdullah University of Science & Technology (KAUST) baseline and AEA funding. We thank the analytical core lab and advanced nano-fabrication, imaging and characterization lab personnel of KAUST for generous access to the facility and help in the IR, Raman and SEM analysis. J.K. thanks Dr. Ali R. Behzad for helping in SnO2 imaging by SEM, Dr. Rachid Sougrat and Ms. Nini Wei for TEM imaging and Dr. Ejaz Ahmed for his comments during the preparation of the manuscript.. PY - 2015/3. Y1 - 2015/3. N2 - Sn6O4(OH)4, a hydrolysis product of Sn(NMe2)2, is transformed to tin (II) or tin (IV) oxide by solid and solution phase processing. Tin (II) oxide is ...
In this module we will discuss different approaches and concepts how tailoring electronic and photonic band structures of solid-state matter can enable us to influence, manipulate and controlle light on the nanoscale. We will begin with a discussion of quantum-confined materials where in particular semiconductors are tailored during growth in order to control and manipulate their electronic properties leading to novel physical concept like non-classical light emission. In contrast to controlling the electronic band structure, nano-fabrication techniques allow us to selectively tailor the structural properties of solid materials giving rise to the full control of the photonic properties. In particular the concept of periodically structured dielectrics - known as photonic crystals - offers a powerful tool to guide, confine and enhance the spontaneous emission of light emitters. Also metallic nanostructures exhibit another way to manipulate light by tailoring their shape, size and composition and ...
Modeling of phenomena observed in biological systems and the search for underlying mechanisms and principles have a long history, with remarkable contributions from Mathematical Biology. The development of the Hodgkin-Huxley model as an explanation of the temporal behavior of excited neurons or the class of predator-prey models for describing the dynamics of competing populations are prominent examples. Their principles can still be found in many areas of research (see e.g. Chapter 2 in [3] or Chapter 3 in [4]). Moreover, although classical Cell Biology was in the past a predominantly reductionist approach, in which cells were broken down into small subsystems, this was always accompanied by models on the system level. Regulation processes that drive cellular decisions, such as the lytic and lysogenic pathway in bacteriophage lambda [5, 6], the diauxic switch between glucose and lactose uptake in bacterial cells [7] or apoptotic decision processes [8], have been in the focus of interest for a ...
In the 1860s, the German scientist Paul Langerhans discovered tiny patches of cells in cross-sections of pancreas tissues. They looked like little islands, hence their name - islets of Langerhans. These islets have a rich blood supply and consist of two type of cells - larger alpha cells and numerous smaller beta cells. The function of these islets were unknown until the 20th century when scientists found that removing the pancreas for an animal resulted in a disease similar to human diabetes (incidentally, dogs and cats can get diabetes too).. It was isolated in the 1920s by Banting, Best & MacLeod in Canada.. Animals with their pancreas removed were treated with the insulin (meaning island), and this cured the animals of the diabetes. Animal insulin was then successfully used to treat humans for many years before genetic engineering took over the production.. ...
Each cell division, the nuclear DNA must be replicated efficiently and with high accuracy to avoid mutations which can have an effect on cell function. There are three replicative DNA polymerases essential for the synthesis of DNA during replication in eukaryotic cells. DNA polymerase α (Pol α) synthesize short primers required for DNA polymerase δ (Pol δ) and DNA polymerase ε (Pol ε) to carry out the bulk synthesis. The role of Pol δ and Pol ε at the replication fork has been unclear. The aim of this thesis was to examine what role Pol ε has at the replication fork, compare the biochemical properties of Pol δ and Pol ε, and to study the function of the second largest and essential subunit of Pol ε, Dpb2.. To identify where Pol ε replicates DNA in vivo, a strategy was taken where the active site of Pol ε was altered to create a mutator polymerase leaving a unique error-signature. A series of mutant pol ε proteins were purified and analyzed for enzyme activity and fidelity of DNA ...
Author(s): Lodico, Jared Joseph | Advisor(s): Regan, Brian C. | Abstract: Graphite intercalation compounds are critically important in modern technology and todays economy. For instance, they serve as the anode in the ubiquitous lithium-ion battery. However, despite considerable efforts to understand intercalation compounds, their behavior during charging and discharging at the macromolecular level is still not well understood, even in idealized circumstances. Recent developments in nano-fabrication have brought forth a platform to study this dynamical process with the high spatial resolution of an electron microscope. We expanded on and developed new fabrication techniques to form ultra-thin, in situ fluid cells. With this platform we imaged the graphite intercalation process with an optical and a transmission electron microscope (TEM). Optical videos show, vividly the graphite flake charging and discharging and give insight to the lithium-graphite structure over multiple cycles. Our TEM images
Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors, such as saxagliptin, have been reported to have beneficial effects on β-cell function, but the specific underlying mechanism remains unclear. Stromal cell-derived factor-1α (SDF-1α), a chemokine produced in multiple organs, has been considered as a crucial regulator in promoting β-cell survival. Here, we speculate that SDF-1α might mediate the effect of saxagliptin on improving β-cell function. After 12-week saxagliptin treatment in high-fat diet/streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats, significant improvement in pancreas insulin secretion capacity evaluated by hyperglycemia clamp and increased β-cell to α-cell areas ratio were observed. Saxagliptin significantly induced β-cell proliferation and upregulated the expression of proliferation-related factors including c-myc and cyclind D1 determined with western blotting from the isolated islets. The expression/activity of DPP-4 was significantly reduced and paralleled with the restoration of SDF-1α levels in the
The book covers areas of cellular physiology and metabolism that are of interest to scientists involved in research in diabetes and metabolic diseases. Some chapters of the book are specifically research-oriented, as all the authors are actively practicing either bench or clinical research in the
The Paperback of the Cellular Physiology of Nerve and Muscle by Gary G. Matthews at Barnes & Noble. FREE Shipping on $25 or more!
Hyperglucagonemia is an important factor for type 2 diabetes which contributes to increased hepatic glucose production (Rizza 2010). In spite of this, however, little is known about the role of chronically elevated glucagon levels for β-cell function. A reason for this is the lack of appropriate models of long-term glucagon action, which in part is due to difficulties in administering native glucagon long-term because of poor chemical and physical stability. Therefore, in the current study, we administered a stable glucagon analog (ZP-GA-1) to mice fed a HFD to create a novel model for studying effects of chronic GCGR activation on β-cell function. The HFD fed mice do not develop hyperglucagonemia (Ahlkvist et al. 2013) which allowed us to study the impact of chronic GCGR stimulation on glucose tolerance in a glucose intolerant model without the confounding factor of endogenous hyperglucagonemia. In these mice, 2-week ZP-GA-1 infusion markedly reduced the insulin response to oral glucose. ...
The project would include but not be limited to applications of single molecule spectroscopy to understanding of protein folding reactions. Candidates should have a recent Ph.D. in engineering, chemistry, physics, materials science or a related field. The work will involve design, fabrication & characterization of the microfluidics devices and their applications. The candidate would have access to research facilities at both at Center for Biophotonics S&T at UC Davis and at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Opportunities also exist for close collaboration with Single Molecule Biophysics Group at UCLA http://smb.chem.ucla.edu/ and with the laboratory of Prof. L. Lapidus at Michigan State (http://www.pa.msu.edu/~lapidus/introduction.htm). Experience in as many of the following disciplines is not necessary but it would be a plus: computational fluid dynamics, micro- and nano-fabrication, microfluidics, fluorescence microscopy. The ideal candidate would be a person with experience in one of ...
As a result, Dr. Waldman notes, the findings also indicate that these miRNAs can serve as diagnostic markers. Because they are involved in processes underlying cancer, these specific miRNAs mediate the disease process in different types of cells, such as pancreas or lung, for example, he says. There apparently is a profile of miRNAs that identify pancreatic cancer cells from other types. It appears that in some cases, there are common miRNAs, and for others there are miRNAs that can distinguish different types of cancer. A tumor can be profiled based on miRNAs. MiRNAs cans serve as prognostic markers as well. They apparently distinguish normal pancreas tissue from inflamed tissue from cancer, and this paper shows miRNAs correlate with who will do well and who wont, Dr. Waldman explains. Presumably, it follows that miRNAs could be predictive markers, which could have implications for therapy. On top of this, there is a new layer of biology that is identifying novel mechanisms involved in ...
Background : Carcinoma of the pancreas is a fatal malignant disease with limited therapeutic options. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and c-erbB-2 are known to be involved in the carcinogenesis, differentiation and invasiveness of various neoplasms. We studied the immunohistochemical expressions of c-erbB-2 and COX-2 and the correlation between these expressions and the clinicopathologic parameters and the relation between the expressions. Methods : Immunohistochemical staining for c-erbB-2 and COX-2 were performed on the paraffin embedded sections of 36 cases of surgically resected ductal adenocarcinoma of the pancreas and 10 cases of non-neoplastic pancreas tissue. Results : The non-neoplastic control group showed a c-erbB-2 expression in the acini (8/10) and ducts (2/10), and a COX-2 expression in the acini (6/10) and ducts (3/10). The overexpression of c-erbB-2 was observed in 58% (21/36) of the carcinoma specimens. No significant correlation was found between c-erbB-2 and age, gender, tumor size, ...
Synthetic Biology. 6. Synthetic Biology. What is Synthetic Biology?. Discover Magazine: Scientists of the Year. Undergraduates in Synthetic Bio. international Genetically Engineered Machines. http://parts.mit.edu/registry/index.php/Main_Page. 37 Teams in 2006; 57 in 2007. Slideshow 65399 by mike_john
Ensuring benefits of synthetic biology are realized through responsible development. Synthetic biology specific news, events, publications and more.
Synthetic biology is a new field where basic biological components can be engineered to create something new. It often involves DNA synthesizers, ligation, promoters, and polymerase chain reaction -- which may or may not be safe for your in silico environment. However, as the size and complexity of the systems increase, tools become more and more important, thus CAD for biology has emerged.. ...
Synthetic Biology Market report analyzes the synthetic biology market and aims at estimating the market size and growth potential of this market based on various aspects such as tools, technologies, applications, and regions.
A 2013 survey conducted by the Woodrow Wilson Synthetic Biology Project found that 75% of adults have heard just a little or nothing at all about synthetic biology, figures that were virtuall
Ensuring benefits of synthetic biology are realized through responsible development. Synthetic biology specific news, events, publications and more.
Synthetic Biology: is an interdisciplinary branch of biology and engineering. The subject combines disciplines from within these domains, such as biotechno
The global Synthetic Biology Market is fuelled by extensive research in DNA sequencing and rising governmental support. The growing importance of synthetic
Via this page, we hope to maintain a collection of links to online tools that are related to Synthetic Biology. If you are editing this page, please try to keep the tools in alphabectial order, by tool name. ...
  • Traditionally considered as a critical intermediate in the toxic and carcinogenic response to dioxin (2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo- p -dioxin, TCDD), the Aryl hydrocarbon/Dioxin receptor (AhR) has proven to be also an important regulator of cell physiology and organ homeostasis. (frontiersin.org)
  • Having taught this course for over ten years, the author uses his expertise to relate the background established in plant anatomy, plant physiology, plant growth and development, plant taxonomy, plant biochemistry, and plant molecular biology courses to plant cell biology. (google.com)
  • At the cellular level, AhR establishes functional interactions with signaling pathways governing cell proliferation and cell cycle, cell morphology, cell adhesion and cell migration. (frontiersin.org)
  • aims to bring together leading academic scientists, researchers and research scholars to exchange and share their experiences and research results on all aspects of Cell Biology, Structures and Cellular Processes. (waset.org)
  • Also, high quality research contributions describing original and unpublished results of conceptual, constructive, empirical, experimental, or theoretical work in all areas of Cell Biology, Structures and Cellular Processes are cordially invited for presentation at the conference. (waset.org)
  • ICCBSCP 2022 has teamed up with the Special Journal Issue on Cell Biology, Structures and Cellular Processes . (waset.org)
  • HCN channels: structure, cellular regulation and physiological function. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • As a result of AMPK activation, the cellular metabolism switches from anabolic to catabolic processes. (intechopen.com)
  • This impairment of antigen processing and presentation by corticosterone was also observed in non-immune cells, suggesting that stress may affect essential cellular protein management functions in all cells, and having possible implications for neurological or other diseases that may result from aberrant protein processing. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The mammalian heat shock transcription factor HSF-1 regulates the expression of the heat shock proteins, molecular chaperones that are involved in cellular processes from higher order assembly to protein degradation. (cdc.gov)
  • and (b) effects of variation in nitrogen (N) concentration of the medium on cellular polyamine concentration in transgenic and non-transgenic cells. (usda.gov)
  • Cells grown in the presence of supplemental (to the normal concentrations of N sources in the growth medium) and reduced amounts of NH 4 N0 3 and KN0 3 were used to study effects on membrane permeability, mitochondria1 respiratory activity, protein accumulation, growth rates and changes in cellular polyamine concentration. (usda.gov)
  • Moreover, prostanoids exert their cellular functions by binding cell surface G protein-coupled receptors. (jci.org)
  • Mechanical stress can modulate physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, and systemic level. (nih.gov)
  • A team of researchers, led by Pier Paolo Pandolfi, at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, has identified a new type of cellular senescence (i.e., irreversible arrest of cell growth) and determined a way to enhance it to suppress prostate tumor development and growth in mice. (eurekalert.org)
  • Recently, understanding of many molecular interactions has progressed appreciably and cellular events once thought to be by-products of more important reactions or to be detrimental to cellular function are now known to be part of complex interactions of the cell with its environment. (nih.gov)
  • Organized networks of semiflexible actin filaments determine cell stiffness and transmit force during mechanotransduction, cytokinesis, cell motility and other cellular shape changes. (nih.gov)
  • to enhance students' ability to understand and evaluate evidence underlying descriptions of cellular processes. (ncl.ac.uk)
  • The present investigations were focused on understanding the cellular and molecular mechanisms induced by raw SWCNT (SWCNT) in human bronchial-epithelial cells (BEAS-2B). (cdc.gov)
  • Cold hardening is a process in which a plant undergoes physiological changes to avoid, or mitigate cellular injuries caused by sub-zero temperatures. (wikipedia.org)
  • This research sheds light on the complexity of DNA repair, and offers an example of how the cellular process stimulates other pathways," said David Schwartz, director of the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS), one of the agencies which funded the study. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The vast majority of biomedical researchers use cell culture media that were not designed to reproduce the physiological cellular environment but were formulated to enable the continued culture of cells with minimal amounts of nutrients and serum (i.e. (sciencemag.org)
  • At the molecular level, AhR regulates an increasingly large array of physiologically relevant genes either by traditional transcription-dependent mechanisms or by unforeseen processes involving genomic insulators, chromatin dynamics and the transcription of mobile genetic elements. (frontiersin.org)
  • The book will discuss the molecular mechanisms of cancer diseases, stem cell proliferation and transformation into cancer cells beyond the physiological processes that occur in normal stem cell biology. (springer.com)
  • An important issue concerns the physiological mechanisms by which support influences such health endpoints. (springer.com)
  • Recent research on immune-mediated inflammatory processes is also starting to provide data on more integrative physiological mechanisms potentially linking social support to health. (springer.com)
  • Presentation of principles needed to appreciate the physiological mechanisms unique to plants. (umass.edu)
  • General areas include components and functions of cell structures and mechanisms of development. (umass.edu)
  • In addition, major tolerance mechanisms that employ ion transporters, proteins, osmoprotectants, antioxidants, and other factors involved in signaling cascades and transcriptional control are activated to offset stress-induced biochemical and physiological alterations. (mdpi.com)
  • emphasizes altered physiological mechanisms in cells and organ systems. (nau.edu)
  • The process of autophagy is conserved among yeast to mammals. (taconic.com)
  • We believe the phenomenon we describe here provides mechanistic insights for the regulation of gene allelic expression and mRNA dosage control necessary for fine-tuning physiological processes in mammals. (pnas.org)
  • Mechanosensitivity, i.e. the specific response to mechanical stimulation, is common to a wide variety of cells in many different organisms ranging from bacteria to mammals. (nih.gov)
  • The small round bodies inside cells represent lysosomes, with the pink color indicating ones that are undergoing chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA), a selective form of autophagy that is demonstrated only in mammals. (pennmedicine.org)
  • However, unlike the other forms, which are present in all eukaryotic cells, CMA is unique to mammals. (pennmedicine.org)
  • So far, nine isoforms of ACs have been cloned in mammals and their expression has been investigated in various tissues and cells. (calstatela.edu)
  • A discerning feature of simple cells is that their responses display orientation and positional selectivity. (wikipedia.org)
  • While contractility is known to be largely RhoA-dependent, the process by which localized biochemical signals are translated into cell-level responses is poorly understood. (nature.com)
  • Plant miRNAs mediate diverse biological processes associating with growth, development, and environmental stress responses through regulating target genes at the posttranscriptional or translation level. (springer.com)
  • Dendritic cells (DCs) play a pivotal role in the generation of both primary and memory CTL responses. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Coordination of the responses of these cells is critical for the proper function of the cardiovascular system. (sciencemag.org)
  • We analyzed the responses of hundreds of endothelial cells to carbachol (CCh) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and found that the endothelium segregates the responses to these two distinct components of the chemical environment into separate streams of complementary information that are processed in parallel. (sciencemag.org)
  • The physiological and biochemical responses to heat stress are active research areas, and the molecular approaches are being adopted for developing HT tolerance in plants. (mdpi.com)
  • Activation of DP 2 by PGD2 or other cognate receptor ligands has been associated with certain physiological and pathological responses, particularly those associated with allergy and inflammation, in animal models and certain human diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • This course will provide a brief overview of the physiological responses and adaptations observed in humans during exposure to microgravity. (nau.edu)
  • This course will serve as an overview of the physiological responses to exercise. (nau.edu)
  • Researchers at the University of California, San Diego and three other institutions have described for the first time a web of inter-related responses that cells use to avoid becoming diseased or cancerous after being exposed to a powerful chemical mutagen. (bio-medicine.org)
  • However, they were surprised to find that a much larger part of the network is involved in modulating the expression of genes not directly related to DNA repair, such as genes involved in cell growth and division, protein degradation, responses to stres s, and other metabolic functions. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Exposure of engineered nanomaterials to plants: Insights into the physiological and biochemical responses-A review. (semanticscholar.org)
  • No, cells stop working before they die so loss of function could kill before morphological changes take place in the cell. (brainscape.com)
  • RNAi-and/or inhibitor experiments followed by the analyses of physiological and morphological effects). (uni-giessen.de)
  • Gene co-option in physiological and morphological evolution. (antievolution.org)
  • Study of the physiological, morphological, and behavioral adaptations of desert plants and animals. (utep.edu)
  • Topics include an overview of evolution, systematics, and biogeography of recent and fossil fishes, functional anatomy of feeding and locomotory systems, reproduction and reproductive behavior, physiological adaptations to aquatic habits, etc. (umass.edu)
  • Tnfα induced autophagy play a critical role in induction of apoptosis/cell death in placental cells during pregnancy. (taconic.com)
  • Apoptosis * ('programmed cell death') is a biologically ubiquitous phenomenon that deserves to be much more widely known among non-biologists and laypeople. (creation.com)
  • The excess of ROS triggers wide ranges of pathological occurrences including damages to the structural components of cells, alteration in the expressions of genes, DNA damage, and apoptosis [ 6 , 7 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Exposure of BEAS-2B cells to SWCNT induced apoptosis, DNA damage, and oxidative stress. (cdc.gov)
  • Morphologic evaluation, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis rate analysis results showed that dicitrinone B significantly induced A375 cell apoptosis. (mdpi.com)
  • Our data for the first time showed that dicitrinone B inhibits the proliferation of tumor cells by inducing cell apoptosis. (mdpi.com)
  • TaMIR2275 targets eight genes that encode proteins involving various biological processes, including stress defense, transcriptional regulation, signaling transduction, and trafficking. (springer.com)
  • The transgenes expressed are fluorescence reporters to analyze neuroanatomical aspects of the mushroom body, proteins to restrict ectopic gene expression to mushroom bodies, or fluorescent sensors to monitor physiological parameters of neuronal activity of Kenyon cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • In this study, BLT 1 receptor proteins were detected in human carotid artery atherosclerotic plaques, colocalizing with markers for macrophages, endothelial cells, and vascular smooth muscle cells (SMC). (pnas.org)
  • Deficiency of SumF1 is associated with lysosomal storage disorders (LSDs) which results in severe neurodegeneration due to inability of degradation of intracellular proteins by the process of autophagy 11 . (taconic.com)
  • Although numerous actin-binding proteins have been identified that organize networks, the mechanical properties of actin networks with physiological architectures and concentrations have been difficult to measure quantitatively. (nih.gov)
  • Serum-free media and reagents have a wide range of applications, including production of monoclonal antibodies, viral antigens, and recombinant proteins using a variety of mammalian and invertebrate cell lines. (sartorius.com)
  • Protein Metabolism o Proteolysis- process of breaking down proteins o Protease- enzyme that breaks down proteins o Keto acids- class of breakdown products formed from the deamination oxidative acids. (majortests.com)
  • To examine the cell-specific location of AMPK ±1 and ±2 subunit proteins in the ovary, immunohistochemical studies are being performed. (calstatela.edu)
  • Ongoing immunohistochemical analysis with a confocal microscopy system will reveal the cell-specific localization of AMPK ±1 and ±2 subunit proteins in the ovary, providing new insight into the possible roles of this enzyme in regulating reproductive functions. (calstatela.edu)
  • Examples from recent literature consider genetic engineering, sensory processes, and protection from biotic and abiotic stresses. (umass.edu)
  • Focus on evolutionary processes affecting the distribution of genetic variation through space and time: gene flow, genetic drift, recombination, mating system, mutation, and natural selection. (umass.edu)
  • Sleep is associated with significant genetic and epigenetic changes, suggesting the idea that its purpose is to regulate fundamental physiological and behavioural functions. (iit.it)
  • Polyploidization is a widely accepted mechanism for increasing genetic variation in unicellular organisms and for the acquisition of new properties in a variety of cell types (e.g., osteoclast fusion in bone resorption and myoblast fusion in muscle development) and is considered a physiological process. (yu.edu)
  • Using metabolomic and genetic laboratory techniques on the embryonic stem cells of mice, the researchers sought to better understand significant changes that took place during their pluripotent state and subsequent differentiation. (pennmedicine.org)
  • Those imbalances arise as environmental inputs such as diet, nutrients (including air and water), exercise, and trauma are processed by one's body, mind, and spirit through a unique set of genetic predispositions, attitudes, and beliefs. (spineuniverse.com)
  • Cells rapidly identify the damage, stop dividing, excise the damaged DNA, and use several alternate methods to substitute a clean copy of genetic material. (bio-medicine.org)
  • In addition, reports indicate that both carbon-based and metal-based ENMs affect plants differently at the physiological, biochemical, nutritional, and genetic levels. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Unliganded AhR resides in the cytosolic compartment of the cell bound to a molecular chaperone complex that at least contains two molecules of Hsp90, XAP2 and p23. (frontiersin.org)
  • The molecular regulation underlying the competition between elastic and viscous processes in cells is not well understood. (nature.com)
  • Although the axonal retrograde transport of NT is a well-characterised process, molecular machinery controlling the sorting events is still poorly understood. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • The results of this study show that the molecular mechanism for raw SWCNT-mediated toxicity in BEAS-2B cells is through the activation of caspase-3, caspase-7, and PARP-1. (cdc.gov)
  • An increase in polyphenolic content could be attributed to a disruption of plant cell walls, providing better extractability, breaking chemical bonds of higher molecular weight polyphenols, and forming soluble low molecular weight polyphenols and their interconversion [1, 36, 37]. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • This approach has the final goal of dissecting the molecular processes that mediate methylation changes in the morphogenesis and differentiation of the normal breast and to identify "hot spot" loci for gene silencing in breast carcinogenesis. (yu.edu)
  • The combination of advanced molecular and imaging tools and "organ-on-a-chip" technology offers an exciting opportunity to reveal the hidden functions of neurons and their interactions with various stem cell types, in both healthy and pathological conditions. (innovations-report.com)
  • Leukotriene B 4 (LTB 4 ), a potent leukocyte chemoattractant derived from the 5-lipoxygenase metabolism of arachidonic acid, exerts its action by means of specific cell surface receptors, denoted BLT 1 and BLT 2 . (pnas.org)
  • Challenge of human coronary artery SMC with either LTB 4 or U75302, a partial agonist that is selective for the BLT 1 receptor, induced an ≈4-fold increase of whole-cell currents by using the patch-clamp technique, indicating that these cells express functional BLT 1 receptors. (pnas.org)
  • These cell surface receptors are designated EP (EP1, EP2, EP3, and EP4) for the PGE 2 receptors, DP1 and DP2 for the PGD 2 receptor, FP for the PGF 2α receptor, IP for the PGI 2 receptor, and TP for the TxA 2 receptor ( Figure 1 ). (jci.org)
  • Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) obtained by leukapheresis will be cultured in order to stimulate T-cell growth. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • HSF-1 is a phosphorylated monomer under physiological growth conditions and is located mainly in the cytoplasm. (cdc.gov)
  • Finally, in the absence of salt, cells depleted of FtsEX stopped dividing before any change in growth rate (mass increase) was apparent. (asm.org)
  • In Escherichia coli , the division septum forms via the coordinated inward growth of all three layers of the cell envelope-the cytoplasmic membrane, the peptidoglycan wall, and the outer membrane. (asm.org)
  • This receptor tyrosine kinase plays an integral role in cell growth, survival and anti-apoptotic processes. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • Growth factors, signal transduction and cell cycle control. (ncl.ac.uk)
  • UltraCULTURE™ Medium can be used to support fusion of cells during hybridoma formation, growth of monocyte, macrophage, epithelial and fibroblastic cell lines, and generation of virus particles for vaccine production. (sartorius.com)
  • We previously found that transgenic mice overexpressing growth hormone (TGM) have elevated and progressively increasing free radical processes in brain that strongly correlates with reduced survivorship. (chiro.org)
  • In the immune response they are involved in antigen processing and presentation, the cytotoxicity of natural killer (NK) cells and cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL), migration and adhesion of immune cells, cytokine and growth factor regulation and toll-like receptor signalling. (srce.hr)
  • Effect of soluble copper released from copper oxide nanoparticles solubilisation on growth and photosynthetic processes of Lemna gibba L. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Using the "organ-on-a-chip" technology, which relies on small three-dimensional devices mimicking the basic functions of human organs and tissues, the researchers demonstrated that both types of stem cells promoted neuronal growth. (innovations-report.com)
  • Dental stem cells produce specific molecules that are fundamental for the growth and attraction of neurons. (innovations-report.com)
  • Pooling the results of these anatomical studies with our own suggests a common feature of the laminar organization: cells that project to different intracortical targets have distinct functional characteristics. (jneurosci.org)
  • The Drosophila visual system contains multiple classes of photoreceptor cells that differ in anatomical location, synaptic connections, and spectral sensitivity. (jneurosci.org)
  • This course provided a good basic overview of the principles of nutrition and its role in both anatomical and physiological functions. (straighterline.com)
  • Understanding this mechanism of Ag processing can be useful both for vaccine design and toward a selective manipulation of Ag presentation during an autoimmune response. (jimmunol.org)
  • Autophagy is a cell-eating mechanism necessary for survival and function of most living organisms. (pennmedicine.org)
  • One of the contributing factors for the increased knowledge of physiological roles of autophagy is availability of mouse models to study autophagy. (taconic.com)
  • Currently, simple end-stopped and complex end-stopped cells are the terms of choice to describe neurons with end-stopping properties. (wikipedia.org)
  • Investigations into the localization of function as well as the advent of single-cell recordings of neurons fostered greater insights into the processing of information from sensation to perception. (wikipedia.org)
  • Researchers at Sanford Burnham Prebys Medical Discovery Institute (SBP) in San Diego, CA, have found that a subtype of astrocytes - that is, star-shaped, non-neuronal brain cells that support the good functioning of neurons - play a key role in the early onset of brain inflammation. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Drosophila melanogaster offers the advantage that transgenes can be easily expressed in neuronal subpopulations, e.g., in intrinsic mushroom body neurons (Kenyon cells). (frontiersin.org)
  • A number of transgenes has been described and engineered to visualize the anatomy of neurons, to monitor physiological parameters of neuronal activity, and to manipulate neuronal function artificially. (frontiersin.org)
  • Axonal transport is the main process enabling fast delivery of organelles and biological molecules inside neurons. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • Neurotrophin (NT) signalling is of particular importance for large cells such as motor neurons. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • Recently, our lab discovered BICD1 motor adaptor protein as the key regulator of NT receptor sorting in embryonic stem cell-derived motor neurons (ES-MN). (ucl.ac.uk)
  • In order to do this, I will utilize both in vitro and in vivo models of ALS, including mouse models and neurons derived from patient induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). (ucl.ac.uk)
  • However, little is known about the interactions between stem cells and neurons in regenerating tissues and in cancers. (innovations-report.com)
  • The first study compared the interaction of neurons with two different human stem cell populations, namely dental pulp stem cells and bone marrow stem cells. (innovations-report.com)
  • The dental pulp stem cells, however, yielded better results compared to bone marrow stem cells: They induced more elongated neurons, formed dense neuronal networks and established close contacts with nerves. (innovations-report.com)
  • They first demonstrated that ameloblastomas have stem cell properties and are innervated by facial neurons. (innovations-report.com)
  • These results create new possibilities for cancer treatment using drugs that modify the communication between neurons and cancer stem cells. (innovations-report.com)
  • Ameloblastomas exhibit stem cell potential, possess neurotrophic properties, and establish connections with trigeminal neurons. (innovations-report.com)
  • Goal of these lessons is to enlarge students´ knowledge in selected physiological topics with partial overlap to pathophysiology and with elucidation of the clinical use of basic physiological knowledge. (muni.cz)
  • DNA damage is a basic physiological process that is important to copi. (bio-medicine.org)
  • DNA damage is a basic physiological process that is important to coping with environmental toxins and a number of congenital diseases," said Ideker, the senior author of the paper. (bio-medicine.org)
  • MiRNAs have been involved in regulating gene expression and diverse physiological and pathological processes. (hindawi.com)
  • Cysteine cathepsins are implicated in various physiological and pathological processes. (srce.hr)
  • In fact, it is possible that AhR could help modulate the balance between differentiation and pluripotency in normal and transformed tumor cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • The tumor bulk contributing to the stemness of GBM includes cancer stem cells (CSCs) and cells with a mesenchymal phenotype, which are derived from the de-differentiation of cells with an epithelial phenotype. (nature.com)
  • YAP inhibition enhances the differentiation of functional stem cell-derived insulin-producing ß cells. (harvard.edu)
  • Consistent with this, an inverse correlation between CD99 expression and H-neurofilament expression, neural differentiation, and oncogenic transformation was observed in patient-derived EWS cells. (eurekalert.org)
  • CMA governs the balance between self-renewal and differentiation of ES cells. (pennmedicine.org)
  • We reveal two novel ways to potentially manipulate the self-renewal and differentiation of stem cells: CMA and a metabolite, known as alpha-ketoglutarate, that is regulated by CMA. (pennmedicine.org)
  • When it's time for differentiation, the cells begin to upregulate CMA due to the reduction in Oct4 and Sox2 . (pennmedicine.org)
  • It is required for the formation of adult pacemaker cells during embryonic heart development and for the cAMP-dependent up-regulation of embryonic heart rate. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • The EMT is indispensable in physiological processes such as wound healing and embryonic development. (nature.com)
  • Translucently colored embryonic stem (ES) cell (upper right) and its differentiating derivatives (left and lower right). (pennmedicine.org)
  • All of them can be derived from embryonic stem (ES) cells, which relentlessly self-renew while retaining the ability to differentiate into any cell type in adult animals, a state known as pluripotency. (pennmedicine.org)
  • These findings reveal that CMA and alpha-ketoglutarate dictate the fate of embryonic stem cells. (pennmedicine.org)
  • Embryonic stem cells are often called pluripotent due to their remarkable ability to give rise to every cell type in the body, except the placenta and umbilical cord. (pennmedicine.org)
  • Embryonic stem cells not only provide a superb system to study early mammalian development, but also hold great promise for regenerative therapies to treat various human disorders. (pennmedicine.org)
  • The approach was to combine whole-cell recording with intracellular staining in vivo . (jneurosci.org)
  • These spectral sensitivities are in excellent agreement with intracellular recordings of the R8p and R8y cells measured in Calliphora and Musca . (jneurosci.org)
  • Each agonist evoked distinct intracellular signals, but communication between the different cell clusters generated new composite signals when both agonists were present. (sciencemag.org)
  • Ligand binding at the cell surface induces autophosphorylation of RON on its intracellular domain that provides docking sites for downstream signaling molecules. (uniprot.org)
  • When the intracellular water freezes, the cell will expand, and without cold hardening the cell would rupture. (wikipedia.org)
  • When cells self-eat, the intracellular materials are delivered to lysosomes, which are organelles that help break down these materials. (pennmedicine.org)
  • Monitoring the autophagic process and measuring autophagic flux in different tissues and organelles is critical to investigate the function of autophagy under specific stimuli. (taconic.com)
  • The major goal of this project is to explore a possible correlation between age-associated genome instability in a variety of tissues and functionality of these cells. (yu.edu)
  • Therefore, the detection and measurement of superoxide in cells, tissues, and whole organisms is of a vital importance for in vitro and in vivo studies of many physiological and pathophysiological processes. (nih.gov)
  • Stem cells can generate a variety of specific tissues and are increasingly used for clinical applications such as the replacement of bone or cartilage. (innovations-report.com)
  • However, stem cells are also present in cancerous tissues and are involved in cancer progression and metastasis. (innovations-report.com)
  • Therefore, these cells could represent an attractive choice for the regeneration of functional, properly innervated facial tissues," adds co-author and junior group leader Pierfrancesco Pagella. (innovations-report.com)
  • CAR decreased the rate of CSC formation and promoted the CSC apoptotic cell death through p53 functional reactivation. (nature.com)
  • However, at a functional level, lysosomal extracts from CD1c-DC processed the multiple sclerosis-associated autoantigens myelin basic protein and myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein in vitro more effectively than MO-DC. (jimmunol.org)
  • Laser manipulation and optical adhesion control of functional gel-microtool for on-chip cell manipulation - Maruyama, Fukuda, et al. (psu.edu)
  • We are currently studying how the expression of various Sept9 isoforms is regulated in normal and cancer cells and the functional differences between these isoforms. (yu.edu)
  • Functional medicine uses the patient's story as a key tool for integrating diagnosis, signs and symptoms, and evidence of clinical imbalances into a comprehensive approach to improve the patient's physiological function. (spineuniverse.com)
  • The formation of such extended networks and the establishment of numerous contacts suggest that dental stem cells create functional connections with nerves of the face. (innovations-report.com)
  • The National Cancer Institute (NCI) Surgery Branch has developed an experimental therapy for treating patients with metastatic cancer that involves taking white blood cells from the patient, growing them in the laboratory in large numbers, genetically modifying these specific cells with a type of virus (retrovirus) to attack only the tumor cells, and then giving the cells back to the patient. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The purpose of this study is to determine a safe number of these cells to infuse and to see if these tumor fighting cells (anti-mesothelin cells) cause metastatic cancer tumors to shrink. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • GBM aggressiveness has been widely associated both with a minor population of cells presenting stem-like properties (cancer stem-like cells, CSCs) and with the ability of tumor cells to acquire a mesenchymal phenotype (epithelial-mesenchymal transition, EMT). (nature.com)
  • The best strategy to prevent tumor remission should be the elimination of all kinds of aggressive cells within the tumor together with the bulk tumor cells since these cells have interconversion capacity and could originate new clones of CSCs or mesenchymal cell via the EMT process. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • My current research is directed towards understanding a remarkable epigenetic process termed "Genomic Imprinting" in which certain genes are silenced by epigenetic marks. (cardiff.ac.uk)
  • The epithelial-mesenchymal transition, commonly known as the EMT, is an evolutionary process in which cells lose their epithelial features and acquire a mesenchymal phenotype through concerted and tightly regulated epigenetic and biochemical processes 12 , 13 . (nature.com)
  • Thus, acting on ion channels in the plasma membrane, mechanical stress can elicit a multitude of biochemical processes - both transient and long-lasting - inside a cell. (nih.gov)
  • This action explains the biochemical processes involved, but anatomy also plays a role in movement. (encyclopedia.com)
  • This book shows how the study of fundamental plant physiological processes is being advanced through the science of genetics. (bookdepository.com)
  • The pervasive effects of temperature on biochemical and physiological processes are thought to play a fundamental role in shaping the distribution and abundance of organisms. (biologists.org)
  • Improving balance--in the patient's environmental inputs and in the body's fundamental physiological processes--is the precursor to restoring health and it involves much more than treating the symptoms. (spineuniverse.com)
  • Nerves are fundamental for regulating the physiological and regenerative processes involving stem cells. (innovations-report.com)
  • It appears that nerves are fundamental for the survival and function of cancer stem cells," explains Pagella. (innovations-report.com)
  • Regenerative medicine replaces or regenerates human cells, tissue or organs, to restore or establish normal function. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • The invention relates to a process for continuously or intermittently determining the glucose concentration in subcutaneous tissue, which comprises using an enzymatic oxidation of glucose by oxygen in the presence of the enzyme glucose oxidase and determining the used amount of oxygen or the resultant amount of hydrogen peroxide by means of a measuring cell. (google.com)
  • The invention further relates to a system for continuously or intermittently determining the glucose concentration in subcutaneous tissue as well as to a measuring cell assembly suitable for use in this system and to an assembly for continuously or intermittently regulating the glucose concentration in blood. (google.com)
  • These results contribute to understanding how the endothelium can process large amounts of biochemical information for a coordinated, tissue-wide response. (sciencemag.org)
  • The relation of cell, tissue, and organ microscopic structure to function. (umass.edu)
  • Water in and between cells in the plant freezes and expands, causing tissue damage. (wikipedia.org)
  • Shoot tissue will respond more than a root cells, and a cell that already is adapted to cold stress will respond more than one that has not been through cold hardening before. (wikipedia.org)
  • The development of stem-cell based regenerative medicine therapies has rapidly increased in the last decade, with several approaches in studies shown to repair damaged heart tissue, replace cells in solid organ transplantation, and in some cases address neurological disorders. (pennmedicine.org)
  • In addition, the relative contribution of each adhesion molecule to the inflammatory process varies according to the tissue site of inflammation and the nature of the inflammatory stimuli ( 2 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • It has been shown that usually more than one isoform is expressed in a tissue or cell. (calstatela.edu)
  • When a cell swells due to external osmotic pressure, membrane channels open and allow efflux of osmolytes which carry water with them, restoring normal cell volume. (wikipedia.org)
  • Compared with nontransgenic cells, transgenic cells had greater plasma membrane permeability, less tolerance to NH 4 NO 3 , more tolerance to KNO 3 , and accumulated higher amounts of soluble protein. (usda.gov)
  • Why is the cell membrane so important? (brainscape.com)
  • The primary target for mechanical stimulation is the plasma membrane of the cell, which can respond to variable physical stress with changes of the open probability of mechanosensitive ion channels. (nih.gov)
  • The view that ftsEX affects cell division indirectly seems to have gained ascendancy, as most of the review articles on bacterial cell division published in the last 10 years make no mention of ftsE or ftsX (e.g., references 11 , 22 , and 31 ), and recent work in E. coli has explored potential connections to membrane protein insertion ( 10 , 37 ). (asm.org)
  • Calcium channels in the cell membrane detect the temperature drop, and promotes expression of low temperature responsible genes in alfalfa and arabidopsis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cold increases cell membrane permeability and makes the cell shrink, as water is drawn out when ice is formed in the extracellular matrix between cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • To retain the surface area of the cell membrane so it will be able to regain its former volume when temperature rises again, the plant forms more and stronger Hechtian strands. (wikipedia.org)
  • To protect the cell membrane from expansion induced damage, the plant cell changes the proportions of almost all lipids in the cell membrane, and increases the amount of total soluble protein and other cryoprotecting molecules, like sugar and proline. (wikipedia.org)
  • Like other cells, nerve and muscle cells have an external membrane that separates the inner fluids from those on the outside. (encyclopedia.com)
  • When all is quiet, the internal chemical composition of both nerve and muscle cells is remarkably constant and is called resting membrane potential. (encyclopedia.com)
  • A primary reason for this constancy lies in the cells ' ability to regulate the flow of sodium - thanks to an enzyme in the membrane called Na+/K+ ATP-ase. (encyclopedia.com)
  • In a fraction of a second, however, K moves back again and restores the cell membrane to normal. (encyclopedia.com)
  • A hypercomplex cell (currently called an end-stopped cell) is a type of visual processing neuron in the mammalian cerebral cortex. (wikipedia.org)
  • This study examines the contribution of the two physiological types of neuron in layer 6, simple and complex, to the cortical microcircuit. (jneurosci.org)
  • This prediction is creating apprehension among scientists, as heat stress has known effects on the life processes of organisms, acting directly or through the modification of surrounding environmental components. (mdpi.com)
  • Endothelial cells lining blood vessels must sense, interpret, and respond to many different chemical signals. (sciencemag.org)
  • found that the coordinated behavior of endothelial cells in rat carotid artery resulted from communication between heterogeneous populations of cells with differential sensitivities to biochemical cues. (sciencemag.org)
  • Leukocytes first tether and roll on vascular endothelial cells before they are activated to adhere firmly and subsequently emigrate into the extravascular space. (jimmunol.org)
  • Nonlinear elastic and viscoelastic deformation of the human red blood cell with optical tweezers, Mechanics and chemistry of biosystems 1 - Mills, Qie, et al. (psu.edu)
  • The multidisciplinary RegenMed Programme is focused on the bioprocess engineering aspects of stem cell and regenerative medicine translation including scale-up and scale-out. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • In addition to the substantial input from the faculty, the RegenMed Programme benefits from a large and growing number of external collaborators from both academia, healthcare professions and the regenerative medicine ("regen") industry, this multidisciplinary group is advancing the translation of the basic stem cell science into safe, clinically effective and affordable therapies for deployment in routine clinical practice. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • The RegenMed Programme is part of the newly established UCL Centre for Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • The impact of process stress on suspended anchorage-dependent mammalian cells as an indicator of likely challenges for regenerative medicines. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • Human bone marrow stem cells are isolated from skeletal bones and are the gold standard for bone regenerative approaches. (innovations-report.com)
  • More and more evidences have confirmed that miRNAs participate in diverse biological processes, which have a significant correlation with cancers [ 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • MANIPULATION USING INDIRECT PUSHING Dictyostelium discoideum is used as a model organism to study collective cell migration =-=[28]-=- that is important in many biological processes from organ development to immune response to cancer metastasis. (psu.edu)
  • Collective cell migration in morphogenesis and cancer - Friedl, Hegerfeldt, et al. (psu.edu)
  • The physiological process of leukocyte migration into inflammatory sites is complex. (jimmunol.org)
  • The purpose of this trial is to prove whether Zoledronic acid combine radiotherapy can reduce radiotherapy dose in treatment of non-small cell lung cancer bone metastasis'pain relief or not. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Some of the key oncogenic events in cancer and their signaling pathways that regulate cell division cycle progression will be described considering prospects for using such knowledge in advanced cancer therapy. (springer.com)
  • In this light, great interest in the discovery of novel therapeutic approaches that are able to target cancer cells with a stem phenotype has arisen. (nature.com)
  • Conversely, in the cancer bulk, the induction of the EMT has been linked to the acquisition of a more stem-like phenotype 14 , which confers resistance to therapy, aggressive traits and an invasive phenotype to cells. (nature.com)
  • The GBM malignancy is also increased by the presence of a sub-population of cancer cells with extremely high tumorigenic potential: the CSCs. (nature.com)
  • This was important because these two consequences of oncogene-induced senescence mean that enhancing this process for the treatment of cancer is not a viable option. (eurekalert.org)
  • However, it strongly stated an evidence that miR-30a increases the cisplatin sensitivity of gastric cancer cells by suppressing epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) [ 31 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • We prove that the disproportionate nutrient composition of commercial media imposes metabolic artifacts on cancer cells. (sciencemag.org)
  • The capacity of cancer cells to form colonies in commercial media was impaired by lipid peroxidation and ferroptosis and was rescued by selenium present in Plasmax. (sciencemag.org)
  • In conclusion, a physiological medium improves the metabolic fidelity and biological relevance of in vitro cancer models. (sciencemag.org)
  • Therefore, it is not surprising that several recent reports highlight discrepancies between in vitro and in vivo cancer cell metabolism ( 6 , 7 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • More recently, a culture medium was formulated on the basis of the composition of human blood, and its use proved to profoundly affect in vitro cancer cell metabolism ( 1 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • They also demonstrate that cancer stem cells likewise establish contacts with nerves. (innovations-report.com)
  • Cancer cells (green) are innervated with nerve cells (red). (innovations-report.com)
  • In the second study, the researchers examined the interaction between nerves and cancer stem cells found in ameloblastoma, an aggressive tumour of the mouth. (innovations-report.com)
  • Local activation of RhoA not only stimulates local recruitment of actin and myosin but also increased traction forces that rapidly propagate across the cell via stress fibres and drive increased actin flow. (nature.com)
  • The current understanding is that, at timescales up to those of typical kinetic processes, the actin cytoskeleton behaves like an elastic solid. (nature.com)
  • Little, however, is known about how small changes in activity can regulate cell contractility, actin architecture and adhesion. (nature.com)
  • Using a modified atomic force microscope to probe dendritic actin networks (like those formed in the lamellipodia of motile cells), we observe stress stiffening followed by a regime of reversible stress softening at higher loads. (nih.gov)
  • signal transduction processes during the development of the reproductive organs. (uni-giessen.de)
  • Web-like interconnections of physiological factors -- an abundance of research now supports the view that the human body functions as an orchestrated network of interconnected systems, rather than individual systems functioning autonomously and without effect on each other. (spineuniverse.com)
  • What we quickly realized is that we had uncovered not just a model of DNA repair, but a blueprint of how the initial event of DNA damage is transmitted by these transcription factors to repair processes and all the other important functions of the cell," said Ideker. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Adjusting its physiological processes to keep functions within physiological limits at rest or during exercise. (prezi.com)
  • Overall, the collection of transgenic flies expressing sensor and reporter genes in Kenyon cells facilitates combinations with binary transcription systems and might, ultimately, advance the physiological analysis of mushroom body function. (frontiersin.org)
  • 2014). To continue with this work, a number of lab members are collaborating to investigate the receptor complex components, its transport dynamics and ultimately, the physiological role of internalised nidogen. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • however, it wasn't clear exactly how the cells' internal wiring works to keep that state and ultimately decide stem cell fate. (pennmedicine.org)
  • Patients also receive infusions of their own previously collected progenitor cells (primitive cells that can make new cells to replace ones destroyed by chemotherapy). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Apheresis: This is a procedure to collect progenitor cells for later reinfusion. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The blood is circulated through a cell-separating machine, where the white cells, including the progenitor cells, are extracted, and the red cells are returned to the patient through another catheter in the other arm. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Progenitor cell transplant: Progenitor cells are reinfused after melphalan/etoposide treatment. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Stress presents a problem for dendritic cells: corticosterone and the fate of MHC class I antigen processing and presentation. (biomedsearch.com)
  • As cells recover from stress, the punctate granules gradually disappear, and HSF-I appears in a diffused staining pattern in the cytoplasm and nucleus. (cdc.gov)
  • Increased sensitivity of the cells to mechanical stress is found under various pathological conditions. (nih.gov)
  • Plant survival under HT stress depends on the ability to perceive the HT stimulus, generate and transmit the signal, and initiate appropriate physiological and biochemical changes. (mdpi.com)
  • NaAsO 2 treatment significantly enhanced the ROS-mediated oxidative stress in the hepatic cells both in in vitro and in vivo systems. (hindawi.com)
  • How cells respond to stress. (ncl.ac.uk)
  • Finally, it uses these genes to combat the stress, caused by sub-zero temperatures, affecting its living cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The response to the change in calcium elevation depends on the cell type and stress history. (wikipedia.org)
  • AMPK is an enzyme involved in protection of cells from metabolic stress, particularly in liver and skeletal muscle. (calstatela.edu)
  • In this protocol, we are modifying the patients white blood cells with a retrovirus that has the gene for anti-mesothelin incorporated in the retrovirus. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The expression of either Rh5 or Rh6 in "blind" ninaE 17 mutant flies, which lack the gene encoding the visual pigment of the R1-R6 cells, fully rescues the light response. (jneurosci.org)
  • In the latter study, it was shown that mice lacking the gene for 5-LO are protected from aortic aneurysms ( 18 ), supporting that leukotrienes may exert their effects on vascular cells producing structural elements. (pnas.org)
  • Glucagon, a 29-amino acid peptide derived from the preproglucagon gene, is produced by α-cells in the pancreatic islet. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In addition, loss of preproglucagon gene expression or prohormone convertase 2 (PC2), the enzyme that liberates the mature glucagon peptide, results in α-cell hyperplasia ( 13 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • A number of mutant hunts, starting with the pioneering work of Hirota and coworkers in the 1960s, suggested that there is an important cell division gene located at about 76 min on the E. coli chromosome ( 30 ). (asm.org)
  • The discovery by Ideker's group of a huge network of transcription factor-gene interactions was made possible by new biotechnology tools that provide comprehensive analysis of cells, like a passerby suddenly being able to monitor all the telephone calls made within a city. (bio-medicine.org)
  • In order to set up reliable methods for this, there needs to be basic agreement on the definition of concentrations as such (see below), and on the interconversion of such information from one system (e.g., animals or cell cultures) to another (man). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • We have previously designed a medium containing amino acids, glucose, and pyruvate at physiological concentrations ( 2 , 3 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Our results indicate that TaMIR2275 is essential in plant N deprivation response through transcriptional regulation of target genes that involve the N acquisition-associated process. (springer.com)
  • The photoreceptor cells differ in their position within the ommatidium, their synaptic connections within the optic lobes of the brain, and the opsin genes they express. (jneurosci.org)
  • Moreover, CAR was able to control the TNF-α/TGF-β-induced EMT, counteracting the effects of the cytokine on EMT master regulator genes (Slug, Snail, Twist and ZEB1) and modulating the activation of miR-200c, a key player in the EMT process. (nature.com)
  • Because cell division genes are generally essential and because lesions in many housekeeping genes can affect cell division indirectly, there have not been any exhaustive screens for division mutants. (asm.org)
  • Among these were Ca 2+ metabolism-associated genes and further genes which are probably involved in transcriptional processes 2 . (uni-giessen.de)
  • If true, the model may demystify the long-standing question of why DNA damage influences the expression of hundreds of genes not involved in the actual repair process. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Most take the form of a brief introduction followed by a discussion of the isolation and characterization of the mutants in question, and then by examples of how these mutants have been used to provide physiological insights. (bookdepository.com)
  • Defining these cells through their in vivo activity is an important first step, as it can help to guide therapeutic development using a readout that tracks with a brain disease. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The approach was to make whole-cell recordings with dye-filled electrodes in vivo to correlate visual response property with intracortical projection pattern. (jneurosci.org)
  • Based on the projection patterns of just a handful of labeled cells in layer 6 in vivo , it was thought that the entire interlaminar output was directed to layer 4. (jneurosci.org)
  • Currently available cell culture media may not reproduce the in vivo metabolic environment of tumors. (sciencemag.org)
  • Dendritic cells (DC) initiate immunity and maintain tolerance. (jimmunol.org)
  • Dendritic cells (DC) 4 are a highly specialized APC. (jimmunol.org)
  • This minireview provides an overview of the components of MHC class I antigen processing and presentation pathway and describes our recent published work on the effects of corticosterone on this process in virally infected DCs. (biomedsearch.com)
  • ABC transporters use energy from ATP to transport a wide variety of substrates either into or out of cells (or subcellular compartments). (asm.org)
  • Different types of APC (like DC, B lymphoblastoid cells (BLC), thymic epithelial cells, monocytes) express individual patterns of active endocytic proteases and little is known about the rules that govern proteolysis of Ag in human DC. (jimmunol.org)
  • Our hypothesis is that during malignant transformation, breast epithelial cells undergo genomic amplification of the Sept9 locus and over-express Sept9 mRNA and protein. (yu.edu)
  • Acute interruption of glucagon signaling using small-molecule antagonists, antibodies, or antisense oligos in rodents also results in α-cell hyperplasia ( 14 , 15 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • DP 2 was found to stimulate the directed movement or chemotaxis of human T-helper type 2 cells (see T helper cell#Th1/Th2 Model for helper T cells ) by binding to a receptor initially termed GPR44 and thereafter CRTH2 (for C hemoattractant R eceptor-homologous molecule expressed on T - H elper type 2 cells). (wikipedia.org)
  • such shifts in metabolic processing may underestimate or obscure differences in kinetics. (cdc.gov)
  • In the study, decreasing CD99 expression in human EWS cell lines reduced their ability to form tumors xenografted into mice. (eurekalert.org)
  • Hubel and Wiesel began recording cells in the cortex while presenting spots of light as stimuli. (wikipedia.org)
  • Serendipitously, Hubel and Wiesel had discovered that the cell was not responding to spots but to edges, namely the slide's shadow as it was placed into the projector. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hubel and Wiesel would later call this cell a complex cell, incorporating it into a hierarchy of subsequently discovered visual processing cells, which included the centre-surround, simple, complex, and hypercomplex cells (distinguishable by receptive fields) Following their initial finding, Hubel and Wiesel discovered the presence of a variety of visual processing cells, each with unique receptive field properties. (wikipedia.org)
  • Leukocyte recruitment from the circulation into a site of inflammation, a multistep process regulated by multiple adhesion molecules, is a critical component of both innate and acquired immunity, but has also been implicated in the pathology of various inflammatory diseases ( 1 , 2 , 3 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • This longevity of cells varies from approximately 120 days (for red blood cells) to 120 years (pluripotent stem cells * ), the current, approximate upper limit for human life span. (creation.com)
  • The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo. (harvard.edu)
  • The new preclinical study, for the first time, shows how the stem cells keeps CMA at low levels to promote that self-renewal, and when the stem cell is ready, it switches that suppression off to enhance CMA, among other activities, and differentiate into specialized cells. (pennmedicine.org)
  • The minimal CMA activity allows stem cells to maintain high levels of alpha-ketoglutarate, a metabolite that is crucial to reinforce a cell's pluripotent state, the researchers found. (pennmedicine.org)
  • This newly discovered role of autophagy in the stem cell is the beginning of further investigations that could lead to researchers and physician-scientists to better therapies to treat various disorders," Yang said. (pennmedicine.org)
  • Researchers at the University of Zurich show that different stem cell populations are innervated in distinct ways. (innovations-report.com)
  • Extracted teeth are the source of dental pulp stem cells, which represent a promising alternative. (innovations-report.com)
  • Therefore, stem cells are abundantly innervated," says Mitsiadis. (innovations-report.com)
  • When ameloblastoma cells were isolated and placed in the "organ-on-a-chip" devices, they retained not only their stem cell properties but also attracted nerves and established contact with them. (innovations-report.com)
  • Human dental pulp stem cells exhibit enhanced properties in comparison to human bone marrow stem cells on neurites outgrowth. (innovations-report.com)
  • We have used live-cell imaging and photobleaching to examine the dynamics and connectivity of different compartments. (biologists.org)
  • To understand the physiological nature of muscle contractions, it is helpful to examine muscles microscopically. (encyclopedia.com)
  • R.F. Mueller, St James University Hospital, Leeds, Neuromuscular Disorders, Vol. 3, No. 4, 1993 'Although the author states that his objective is not to provide a complete account of plant physiological genetics, the coverage is broad, and shows a consistency which would not be found in a collection of reviews with the same scope. (bookdepository.com)
  • Although most examples are biased towards plants, basic similarities between all living eukaryotic cells (animal and plant) are recognized and used to best illustrate for students cell processes. (google.com)
  • Randy O. Wayne is a plant cell biologist at Cornell University notable for his work on plant development. (google.com)
  • He is an authority on how plant cells sense gravity through pressure, on the water permeability of plant membranes, light microscopy, as well as the effects of calcium on plant development. (google.com)
  • Arbuscular mycorrhizas are involved in many key ecosystem processes including nutrient cycling and conservation of soil struc- ture, and have been shown to improve plant health through increased protection against abiotic and biotic stresses. (indigo.ca)
  • Physiological characteristics of the host plant promoting an undisturbed functioning of the mycorrhizal symbiosis. (indigo.ca)
  • Mechanistic evaluation of translocation and physiological impact of titanium dioxide and zinc oxide nanoparticles on the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) plant. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Cell Lineage" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (harvard.edu)
  • A new study finds a subtype of brain cell that is key in neuroinflammation, bringing us closer to new treatments for multiple central nervous system diseases. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • 4. Describe the roles of different glia in the nervous system: astrocytes (astroglia), microglia, oligodendrocytes (oligodendroglia), Schwann cells. (majortests.com)
  • It is also strongly expressed in some parts of the brain, such the thalamic nuclei and the mitral cell layer of the olfactory bulb [ PMID: 18953682 , PMID: 14991560 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • In activated, fast skeletal muscles of rabbit (psoas), frog (semitendinosus) and crayfish (walking leg flexor), we resolved at least three exponential rate processes. (springer.com)

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